WorldWideScience

Sample records for el salvador

  1. El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    The Central American republic of El Salvador lies on the Pacific with a south coast between Guatemala and Honduras. The climate rises from tropical maritime along the coast to subtropical hill and valley strip to a mountainous interior. The population consists of 98% Mestizo and 10% Indian, totaling 5.1 million, growing at 2.4 annually. Literacy varies from 40-60%; the infant mortality rate is 71/1000, and the life expectancy is 63-66 years. The economy is based on agricultural products as coffee, sugar and cotton and light industry such as textiles and petroleum refining, but due to political unrest, the 1986 earthquake, and fluctuating commodity prices, inflation runs about 36% and the per capita income is $700. El Salvador takes pride in its independence since 1821, but its history is marked by revolutions and control of government, military and ecclesiastical power by "the fourteen families." The current democratic government, considered to be the result of a fair election, is undertaking land reform and participates in the Central American peace process.

  2. Gangs in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    buscan-apoyo-para-prevencion-de-violencia- en- el -sa/, (accessed December 10, 2012). 41 Cámara de Comercio e Industria de El Salvador “Propuesta...Gangs in El Salvador by Colonel Luis W. Ortiz Medina El Salvador Army United States Army War College...33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gangs in El Salvador 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  3. Izalco, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Izalco is a young stratovolcano on the south flank of Santa Ana Volcano in western El Salvador. Its continuous small explosive eruptions (beginning in 1770) caused...

  4. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  5. [Earthquakes in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ville de Goyet, C

    2001-02-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has 25 years of experience dealing with major natural disasters. This piece provides a preliminary review of the events taking place in the weeks following the major earthquakes in El Salvador on 13 January and 13 February 2001. It also describes the lessons that have been learned over the last 25 years and the impact that the El Salvador earthquakes and other disasters have had on the health of the affected populations. Topics covered include mass-casualties management, communicable diseases, water supply, managing donations and international assistance, damages to the health-facilities infrastructure, mental health, and PAHO's role in disasters.

  6. Global 1989 in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas

    1989 can be regarded as a regional moment (and not as a global moment) in Latin America and for the inter-American relations. The changes in El Salvador (moderation of guerrilla, change of UCA academics‘ position, tamed right-wing in power) were rather accelerated through the rebels’ offensive...

  7. October 1986 San Salvador, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At least 1,000 people killed, 10,000 injured, 200,000 homeless and severe damage in the San Salvador area. About 50 fatalities were the result of landslides in the...

  8. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  9. Voto preferente en El Salvador: Lecciones aprendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cristina Araujo Serrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la implementación del voto preferente en El Salvador por medio de una resolución de la Sala Constitucional salvadoreña. Asimismo, se estudian las consecuencias de esta disposición en el ordenamiento jurídico salvadoreño, la percepción de la opinión pública y en el sistema de partidos de ese país centroamericano. Finalmente, se exponen algunas de las discusiones que en torno a este tema se han generado en el ámbito costarricense.

  10. El Salvador: The Prospects for a Successful Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    sources including an uneven impact of technology, modernization, or growth of a new religion or ideology. 12 5,m € .’ 2I...salvadoreho en el presente siglo (San Salvador, El Salvador: Impreso en El Salvador, Centroamerica, 1984). Things did not improve from 1944-61, as there were...World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1966. Moran, Mariano Castro. Funci6n polftica del ej~cito salvadoreio en el presete siglo . San Salvador, El Salvador

  11. El Salvador - Non-Formal Skills Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...

  12. Volcano hazards in the San Salvador region, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Sofield, D.J.; Escobar, C.D.; Pullinger, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    San Salvador volcano is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador (figure 1). This volcano, having a volume of about 110 cubic kilometers, towers above San Salvador, the country’s capital and largest city. The city has a population of approximately 2 million, and a population density of about 2100 people per square kilometer. The city of San Salvador and other communities have gradually encroached onto the lower flanks of the volcano, increasing the risk that even small events may have serious societal consequences. San Salvador volcano has not erupted for more than 80 years, but it has a long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers, and these remnants are commonly referred to by several names. The central part of the volcano, which contains a large circular crater, is known as El Boquerón, and it rises to an altitude of about 1890 meters. El Picacho, the prominent peak of highest elevation (1960 meters altitude) to the northeast of the crater, and El Jabali, the peak to the northwest of the crater, represent remnants of an older, larger edifice. The volcano has erupted several times during the past 70,000 years from vents central to the volcano as well as from smaller vents and fissures on its flanks [1] (numerals in brackets refer to end notes in the report). In addition, several small cinder cones and explosion craters are located within 10 kilometers of the volcano. Since about 1200 A.D., eruptions have occurred almost exclusively along, or a few kilometers beyond, the northwest flank of the volcano, and have consisted primarily of small explosions and emplacement of lava flows. However, San Salvador volcano has erupted violently and explosively in the past, even as recently as 800 years ago. When such eruptions occur again, substantial population and infrastructure will be at risk. Volcanic eruptions are not the only events that present a risk to local

  13. Triggering of destructive earthquakes in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, José J.; Álvarez-Gómez, José A.; Benito, Belén; Hernández, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the existence of a mechanism of static stress triggering driven by the interaction of normal faults in the Middle American subduction zone and strike-slip faults in the El Salvador volcanic arc. The local geology points to a large strike-slip fault zone, the El Salvador fault zone, as the source of several destructive earthquakes in El Salvador along the volcanic arc. We modeled the Coulomb failure stress (CFS) change produced by the June 1982 and January 2001 subduction events on planes parallel to the El Salvador fault zone. The results have broad implications for future risk management in the region, as they suggest a causative relationship between the position of the normal-slip events in the subduction zone and the strike-slip events in the volcanic arc. After the February 2001 event, an important area of the El Salvador fault zone was loaded with a positive change in Coulomb failure stress (>0.15 MPa). This scenario must be considered in the seismic hazard assessment studies that will be carried out in this area.

  14. Hydrocarbon market in El Salvador; Mercado de hidrocarburos en El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava de Hernandez, Gina Mercedes [Ministerio de Economia, Direccion de Energia, Minas e Hidrocarburos (El Salvador)

    1997-07-01

    This document presents a summary of the present situation of the market of hydrocarbons in El Salvador, doing a synthesis of the conformation of the industry, of the demand of the country, the prices and others. In addition, it shows the situation before and after the deregulation, making emphasis in the changes originated by such a measure. [Spanish] El presente documento presenta un resumen de la situacion actual del mercado de los hidrocarburos en El Salvador, haciendo una sintesis de la conformacion de la industria, de la demanda del pais, los precios y otros. Ademas muestra la situacion antes y despues de la desregulacion, haciendo enfasis en los cambios ocurridos por tal medida.

  15. Migration, Risk and Liquidity Constraints in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Halliday

    2005-01-01

    This article utilizes panel data from El Salvador to investigate the use of transnational migration as an ex post risk management strategy. I show that adverse agricultural conditions in El Salvador increase both migration to the United States and remittances sent back to El Salvador. I show that, in the absence of any agricultural shocks, the probability that a household sent members to the United States would have decreased on average by 24.26%. I also show that the 2001 earthquakes reduced...

  16. Paleoseismic analysis of the San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone, El Salvador, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Canora Catalán, Carolina; Villamor Pérez, María Pilar; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Berryman, K.R.; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Capote del Villar, Ramón; Hernández, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The El Salvador earthquake of February 13th 2001 (Mw 6.6) was associated with the tectonic rupture of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Paleoseismic studies of the El Salvador Fault Zone undertaken after this earthquake provide a basis for examining the longer history of surface rupturing earthquakes on the fault. Trenching at five sites along the San Vicente segment, a 21km-long and up to 2km-wide central section of the El Salvador Fault Zone, shows that surface fault rupture has occurred at least...

  17. Youth outreach centres in El Salvador: providing alternatives to displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Roth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of youth are fleeing El Salvador, one of the most violent countries in the world, and travelling unaccompanied to the US-Mexico border. Youth Outreach Centres have been set up in El Salvador to try to improve conditions in their neighbourhoods and encourage young people to stay.

  18. Geothermal energy prospecting in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores, J.H.; Gonzalez, E.; Ortega, M.

    1993-01-01

    Geochronological and geological studies carried out in El Salvador C. A., located a production geothermal zone to the north of the volcanic belt, in a region named Ahuachapan-Chipilapa. Hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis indicate the existence of active geothermal faults aligned to the directions South-North and Northwest-Southeast. Radon mapping in that region covered a total of 8.7 km 2 where plastic detectors were placed 200 m apart. Results confirmed the existence of active faults and two producing geothermal wells were located. (author)

  19. El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    country’s second democratically elected FMLN Administration. Inaugurated to a five-year term in June 2014, President Salvador Sánchez Cerén, a...Some observers maintain that Sánchez Cerén, who faced health challenges early in his term, has failed to demonstrate the leadership necessary to...units that are conducting money-laundering investigations targeting the leadership of MS-13 in El Salvador. In addition to assistance specified for

  20. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... resulting from the series of earthquakes that struck the country in 2001, and El Salvador remains unable... devastation caused by earthquakes). El Salvador's recovery from the earthquakes is still incomplete. As of... earthquakes, other recent destructive environmental events and its weak economy, El Salvador cannot adequately...

  1. Actitudes lingüísticas de los hablantes de San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Rivera Orellana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de San Salvador hacia al español de El Salvador y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 personas estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Los estudios sobre actitudes lingüísticas en el país son escasos y este es el estudio que más dimensiones abarca respecto de cómo los salvadoreños que habitan en la capital se identifican con el idioma que hablan, cómo valoran o califican las formas de hablar de los habitantes de su entorno y cómo reaccionan ante formas de hablar el español en otros países, tanto de aquellos que conocen directamente como de otros con los cuales tienen una relación indirecta, principalmente a través de los medios de comunicación. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from San Salvador towards Spanish spoken in El Salvador and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Studies of linguistic attitudes are scarce in the country and this research study is the first one with a broad scope regarding how people living in the capital identify themselves with the way they speak; how they value or characterize the way people around them speak, and how they react to the way people speak Spanish in other countries that they know personally or through

  2. Investment prospects for geothermal power in El Salvador's electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Jun

    2006-01-01

    A mixed-integer optimizing programming model was created to simulate capacity expansion for the electricity market in El Salvador. Various demand scenarios were constructed, under which capacity expansion alternatives were tested. Results showed that possible geothermal projects were able to meet the growing energy needs of El Salvador, while yielding relatively low prices for the end-user. A best case projection for 2020 showed an increased proportion of geothermal generation in the energy mix by 6% compared to the present mix. Much of the current generating plants and planned capacity are distanced from the load center, San Salvador. In order to meet the country's increasing demand, it was found that generating capacity investment should be accompanied by transmission upgrades. Even when current conditions were simulated, transmission congestion appeared to be present. Results from some expansion scenarios showed that transmission congestion increased nodal prices despite the addition of further generating capacity

  3. Investment prospects for geothermal power in El Salvador's electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Jun

    2006-01-01

    A mixed-integer optimizing programming model was created to simulate capacity expansion for the electricity market in El Salvador. Various demand scenarios were constructed, under which capacity expansion alternatives were tested. Results showed that possible geothermal projects were able to meet the growing energy needs of El Salvador, while yielding relatively low prices for the end-user. A best case projection for 2020 showed an increased proportion of geothermal generation in the energy mix by 6% compared to the present mix. Much of the current generating plants and planned capacity are distanced from the load center, San Salvador. In order to meet the country's increasing demand, it was found that generating capacity investment should be accompanied by transmission upgrades. Even when current conditions were simulated, transmission congestion appeared to be present. Results from some expansion scenarios showed that transmission congestion increased nodal prices despite the addition of further generating capacity. (Author)

  4. Market research completed in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Intensive market research, completed in El Salvador for the contraceptive social marketing project of the Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), was designed to obtain a better understanding of Salvadoran usage of and attitudes toward contraceptives in general and ADS products in particular. The research results are being used to develop a new marketing plan for the Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) program as it works to increase the program's effectiveness in reaching consumers. Points-of-purchase (retail outlets) were surveyed in November 1982 to study brand presence and vendor perceptions of consumer behavior in order to define the market in terms of products, prices, and distribution. Focus groups were conducted during November and December 1982 to probe consumer awareness and attitudes regarding methods, brands, and purchasing behavior. The results of the focus groups helped guide the development of a door-to-door consumer survey conducted from December 1982 through February 1983 to further define the market in terms of consumer size and characteristics. Personal interviews were conducted with the owner or manager of each of 247 pharmacies selected at random but in proportion to their distributional weight as to location. Aragon and Associates found that standard-dose orals and condoms were sold in 86% of the outlets surveyed and foaming tablets and low-dose pills in 37%. In terms of brand presence in outlets, the CSM products Perla (orals) and Condor (condom) both led their respective categories. In the foaming tablet category Suave had the lowest presence and Neo Sampoon the highest. The difference between reported and actual presence of contraceptives in the outlets was significant: 32% of the sellers of Perla, 18% of the sellers of Condor, and 26% of the sellers of Suave were out of stock at the time of the survey. The difference in average CSM product prices and the next lowest priced brands is very large. Dealers reported that their contraceptive

  5. Employment of the El Salvador Armed Forces for Internal Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    the drug trades.6 The migration back and forth of the members of the Maras to countries in the northern of hemisphere and to drug dealers in the...and “ Sinaloa ” cartels from Mexico trying to 7 get control of the drug traffic in El Salvador. Those groups use Gangs MS 13 and 18th Street gangs

  6. Progress of the seismological program in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. A.

    1982-01-01

     El Salvador is located in Central America at the axis of geographical coordinates 14° north latitude and 89° west longitude. Situated inside the circumpacific "ring of fire" it is thus vulnerable to sudden earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. 

  7. Minera Australiana adquiere proyecto cuestionado en El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the environmental risks of gold mining in El Salvador in general and specifically at the risks associated with OceanaGold's project. The article also examines the stiff opposition to the project presented by an alliance of local and international organisations....

  8. Strategic Thinking: A Proposal to Reduce Violence in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    governmental institutions and organizations of civil society that work towards the prevention of youth violence by creating diverse occupational industries ...Seelke, “Gangs in Central America”, 5 23 21 Carmen Gentile, “The Gangs of El Salvador: A Growing Industry ”, TIME, http://www.time.com/time/world...Development Program (UNDP), “Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo

  9. El impacto psicosocial de la violencia en San Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz José Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se busca lograr dos objetivos: primero, describir los niveles de victimización de la población salvadoreña a causa de la violencia delictiva y el tipo de población más afectada por ella; segundo, averiguar si estos niveles de victimización están relacionados con la presencia de normas, actitudes y comportamientos que favorecen la aparición de la violencia. Para ello se utilizaron los datos del proyecto ACTIVA de El Salvador, que fue realizado por el Instituto Universitario de Opinión Pública entre los meses de octubre y noviembre de 1996 con una muestra de 1 290 entrevistas personales, presuntamente representativa de las personas entre los 18 y 70 años de edad que residen en el Área Metropolitana de San Salvador. La muestra se obtuvo mediante un muestreo probabilístico y multietápico. Los resultados revelan que el nivel de victimización por la violencia es bastante alto en San Salvador y que afecta sobre todo a los hombres y a los jóvenes, y sugieren que las personas que han sido víctimas de agresiones graves suelen mostrar con más frecuencia que el resto normas de justificación y aprobación del uso de la violencia, inclinación por el uso de armas, y conductas de agresión hacia otras personas.

  10. Transportation in El Salvador: a commitment to global warming management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, A.

    2001-01-01

    San Salvador City, El Salvador, is a city plagued with air pollution caused by traffic and congestion. Forecasts indicate the problem is likely to worsen in the coming years. Delcan International Corporation was commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works of El Salvador to study and evaluate the design and alternatives to a Ring Road circling San Salvador. The project, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank, is discussed in this paper, along with a summary of aspects of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and the environmental impacts assessment conducted. Human-induced changes in climate, increasing levels of greenhouse gases are referred to as global warming of climate change. Water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone are the main greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide representing the biggest threat. Approximately 14 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions are caused by fumes emanating from motor-vehicle gasoline-fuels, and 50 per cent of those are produced in developing countries. Motor vehicles produce 60 to 90 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions in Latin America urban centres. Some ways of reducing carbon dioxide emissions are: reduce travel, use more efficient vehicles, improving existing vehicle technologies and fuels, improving traveller behaviour, reducing congestion. ITS could be a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measures designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Intelligent Transportation System assists with the evaluation of the optimization and enlargement of existing roads, especially downtown, the construction of a highway around the city. This evaluation includes an environmental impact assessment, a traffic study and the highway final design. The Government of El Salvador has shown its commitment to sustainable practices toward global warming

  11. Active strike-slip faulting in El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Carminati, Eugenio; Mazzarini, Francesco; Oziel Garcia, Marvyn

    2005-12-01

    Several major earthquakes have affected El Salvador, Central America, during the Past 100 yr as a consequence of oblique subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate, which is partitioned between trench-orthogonal compression and strike-slip deformation parallel to the volcanic arc. Focal mechanisms and the distribution of the most destructive earthquakes, together with geomorphologic evidence, suggest that this transcurrent component of motion may be accommodated by a major strike-slip fault (El Salvador fault zone). We present field geological, structural, and geomorphological data collected in central El Salvador that allow the constraint of the kinematics and the Quaternary activity of this major seismogenic strike-slip fault system. Data suggest that the El Salvador fault zone consists of at least two main ˜E-W fault segments (San Vicente and Berlin segments), with associated secondary synthetic (WNW-ESE) and antithetic (NNW-SSE) Riedel shears and NW-SE tensional structures. The two main fault segments overlap in a dextral en echelon style with the formation of an intervening pull-apart basin. Our original geological and geomorphologic data suggest a late Pleistocene Holocene slip rate of ˜11 mm/yr along the Berlin segment, in contrast with low historical seismicity. The kinematics and rates of deformation suggested by our new data are consistent with models involving slip partitioning during oblique subduction, and support the notion that a trench-parallel component of motion between the Caribbean and Cocos plates is concentrated along E-W dextral strike-slip faults parallel to the volcanic arc.

  12. La prensa en El Salvador: tolerancia al mejor postor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Eric Lemus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo salvadoreño en el año 2002 estuvo marcado por la presión política, empresarial y las agresiones a la prensa de parte de distintos actores. Una característica que parece afincarse en el trabajo de campo es el riesgo a reportear cualquier evento público. Sufrir el impacto de una bolsa con agua o un empellón puede suceder en cualquier evento público, desde una huelga de médicos hasta en una pelea de vendedores callejeros que protestan por su desalojo.¿La prensa salvadoreña sufre un problema de credibilidad o el respeto al derecho a informar no existe? Las encuestan todavía registran a los medios de comunicación, después de la Iglesia Católica, como uno de los sectores con mayor credibilidad en el país.

  13. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  14. New seismic sources parameterization in El Salvador. Implications to seismic hazard.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Staller, A.; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Benito, Belén; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Canora Catalán, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El Salvador is located at the pacific active margin of Central America, here, the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the Caribbean Plate at a rate of 80 mm/yr is the main seismic source. Although the seismic sources located in the Central American Volcanic Arc have been responsible for some of the most damaging earthquakes in El Salvador. The El Salvador Fault Zone is the main geological structure in El Salvador and accommodates 14 mm/yr of horizontal displacement between the Caribbean Plate...

  15. Evaluación de la sostenibilidad de fincas de café administradas por Tropical El Salvador, durante el período 2004 - 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Laínez Reyes, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Laínez Reyes, C. E. 2011. Evaluación de la sostenibilidad de fincas de café administradas por Tropical El Salvador, durante el periodo 2004 - 2009. Tesis Mag. Sc. Universidad de El Salvador, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas. Universidad de El Salvador. San Salvador, SV. 124 p. Cuando el subsector café en El Salvador afrontaba una de sus peores crísis de la historia, generada por el desequilibrio estructural entre la oferta y la demanda mundial, Tropical Farm Management El Salvador S.A. de ...

  16. Colecta de frutales tropicales en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo recolectar, caracterizar y establecer colecciones de frutales de: Pouteria sapota (zapote, Manilkara zapota (níspero, Psidium sp. (guayaba, Spondia sp. (jocote, Mammea americana (mamey. Se realizaron giras de exploración y recolección a las diferentes zonas del país, con mayor potencial para el cultivo de los frutales. Las características evaluadas fueron: peso, longitud, diámetro, porcentaje de germinación, número de semillas, sabor y color de pulpa, forma del fruto, color de cáscara, presencia de plagas y enfermedades, y análisis bromatológico. Los datos fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva para mínimo, máximo y media. Se distribuyeron árboles frutales para el establecimiento de las colecciones en los Centros de Innovación Tecnológica San Andrés, Izalco y Morazán. El zapote Magaña presentó frutos de mayor peso, longitud y diámetro, textura de pulpa bastante fibrosa. El Zapote Valiente presentó frutos con mayor contenido proteína y grasa de 2,65% y 0,77%. El Zapote Rivera presentó frutos con mayor contenido de carbohidratos, 32,15%. La Guayaba Miami roja, presentó mayor fibra cruda 3,72%. En jocote, las principales plagas y enfermedades fueron trips, mosca de la fruta y antracnosis. Se estableció una colección de jocote del tipo azucarón, verano, pitarrillo, chapín, invierno, iguana y tronador; el Centro Innovación Tecnológica de San Andrés, La Libertad

  17. Colecta de frutales tropicales en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cruz; H\\u00E9ctor Deras

    2000-01-01

    El estudio tuvo como objetivo recolectar, caracterizar y establecer colecciones de frutales de: Pouteria sapota (zapote), Manilkara zapota (níspero), Psidium sp. (guayaba), Spondia sp. (jocote), Mammea americana (mamey). Se realizaron giras de exploración y recolección a las diferentes zonas del país, con mayor potencial para el cultivo de los frutales. Las características evaluadas fueron: peso, longitud, diámetro, porcentaje de germinación, número de semillas, sabor ...

  18. El Salvador: Entre la guerra y la paz, UNICEF

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Jaramillo

    2015-01-01

    Durante la guerra civil salvadoreña se dieron momentos de tregua. En una de ellas la UNICEF organizó la campaña de vacunación infantil; estos días abrieron el camino a la paz en otras latitudes del mundo. Con esta favorable experiencia fue posible organizar 17 campañas más con el apoyo de varias instituciones. El país tuvo que solidarizarse y extraer de esta dura década positivas lecciones, falta por pensar en la reconstrucción del país asolado por la violencia, el deterioro económico y la fa...

  19. 78 FR 32418 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... on the so-called Ring of Fire (an arc of fault lines circling the Pacific Basin), makes it vulnerable..., Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, TPS El Salvador, P.O. Box Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, 8635, Chicago, IL..., West Immigration Services, Attn: Virginia. TPS El Salvador, 131 S. Dearborn--3rd Floor Chicago, IL...

  20. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Sasagawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

  1. A Living Lab for optimising the health, socio-economic and environmental situation in El Salvador

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Platz, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to address chronic renal failure as a critical health problem in El Salvador (Central America) a Living Lab (LL) methodology was applied to assist El Salvador to carry out research on low-cost techniques to mitigate exposure to pesticides...

  2. Steam sources in El Salvador and their economic importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, W H [Geologisches Staatsinstitut Hamburg, DE

    1957-01-01

    A geographical survey is provided of important steam and hot water sources (temperature greater than 60/sup 0/C) in El Salvador. These sources are tabulated and are described in the text. They appear as fumaroles, solfatarae, mudpots, mud fields, and hot springs. A series of calorimetric measurements was made in 1955. For electrical power production, development will probably be restricted to those fields located within the young volcanic areas, as these areas correspond to those of greatest population density. As of 1957, the use of these resources was limited to the production of sulfur and kaolinite from a few small-scale boreholes.

  3. Salvador Allende, por la democracia y el socialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto de la Fuente A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Habrá algo más obvio que preguntarse quién fue Salvador Allende? ¿Es reflejo, la definición o la interpretación de la historia de la que formó parte, entre 1927 y 1973? ¿Qué grado de sensibilidad y sentido de trascendencia había en él, cuando le habla al mundo desde el Palacio de Gobierno bombardeado e incendiándose, esa mañana del 11 de septiembre de 1973. El propósito de esta comunicación es sistematizar las experiencias, ideas y pensamientos de quien fuera el "Compañero Presidente de Chile". De paso, rendirle un homenaje a quien dejara una lección de entusiasmo, perseverancia y coherencia. Salvador Allende (1908-1973, quiso hacer concordar sus ideales con la conciencia crítica del político que fue madurando en su práctica y concepción revolucionaria. Mi hipótesis es la siguiente: en la biografía de Salvador Allende, en sus vínculos con las luchas sociales, políticas, culturales y controversias con el partido socialista, subyace una idea de América Latina y de socialismo a la chilena, donde él sitúa su praxis como médico, militante socialista, dirigente político, parlamentario y luego como Presidente de la República. La síntesis de su concepción política y programática, entre otros documentos, se encuentra en el diálogo que sostiene con Régis Debray en 1971 y que queda plasmada en el libro Conversaciones: a la realidad de un país subdesarrollado le aplica las concepciones teóricas de un marxismo enriquecido con los aportes científicos del devenir social. Su tesis es la transformación del país al socialismo por la vía pacífica-electoral, con respeto a las demás concepciones políticas, ideológicas y religiosas. Concibe América Latina ¿en la unidad de los pueblos en su lucha emancipatoria como base esencial de la victoria definitiva, (1966, Conferencia Tricontinental de La Habana.

  4. Seismic sources in El Salvador. A geological and geodetic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, J.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Benito, B.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Canora, C.; Capote, R.; Staller, A.; Tectónica Activa, Paleosismicidad y. Riesgos Asociados UCM-910368

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador Fault Zone is a deformation band of 150 km long and 20 km wide within the Salvadorian volcanic arc. This shear band distributes the deformation between main strike-slip faults trending N90°-100°E and around 30 km long, and secondary normal faults trending between N120°E and N170°E. The ESFZ continues westward and is relieved by the Jalpatagua Fault. Eastward ESFZ becomes less clear disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. The ESFZ deforms and offsets quaternary deposits with a right lateral movement in its main segments. Five segments have been proposed for the whole fault zone, from the Jalpatagua Fault to the Golfo de Fonseca. Paleoseismic studies in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation. In fact, the San Vicente Segment was the source of the February 13, 2001 destructive earthquake. In this work we propose 18 capable seismic sources within El Salvador. The slip rate of each source has been obtained through out the combination of GPS data and paleoseismic data when it has been possible. We also have calculated maximum theoretical intensities produced by the maximum earthquakes related with each fault. We have taken into account several scenarios considering different possible surface rupture lengths up to 50 km and Mw 7.6 in some of the strike slip faults within ESFZ.

  5. en El Salvador, una intervención de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larissa Centeno Monge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe algunas de las fortalezas y debilidades encontradas en el Proyecto de Atención a Poblaciones Móviles y sectores que las atienden directamente: personal de salud, migración, aduanas, cuerpos uniformados -recién instalados en las fronteras a nivel nacional- y que se encuentra plasmado en el Plan Estratégico Nacional para la Prevención, Atención y Control del VIH-SIDA e ITS / El Salvador 2005 –2010. El propósito de la intervención fue desarrollar la capacidad, mejorar los conocimientos y habilidades para realizar actividades de educación e información continuas que generen percepción de riesgo y un cambio de comportamiento para tener relaciones sexuales seguras o de menor riesgo ante las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana-SIDA (ITS/VIH-SIDA que al final incidan en la disminución de la transmisión. La metodología incluyó tres momentos claves: la construcción de una línea de base, la implementación de talleres educativos y de información y una evaluación final. Logró captar un total de 380 individuos a nivel nacional. De los resultados mas significativos se pueden mencionar los alcanzados por los participantes que no pertenecían al sector salud, en los cuales hubo un aumento de conocimientos básicos –transmisión y prevención del VIH- y adquisición de habilidades de un 40% hasta un 60% más de lo encontrado en la línea basal, situación que no resultó ser la misma en los profesionales de salud, en quienes la tendencia fue similar en la línea basal y en la evaluación final. Se concluye que los esfuerzos realizados desde el año 2001 en que dan inicio las intervenciones en poblaciones móviles y que tienen como fin frenar el avance del SIDA en El Salvador no han sido suficientes hasta el momento pues sus estrategias carecen de participación activa de todos los sectores que atienden a dichas poblaciones vulnerables y expuestas a riesgo.

  6. Analysis of the radiation accident in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melara, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    On 5 February 1989 at 2 a.m. local time in a cobalt-60 industrial irradiation facility, a series of events started leading to one of the most serious radiation accidents in this type of installation. It took place in Soyapango, a city situated 5 km from San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. In this accident, three workers were involved in the first event and a further four in the second. When the accident took place, the activity level was approximately 0.66 PBq (18,000 Ci). The source became blocked when being lowered to its safe position, where upon the technician responsible for the irradiator entered the chamber in breach of the few inadequate safety procedures, accompanied by two colleagues from an adjacent department; the three workers suffered acute radiation exposure, with the result that one of them died six-and-a-half months later, the second had both his legs amputated at mid-thigh, while the third recovered completely. This article describes the irradiator, outlines the causes of the accident and analyses the economic and social repercussions, with the aim of helping teams responsible for radiation protection and safety in industrial irradiation facilities to identify potentially hazardous circumstances and avoid accidents. (author)

  7. Commissioning and clinical implementation of HDR brachytherapy in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Lopez, Jorge Luis; Castillo, Luis Frank; Castillo Bahi, Ramon del

    2009-01-01

    The Gynecologic Cancer is one of the best known malignancies in different countries of the world, with a high incidence in developing countries. In the treatment of this disease have been used multiple treatment arms among which is the high rate brachytherapy (HDR). The IAEA has put much emphasis on supporting all programs to treat this disease and in this context within the project 'Human Resource Development and Nuclear Technology Support', collaborated with the dispatch of experts on mission ELS0006 01 'Assistance to the ICES in HDR brachytherapy initiating Treatments at the Cancer Institute of El Salvador 'Dr. Narciso Diaz Bazan' in San Salvador, El Salvador. The process of commissioning and implementing clinical service Brachytherapy High Dose Rate (HDR BT) is a relatively complex process that begins with the formation of functional and technical service, based on flow patients to be treated, availability of local technological capability to install, and culminates with the preparation and implementation of protocols. Experts involved in the implementation of this service divided this task in stages organized chronologically: 1st. Study of existing infrastructure and level of training of technical personnel available, 2nd. Proposal and application of amendments in order to adapt the facility to the planned patient flow and optimal use of technological infrastructure, 3rd. Establishment of the process of securing the disposable waste materials and not required, 4th. Performance of tests of physical commissioning clinical dosimetry and instrumentation unit, surgical and therapeutic, 5th. Training of technical personnel, 6th. Preparation of clinical protocol and 7th. Initiation and development of treatment for patients. All these steps are carried out with the integration and consensus of the entire multidisciplinary team that makes up the service and with the support of the administration as a prerequisite. Within two weeks the service was modified according to

  8. El experimento penitenciario salvadoreño, 1900-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos W Moreno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo interesa estudiar el proyecto penitenciario salvadoreño de las primeras cuatro décadas del siglo XX; describe su creación e intereses iniciales y se establece también una comparación del estado de las penitenciarías y otros establecimientos carcelarios. No obstante, el artículo se centra en las técnicas de reeducación de los individuos privados de libertad en las penitenciarías; es decir, en los programas de trabajo y retribución económica de la mano de obra, en la manufactura y distribución de la producción de los reos. Además, ¿se aplicó este régimen laboral a toda la población penitenciaria? ¿Cómo se desarrolló el mismo al cabo de unas décadas? ¿Cómo influyeron los programas represivos del delito durante el martinato en el estado de las penitenciarías? Este trabajo intenta reflexionar sobre las instituciones penitenciarias, su evolución, su funcionalidad y proyecto rehabilitador de la delincuencia.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v3i1.1335

  9. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita

    2005-09-01

    A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.

  10. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive emotions in earthquake survivors in El Salvador (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Cervellón, Priscilla; Pérez-Sales, Pau; Vidales, Diana; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze, within a more extensive intervention program, the existence of positive emotions and positive coping in the refugees at the two largest shelters created after the earthquakes of El Salvador in January, 2001. One hundred and fifteen survivors were interviewed in the shelters about different aspects related to positive cognitions and emotions experienced during their sojourn at the camps, as well as their perception of aspects of posttraumatic growth. The results show that most of the people affected by the earthquake revealed a consistent pattern of positive reactions and emotions. The potential implications of these results in the individual sphere, as buffering elements to protect people from the effects of a traumatic experience receive comment.

  12. Lessons learned from a successful MEDRETE in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, James C; Melendez, Manuel E; Hershey, Donna N; Hakim, Abdul

    2003-04-01

    Medical readiness education and training exercises are short-term exercises designed to provide health care and preventive medicine education to underserved civilian populations overseas. These high profile missions provide superb training opportunities, build democracies, and can be a powerful incentive to retain soldiers in the Reserves. Despite this, the literature offers little guidance in terms of how to best conduct a MEDRETE, particularly with a unit that has not been recently deployed. A U.S. Army Reserve unit was deployed to El Salvador following two devastating earthquakes and treated 20,890 patients in 10 days. This patient volume was achieved by a close cooperative effort among an experienced Mission Coordinator and Reservists and superb host nation support. Lessons learned regarding predeployment, deployment, patient management, and safety issues are presented to assist future units in conducting successful medical readiness education and training exercises.

  13. Microbiology and mortality of pediatric febrile neutropenia in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Bonilla, Miguel; Gamero, Mario; Fuentes, Soad L; Caniza, Miguela; Sung, Lillian

    2011-05-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) and infection-related mortality are major problems for children with cancer in low-income countries. Identifying predictors for adverse outcome of FN in low-income countries permits targeted interventions. We describe the nature and predictors of microbiologically documented infection (MDI) and mortality of FN in children with cancer in El Salvador. We examined Salvadoran pediatric oncology patients admitted with FN over a 1-year period. Data were collected prospectively. Demographic, treatment, and admission-related variables were examined as predictors of outcomes. Hundred six FN episodes among 85 patients were included. Twenty-three of 106 episodes (22%) were microbiologically documented; 13 of 106 episodes (12%) resulted in death. Gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were isolated in 14 of 23 and 11 of 23 specimens; polymicrobial infections were common (11 of 23 episodes of MDI). Older age decreased the MDI risk [odds ratio (OR) per year=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.99; P=0.04] while increasing number of days since the last chemotherapy increased the risk (OR=1.03 per day, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P=0.002). Pneumonia diagnosed either clinically (OR=6.6, 95% CI, 1.8-30.0; P=0.005) or radiographically (OR=5.5, 95% CI, 1.7-18.1; P=0.005) was the only predictor of mortality. In El Salvador, polymicrobial infections were common. Pneumonia at admission identified children with FN at high risk of death; these children may benefit from targeted interventions.

  14. The Peace Processes of Colombia and El Salvador: A Comparative Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gantiva, Diego

    1997-01-01

    Colombia and El Salvador, two Latin American countries, have developed similar counterinsurgency processes and started similar processes of peace negotiations between the insurgent armies and the forces of order...

  15. Security in Transition: Police Reform in El Salvador and South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Desilets-Bixler, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    This thesis studies police reform in El Salvador and South Africa. While both countries differ considerably in geographic size culture location population and economic and military strength they share common security concerns...

  16. Quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de El Salvador, América Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador se habían registrado los poliplacóforos Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 y Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Recolectamos quitones en aguas someras de El Salvador en julio del 2002, agragando a la lista a Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; Acanthochitona ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 y Acanthochitona hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. Ampliamos la distribución documentada de I. dispar hacia el norte y describimos brevemente una especie innominada de Lepidochitona.Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from El Salvador, Central America. Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Of these, I. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. The known geographic distribution of I. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 171-176. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  17. Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Calderon (Julio); L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl presente informe contiene un estudio de caso sobre “Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Perú” realizado para el Instituto de Estudios de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano - IHS (Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies) y el Programa SINPA

  18. Geological control of earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsige Aga, Meaza

    2010-05-01

    Geological control of earthquake induced landslides in El Salvador. M., Tsige(1), I., Garcia-Flórez(1), R., Mateos(2) (1)Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain, (meaza@geo.ucm.es) (2)IGME, Mallorca El Salvador is located at one of the most seismically active areas en Central America, and suffered severe damage and loss of life in historical and recent earthquakes, as a consequence of earthquake induced landslides. The most common landslides were shallow disrupted soil-slides on steep slopes and were particularly dense in the central part of the country. Most of them are cited in the recent mechanically weak volcanic pyroclastic deposits known as "Tierra Blanca" and "Tierra Color Café" which are prone to seismic wave amplification and are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to the 2001 (Mw = 7.6 and Mw = 6.7), seismic events. The earthquakes also triggered numerous deep large scale landslides responsible for the enormous devastation of villages and towns and are the source for the current high seismic hazard as well. Many of these landslides are located at distances more than 50 and 100 km from the focal distance, although some of them occurred at near field. Until now there has been little effort to explain the causes and concentration of the deep large-scale landslides especially their distribution, failure mechanism and post-rapture behavior of the landslide mass (long run-out). It has been done a field investigation of landslides, geological materiales and interpretation of aerial photographs taken before and after the two 2001 (Mw= 7.6 and Mw= 6.7) El Salvador earthquakes. The result of the study showed that most of the large-scale landslides occured as coherent block slides with the sliding surface parallel to a pre-existing fractures and fault planes (La Leona, Barriolera, El Desague, Jiboa landslides). Besides that the pre-existing fractures are weak zones controlling

  19. Tsunami hazard and risk assessment in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; González-Riancho, P.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; García-Aguilar, O.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Aguirre, I.; Alvarez, J. A.; Gavidia, F.; Jaimes, I.; Larreynaga, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructure around the world. Several works have attempted to study these phenomena in order to understand their origin, causes, evolution, consequences, and magnitude of their damages, to finally propose mechanisms to protect coastal societies. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce risk on coastal areas. This work -Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador-, funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, examines the state of the art and presents a comprehensive methodology for assessing the risk of tsunamis at any coastal area worldwide and applying it to the coast of El Salvador. The conceptual framework is based on the definition of Risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a given hazard to a given element at danger or peril, over a specified time period (European Commission, Schneiderbauer et al., 2004). The HAZARD assessment (Phase I of the project) is based on propagation models for earthquake-generated tsunamis, developed through the characterization of tsunamigenic sources -sismotectonic faults- and other dynamics under study -tsunami waves, sea level, etc.-. The study area is located in a high seismic activity area and has been hit by 11 tsunamis between 1859 and 1997, nine of them recorded in the twentieth century and all generated by earthquakes. Simulations of historical and potential tsunamis with greater or lesser affection to the country's coast have been performed, including distant sources, intermediate and close. Deterministic analyses of the threats under study -coastal flooding- have been carried out, resulting in different hazard maps (maximum wave height elevation, maximum water depth, minimum tsunami

  20. A spatio-temporal analysis of suicide in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcach, Carlos

    2017-04-20

    In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML) and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC), for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide) across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time-persistent clusters with a large rate of death by suicide. In

  1. ¿El armario está abierto?: estudios sobre diversidad sexual en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Palevi Gómez Arévalo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto tiene por objetivo analizar 39 producciones universitarias sobre diferentes temáticas de diversidad sexual producidas entre 1988 a 2015, las cuales se organizan en 4 ejes/binomios: Prácticas sexuales/Cuerpos, Matrimonio/Familias, Identidades/Prejuicios y Derechos/Ciudadanías. Al mismo tiempo se proponen nuevas temáticas para investigar y se reflexiona sobre los retos al interior de la educación superior salvadoreña para constituir un campo de Estudios sobre Diversidad Sexual. Concluyendo, a pesar de la existencia dispersa de 39 producciones universitarias, las cuales son un avance, el armario de la academia salvadoreña está aún cerrado, y por tal motivo surge la pregunta ¿cómo lo podemos abrir?

  2. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  3. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  4. “Masones salvadoreños e instrucción intelectual femenina: El Salvador, 1875-1887”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Carolina Vásquez Monzón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la influencia política que tuvieron masones como Baltasar Estupinián, Rafael Reyes, RafaelZaldívar, Antonio J. Castro, Manuel Delgado y Rafael Meza en la promoción de la instrucción intelectual paralas mujeres en El Salvador, durante el último tercio del siglo XIX. A través de la revisión de impresos de laépoca, el estudio recoge discursos de opinión, decretos, reglamentos y noticias que vinculan a estos masones conactividades de fomento a la educación femenina, lacreación de institutos de enseñanza para mujeres, laampliación del plan de estudios, el otorgamiento debecas o la exoneración de pagos para aquellas quequisierancontinuar sus estudios secundarios y de educación superior.

  5. Legislative attitudes toward overpopulation: the case of EL Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, J G

    1975-10-01

    The members of the 1972-1974 national assembly of El Salvador were asked to complete questionnaires on population in an effort to determine what their general attitude toward the population problem was. Indications were that the legislators were factually aware of the dimensions of population growth and the existing overpopulation, and that both problems were seen as impediments to economic progress. They also showed a willingness to act quickly on various public programs for controlling population growth, primarily in the areas of public education and healht. However, while admitting the urgency of the problems, none of the legislators had individually done anything about them and no such plans were underway. They indicated in their responses that they would have to play a major role in formulating any population control policy and that such a policy would probably concentrate on measures to deal with overpopulation in the short run, i.e., to cut the population growth rate by educating and informing the populous both with general and governmental publicity and through sex education in schools. The policy would also in part attempt to alleviate the general social conditions that the legislators perceived as contributing to high birthrates, i.e., illiteracy, lack of sex information, unemployment, rural isolation, unavailability of contraceptives, and lack of family planning Support would be sought from the public in spite of the Catholic Church, though the Church would eventually have to be considered in the formulation of a final policy. The fact of religious opposition plus the fact that the government has not yet embarked on a policy make the adoption and implementation of such a policy unlikely in the forseeable future. The ligislators themselves were pessimistic as to the possibility of controlling the population and felt that in view of its rapid growth, the country would not be able to provide educational and employment opportunites for the advancement of the

  6. Observations and Modeling of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and Tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the tsunami was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical modeling results using initial conditions of tsunami generation based on finite-fault earthquake and tsunami inversions and a uniform slip model.

  7. A spatio-temporal analysis of suicide in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carcach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador’s suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. Methods A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC, for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. Results The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Conclusions Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time

  8. La demanda de cigarrillos y el aumento de impuestos en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos-Carbajales

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar las elasticidades de corto plazo y de largo plazo de la demanda de cigarrillos en El Salvador como instrumento para apoyar recomendaciones sobre aumentos de impuestos para reducir la prevalencia y el consumo vía aumento de precios. Métodos Se analizó la demanda de cigarrillos en El Salvador mediante un modelo econométrico de series de tiempo con una base de datos proveniente de la Dirección General de Impuestos Internos (DGII y la Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC de El Salvador. El período de análisis fue trimestral: 2000Q1-2012T4. Se realizaron las pruebas habituales para evitar que la estimación econométrica fuera espuria. Se halló que las variables ventas en volumen, los precios reales de venta y el ingreso real per cápita estaban cointegradas de primer orden; este resultado permite utilizar un modelo de corrección de error con estimaciones de las elasticidades en el corto plazo y en el largo plazo. Resultados Se halló que solo las elasticidades de largo plazo son estadísticamente significativas al 5% de probabilidad. Los resultados señalan una elasticidad precio de largo plazo (cinco trimestres de -0,9287 e ingreso de 0,9978. Conclusiones El nivel del valor absoluto de la elasticidad precio es algo elevada, aunque está dentro de los niveles estimados en otros estudios en los países de menores ingresos per cápita. Un aumento del impuesto de un monto base de USD (dólares estadounidenses 1,04 por cajetilla de 20 cigarrillos a USD 1,66 en un período de tres años reduciría la demanda entre 20% y 31% y aumentaría los ingresos fiscales entre 9% y 22%.

  9. Prevalencia de trastornos funcionales gastrointestinales en niños en edad escolar en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Zablah, R.; Velasco-Benítez, C.A.; Merlos, I.; Bonilla, S.; Saps, M.

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: La epidemiología de los trastornos funcionales gastrointestinales en niños salvadoreños en edad escolar usando criterios diagnósticos estandarizados no se ha estudiado. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de trastornos funcionales gastrointestinales en niños salvadoreños en edad escolar. Materiales y métodos: Trescientos noventa y cinco niños participaron en el estudio (una escuela pública y una privada). Se utilizó el Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-...

  10. Channeling Remittances to Education: A Field Experiment Among Migrants from El Salvador*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Kate; Aycinena, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We implement a randomized experiment offering Salvadoran migrants matching funds for educational remittances, which are channeled directly to a beneficiary student in El Salvador chosen by the migrant. The matches lead to increased educational expenditures, higher private school attendance, and lower labor supply of youths in El Salvador households connected to migrant study participants. We find substantial “crowd-in” of educational investments: for each $1 received by beneficiaries, educational expenditures increase by $3.72. We find no shifting of expenditures away from other students, and no effect on remittances. PMID:26000091

  11. Has El Salvador Fault Zone produced M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes? The 1719 El Salvador earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canora, C.; Martínez-Díaz, J.; Álvarez-Gómez, J.; Villamor, P.; Ínsua-Arévalo, J.; Alonso-Henar, J.; Capote, R.

    2013-05-01

    Historically, large earthquakes, Mw ≥ 7.0, in the Εl Salvador area have been attributed to activity in the Cocos-Caribbean subduction zone. Τhis is correct for most of the earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.5. However, recent paleoseismic evidence points to the existence of large earthquakes associated with rupture of the Εl Salvador Fault Ζone, an Ε-W oriented strike slip fault system that extends for 150 km through central Εl Salvador. Τo calibrate our results from paleoseismic studies, we have analyzed the historical seismicity of the area. In particular, we suggest that the 1719 earthquake can be associated with paleoseismic activity evidenced in the Εl Salvador Fault Ζone. Α reinterpreted isoseismal map for this event suggests that the damage reported could have been a consequence of the rupture of Εl Salvador Fault Ζone, rather than rupture of the subduction zone. Τhe isoseismal is not different to other upper crustal earthquakes in similar tectonovolcanic environments. We thus challenge the traditional assumption that only the subduction zone is capable of generating earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 in this region. Τhis result has broad implications for future risk management in the region. Τhe potential occurrence of strong ground motion, significantly higher and closer to the Salvadorian populations that those assumed to date, must be considered in seismic hazard assessment studies in this area.

  12. AN EARLY POSTCLASSIC ROUND STRUCTURE AT CIHUATÁN, EL SALVADOR (Una estructura circular del Posclásico Temprano en Cihuatán, El Salvador)

    OpenAIRE

    Paúl E. Amaroli Bertolucci; Karen Olsen Bruhns

    2009-01-01

    Round temples in Mesoamerica have been commonly ascribed to Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, the God of Wind and Air, on the basis of conquest period chronicles referring to such buildings. Round structures have been rarely reported on the southeastern frontier of Mesoamerica and none has previously been adequately documented or published. A recently excavated round structure at the Early Postclassic site of Cihuatán in western El Salvador raises questions concerning its possible use. The platform, unfi...

  13. Richness and diversity patterns of birds in urban green areas in the center of San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel L. Vides-Hernández

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization has led to natural ecosystems being constantly replaced by an urban landscape, a process that is very noticeable in El Salvador, due to its small territorial extension (21.041 km. and high population density (291 hab/km.. We performed an inventory in 12 urban green areas, with different sizes, shape and distances from the largest forest area in the metropolitan zone, based on the McArthur and Wilson’s (1967 island biogeography theory. We evaluated if the richness, diversity and equitability of birds were related to the size and distance of the green areas and if their shape had any effect on the richness of birds. We observed a total of 20 bird species and we classified them according to their diet (generalist and specialist. We observed that the distance did not influence the bird richness and that there was no interaction between size and distance variables, but the size of the green area did influence. The richness of birds with specialist diet increased in the more circular green areas than in the irregular ones. We conclude that in the urban center of San Salvador, the presence of large and circular green areas contributes more to the specialist diet birds’ richness, than areas of similar size but of irregular shape. However, small areas contribute more to the specialist diet birds’ richness, if its shape is more circular.

  14. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... through assistance from USAID, the Salvadoran government and international donors, including an estimated... Programme recently classified El Salvador among the most vulnerable countries in the world. Given the...-9. Employers are required to verify the identity and employment authorization of all new employees...

  15. La posguerra en Nicaragua y El Salvador 1990-2000. Violencia y lucha por la tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rueda Estrada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the characteristics of rural areas in Nicaragua and El Salvador during the second half of the 20th century, and then analyzes how the agricultural frontier movements of each country were fundamental for the impact on the conflict thatdeveloped during the post-war period. The economic insertation of excombatants in both countries involved an agricultural vocation.

  16. UNA NUEVA COMBINACIÓN Y NUEVOS REGISTROS EN LAS BROMELIACEAE DE EL SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una nueva combinación, Werauhia montana y se discuten sus relaciones con W. nephrolepis. Además se registra por primera vez, la presencia de Aechmea bromeliifolia, Pitcairnia maidifolia y Tillandsia balbisiana para El Salvador.

  17. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  18. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary M; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Kim, Shin Y; Clyde, Maureen

    2008-04-01

    Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.

  19. Fighting Narcotraffic in Latin America: Mexico and El Salvador - A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Cartel’s Territories and Routes. .......................................................................21 Figure 2. Overpopulated Prisons in Latin...organizations took advantage of. El Salvador is currently one of the most violent countries in the world , with a rate of approximately 69 murders per...Francisco Flores in 2003, brought unintended results. Prisons were overpopulated , and only a small percentage of prisoners were sentenced

  20. Los costos económicos de la violencia en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ACEVEDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo efectúa un ejercicio de cuantificación de los costos económicos asociados a las diversas manifestaciones y consecuencias de la situación de violencia prevaleciente en El Salvador, utilizando información para 2007. Tales costos son clasificados en cuatro grandes categorías: i costos en salud; ii costos institucionales (legales, judiciales y policiales; iii costos preventivos en seguridad privada; y iv pérdidas materiales. Los resultados de las estimaciones efectuadas indican que, en dicho año, la violencia impuso sobre El Salvador un costo económico equivalente a 10,9% del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB y a más del doble de las asignaciones presupuestarias para Educación y Salud. ABSTRACT: This essay carries out an accounting exercise on the economic costs derived from the violence situation which prevails in El Salvador, using information for 2007. Those costs are classified into four main categories: i costs on health; ii institutional costs (legal, judiciary and police; iii preventive costs for private security; and iv material losses. The results from the estimations performed indicate that, in 2007, the different expressions and consequences derived from the violence situation imponed on El Salvador an economic cost which was equivalent to 10,9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP and more than twice the combined budget allocations to Education and Health.

  1. Geodetically resolved slip distribution of the 27 August 2012 Mw=7.3 El Salvador earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Hernandez, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Rogers, R.; Rodriguez, M.

    2013-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 a Mw=7.3 earthquake occurred offshore of Central America causing a small tsunami in El Salvador and Nicaragua but little damage otherwise. This is the largest magnitude earthquake in this area since 2001. We use co-seismic displacements estimated from episodic and continuous GPS station time series to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for this event. The estimated surface displacements are small (earthquake. We use TDEFNODE to model the displacements using two different modeling approaches. In the first model, we solve for homogeneous slip on free rectangular fault(s), and in the second model we solve for distributed slip on the main thrust, realized using different slab models. The results indicate that we can match the seismic moment release, with models indicating rupture of a large area, with a low magnitude of slip. The slip is at shallow-to-intermediate depths on the main thrust off the coast of El Salvador. Additionally, we observe a deeper region of slip to the east, that reaches towards the Gulf of Fonseca between El Salvador and Nicaragua. The observed tsunami additionally indicates near-trench rupture off the coast of El Salvador. The duration of the rupturing is estimated from seismic data to be 70 s, which indicates a slow rupture process. Since the geodetic moment we obtain agrees with the seismic moment, this indicates that the earthquake was not associated with aseismic slip.

  2. Agricultural Elites; Economic Structure; and the Transition Towards Democracy in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofía Cardenal

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the process of democratization in El Salvador. More particularly, it attempts to explain a political outcome: the Peace Accords that were achieved in this country in January of 1992. Despite the attention recent theories about democracy have placed on political variables and strategic behavior, this study focusses mainly on structural factors emphasizing the role that such variables played in explaining democratic change in El Salvador. The argument lay down here rests on Barrington Moore’s thesis regarding the role of agrarian elites in democratic transitions. Based on his seminal comparative study, he established that no democratic result could possibly emerge without an erosion of the agrarian elite’s power base. As this article discloses, the Moore Condition was fullfiled for El Salvador in the 80s, rendering possible the peace accords. One of the most important consequences of the war -and the political and social processes that accompanied it- concerned the changes that took place in the economy. Those transformations moved El Salvador away from an agro-export economy to place it into a commercial and moreindustrialized one, leading in turn to a weakening of the traditional agrarian elite.

  3. LAS POLÍTICAS DE SEGURIDAD Y LA POLICÍA NACIONAL CIVIL EN EL SALVADOR

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Bonilla Ovallos

    2015-01-01

    El proceso de Reforma Policial impulsado en El Salvador como resultado de la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz de Chapultepec en 1992, entre el gobierno de Alfredo Cristiani y el Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) se ha visto desdibujado, entre otras cosas, por la puesta en marcha de políticas de seguridad altamente represivas que han representado un obstáculo para el asentamiento de los principios rectores que soportaron la creación de la Policía Nacional Civil (PNC). Es...

  4. Las migraciones internacionales y sus efectos económicos en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Funes, Oscar Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se plantearán aspectos relacionados a los flujos migratorios sucedidos en El Salvador, desde la década de los años setentas y cómo se intensificó en el decenio de 1980, como consecuencia del guerra interna. Se utilizaron algunos estudios realizados por el Dr. Segundo Montes de la Universidad Centroamericana Simeón Cañas (UCA, y se determinará hacia donde migraron principalmente esos grupos de población. Luego se tomará de referencia los datos del Banco Central de Reserva de El Salvador (BCR, para conocer cómo han crecido los montos en dólares recibidos a través de las remesas familiares y el impacto que tienen en la economía, comparándolo con otros ingresos que percibe el país como son las exportaciones. Finalmente se plantearán los resultados obtenidos en un estudio realizado por la Asociación Salvadoreña de Investigación y Promoción Económica y Social (ASIPES que tenía como objetivo evaluar el monto de las remesas recibidas por los miembros de las familia salvadoreña e identificar los usos y destinos de esas remesas, sus características y sus alternativas productivas. Cabe mencionar que este estudio se realizó a través de encuestas ejecutadas en los municipios que de acuerdo a la Encuesta de hogares de propósitos múltiples reciben mayores cantidades de remesas familiar. También se evaluará el impacto que tienen las remesas familiares, principalmente en los hogares pobres.

  5. Sistemas de salud mental en El Salvador, Guatemala y Nicaragua: resultados de una evaluación mediante el WHO-AIMS Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Jacinto Rodríguez; Thomas Barrett; Silvia Narváez; José Miguel Caldas; Itzhak Levav; Shekhar Saxena

    2007-01-01

    Los autores realizaron una evaluación de los sistemas de salud mental en El Salvador, Guatemala y Nicaragua, por medio de un grupo de indicadores seleccionados. Para recopilar la información en los países se utilizó el Instrumento de Evaluación para Sistemas de Salud Mental de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (WHO-AIMS, por su sigla en inglés). Nicaragua, Guatemala y El Salvador tienen serias limitaciones en sus sistemas nacionales de salud mental, en especial en la atención primaria, así ...

  6. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  7. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador Dimensiones del castigo infantil en dos países de América Central: Guatemala y El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ilene S. Speizer; Mary M. Goodwin; Ghazaleh Samandari; Shin Y. Kim; Maureen Clyde

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. METHODS: Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parent...

  8. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center ...

  9. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  10. Effectiveness and Internal Security. A Comparative Analysis of El Salvador and Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ellis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicaragua and El Salvador share many commonalities, including geographical vulnerabilities, widespread poverty, the experience of civil conflict in the 1980s, and a transition to democracy in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, each state has drastically divergent levels of violence, as measured particularly by homicide rates, with Nicaragua among the lowest in Latin America and El Salvador among the highest in the world. This paper assesses the historical and institutional variables that account for this divergence and evaluates each state’s security structures using a civil-military relations analysis. In particular, the author uses Bruneau and Matei’s criterion of effectiveness. The findings demonstrate that Nicaragua’s security forces consolidated during the 1980s in a manner more capable of sustaining the democratic transition and confronting new security threats like gangs and organized crime.

  11. Metabolismo socio-natural y conflictos ambientales en Costa Rica y El Salvador 1992-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Cartagena Cruz, Rafael Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    La investigación, realizada en Costa Rica y El Salvador, se interroga por la relación entre dinámicas ambientales y conflictividad social. Las dinámicas ambientales han sido analizadas mediante el concepto de metabolismo socio-natural, es decir, como resultado del nexo físico de una sociedad y su entorno. Tres elementos que definen el metabolismo socio-natural en una sociedad dada son las formas de ocupación del espacio, las actividades económicas desarrolladas y los desechos y emisiones que ...

  12. The Durability of Cultural Influences: How American Foreign Policy Reinforced Historical Biases in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    America Since 1920,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 1983: 276. 11 Kevin Sullivan, “El Salvador: On Unfinished Road to Reform; Despite Being...different than those of President Carter. In fact, a substantial part of his party plank cited key differences between his and the ex-president’s Central...true: Castro himself was influential with FMLN leadership ; in fact, the FMLN formed at his urging.42 The full extent to which Castro, the Soviets or

  13. First person: a mental health mission to post-earthquake El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Craig L

    2013-09-01

    In this article the author excerpts and discusses salient quotes or moments from the journal he compiled while visiting El Salvador in February 2001 as head of Disaster Psychiatry Outreach (DPO) to assist survivors of a major earthquake. This case discussion of a single disaster mental health response exemplifies key issues related to both short and long term mental health service delivery to disaster affected communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. GPS detection of ionospheric perturbation before the 13 February 2001, El Salvador earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Plotkin

    2003-01-01

    A large earthquake of M6.6 occurred on 13 February 2001 at 14:22:05 UT in El Salvador. We detected ionospheric perturbation before this earthquake using GPS data received from CORS network. Systematic decreases of ionospheric total electron content during two days before the earthquake onset were observed at set of stations near the earthquake location and probably in region of about 1000 km from epicenter. This result is consistent with t...

  15. Impact of U.S. Foreign Policy and Assistance in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    forestry and environmental education, community organization and economic development, rural health and sanitation and youth development. USAID’s...The compact includes $88 million for technical assistance and financial services to farmers and rural businesses, $100 million to strengthen...Report, February 27, 2009. 31FUSADES (Fundación Salvadoreña para el Desarrollo Económico y Social). 2003. Oportunidad, seguridad, legitimidad

  16. Uso de drogas en estudiantes universitarios y su relación con el maltrato durante la niñez en una universidad de San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alfredo Martínez Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación entre el uso de drogas en estudiantes universitarios de una universidad en San Salvador y su relación con el maltrato durante la niñez. Este estudio fue de corte transversal, siendo el tamaño de la muestra de 272 estudiantes, con un error muestral del 5%. Los resultados más importantes fueron: el 6.6% de los estudiantes manifestó haber sufrido abuso sexual, el 24.6% abuso físico y el mismo porcentaje fue reportado para el abuso verbal mientras que el 12.9% reportó negligencia emocional o física. El 55.1% reportó distress psicológico mínimo. El 43% ha consumido drogas alguna vez en su vida. El 58.45% tiene amigos que usan drogas. El alcohol, el cannabis y el tabaco son las drogas más usadas. El 70% de los estudiantes que usan drogas sufrieron algún tipo de maltrato. En cuanto a las asociaciones, sólo en el abuso físico se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa con una probabilidad de error menor al 0.05. Los datos no pueden ser generalizados a los estudiantes universitarios de San Salvador, El Salvador.

  17. New seismic sources parameterization in El Salvador. Implications to seismic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Staller, Alejandra; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Benito, Belén; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Canora, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador is located at the pacific active margin of Central America, here, the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the Caribbean Plate at a rate of ~80 mm/yr is the main seismic source. Although the seismic sources located in the Central American Volcanic Arc have been responsible for some of the most damaging earthquakes in El Salvador. The El Salvador Fault Zone is the main geological structure in El Salvador and accommodates 14 mm/yr of horizontal displacement between the Caribbean Plate and the forearc sliver. The ESFZ is a right lateral strike-slip fault zone c. 150 km long and 20 km wide .This shear band distributes the deformation among strike-slip faults trending N90º-100ºE and secondary normal faults trending N120º- N170º. The ESFZ is relieved westward by the Jalpatagua Fault and becomes less clear eastward disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. Five sections have been proposed for the whole fault zone. These fault sections are (from west to east): ESFZ Western Section, San Vicente Section, Lempa Section, Berlin Section and San Miguel Section. Paleoseismic studies carried out in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation and paleoearthquakes up to Mw 7.6. In this study we present 45 capable seismic sources in El Salvador and their preliminary slip-rate from geological and GPS data. The GPS data detailled results are presented by Staller et al., 2014 in a complimentary communication. The calculated preliminary slip-rates range from 0.5 to 8 mm/yr for individualized faults within the ESFZ. We calculated maximum magnitudes from the mapped lengths and paleoseismic observations.We propose different earthquakes scenario including the potential combined rupture of different fault sections of the ESFZ, resulting in maximum earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.6. We used deterministic models to calculate acceleration distribution related with maximum earthquakes of the different proposed scenario. The spatial distribution of

  18. Prevalence and predictors of abandonment of therapy among children with cancer in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Miguel; Rossell, Nuria; Salaverria, Carmen; Gupta, Sumit; Barr, Ronald; Sala, Alessandra; Metzger, Monika L; Sung, Lillian

    2009-11-01

    Abandonment of therapy is one of the most common causes of treatment failure among children with cancer in low-income countries. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and predictors of abandonment among such children with cancer in El Salvador. We analyzed data on patients younger than 16 years, diagnosed with any malignancy between January 2001 and December 2003 at the Benjamin Bloom National Children's Hospital, San Salvador. Among 612 patients, 353 were male (58%); the median age at diagnosis was 5.1 years; 59% of patients were diagnosed with leukemia/lymphoma, 28% with solid tumors and 13% with brain tumors. The prevalence of abandonment was 13%. Median time to abandonment was 2.0 (range 0-36) months. In univariate analyses, paternal illiteracy [odds ratio (OR) 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-7.2; p = 0.001]; maternal illiteracy (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 2.5-10; p El Salvador, despite the provision of free treatment, socioeconomic variables significantly predict increased risk of abandonment of therapy. Understanding the pathways through which socioeconomic status affects abandonment may allow the design of effective interventions. (c) 2009 UICC.

  19. Diffusive Soil Degassing of Radon and Carbon Dioxide at Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, L.; Lopez, D. L.; Hernandez, P.

    2001-12-01

    Ilopango Caldera lies 10 Km east of San Salvador, El Salvador and holds Ilopango Lake, the largest body of fresh water in El Salvador. There is currently no observed fumarolic activity within the caldera system. However, the last eruption occurred in 1880. In November - December, 1999, radon gas concentrations (pCi/l) were measured using a Pylon AB5 radon monitor, and flux of CO2 (g/m2/day) was determined using the accumulation chamber method at 106 sampling stations around the lake, along and across the caldera walls. Gas samples were also collected to determine the isotopic composition of C in CO2. CO2 fluxes did not show high values characteristic of other volcanic systems, values ranged from 0.7 to 9.2 g/m2/day with an average value of 3.9. These values are similar to the low values of the background population observed in nearby San Salvador volcano. Highest values are observed to the east and west of the lake. Isotopic values for C in soil gases do not show an important magmatic component. Radon concentrations present three distinct populations with the highest values occurring to the southwest. Thoron concentrations are higher close to the caldera walls than inside the caldera due to the possible higher rock fracturing in that region. Measurements taken in March 2001, after the January 13 and February 13, 2001 earthquakes did not show significant variations in CO2 fluxes. However, radon concentrations varied due to the high seismicity that lasted several months after these earthquakes. These results suggest that the magmatic system of Ilopango Caldera is not emitting high fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere throughout the caldera soils. Subaquatic emissions of CO2 have not been evaluated. However, subaquatic hydrothermal discharges have not been identified at this calderic lake.

  20. El derecho penal del enemigo en la legislación relativa a las Maras en EEUU y El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Javier Rua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the historical, social, cultural and political factors that allowed the generation of “Maras” in the USA and its expantion in El Salvador, particulary the “Mara Salvatrucha”. It analice from a critic point of view how the criminal laws implemented in both States recognice an afiliation with “Enemies Criminal Law’s” theories and how they didn’t help in the path of achieving a solution of this conflct.  

  1. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,pGuatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  2. El nuevo espacio rural en El Salvador. An??lisis de un programa educativo de participaci??n comunitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ramo Garzar??n, Rosario Marta

    2011-01-01

    El actual concepto de Derecho a la Educaci??n como Educaci??n para Todos, est?? vinculado al desarrollo social, econ??mico, pol??tico y cultural de los pa??ses en desarrollo y especialmente al de sus contextos rurales. Desde este enfoque, este estudio analiza la efectividad de algunas pol??ticas educativas llevadas a cabo en las dos ??ltimas d??cadas en el Salvador, EDUCO. Estas decisiones pol??ticas en materia educativa han tenido como objetivo la protecci??n, promoci??n y r...

  3. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used

  4. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In this study we rely on remotely sensed measures of the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI and thermal anomaly detections by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor to identify vegetation cover changes and fire occurrences. We also use land use data and rainfall observations derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data to determine the spatial and temporal variability and interactions of these factors. Our results indicate a highly marked seasonality of fire occurrence linked to the climatic variability with a peak of fire occurrences in 2004 and 2013. Low vegetation indices occurred in March–April, around two months after the driest period of the year (December–February, corresponding to months with high detection of fires. Spatially, 65.6% of the fires were recurrent and clustered in agriculture/cropland areas and within 1 km of roads (70% and only a 4.7% of fires detected were associated with forests. Remaining forests in El Salvador deserve more attention due to underestimated consequences of forest fires. The identification of these clear patterns can be used as a baseline to better shape management of fire regimes and support decision making in this country. Recommendations resulting from this work include focusing on fire risk models and agriculture fires and long-term ecological and economic consequences of those. Furthermore, El Salvador will need to include agricultural fires in the

  5. Matar para vivir; las maras de El Salvador. Estudio de los principales factores

    OpenAIRE

    Quijano González, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    La violencia es uno de los grandes problemas sociales que afecta a la sociedad latinoamericana. En concreto, en El Salvador, requieren de especial atención las pandillas juveniles o maras al ser producto del fracaso de una sociedad voraz e injusta que crea las condiciones necesarias para empujar hacia ellas a los y las jóvenes. Éstos, a su vez, se destruyen socialmente a sí mismos y a sus comunidades. Por tanto, romper los círculos de la violencia demanda propuestas contrarias al modelo repre...

  6. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with El Salvador 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in El Salvador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  7. Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behavior among public secondary school students in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-12-28

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  8. GPS detection of ionospheric perturbation before the 13 February 2001, El Salvador earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V. V.

    A large earthquake of M6.6 occurred on 13 February 2001 at 14:22:05 UT in El Salvador. We detected ionospheric perturbation before this earthquake using GPS data received from CORS network. Systematic decreases of ionospheric total electron content during two days before the earthquake onset were observed at set of stations near the earthquake location and probably in region of about 1000 km from epicenter. This result is consistent with that of investigators, which studied these phenomena with several observational techniques. However it is possible, that such TEC changes are simultaneously accompanied by changes due to solar wind parameters and Kp -index.

  9. Evaluation of earthquake-triggered landslides in el Salvador using a Gis based newmark model

    OpenAIRE

    García Rodríguez, María José; Havenith, Hans; Benito Oterino, Belen

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a model for evaluating earthquake-triggered landslides hazard following the Newmark methodology is developed in a Geographical Information System (GIS). It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred in January 13th and February 13th, 2001. The first of these earthquakes triggered more the 500 landslides and killed at least 844 people. This study is centred on the area (10x6km) w...

  10. GPS detection of ionospheric perturbation before the 13 February 2001, El Salvador earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Plotkin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A large earthquake of M6.6 occurred on 13 February 2001 at 14:22:05 UT in El Salvador. We detected ionospheric perturbation before this earthquake using GPS data received from CORS network. Systematic decreases of ionospheric total electron content during two days before the earthquake onset were observed at set of stations near the earthquake location and probably in region of about 1000 km from epicenter. This result is consistent with that of investigators, which studied these phenomena with several observational techniques. However it is possible, that such TEC changes are simultaneously accompanied by changes due to solar wind parameters and Kp -index.

  11. Validation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.; Cardona, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Validation and a preliminary serological study of Babesia bovis was made in El Salvador, using the indirect ELISA kit provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Sera were collected from 545 cattle involving 10 regions of the country and various ages of cattle between 8 and 16 months. These were tested from May 1993 to February 1994. A 79.5% prevalence was found, but with a wide range from (5.8-100%), explained by different farm managing systems and different breeds. (author)

  12. Civil-Military Relations and Militarization in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    earlier, Pion-Berlin, “Latin American Civil-Military Relations,” 74–5. 47 Prensa Gráfica.169 As of 2006, the MOD had “no civilian presence.” 170 As of...Jane’s Defence Weekly, June 12, 2009 and “Los elegidos para iniciar quinquenio 2014–2019,” La Prensa Grafica, May 22, 2014. 170 “Report on the...Defensa de América Latina (Buenos Aires: RESDAL, 2012), 205. 253 Text from El Decreto Ejecutivo N° 52 found in Walter Murcia, “La militarización de

  13. Uso de drogas en estudiantes universitarios y su relación con el maltrato durante la niñez en una universidad de San Salvador, El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Eduardo Alfredo Martínez; Mann,Robert; Hamilton,Hayley; Erickson,Pat; Brands,Bruna; Giesbrecht,Norman; Wright,Maria da Gloria Miotto; Cumsille,Francisco; Sapag,Jaime; Khenti,Akwatu

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación entre el uso de drogas en estudiantes universitarios de una universidad en San Salvador y su relación con el maltrato durante la niñez. Este estudio fue de corte transversal, siendo el tamaño de la muestra de 272 estudiantes, con un error muestral del 5%. Los resultados más importantes fueron: el 6.6% de los estudiantes manifestó haber sufrido abuso sexual, el 24.6% abuso físico y el mismo porcentaje fue repor...

  14. Incidencia de la ley anti maras en el fenómeno de las maras en El Salvador período de estudio: 2003-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Botta Serrano, Marianella

    2012-01-01

    La aplicación de la ley anti maras en El Salvador no tuvo los resultados esperados por el gobierno en el momento de su implementación, la reducción del fenómeno no se vio afectada por la aplicación de esta ley que al contrario produjo una serie de efectos negativos que demostraron tanto la inefectividad de dicha ley, como la capacidad de las maras para adaptarse y evolucionar frente a las adversidades que les presentó una medida represiva como la tomada por el gobierno salvadoreño.

  15. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

  16. With God's Help I Can Do It: Crack Users' Formal and Informal Recovery Experiences in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; De Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Corbett, A. Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Crack use has increased dramatically in El Salvador in the last few decades. As with other developing countries with sudden onsets of drug problems, El Salvador has few medical staff trained in addictions treatment. Little research has examined drug users' attempts to reduce or abstain from drug use in countries where government-regulated formal medical treatment for drug addiction is scarce. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data gathered from active crack users to explore their formal and informal strategies to reduce or abstain from drugs, and compares these with components of informal and formal treatment in developed countries. PMID:20735191

  17. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  18. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and unspecified leukemias (UL. The annual incidence rate (AIR and average annual incidence rate (AAIR were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1 Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  19. Periodismo en El Salvador: una fiscalización pendiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alfredo Cantarero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, como resultado de la apertura política posibilitada por los Acuerdo de Paz, los medios de comunicación social han estado dando muestras de un ejercicio más profesional y con mayores libertades políticas, especialmente la televisión y la prensa, a través de sus espacios de discusión o de sus suplementos dominicales, puestos que han sometido muchos temas de trascendencia nacional al debate público.Con este hacer publica la información sobre lo que ocurre, lo que ha ocurrido o lo que ocurrirá, los medios de comunicación social, desde su labor específica, han estado ejerciendo presión social y política para que las instituciones de gobierno funcionen normalmente. Ejemplos de presión informativa han sido los casos de Katya Miranda, Los Casinos, la explosión del polvorín en un cuartel de la Fuerza Armada, la delincuencia dentro de la PNC, el espionaje telefónico, etc. De no haber circulado públicamente la información sobre estos temas, quizá los temas o los problemas nunca se hubieran asumido seriamente en las instituciones competentes.

  20. The 13 January 2001 El Salvador earthquake: A multidata analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ValléE, Martin; Bouchon, Michel; Schwartz, Susan Y.

    2003-04-01

    On 13 January 2001, a large normal faulting intermediate depth event (Mw = 7.7) occurred 40 km off the El Salvadorian coast (Central America). We analyze this earthquake using teleseismic, regional, and local data. We first build a kinematic source model by simultaneously inverting P and SH displacement waveforms and source time functions derived from surface waves using an empirical Green's function analysis. In an attempt to discriminate between the two nodal planes (30° trenchward dipping and 60° landward dipping), we perform identical inversions using both possible fault planes. After relocating the hypocentral depth at 54 km, we retrieve the kinematic features of the rupture using a combination of the Neighborhood algorithm of [1999] and the Simplex method allowing for variable rupture velocity and slip. We find updip rupture propagation yielding a centroid depth around 47 km for both assumed fault planes with a larger variance reduction obtained using the 60° landward dipping nodal plane. We test the two possible fault models using regional broadband data and near-field accelerograms provided by [2001]. Near-field data confirm that the steeper landward dipping nodal plane is preferred. Rupture propagated mostly updip and to the northwest, resulting in a main moment release zone of approximately 25 km × 50 km with an average slip of ˜3.5 m. The large slip occurs near the interplate interface at a location where the slab steepens dip significantly. The occurrence of this event is well-explained by bending of the subducting plate.

  1. Between New Terrains and Old Dichotomies: Peacebuilding and the Gangs’ Truce in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Roque

    Full Text Available Abstract This article intends to challenge the dominant assumptions that undermine the potential application of peacebuilding frameworks beyond formal post-war contexts. It analyses the gangs’ truce that recently took place in El Salvador as a privileged laboratory to rethink hegemonic understandings and practices of peacebuilding by specifically addressing the importance of overcoming dichotomised categories such ‘war and peace’, ‘criminal and political’, and ‘success and failure’. It is claimed that while the truce fostered a discourse pointing towards an ongoing peace process and enlarged the public debate on the failings of post-war policies and on the structural roots of violence, it was also decisively undermined by the inability to surmount the dichotomy that juxtaposes the criminal and the political domains. It is argued that a peacebuilding framework, inspired by a set of critical perspectives on war and peace and on the nature of ‘the political’, may thus be of crucial importance for the future of policies aimed at curbing violence in El Salvador and elsewhere.

  2. Retrieval of tropospheric HCHO in El Salvador using ground based DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, W.; Gamez, K.; Rudamas, C.

    2017-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant carbonyl in the atmosphere, being an intermediate product in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs). HCHO is carcinogenic, and highly water soluble [1]. HCHO can originate from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion and has been observed from satellite and ground-based sensors by using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique [2].DOAS products can be used for air quality monitoring, validation of chemical transport models, validation of satellite tropospheric column density retrievals, among others [3]. In this study, we report on column density levels of HCHO measured by ground based Multi-Axis -DOAS in different locations of El Salvador in March, 2015. We have not observed large differences of the HCHO column density values at different viewing directions. This result points out a reasonably polluted and hazy atmosphere in the measuring sites, as reported by other authors [4]. Average values ranging from 1016 to 1017 molecules / cm2 has been obtained. The contribution of vehicular traffic and biomass burning to the column density levels in these sites of El Salvador will be discussed. [1] A. R. Garcia et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 4545 (2006) [2] E. Peters et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11179 (2012) [3] T. Vlemmix, et al. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 941-963, 2015 [4] A. Heckel et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, (2005)

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    No information is available on past uranium exploration in El Salvador. The foetallogenic map of Central America (ICAITI, 1970) shows no uranium occurrences, and no descriptions of occurrences are available for this study. Information on current uranium exploration in El Salvador is not available. The 1922 mining code, as amended, covers all minerals, with special rules applicable to phosphates, petroleum and other hydrocarbons. The state owns all minerals, including phosphates, except for salt and other common materials. Mineral and surface rights are distinct. Both citizens and aliens may acquire mineral rights. There is a possibility of uranium potential in the clastic sediments containing interbedded volcanics, particularly where the latter are tuffaceous. These rocks occur chiefly in the north western part of the country and are of limited areal extent. The possibility of uranium occurrences associated with acid volcanics cannot be discounted, but it is difficult to evaluate rocks of this type for uranium with the present state of knowledge. Accordingly, potential resources are estimated at between 0 and 1,000 tonnes uranium

  4. Exploring factors in the decision to choose sterilization vs alternatives in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam L; Holland, Erica; Monterroza, Maritza; Duran, Sonia; Singh, Rameet; Terbell, Heather; Edelman, Alison

    2008-01-01

    To explore the factors that influence rural Salvadoran women to undergo tubal sterilization versus opting for alternative methods of family planning. A moderator fluent in English and Spanish conducted eleven 90-minute focus groups consisting of 5-10 women each. Eligible women in the municipality of San Pedro Perulapan, El Salvador, were identified and recruited by local health workers. Participant demographics and information about family planning decisions were collected through detailed notes and tape-recorded sessions. The tapes were transcribed verbatim, and all data were analyzed using grounded theory procedures to identify common themes. Eighty women aged 24-45 years who had previously been sterilized participated in the study. Three major themes influenced a woman's decision to undergo sterilization instead of opting for alternative forms of family planning: (1) availability: tubal sterilization is readily available, (2) fears about side effects of other methods: these women associated negative side effects with other forms of family planning, (3) effectiveness: the women in these focus groups thought sterilization was more effective than other forms of family planning. This study shows that there is a lack of information, and misinformation, about other effective methods of contraception, especially the intrauterine device and oral contraceptives. Reproductive health education projects, especially those providing services in locations similar to rural El Salvador, should focus on providing accurate information about all forms of contraception, including tubal sterilization.

  5. Diseñar la libertad, regular una nación. El socialismo cibernético en el Chile de Salvador Allende

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Edén

    2014-01-01

    Medina, E. (2014). Diseñar la libertad, regular una nación. El socialismo cibernético en el Chile de Salvador Allende. Redes: Revista de estudios sociales de la ciencia, 20(38), 123-166. Este artículo presenta una historia de 'Proyecto Cybersyn', una computadora temprana desarrollada en Chile durante la presidencia socialista de Salvador Allende (1970-1973) para regular el creciente área de propiedad social y gestionar la transición de la economía chilena, del capitalismo al socialismo. Ba...

  6. Tapping Mexico's experience for a restructured market such as that of El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urteaga, Jose Antonio

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the strategy applied in Mexico to promote electric power savings within the principal consumer sector of this resource is raised. Special emphasis is placed on the newly developed programs by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE). The fundamental purpose has been to eliminate the barriers that hinder the transformation of the equipment, services and financing markets to energy efficiency, in commercial conditions that are developed based on the profitability of these projects that are being developed by the principal participating agents in this field. Finally, reference is made to the scope of the current FIDE project, contracted to the Rio Lempa Hydropower Commission of El Salvador, whose goal is to design a National Energy Efficiency Program and is the agency responsible for its implementation. (The author)

  7. The Dilemma Between Peace and Justice. Transitional Justice in Post-conflict Context: the Cases of Guatemala and El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MARTÍNEZ BARAHONA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today.

  8. De-securitising and Re-securitising Gang Policies : The Funes Government and Gangs in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079983537; Savenije, W.

    This article analyses the gang policies of the first years of the Funes administration in El Salvador, from June 2.009 until July 2.012.. Using securitisation theory, it explains why the administration returned to an emphasis on extraordinary measures, most of them repressive, to deal with gangs. It

  9. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  10. Choosing a miracle: Impoverishment, mistrust, and discordant views in abandonment of treatment of children with cancer in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossell, Nuria; Challinor, Julia; Gigengack, Roy; Reis, Ria

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In El Salvador, at the only hospital offering pediatric oncology care, the number of children abandoning treatment for cancer has decreased in recent years (13%-3%). An investigation of caregivers' motives for abandonment was performed over 15 months from 2012 to 2014. Caregiver and

  11. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  12. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  13. The comparative and cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nicole G; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Felix, Juan C; Cremer, Miriam L; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-15

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30-65 years: (i) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); (ii) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and (iii) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by ∼ 60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP. © 2015 UICC.

  14. Choosing a miracle: Impoverishment, Mistrust, and Discordant Views in Abandonment of Treatment of Children with Cancer in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossell, N.; Chalinor, J.; Gigengack, R.; Reis, R.

    Objective In El Salvador, at the only hospital offering pediatric oncology care, the number of children abandoning treatment for cancer has decreased in recent years (13%‐3%). An investigation of caregivers' motives for abandonment was performed over 15 months from 2012 to 2014. Caregiver and health

  15. Risk and the neoliberal state: why post-Mitch lessons didn't reduce El Salvador's earthquake losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, B

    2001-09-01

    Although El Salvador suffered light losses from Hurricane Mitch in 1998, it benefited from the increased international aid and encouragement for advance planning, especially mitigation and prevention interventions. Thus, one would have supposed, El Salvador would have been in a very advantageous position, able more easily than its economically crippled neighbours, Honduras and Nicaragua, to implement the 'lessons of Mitch'. A review of the recovery plan tabled by the El Salvador government following the earthquakes of early 2001 shows that despite the rhetoric in favour of 'learning the lessons of Mitch', very little mitigation and prevention had actually been put in place between the hurricane (1998) and the earthquakes (2001). The recovery plan is analysed in terms of the degree to which it deals with root causes of disaster vulnerability, namely, the economic and political marginality of much of the population and environmental degradation. An explanation for the failure to implement mitigation and preventive actions is traced to the adherence by the government of El Salvador to an extreme form of neoliberal, free market ideology, and the deep fissures and mistrust in a country that follow a long and bloody civil war.

  16. The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…

  17. Nonrandom variation in Poecilia marcellinoi n. sp. and P. salvatoris Regan, 1907 in El Salvador (Pisces, Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, Frederick N.

    1995-01-01

    A new species of the genus Poecilia Bloch & Schneider, 1801 is recorded from El Salvador. Morphological and meristic data of P. marcellinoi n. sp. and of the sympatric P. salvatoris Regan, 1907 are analysed. Intra- and interspecific variation are compared and correlated with environmental and

  18. Historia del diseño en El Salvador: El Diseño Gráfico como profesión formal (1978-1988)

    OpenAIRE

    Colorado Berríos, Jorge Arturo

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo trata sobre la historia del diseño gráfico en El Salvador, desde principios del siglo XX hasta 1988, cuando se formaliza como profesión en la Universidad Dr. José Matías Delgado.

  19. “Origen, miembros y primeras acciones de la masonería en El Salvador (1871-1872”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Armando Valdés Valle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establecen los orígenes oficiales de la Masonería en El Sa lvador durante el último tercio del siglo XIX; se identifica quiénes eran sus miembros, que roles o papeles desempeñaban en la sociedad salvadoreña, cuál fue el contexto socio-histórico y polític o en el que se fundó el primer Taller masónico en el país, y cuál fue la reacción del clero y los sectores de l país más identificados con el ultramontanismo a la fundación de esta primera Logia. Para dar respuesta a esta cuestiones, se hace uso de fuentes tanto eclesiales como gubernamentales y de historia de la masonería sa lvadoreña y centroamericana que al cruzarse revelan y confirman la gran participación que tuvieron los masones salvadoreños en los turbulentos años de 1871 y 1872, cuando inicia el proceso de secularización del Estado salvadoreño, proceso que curiosamente coincidió con la fundación de la Logia Progreso N° 5.

  20. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  1. Coseismic deformation of the 2001 El Salvador and 2002 Denali fault earthquakes from GPS geodetic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreinsdottir, Sigrun

    2005-07-01

    GPS geodetic measurements are used to study two major earthquakes, the 2001 MW 7.7 El Salvador and 2002 MW 7.9 Denali Fault earthquakes. The 2001 MW 7.7 earthquake was a normal fault event in the subducting Cocos plate offshore El Salvador. Coseismic displacements of up to 15 mm were measured at permanent GPS stations in Central America. The GPS data were used to constrain the location of and slip on the normal fault. One month later a MW 6.6 strike-slip earthquake occurred in the overriding Caribbean plate. Coulomb stress changes estimated from the M W 7.7 earthquake suggest that it triggered the MW 6.6 earthquake. Coseismic displacement from the MW 6.6 earthquake, about 40 mm at a GPS station in El Salvador, indicates that the earthquake triggered additional slip on a fault close to the GPS station. The MW 6.6 earthquake further changed the stress field in the overriding Caribbean plate, with triggered seismic activity occurring west and possibly also to the east of the rupture in the days to months following the earthquake. The MW 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake ruptured three faults in the interior of Alaska. It initiated with a thrust motion on the Susitna Glacier fault but then ruptured the Denali and Totschunda faults with predominantly right-lateral strike-slip motion unilaterally from west to east. GPS data measured in the two weeks following the earthquake suggest a complex coseismic rupture along the faults with two main regions of moment release along the Denali fault. A large amount of additional data were collected in the year following the earthquake which greatly improved the resolution on the fault, revealing more details of the slip distribution. We estimate a total moment release of 6.81 x 1020 Nm in the earthquake with a M W 7.2 thrust subevent on Susitna Glacier fault. The slip on the Denali fault is highly variable, with 4 main pulses of moment release. The largest moment pulse corresponds to a MW 7.5 subevent, about 40 km west of the Denali

  2. Capital social y desarrollo económico. Los casos de Silicon Valley y Villa El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Galaso Reca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a las relaciones existentes entre el capital social y el desarrollo económico. Para ello, en primer lugar presenta un marco teórico que muestra la evolución del concepto de capital social, su clasificación, medición y algunas aplicaciones prácticas. Posteriormente, explica teóricamente los efectos del capital social en el desarrollo económico. Finalmente, analiza dos experiencias de desarrollo económico altamente vinculadas con el concepto de capital social: los casos de Silicon Valley y Villa El Salvador.

  3. Potabilización de Agua de Río en Zonas Rurales y Semi-Urbanas de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Maffet Herrera, Macarena

    2007-01-01

    El presente estudio esta enmarcado dentro de El Plan Director de Abastecimiento y Saneamiento de Aguas en Zonas Rurales en el sur de la Libertad, realizado conjuntamente, desde el 2001, por la Asociación Catalana de Ingeniería Sin Fronteras, Asociación Comunitaria Unida por el Agua y la Agricultura ACUA y otras instituciones salvadoreñas. A raíz del estudio realizado por Plan Director se detecta la necesidad de dar una nueva alternativa de abastecimiento a un conjunto de comuni...

  4. Museums, Memory, and the Just Nation in Post-Civil War El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin DeLugan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 El Salvador ended a 12-year civil war infamous in part for the high level of state violence against innocent civilians. A United Nations Truth Commission report, which detailed these and other excesses, recommended that state and society commemorate the war and its violence to advance the establishment of a more just nation. The postwar government did construct an impressive new National Museum of Anthropology to actively promote national culture, history, and identity. However, this important museum remains silent about the civil war. In contrast, new public—though not official - museums and monuments are finally bringing attention to the civil war and past state violence. This paper explores the social memory work of non-official museums, arguing that by combating silence and forgetting, their truth-telling aims to shape ideas about the nation and improve state-society dynamics.

  5. Leadership in nonprofit organizations of Nicaragua and El Salvador: a study from the social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.

  6. Immunization campaigns and political agendas: retrospective from Ecuador and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyd, Stephen; Suarez Torres, Jose; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2003-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s international donors have promoted vertical, campaign-based strategies to help improve immunization coverage in poor countries. National immunization days (NIDs) are currently in vogue and are prominent in the worldwide polio eradication efforts. In spite of their widespread use, campaigns that include NIDs have not been well evaluated for their effects on coverage, reduction in vaccine-preventable diseases, or effects on the health system. An assessment of the results of two such campaigns implemented in Ecuador and El Salvador shows limited impact on short-term coverage and questionable effects on long-term coverage and disease incidence. Although NIDs may have substantial short-term political benefits, the vertical approach can undermine provision of routine services by ministries of health and may be counterproductive in the long-term.

  7. Community resources support adherence to treatment for childhood cancer in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Nuria; Salaverria, Carmen; Hernandez, Angelica; Alabi, Soad; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G; Ribeiro, Raul; Reis, Ria

    2018-01-01

    In order to reduce nonadherence and treatment abandonment of children with cancer in El Salvador, institutions located nearby the patients' homes were involved to provide support. Methodological approach: Health clinics and municipality offices in the patients' communities were asked to assist families who were not promptly located after missing hospital appointments, or those whose financial limitations were likely to impede continuation of treatment. Data was collected about the number of contacted institutions, the nature of help provided, staff's time investments, and parents' perceptions about the intervention. Local institutions (133 from 206 contacts) conducted home visits (83), and/or provided parents with money (55) or transportation (60). Parents found this support essential for continuing the treatment but they also encountered challenges regarding local institutions' inconsistencies. Nonadherence and abandonment decreased. Economic burden was reduced on both the families and the hospital. Involvement of external institutions might become regular practice to support families of children with cancer.

  8. Pre-Columbian estucado pottery from El Salvador: A multi-technique investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Pottery is one of the main productions of the pre-Columbian cultures in the Mesoamerican area. Among the others, the estucado pottery represents a very particular type of ceramic, widespread in Maya territory but still never investigated systematically. The peculiarity of this ceramic lies in the unusual application of the color decoration and in the excellent conservation conditions. Seventeen ceramic fragments from El Salvador have been analysed by Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and XRPD, both as fragments and in cross-sections, in order to investigate the manufacturing technique and to understand the good and unexpected conservation state. In both cases, the presence and the chemical nature of a thin white layer (engobe) between the ceramic bulk and the colored decorations seems to be determinant.

  9. Pre-Columbian estucado pottery from El Salvador: A multi-technique investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Pottery is one of the main productions of the pre-Columbian cultures in the Mesoamerican area. Among the others, the estucado pottery represents a very particular type of ceramic, widespread in Maya territory but still never investigated systematically. The peculiarity of this ceramic lies in the unusual application of the color decoration and in the excellent conservation conditions. Seventeen ceramic fragments from El Salvador have been analysed by Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and XRPD, both as fragments and in cross-sections, in order to investigate the manufacturing technique and to understand the good and unexpected conservation state. In both cases, the presence and the chemical nature of a thin white layer (engobe) between the ceramic bulk and the colored decorations seems to be determinant.

  10. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  11. El Salvador, 1983: Marianela Garcia Villas n. 43.337 nell’elenco delle vittime civili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Forneris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a specific case study of “a human rights woman activist” in El Salvador during the last authoritarian government (1976-1992: the lawyer Marianela García Villas. Marianela’s history, as human rights (HRs activist, raises a fundamental question on how a woman could relate with a death scenario and a death context in her HRs political care. In her activity of reconstruction of death bodies of people who did not even have the dignity of death, Marianela has always worked with a HRs approach and for the positive statement of the right to life “as right of piece of bread, a roof and a book”, and so anticipating the HRs interdependence and interconnection interpretation. Her potential motherhood, as a woman, was projected over a private sphere towards the promotion of social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

  12. El Salvador, 1983: Marianela Garcia Villas n. 43.337 nell’elenco delle vittime civili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Forneris

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a specific case study of “a human rights woman activist” in El Salvador during the last authoritarian government (1976-1992: the lawyer Marianela García Villas. Marianela’s history, as human rights (HRs activist, raises a fundamental question on how a woman could relate with a death scenario and a death context in her HRs political care. In her activity of reconstruction of death bodies of people who did not even have the dignity of death, Marianela has always worked with a HRs approach and for the positive statement of the right to life “as right of piece of bread, a roof and a book”, and so anticipating the HRs interdependence and interconnection interpretation. Her potential motherhood, as a woman, was projected over a private sphere towards the promotion of social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

  13. Susceptibility assessment of earthquake-triggered landslides in El Salvador using logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M. J.; Malpica, J. A.; Benito, B.; Díaz, M.

    2008-03-01

    This work has evaluated the probability of earthquake-triggered landslide occurrence in the whole of El Salvador, with a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a logistic regression model. Slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness are the predictor variables used to determine the dependent variable of occurrence or non-occurrence of landslides within an individual grid cell. The results illustrate the importance of terrain roughness and soil type as key factors within the model — using only these two variables the analysis returned a significance level of 89.4%. The results obtained from the model within the GIS were then used to produce a map of relative landslide susceptibility.

  14. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  15. Geostatistical Spatio-Time model of crime in el Salvador: Structural and Predictive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welman Rosa Alvarado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, to study a geospatial and spatio-temporal phenomena requires searching statistical tools that enable the analysis of the dependency of space, time and interactions. The science that studies this kind of subjects is the Geoestatics which the goal is to predict spatial phenomenon. This science is considered the base for modeling phenomena that involves interactions between space and time. In the past 10 years, the Geostatistic had seen a great development in areas like the geology, soils, remote sensing, epidemiology, agriculture, ecology, economy, etc. In this research, the geostatistic had been apply to build a predictive map about crime in El Salvador; for that the variability of space and time together is studied to generate crime scenarios: crime hot spots are determined, crime vulnerable groups are identified, to improve political decisions and facilitate to decision makers about the insecurity in the country.

  16. Prevalence of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in El Salvador in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Trujillo, Zulma; Colorado, Ana Verónica; Magaña Mercado, Salvador; Henríquez, Carlos Atilio

    El Salvador has the highest renal failure mortality rate in the Americas. Five healthcare providers offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the country. The national RRT prevalence has never been reported. To determine the RRT prevalence in El Salvador and some basic characteristics. The association of nephrology coordinated a nationwide cross-sectional survey during the third quarter of 2014. 31 renal centres participated in the survey, covering 99.5% of patients. National RRT prevalence: 595 per million population (pmp), N=3807, average age 50.4 years, 67.5% male. By modality: peritoneal dialysis (PD) 289 pmp, haemodialysis (HD) 233 pmp, with functioning kidney transplantation 74 pmp (living donor only). Social security covers 25% of the population but treats 49.7% of RRT patients. Generally, higher prevalence was observed in municipalities with renal centres or located on the coast or lowlands. Ninety-five percent of HD patients receive fewer than 3 weekly sessions. Of PD patients, 59% do not belong to a continuous outpatient or automated programme, and 25% still use rigid catheter. Aetiology of chronic kidney disease: unavailable/undetermined 50%, hypertension 21.1%, diabetes 18.9%, glomerulonephritis 6.7%, obstructive causes 1.2%, tubulointerstitial 0.9%, polycystic 0.4% and other 0.7%. Despite the increase in RRT services, the prevalence is lower than the Latin American average (660 pmp). Three quarters of HD and PD patients are under-dialysed. Obsolete RRT techniques are still used. The presence of Mesoamerican nephropathy influences the demographic characteristics (many young patients, two-thirds male, high prevalence in lowlands and coastlands). Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of outcome and methodological issues in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Miguel; Gupta, Sumit; Vasquez, Roberto; Fuentes, Soad L; deReyes, Gladis; Ribeiro, Raul; Sung, Lillian

    2010-12-01

    Most children with cancer live in low-income countries (LICs) where risk factors in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) developed in high-income countries may not apply. We describe predictors of survival for children in El Salvador with ALL. We included patients El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras II protocol. Demographic, disease-related, socioeconomic and nutritional variables were examined as potential predictors of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). 260/443 patients (58.7%) were classified as standard risk. Standard- and high-risk 5-year EFS were 56.3 ± 4.5% and 48.6 ± 5.5%; 5-year OS were 77.7 ± 3.8% and 61.9 ± 5.8%, respectively. Among standard-risk children, socioeconomic variables such as higher monthly income (hazard ratio [HR] per $100 = 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.99; P=0.04]) and parental secondary education (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.84; P = 0.01) were associated with better EFS. Among high-risk children, higher initial white blood cell (HR per 10×10(9)/L = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05; P<0.001) predicted worse EFS; socioeconomic variables were not predictive. The difference in EFS and OS appeared related to overestimating OS secondary to poor follow-up after abandonment/relapse. Socioeconomic variables predicted worse EFS in standard-risk children while disease-related variables were predictive in high-risk patients. Further studies should delineate pathways through which socioeconomic status affects EFS in order to design effective interventions. EFS should be the primary outcome in LIC studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluación de la resistencia a insecticidas de una cepa de Aedes aegypti de El Salvador Assessing the insecticide resistance of an Aedes aegypti strain in El Salvador

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    Juan A. Bisset Lazcano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el nivel de susceptibilidad a insecticidas de una cepa de Aedes aegypti procedente de El Salvador y describir los posibles mecanismos de resistencia al temefós. MÉTODOS: Se evaluó una cepa de A. aegypti procedente del municipio de Soyapango, departamento de San Salvador, El Salvador. Mediante bioensayos se determinó la susceptibilidad de las larvas al insecticida organofosforado temefós y a tres piretroides (deltametrina, lambdacialotrina y cipermetrina y de los adultos a un insecticida organofosforado (clorpirifós. Se determinó el factor de resistencia (FR50 con respecto a una cepa sensible de referencia (Rockefeller. Se estableció el mecanismo de resistencia al temefós mediante el empleo de sustancias sinergistas, ensayos bioquímicos de actividad enzimática y zimogramas en gel de poliacrilamida. RESULTADOS: Las larvas de la cepa estudiada mostraron una alta resistencia al temefós (FR50 = 24,16. De las enzimas analizadas, se encontró que solo la esterasa A4 estaba vinculada al mecanismo de resistencia al temefós. Los mosquitos adultos resultaron susceptibles a la lambdacialotrina y al clorpirifós y su resistencia a la deltametrina y la cipermetrina quedó en la categoría de verificación. CONCLUSIONES: La resistencia al temefós podría reducir la eficacia del control químico del mosquito A. aegypti en la zona estudiada de El Salvador. Los insecticidas clorpirifós, lambdacialotrina y cipermetrina son buenos candidatos alternativos a utilizar en las nuevas intervenciones de control de este vector.OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of insecticide susceptibility of a certain Aedes aegypti strain found in El Salvador and to explain the mechanisms for its resistance to temephos. METHODS: An A. aegypti strain from the municipality of Soyapango, Department of San Salvador, El Salvador, was studied. Bioassays were used to determine the susceptibility of the larvae to the organophosphate insecticide temephos and to

  19. Geological and Seismological Analysis of the 13 February 2001 Mw 6.6 El Salvador Earthquake: Evidence for Surface Rupture and Implications for Seismic Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Canora Catalán, Carolina; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Villamor Pérez, María Pilar; Berryman, K.R.; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Pullinger, Carlos; Capote del Villar, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    The El Salvador earthquake of 13 February 2001 (Mw 6.6) caused tectonic rupture on the El Salvador fault zone (ESFZ). Right-lateral strike-slip surface rupture of the east–west trending fault zone had a maximum surface displacement of 0.60 m. No vertical component was observed. The earthquake resulted in widespread landslides in the epicentral area, where bedrock is composed of volcanic sediments, tephra, and weak ignimbrites. In the aftermath of the earthquake, widespread dama...

  20. El trabajo de la memoria en Centroamérica : Cinco propuestas heurísticas en torno a las guerras en El Salvador, Guatemala y Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenkels, Ralph|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250199777

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a comparative exploration of contemporary memory work related to the  wars of the second half of the twentieth century in three  Central American countries: El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. It identifies five different heuristic proposals forwarded the explain the

  1. Comportamiento de variedades de Chile dulce (capsicum annum en la región occidental de el Salvador

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    Lesser Linares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicun annum en la región occidental de El Salvador. Con el objetivo de seleccionar material vegetativo adaptable a las diferentes condiciones agroecológicas de El Salvador, se implementó una investigación de seis variedades de chile dulce. Los ensayos se realizaron en Candelaria de la Frontera, Atiquizaya y Chalchuapa en el año 2002. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones y seis tratamientos, conformados por los variedades Nathalie, Comandante, Lido, Tikal, Quetzal y una variedad Criolla. Hubo diferencias significativas al 1 % de probabilidad para las variables de altura de planta, largo, peso, diámetro, numero de frutos y rendimiento, en el combinado de las tres localidades. El material Nathalie, sobresalió en las variables altura de planta (0,49 m, número de frutos (259.500 frutos/ha, y rendimiento (25,11 t/ha, y como consecuencia reportó el mejor ingreso ($ 19.332,80 y la mejor relación beneficio costo (3,31. La duración de anaquel varió entre seis y nueve días con respecto a los diferentes materiales de chile dulce. Los resultados obtenidos podrían crear la base para validar el cultivar Nathalie en las zonas de influencia.

  2. Study of the evolution of the seismic cycle of stress and strain associated to the El Salvador Fault Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Staller Vázquez, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    • Central America: – Regional studies in Central America (Seismic Hazard). – El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). – Aguacaliente‐Navarro Fault Zone (ANFZ), Central Valley of Costa Rica. – Haiti (seismic hazard) • Spain: – Regional‐Nacional studies of seismic hazards (applications to building codes, eurocode, emergency plans, etc.) – Betic range zone, south of Spain. – Ibero‐Maghrebi region (collision zone)

  3. Observations and recommendations regarding landslide hazards related to the January 13, 2001 M-7.6 El Salvador earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Randall W.; Crone, Anthony J.

    2001-01-01

    The January 13, 2001 earthquake (M-7.6) off the coast of El Salvador triggered widespread damaging landslides in many parts of the El Salvador. In the aftermath of the earthquake, the Salvadoran government requested technical assistance through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID); USAID, in turn, requested help from technical experts in landslide hazards from the U.S. Geological Survey. In response to that request, we arrived in El Salvador on January 31, 2001 and worked with USAID personnel and Salvadoran agency counterparts in visiting landslide sites and evaluating present and potential hazards. A preliminary, unofficial report was prepared at the end of our trip (February 9) to provide immediate information and assistance to interested agencies and parties. The current report is an updated and somewhat expanded version of that unofficial report. Because of the brief nature of this report, conclusions and recommendations contained herein should be considered tentative and may be revised in the future.

  4. Tsunami evacuation analysis, modelling and planning: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Aniel-Quiroga, Iñigo; Abad Herrero, Sheila; González Rodriguez, Mauricio; Larreynaga, Jeniffer; Gavidia, Francisco; Quetzalcoalt Gutiérrez, Omar; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose Antonio; Medina Santamaría, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan. The framework has been applied to the El Salvador case study through the project "Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador", funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, demonstrating its applicability to site-specific response times and population characteristics.

  5. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Anna; Guisasola, Laura; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leasher, Janet L; Moriña, David; Villalobos, Astrid; Lansingh, Van C; Mujica, Oscar J; Rivera-Handal, José Eduardo; Silva, Juan Casrlos

    2014-11-01

    To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined) ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE), was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and stratified by sex. Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6) for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1); women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5)) and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0) for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1); women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8)). The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR) was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4) for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4) for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1) in cataract in unemployed men. Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place, particularly among women, the unemployed, and

  6. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status

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    Anna Rius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. METHODS: Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE, was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6 for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1; women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5 and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0 for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1; women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8. The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4 for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4 for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1 in cataract in unemployed men. CONCLUSIONS: Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place

  7. Scale-Up of an Human Papillomavirus Testing Implementation Program in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Morales Velado, Mario; Felix, Juan; Castle, Philip E.; Kim, Jane; Gage, Julia C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador is a demonstration project to introduce a lower-cost human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA test into a public sector project. Started in October 2012, The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador consists of 3 phases and will ultimately screen 30,000 women. Results of phase 2 of the project are presented. The objective of this project was to compare colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management for HPV-positive women. Material and Methods In phase 2, a total of 8,050 women, aged 30 to 49 years, were screened; 6,761 provided both self- and provider-collected specimens and 1,289 provided only provider-testing specimens. HPV results from self-collected specimens were not used in clinical management decisions. Women with provider-collected HPV-positive results were treated based on the strategy assigned to their community; the strategy was colposcopy management (CM) or screen-and-treat (ST) management if they were cryotherapy eligible or colposcopy if not eligible. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after screening. Results Overall, 489 (12.3%) of 3,963 women receiving CM and 465 (11.4%) of 4,087 women receiving ST tested HPV positive. In the CM cohort, 216 (44.2%) of 489 completed their intervention (203 treated, 11 diagnosed negative, 2 pregnant). In the ST cohort, 411 (88.4%) of 465 completed their intervention (407 treated, 2 diagnosed negative, 1 pregnant). Overall agreement between HPV test results from self-collected and provider-collected specimens was 93.7%, with a κ value of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68–0.73). Conclusions Human papillomavirus testing with ST management resulted in an approximately twice completion rate compared with CM management. Agreement between self- and provider-based sampling was good and might be used to extend screening to women in areas that are more difficult to reach. PMID:27922905

  8. An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzadeh, Baharak; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barker, Judith C

    2015-05-30

    Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisements recorded a convenience sample of 100 advertisements, including 53 from rural areas and 47 from urban areas in El Salvador. Advertisements were coded for location, type of product, visual details, placement and context. Qualitative methods were used to identify common themes used to appeal to consumers. Advertisements depicted "modern" fast foods, processed snacks and sugary beverages. Overall, the most prominent themes were: Cheap Price, Fast, Large Size, and Modern. Other themes used frequently in combination with these were Refreshment, Sports/Nationalism, Sex and Gender Roles, Fun/Happy Feelings, Family, Friendship and Community, and Health. In rural areas, beverage and snack food ads with the themes of cheap price, fast, and large size tended to predominate; in urban areas, ads for fast food restaurants and the theme of modernity tended to be more prominent. The advertisements represented a pervasive bombardment of the public with both explicit and subliminal messages to increase consumerism and shift dietary patterns to processed foods and beverages that are low in micronutrients and high in carbohydrates, sugar, fat and salt--dietary changes that are increasing rates of child and adult diseases including tooth decay, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Global food and beverage industries must be held accountable for the adverse public health effects of their products, especially in low-middle income countries where there are fewer resources to prevent and treat the health

  9. Sistemas de salud mental en El Salvador, Guatemala y Nicaragua: resultados de una evaluación mediante el WHO-AIMS Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Jacinto Rodríguez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Los autores realizaron una evaluación de los sistemas de salud mental en El Salvador, Guatemala y Nicaragua, por medio de un grupo de indicadores seleccionados. Para recopilar la información en los países se utilizó el Instrumento de Evaluación para Sistemas de Salud Mental de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (WHO-AIMS, por su sigla en inglés. Nicaragua, Guatemala y El Salvador tienen serias limitaciones en sus sistemas nacionales de salud mental, en especial en la atención primaria, así como una marcada insuficiencia de recursos humanos calificados. El presupuesto dedicado a la salud mental apenas representa 1% del presupuesto general de salud y los hospitales psiquiátricos situados en la capital de los países consumen más de 90% de los fondos de salud mental. Los limitados recursos (materiales y humanos existentes se concentran en las respectivas capitales de los países. No se han formulado políticas ni legislaciones nacionales de salud mental. Sin embargo, las tres naciones cuentan con planes nacionales en ejecución. Asimismo, se ha avanzado en el diseño e implementación de programas de protección de la salud mental en situaciones de desastre. Es necesario establecer acuerdos con las procuradurías de los derechos humanos para incrementar la vigilancia y protección de los derechos humanos en las personas afectadas por enfermedades mentales. En los últimos años se han logrado impulsar algunas experiencias innovadoras que requieren ser generalizadas. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS/OMS y el proyecto WHO-AIMS han contribuido al desarrollo de modelos comunitarios de servicios de salud mental. También se identificaron prioridades y se plantean recomendaciones para la acción.The authors evaluated the mental health systems of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, using a group of select indicators. The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS was used to collect

  10. Assessment of earthquake-induced landslides hazard in El Salvador after the 2001 earthquakes using macroseismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Ángel Hernández, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Two strong earthquakes and a number of smaller aftershocks struck El Salvador in the year 2001. The January 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 7.7, occurred along the Cocos plate, 40 km off El Salvador southern coast. It resulted in about 1300 deaths and widespread damage, mainly due to massive landsliding. Two of the largest earthquake-induced landslides, Las Barioleras and Las Colinas (about 2x105 m3) produced major damage to buildings and infrastructures and 500 fatalities. A neighborhood in Santa Tecla, west of San Salvador, was destroyed. The February 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred 40 km east-southeast of San Salvador. This earthquake caused over 300 fatalities and triggered several landslides over an area of 2,500 km2 mostly in poorly consolidated volcaniclastic deposits. The La Leona landslide (5-7x105 m3) caused 12 fatalities and extensive damage to the Panamerican Highway. Two very large landslides of 1.5 km3 and 12 km3 produced hazardous barrier lakes at Rio El Desague and Rio Jiboa, respectively. More than 16.000 landslides occurred throughout the country after both quakes; most of them occurred in pyroclastic deposits, with a volume less than 1x103m3. The present work aims to define the relationship between the above described earthquake intensity, size and areal distribution of induced landslides, as well as to refine the earthquake intensity in sparsely populated zones by using landslide effects. Landslides triggered by the 2001 seismic sequences provided useful indication for a realistic seismic hazard assessment, providing a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides.

  11. Nefropatía terminal en pacientes de un hospital de referencia en El Salvador

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    Ramón García Trabanino

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. El Salvador es un país con alta mortalidad por nefropatía terminal (NT. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en conocer las características epidemiológicas de una serie de nuevos casos de NT atendidos en un hospital de referencia de este país. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal de todos los nuevos casos que iniciaron diálisis crónica entre noviembre de 1999 y marzo de 2000. Mediante una entrevista personal se obtuvieron datos sobre aspectos clínicos, demográficos, laborales y ambientales. Resultados. Durante los 5 meses que duró el estudio se observaron 205 nuevos casos de NT. Entre los 202 entrevistados, se diferenciaron claramente dos grupos: uno de 67 pacientes (33% con factores de riesgo conocidos de NT, similares a los de países desarrollados (fundamentalmente, diabetes mellitus, hipertensión arterial y consumo crónico de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, y otro de 135 pacientes (67% con características peculiares, en los que no se pudo detectar ningún factor asociado. La mayoría de estos últimos pacientes eran hombres, agricultores, habitantes de zonas costeras o adyacentes a ríos, que años atrás habían estado expuestos, sin protección, a insecticidas o plaguicidas agrícolas por razones laborales. Conclusiones. Se ha identificado un importante grupo de pacientes con NT que aparentemente carecen de una causa para su enfermedad y que presentan características peculiares que permiten sospechar una relación con la exposición laboral a insecticidas o plaguicidas. Son necesarios nuevos estudios para confirmar esta hipótesis.

  12. Poverty-associated risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life in Honduras and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, A; Figueroa, M; Cousin, L; Hoyos, W; Martínez-Torres, A E; Mallol, J; Garcia-Marcos, L

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for wheezing specifically during the first year of life have been studied in well-developed countries, but the information from developing countries is very scarce. There are no such studies focusing on factors derived from poverty. The aim of the present study was to determine if risk factors related to poverty are associated to wheezing during the first year of life in infants from Honduras and El Salvador. A survey, using a validated questionnaire, was carried out in the metropolitan area of San Pedro Sula (Honduras) and in La Libertad (El Salvador) in centres where infants attended for a scheduled vaccination shot or a healthy child visit at 12 months of age. Fieldworkers offered questionnaires to parents and helped the illiterate when necessary. The main outcome variable was wheezing during the first year of life, as reported by parents. A total of 1047 infants in El Salvador and 780 in Honduras were included in the analysis. The prevalence of wheeze in the first year was higher in El Salvador (41.2%) than in Honduras (27.7%), as was recurrent wheezing defined as three or more episodes (18.4% vs. 11.7%). Wheezing and recurrent wheezing was associated to unpaved floor in the household (summary odds ratios for both countries 1.55, p=0.036 and 1.72, p=0.054 for any wheeze and recurrent wheezing, respectively); dust entering from streets (1.30, p=0.052 and 1.67, p=0.008); living in a heavily polluted area (1.33, p=0.037 and 1.52, p=0.033); and having mould stains on the household walls (1.36, p=0.072 and 1.76, p=0.007). Furthermore, marginal associations were found for additional person at home and use of kerosene as cooking fuel. University studies in the mother (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.32, p=0.022) and a professional occupation in the father (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.26, p=0.047) were associated to a lower risk. The prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing is notoriously high in El Salvador and Honduras. In those populations factors related to poverty

  13. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; hide

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  14. El Salvador, acceso ciudadano directo a las Elecciones Legislativas y de Concejos Municipales, 11 marzo del 2012: una experiencia desde la observación electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Fournier Facio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Perspectiva de la experiencia como observador electoral internacional en las elecciones de medio período de El Salvador, para los puestos de elección popular de la Asamblea Legislativa y de miembros de Concejos Municipales. Inicia con una comparación de los fundamentos normativos y constitucionales del sistema electoral de Costa Rica y el Salvador, para continuar con la descripción de las novedades implementadas en el proceso. Finaliza con un informe sobre el proceso de observación, los pro y contra detectados durante la jornada electoral.

  15. Uso de drogas en estudiantes de una universidad de El Salvador y su relación con el maltrato durante la niñez

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    Cristina de Amaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación entre el uso y abuso de drogas y maltrato durante la niñez en estudiantes de una universidad de la ciudad de San Salvador, El Salvador. La investigación fue exploratoria, con un diseño transversal, siendo la muestra de 272 estudiantes. Como resultado se obtuvo que el 43% (118 de los estudiantes afirmaron haber consumido drogas alguna vez en su vida; las drogas de mayor consumo en los últimos 12 meses fueron el alcohol, el cannabis y el tabaco, con prevalencias del 14% (38, 9.3% (26 y 7% (19 respectivamente. El abuso físico y el abuso verbal fueron los dos tipos de maltrato más frecuentes; el tener amigos que consuman drogas es un factor de riesgo. Adicionalmente existe una relación directa y significativa (< 0.005 entre el uso y abuso de drogas y maltrato físico durante la niñez.

  16. Bringing solar home systems to rural El Salvador: lessons for small NGOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of case studies examining two independent projects that worked to bring solar home systems (SHSs) to isolated communities in El Salvador. Both projects were implemented by small nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that did not have prior experience with SHSs. One project was market-based: families were given the opportunity to purchase the systems at going prices. The other was donor-based: residents were provided the equipment in return for their agreement to cooperate in local environmental protection efforts. Results of a comparative analysis support several conclusions. (1) For small NGOs, the promotion of markets is appealing because of the potential for financial sustainability; yet a reliance on markets may also heighten complexity and increase opportunities for failure. (2) In implementation of market-based projects, all stakeholders, including potential consumers, private-sector service providers, and the staff of NGOs acting as project managers, will face pressures to modify and adapt their attitudes and behaviors. (3) Alternative models for small-scale projects that integrate market-based and donor-based design features deserve consideration

  17. What is needed to improve food sales in schools?Food vendors’ opinion from El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHilari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Latin America and the Caribbean are at the forefront of the double burden of malnourishment, with rocketing rates of overweight, obesity and stagnant prevalence of stunting in many countries. School children are at a crucial age for setting eating habits, physical activity, nutritional status and long term outcomes both in their health as well as their education and economic productivity. Save the Children International implements a school health and nutrition program in 45 rural schools in El Salvador, Central America. The program aims at increasing the consumption of protein and micronutrients while reducing intake of sugar and fats in school children. In addition, there is great emphasis on food hygiene and safe handling, through training of the food vendors. We developed a conceptual framework for school nutrition programs that is phrased around five different moments: school snacks, school stores, nutrition learning, bringing food to school and eating at home. Monitoring and control lies in the hands of student brigades, which fosters child participation. We present findings of a qualitative evaluation on sale regulation in school food stores, documenting additional interventions that were needed to foster compliance. We explore how vendors are making money on healthy food if head teachers and parents are involved in regulating food stores and children are motivated to cherish fruits and vegetables. Based on these findings, we discuss a model of an enabling environment for healthy food at school.

  18. Cervical cancer screening and treatment training course in El Salvador: experience and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masch, Rachel; Ditzian, Lauren R; April, Ayana K; Maza, Mauricio; Peralta, Ethel; Cremer, Miriam L

    2011-09-01

    Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, low-cost alternative to traditional Pap smears that could greatly benefit the amount of screening and treatment available in low-resource areas, such as rural El Salvador. The objective of this study was to train Salvadoran health providers in VIA and cryotherapy using a week-long competency course. Health providers participated in the VIA training course, which consisted of 1 half-day of didactics, followed by 4 and 1 half days of clinical training. Pretests and posttests were administered. A 1-day didactic refresher course was administered to assess the quality of services being provided. Sixty-eight nurses and physicians completed the training course. Each trainee screened approximately 120 women and performed, on average, seven cryotherapy treatments. The average trainee improved his or her score by 15% on the theoretical test and 16.7% on the image test. At the completion of the 1-day refresher, average test scores were the highest among all the courses. The final assessment was based on 41 providers. The course proved a successful tool for training healthcare providers in methods of cervical cancer screening and treatment. The course is replicable in other low-resource settings in different countries. It also provided trainees with the opportunity to adapt their clinical skills in their realistic work setting.

  19. Risk factors for Chagas disease among pregnant women in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Corado, Edith Y; Cuyuch, Blanca L; Hernández, Marta A; Guevara, Ana V; Romero, José E; Ramos, Hector M; Cedillos, Rafael A; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women and estimate the risk factors for Chagas disease during pregnancies. Community-based serological tests on Trypanosoma cruzi and structured interviews on socio-demographic and socio-economic status were conducted with pregnant women registered at three health centres in Sonsonate province, El Salvador. Of 797 pregnant women participating in the study, 29 (3.6%) were infected with Chagas disease. None had clinical symptoms. The results of bivariate analyses showed the significant association between seropositivity and maternal age ≥35 years, anaemia, illiteracy, having no formal school education and having knowledge on Chagas disease (P < 0.05). The results of multivariate analysis indicate that age ≥35 years and anaemia were significantly associated with being infected with Chagas disease among pregnant women (OR = 3.541 and 5.197, respectively). We recommend that the national Chagas disease control programme be better coordinated with the national maternal and child health programme to introduce blood screening for T. cruzi during antenatal visits. If financial constraint allows systematic blood screening to be only partially implemented, resources should be focused on pregnant women ≥35 years and women who have anaemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The smectite to chlorite transition in the Chipilapa geothermal system, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D. [Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Santana de Zamora, A. [Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (El Salvador)

    1999-04-01

    Clay mineralogical, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe studies have been carried out on separated <2 {micro}m fractions from cutting and core material from three wells in the Chipilapa geothermal system in El Salvador. The data indicate that the smectite to chlorite transition is prevalent, but a secondary smectite to illite transition is also present. At depths approximately <750 m, smectite with very minor chlorite mixed-layers (approximately <15%) is dominant, and has a composition midway between a di- and tri-smectite. At {approximately}750 m there is a very clear distinction and sharp transition into discrete chlorite with very minor smectite mixed-layers (approximately <10%). Corrensite is recorded only as a rare and minor phase. Smectite occurs in abundance at temperatures up to {approximately}200 C, and the transition from a smectite-dominant to chlorite-dominant assemblage takes place over a narrow temperature range ({approximately}150 to 200 C). The stability range of smectite is very similar to that recorded in other geothermal systems, whereas the smectite to chlorite transition differs greatly from that recorded in other systems. The transition does not involve continuous chlorite/smectite mixed-layering but a marked step: It is the sharpest and most discontinuous stepped sequence of this mineralogical transition recorded.

  1. Conservación y recuperación de la tortuga Carey (eretmochelys imbricata) del pacífico oriental, en el caso de El Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Jandres, Mauricio V.; Liles, Michael; Mariona, Georgina I.; Segovia, Johanna V.

    2008-01-01

    Las tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata) fueron en una época muy abundantes en el Pacífico Oriental (PO) pero en la actualidad es una de las poblaciones de tortugas marinas más amenazadas a nivel mundial. El Salvador es el país más pequeño de Centroamérica, y posee una alta densidad poblacional lo que ha llevado a la sobreexplotación de muchos de los recursos naturales del país, incluyendo a las especies de tortugas marinas. Donde se considera que aproximadamente el 99% de todos los huevos...

  2. Cibercrimen e informática forense: introducción y análisis en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Mata, César Eduardo; Regalado González, José Mauricio; Guadron, Ricardo Salvador

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo se explica la situación de cibercrimen e informática forense, la importancia e interés dado por los gobiernos alrededor del mundo a este tema y un breve análisis enfocado en El Salvador a raíz de las medidas que abarcan leyes y políticas públicas referentes a ello. Finalmente se emite una crítica y conclusiones acerca del curso de la ciberseguridad en el país.

  3. Construcción del Estado en El Salvador : burocracia profesional y gobernanza participativa en agencias independientes

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hernández, Gabriel Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [ES]En la búsqueda de un Estado más capaz y democrático, El Salvador ha realizado diversas reformas a la Administración Pública. Una de las transformaciones más importantes en las últimas décadas, ha sido la creación de numerosas agencias independientes ("Instituciones Oficiales Autónomas"), que han reorientado al Estado hacia una nueva gobernanza. No obstante su importancia y trascendencia, este fenómeno no había sido estudiado en el país. Así, esta tesis examina la construcción del Estado s...

  4. Integration of foreign and local medical staff in a disaster area: the Honduras and El Salvador experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Yehezkel

    2003-06-01

    International medical aid after natural disasters may take various forms, ranging from self-sufficient military forces to single experts or specialists who function primarily as advisers. A model integrating foreign and local medical staff has not previously been reported. In response to the call for international aid by the Honduran and El Salvadorian governments in the wake of Hurricane Mitch in November 1998 and the San Salvador earthquake in January 2001, Israel sent medical supplies and 10 member teams of medical professionals to each country. The aim of the present paper is to describe the unique Israeli approach to providing healthcare in disaster areas by integrating foreign and local medical staff, and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages. The paper focuses on the experience of the two emergency medicine physicians on the team who were assigned to the Atlantida General Hospital in La Ceiba, Honduras. The same team in San Salvador subsequently applied the same approach.

  5. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador Dimensiones del castigo infantil en dos países de América Central: Guatemala y El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilene S. Speizer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. METHODS: Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002 and El Salvador (2002-2003. The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. RESULTS: In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. CONCLUSIONS: The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.OBJETIVOS: El castigo físico severo de niños es un tema importante de la salud y el bienestar infantil en el mundo. En el presente estudio se analiza este tipo de castigo en Guatemala y El Salvador. MÉTODOS: Se tomaron los datos de encuestas representativas nacionales realizadas a mujeres de 14 a

  6. Percepción de salud y exposición a riesgos de trabajadores del sector comercio informal de Nicaragua y El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling Gutiérrez-López

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar la relación entre la percepción de salud y la exposición a riesgos ocupacionales de trabajadores del sector comercio de Nicaragua y El Salvador considerando los determinantes sociales. Se trabajó con un diseño de triangulación concurrente, combinando métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos. En El Salvador la percepción de salud es buena (70%) y en Nicaragua media (49%). A nivel cualitativo en ambos países la salud es vista desde un concepto económico, estrés y ausencia...

  7. Periodismo en El Salvador. El “refrito” o plagio en las salas de redacción de los medios informativos

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Alfredo Cantarero

    2004-01-01

    Los medios de comunicación en El Salvador, cuando producen la noticia y la distribuyen, utilizan información de fuentes documentales -escritas, audiovisuales o de internet-, suelen no citar las fuentes que han utilizado Sin duda, este mal no es exclusivo de los medios locales, se expresa internacionalmente. El problema, en el marco del desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías y los enormes volúmenes de información a los que se tiene acceso, se ha extendido y complicado todavía más. Por esto, en e...

  8. ¿Existe el 'sentido común' de una 'identidad colectiva'? Apuntes acerca de nociones ambiguas y aplicadas a Villa El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available PEUT-ON PARLER DE 'SENS COMMUN' D'UNE 'IDENTITE COLLECTIVE'?. QUELQUES REFLEXIONS AUTOUR DE NOTIONS AMBIGUËS APPLIQUEES A VILLA EL SALVADOR. Partant de l’hypothèse du rôle positif joué par le sentiment d’appartenance dans la mise en oeuvre d’actions collectives, l’article se propose de mettre en valeur les discours identitaires considérés ici comme un des facteurs pouvant le renfoncer. L’exemple qui sert de base à la démonstration est tiré d’une recherche sur Villa El Salvador, district populaire de la périphérie de Lima souvent cité en exemple dans de nombreux domaines (gestion municipale, associations de quartier, lutte contre la pauvreté et le terrorisme. En effet, l’importance peu commune accordée par certains discours (journalistiques, politiques, scientifiques le prenant pour objet conduit l’analyse à se porter sur la dimension symbolique de ce territoire urbain que l’histoire et la géographie seules ne sauraient expliquer. On tente ensuite de montrer ce qu’une stratégie de recherche peut espérer de la prise en compte des contextes dans lesquels elle est effectuée suivant en cela les apports de l’ethnologie du contemporain. Asumiendo la hipótesis del rol positivo del sentimiento de pertenencia para la realización de acciones colectivas, el artículo se propone enfocar las afirmaciones referidas a la identidad, consideradas aquí como un factor que lo determina. El ejemplo que sirve para la demostración proviene de una investigación sobre Villa El Salvador, barriada periférica de Lima citada muy a menudo como referencia en cuanto a gestión municipal, asociaciones de vecinos, lucha contra la pobreza y el terrorismo. En efecto, la importancia poco común otorgada por algunos discursos (periodísticos, políticos, científicos lleva el análisis hacia la dimensión simbólica que la geografía e historia no pueden explicar por sí solas. Posteriormente, se intenta demostrar lo que una estrategia de

  9. Sobre el angel t-101, el exterminador t-1000, el salvador, la mujer y el dragon de celuloide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Marín C.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre una de las películas preferidas por el público receptor de cine de Bogotá, el ensayo que sigue es un ejemplo del análisis semiotextual que intenta integrar los componentes cinematográficos, de representación, las estructuras narrativas y de comunicación presentes en el film. Su propósito es descubrir una matriz de lectura como universo o eje de sentido -en este caso denominada apocalíptica/tecnológica- y acercarse al mundo simbólico-imaginario allí objetivado, para realizar una caracterización del espectador «previsto por la película».

  10. Childhood cancer in El Salvador: A preliminary exploration of parental concerns in the abandonment of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy--a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents perceived their child's cancer and treatment, and what led them to stop bringing their child for chemotherapy. In in-depth interviews, parents of six children who abandoned their child's cancer treatment discussed sickness and life circumstances during the course of treatment. Poverty, effects of treatment, mistrust, emotions and religious convictions all figured in the parents' explanation of their actions. However, each family weighed these concerns differently. It was the interaction of the concerns, and not the concern per se, that represented the explanatory frameworks the families used to explain stopping their child's treatment. This finding illustrates the parents' navigation among a collection of variable concerns, rather than exposing one fixed cause for their behavior. For example, poverty affects a parent's worldview as well as concrete living conditions, and therefore has a complex relationship with abandonment of treatment. Thus, it follows that strategies to reduce treatment abandonment (and increase a child's chance for survival) must be multidimensional. Qualitative studies of how families perceive childhood cancer and treatment can illuminate the processes and relationships involved in abandonment of treatment. This approach can also show how families' living circumstances frame their perceptions and inform strategies to improve how medical services are provided, thus reducing abandonment of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interventions targeting absences increase adherence and reduce abandonment of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaverria, Carmen; Rossell, Nuria; Hernandez, Angelica; Fuentes Alabi, Soad; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G; Ribeiro, Raul C

    2015-09-01

    In El Salvador, about 200 new cases of pediatric cancer are diagnosed each year, and survival rates approach 70%. Although treatment is available at no cost, abandonment of therapy has remained at a steady yearly rate of 13% during the past decade. A time sensitive adherence tracking procedure (TS-ATP) was recently implemented to detect missed appointments, identify their causes, and intervene promptly. Procedure The study team was informed daily of patient/family failure to attend medical appointments in the pediatric oncology unit; the families were contacted and interviewed to ascertain and address the reasons. Patients who did not return after this initial contact were contacted again through local health clinics and municipalities. Law enforcement was a last resort for patients undergoing frontline treatment with a good prognosis., The system was adapted to clinical urgency: families of patients undergoing induction therapy were contacted within 24 hr, those in other therapy phases, within 48 hr, and those who had completed treatment, within one week. Reasons for absence were obtained by telephone or in person. The annual rate of abandonment was reduced from 13-3% during the 2 years period. There were 1,111 absences reported and 1,472 contacts with caregivers and institutions. The three main reasons for absences were financial needs (165, 23%), unforeseen barriers (116, 16%), and domestic needs (86, 12%). Use of the treatment adherence tracking system to locate and communicate with patients/families after missed appointments and the allocated aid stemming from these interviews substantially reduced abandonment and non-adherence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Health beliefs and practices in rural El Salvador: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Mary S; Roux, Gayle M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the health practices and lifeways of rural villagers in a remote area of El Salvador who had been displaced by the recent civil war. The purpose of the study was to explore their view on health and experiences of loss during the war. Ethnography (Spradley, 1980, 1999; Agar, 1996). The participants included any resident of three rural Salvadoran villages who were 18 years of age and over. Participants included nine families, with a total of twelve participants. Data collection included participant observation, audiotaped interviews, demographic information, and field notes. One of the Spanish-speaking key informants acted as the interpreter. The content of all data was analyzed for recurrent themes. All nine families were displaced to refugee camps in Honduras during the civil war. Two cultural themes that emerged from the data were: 1) War: "We lost everything; we had to leave running," and 2) Health: "It's in God's hands." It is a challenge to encourage culture-specific care that acknowledges Salvadoran herbal remedies, strength of spirit, and a belief that a Supreme Being controls their lives. The health practices of the participants were shaped by their experiences of suffering from loss of family members during the war, displacement from their homes, and lack of potable water and environmental sanitation. To make a positive impact and effect change on health services in these rural areas, efforts should be directed toward democratic and community-based social and economic development within the context of the cultural system. Recent earthquakes (2001) have intensified the need for improvement in environmental factors including potable water.

  13. Percepción de salud y exposición a riesgos de trabajadores del sector comercio informal de Nicaragua y El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyling Gutiérrez-López

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar la relación entre la percepción de salud y la exposición a riesgos ocupacionales de trabajadores del sector comercio de Nicaragua y El Salvador considerando los determinantes sociales. Se trabajó con un diseño de triangulación concurrente, combinando métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos. En El Salvador la percepción de salud es buena (70% y en Nicaragua media (49%. A nivel cualitativo en ambos países la salud es vista desde un concepto económico, estrés y ausencia de enfermedades. En Nicaragua las percepciones más altas de riesgos son atender varias tareas simultaneamente (59%, nivel de atención alto (57.5%, movimientos repetitivos (50%. En El Salvador, el nivel de atención alto (63%, el trabajo de pie (60%, atender varias tareas simultaneamente y esconder emociones en el trabajo (41% con movimientos repetitivos (40%. Cualitativamente se perciben riesgos de inseguridad ciudadana, accidentes y conflictos. En Nicaragua la edad, la pobreza y el no acceso al seguro social (P<.05 están asociados a mala salud, estar casado es un factor protector. En El Salvador sólo la edad y la iluminación están asociadas a mala salud, trabajar con plazos estrictos y cortos es un factor protector de salud. No se encontró relación entre la percepción de salud y la exposición a riesgos ocupacionales, por que los riesgos se perciben de manera diferente. Mientras en El Salvador hay una relación entre iluminación deficiente y mala salud; en Nicaragua, son determinantes sociales como pobreza y el no acceso a la seguridad social los que están fuertemente asociados a percibir una mala salud.

  14. La droga, el contexto y el Estado. Jóvenes de estratos sociales medios y altos y su consumo “recreativo” en tres municipios de El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rigoberto López Ramírez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia a los jóvenes de estratos medios y altos y su consumo recreativo de drogas influido por factores de tipo estructural y cultural, abordando cuatro zonas de concentración de bares y discotecas en tres municipios importantes de El Salvador. El énfasis se hace en la generación del contexto para suplir la demanda del consumo de dicha población y las consecuencias que esto le significa a la sociedad. Se concluye con un llamado al Estado a que regule los espacios de interés social. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v2i0.1194

  15. Stability analysis and hazard assessment of the northern slopes of San Vicente Volcano in central El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel M.

    Geologic hazards affect the lives of millions of people worldwide every year. El Salvador is a country that is regularly affected by natural disasters, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tropical storms. Additionally, rainfall-induced landslides and debris flows are a major threat to the livelihood of thousands. The San Vicente Volcano in central El Salvador has a recurring and destructive pattern of landslides and debris flows occurring on the northern slopes of the volcano. In recent memory there have been at least seven major destructive debris flows on San Vicente volcano. Despite this problem, there has been no known attempt to study the inherent stability of these volcanic slopes and to determine the thresholds of rainfall that might lead to slope instability. This thesis explores this issue and outlines a suggested method for predicting the likelihood of slope instability during intense rainfall events. The material properties obtained from a field campaign and laboratory testing were used for a 2-D slope stability analysis on a recent landslide on San Vicente volcano. This analysis confirmed that the surface materials of the volcano are highly permeable and have very low shear strength and provided insight into the groundwater table behavior during a rainstorm. The biggest factors on the stability of the slopes were found to be slope geometry, rainfall totals and initial groundwater table location. Using the results from this analysis a stability chart was created that took into account these main factors and provided an estimate of the stability of a slope in various rainfall scenarios. This chart could be used by local authorities in the event of a known extreme rainfall event to help make decisions regarding possible evacuation. Recommendations are given to improve the methodology for future application in other areas as well as in central El Salvador.

  16. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) using GPS data: Implications in seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Alejandra; Benito, Belen; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Alonso-Henar, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90º-100ºE direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  17. “Escuadrones de la Muerte”: Grupos Paramilitares, Violencia y Muerte en Argentina (‘73-‘75 y el Salvador (‘80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Molinari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo buscará realizar un análisis comparativo entre dos organismos paraestatales y paramilitares: los escuadrones de la muerte salvadoreños –que actuaron en El Salvador, especialmente durante la década de los ‘80- y la Triple A, o Alianza Anticomunista Argentina –cuyo accionar se ubica aproximadamente entre los años 1973 y 1975-.Ambos organismos son descriptos en sus particulares contextos (sociales, históricos y políticos: la Argentina del tercer gobierno peronista y El Salvador arrasado por la guerra civil. Sus particularidades no impedirán trazar entre ambos, poderosos hilos conductores, que llegan hasta la actualidad y llaman a prestar atención a las consecuencias aún palpables en ambos países, de estos nefastos grupos.

  18. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  19. Clinical and demographic features of HIV infection in El Salvador Características clínicas y demográficas de la infección por VIH en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa García Vázquez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand some of the clinical and demographic features of the epidemic of infection by HIV in El Salvador prior to the availability of antiretroviral therapy in that country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of HIV-infected individuals who were admitted to Hospital Rosales, which is a large public teaching hospital in San Salvador, El Salvador, during the 5-year period of 1994 through 1998. Chart abstraction was done of 194 out of the 208 individuals admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit at Hospital Rosales (14 charts could not be located. We also carried out a sampling of other HIV-infected adults treated in other parts of the hospital. RESULTS: Of the 250 patients whose records we reviewed, 67% were men and 86% were from an urban area. The mean age at HIV diagnosis was 34 years. In terms of occupation, 50% of the men were day laborers; 76% of the women were housewives, and 8% of the women were commercial sex workers. All the women studied listed only heterosexual contact as their risk behavior. Of the men, 9% of them said they had sex only with men, 17% said with both men and women, and 65% said with female commercial sex workers. In terms of drug use, 2% of the patients reported they had used injection drugs at some point. At their initial medical visit to Hospital Rosales, over half of the 250 patients presented with a respiratory complaint or with diarrhea, 6% had pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, and 5% had extrapulmonary TB. Of the 250 patients, 177 of them (71% had AIDS at the first medical visit. Of the 250, 138 of them (55% were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 112 persons, 81 of them (72% were known to have died. Of those 81, 38 of them (47% died of unknown causes and 21 (26% died of TB. CONCLUSIONS: The HIV-infected adults treated at the Hospital Rosales during the 1994-1998 period were usually infected through heterosexual sex, were symptomatic at the time of presentation, and were often lost to follow

  20. Integrando la gestión del riesgo, planificación urbana y vivienda social: lecciones de El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Más atención se está dando a la necesidad de integrar la gestión del riesgo en el trabajo de desarrollo para poder reducir así la vulnerabilidad de los pobres que viven en áreas urbanas. Usando El Salvador como estudio de caso, este artículo analiza el proceso de integración en dos sectores de desarrollo: planificación urbana y vivienda social. El objetivo es identificar de qué manera se puede superar la separación existente entre gestión del riesgo, planificación urbana y vivienda social. A partir del Huracán Mitch, y después de los terremotos del 2001, las organizaciones de vivienda social en El Salvador empezaron a abordar las causas subyacentes de la vulnerabilidad urbana. A pesar de experiencias positivas en la implementación de proyectos más integrales, la creación de marcos operativos, organizacionales, institucionales y legales adecuados aún se encuentran en etapa inicial. Lamentablemente, los fondos disponibles para la gestión del riesgo post-desastre llegaron a su fin, sin una asignación de recursos para la consolidación del proceso iniciado. El artículo propone un modelo para integrar la gestión del riesgo en la planificación urbana y en la vivienda social, de manera que dicho proceso sea más inclusivo y sostenible dentro del contexto de desarrollo.

  1. El nuevo espacio rural en El Salvador. Análisis de un programa educativo de participación comunitaria

    OpenAIRE

    R. Marta Ramo Garzarán

    2011-01-01

    El actual concepto de Derecho a la Educación como Educación para Todos, está vinculado al desarrollo social, económico, político y cultural de los países en desarrollo y especialmente al de sus contextos rurales. Desde este enfoque, este estudio analiza la efectividad de algunas políticas educativas llevadas a cabo en las dos últimas décadas en el Salvador, EDUCO. Estas decisiones políticas en materia educativa han tenido como objetivo la protección, promoción y realización progresiva del cit...

  2. On a collection of Decapod Crustacea from the Republic of El Salvador (Central America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1954-01-01

    For about half a year (February-July, 1953) Dr. M. Boeseman, curator of Fishes of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, was the guest of the Instituto Tropical de Investigaciones Científicas at San Salvador. During this time Dr. Boeseman made extensive collections in numerous localities

  3. The El Salvador and Philippines Tsunamis of August 2012: Insights from Sea Level Data Analysis and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    We studied two tsunamis from 2012, one generated by the El Salvador earthquake of 27 August ( Mw 7.3) and the other generated by the Philippines earthquake of 31 August ( Mw 7.6), using sea level data analysis and numerical modeling. For the El Salvador tsunami, the largest wave height was observed in Baltra, Galapagos Islands (71.1 cm) located about 1,400 km away from the source. The tsunami governing periods were around 9 and 19 min. Numerical modeling indicated that most of the tsunami energy was directed towards the Galapagos Islands, explaining the relatively large wave height there. For the Philippines tsunami, the maximum wave height of 30.5 cm was observed at Kushimoto in Japan located about 2,700 km away from the source. The tsunami governing periods were around 8, 12 and 29 min. Numerical modeling showed that a significant part of the far-field tsunami energy was directed towards the southern coast of Japan. Fourier and wavelet analyses as well as numerical modeling suggested that the dominant period of the first wave at stations normal to the fault strike is related to the fault width, while the period of the first wave at stations in the direction of fault strike is representative of the fault length.

  4. Diarrhea outbreak during U.S. military training in El Salvador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Kasper

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military's 130(th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31(st to June 3(rd, 2011. Personnel (n = 241 completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate and 67 (27% reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2-4 days and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49% individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62% individuals and 9 (15% had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7, Cryptosporidium (5, and Cyclospora (4 were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53-10.5, p-value <0.001 and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35-5.76, p-value = 0.001 were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region.

  5. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    be favored by stress transfer between intermediate depth and interplate zone during the earthquake cycle, flexural stresses associated with bendings which are not only present at ``flat slab'' geometry but also at ``normal'' dipping subduction zone, seem to govern the location of intermediate depth seismicity and to explain their focal mechanisms in El Salvador, SW Japon, Cascadia and Central Mexico.

  6. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  7. Dreams that do not come true: Re-addressing social security to expand old-age social protection : The case of informal workers in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E.A. Joya (Nancy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on old-age income security, with the objective to explore obstacles and opportunities to expand social protection for informal workers in El Salvador. It first introduces the main concepts and debates on social security, social protection, coverage and informality, to

  8. Estructura social en el movimiento político guerrillero de El Salvador. Basado en el “Libro Amarillo”. Documento del Ejército salvadoreño para identificar a sus enemigos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Nuñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Las guerrillas son fenómenos sociales y expresiones de nuestras sociedades que, de acuerdo a su composición social y humana, ofrecen dos perspectivas: a una complejidad sociocultural y política interna que es muy difícil de analizar, dada la poca información disponible, y b es una estructura social y orgánica orientada hacia la generación de una estrategia de guerra local. Cada Guerrilla se integra a través de dinámicas reticulares que las vuelven susceptibles de ser analizadas por medio del Análisis de Redes Sociales. En este contexto, la guerrilla del FMLN fue monitoreada por el ejército salvadoreño entre julio y agosto de 1987, levantando información sobre su composición social y algunas dinámicas de asociación entre miembros y organizaciones que conformaron a dicho movimiento

  9. Identificación de virus que afectan el Loroco (Fernaldia pundurata en el Valle de Zapotitán, El Salvador

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    Reina Flor Guzm\\u00E1n de Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El loroco (Fernaldia pandurata es una especie hortícola de gran valor comercial y consumo en la dieta del pueblo salvadoreño y guatemalteco. Desafortunadamente, esta especie es afectada por diversas plagas entre las que se encuentran la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci, áfidos y enfermedades de aparente naturaleza viral. En esta investigación se examinaron plantas de loroco con síntomas de mosaico y deformación foliar e inflorescencias cloróticas con el fin de determinar su etiología y posibles agentes vectores. Las muestras se examinaron mediante microscopía electrónica y serología. La observación de las muestras en el microscopio electrónico reveló la presencia de partículas filamentosas (600-700 nm e isométricas (30 nm de aparente naturaleza viral. Las pruebas serológicas demostraron que el virus filamentoso es una especie del género Potyvirus, y el virus isométrico es una especie del género Cucumovirus. No se encontraron virus del género Begomovirus transmitidos por mosca blanca. Se concluye aquí que este insecto actúa solamente como plaga directa del loroco, mientras que los áfidos se comportan como plaga y posibles vectores de los virus detectados. Este es el primer informe sobre patógenos virales del loroco

  10. Co-seismic deformation of the August 27, 2012 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5, 2012 Mw 7.6 Costa Rica earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Hernández, D.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the co-seismic deformation of two significant earthquakes that occurred along the Middle America trench in 2012. The August 27 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica earthquakes, were examined using a combination of episodic and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data. USGS finite fault models based on seismic data predict fundamentally different characteristics for the two ruptures. The El Salvador event occurred in a historical seismic gap and on the shallow segment of the Middle America Trench main thrust, rupturing a large area, but with a low magnitude of slip. A small tsunami was observed along the coast in Nicaragua and El Salvador, additionally indicating near-trench rupture. Conversely, the Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake was predicted to have an order of magnitude higher slip on a spatially smaller patch deeper on the main thrust. We present results from episodic and continuous geodetic GPS measurements made in conjunction with the two earthquakes, including data from newly installed COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) sites. Episodic GPS measurements made in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua following the earthquakes, allow us to estimate the co-seismic deformation field from both earthquakes. Because of the small magnitude of the El Salvador earthquake and its shallow rupture the observed co-seismic deformation is small (earthquake occurred directly beneath a seismic and geodetic network specifically designed to capture such events. The observed displacements exceeded 0.5 m and there is a significant post-seismic transient following the earthquake. We use our estimated co-seismic offsets for both earthquakes to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for these two events.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in women of agricultural communities of El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orantes Navarro, Carlos M; Herrera Valdés, Raúl; López, Miguel Almaguer; Calero, Denis J; Fuentes de Morales, Jackeline; Alvarado Ascencio, Nelly P; Vela Parada, Xavier F; Zelaya Quezada, Susana M; Granados Castro, Delmy V; Orellana de Figueroa, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    In El Salvador end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was the first cause of hospital mortality overall, the first cause of hospital deaths in men, and the fifth cause of hospital mortality in women in 2013. In agricultural communities, chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs predominantly in male agricultural workers, but it also affects women to a lesser degree, even those who are not involved in agricultural work. Internationally, most epidemiological CKD studies emphasize men and no epidemiological studies focused exclusively on women. To describe the epidemiological characteristics of CKD in females in agricultural communities of El Salvador. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 2009 - 2011 based on active screening for CKD and risk factors in women aged ≥ 18 years in 3 disadvantaged populations of El Salvador: Bajo Lempa (Usulután Department), Guayapa Abajo (Ahuachapán Department), and Las Brisas (San Miguel Department). Epidemiological and clinical data were gathered through personal history, as well as urinalysis for renal damage markers, determinations of serum creatinine and glucose, and estimation of glomerular filtration rates. CKD cases were confirmed at 3 months. Prevalence of CKD was 13.9% in 1,412 women from 1,306 families studied. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDu), not attributed to diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or proteinuric primary glomerulopathy (proteinuria > 1 g/L) was 6.6%. Prevalence of chronic renal failure was 6.8%. Prevalence of renal damage markers was 9.8% (microalbuminuria (30 - 300 mg/L) 5.7%; macroalbuminuria (> 300 mg/L) 2%; and hematuria, 2.1%. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease risk factors was: diabetes mellitus, 9.3%; hypertension, 23%; family history of CKD, 16%; family history of diabetes mellitus (DM), 18.7%; family history of hypertension (HT), 31.9%; obesity, 21%; central obesity, 30.7%; NSAID use, 84.3%; agricultural occupation, 15.2%; and contact with agrochemicals, 33.1%. CKD in

  12. El trabajo de la memoria en Centroamérica: Cinco propuestas heurísticas en torno a las guerras en El Salvador, Guatemala y Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenkels, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a comparative exploration of contemporary memory work related to the wars of the second half of the twentieth century in three Central American countries: El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. It identifes fve different heuristic proposals forwarded to explain the essential features of these wars (including their main causes and consequences). I refer to these heuristic proposals respectively as “imposed oblivion,” “war among brothers,” “revolution,” “anti-communism,” an...

  13. The attitude of the Chilean newspaper "El Mercurio" towards the main economic policies of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende (1970 - 1973).

    OpenAIRE

    Llewellyn, Paul Francis

    2002-01-01

    Resumé of History major: “The attitude of the Chilean newspaper ‘El Mercurio’ towards the main economic policies of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende (1970-73)” By Paul Francis Llewellyn Department of History University of Oslo, Norway Autumn 2002 Introduction This investigation will show in what manner the conservative daily newspaper El Mercurio presented the main economic policies of the Chilean left-wing Popular Unity (UP) government during its ter...

  14. The Process of Reintegration of Former Combatants in the Colombian Context as Compared to the Process of Reintegration in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    eventos relevantes que dificultan el avance de la investigación. En algunas de las fuentes consultadas la información se encuentra sesgada y los reportes ... de los excombatientes. Más aún las garantías de sostenibilidad de índole principalmente económica que se brinden tanto para ellos como para la...CONTEXTUALIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE REINTEGRACIÓN EN COLOMBIA COMPARADO CON EL SALVADOR, GUATEMALA Y NICARAGUA Una tesis

  15. Optimal design of sampling and mapping schemes in the radiometric exploration of Chipilapa, El Salvador (Geo-statistics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar G, M.; Flores R, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the knowledge about the radiometric surface exploration, carried out in the geothermal field of Chipilapa, El Salvador, its were considered the geo-statistical parameters starting from the calculated variogram of the field data, being that the maxim distance of correlation of the samples in 'radon' in the different observation addresses (N-S, E-W, N W-S E, N E-S W), it was of 121 mts for the monitoring grill in future prospectus in the same area. Being derived of it an optimization (minimum cost) in the spacing of the field samples by means of geo-statistical techniques, without losing the detection of the anomaly. (Author)

  16. Spatial distribution of unspecified chronic kidney disease in El Salvador by crop area cultivated and ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDervort, Darcy R; López, Dina L; Orantes, Carlos M; Rodríguez, David S

    2014-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology is occurring in various geographic areas worldwide. Cases lack typical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease, such as diabetes and hypertension. It is epidemic in El Salvador, Central America, where it is diagnosed with increasing frequency in young, otherwise-healthy male farmworkers. Suspected causes include agrochemical use (especially in sugarcane fields), physical heat stress, and heavy metal exposure. To evaluate the geographic relationship between unspecified chronic kidney disease (unCKD) and nondiabetic chronic renal failure (ndESRD) hospital admissions in El Salvador with the proximity to cultivated crops and ambient temperatures. Data on unCKD and ndESRD were compared with environmental variables, crop area cultivated (indicator of agrochemical use) and high ambient temperatures. Using geographically weighted regression analysis, two model sets were created using reported municipal hospital admission rates are per thousand population for unCKD 2006-2010 and rates of ndESRD 2005-2010 [corrected]. These were assessed against local percent of land cultivated by crop (sugarcane, coffee, corn, cotton, sorghum, and beans) and mean maximum ambient temperature, with Moran's indices determining data clustering. Two-dimensional geographic models illustrated parameter spatial distribution. Bivariate geographically weighted regressions showed statistically significant correlations between percent area of sugarcane, corn, cotton, coffee, and bean cultivation, as well as mean maximum ambient temperature with both unCKD and ndESRD hospital admission rates. Percent area of sugarcane cultivation had greatest statistical weight (p ≤ 0.001; Rp2 = 0.77 for unCKD). The most statistically significant multivariate geographically weighted regression model for unCKD included percent area of sugarcane, cotton and corn cultivation (p ≤ 0.001; Rp2 = 0.80), while, for ndESRD, it included the percent area of sugarcane, corn

  17. Combination HIV Prevention Strategy Implementation in El Salvador: Perceived Barriers and Adaptations Reported by Outreach Peer Educators and Supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Buck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW, men who have sex with men (MSM, and commercial sex workers (CSW. Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result. Between March and June 2015, 18 in-depth interviews with educators were conducted. Violence was reported as the biggest barrier to intervention implementation. Other barriers differed by subpopulation. The level of violence and discrimination calls into question the feasibility and appropriateness of peer-led interventions in the Salvadoran context and demonstrates the importance of implementation research when translating HIV prevention interventions developed in high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Labor rights of employees of the private security providers in El Salvador, and their relation to psychosocial risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Coca Muñoz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws the attention of the academic community, businessmen, worker associations/unions, and public decision makers to the relation between preventing psychosocial risks for private security workers in El Salvador, and the respect for their worker rights as enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic, the Labor Code, and the General Law for the Prevention of Risk at the Workplace. It addresses the doctrine and legal framework of psychosocial risk, and government responsibility in terms of occupational security and health –specifically, the intervention of work inspections by the Ministry of Labor, and verifying psychosocial risks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1557

  19. Precursory diffuse carbon dioxide degassing signature related to a 5.1 magnitude earthquake in El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J. M. L.; Pérez, N. M.; Hernández, P. A.; Soriano, T.; Barahona, F.; Olmos, R.; Cartagena, R.; López, D. L.; Lima, R. N.; Melián, G.; Galindo, I.; Padrón, E.; Sumino, H.; Notsu, K.

    2002-12-01

    Anomalous changes in the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide have been observed before some of the aftershocks of the 13 February 2001 El Salvador earthquake (magnitude 6.6). A significant increase in soil CO 2 efflux was detected 8 days before a 5.1 magnitude earthquake on 8 May 2001 25 km away from the observation site. In addition, pre- and co-seismic CO 2 efflux variations have also been observed related to the onset of a seismic swarm beneath San Vicente volcano on May 2001. Strain changes and/or fluid pressure fluctuations prior to earthquakes in the crust are hypothesized to be responsible for the observed variations in gas efflux at the surface environment of San Vicente volcano.

  20. Ionospheric Disturbances Triggered by the Mw7.6 Earthquake off the Coast of El Salvador on 13 January 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kuo Jung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A network of five ground-based receivers of the global positioning sys- tem (GPS was use to detect seismo-ionospheric disturbances in the total elec- tron content (TEC triggered by the 13 January 2001 El Salvador Mw 7.6 earthquake. We apply least square fitted analysis as well as beam forming and ray tracing methods to analyze the GPS TECs. Results show that the average speeds of the seismo-ionospheric disturbances traveling in the up- per atmosphere and ionosphere lie between 360 and 570 m s−1 , and the disturbance origins on the ground derived by the two methods are near the epicenter reported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS.

  1. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  2. “Out of My Comfort Zone”: Understanding the Impact of a Service-Learning Experience in Rural El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. Beckman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study was designed to explore the impact of a two-week service-learning experience in rural El Salvador on students' perceptions of its impact on them personally, professionally and their global awareness. Students stayed in an economically impoverished village in rural El Salvador and worked on projects that promoted education for children in the village. Participants included 15 graduate and undergraduate students; 13 from the College of Education of a large university in the northeastern part of the United States. Multiple data sources were used to understand these impacts including: open-ended interviews conducted two to four months after the trip; field notes from participant observations in large and small group activities, group reflections; and informal incidents and conversations; review of documents related to the class (student journals; student final papers, and daily activity and health logs. While the initial process of adjustment was difficult for some students, all students felt that their participation in this experience had an important, positive impact on them. Data indicated that this impact occurred in all three major areas addressed in this study, including: personal (e.g. sense of appreciation, gaining perspective, rethinking consumption, clarifying values, and learning they “could do it”/self-efficacy, professional (affirming career choices, ability to work with Latino children and families; improving professional skills and global awareness (e.g. perspectives on poverty and social justice, views of immigration, understanding of the world. Findings will be discussed in terms of exant literature related to the impact of short-term service experiences.

  3. Clinical characteristics of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in women of agricultural communities in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Valdés, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M; Almaguer López, Miguel; López Marín, Laura; Arévalo, Pedro Alfonso; Smith González, Magaly J; Morales, Fabrizio E; Bacallao, Raymed; Bayarre, Héctor D; Vela Parada, Xavier F

    2015-01-01

    A chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes (CKDu) has emerged in Central America and elsewhere, predominantly affecting male farmworkers. In El Salvador (2009), it was the second cause of death in men > 18 years old. Causality has not been determined. Most available research focused on men and there is scarce data on women. Describe the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of CKDu in women of agricultural communities in El Salvador. A descriptive study was carried out in 10 women with CKDu stages 2, 3a, and 3b. Researchers studied demographics, clinical examination; hematological and biochemical analyses, urine sediment, renal injury markers, and assessed renal, cardiac, and peripheral arteries, liver, pancreas, and lung anatomy and functions. Kidney biopsy was performed in all. Data was collected on the Lime Survey platform and exported to SPSS 19.0. Patient distribution by stages: 2 (70%), 3a (10%), 3b (20%). Occupation: agricultural 7; non-agricultural 3. agrochemical exposure 100%; farmworkers 70%; incidental malaria 50%, NSAIDs use 40%; hypertension 40%. nocturia 50%; dysuria 50%; arthralgia 70%; asthenia 50%; cramps 30%, profuse sweating 20%. Renal markers: albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) > 300 mg/g 90%; β microglobulin and neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin (NGAL) presence in 40%. Kidney function: hypermagnesuria 100%; hyperphosphaturia 50%, hypercalciuria 40%; hypernatriuria 30%; hyponatremia 60%, hypocalcemia 50%. Doppler: tibial artery damage 40%. Neurological: reflex abnormalities 30%; Babinski and myoclonus 20%. Neurosensorial hypoacusis 70%. Histopathology: damage restricted mostly to the tubulo-interstitium, urine was essentially bland. CKDu in women is a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy with varied extrarenal symptoms.

  4. Social network-based recruitment successfully reveals HIV-1 transmission networks among high-risk individuals in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ann M; Murillo, Wendy; de Maria Hernandez, Flor; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Eron, Joseph J; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-05-01

    HIV in Central America is concentrated among certain groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSWs). We compared social recruitment chains and HIV transmission clusters from 699 MSM and 787 FSWs to better understand factors contributing to ongoing HIV transmission in El Salvador. Phylogenies were reconstructed using pol sequences from 119 HIV-positive individuals recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and compared with RDS chains in 3 cities in El Salvador. Transmission clusters with a mean pairwise genetic distance ≤ 0.015 and Bayesian posterior probabilities =1 were identified. Factors associated with cluster membership were evaluated among MSM. Sequences from 34 (43%) MSM and 4 (10%) FSW grouped in 14 transmission clusters. Clusters were defined by risk group (12 MSM clusters) and geographic residence (only 1 spanned separate cities). In 4 MSM clusters (all n = 2), individuals were also members of the same RDS chain, but only 2 had members directly linked through recruitment. All large clusters (n ≥ 3) spanned >1 RDS chain. Among MSM, factors independently associated with cluster membership included recent infection by BED assay (P = 0.02), sex with stable male partners (P = 0.02), and sex with ≥ 3 male partners in the past year (P = 0.04). We found few HIV transmissions corresponding directly with the social recruitment. However, we identified clustering in nearly one-half of MSM suggesting that RDS recruitment was indirectly but successfully uncovering transmission networks, particularly among recent infections. Interrogating RDS chains with phylogenetic analyses may help refine methods for identifying transmission clusters.

  5. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Conclusions/Significance Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with

  6. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H

    2015-01-01

    Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health service

  7. Knowledge and attitudes about intrauterine devices among women's health care providers in El Salvador Conocimientos y actitudes de los prestadores de atención de salud de la mujer en El Salvador acerca de los dispositivos intrauterinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lyn Hohmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain an understanding of Salvadoran health care providers' clinical knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward the intrauterine device (IUD, Ministry of Health providers completed a self-administered, anonymous survey. Surveys were completed by 135 participants. The majority (94.7% and 97.0% agreed the IUD is a safe and effective form of contraception. Only 46.6% of participants had ever received training in IUD placement, and 32.0% of them had ever inserted more than 10 IUDs. The majority of providers (54.2% believed that the IUD was associated with a higher rate of infection than is described in the literature. Lack of formal training and knowledge about persistent infection rates associated with IUDs may contribute to low IUD placement by Salvadoran providers. Health care providers surveyed are open to learning more about the IUD and sharing the information with their patients.A fin de evaluar el conocimiento, las actitudes y las prácticas clínicas de los prestadores de atención de salud salvadoreños en torno al dispositivo intrauterino (DIU, se solicitó a un grupo de prestadores del Ministerio de Salud que respondiera un cuestionario anónimo autoadministrado. Se recibieron 135 respuestas. La mayoría manifestó que el DIU es un método anticonceptivo seguro (94,7% y eficaz (97,0%. Solo 46,6% de los participantes habían recibido algún tipo de capacitación acerca de la colocación del DIU y 32,0% habían colocado más de 10 dispositivos. La mayoría de los prestadores (54,2% consideraron que el DIU está asociado a una incidencia de infecciones más alta que la descrita en la bibliografía. La escasa frecuencia con que los prestadores salvadoreños colocan el DIU probablemente sea atribuible, en cierta medida, a la falta de capacitación formal y de conocimiento acerca de los índices de infección persistente asociados a los DIU. Los prestadores de servicios de salud encuestados refirieron estar dispuestos a instruirse m

  8. ESTADO DE DERECHO, MISIÓN DE LA FEDERACIÓN INTERAMERICANA DE ABOGADOS (LAS EXPERIENCIAS DE NICARAGUA Y EL SALVADOR JUSTICIA CONSTITUCIONAL O ACTIVISMO JUDICIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldy J. Gutierrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la experiencia del autor en representación de la Inter-American Bar Association, dentro del campo del Estado de Derecho, el artículo analiza dos situaciones de conflicto en el área Centroamericana, Nicaragua y El Salvador. En ambos casos, el autor, al frente de un equipo de la InterAmerican Bar Association, realizó un trabajo de investigación académica centrada dentro del concepto del Estado de Derecho y de la Justicia Constitucional en ambos países. En el caso de Nicaragua el análisis gira alrededor de la relección del Presidente de la República y las diversas acciones legales y judiciales desarrolladas para tal fin. En el caso de El Salvador, estudia los conflictos de poder planteados entre la Asamblea Legislativa y la Sala de lo Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Justicia en el período 2010-2012 que han afectado de algún modo el orden constitucional de aquel país. El texto propugna por un balance entre los poderes del Estado, dentro del orden constitucional, tomando como ejemplo al Doctrina de la Cuestión Política de los Estados Unidos de América y otras consideraciones de fondo.

  9. The 2001 January 13th M {W}7.7 and February 13th M {W}6.6 El Salvador Earthquakes: Deformation and Stress Triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreinsdóttir, S.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2001-12-01

    On the 13th of January 2001, an M {W} 7.7 normal fault earthquake occurred offshore El Salvador. The earthquake occurred in the subducting Cocos plate and was followed by high seismic activity and several earthquakes exceeding magnitude 5. On the 13th of February, an M {W} 6.6 strike slip earthquake occurred in the overriding Caribbean plate, about 75 km NNW from the epicenter of the large January earthquake. Deformation due to these earthquakes was observed at six continuous CORS GPS stations in Central America. In the M {W} 7.7 earthquake about 10 mm displacement was measured at GPS stations in El Salvador and Honduras. A smaller but significant dispacement was also observed at GPS stations in Nicaragua, more then 200 km from the earthquake's epicenter. In the M {W} 6.6 earthquake 41+/- 1 mm displacement in direction N111oE was measured at the GPS station in San Salvador, El Salvador. Other CORS GPS stations were not affected by that earthquake. A postsesmic signal is detectable at the San Salvador GPS station, strongest right after the earthquake and then decays. On average we see 0.3 +/- 0.1 mm/day of SSW motion of the station in the first twenty days following the earthquake. Using seismic and geodetic data, we calculated Coulomb stress changes following the January 13th, M {W} 7.7 earthquake. Of special interest were six 5.4 earthquake that occurred in the overriding Caribean plate. The location and focal mechanism of these earthquakes correlate with areas of calculated increase in static stress thus indicating stress triggering. The thrust events occurred 2 to 20 days after the M {W} 7.7 earthquake, in increasing distance from the M {W} 7.7 event with time.

  10. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  11. The establishment of injury surveillance systems in Colombia, El Salvador, and Nicaragua (2000-2006 Establecimiento de sistemas de vigilancia de lesiones en Colombia, El Salvador y Nicaragua (2000-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Sklaver

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS, en colaboración con los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC de los Estados Unidos de América, estableció en 2000 sistemas para la vigilancia de lesiones en Colombia, El Salvador y Nicaragua. Estos sistemas, basados en los servicios hospitalarios de emergencia, formaron parte de un proyecto piloto fundamentado en las guías para la vigilancia de lesiones, desarrolladas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS y los CDC. Los objetivos de este proyecto eran evaluar la utilidad de las guías de la OMS/CDC, crear mecanismos apropiados para la vigilancia de lesiones en los tres países, promover intervenciones preventivas adecuadas e integrar la prevención y el control de lesiones en proyectos nacionales de salud pública. En este artículo se describe el proyecto piloto de la OPS/CDC y se resaltan los principios más importantes y las lecciones aprendidas durante sus seis años de funcionamiento (2000-2006. Entre las principales recomendaciones se encuentran la integración de la vigilancia de las lesiones en las unidades de epidemiología e información existentes en los ministerios de salud, la recogida de los datos importantes exclusivamente, la garantía de monitoreos y evaluaciones adecuados y la adopción de las prácticas que han demostrado ser más efectivas para el entrenamiento de personal y la diseminación de información.

  12. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Formal Education: the Role of Schooling for Increasing Societies' Adaptive Capacities in El Salvador and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With a worldwide increase in disasters, the effects of climate change are already being felt, and it is the urban poor in developing countries who are most at risk. There is an urgent need to better understand the factors that determine people's capacity to cope with and adapt to adverse climate conditions. This paper examines the influence of formal education in determining the adaptive capacity of the residents of two low-income settlements: Los Manantiales in San Salvador (El Salvador and Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, where climate-related disasters are recurrent. In both case study areas, it was found that the average levels of education were lower for households living at high risk, as opposed to residents of lower risk areas. In this context, the influence of people's level of education was identified to be twofold due to (a its direct effect on aspects that reduce risk, and (b its mitigating effect on aspects that increase risk. The results further suggest that education plays a more determinant role for women than for men in relation to their capacity to adapt. In light of these results, the limited effectiveness of institutional support identified by this study might also relate to the fact that the role of formal education has so far not been sufficiently explored. Promoting (improved access to and quality of formal education as a way to increase people's adaptive capacity is further supported with respect to the negative effects of disasters on people's level of education, which in turn reduce their adaptive capacity, resulting in a vicious circle of increasing risk.

  13. El nuevo espacio rural en El Salvador. Análisis de un programa educativo de participación comunitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marta Ramo Garzarán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El actual concepto de Derecho a la Educación como Educación para Todos, está vinculado al desarrollo social, económico, político y cultural de los países en desarrollo y especialmente al de sus contextos rurales. Desde este enfoque, este estudio analiza la efectividad de algunas políticas educativas llevadas a cabo en las dos últimas décadas en el Salvador, EDUCO. Estas decisiones políticas en materia educativa han tenido como objetivo la protección, promoción y realización progresiva del citado derecho en el ámbito rural y en el nuevo concepto de ruralidad. También el concepto de ruralidad no se puede aislar del sentido del espacio Rural Latinoamericano, que, aunque sigue dando sentido a un estilo de vida y constituye un patrimonio territorial imprescindible, se caracteriza por la marginalidad, el olvido de la cultura rural y la falta de oportunidades.

  14. Assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the February 13, 2001, El Salvador earthquake; a report to the government of El Salvador and the U. S. Agency for International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Crone, Anthony J.; Escobar, Demetreo; Harp, Edwin L.; Major, Jon J.; Martinez, Mauricio; Pullinger, Carlos; Smith, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    On February 13, 2001, a magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurred about 40 km eastsoutheast of the capital city of San Salvador in central El Salvador and triggered thousands of landslides in the area east of Lago de Ilopango. The landslides are concentrated in a 2,500-km2 area and are particularly abundant in areas underlain by thick deposits of poorly consolidated, late Pleistocene and Holocene Tierra Blanca rhyolitic tephras that were erupted from Ilopango caldera. Drainages in the tephra deposits are deeply incised, and steep valley walls failed during the strong shaking. Many drainages are clogged with landslide debris that locally buries the adjacent valley floor. The fine grain-size of the tephra facilitates its easy mobilization by rainfall runoff. The potential for remobilizing the landslide debris as debris flows and in floods is significant as this sediment is transported through the drainage systems during the upcoming rainy season. In addition to thousands of shallow failures, two very large landslides occurred that blocked the Rio El Desague and the Rio Jiboa. The Rio El Desague landslide has an estimated volume of 1.5 million m3, and the Rio Jiboa landslide has an estimated volume of 12 million m3. Field studies indicate that catastrophic draining of the Rio El Desague landslide-dammed lake would pose a minimal flooding hazard, whereas catastrophic draining of the Rio Jiboa lake would pose a serious hazard and warrants immediate action. Construction of a spillway across part of the dam could moderate the impact of catastrophic lake draining and the associated flood. Two major slope failures on the northern side of Volcan San Vicente occurred in the upper reaches of Quebrada Del Muerto and the Quebrada El Blanco. The landslide debris in the Quebrada Del Muerto consists dominantly of blocks of well-lithified andesite, whereas the debris in the Quebrada El Blanco consists of poorly consolidated pyroclastic sediment. The large blocks of lithified rock in

  15. Condiciones sociales en torno al suicidio en la región occidental de El Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Serreño Menéndez, Ángel Fredi

    2011-01-01

    Definición de suicidio -- Antigüedad clásica: Algunos abordajes acerca de la moralidad del suicidio -- El suicidio en la Edad Media: Satanás y las sanciones de la Iglesia -- El Renacimiento y la popularización del suicidio -- Ser o no ser, ésa es la cuestión”: Un debate filosófico -- Suicidio en el siglo XVII: Con una legitimación del suicidio -- Iluminismo: Apología y hostilidad al suicidio -- El suicidio en el siglo XIX: la culpabilización del suicidio -- El suicidio en el siglo XX: Nuevas ...

  16. Analysis of the spatial dynamics and drivers of forest cover change in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Hector

    This work studies the changes of forest cover that have happened in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador during the period 1979-2003. Although historically the trend has been towards the loss of forest cover since colonial times, over the period of study a large increase in forest cover was detected. The main tool of evaluation was the analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery. Images for the dates 1979, 1990-91, and 2003 were classified into forest and noon-forest land covers. Then the changes in land cover were analyzed to determine what were the social, geophysical and climatic drivers determining why and where these new forest appeared. The results indicate that there has been an overall increase in forest cover from 20% in 1979 to 43% in 2003. Although there has been extensive deforestation, this has happened mostly around the main urban centers within the basin. In the more rural and remote areas, the tendency has been towards a resurgence in forest cover. The increase in forest was found to be significantly related to remittances, inaccessibility to roads and markets, density of urban populations, poverty and the civil war of the 1980s. Among the geospatial factors that determined where deforestation and reforestation happened were distance to roads and urban centers, slope, elevation, land use capability, and irrigation potential. The results indicate that the tendency in the future will be towards further reforestation but at a slower rate. Although reforestation and deforestation happened simultaneously, there are clear differences in the spatial patterns that each of these phenomena follow. In terms of climate, it was found areas subjected to inter-annual rainfall extremes due to El Nino Southern Oscillation, particularly areas with low agricultural potential, were more likely to be abandoned and left to revert to forest than those with more stable rainfall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that El Salvador is undergoing a Forest Transition

  17. Simulation of a Dispersive Tsunami due to the 2016 El Salvador-Nicaragua Outer-Rise Earthquake (M w 6.9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Ramirez, Amilcar Geovanny Cabrera; Yamanaka, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 El Salvador-Nicaragua outer-rise earthquake (M w 6.9) generated a small tsunami observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensor, DART 32411, in the Pacific Ocean off Central America. The dispersive observed tsunami is well simulated using the linear Boussinesq equations. From the dispersive character of tsunami waveform, the fault length and width of the outer-rise event is estimated to be 30 and 15 km, respectively. The estimated seismic moment of 3.16 × 1019 Nm is the same as the estimation in the Global CMT catalog. The dispersive character of the tsunami in the deep ocean caused by the 2016 outer-rise El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake could constrain the fault size and the slip amount or the seismic moment of the event.

  18. Simulation of a Dispersive Tsunami due to the 2016 El Salvador-Nicaragua Outer-Rise Earthquake ( M w 6.9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Ramirez, Amilcar Geovanny Cabrera; Yamanaka, Yusuke

    2018-04-01

    The 2016 El Salvador-Nicaragua outer-rise earthquake ( M w 6.9) generated a small tsunami observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensor, DART 32411, in the Pacific Ocean off Central America. The dispersive observed tsunami is well simulated using the linear Boussinesq equations. From the dispersive character of tsunami waveform, the fault length and width of the outer-rise event is estimated to be 30 and 15 km, respectively. The estimated seismic moment of 3.16 × 1019 Nm is the same as the estimation in the Global CMT catalog. The dispersive character of the tsunami in the deep ocean caused by the 2016 outer-rise El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake could constrain the fault size and the slip amount or the seismic moment of the event.

  19. Heridas en la memoria: la guerra civil salvadoreña en el recuerdo de niñez de un pandillero.

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    Mario Zúñiga Núñez.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the childhood memory of a gang member who grew up, from the mid-1970s through the 1980s, in the middle of El Salvador's civil war. Hector, the pseudonym I gave him, was a guerillero, soldier, emigrant, and also, when he became a teenager, a gang member. His story reflects a large number of historical processes. The aim of this article is to analyze this simultaneity of processes as a totality present in the life story of this person. To do so, I present Hector's testimony, framed in the context of the civil war. Then I use various concepts (like memory, violence, and institutionalization to understand the story within the network of social relations in El Salvador.

  20. Modelo para la estimación de costeo de procesos de producción de las microempresas textiles de la Zona Oriental de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Claros, Edgardo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Históricamente, la computación en la nube comenzó cuando empezaron a correr tareas en una red de computadores, en lugar de dejar que solo un gran computador hiciera todo el trabajo. De esta manera, la tarea se reparte entre varios, exigiendo menos del sistema para entregar un servicio a los usuarios. En este sentido El Salvador es un país que ha evolucionado significativamente en el área tecnológica a la cual ITCA-FEPADE le ha apostado, sin embargo esta evolución se refiere, esencialmente al ...

  1. Bancos Cooperativos y Sociedades de Ahorro y Crédito en El Salvador: modelo de supervisión prudencial y análisis empírico del coeficiente de solvencia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Ana Verónica

    2013-01-01

    Estudio bibliográfico empírico, con el que se presenta una propuesta de supervisión para la superintendencia financiera de El Salvador, que incluye requisitos mínimos a considerar por el auditor, tomando como base Basilea II, III y siguiendo el Modelo OSFI de Canadá. Además se presenta un estudio empírico sobre los determinantes del coeficiente patrimonial en bancos cooperativos y sociedades de ahorro y crédito de El Salvador. Economía Financiera y Contabilidad Máster en Investigación ...

  2. ABORTO TERAPÉUTICO EN NICARAGUA Y EL SALVADOR, LA MORTALIDAD MATERNA Y LOS OBJETIVOS DEL MILENIO

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    Adlin Nerissa Bacon Bolaños

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La prohibición total del aborto terapéutico es un problema que no ha permitido brindar atención médica de calidad a mujeres embarazadas. La subsecuente mortalidad materna es una de las consecuencias de esta política. El objetivo de esta investigación documental fue explorar cómo esta prohibición del aborto va influenciar la mortalidad materna.El diseño metodológico fue cualitativo a través de una revisión literaria que trata el tema antes y después que la ley de aborto cambiara. La tesis fue construida con fuentes primarias y secundarias, analizadas críticamente para después ser comparadas con datos dentro del país y entre los países. Los principales hallazgos fueron que la mortalidad materna no se vio afectada por la prohibición del aborto, adicionalmente se redujo en ambos países; sin embargo, sigue siendo elevada en comparación a otras naciones.  La ley de aborto, entre otros factores es una de las causas de mortalidad materna. El Objetivo del Milenio número cinco fue alcanzado por El Salvador, de acuerdo al gobierno, mientras en Nicaragua el progreso para alcanzarlo se mantiene lento. Dentro de estas categorías hay similitudes, diferencias y debates que persisten, ya que el aborto, sea o no terapéutico, es aún un asunto controversial en muchos países.SummaryThe total prohibition of therapeutic abortion is an issue that has not allowed providing medical care with quality to pregnant women. The subsequent maternal mortality is one of the consequences of this policy. The objective of this documentary research was to explore how the prohibition of abortion will influence maternal mortality.We used a qualitative methodology based on literature review that addresses the issue before and after the abortion law changed. The thesis was built with primary and secondary sources, and was critically analyzed to be compared with data within the country and between countries. The main findings were that maternal mortality was not

  3. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    vista extra-regional, la "zona vital" es rica en materiales estrat~gicos, tales como el petr6leo, el hierro, y el aluminlo. Adem~s del petr6leo de...nivel de post-grado, en el Area de hidrocarburos para el periodo 1981 / 1982. Ofrecimiento de cooperaci6n en el campo de geologia de uranlo y materiales ...hombre, yo lo conocia, aparte de que era un homnbre muy preparado, muy inteligente , era un fan~tico. *Un fanatico religioso. Yo s6 porque lo digo

  4. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is a basaltic volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Volcanism is induced by the convergence of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate, along a 1200-km arc, extending from Guatemala to Costa Rica and parallel to the Central American Trench. The volcano is located in the eastern part of El Salvador, in proximity to the large communities of San Miguel, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. Approximately 70,000 residents, mostly farmers, live around the crater and the city of San Miguel, the second largest city of El Salvador, ten km from the summit, has a population of ~180,000 inhabitants. The Pan-American and Coastal highways cross the north and south flanks of the volcano.San Miguel volcano has produced modest eruptions, with at least 28 VEI 1-2 events between 1699 and 1967 (datafrom Smithsonian Institution http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=343100). It is characterized by visible milddegassing from a summit vent and fumarole field, and by intermittent lava flows and Strombolian activity. Since the last vigorous fire fountaining of 1976, San Miguel has only experienced small steam explosions and gas emissions, minor ash fall and rock avalanches. On 29 December 2013 the volcano erupted producing an eruption that has been classified as VEI 2. While eruptions tend to be low-VEI, the presence of major routes and the dense population in the surrounding of the volcano increases the risk that weak explosions with gas and/or ash emission may pose. In this study, we present the first inventory of SO2, CO2, HCl, and HF emission rates on San Miguel volcano, and an analysis of the hazard from volcanogenic SO2 discharged before, during, and after the December 2013 eruption. SO2 was chosen as it is amongst the most critical volcanogenic pollutants, which may cause acute and chronicle disease to humans. Data were gathered by the geochemical monitoring network managed by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

  5. Desarrollo Local con Gestión Participativa: Presupuesto Participativo Villa El Salvador, Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Echegaray; L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractLa presente documentación se realiza en el marco del Programa SINPA (Support to the implementation of the National Plans of Action) el cual se viene implementando en la ciudad de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. El SINPA es un programa piloto de apoyo a la implementación de los acuerdos

  6. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  7. De la migración económica a la migración forzada por el incremento de la violencia en El Salvador y México

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    Cristina Gómez-Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se propone determinar el impacto del incremento de la violencia en las movilizaciones actuales desde el estado de Guerrero en México y en la zona conurbada de San Salvador y La Libertad en El Salvador, durante la década del 2000. Los migrantes aquí estudiados no forman parte de los flujos tradicionales, comúnmente relacionados con precariedad laboral y económica, sino que se ven obligados a salir por la inseguridad. Se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo, aunque las cuestiones de seguridad constituyeron un reto para la construcción del instrumento y para el contacto con los sujetos de estudio. Se optó por entrevistas semiestructuradas a personas afectadas por la violencia y a personal que trabaja y ayuda a esta población. Para esto se contó con apoyo del Comité de Familiares de Desaparecidos en México (Cofamide, la Procuraduría de Derechos Humanos de El Salvador y la Universidad José Simeón Cañas (UCA, y con el Centro Regional de Defensa de Derechos Humanos José María Morelos y Pavón y Médicos Sin Fronteras, en México.

  8. De la migración económica a la migración forzada por el incremento de la violencia en El Salvador y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gómez-Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se propone determinar el impacto del incremento de la violencia en las movilizaciones actuales desde el estado de Guerrero en México y en la zona conurbada de San Salvador y La Libertad en El Salvador, durante la década del 2000. Los migrantes aquí estudiados no forman parte de los flujos tradicionales, comúnmente relacionados con precariedad laboral y económica, sino que se ven obligados a salir por la inseguridad. Se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo, aunque las cuestiones de seguridad constituyeron un reto para la construcción del instrumento y para el contacto con los sujetos de estudio. Se optó por entrevistas semiestructuradas a personas afectadas por la violencia y a personal que trabaja y ayuda a esta población. Para esto se contó con apoyo del Comité de Familiares de Desaparecidos en México (Cofamide, la Procuraduría de Derechos Humanos de El Salvador y la Universidad José Simeón Cañas (UCA, y con el Centro Regional de Defensa de Derechos Humanos José María Morelos y Pavón y Médicos Sin Fronteras, en México.

  9. Choosing a miracle: Impoverishment, mistrust, and discordant views in abandonment of treatment of children with cancer in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Nuria; Challinor, Julia; Gigengack, Roy; Reis, Ria

    2017-09-01

    In El Salvador, at the only hospital offering pediatric oncology care, the number of children abandoning treatment for cancer has decreased in recent years (13%-3%). An investigation of caregivers' motives for abandonment was performed over 15 months from 2012 to 2014. Caregiver and health team perspectives on abandonment are reported using the explanatory model (EM) framework. Semistructured in-depth interviews and in hospital participant observations were conducted with caregivers of children diagnosed with cancer, who abandoned their child's treatment or were considering abandoning, and with members of the medical team. Of the 41 caregivers interviewed, 26 caregivers (of 19 children) abandoned their child's treatment, returned from a series of missed appointments, or showed a risk of abandoning. Caregivers of 8 children stated that a miraculous cure was the main reason for abandoning; increasing impoverishment and misgivings toward treatment and outcomes were also mentioned. The responses of the medical team demonstrated a discordant EM for the child's cancer and treatment effects and that only biomedical treatment was effective for cure. The caregivers' increasing impoverishment (not only financial) and misgivings about the child's treatment caused them to reconsider their therapeutic choices and rely on their belief in a miraculous cure, thus abandoning. The caregivers and medical team's discordant EM about the child's cancer and treatment must be acknowledged and shared decision making considered, together with consistency in the strategies that currently demonstrate to be effective decreasing abandonment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  11. Epidemic cholera in rural El Salvador: risk factors in a region covered by a cholera prevention campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, R E; Thompson, B L; Zuniga, A; Dominguez, G; De Brizuela, E L; De Palma, O; Almeida, S; Valencia, A; Ries, A A; Bean, N H

    1995-04-01

    In response to the Latin American cholera epidemic, El Salvador began a prevention programme in April 1991. The first case was confirmed in August, and 700 cases were reported within 3 months. A matched case-control study was conducted in rural La Libertad Department in November 1991. Illness was associated with eating cold cooked or raw seafood (odds ratio [OR] = 7.0; 95% confidence limits [CL] = 1.4, 35.0) and with drinking water outside the home (OR = 8.8; 95% CL = 1.7, 44.6). Assertion of knowledge about how to prevent cholera (OR = 0.2; 95% CL = 0.1, 0.8) and eating rice (OR = 0.2; 95% CL = 0.1, 0.8) were protective. More controls than patients regularly used soap (OR = 0.3; 95% CL = 0.1, 1.0). This study demonstrated three important points for cholera prevention: (1) seafood should be eaten cooked and hot; (2) populations at risk should be taught to treat household drinking water and to avoid drinking water outside the home unless it is known to be treated; and (3) education about hygiene can be an important tool in preventing cholera.

  12. Survey of Heavy Metal Contamination in Water Sources in the Municipality of Torola, El Salvador, through In Situ Sorbent Extraction

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    Enriqueta Anticó

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in water resources directly affects consumer health. The quality of surface water resources in Central America is usually low due to the presence of metals and other pollutants. The lack of analytical instrumentation to perform routine monitoring of water has encouraged the development of easy tools to facilitate the determination of heavy metals in waters in remote sites. In this study, we evaluated the use of different sorbents, such as Adsorbsia As600 (titanium dioxide, Iontosorb Oxin, 8-hydroxyquinoline bearing functional groups, and Duolite GT-73, with thiol functionality, for Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Al extraction. It was found that both Adsorbsia As600 and Iontosorb Oxin allowed the adsorption of all metals, and the recovery was achieved using either HCl or ethylenediaminetetraacetic sodium salt (EDTA solutions. Hence, Adsorbsia As600 was employed for in situ sampling in the metal contamination evaluation of water samples (from 15 wells and nine storage tanks from the municipality of Torola, Mozarán, El Salvador. The developed procedure allowed all the metals in the samples to be detected, and Ni and Al were found to be above Salvadoran guidelines for drinking water quality.

  13. Earthquakes in El Salvador: a descriptive study of health concerns in a rural community and the clinical implications, part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woersching, Joanna C; Snyder, Audrey E

    2003-01-01

    This is the first article in a series that evaluates the health concerns of people living in a Salvadoran rural community after major earthquakes. Part I reviews the background, methods, and results of post-earthquake conditions with regards to healthcare, access to healthcare, housing, food, water and sanitation. Part II reviews the implications of these results and recommendations for improvements within the community. Part III investigates the psychosocial and mental health consequences of the earthquakes and provides suggestions for improved mental health awareness, assessment, and intervention. El Salvador experienced 2 major earthquakes in January and February 2001. This study evaluates the effects of the earthquakes on the health practices in the rural town of San Sebastian. The research was conducted with use of a convenience sample survey of subjects affected by the earthquakes. The sample included 594 people within 100 households. The 32-question survey assessed post-earthquake conditions in the areas of health care and access to care, housing, food and water, and sanitation. Communicable diseases affected a number of family members. After the earthquakes, 38% of households reported new injuries, and 79% reported acute exacerbations of chronic illness. Rural inhabitants were 30% more likely to have an uninhabitable home than were urban inhabitants. Concerns included safe housing, water purification, and waste elimination. The findings indicate a need for greater public health awareness and community action to adapt living conditions after a disaster and prevent the spread of communicable disease.

  14. INFLUENCIA DEL NITRÓGENO EN LA CALIDAD DEL GRANO DE SORGO EN EL SALVADOR

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    Vilma Ruth Calder\\u00F3n-Chinchilla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación y el uso efi ciente de nitrógeno (UEN en el rendimiento y la calidad del grano de 12 líneas experimentales de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor Moench (L] y dos variedades comerciales ('Soberan' y 'Jocoro' durante el año 2004. Los niveles dec nitrógeno empleados fueron de 0 y 21 kg/ha. Se presentaron interacciones entre las variedades y los niveles de nitrógeno para el rendimiento del grano y el UEN. La aplicación de 21 kg/ha aumentó el rendimiento del grano en 0,9 t/ha (45%, la concentración de N en el grano en 0,3% y la densidad verdadera del grano, con un efecto pequeño en otras variables de la calidad del grano. Se encontraron diferencias entre las líneas para todas las variables de calidad, pero ninguna de las líneas experimentales fue superior a las variedades Soberano y Jocoro. Las líneas ICSVLM-90520, ICSVLM-89537 e ICSVLM-90510 dieron rendimientos similares a Soberano y Jocoro; y ICSVLM-90510 presentó igual o superior calidad del grano, pudiendo ser utilizada para incrementar la diversidad genética.

  15. School Literary Canon and Teaching of Literature in Middle School: A Critical Analysis of High School Programs in El Salvador Canon literario escolar y enseñanza de la literatura en la educación media: Un análisis crítico de los programas de enseñanza secundaria en El Salvador

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    Mauricio Aguilar Ciciliano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the pedagogical-didactic model for the teaching of Literature in Middle School in the Salvadoran Educational system. This is part of a larger work towards a PhD project. The main goal of this project is to characterize the historical process in the construction of this model through a critical analysis of canonization sources. The findings suggest that the teaching of Literature is performed based on a historicist, pro-European, male-based approach. Among the consequences of this type of education are progressive invisibility of women writers and the marginal status of the Salvadoran literature, despite the reformist discourse that postulates gender equality and strengthening of the national identity as central policies in the current educational project.Recibido 20 de marzo de 2013 • Corregido 14 de junio de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013 Este artículo analiza el modelo didáctico-pedagógico para la enseñanza de la literatura en la educación media salvadoreña. Es parte de un trabajo más amplio de tesis doctoral. El objetivo es caracterizar el proceso histórico de conformación de dicho modelo mediante un análisis crítico de las fuentes de canonización. Los hallazgos sugieren que la enseñanza de la literatura se realiza con base en un enfoque historicista, europeizante y masculino; entre las consecuencias de este tipo de enseñanza se encuentran la progresiva invisibilización de la mujer escritora y el estatus marginal que ocupa la literatura salvadoreña, pese al discurso reformista que postula la equidad de género y el fortalecimiento de la identidad nacional como políticas centrales del actual proyecto educativo.Doctor en Educación de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Máster en Derechos Humanos y Educación para la Paz. Licenciado en Letras. Investigador del Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas de la Universidad de El Salvador (CIC-UES. Actualmente labora como profesor de la Universidad de El

  16. Indicadores de recursos humanos en ciencia y tecnología; El Salvador 1999-2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)

    2011-01-01

    El Indicador de Recursos Humanos en Ciencia y Tecnología 1999-2009 analiza por medio de datos estadísticos el siguiente contenido: 1. Oferta Educativa de Educación Superior, 2. Espacios de Infraestructura en la Educación Superior, 3.Cobertura Matricular por las Instituciones de Educación Superior, 4.Estudiantes Inscritos en Educación Superior, 5.Estudiantes Extranjeros en el Sistema de Educación Superior, 6.Graduados en Educación Superior, 7.Evolución de Graduados en Educación Superior Á...

  17. Indicadores de recursos humanos en ciencia y tecnología; El Salvador 1999-2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT); Marroquín, William; Alens, Doris Salinas de; Alegría Coto, José Roberto; Ledesma, Sonia Montoya de

    2013-01-01

    El Indicador de Recursos Humanos en Ciencia y Tecnología 1999-2011 analiza por medio de datos estadísticos el siguiente contenido: 1. Oferta Educativa de Educación Superior, 2. Espacios de Infraestructura en la Educación Superior, 3.Cobertura Matricular por las Instituciones de Educación Superior, 4.Estudiantes Inscritos en Educación Superior, 5.Estudiantes Extranjeros en el Sistema de Educación Superior, 6.Graduados en Educación Superior, 7.Evolución de Graduados en Educación Superior Á...

  18. Concepción del bien común en el pensamiento de Salvador Cisneros Betancourt: fundamento ético de un pensamiento político

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    Lic. Yudith Sotomayor-Gil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se centra en el tratamiento teórico y desarrollo histórico de la categoría ética de bien común y su presencia, como fundamento, en el pensamiento político de Salvador Cisneros Betancourt, figura notoria y controversial de la historia de Cuba. Este tema, que se revela como continuidad de la tradición ética en que se sostiene el pensamiento cubano desde su momento fundacional, no ha recibido un tratamiento sistemático en la literatura filosófica cubana actual. El análisis de los documentos, en especial los que se inscriben entre 1902 y 1914, permite apreciar que, aunque no la aborde de forma explícita, la concepción del bien común permea el quehacer intelectual de Cisneros en esos años.

  19. HACIA LA CONFIGURACIÓN DE UNA NACIÓN CON DEMOCRACIA: ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO SOBRE LUGARES DE MEMORIA DE LOS MOVIMIENTOS ESTUDIANTILES EN EL SALVADOR Y MÉXICO

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    Miguel Ángel Villela Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo describe cómo los movimientos estudiantiles de El Salvador y México realizan conmemoraciones anuales sobre las masacres que sufrieron en sus respectivos momentos y explica por qué es tan importante para ellos continuar con el recuerdo de los «mártires». Además, muestra la forma en que estas conmemoraciones buscan trascender en proyectos de nación. TOWARD THE CONFIGURATION OF A NATION WITH DEMOCRACY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SITES OF MEMORY OF STUDENT MOVEMENTS IN EL SALVADOR AND MEXICO This paper describes how the student movements in El Salvador and Mexico perform annual commemorations of the massacres they suffered and explains why it is so important for them to continue the memory of the «martyrs». It also shows how these commemorations seek to configure projects of nation.

  20. Proyectos pilotos WHIX de energía renovable y seguridad ambiental en El Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Córdova, Carlos Roberto

    2008-01-01

    El Programa WHIX aporta proyectos de Energía y Medio Ambiente para abrir un diálogo entre los militares de la Región, organizaciones gubernamentales y no-gubernamentales y sus equivalentes en los EE.UU. Este programa cataliza proyectos de energía renovable y el medioambiente para demostrar y validar estas tecnologías en los países de la región. Al mismo tiempo provee un foro de intercambio internacional de las “Mejores Prácticas” y la oportunidad de trabajar en conjunto en promisorias investi...

  1. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  2. Predicting carbon benefits from climate-smart agriculture: High-resolution carbon mapping and uncertainty assessment in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Coops, Nicholas C; Chan, Kai M A; Fonte, Steven J; Siles, Pablo; Smukler, Sean M

    2017-11-01

    Agroforestry management in smallholder agriculture can provide climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits and has been promoted as 'climate-smart agriculture' (CSA), yet has generally been left out of international and voluntary carbon (C) mitigation agreements. A key reason for this omission is the cost and uncertainty of monitoring C at the farm scale in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes. A largely overlooked alternative is to monitor C at more aggregated scales and develop C contracts with groups of land owners, community organizations or C aggregators working across entire landscapes (e.g., watersheds, communities, municipalities, etc.). In this study we use a 100-km 2 agricultural area in El Salvador to demonstrate how high-spatial resolution optical satellite imagery can be used to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) C at the landscape scale with very low uncertainty (95% probability of a deviation of less than 1%). Uncertainty of AGWB-C estimates remained low (agricultural lands in the study area, and that utilizing AGWB-C maps to target denuded areas could increase C gains per unit area by 46%. The potential value of C credits under a plausible adoption scenario would range from $38,270 to $354,000 yr -1 for the study area, or about $13 to $124 ha -1  yr -1 , depending on C prices. Considering farm sizes in smallholder landscapes rarely exceed 1-2 ha, relying solely on direct C payments to farmers may not lead to widespread CSA adoption, especially if farm-scale monitoring is required. Instead, landscape-scale approaches to C contracting, supported by satellite-based monitoring methods such as ours, could be a key strategy to reduce costs and uncertainty of C monitoring in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes, thereby incentivizing more widespread CSA adoption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Dyslipidemia, Diet and Physical Exercise in Children on Treatment With Antiretroviral Medication in El Salvador: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Sagrado, Maria José; Escobar, Gustavo; Lazzerini, Marzia; Rivas, Estefanie; Martín-Cañavate, Rocio; Pérez de López, Elsy; Ayala, Sandra; Castaneda, Luis; Aparicio, Pilar; Custodio, Estefanía

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemias are common in HIV-infected children, especially if treated with protease inhibitors, but there are few data on how to treat dyslipidemias in this population. We estimated the dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with treatment, diet and physical exercise in children on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). Information was gathered regarding socio-demographic characteristics, treatment, diet and physical activity of 173 children aged 5-18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), viral load and CD4 T-lymphocytes were measured. Abnormal concentrations were defined as triglycerides ≥130 mg/dL in 10- to 18-year olds and ≥100 mg/dL in diet and physical exercise. Of the 173 children, 83 (48%) had hypertriglyceridemia and 25 (14.5%) hypercholesterolemia. High LDL-C concentrations were observed in 17 children (9.8%) and low HDL-C in 38 (22%). Treatment with protease inhibitors was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia [prevalence ratio (PR) 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-3.8] and hypercholesterolemia (PR 9.0; 95% CI: 3.6-22.2). Higher adherence to a "high fat/sugar diet" was associated with hypercholesterolemia (PR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) and high LDL-C (PR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.9). Compared with those exercising exercising ≥7 times were less likely to have low HDL-C (PR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7). These results suggest that a healthy diet and exercise habits can contribute to controlling some aspects of the lipid profile in this population.

  4. Coverage of HIV prevention components among people with long-standing diagnosed HIV infection in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jerry O; Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet C; Isabel Nieto, Ana; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-09-01

    There is scarce information on prevention coverage and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in people with HIV in resource-limited settings. Six hundred eighty nine sexually active people diagnosed with HIV ≥12 months before the study, including 110 men who have sex with men, 237 heterosexual men, and 342 women, were recruited from HIV support groups and hospitals in El Salvador and completed self-administered computer-assisted questionnaires and STI testing. Logistic models identified correlates of exposure to posttest counseling (POC) and subsequent prevention interventions (PIs). Past-year transmission risk factors included unprotected sex with noncommercial partners (28.7%), having multiple sex partners (76.4%), a casual sex partner (31.4%), selling (3.5%) and purchasing sex (6.4%), herpes simplex virus type 2 (86.3%), and treatable STIs (18.6%). Men who have sex with men reported more recent casual partners, sex work, and alcohol and drug use than other subgroups. POC (22.8%), PIs (31.3%), and access to advice and information regarding HIV at the point of HIV care (24.1%) were limited. Of subjects with past-year STI symptoms (N = 267), 44.1% had sought medical attention. In multivariate analysis, POC was negatively associated with multiple partners. PI was associated with self-initiated testing, treatable STIs, and female sex. Both outcomes were associated with HIV-related discrimination outside of the health services context. Coverage of POC, PIs, and treatment-seeking for STI symptoms was low among individuals with diagnosed HIV infection, although most were in regular contact with care and treatment. Prevention programs at testing and treatment sites should be intensified and should incorporate risk behavior screening to improve targeting.

  5. Acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling for HPV DNA testing among women in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Alan J; Gage, Julia C; Alfaro, Karla M; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Villalta, Sofia; Miranda, Esmeralda; Cremer, Miriam L

    2014-08-01

    To determine the acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling among women participating in public sector HPV-based cervical cancer screening in El Salvador. Two thousand women aged 30-49 years underwent self-collected and provider-collected sampling with careHPV between October 2012 and March 2013 (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). After sample collection, a random sample of women (n=518) were asked about their experience. Participants were questioned regarding sampling method preference, previous cervical cancer screening, HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, HPV risk factors, and demographic information. All 518 women approached to participate in this questionnaire study agreed and were enrolled, 27.8% (142 of 511 responding) of whom had not received cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years and were considered under-screened. Overall, 38.8% (n=201) preferred self-collection and 31.9% (n=165) preferred provider collection. Self-collection preference was associated with prior tubal ligation, HPV knowledge, future self-sampling preference, and future home-screening preference (P<0.05). Reasons for self-collection preference included privacy/embarrassment, ease, and less pain; reasons cited for provider-collection preference were result accuracy and provider knowledge/experience. Self-sampling was found to be acceptable, therefore screening programs could consider offering this option either in the clinic or at home. Self-sampling at home may increase coverage in low-resource countries and reduce the burden that screening places upon clinical infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a low-cost liquid-based Pap test in rural El Salvador: a split-sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Felix, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    We sought to test the diagnostic efficacy of a low-cost, liquid-based cervical cytology that could be implemented in low-resource settings. A prospective, split-sample Pap study was performed in 595 women attending a cervical cancer screening clinic in rural El Salvador. Collected cervical samples were used to make a conventional Pap (cell sample directly to glass slide), whereas residual material was used to make the liquid-based sample using the ClearPrep method. Selected samples were tested from the residual sample of the liquid-based collection for the presence of high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Of 595 patients, 570 were interpreted with the same diagnosis between the 2 methods (95.8% agreement). There were comparable numbers of unsatisfactory cases; however, ClearPrep significantly increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and decreased the diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. ClearPrep identified an equivalent number of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cases as the conventional Pap. High-risk human papillomavirus was identified in all cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer as well as in 78% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions out of the residual fluid of the ClearPrep vials. The low-cost ClearPrep Pap test demonstrated equivalent detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with the conventional Pap smear and demonstrated the potential for ancillary molecular testing. The test seems a viable option for implementation in low-resource settings.

  7. Assessment of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in El Salvador based on an Artificial Neural Network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. García-Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility using artificial neural networks (ANNs. The computational method used for the training process is a back-propagation learning algorithm. It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred on 13 January 2001 (Mw 7.7 and 13 February 2001 (Mw 6.6. The first one triggered more than 600 landslides (including the most tragic, Las Colinas landslide and killed at least 844 people.

    The ANN is designed and programmed to develop landslide susceptibility analysis techniques at a regional scale. This approach uses an inventory of landslides and different parameters of slope instability: slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness. The information obtained from ANN is then used by a Geographic Information System (GIS to map the landslide susceptibility. In a previous work, a Logistic Regression (LR was analysed with the same parameters considered in the ANN as independent variables and the occurrence or non-occurrence of landslides as dependent variables. As a result, the logistic approach determined the importance of terrain roughness and soil type as key factors within the model. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis with ANN are checked using landslide location data. These results show a high concordance between the landslide inventory and the high susceptibility estimated zone. Finally, a comparative analysis of the ANN and LR models are made. The advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.

  8. Chemical and physical reservoir parameters at initial conditions in Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador: a first assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Amore, F. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). International Institute for Geothermal Research ; Mejia, J.T. [Comision Ejuctiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa, El Salvador (El Salvador)

    1999-02-01

    A study has been made to obtain the main chemical and physical reservoir conditions of the Berlin field (El Salvador), before the commencement of large-scale exploitation of the geothermal resource. The upflow zone and the main flow path within the geothermal system have been determined from the area distribution of chemical parameters such as Cl concentrations, ratios such as Na/K, K/Mg, K/Ca, and temperatures computed from silica concentrations and cation ratios. Gas compositions have been used to calculate reservoir parameters such as temperature, steam fraction and P{sub CO{sub 2}}. The computer code WATCH (new edition 1994) has been used to evaluate the temperature of equilibrium between the aqueous species and selected alteration minerals in the reservoir. The fluid in Berlin flows to the exploited reservoir from the south, entering it in the vicinity of well TR-5. Along its flow-path (south-north direction), the fluid is cooled by boiling and conductive cooling. The chloride-enthalpy diagram indicates the existence of a parent water, with a chemical composition similar to well TR-5, that boils and the residual brine produces the fluid of well TR-3, which is very concentrated in salts. The fluid of TR-5 is probably produced from this parent water, generating the fluids of wells TR-2 and TR-9 by boiling, and the fluids of wells TR-1 and TR-4 by conductive cooling. The computed values for the deep steam fraction clearly indicate that this is a liquid-dominated system, with computed temperature values decreasing from 310{sup o}C (upflow zone) to about 230{sup o}C, from south to north. (author)

  9. Assessment of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in El Salvador based on an Artificial Neural Network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M. J.; Malpica, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computational method used for the training process is a back-propagation learning algorithm. It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred on 13 January 2001 (Mw 7.7) and 13 February 2001 (Mw 6.6). The first one triggered more than 600 landslides (including the most tragic, Las Colinas landslide) and killed at least 844 people. The ANN is designed and programmed to develop landslide susceptibility analysis techniques at a regional scale. This approach uses an inventory of landslides and different parameters of slope instability: slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness. The information obtained from ANN is then used by a Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the landslide susceptibility. In a previous work, a Logistic Regression (LR) was analysed with the same parameters considered in the ANN as independent variables and the occurrence or non-occurrence of landslides as dependent variables. As a result, the logistic approach determined the importance of terrain roughness and soil type as key factors within the model. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis with ANN are checked using landslide location data. These results show a high concordance between the landslide inventory and the high susceptibility estimated zone. Finally, a comparative analysis of the ANN and LR models are made. The advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves.

  10. Earthquakes and Volcanic Processes at San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador, Determined from a Small, Temporary Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, S.; Schiek, C. G.; Zeiler, C. P.; Velasco, A. A.; Hurtado, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The San Miguel volcano lies within the Central American volcanic chain in eastern El Salvador. The volcano has experienced at least 29 eruptions with Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI) of 2. Since 1970, however, eruptions have decreased in intensity to an average of VEI 1, with the most recent eruption occurring in 2002. Eruptions at San Miguel volcano consist mostly of central vent and phreatic eruptions. A critical challenge related to the explosive nature of this volcano is to understand the relationships between precursory surface deformation, earthquake activity, and volcanic activity. In this project, we seek to determine sub-surface structures within and near the volcano, relate the local deformation to these structures, and better understand the hazard that the volcano presents in the region. To accomplish these goals, we deployed a six station, broadband seismic network around San Miguel volcano in collaboration with researchers from Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET). This network operated continuously from 23 March 2007 to 15 January 2008 and had a high data recovery rate. The data were processed to determine earthquake locations, magnitudes, and, for some of the larger events, focal mechanisms. We obtained high precision locations using a double-difference approach and identified at least 25 events near the volcano. Ongoing analysis will seek to identify earthquake types (e.g., long period, tectonic, and hybrid events) that occurred in the vicinity of San Miguel volcano. These results will be combined with radar interferometric measurements of surface deformation in order to determine the relationship between surface and subsurface processes at the volcano.

  11. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    distributed as the income of the richest 10% of the population is 47 times higher than that of the poorest 10%. Although migration has reduced rural ... Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo Humano,” October 2009. 17 United Nations...poverty. The compact includes (1) $88 million for technical assistance and financial services to farmers and rural businesses; (2) $100 million to

  12. Unearthing The Eruptive Personality Of El Salvador's Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano Though In-depth Stratigraphic Analysis Of Pre-1904 Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, E.; Martinez-Hackert, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) volcano (2384 m) in densely populated El Salvador Central America presents serious volcanic hazard potential. The volcano is a prevalent part of every day life in El Salvador; the sugarcane and coffee belt of the country are to its Southern and Western flanks, recreational areas lies to its East, and second and third largest cities of El Salvador exist within its 25 km radius. Understanding the eruptive characteristics and history is imperative due to the volcano's relative size (the highest in the country) and it's explosive, composite nature. Historical records indicate at least 9 potential VEI 3 eruptions since 1521 AD. The volcano's relative inaccessibility and potential hazards do not promote a vast reservoir of research activity, as can be seen in the scarcity of published papers on topics prior to the 1904 eruption. This research represents the first steps towards creating a comprehensive stratigraphic record of the crater and characterizing its eruptive history, with an eventual goal of recreating the volcanic structure prior to its collapse. Samples of pre-1904 eruptive material were taken from the southern wall of an E-W oriented fluvial gully located within the SSW of the tertiary crater. These were analyzed using thin sections and optical microscopy, grain size distribution techniques, and scanning electron microscopy. The 15-layer sequence indicates an explosive history characterized by intense phreatomagmatic phases, plinian, sub-plinian and basaltic/andesitic composition strombolian activity. Another poster within the session will discuss an older sequence within the walls of the secondary crater. Further detailed studies will be required to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of Santa Ana Volcano.

  13. Drug resistance prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected pediatric populations in Honduras and El Salvador during 1989-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguín, Africa; Erazo, Karen; Escobar, Gustavo; de Mulder, Miguel; Yebra, Gonzalo; Martín, Leticia; Jovel, Luis Enrique; Castaneda, Luis; Pérez, Elsy

    2011-05-01

    Emergence of viral resistance is a major obstacle for antiretroviral treatment (ART) effectiveness. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) variants and drug-resistance mutations were identified in naive and antiretroviral drug-experienced children with virologic failure, in Honduras and El Salvador. Dried blood spots (DBS) from 80 individuals (54 from Honduras, 26 from El Salvador) infected during their childhood between 1989 and 2009 were collected in 2009. The HIV pol region was amplified and sequenced to identify antiretroviral-resistant mutations according to the 2009 International AIDS Society. The genotypic drug resistance interpretation was performed using the Stanford algorithm. HIV-1 variants were characterized by phylogenetic analysis and subtyping tools. HIV-1 protease and reverse transcription sequences were obtained from DBS specimens in 71 and 66 patients, respectively, of the 80 patients. All children were native Central Americans carrying subtype B, with a mean age of 9 years, most were male (65%), perinatally infected (96%), with moderate/severe AIDS symptoms (70%), and receiving first line ART at the time of sequencing (65%). Diagnostic delay was frequently observed. Infected children from Honduras presented longer ART experience and clinical outcomes, and more frequent severe symptoms. Resistant variants infected 1 of 11 naive children from El Salvador but none of the perinatally infected naive children from Honduras. Resistance was higher among ART-exposed individuals in both countries and similar for protease inhibitors (16%), nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors (44%-52%), and nonnucleoside reverse-transcription inhibitors (66.7%). One in 10 pretreated children in each country was infected with resistant viruses to the 3 drug families. Our data support the need for continued surveillance of resistance patterns using DBS at national levels among naive and pretreated children to optimize the ART regimens.

  14. Patterns and predictors of current cigarette smoking in women and men of reproductive age-Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina M; Dietz, Patricia M; England, Lucinda J

    2011-09-01

    To estimate smoking prevalence by gender, describe patterns of cigarette use, and identify predictors of current smoking in reproductive-age adults in four Latin American countries. Self-reported smoking was examined using data from Reproductive Health Surveys of women aged 15-49 years in Ecuador (2004), El Salvador (2002-2003), Guatemala (2002), and Honduras (2001), and of men aged 15-59 years in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras for the same years. Current smoking was assessed by demographic characteristics, and independent associations were examined using logistic regression. Data were weighted to be nationally representative of households with reproductive-age women and men. Current smoking prevalence ranged from 2.6% (Guatemala) to 13.1% (Ecuador) for women and from 23.1% (Guatemala) to 34.9% (El Salvador) for men. In Ecuador, 67.6% of female smokers were non-daily users; in other countries, daily use was more prevalent than non-daily use for both men and women. In daily users, the median number of cigarettes smoked per day ranged from 1.9 (Ecuador, Honduras) to 2.3 (Guatemala) for women and from 2.1 (Guatemala) to 3.6 (Honduras) for men. In bivariate analysis, smoking prevalence in all countries was highest in women who lived in urban areas, were previously married, and/or had high socioeconomic status. Risk factors for smoking varied by country and gender. National tobacco control programs in these countries should aggressively target high-risk populations (reproductive-age men) and maintain low prevalence in low-risk populations (reproductive-age women). More research is needed to understand addiction patterns in non-daily smokers.

  15. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone by integrating geodetic, seismological and geological data: application in seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, A.; Benito, B.; Martínez-Díaz, J.; Hernández, D.; Hernández-Rey, R.

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90-100E direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  16. Earthquakes in El Salvador: a descriptive study of health concerns in a rural community and the clinical implications--part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woersching, Joanna C; Snyder, Audrey E

    2004-01-01

    Results reported in Part I of the Earthquakes in El Salvador series (see Disaster Management & Response 2003;1:105-9) indicated clinically relevant findings. The findings indicated a need for greater public health action within all five categories reviewed: healthcare, access to healthcare, housing, food, water and sanitation. Significant results between urban and rural communities indicated a need for broader community aid, public health and sanitation services to rural areas. Faster and more efficient disaster management and care services throughout the San Sebastian community were also necessary modifications.

  17. Colecta y establecimiento de anonáceas en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El Centro Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria y Forestal (CENTA, a través de la Unidad de Recursos Fitogenéticos, inició en 1998 un diagnóstico geográfico de especies de anonáceas, con el objetivo de explorar, recolectar, caracterizar y establecer colecciones de campo en las Estaciones Experimentales. Las características evaluadas para frutos fueron: peso, largo y diámetro, número de semillas, textura de cáscara y pulpa; forma de fruto y cárpelos, daño por plagas y enfermedades y un análisis bromatológico. Como resultado de este trabajo se estableció la colección de anonáceas con las siguientes especies: squamosa, cherimola, reticulata, muricata, purpurea, diversifolia, holosericea y glabra. En la caracterización morfológica preliminar Annona muricata obtuvo un promedio de 175 semillas/fruto y 1,319 g en peso del fruto. A. cherimola con pulpa muy arenosa y carpelos no prominentes. A. squamosa con pulpa dulce, blanca y cárpelos muy prominentes. De la caracterización bromatológica se determinó que Annona muricata dio contenidos de humedad superiores a 82,8%; fibra cruda de 1,84% y fósforo con 367 ppm. En Annona diversifolia con menor grasa 0,01%. La mayor incidencia por plagas en frutos y semillas fue causado por el perforador Bephrateloides sp. La antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. en frutos y follaje fue la enfermedad más observada

  18. Gestión de cuencas y seguridad alimentaria en El Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado Mejía, Jorge Adalberto

    2008-01-01

    A partir de los años 60, los cambios en los modelos de producción en el área rural se han visto acelerados, con la introducción de las semillas mejoradas, los fertilizantes químicos y los pesticidas, lo cual produjo incrementos en la producción mundial de alimentos, debido a que las semillas, fertilizantes y los pesticidas producen efectivamente cosechas más abundantes, esta situación hacía suponer que se alejaba la escasez mundial de alimentos en relación al crecimiento poblacional.

  19. La política de capacitación como un mecanismo para la mejora de su competitividad: análisis del sector maderero en el distrito de Villa el Salvador - Lima Metropolitana

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Quiñones, Merlita Melina

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación analiza la relación entre competitividad y capacitación en la industria manufacturera maderera de los empresarios fabricantes de muebles, otros productos de madera y de partes y piezas de carpintería localizados en el Parque Industrial de Villa El Salvador de Lima Metropolitana inscritas en el Registro Nacional de la Micro y Pequeña Empresa – REMYPE1. Se han revisado diferentes enfoques sobre Competitividad, desarrollo empresarial, capacitación y...

  20. El impacto de las instituciones internacionales en la formulación de políticas de educación en países pequeños : el caso de El Salvador = The impact of international institutions on education policymaking in small states : the case of El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Edwards Jr.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el poder institucional de la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional (USAID en el proceso de la formulación de políticas educativas en El Salvador, durante el período 2003-2005. Los resultados muestran cómo las instituciones bilaterales y multilaterales aprovechan del capital financiero y académico para orientar los procesos de formación de políticas e influenciar en la decisión sobre cuáles políticas son las más aceptables y deseables. Como se podrá ver, una muestra de esta influencia es la manera en que USAID fue capaz de manipular los procesos de formación de políticas al organizar eventos importantes y producir información esencial que dieron lugar a futuros eventos y posteriores oportunidades para presentar y sobredimensionar sus investigaciones. Además, esta investigación enfatiza que un liderazgo excepcional y una voluntad política a nivel nacional pueden ser insuficientes para evitar las agendas promovidas por instituciones internacionales. Finalmente, se sugiere que la investigación educativa en países pequeños refleje la noción de pequeñez en el enfoque de la capacidad institucional.This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway which policies are seen as acceptable and desirable. As is show, one key to this influence is how USAID was able to manipulate the policymaking process by creating key events and producing key informational inputs that led to future events and subsequent opportunities to present and emphasize their research. Additionally, this research underscores how even exceptional leadership and political will at the national level can be insufficient to avoid the

  1. Pesquisaje activo de sospechas de reacciones adversas a medicamentos en el Hospital "Dr. Salvador Allende: Primer semestre 2006 Active screening of suspicions of adverse reactions to drugs in "Dr. Salvador Allende" Hospital: First semester 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rego Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo mediante la revisión diaria del movimiento hospitalario, obtenido en el Departamento de Registros Médicos del Hospital "Dr. Salvador Allende" desde enero hasta junio de 2006 a fin de poder identificar los ingresos susceptibles de ser reacciones adversas a medicamentos, con el objetivo de detectar la frecuencia de ingresos por sospechas de reacciones adversas a medicamentos, así como de caracterizar a estos pacientes. Se llenó una planilla de notificación para cada sospecha de reacción adversa y se analizaron los datos contenidos en las historias clínicas respectivas. Se utilizó una base de Excel diseñada al efecto por el Centro para el Desarrollo de la Farmacoepidemiología. Ingresaron 6 201 pacientes, de los cuales 384 eran susceptibles de tener una reacción adversa a medicamentos (6,2 % y finalmente, se consideraron 57 pacientes cuyo motivo de ingreso se relacionó con algún medicamento (0,9 %. El 66,7 % de los casos eran mayores de 60 años de edad, sin diferencias en cuanto al sexo. Los grupos farmacológicos con mayores afectaciones fueron los analgésicos no opiodes (59,7 % y los antibacterianos (19,4 %. El sangramiento digestivo alto resultó la reacción adversa que más se encontró (57,9 %, con predominio en mayores de 60 años de edad (72,7 %; el ácido acetilsalicílico estuvo presente en el 66,7 % de los casos con este diagnóstico. En el75,5 % de los casos la reacción se consideró como graveA descriptive study was conducted by the daily revision of hospital movement obtained in the Department of Medical Registries of "Dr. Salvador Allende" Hospital from January to June, 2006, aimed at identifying the admissions susceptible to adverse reactions to drugs to detect the frequency of admissions due to suspicions of adverse reactions to drugs, as well as to characterize these patients. A notification form was filled in per each suspicion of adverse reaction, and the data contained in the

  2. Determining Volcanic Deformation at San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador by Integrating Radar Interferometry and Seismic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiek, C. G.; Hurtado, J. M.; Velasco, A. A.; Buckley, S. M.; Escobar, D.

    2008-12-01

    From the early 1900's to the present day, San Miguel volcano has experienced many small eruptions and several periods of heightened seismic activity, making it one of the most active volcanoes in the El Salvadoran volcanic chain. Prior to 1969, the volcano experienced many explosive eruptions with Volcano Explosivity Indices (VEI) of 2. Since then, eruptions have decreased in intensity to an average VEI of 1. Eruptions mostly consist of phreatic explosions and central vent eruptions. Due to the explosive nature of this volcano, it is important to study the origins of the volcanism and its relationship to surface deformation and earthquake activity. We analyze these interactions by integrating interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) results with earthquake source location data from a ten-month (March 2007-January 2008) seismic deployment. The InSAR results show a maximum of 7 cm of volcanic inflation from March 2007 to mid-October 2007. During this time, seismic activity increased to a Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) value of >400. Normal RSAM values for this volcano are earthquakes that occurred between March 2007 and January 2008 suggests a fault zone through the center of the San Miguel volcanic cone. This fault zone is most likely where dyke propagation is occurring. Source mechanisms will be determined for the earthquakes associated with this fault zone, and they will be compared to the InSAR deformation field to determine if the mid-October seismic activity and observed surface deformation are compatible.

  3. Du labyrinthe à la ville imaginaire : El hipogeo secreto de Salvador Elizondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Benmiloud

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’article se propose d’étudier le roman El hipogeo secreto comme univers de fiction expérimental et « limite ». Construit autour de la quête d’un hypogée secret par des personnages désincarnés, réduits à l’état de phénomènes textuels, le roman se présente d’abord comme un « labyrinthe de labyrinthes », hanté par les monstres et les mythes. Mais la quête de l’hypogée secret se double bientôt de celle d’une ville imaginaire et idéale, Polt, qui n’est autre que la métaphore du Livre que nous voyons s’écrire sous nos yeux, grâce à une pratique auto-référentielle poussée à son paroxysme. C’est finalement Rome, Venise ou la Jérusalem Céleste que l’on devine tour à tour derrière Polt, au gré d’une réflexion aiguë sur le fait littéraire et scriptural, qui nous conduit, en dernière instance, vers le Royaume d’Utopie qu’est toujours l’univers de fiction.

  4. Periodismo en El Salvador. El “refrito” o plagio en las salas de redacción de los medios informativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alfredo Cantarero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los medios de comunicación en El Salvador, cuando producen la noticia y la distribuyen, utilizan información de fuentes documentales -escritas, audiovisuales o de internet-, suelen no citar las fuentes que han utilizado Sin duda, este mal no es exclusivo de los medios locales, se expresa internacionalmente. El problema, en el marco del desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías y los enormes volúmenes de información a los que se tiene acceso, se ha extendido y complicado todavía más. Por esto, en el ámbito internacional editores, asociaciones de periodistas y medios de comunicación, están preocupados por atenuar el problema a través de una serie de disposiciones legales y éticas. En nuestro país este problema parece tan natural en el campo profesional de las comunicaciones, se constituye en una de las defraudaciones más comunes, que son reconocidas deontológicamente. A pesar de este reconocimiento por los periodistas, cotidianamente es un problema que no se discute seriamente y se gestiona política, cultural y jurídicamente un proceso de abordaje y solución. En una democracia incipiente y frágil como la nuestra todavía no se han instaurado los mecanismos jurídicos efectivos que garanticen un régimen responsable de los derechos de autor, especialmente los derechos de los periodistas. Las leyes existentes que fomentan y protegen los derechos de autor sólo se refieren a otras áreas profesionales como la arquitectura, la plástica, la literatura y los productos industriales y comerciales. No aplican en el campo del periodismo.Los derechos de autor reconocidos se caracterizan por su generalidad. No abarca específicamente la actividad periodística, es decir, no abarca los derechos y los deberes jurídicos en el uso de informaciones o datos y compensaciones económicos por los derechos de publicación de informaciones por otros medios nacionales o extranjeros.Con la finalidad de aportar a la construcción de una pr

  5. A closely-spaced magnetotelluric study of the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo, Jose Manuel; Flores, Carlos; Vega, Raymundo; Vazquez, Rogelio; Flores, Marco A. Perez; Trevino, Enrique Gomez; Esparza, Francisco J; Garcia, Victor H [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Quijano, Julio E [Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL), Santa Tecla (El Salvador)

    1997-12-01

    The distribution of electrical conductivity beneath the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa geothermal area was simulated using 2-D models based on 126 closely-spaced magnetotelluric (MT) measurements. The observed MT response was interpreted as being produced by the superposition of two orthogonal geological structural systems: an approximately E-W regional trend associated with the Central Graben structure, which affects the loner period response, and a local and younger N-S fault system that is responsible for the short-to-intermediate period data. The MT response in the 0.02-10 s range period was used to simulate the conductivity structure within the first 2 km depth. By correlating the low-resistivity zones between twelve 2-D models, maps of the spatial distribution of conductors at three different depth levels were constructed. Three deep conductors were identified, one of the associated with the Ahuachapan reservoir, another apparently related to the Laguna Verde volcano, and a third one controlled by El Tortuguero Graben. The subsurface geometry of these conductivity anomalies suggests that the the Chipilapa and La Labor hot springs are supplied by two separate sources of hot fluids, one coming from the east and the other from the south or southwest. The distribution of the shallow high-conductivity zones agrees with the hydrothermal alteration zones mapped at the surface, suggesting that at shallow levels the argillitization process contributes significantly to the low resistivity. The large number of drillholes and the dense MT site coverage allowed the definition of important correlations between high temperatures and high conductivity, as well as between deep conductivity anomalies and productive wells. On this basis two years for future drilling are proposed. (Author)

  6. Tectonic interpretation of the 13 february 2001, mw 6.6, El Salvador Earthquake: New evidences of coseismic surface rupture and paleoseismic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Canora, C.; Villamor, P.; Capote, R.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Berryman, K.; Bejar, M.; Tsige, M.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2001 a major strike slip earthquake stroke the central part of El Salvador causing hundreds of people killed, thousands injured and extensive damage. After this event the scientific effort was mainly focused on the study of the enormous and catastrophic landslides triggered by this event and no evidences of surface faulting were detected. This earthquake was produced by the reactivation of the Ilopango-San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Recently, a surface rupture displacement on the ground was identified. The analysis of aerial and field photographs taken few hours after the event and the mapping of the conserved ground structures shows a pure strike-slip displacement ranging from 20 to 50 cm, with secondary features indicating dextral shearing. The paleoseismic analysis made through the excavation of six trenches and Radiocarbon dating indicate a minimum slip rate of 2.0 mm/yr and a recurrence of major ruptures (Mw > 6.5) lower than 500 yr. These evidences give interesting local data to increase our understanding about the tectonic behavior and the way how active deformation develops along the northern limit of the forearc sliver related to the Centroamerican subduction area.

  7. The 2012 August 27 Mw7.3 El Salvador earthquake: expression of weak coupling on the Middle America subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter C.; DeMets, Charles; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Mattioli, Glen S.; Rogers, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel; Marroquin, Griselda; Tenorio, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Subduction zones exhibit variable degrees of interseismic coupling as resolved by inversions of geodetic data and analyses of seismic energy release. The degree to which a plate boundary fault is coupled can have profound effects on its seismogenic behaviour. Here we use GPS measurements to estimate co- and post-seismic deformation from the 2012 August 27, Mw7.3 megathrust earthquake offshore El Salvador, which was a tsunami earthquake. Inversions of estimated coseismic displacements are in agreement with published seismically derived source models, which indicate shallow (earthquake exceeds the coseismic deformation. Our analysis indicates that the post-seismic deformation is dominated by afterslip, as opposed to viscous relaxation, and we estimate a post-seismic moment release one to eight times greater than the coseismic moment during the first 500 d, depending on the relative location of coseismic versus post-seismic slip on the plate interface. We suggest that the excessive post-seismic motion is characteristic for the El Salvador-Nicaragua segment of the Central American margin and may be a characteristic of margins hosting tsunami earthquakes.

  8. Osteoporosis-related life habits and knowledge about osteoporosis among women in El Salvador: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Garcia Sandra

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder, characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone structure, increased bone fragility, and increased fracture risk. It is more frequent to find among women than men at a 4:1 ratio. Evidence suggests that to adopt changes on some life habits can prevent or delay development of osteoporosis. Several osteoporosis-risk factors have been confirmed in the US and western Europe, but in El Salvador there are neither reliable epidemiological statistics about this skeletal disorder nor studies addressing osteoporosis-risk factors in women. The aim of this study was to determinate the extent of osteoporosis knowledge, the levels of both daily calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity, and the influence of several osteoporosis-risk factors on these variables in three age groups of Salvadorean women. Methods In this exploratory cross-sectional study, an osteoporosis knowledge assessment questionnaire incluiding a food frequency and a physical activity record section were used to collect data and it was delivered through a face-to-face interview. A convenience sample (n = 197 comprised of three groups of women aged 25–35 years, 36–49 years, and over 49 years was taken. Among-group comparisons of means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. To determinate the overall influence of osteoporosis-risk factors, the multivariate analysis was used. Results Study results indicated that better educated women had more knowledge about osteoporosis than women with a low education level, regardless of age, even though this knowledge was rather fair. Older women got more weight-bearing physical activity at home and less at place of employment than reported by the younger women; however, neither group performed sufficient high-intensity WBPA to improve bone mass. Regardless of age, the most women consumed 60% or less than the Dietary Reference Intake of calcium and depend on household income

  9. Anomalous Diffuse CO2 Emission Changes at San Vicente Volcano Related to Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.; Barahona, F.; Olmos, R.; Cartagena, R.; Soriano, T.; Notsu, K.; Lopez, D.

    2001-12-01

    San Vicente or Chichontepeque (2,180 m a.s.l.) is a composite andesitic volcano located 50 Km east of San Salvador. Its paired edifice rises from the so-called Central Graben, an extensional structure parallel to the Pacific coast, and has been inactive for the last 3000 yrs. Fumaroles (98.2°C ) and hot spring waters are present along radial faults at two localities on the northern slope of the volcano (Aguas Agrias and El Infiernillo). CO2 is the most abundant component in the dry gas (>90%) and its mean isotopic composition (δ 13C(CO2)=-2.11 ‰ and 3He/4He of 6.9 Ra) suggests a magmatic origin for the CO2. These manifestations are supposed to be linked to a 1,200 m depth 250°C reservoir with a CO2 partial pressure of 14 bar extended beneath the volcano (Aiuppa et al., 1997). In February 13, 2001, a 6.6 magnitude earthquake with epicenter about 20 Km W of San Vicente damaged and destroyed many towns and villages in the north area of the volcano causing some deceases. In addition, two seismic swarms were recorded beneath the northeastern flank of the volcano in April and May 2001. Searching for any link between the actual seismic activity and changes in the diffuse CO2 degassing at San Vicente, an NDIR instrument for continuos monitoring of the diffuse CO2 degassing was set up at Aguas Agrias in March 2001. Soil CO2 efflux and several meteorological and soil physical variables were measured in an hourly basis. Very significative pre-seismic and post-seismic relationships have been found in the observed diffuse CO2 efflux temporal variations related to the May 2001 seismic swarms. A sustained 50% increase on the average diffuse CO2 efflux was observed 8 days before the May 8, 5.1 magnitude earthquake. This pre-seismic behaviour may be considered a precursor of the May 2001 seismic swarm at San Vicente volcano. However, about a three-fold increase in the diffuse CO2 efflux was also observed after the intense seismicity recorded on May 8-9. These preliminary

  10. Implications of different digital elevation models and preprocessing techniques to delineate debris flow inundation hazard zones in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy rains and steep, volcanic slopes in El Salvador cause numerous landslides every year, posing a persistent threat to the population, economy and environment. Although potential debris inundation hazard zones have been delineated using digital elevation models (DEMs), some disparities exist between the simulated zones and actual affected areas. Moreover, these hazard zones have only been identified for volcanic lahars and not the shallow landslides that occur nearly every year. This is despite the availability of tools to delineate a variety of landslide types (e.g., the USGS-developed LAHARZ software). Limitations in DEM spatial resolution, age of the data, and hydrological preprocessing techniques can contribute to inaccurate hazard zone definitions. This study investigates the impacts of using different elevation models and pit filling techniques in the final debris hazard zone delineations, in an effort to determine which combination of methods most closely agrees with observed landslide events. In particular, a national DEM digitized from topographic sheets from the 1970s and 1980s provide an elevation product at a 10 meter resolution. Both natural and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain limit the accuracy of current landslide hazard assessments derived from this source. Global products from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER GDEM) offer more recent data but at the cost of spatial resolution. New data derived from the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in 2013 provides the opportunity to update hazard zones at a higher spatial resolution (approximately 6 meters). Hydrological filling of sinks or pits for current hazard zone simulation has previously been achieved through ArcInfo spatial analyst. Such hydrological processing typically only fills pits and can lead to drastic modifications of original elevation values

  11. Sobre el ángel t-101, el exterminador t-1000, el salvador, la mujer y el dragón de celuloide

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    Martha Marín C.

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Sobre una de las películas preferidas por el público receptor de cine de Bogotá, el ensayo que sigue es un ejemplo del análisis semiotextual que intenta integrar los componentes cinematográficos, de representación, las estructuras narrativas y de comunicación presentes en el film. Su propósito es descubrir una matriz de lectura como universo o eje de sentido -en este caso denominada apocalíptica/tecnológica- y acercarse al mundo simbólico-imaginario allí objetivado, para realizar una caracterización del espectador “previsto por la película”.

  12. La importancia de la percepción de los stakeholders en la comprensión del impacto El programa del Sistema Básico de Salud Integral (Sibasi) y la calidad del servicio de salud primaria en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Jill

    2007-01-01

    El presente documento recoge los resultados de una evaluación preeliminar, a la fecha, del impacto del programa Sibasi – Sistema Básico de Salud Integral— en la calidad de la atención en salud en El Salvador, utilizando una metodología que examina las percepciones de los stakeholders, entre los cuales se encuentran formuladores de política, profesionales de la salud y miembros de la comunidad. El documento presenta una breve revista a la reforma del sistema de salud en El Salvador y perfila ...

  13. Proyectos, debates y críticas en torno a la vivienda obrera en el Noroeste argentino. San Salvador de Jujuy (1930-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerez, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo se inserta dentro del conjunto de estudios que analizan a la vivienda obrera en la Argentina. Tiene como objetivo examinar los diseños y programas habitacionales elaborados durante los años previos a la irrupción del primer peronismo en la ciudad capital de la provincia de Jujuy: San Salvador de Jujuy. En esta tarea se presta atención a los debates, críticas y revisiones en torno a los diversos proyectos de vivienda obrera en un distrito del Noroeste argentino. Asimismo se pretende destacar las líneas de encuentro y particularidades de estos programas en relación a lo acontecido en otros puntos del país. Abstract This article is inserted into a set of studies that analyze the workers' housing in Argentina. It aims to examine the designs and housing programs developed during the years before the emergence of the Peronismo in the capital city of the province of Jujuy: San Salvador de Jujuy. The attention is focused in the discussions and reviews around the different projects of working class houses in a district of the Northwestern Argentina. It also pretends to give importance to similar lines and particularities of these programs related to other areas of the country.

  14. IDRC in El Salvador

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During the 1970s and 1980s, civil conflict stifled opportunities for research. Follow- ing the 1992 peace agreement ... edge needed to build management skills among small agro-enterprise owners. These alliances also ... IDRC supported researchers with the. United Nations' Economic Commission for Latin America and the ...

  15. El Salvador - Rural Electrification

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation seeks to determine the impact of electrification on the cost of energy, energy consumption, time allocation, and household income. Because the...

  16. Gazetteer of El Salvador,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Pitahaya PPL 13󈧬’N 88 08’W ES08 CL71 ND16-10 La Pitahaya . Cerro HLL 1339’N 88...8217 Pishishapa PPL 13 58’N 89 1O’W ESIO BL64 ND16-09 Pita Floja PPL 1423’N 89 35W ESl BL29 ND16.05 I’itahaya. see La Pitahaya PPL 13 40’N 88 08W ES08 CL71...ND16-10 I’ilahaya. Cerro. see La Pitahaya . Cerro HLL 13 39’N 88 08’W ES08 CL70 ND16.1C I’ilahaya. Cerro I(v see La Pitahaya , Cerro HLL 13 39’N 88

  17. Lo urbano y lo rural: dos realidades distintas para la interpretación del pasado reciente en El Salvador desde la perspectiva arqueológica (Urban and rural: two different realities for the interpretation of the recent past in El Salvador

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    Fabricio Valdivieso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El estudio del pasado reciente a través de la arqueología es todavía una práctica en ciernes en muchas partes del mundo. Muchos acercamientos académicos tenidos hacia este pasado se perciben de manera desigual en lo urbano y lo rural, lo cual tiene que ver con la política y la institucionalidad alcanzada en diferentes momentos del siglo XX. No obstante, en Centroamérica, sobre todo en El Salvador, la práctica de la arqueología en el contexto reciente ha tenido avances considerables en los últimos veinte años. El pasado reciente para este país puede definirse por el período de República, subdividido en fases de acuerdo a los cambios políticos, económicos, sociales y culturales los cuales han dejado semblanza en el remanente material. Así, lo urbano y lo rural son dos versiones complementarias del pasado reciente las cuales hasta el momento habrían sido pobremente integradas a través de la arqueología.Abstract: The study of the recent past through the lens of archaeology is still a new practice in many parts of the world. Several academic inquires of the past are examined with an unequal perspective of the urban and rural. This may be related to the political and institutional levels reached throughout different moments of the 20th century. Nevertheless, in Central America, specifically in El Salvador, archaeological inquiry of the recent past has had considerable advancements in the last two decades. The recent past in El Salvador can be defined as the Republican period, and further subdivided in chronological phases according to political, economic, social and cultural changes, which are evident in the archaeological record. In this way, urban and rural histories are two complementary perspectives that until recently have been poorly integrated through archaeological study.

  18. «De la locura a la esperanza: ¿Nunca Más?». Impunity in El Salvador and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MARTÍNEZ BARAHONA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of transition to democracy has been approached mainly from political elite perspective. Researchers have found that fights amongst elite groups determine what measures are taken during the first steps of policial transitions –including trials to repressors. However, judiciary branch, civil society and changes in Government can influence the process– bringing about changes in justice policies further later. This issue, which has been studied in Latin American Southern Cone, is less studied in Central America, where the emphasis was placed on search of truth, and on the efforts made to prosecute past human rights violations –with little initial results at a national level. That is why this work is aimed to explore the development and current status of the mechanisms of transitional justice in Guatemala and El Salvador, focused on the prosecution of crimes committed during the conflict, and its evolution and the played role by national and international actors.

  19. Hábitos alimentarios del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae en Los Cóbanos y Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los hábitos alimentarios del pargo mancha Lutjanus guttatus a partir de 175 ejemplares (9.8 y 58.0 cm LT, recolectados entre enero y diciembre del 2000 en Los Cóbanos y Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador. L. guttatus es un depredador carnívoro oportunista bentónico. La biomasa total fue de 260.5g. Los crustáceos, representados por seis familias (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae, constituyeron el 50.4% de la biomasa total. Numéricamente, la especie que más consumió el pargo mancha fue Portunus asper. Especimenes menores de 16 cm LT consumen preferentemente crustáceos. Después de los 24 cm y hasta los 44 cm el espectro alimenticio se ve diversificado con la inclusión de peces y moluscos. El 59.5% de los estómagos contenían restos (escamas, exoesqueletos y rostros de camarones con una biomasa de 47.8 g. Se discute sobre la importancia comercial de este recurso y de la ausencia de una estrategia de manejoA total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using pushnet and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae, Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae, were the most abundant group; they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL, at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine, in different ways, percentage frequency of

  20. A taxonomic monograph of the leaf-litter inhabiting weevil genus Plumolepilius new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Izás, Manuel A; Anderson, Robert S; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-09-14

    We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P. branstetteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. longinoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. cortezi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. canoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. schusteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. daryi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. yolnabajensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); and P. macalajauensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala).        The genus and the species are named and described, information on their geographical distributions is given and images of the habitus of both sexes and the aedeagus are presented. A key to the species of Plumolepilius based on males is included.        The monophyly of Plumolepilius was confirmed by a parsimony analysis of external and male aedeagus morphology and the genus is best characterized by the presence of plumose scales lining the prosternal channel. Phylogenetic analysis supports that Lepilius Champion 1905 is the sister genus of Plumolepilius.

  1. Factors affecting attendance to cervical cancer screening among women in the Paracentral Region of El Salvador: a nested study within the CAPE HPV screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Karla M; Gage, Julia C; Rosenbaum, Alan J; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Miranda, Esmeralda; Villalta, Sofia; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam L

    2015-10-16

    Cervical cancer is the third most commonly occurring cancer among women and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, with more than 85 % of these cases occurring in developing countries. These global disparities reflect the differences in cervical cancer screening rates between high-income and medium- and low-income countries. At 19 %, El Salvador has the lowest reported screening coverage of all Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting public sector HPV DNA-based cervical cancer screening participation in El Salvador. This study was nested within a public sector screening program where health promoters used door-to-door outreach to recruit women aged 30-49 years to attend educational sessions about HPV screening. A subgroup of these participants was chosen randomly and questioned about demographic factors, healthcare utilization, previous cervical cancer screening, and HPV knowledge. Women then scheduled screening appointments at their public health clinics. Screening participants were adherent if they attended their scheduled appointment or rescheduled and were screened within 6 months. The association between non-adherence and demographic variables, medical history, history of cancer, sexual history, birth control methods, and screening barriers was assessed using Chi-square tests of significance and logistic regression. All women (n = 409) enrolled in the study scheduled HPV screening appointments, and 88 % attended. Non-adherence was associated with a higher number of lifetime partners and being under-screened-defined as not having participated in cervical cancer screening within the previous 3 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively); 22.8 % of participants in this study were under-screened. Adherence to cervical cancer screening after educational sessions was higher than expected, in part due to interactions with the community-based health promoters as well as the educational session

  2. Procesos de mediación y empoderamiento pacifista en el barrio Candeal de Salvador de Bahía (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Girela Rejón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo pretendemos mostrar la transformación pacífica del barrio Candeal (Salvador de Bahía, Brasil, que dejó de ser una favela para convertirse en una comunidad de referencia mundial. Esta caracterización se ha llevado a cabo desde la óptica de la paz imperfecta, considerando, (particularmente las mediaciones de este proceso, en el que se analizan elementos fundamentales del discurso sobre el empoderamiento pacifista. Este documento forma parte de una investigación mayor, en la que, a través del método etnográfico, y la observación participante, se pudo interpretar la pacificación de esta favela, que con un tejido social y liderazgos precisos, ha alcanzado altas dosis de armonía en la convivencia. Con estrategias muy eficaces en la resolución de conflictos, se verá que el asociacionismo y la coordinación de este, favorecen logros sociales que se traducen en la dignificación de la comunidad, que deja de contemplarse como un lugar marginal, para ser considerado un barrio de pleno derecho.

  3. Familia, amigos y otras fuentes de información asociadas al inicio de las relaciones sexuales en adolescentes de El Salvador Family, friends, and other sources of information associated with the initiation of sexual relations by adolescents in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Canela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar cómo influyen en el inicio de la actividad sexual de los jóvenes salvadoreños los mensajes que reciben sobre cuestiones de sexualidad, afectividad y ocio a través de la familia, los amigos y los medios de comunicación. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal a partir de una muestra representativa de 2 615 estudiantes (de 13 a 19 años de El Salvador. Se utilizó un muestreo sistemático aleatorio para seleccionar 30 colegios. Se recogieron aspectos sociodemográficos, estilos de vida y fuentes de información sobre sexualidad y amor utilizadas por los jóvenes. RESULTADOS: La edad media de los jóvenes fue de 15 años (DE = 1,8. En total 638 (24,4% jóvenes afirmaron haber tenido relaciones sexuales. Los siguientes factores se asociaron con una mayor probabilidad de haber tenido relaciones sexuales: percibir que los hermanos (OR = 1,8, IC 95%: 1,2-2,7 o los amigos (OR = 1,7, IC 95%: 1,3-2,2 apoyan que se tengan relaciones sexuales. Como factores protectores se encontraron la supervisión de los padres (OR = 0,5, IC 95%: 0,4-0,7; recibir mensajes que apoyan la abstinencia por parte de amigos (OR = 0,7, IC 95%: 0,6-1,0 o hermanos (OR = 0,7, IC 95%: 0,5-0,8 y recibir mensajes favorables al matrimonio por parte de los padres (OR = 0,4, IC 95%: 0,3-0,6. CONCLUSIONES: Los mensajes de la familia y amigos son factores que parecen influir en el inicio de las relaciones sexuales de los jóvenes. Los programas de promoción de la salud sexual en El Salvador deberían tener en cuenta estos factores.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to verify the influence of messages Salvadorian youth receive about sexuality, affection, and leisure from family, friends, and the media on the initiation of sexual activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of 2 615 students (from 13 to 19 years of age in El Salvador. A random systematic sampling was used to select 30 schools. Sociodemographic

  4. Necessidades de mulheres no puerpério imediato em uma maternidade pública de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Necesidades de mujeres en el puerperio inmediato en una maternidad pública de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Women's needs in immediate puerperium in a public maternity in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Silva Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando identificar as necessidades de puérperas que demandam cuidados de enfermagem e compreender como elas percebem os cuidados de enfermagem durante sua permanência no Alojamento Conjunto, realizamos uma pesquisa descritiva com dados qualitativos, orientados pela perspectiva de gênero. Entrevistamos 25 mulheres que se encontravam internadas em unidade de Alojamento Conjunto de uma maternidade pública de Salvador-Bahia. A análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática conduziu-nos à apreensão de duas categorias: a necessidade de acolhimento e necessidade de cuidados físicos. O resultado deste estudo aponta para a necessidade de modificações na prática e no modo de cuidar da enfermagem, não somente nos procedimentos técnicos, mas também na incorporação de valores e iniciativas humanizadoras do cuidado.Con el objetivo de identificar las necesidades de puérperas que demandan cuidados de enfermería y comprender cómo perciben los cuidados de enfermería durante su permanencia en el Alojamiento Conjunto, se llevó a cabo una investigación descriptiva con datos cualitativos, orientados por la perspectiva de género. Para tal efecto entrevistamos a 25 mujeres que se encontraban internadas en una unidad de Alojamiento Conjunto de una maternidade pública de Salvador-Bahia. El análisis de contenido en la modalidad temática nos condujo a la aprehensión de dos categorías: la necesidad de acogida y la necesidad de cuidados físicos. El resultado de este estudio apunta hacia la necesidad de modificaciones en la práctica y en el modo de cuidar de la enfermería, no sólo en los procedimientos técnicos, sino también en la incorporación de valores e iniciativas humanizadoras del cuidado.In order to identify women's needs in their immediate puerperium and to understand their perception of the nursing care they received during this period, the authors developed a descriptive study with qualitative data in a gender perspective

  5. «De la locura a la esperanza: ¿Nunca Más?». Impunity in El Salvador and Guatemala Impunidad en El Salvador y Guatemala: «de la locura a la esperanza: ¿nunca más?»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana RINCÓN FONSECA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of transition to democracy has been approached mainly from political elite perspective. Researchers have found that fights amongst elite groups determine what measures are taken during the first steps of policial transitions –including trials to repressors. However, judiciary branch, civil society and changes in Government can influence the process– bringing about changes in justice policies further later. This issue, which has been studied in Latin American Southern Cone, is less studied in Central America, where the emphasis was placed on search of truth, and on the efforts made to prosecute past human rights violations –with little initial results at a national level. That is why this work is aimed to explore the development and current status of the mechanisms of transitional justice in Guatemala and El Salvador, focused on the prosecution of crimes committed during the conflict, and its evolution and the played role by national and international actors.El tema de las transiciones a la democracia ha sido abordado principalmente desde las élites políticas. Los estudiosos han encontrado que en el primer momento de la transición es el pulso entre dichos grupos el que determinará qué tipo de medidas se adoptan, y si incluyen los juicios a los represores. Sin embargo, más allá de dichas decisiones, el Poder judicial, la sociedad civil e incluso cambios de gobierno pueden influir el proceso, y las políticas de verdad y justicia adoptadas en un principio pueden cambiar mucho tiempo después. Este tema, que se viene estudiando en el Cono Sur de América Latina, ha sido menos explorado en Centroamérica, donde el énfasis inicial se puso en la verdad, y los esfuerzos por judicializar las violaciones del pasado apenas cuentan con algunos resultados iniciales en el ámbito nacional. Es por ello que este trabajo se propone explorar y explicar el desarrollo y estado actual de los mecanismos de justicia transicional en Guatemala y

  6. Esteticismo y compromiso social en Euterpologio politonal de Vicente Rosales y Rosales. Re actualización y superación del modernismo en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Thomas Bosshard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aclarará las múltiples referencias del autor al simbolismo, al modernismo y al vanguardismo e igualmente ubicará a Rosales y Rosales ante el trasfondo de aquellos discursos antropológicos y estéticos que a partir de 1900 empezaron a resaltar el ritmo como factor decisivo para poder definir la raza. También mediante el análisis de los poemas contenidos en Euterpologio politonal destaca la combinación de lo rítmico con lo racial-indígena, hecho notable, dado que el autor reelaboró el poemario después de que los indígenas salvadoreños fueron aniquilados casi por completo como consecuencia de La Matanza de 1932. Así, el aparente esteticismo apolítico de Rosales y Rosales asume aspectos inesperados de compromiso social que requieren una revalorización de su escritura.This article will discuss the multiple references of Vicente Rosales y Rosales, to the poetics of French symbolism, American modernisms and the international avant-garde in order to locate his position within the ethnographic and aesthetic discourses on the relation of rhythm and race that appeared since the end of the 19th century. This seems to be especially important, though rhythmic and racial elements are both present in Rosales y Rosales’ poems analyzed here. Considering the fact that Salvadorean natives were almost completely killed during the so-called La Matanza in 1932 and that Rosales y Rosales started to rewrite his Euterpologio politonal after this incident, the apparently apolitical frame of Rosales y Rosales’ aestheticism unexpectedly turns to social compromiso —a fact that requires a revalorization of his writing.

  7. Cnidaris de la Col·lecció Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Gili, Josep Maria; Madurell, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    28 p., tablas, fot. -- Informe técnico elaborado con el objetivo de realizar un inventario de la colección de cnidarios pertenecientes al Gabinete Salvador, situado en el Instituto Botánico de Barcelona

  8. Parentesco y casas en un barrio de bajos ingresos asistido por el Programa de Salud Familiar en Salvador, Bahía, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Bustamante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la construcción cotidiana del parentesco en un barrio de bajos ingresos de Salvador atendido por el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF. Fueron realizadas entrevistas y observación participante durante tres años de trabajo de campo. Encontramos que el parentesco se construye permanentemente en base a vínculos de "sangre" y de "consideración". Mostramos la comprensión que los informantes tienen sobre sus "casas" y la relación entre la "configuración de las casas" y la construcción de las relaciones de parentesco de hombres y mujeres. Analizamos cómo estas relaciones son producidas en intercambios que involucran también cuidados de salud. Reflexionamos sobre los contrastes entre la propuesta formal del PSF ¿que establece equivalencia entre casa y familia y enfoca sobre la conyugalidad¿ y lo que observamos en esta investigación. A partir de eso pensamos sobre los desafíos que la implantación del mencionado programa origina, especialmente para el trabajo de los profesionales de la salud.

  9. La salud sexual y reproductiva de las jóvenes de 15 a 24 años El Salvador, un reto para las políticas de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Centeno Monge, Helen Larissa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador, para el año 2003, la población de 15 a 24 años representa un poco más de un tercio de la población clasificada como en edad fértil. Los indicadores de salud reflejan una situación que demanda atención y acciones concretas hacia las necesidades de la salud reproductiva que afrontan los adolescentes. Según la Encuesta nacional de salud familiar realizada en 1998, el 48.8% de las mujeres menores de 24 años han tenido experiencia sexual, menos del 10% utilizaron algún método anticonceptivo en su primera relación y el 42% han tenido al menos un embarazo antes de los 24 años. Dado que los problemas de salud sexual y reproductiva fueron de los primeros en poner a la adolescencia en el tapete como sujeto prioritario de atención de la salud, la promoción de la salud del adolescente debe constituir uno de los principales objetivos de cualquier proyecto de desarrollo, tanto a nivel local como nacional. Al utilizar los datos de la FESAL-98 e información proporcionada por el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social de El Salvador, se presentan en este artículo algunas cifras y reflexiones acerca de la situación referente a la salud sexual y reproductiva de las adolescentes salvadoreñas de 15 a 24 años y algunas acciones que se realizan al respecto. Se plantea el modelo de atención a los y las adolescentes implementado en el país y las principales implicaciones y retos que aun hay que atender.

  10. La construcción del sistema comunitario de salud de Guarjila: sistematización de una experiencia de Atención Primaria de Salud Integral en El Salvador durante el período 1987-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Argelia Dubón Abrego

    Full Text Available Se sistematizó una experiencia de salud comunitaria, surgida durante la Guerra Civil en El Salvador, en un contexto de represión institucionalizada, describiendo el proceso desarrollado con elementos de la Atención Primaria de Salud integral, tomando como ejes el proceso histórico de construcción, el empoderamiento social y los indicadores de impacto. La población abordó intersectorialmente sus problemas, mejorando condiciones básicas como vivienda, agua, letrinas y energía eléctrica; produjo sus alimentos; y creó un modelo de educación popular y de salud con agentes comunitarios. Las intervenciones en salud progresaron desde la atención y prevención de la enfermedad, hasta un abordaje integral de determinantes sociales. La organización, la participación y el trabajo intersectorial fueron claves para mejorar la salud y el desarrollo integral de la comunidad.

  11. TURISMO COMUNITARIO Y GENERACIÓN DE RIQUEZA EN PAÍSES EN VÍAS DE DESARROLLO. UN ESTUDIO DE CASO EN EL SALVADOR/COMMUNITY-BASED TOURISM AND WEALTH GENERATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. A STUDY OF CASE IN EL SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra María SÁNCHEZ CAÑIZARES

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El turismo comunitario es una tipología de turismo que se está desarrollando en diferentes partes del Mundo como alternativa al turismo tradicional. Esta nueva forma de turismo favorece el contacto entre la comunidad local y los visitantes, los cuáles obtienen nuevas experiencias. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de un estudio realizado en El Salvador donde hemos analizado las percepciones que tienen los residentes respecto a la posibilidad de desarrollo, basado en la articulación de proyectos por parte de la propia comunidad local, como destino turístico de una determinada área geográfica, reforzando los aspectos ecológicos, culturales y de hospitalidad de los residentes. La metodología se ha basado en un estudio empírico realizado en el área objeto de investigación entre septiembre y noviembre de 2008. Entre los resultados obtenidos por esta investigación, destacamos que la comunidad local percibe que el desarrollo del turismo comunitario puede aportar riqueza y generar puestos de trabajo en el área, pero que es necesario contar con una formación previa que debe provenir tanto de la administración pública como de la privada, sobre todo de ONGs y universidades. Asimismo, también se destaca el importante papel que juega la mujer como elemento vertebrador de los diferentes proyectos turísticos./Community-based Tourism is gaining prestige all over the world as an alternative to traditional tourism. This new type of tourism favours a closer contact with the local community and the experimentation of new sensations. We present in this paper a study carried out in El Salvador about the perceptions that residents have in order to develop, within the own local community, a tourist destination based on the remarkable ecologic resources of the area, and on the hospitality of hosts. The methodology is based on an empirical study realized in the area from September to November 2008. Most outstanding result is the local

  12. Geomorphological method in the elaboration of hazard maps for flash-floods in the municipality of Jucuarán (El Salvador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lavado, C.; Furdada, G.; Marqués, M. A.

    2007-07-01

    This work deals with the elaboration of flood hazard maps. These maps reflect the areas prone to floods based on the effects of Hurricane Mitch in the Municipality of Jucuarán of El Salvador. Stream channels located in the coastal range in the SE of El Salvador flow into the Pacific Ocean and generate alluvial fans. Communities often inhabit these fans can be affected by floods. The geomorphology of these stream basins is associated with small areas, steep slopes, well developed regolite and extensive deforestation. These features play a key role in the generation of flash-floods. This zone lacks comprehensive rainfall data and gauging stations. The most detailed topographic maps are on a scale of 1:25 000. Given that the scale was not sufficiently detailed, we used aerial photographs enlarged to the scale of 1:8000. The effects of Hurricane Mitch mapped on these photographs were regarded as the reference event. Flood maps have a dual purpose (1) community emergency plans, (2) regional land use planning carried out by local authorities. The geomorphological method is based on mapping the geomorphological evidence (alluvial fans, preferential stream channels, erosion and sedimentation, man-made terraces). Following the interpretation of the photographs this information was validated on the field and complemented by eyewitness reports such as the height of water and flow typology. In addition, community workshops were organized to obtain information about the evolution and the impact of the phenomena. The superimposition of this information enables us to obtain a comprehensive geomorphological map. Another aim of the study was the calculation of the peak discharge using the Manning and the paleohydraulic methods and estimates based on geomorphologic criterion. The results were compared with those obtained using the rational method. Significant differences in the order of magnitude of the calculated discharges were noted. The rational method underestimated the

  13. Advancing the citizen scientist's contributions to documenting and understanding natural hazards: a proof of concept for linking crowdsourced and remotely sensed data on landslide hazards in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Markert, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists, practitioners, policymakers, and citizen groups, share a role in ensuring "that all sectors have access to, understand and can use scientific information for better informed decision-making" (Sendai Framework 2015-2030). When it comes to understanding hazards and exposure, inventories on disaster events are often limited. Thus, there are many opportunities for citizen scientists to engage in improving the collective understanding—and ultimately reduction—of disaster risk. Landslides are very difficult to forecast on spatial and temporal scales meaningful for early warning and evacuation. Heuristic hazard mapping methods are very common in regional hazard zonation and rely on expert knowledge of previous events and local conditions, but they often lack a temporal component. As new data analysis packages are becoming more open and accessible, probabilistic approaches that consider high resolution spatial and temporal dimensions are becoming more common, but this is only possible when rich inventories of landslide events exist. The work presented offers a proof of concept on incorporating crowd-sourced data to improve landslide hazard model performance. Starting with a national inventory of 90 catalogued landslides in El Salvador for a study period of 1998 to 2011, we simulate the addition of over 600 additional crowd-sourced landslide events that would have been identified through human interpretation of high resolution imagery in the Google Earth time slider feature. There is a noticeable improvement in performance statistics between static heuristic hazard models and probabilistic models that incorporate the events identified by the "crowd." Such a dynamic incorporation of crowd-sourced data on hazard events is not so far-fetched. Given the engagement of "local observers" in El Salvador who augment in situ hydro-meteorological measurements, the growing access to Earth observation data to the lay person, and immense interest behind connecting citizen

  14. Evolution of magmatism from the uppermost cretaceous to Oligocene, and its relationship to changing tectonic regime, in the Inca de Oro-El Salvador area (Northern Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Paula; Matthews, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We present geochronological and petrological data for extrusive and intrusive rocks in the Inca de Oro and El Salvador sheets (in prep.), and the Potrerillos (Tomlinson et al., 1999) and Salar de Maricunga sheets (Cornejo et al., 1998), III Region, Chile (26 o -27 o S). Most of these data were collected as part of the SERNAGEOMIN regional mapping programme. Additionally, we include published data for El Salvador and Potrerillos districts (Cornejo et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1997; Gustafson et al., 2001). The dataset includes K/Ar, Ar/Ar and U-Pb mineral ages, which have been carefully selected for quality. The area is underlain by Carboniferous-Permian granitic basement rocks, which are covered by Triassic to Early Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary successions, including both marine and continental sequences (Cornejo et al., 1993). The period studied in this paper includes extrusive and intrusive rocks of Maastrichtian to Oligocene age, which are of particular interest since they record the 'preparation' of the lithosphere prior to, during, and after the mid-Eocene Incaic deformation and associated porphyry copper event. Shortening in the early-upper Cretaceous (95-85Ma; e.g. Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989; Arevalo and Grocott, 2000) deformed large areas of northen Chile, and marked the transition from the dominance of intra-arc extension to that of shortening punctuated by periods of extension. We recognise seven tectono-magmatic periods from the uppermost Cretaceous to Oligocene, comprising a volcanic sedimentary event contemporaneous with an extensional tectonic regime in the Upper Cretaceous, associated with graben formation, followed by an important compressive event at the beginning of the Tertiary. The middle Paleocene was again dominated by voluminous volcanic activity (collapse calderas) in an extensional regime. During the lowest Eocene the magmatic activity in the area shows a gradual transition from pyroxene-bearing to amphibole-bearing lithologies

  15. Geomorphological method in the elaboration of hazard maps for flash-floods in the municipality of Jucuarán (El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fernández-Lavado

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the elaboration of flood hazard maps. These maps reflect the areas prone to floods based on the effects of Hurricane Mitch in the Municipality of Jucuarán of El Salvador. Stream channels located in the coastal range in the SE of El Salvador flow into the Pacific Ocean and generate alluvial fans. Communities often inhabit these fans can be affected by floods. The geomorphology of these stream basins is associated with small areas, steep slopes, well developed regolite and extensive deforestation. These features play a key role in the generation of flash-floods. This zone lacks comprehensive rainfall data and gauging stations. The most detailed topographic maps are on a scale of 1:25 000. Given that the scale was not sufficiently detailed, we used aerial photographs enlarged to the scale of 1:8000. The effects of Hurricane Mitch mapped on these photographs were regarded as the reference event. Flood maps have a dual purpose (1 community emergency plans, (2 regional land use planning carried out by local authorities. The geomorphological method is based on mapping the geomorphological evidence (alluvial fans, preferential stream channels, erosion and sedimentation, man-made terraces. Following the interpretation of the photographs this information was validated on the field and complemented by eyewitness reports such as the height of water and flow typology. In addition, community workshops were organized to obtain information about the evolution and the impact of the phenomena. The superimposition of this information enables us to obtain a comprehensive geomorphological map. Another aim of the study was the calculation of the peak discharge using the Manning and the paleohydraulic methods and estimates based on geomorphologic criterion. The results were compared with those obtained using the rational method. Significant differences in the order of magnitude of the calculated discharges were noted. The rational method

  16. Características nutricionales de niños con parálisis cerebral: ARIE - Villa El Salvador, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Del Águila

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia y tipos de desnutrición en niños con parálisis cerebral (PC e identificar problemas que conducen a ella. Diseño: Estudio clínico descriptivo. Lugar: Centro de Medicina y Rehabilitación Infantil ARIE, en el distrito de Villa El Salvador. Pacientes: Cincuenta y tres niños con PC que asistían para su rehabilitación. Intervenciones: La información clínica fue obtenida por entrevista con la madre y para el diagnóstico nutricional se utilizó la clasificación de Waterlow. Para el diagnóstico de anemia, se evaluó los valores de hemoglobina y hematocrito. La enteroparasitosis fue diagnosticada por examen directo de heces y examen de Graham, en forma seriada. El procesamiento de información y análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando el programa SPSS 11.0. Principales medidas de resultados: Presencia de desnutrición, dificultades para alimentación, reflujo gastroesofágico, anemia y enteroparasitosis. Resultados: Se encontró desnutrición en 81,1% de niños, siendo la desnutrición crónica el diagnóstico más frecuente, en 43,5%. Entre los problemas asociados a malnutrición, las dificultades para la alimentación estuvieron presentes en 94,3% de los niños y síntomas de reflujo gastroesofágico, en 81,1%. La prevalencia de anemia fue 32,4% y de enteroparasitosis, 54,1%. Conclusiones: Los niños con parálisis cerebral evaluados presentan una elevada prevalencia de desnutrición, relacionada al hallazgo frecuente de dificultades para la alimentación, reflujo gastroesofágico y enteroparasitosis. Este grupo de niños constituye una población de riesgo alto de morbilidad y mortalidad.

  17. Encuestas nacionales de ceguera y deficiencia visual evitables en Argentina, El Salvador, Honduras, Panamá, Perú y Uruguay

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    Juan Carlos Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la justificación y metodología usadas en la Evaluación Rápida de Ceguera Evitable empleada para efectuar encuestas a nivel nacional entre 2011 y 2013 en Argentina, El Salvador, Honduras, Panamá, Perú y Uruguay. MÉTODOS: La encuesta se dirige a personas de 50 años o más, lo que reduce al mínimo los requisitos de tamaño de la muestra, que oscila entre 2 000 y 5 000 personas. Se emplean sistemas simples de muestreo y técnicas de examen; el análisis de datos es automático y no requiere de un experto en estadística. Es relativamente económica, ya que no toma mucho tiempo, no requiere equipos oftalmológicos costosos y puede ser llevada a cabo por el personal local. Los informes son generados mediante el propio programa informático de la evaluación. RESULTADOS: Los indicadores generados son la prevalencia de la ceguera y la deficiencia visual severa y moderada (discriminadas por causas evitables y cataratas; la prevalencia de afaquia o pseudofaquia; la cobertura de la cirugía de cataratas; el resultado visual de las cirugías de cataratas; las causas de resultados malos; las barreras de acceso a la cirugía de cataratas; y los indicadores de servicio de la cirugía de cataratas. Los resultados de cada una de las encuestas serán publicados de manera secuencial en números sucesivos de la revista, y en un artículo final de resumen se hará un análisis de los resultados en su conjunto y comparativo entre las encuestas y con aquellas publicadas anteriormente, que aportará un estado de la situación actual en ese grupo de países. CONCLUSIONES: La Evaluación Rápida de Ceguera Evitable es una metodología sólida, sencilla y económica para determinar la prevalencia de ceguera y deficiencia visual y la cobertura y calidad de los servicios de salud ocular, y representa una herramienta muy valiosa para medir el progreso de los programas de prevención de la ceguera y su impacto en la población.

  18. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  19. A pilot study of community-based self-sampling for HPV testing among non-attenders of cervical cancer screening programs in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskow, Bari; Figueroa, Ruben; Alfaro, Karla M; Scarinci, Isabel C; Conlisk, Elizabeth; Maza, Mauricio; Chang, Judy C; Cremer, Miriam

    2017-08-01

    To establish the feasibility and acceptability of home-based HPV self-sampling among women who did not attend screening appointments in rural El Salvador. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from May 2015 to January 2016 among 60 women aged 30-59 years who were not pregnant, provided informed consent, had not been screened in 2 years, had no history of pre-cancer treatment, and did not attend a scheduled HPV screening. Participants completed questionnaires and received educational information before being given an opportunity to self-sample with the Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. Self-sampling was accepted by 41 (68%) participants. Almost all women chose to self-sample because the process was easy (40/41, 98%), could be performed at home (40/41, 98%), and saved time (38/41, 93%), and because they felt less embarrassed (33/41, 80%). The most common reason for declining the test was not wanting to be screened (8/19, 42%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV types among women who accepted self-sampling was 17% (7/41). For most women, community-based self-sampling was an acceptable way to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. In low-resource countries, incorporating community-based self-sampling into screening programs might improve coverage of high-risk women. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Earthquakes in El Salvador: a descriptive study of health concerns in a rural community and the clinical implications: Part III--Mental health and psychosocial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woersching, Joanna C; Snyder, Audrey E

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, the mountain town of San Sebastian, El Salvador experienced a series of earthquakes that affected the livelihood of its people. A convenience sample of 100 households of 594 inhabitants of San Sebastian and the surrounding rural farming areas was completed. One study participant for each household was evaluated for mental health and psychosocial changes after the earthquakes. The participant's questionnaire was used to investigate the relationship between physical health, access to health care, housing, food and water, and the occurrence of negative mental health markers six months after the disasters. Findings indicate that the majority (67%) of respondents experienced 6 or more mental health complaints. Risk factors associated with multiple negative mental health symptoms included change in household income and loss of job, a new illness or a new injury in the household, reliance on healthcare services since the earthquake, and managing a chronic illness. Findings indicate a need for rapid, acute mental health screening with at-risk groups and the need to educate the entire community regarding what medical and mental health treatments are available to reduce barriers to treatment and increase public awareness.

  1. Breaking new ground for remote sensing in support of disaster relief efforts: Detecting and pinpointing earthquake damage in near real-time (El Salvador, January 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezry, Edmond; Romeijn, Paul P.; Sarti, Francesco; Inglada, Jordi; Zagolski, Francis; Yakam-Simen, Francis

    2002-01-01

    On January 13th 2001, a very strong earthquake struck El-Salvador, causing almost 1000 deaths and huge destruction, leaving more than one million people homeless. As support to the rescue teams, a project was initiated to provide up-to date maps and to identify damages to housing and infrastructures, covering the whole country. Based on the analysis of SPOT Panchromatic satellite imagery, updated maps were delivered to the rescue teams within 72 hours after the earthquake. In addition, during the 10 days following the earthquake, high resolution mapping of the damages was carried out in cooperation and coordination with rescue teams and relief organizations. Some areas of particular interest were even processed and damage maps delivered through the Internet, three hours after the request. For the first time in the history of spaceborne Earth observation, identification and evaluation of the damages were delivered on-site, in real-time (during the interventions), to local authorities, rescue teams and humanitarian organizations. In this operation, operating 24 hours a day and technical ability were the keys for success and contributed to saving lives.

  2. Lola Salvador Maldonado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montalbán, José Luis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The artistic and professional trajectory of the Barcelonian writer Lola Salvador Maldonado (Salvador Maldonado, is hereby studied, including her facet as a script writer, figurinist and movie producer, television and radio, as well as her educational work. Her biography and a complete list of her work is also included.Se estudia la trayectoria artística y profesional de la escritora barcelonesa Lola Salvador Maldonado (Salvador Maldonado, guionista, figurinista y productora cinematográfica y de televisión y radio, así como docente. Se acompaña su biografía y una relación completa de su obra.

  3. Supervisión pedagógica y desempeño docente en aula, en centros de educación básica alternativa, Villa El Salvador, UGEL 01- 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Uvidia Rodríguez, César Augusto

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio denominado “Supervisión pedagógica y desempeño docente en aula, en centros de educación básica alternativa, Villa El Salvador, UGEL 01 - 2015”, nace debido al problema de bajo nivel de aprendizaje de los estudiantes de la modalidad de educación básica alternativa, tuvo como objetivos determinar las relaciones existentes entre la variable supervisión pedagógica por un lado con la variable desempeño docente en aula y por otro con las tres dimensiones de esta ...

  4. Secular Variations of Soil CO2 Efflux at Santa Ana-Izalco-Coatepeque Volcanic Complex, El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Cartagena, R.; Soriano, T.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.; Lopez, D.

    2002-12-01

    The Santa Ana-Izalco-Coatepeque volcanic complex (2,365 m elevation), located 40 Km west of San Salvador, consists of the Coatepeque collapse caldera (a 6.5 x 10.5 Km elliptical depression), the Santa Ana and Izalco stratovolcanoes, as well as numerous cinder cones and explosion craters. The summit of the Santa Ana volcano contains an acid lake where hot springs, gas bubbling and intense fumarolic emissions occur. A volcanic plume, usually driven by the NE trades, may be seen rising up to 500 m from the summit crater of the Santa Ana volcano. The goal of this study is to provide a multidisciplinary approach for the volcanic surveillance by means of performing geochemical continuous monitoring of diffuse CO2 emission rate in addition to seismic monitoring. Temporal variations of soil CO2 efflux measured at Cerro Pacho dome, Coatepeque caldera, by means of the accumulation chamber method and using a CO2 efflux continuous monitoring station developed by WEST Systems (Italy). From May 2001 till May 2002, CO2 efflux ranged from 4.3 to 327 gm-2d-1, with a median value of 98 and a quartile range of 26 gm-2d-1. Two distinct diffuse CO2 degassing periods have been observed: (1) an increasing trend from May to July 2001, and (2) a stationary period from November 2001 to May 2002. The increasing-trend period may be due to the anomalous plume degassing at the Santa Ana volcano during 2001 and soon after the January and February 2001 earthquakes. Temporal variations of CO2 efllux during the second period seem to be coupled with those of barometric pressure and wind speed at different time scales, though most of the variance is contained at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. These observations can help to explain the existence of a persistent behavior (Hurst exponent, H=0.934 +/- 0.0039) within the diffuse CO2 degassing phenomena. However, further observations are in progress to understand the long-term memory of diffuse CO2 degassing at the Santa Ana volcanic complex.

  5. Diffuse Carbon Dioxide Degassing Monitoring at Santa Ana-Izalco-Coatepeque Volcanic System, El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Cartagena, R.; Soriano, T.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.; Notsu, K.; Lopez, D.

    2001-12-01

    Santa Ana volcanic complex (0.22 Ma), located 40 Km west of San Salvador, comprises Santa Ana, Izalco, and Cerro Verde stratovolcanoes, the Coatepeque collapse caldera, as well as several cinder cones and explosion craters. Most recent activity has occurred at Izalco (1966) and Santa Ana which shows a permanent acidic crater lake with an intense fumarolic activity. In addition, Santa Ana exhibits a SO2-rich rising plume though no local seismicity has been reported. Weak fumarolic activity is also present at two locations within the Santa Ana volcanic complex: the summit crater of Izalco and Cerro Pacho at Coatepeque caldera. Other important structural features of this volcanic complex are two fault/fissure systems running NNW-SSE that can be identified by the alignment of the stratovolcanoes and numerous cinder cones and explosion craters. In January 2001, a 7.6 magnitude earthquake occurred about 150 Km SE of Santa Ana volcano. A soil gas and CO2 efflux survey was performed to evaluate the impact of this seismic event upon the diffuse degassing rates in Santa Ana volcanic complex in March 2001. A total of 450 soil gas and diffuse CO2 efflux measurements were carried out covering an area of 209.5 Km2. CO2 efflux ranged from non-detectable values to 293 gm-2d-1, with a median of 8.9 gm-2d-1 and an upper quartile of 5.2 gm-2d-1. The CO2 efflux spatial distribution reveals the existence of areas with CO2 efflux higher than 60 gm-2d-1 associated to the fault/fissure systems of NNW-SSE orientation. One of these areas, Cerro Pacho, was selected for the continuous monitoring of diffuse CO2 efflux in late May 2001. Secular variations of diffuse CO2 efflux ranged from 27.4 to 329 gm-2d-1 with a median of 130 gm-2d-1 and a quartile range of 59.3 gm-2d-1. An increasing trend of 43 gm-2d-1 was observed between May and August 2001 overlapped to high-frequency minor fluctuations related to meteorological variables' changes. However, a larger observation time-span is needed to

  6. El mito de la vida verdadera en la «Vida secreta» de Salvador Dalí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Ródenas de Moya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone examinar cómo el mito de la mutatio vitae fue adoptado por Dalí como matriz narrativa de su autobiografía Vida secreta. Se sitúa el libro en el género del autorretrato que cultivó el pintor desde su juventud y en la tradición de las “vidas” ejemplares. La necesidad de reinventarse ante la sociedad norteamericana condujo a Dalí a identificar la cultura europea, en especial el arte de vanguardia, con la decadencia y la corrupción, en tanto él construía para sí mismo una coraza protectora con la firma de “salvador” del arte clásico. El crecimiento de esa coraza (o personaje público está narrado como el resultado de una revelación que da paso a una vida auténtica. En el relato de ese proceso, Gala aparece como el agente epifánico que cura al artista enfermo y redime al Dalí hombre. Vida secreta constituye una muestra excelente de autobiografía estetizada y supeditada a un objetivo: la configuración de una máscara pública que fuera a la vez marca registrada y coraza protectora. This paper aims to analyze how the myth of the mutatio vitae was adopted by Dalí as a narrative pattern in his autobiography Vida secreta. The book belongs to the genre of the self-portrait that he cultivated since his youth and it can also be considered part of the tradition of the “exemplary lives”. The need to reinvent himself in the eyes of American society brought Dalí to identify European culture, especially the art of avant-garde, with decadence and corruption, while he created for himself a protective cuirass, as the “salvador” of classical art. How he created this mask (or public figure is narrated as the result of a revelation which gives way to an authentic life. In the story of that process, Gala appears as the epiphanic agent who heals the sick artist and redeems Dalí, the man. Vida secreta is an excellent example of an aestheticised autobiography, subordinated to an object: setting a public mask

  7. El Salvador; Request for a Stand-By Arrangement and Cancellation of Current Arrangement: Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses El Salvador’s Request for a Stand-By Arrangement and cancellation of the current arrangement. The program seeks to preserve financial stability, safeguard the economic recovery, and strengthen the medium-term fiscal position. Fiscal policy will aim at offsetting the impact of the adverse external environment on domestic activity and the most vulnerable while ensuring debt sustainability over the medium term. IMF financial support would have a catalytic role for official c...

  8. Verdad, justicia y reparación en Argentina, El Salvador y Sudáfrica. Perspectiva comparada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Nataly Castellanos-Morales

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo presentaré un ejercicio comparado —una comparación estructuralmente focalizada— sobre lo que ha sucedido en algunos países del mundo en cuanto a la implementación del derecho a la justicia. Con esta brevísima descripción intento mostrar los problemas que plantean los procesos de transición, cómo se ha presentado su aceptación o rechazo por parte de los nacientes gobiernos, ávidos de legitimidad, y cómo se han manifestado las víctimas y la sociedad, en general, frente a las fórmulas de justicia propuestas, pues, éstas casi siempre han sido vistas como un obstáculo en el camino hacia la democracia. Pretendo enfatizar, entonces, en la importancia de utilizar el diálogo ante la necesidad de conciliar el pragmatismo propio de la política con la protección de los derechos humanos. A pesar de ser un tema estudiado en varias ocasiones, lo que procuro es extraer unas conclusiones que eventualmente sean aplicables al caso colombiano.

  9. The cost of solidarity: the salvadoran labor movement in Puerto el Triunfo and Greater San Salvador in 1979 and 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Gould

    2015-11-01

    the militant rise and expansion of the labor movement. The essay will trace this broader transformation while presenting a detailed examination of the political and social changes in Puerto El Triunfo, a quite distinct history that nevertheless reflected, influenced and paralleled the labor movement as a whole. I will make use of the concept of “desencuentro”.

  10. Effective Nutrition Intervention to Treat Children Under 5 Years Old Suffering MAM in Public Primary Health Care Services in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: In El Salvador Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) affects less than 1% of children under 5 years old. The importance of MAM has been neglected as a public health issue. Although moderate wasting is not a condition of medical urgency, it can easily deteriorate. If some of these undernourished children with moderate wasting do not receive adequate support, they may progress towards severe acute malnutrition (SAM), defined by the presence of severe wasting and/or bilateral pitting oedema, which is a life-threatening condition. Since 2010, a complementary feeding program for children from 6 to 59 months old was implemented at the primary health clinics for the management of moderate malnutrition. Program was implemented in 100 municipalities identified with the greatest levels of poverty at national level and it consists of a corn-soy fortified flour to be prepared at home as a poudrige given to children during the routine health controls. During the first months of program implementation, an acceptability test was conducted and it was determined that more than 85% of children had good acceptance of the product. The treatment consists of 45 grams per day of complementary food. Mothers were instructed on how to prepare the product and every month they would have to bring their children to the clinic to receive complementary food and control weight gain. If mothers did not attend the control, a health promotion worker would go visit the mother at their home and bring the complementary food to the child. Objective: Assess the results on nutritional status of children under 5 years old with MAM treated with complementary food during health controls at primary health facilities in El Salvador during January to October 2013. Methods: Transversal study. Inclusion criteria was children 6 to 59 months old attending health controls coming from prioritize municipalities, diagnose with MAM by a health professional without other disease or infections that

  11. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

  12. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-10-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  13. Trends in tuberculosis notification and treatment outcomes in prisons: a country-wide assessment in El Salvador from 2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ayala

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe trends in tuberculosis (TB notification and treatment outcomes in 25 prisons in El Salvador from 2009–2014 and to determine if a set of interventions introduced in 2011 affected TB case finding and management. Methods This was operational research that utilized a retrospective cohort study of program data from 2009–2014. The package of interventions introduced in 2011 provides staff training, engages inmates in TB case finding, and offers diagnosis through mobile X-ray and Xpert® MTB/RIF. Results Case notification rates per 100 000 prisoners tripled, from 532 in 2009 to 1 688 in 2014—about 50 times that of the general population. Individual data were analyzed for 1 177 patients who started TB treatment, among whom 1 056 (89.7% cases were bacteriologically-confirmed: 966 (92% were diagnosed through smear microscopy; 42 (4% with Xpert® MTB/RIF; and 48 (5% through cultures. Cumulative treatment success and cure rates were over 95% and 90%, respectively. However, among 113 patients with previously-treated TB, drug sensitivity testing results were available for only 53 (47.%. One patient was diagnosed with mono-drug resistant TB. Conclusions These findings show that TB notification increased exponentially since introduction of the intervention package and that excellent treatment outcomes were sustained. Both are of vital relevance to countries striving for TB elimination. Notification might be improved further by providing systematic TB screening upon prison entry and periodically thereafter. Furthermore, previously-treated TB patients should receive prioritized screening for drug resistance.

  14. Heat stress, dehydration, and kidney function in sugarcane cutters in El Salvador--A cross-shift study of workers at risk of Mesoamerican nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Jarquín, Emmanuel; Wesseling, Catharina; Johnson, Richard J; González-Quiroz, Marvin; Weiss, Ilana; Glaser, Jason; José Vindell, Juan; Stockfelt, Leo; Roncal, Carlos; Harra, Tamara; Barregard, Lars

    2015-10-01

    An epidemic of progressive kidney failure afflicts sugarcane workers in Central America. Repeated high-intensity work in hot environments is a possible cause. To assess heat stress, dehydration, biomarkers of renal function and their possible associations. A secondary aim was to evaluate the prevalence of pre-shift renal damage and possible causal factors. Sugarcane cutters (N=189, aged 18-49 years, 168 of them male) from three regions in El Salvador were examined before and after shift. Cross-shift changes in markers of dehydration and renal function were examined and associations with temperature, work time, region, and fluid intake were assessed. Pre-shift glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) from serum creatinine. The mean work-time was 4 (1.4-11) hours. Mean workday temperature was 34-36 °C before noon, and 39-42 °C at noon. The mean liquid intake during work was 0.8L per hour. There were statistically significant changes across shift. The mean urine specific gravity, urine osmolality and creatinine increased, and urinary pH decreased. Serum creatinine, uric acid and urea nitrogen increased, while chloride and potassium decreased. Pre-shift serum uric acid levels were remarkably high and pre-shift eGFR was reduced (dehydration from strenuous work in a hot and humid environment as an important causal factor. The pathophysiology may include decreased renal blood flow, high demands on tubular reabsorption, and increased levels of uric acid. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Batres

    Full Text Available Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

  16. The cost and cost-effectiveness of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador, Central America: A report from the Childhood Cancer 2030 Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Alabi, Soad; Bhakta, Nickhill; Vasquez, Roberto Franklin; Gupta, Sumit; Horton, Susan E

    2018-01-15

    Although previous studies have examined the cost of treating individual childhood cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, to the authors' knowledge none has examined the overall cost and cost-effectiveness of operating a childhood cancer treatment center. Herein, the authors examined the cost and sources of financing of a pediatric cancer unit in Hospital Nacional de Ninos Benjamin Bloom in El Salvador, and make estimates of cost-effectiveness. Administrative data regarding costs and volumes of inputs were obtained for 2016 for the pediatric cancer unit. Similar cost and volume data were obtained for shared medical services provided centrally (eg, blood bank). Costs of central nonmedical support services (eg, utilities) were obtained from hospital data and attributed by inpatient share. Administrative data also were used for sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness was estimated based on the number of new patients diagnosed annually and survival rates. The pediatric cancer unit cost $5.2 million to operate in 2016 (treating 90 outpatients per day and experiencing 1385 inpatient stays per year). Approximately three-quarters of the cost (74.7%) was attributed to 4 items: personnel (21.6%), pathological diagnosis (11.5%), pharmacy (chemotherapy, supportive care medications, and nutrition; 31.8%), and blood products (9.8%). Funding sources included government (52.5%), charitable foundations (44.2%), and a social security contribution scheme (3.4%). Based on 181 new patients per year and a 5-year survival rate of 48.5%, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted was $1624, which is under the threshold considered to be very cost effective. Treating childhood cancer in a specialized unit in low-income and middle-income countries can be done cost-effectively. Strong support from charitable foundations aids with affordability. Cancer 2018;124:391-7. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of El Salvador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of El Salvador and the International Atomic Energy Agency in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 23 September 2002. It was signed on 5 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 24 May 2004, the date on which Agency received from El Salvador written notification that El Salvador's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  18. Establishment of a new genus for Parastenocaris itica (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from El Salvador, Central America, with discussion of the Parastenocaris fontinalis and P. proserpina groups Proposta de um novo gênero para Parastenocaris itica (Copepoda, Harpacticoida de El Salvador, América Central e discussão dos grupos Parastenocaris fontinalis e P. proserpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique C. Corgosinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Parastenocarididae is described from the Neotropical region. Iticocaris gen. nov. is established to include Parastenocaris itica Noodt, 1962. Iticocaris gen. nov. is defined by the following characters: 1 male leg 3 with 2-segmented exopod; 2 first exopodal segment short and rectangular; 3 thumb hypertrophic, longer than the second exopodal segment and inserted on the distal edge of exopod segment 1, occupying the whole distal margin; 4 exopod 2 or apophysis strongly sclerotized, articulated with the exopod segment 1 on its inner margin and curved against the thumb, forming a strong forceps; 5 leg 4 endopod without dimorphism in shape and size vs. minor dimorphism in ornamentation; 6 leg 5 with three setae and 7 lack of the anterolateral furcal seta II. The new genus is monotypic, represented by Iticocaris itica (Noodt, 1962 comb. nov., from El Salvador, Central America. A close relationship is hypothesized between I. itica and the genus Brasilibathynellocaris Jakobi, 1972, the males of which both share the forceps-like elongated apophysis.Um novo gênero de Parastenocarididae é proposto para a Região Neotropical para incluir Parastenocaris itica Noodt, 1962. Iticocaris gen. nov. é diagnosticado pela presença dos seguintes caracteres: 1 toracópodo 3 do macho com exópodo bissegmentado; 2 primeiro segmento exopodal curto e retangular; 3 "thumb" hipertrófico, mais longo que o segundo segmento do exópodo e inserido na margem distal do exópodo 1, ocupando toda a margem distal do segmento; 4 exópodo 2 ou apófise fortemente esclerotizado, articulado com o exópodo 1 em sua margem interna e curvado contra o "thumb", formando um forte fórceps; 5 endópodo do toracópodo 4 sem dimorfismo sexual quanto à forma e tamanho vs. discreto dimorfismo quanto à ornamentação; 6 toracópodo 5 com três cerdas e 7 furca sem a cerda anterolateral II. O novo gênero é monotípico, sendo representado por Iticocaris itica (Noodt, 1962 comb

  19. Intérêt des collectivités pour l'implantation d'arbres nourriciers dans les parcs urbains : le cas de Villa El Salvador, au Pérou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafontaine, M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intérêt des collectivités pour l'implantation d'arbres nourriciers dans les parcs urbains : le cas de Villa El Salvador, au Pérou. A study was conducted in Villa El Salvador, Peru, in order to evaluate the interest of local community members in establishing food trees within neighbourhood public green areas. Focus groups and semi-directed interviews conducted with the community actors allowed to identify their perceptions regarding the role these trees could play, the most appropriate management methods for their establishment and maintenance, as well as the best ways of allocating their products. SWOT ( Strength - Weaknesses – Opportunities- Threats and AHP (Analytical Hierarchisation Process analyses permitted to identify the most important favourable and restrictive factors affecting the long-term success of this production strategy. Results show that the possibility of harvesting edible products for family consumption, neighbourhood food aid programs or sale would motivate the inhabitants to contribute to the activities related to the establishment and maintenance of food trees. However, in order to be successful, the implementation of food trees within public green areas has to be in line with neighbourhood policies developed by the local population and to carefully anticipate possible sources of conflicts.

  20. Salvador na "Globalização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Porto

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available El texto sitúa la ciudad de Salvador-Bahía, tercera en población de Brasil, en el contexto de los impactos de la globalización. Desde la década de 1950 hasta la de 1970, Salvador se destacó de las demás ciudades del Nordeste de Brasil experimentando un rápido crecimento gracias a los incentivos y subsidios fiscales y financieros del gobierno federal. El crecimiento de la Región y ciudades fue desigual y abrupto, sobre todo Salvador, que abrió espacios internos para expandir y descentralizarse. Todavía, a partir de los años 80 y 90, con la reestruturación productiva y el neoliberalismo, que definen los terminos de la globalización, el proceso se invirtió. El espacio metropolitano se contrajo, económica y socialmente, con un aumento desmesurado de desempleados y sub-empreados, intensificando de esa forma el proceso de segregación y exclusión social. En contraposición, algunas «islas de modernidad» pasaron a conectarse, a partir de sus cada vez más reducidas y cada vez más ricas actividades económicas -el turismo, antes y encima de todo-, a puntos y espacios nacionales y, mayoritariamente, internacionales, mucho más de que a espacios y flujos internosThe following paper sets the city of Salvador-Bahía, Brazil´s third most populated city, in context with the effects of globalization. Between the 1950’s and 1970’s, Brazil’s northeastern region experienced fast economic growth due to federal financial and fiscal incentives. This sudden process occurred unevenly at regional and city levels, especially for Salvador that released internal areas to expand and decentralize itself. However, during the 1980’s and 1990’s this process was reversed due to neoliberalism and productive restructuring. These are the elements that define in what terms globalization sets in. Consequently, the economic and social spaces of the metropolitan area contracted, increasing the number of unemployed and under-employed people, and

  1. Fortalezas y Debilidades del Proyecto de Atención a Poblaciones Móviles para la disminución del VIH-SIDA en El Salvador, una intervención de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Centeno Monge, Helen Larissa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe algunas de las fortalezas y debilidades encontradas en el Proyecto de Atención a Poblaciones Móviles y sectores que las atienden directamente: personal de salud, migración, aduanas, cuerpos uniformados -recién instalados en las fronteras a nivel nacional- y que se encuentra plasmado en el Plan Estratégico Nacional para la Prevención, Atención y Control del VIH-SIDA e ITS / El Salvador 2005 -2010. El propósito de la intervención fue desarrollar la capacidad, mejorar los conocimientos y habilidades para realizar actividades de educación e información continuas que generen percepción de riesgo y un cambio de comportamiento para tener relaciones sexuales seguras o de menor riesgo ante las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana-SIDA (ITS/VIH-SIDA que al final incidan en la disminución de la transmisión. La metodología incluyó tres momentos claves: la construcción de una línea de base, la implementación de talleres educativos y de información y una evaluación final. Logró captar un total de 380 individuos a nivel nacional. De los resultados mas significativos se pueden mencionar los alcanzados por los participantes que NO pertenecían al sector salud, en los cuales hubo un aumento de conocimientos básicos -transmisión y prevención del VIH- y adquisición de habilidades de un 40% hasta un 60% más de lo encontrado en la línea basal, situación que no resultó ser la misma en los profesionales de salud, en quienes la tendencia fue similar en la línea basal y en la evaluación final. Se concluye que los esfuerzos realizados desde el año 2001 en que dan inicio las intervenciones en poblaciones móviles y que tienen como fin frenar el avance del SIDA en El Salvador no han sido suficientes hasta el momento pues sus estrategias carecen de participación activa de todos los sectores que atienden a dichas poblaciones vulnerables y expuestas a riesgo.

  2. El Salvador: A Communist Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-31

    in planning their military operations. o The series of contacts between Salvadoran communist leaders and officials of serveral communist states that...about 10 inches, monthly, usually limited to afternoon showers. However, in * June and September temporales , or heavy rains, bring a persistent...Jose Mario Lemus alienated most of its popular support in a series of clashes with demonstrating university students, and on October 26, 1960, it was

  3. African Journals Online: El Salvador

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  4. El Salvador - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The benefits of the water and sanitation sub activity will be measured using a rigorous quasi-experimental impact evaluation methodology. An impact evaluation is a...

  5. El Salvador - Formal Technical Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — With a budget of nearly $20 million, the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity was designed to strengthen technical and vocational educational institutions in the...

  6. El Salvador - Northern Transnational Highway

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The benefits of the connectivity project will be measured using a rigorous impact evaluation methodology. An impact evaluation is a study that measures changes in...

  7. Users' and providers' perspectives on technological procedures for 'normal' childbirth in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil Perspectivas de usuarios y proveedores sobre procedimientos tecnológicos para el parto 'normal' en una maternidad pública de Salvador, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia McCallum

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reveal the effect of cultural practices on the way in which normal birth is conducted in a public hospital in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article about a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, compares the points of view of providers and users on four technological normal childbirth procedures: trichotomy, episiotomy, oxytocin infusion, and epidural analgesia. Fieldwork carried out from 2002 to 2003 combined qualitative and quantitative methods. RESULTS: Institutional practices make childbirth unnecessarily difficult for women. Nonetheless, most women accept the conditions because the medical procedures make sense according to their cultural understandings. Service providers support the use of such procedures, although doctors are aware that they contradict recommendations found in scientific medical literature. This article argues that from the perspective of both providers and users, the technological procedures are infused with a culturally specific set of meanings and values. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers must address the cultural understandings of both users and health care professionals in order to improve maternal healthcare in public hospitals in Brazil.OBJETIVO: Revelar el efecto de las prácticas culturales en el parto normal en un hospital público en Brasil. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este artículo sobre el parto en una maternidad pública de Salvador, Brasil, compara el punto de vista de los proveedores de servicios de salud y los usuarios de dichos servicios con respecto a cuatro procedimientos para el parto normal: tricotomía, episiotomía, infusión de oxitocina y analgésico epidural. La investigación, realizada entre 2002 y 2003, utilizó métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos. RESULTADOS: La práctica institucional hace que el parto sea innecesariamente dificultoso para las mujeres, sin embargo, la mayoría de ellas aceptan las condiciones, porque los procedimientos médicos tienen sentido dentro de su

  8. La poètica de Carles Salvador i la generació de 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís B. Meseguer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Meseguer situates Carles Salvador within the literary trends of his contemporaries. He deals with Salvador's implicit and explicit ideological influences, focusing on the poetics of various texts: El jazz, el maquinisme i la poesia pura (1928, Colps d'escut i de sageta (1929, Significado de Avantguardisme, his declaration in La poesia valenciana en 1930, and his unpublished paper El meu concepte de la poesia.

  9. Programa para mejorar la atención selectiva y concentración en niños de 11 y 12 años con problemas atencionales en una I.E. de Villa el Salvador, Lima, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola Monge, Raúl Fernando

    2017-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo la problemática principal: ¿De qué manera el Programa mejorar la atención selectiva y concentración en los niños de 11 y 12 años con problemas atencionales en una institución de Villa el Salvador, Lima, 2016? El principal objetivo del estudio fue demostrar que el Programa mejora la atención selectiva y concentración en los estudiantes. Este trabajo se enmarca dentro del campo de las investigaciones aplicadas, de enfoque cuantitativo, con un diseño...

  10. Sounding the alarm on chronic kidney disease in farming communities: María Isabel Rodríguez MD. Minister of health, El Salvador. Interview by Conner Gorry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Isabel

    2013-07-01

    In April 2013, a consortium of regional health ministries, nongovernmental organizations, aid agencies, clinical specialists and researchers from diverse sectors convened in San Salvador to discuss the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown or non-traditional causes (CKDu) plaguing agricultural communities in Central America and beyond. The three-day meeting, where presentation of research on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of CKDu roused significant debate, led the Pan American Health Organization to declare CKDu "a pressing and serious health problem [which] represents a burden for families, communities, health systems and society as a whole."[1] This High-level Meeting on Chronic Kidney Disease of Non-Traditional Causes in Central America (24-26 April) followed several international meetings at which Dr María Isabel Rodríguez, El Salvador's Minister of Health, presented studies on the disease burden in her country, where end-stage renal disease is the leading cause of hospital deaths. She outlined results of original scientific research by Dr Carlos Orantes (first published in MEDICC Review), that described an "elevated prevalence of chronic kidney disease, chronic renal failure and risk factors" among the patients studied, noting that "the most common [form] was chronic kidney disease of unknown cause, associated with neither diabetes nor hypertension."[2] In this interview with MEDICC Review, Dr Rodríguez discussed the gravity of the problem in Salvadoran agricultural communities; the importance of CKDu research in other countries; and the urgent need for intersectoral action and active community participation to confront and control the epidemic.

  11. Estudio de relación entre Niveles de Violencia en Población masculina Privada de Libertad (PPL en El Salvador y conocimientos de VIH, Vulnerabilidad asociada con VIH/Sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Joshua Mariño Lozano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra, los resultados de evaluar los niveles de violencia presentes en Personas Privadas de Libertad (PPL asociadas a la situación del VIH/Sida y su Vulnerabilidad ante la misma. Entendiendo como Vulnerabilidad el término que hace referencia a, las condiciones que una persona puede presentar en su vida que no permiten a la misma llevar actitudes correctas basadas en un cumulo de conocimientos considerado adecuado también. De aquí surge la necesidad de realizar este estudio, con el fin de determinar las herramientas necesarias para alcanzar las metas individuales en este tipo de población, así como las mismas les permitan disminuir su condición de vulnerabilidad ante la epidemia del VIH. La investigación se llevó a cabo con PPL del Centro Penal de Ciudad Barrios en San Miguel, El Salvador. Se realizó una encuesta a 175 internos donde se tomaron en cuenta variables como: edad, ocasiones que ha sido procesado en un centro penal (reincidencia, niveles de violencia, conocimientos y actitudes correctas ante el VIH/Sida Los resultados apuntan a que la mayor parte de la población es joven y se encuentran en su primer proceso como mayores de edad. Por su parte la mayoría presenta afinidad de incorporarse a un sector laboral como una manera de generar sus propios ingresos. La mayor parte de la población encuestada, muestra que a lo largo de su vida han desarrollado elevados niveles de violencia, y una gran necesidad de conocimientos correctos sobre VIH, lo que se demuestra con los altos índices de ausencia de buenas prácticas ante la epidemia-no hay un buen uso del condón- fenómeno que refleja no estar sensibilizados sobre la situación.

  12. Associação entre atividade física no tempo livre e proteína C reativa em adultos na cidade de Salvador, Brasil Asociación entre actividad física en el tiempo libre y proteína C reactiva en adultos en la ciudad de Salvador, Brasil Association between leisure-time physical activity and C-reactive protein levels in adults, in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pitanga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade física no tempo livre (AFTL pode ser identificada como a participação em qualquer tipo de movimento corporal realizado nos momentos de lazer e está associada à redução no risco de diversos agravos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe associação entre AFTL e proteína C reativa (PCR em adultos, na cidade de Salvador, Bahia. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi transversal, utilizando amostra composta por 822 adultos de ambos os sexos, com idade > 20 anos de idade. Foram considerados como ativos no tempo livre aqueles que, por meio de entrevista pessoal, informaram participar de atividades físicas nos momentos de lazer. Observaram-se também os níveis plasmáticos altos de PCR nos indivíduos com valores > 3,0 mg/l. Utilizou-se análise de regressão logística para estimar a razão de chances (RC com intervalo de confiança (IC a 95%. RESULTADOS: Após análise multivariada para possíveis confundidores, encontrou-se, entre homens, RC de 0,73 (0,68-0,79 demonstrando associação inversa entre AFTL e PCR elevada apenas em indivíduos do sexo masculino. Após estratificação por sexo, obesidade, diabete e tabagismo, constatou-se associação entre AFTL e PCR elevada em homens fumantes ou ex-fumantes, não-obesos e não-diabéticos, e em mulheres obesas e não-fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo podem trazer contribuições para a saúde pública, na medida em que podem ser utilizados para conscientizar sobre a importância da AFTL como uma das possíveis estratégias para a melhoria da saúde de grupos populacionais.FUNDAMENTO: Se puede definir la actividad física en el tiempo libre (AFTL como la participación en cualquier tipo de movimiento corporal realizado en los momentos de ocio, y está asociada a la reducción en el riesgo de diversos agravios cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Verificar si existe asociación entre AFTL y proteína C reactiva (PCR en adultos, en la ciudad de Salvador, Bahia. M

  13. Salvadoran fathers' attendance at prenatal care, delivery, and postpartum care La presencia de los padres salvadoreños durante la atención prenatal, el parto y la atención posparto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Carter

    2005-09-01

    fin de orientar acciones encaminadas a ayudar a los hombres a participar de una forma más útil en la salud maternoinfantil. MÉTODOS: Los datos, que se obtuvieron de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Masculina de 2003 (ENSM-03 de El Salvador, se centran en los padres (n = 418 y en el hijo más joven que haya nacido vivo durante los cinco años anteriores a la encuesta. Mediante modelos de regresión logística y multinomial se exploraron factores asociados con la presencia de los padres en las consultas prenatales, en el parto y en las consultas para la atención del neonato sano. RESULTADOS: Noventa por ciento de los padres salvadoreños que fueron encuestados participaron en una consulta prenatal, asistieron al parto o estuvieron en una consulta para la atención del bebé sano; 34% de ellos participaron en las tres actividades. Lo más frecuente fue la asistencia al parto, notificada por 81% de los padres, y la razón dada con mayor frecuencia para no haber asistido fue la necesidad de ir a trabajar. CONCLUSIONES: La gran mayoría de los padres salvadoreños habían estado en por lo menos una consulta prenatal, en el parto o en una consulta para la atención del bebé sano. Aunque la participación en estas actividades no necesariamente significa que los cónyuges les estén dando a sus parejas el apoyo debido, los resultados parecieran indicar que ya están sentadas ciertas normas para que los hombres puedan desempeñar un papel positivo en el área de la salud maternoinfantil. Además, la participación de los padres en estas actividades relacionadas con la atención de madre e hijo podría ofrecer nuevas oportunidades para educar a los hombres y darles más apoyo en el cuidado de su propia salud y la de su familia.

  14. Esteticismo y compromiso social en Euterpologio politonal de Vicente Rosales y Rosales. Re actualización y superación del modernismo en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Thomas Bosshard

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo aclarará las múltiples referencias del autor al simbolismo, al modernismo y al vanguardismo e igualmente ubicará a Rosales y Rosales ante el trasfondo de aquellos discursos antropológicos y estéticos que a partir de 1900 empezaron a resaltar el ritmo como factor decisivo para poder definir la raza. También mediante el análisis de los poemas contenidos en Euterpologio politonal destaca la combinación de lo rítmico con lo racial-indígena, hecho notable, dado que el autor re...

  15. El Salvador, acceso ciudadano directo a las Elecciones Legislativas y de Concejos Municipales, 11 marzo del 2012: una experiencia desde la observación electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La figura del partido político en Costa Rica juega un rol fundamental dentro del sistema político y se considera el vehículo legítimo para acceder al poder público. El proceso electoral 2013-2014 aporta elementos significativos y brinda pistas que permiten fortalecer el Estado democrático de derecho costarricense, mediante el abordaje de dos ejes específicos. El primero, la dinámica interna seguida por los partidos políticos en dos de sus procesos que tuvieron directa vinculación al proceso electoral: la renovación periódica de sus autoridades internas y la escogencia de sus candidaturas a puestos de elección popular. El segundo abarca la interacción reproducida entre el sistema de partidos políticos y la ciudadanía, tanto en forma singular como asociativamente durante el proceso electoral, espacio de conexión entre ambos actores, donde la institución de la representación política se activa de manera más intensa y directa, a través del ejercicio del sufragio

  16. Caracterización hidrogeoquímica e isotopica de areas de recarga en el acuífero de San Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera de Calderon , Marcia Lizeth

    2010-01-01

    El agua subterránea y el ciclo hidrológico -- La composición del agua subterránea -- Unidades de la composición isotópica del agua -- Geología de la cuenca del rio Acelhuate -- Caracterización hidrogeoquímica e isotópica del agua subterránea en la microcuenca alta del rio Acelhuate.

  17. Low socioeconomic status is associated with prolonged times to assessment and treatment, sepsis and infectious death in pediatric fever in El Salvador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gavidia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection remains the most common cause of death from toxicity in children with cancer in low- and middle-income countries. Rapid administration of antibiotics when fever develops can prevent progression to sepsis and shock, and serves as an important indicator of the quality of care in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. We analyzed factors associated with (1 Longer times from fever onset to hospital presentation/antibiotic treatment and (2 Sepsis and infection-related mortality. METHOD: This prospective cohort study included children aged 0-16 years with newly diagnosed acute leukemia treated at Benjamin Bloom Hospital, San Salvador. We interviewed parents/caregivers within one month of diagnosis and at the onset of each new febrile episode. Times from initial fever to first antibiotic administration and occurrence of sepsis and infection-related mortality were documented. FINDINGS: Of 251 children enrolled, 215 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (85.7%. Among 269 outpatient febrile episodes, median times from fever to deciding to seek medical care was 10.0 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-20.0, and from decision to seek care to first hospital visit was 1.8 hours (IQR 1.0-3.0. Forty-seven (17.5% patients developed sepsis and 7 (2.6% died of infection. Maternal illiteracy was associated with longer time from fever to decision to seek care (P = 0.029 and sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-8.63; P = 0.034. More infectious deaths occurred in those with longer travel time to hospital (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.81; P = 0.031 and in families with an annual household income

  18. The Text of the Agreement of 22 April 1975 between El Salvador and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 22 April 1975, and of the Protocol thereto, between El Salvador and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 22 April 1975, pursuant to Article 24. The Protocol entered into force on the same date, pursuant to Article II thereof.

  19. Salvador Dali : 1904-1989

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Sürrealismi joonte levimine mööblikujundusse - Salvador Dali Edvard Jamesile kavandatud diivan "Mae Westi huuled". Diivani ideeks Dali maal "Mae Westi nägu, mida võiks kasutada sürrealistliku ruumina", mille järgi on sisustatud üks ruum 1973. a. Hispaanias Figuerases avatud Dali majamuuseumis. 2 ill

  20. Salvador Espriu : Letizia (1937)

    OpenAIRE

    Edo Julià, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Un petit grup de persones assisteix a l’enterrament de Letizia. Un és el narrador en primera persona, company sentimental de la morta; una altra, Carola Marelli, una cosina que ningú no sabia que existia; la resta són amics: dues parelles joves (Hildebrand i Fanny, Valesi i Lluïseta), una dona més madura (Mònica) i un home d’edat no definida (Ronchi). Tot seguit de la cerimònia, no oficiada per cap sacerdot, tots vuit deixen el cementiri repartits en dos carruatges de cavalls.

  1. De las pasiones al conocimiento en Farabeuf, de Salvador Elizondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Esquivel-Colín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploraron las diferencias entre filosofía y literatura como modos de razonamiento presentes en la novela de Salvador Elizondo: Farabeuf , y se analizó la manera en que ambas disciplinas se acercan al cuerpo y las pasiones. Se encontró que el erotismo aparece en esa novela como un modo de acceder al conocimiento del alma humana. Así entendida, la verdad que la literatura propone es interior, se aparta del mero razonamiento y exige de su lector la experiencia para ser aprehendida; también ofrece la oportunidad de imaginar la muerte y el erotismo como escapes del mundo.

  2. Air-temperature variations and ENSO effects in Indonesia, the Philippines and El Salvador. ENSO patterns and changes from 1866-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harger, J. R. E.

    The major features in development of the "El Nino-Southern Oscillation" (ENSO) involve oscillation of the Pacific ocean-atmosphere in an essentially unpredictable (chaotic) fashion. The system moves between extremes of the so-called "warm events" lasting one or two years and involving movement of warm sea water from the western Pacific along the equator to impact on the west coast of the American continent and "cold-events" associated with easterly trade-wind-induced flows of colder water from the eastern Pacific towards the west. Historical data indicate that ENSO years as experienced by the Island of Java are either much warmer than non-ENSO years or only slightly, if at all, warmer than normal (non-ENSO) years. Hot-dry years within the ENSO warm event cycle are almost always followed by cooler wet years and vice versa. This pattern also extends to include the year immediately following the terminal year of an ENSO warm event set. The initial year of an ENSO warm event set may be either hot with a long dry season or relatively cool (nearer to the temperature of a non-ENSO year) and having a short dry season. In recent years, since 1950, of the 9 ENSO warm events, the initial year tends to have been hot and dry for 6 (1951, 1957, 1963, 1972, 1982, 1991) and neutral or cool and wet for 3 (1968, 1976, 1986). An area of 88,000 ha burned in 1991 (Jakarta Post 30 November 1991) largely in Kalimantan in association with the 1991-1992 ENSO event, an extensive pall of smoke developed over Kalimantan, Singapore and Malaysia during September-October of 1991. Surface vegetation-based fires continued to burn in East Kalimantan as of 29 April 1992 and extended into the 1992 dry season, in response to the ENSO conditions carrying forward from 1991. The increasing annual trend in air-temperature exhibited by the mean monthly values over the period 1866-1993, for the Jakarta and the Semarang data taken together is 1.64°C (0.0132°C per year from 25.771 to 27.409°C). The major

  3. El Salvador - Rural Electrification - Solar Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a summative qualitative performance evaluation (PE) of the solar panel component of the solar panel component of the RE Sub-Activity. The final report will...

  4. El Salvador - Production and Business Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Final Performance Evaluation: To guide the analysis, a research framework composed of the following five research questions was used: (1) How was the PBS Activity...

  5. El Salvador - Investment Support & Financial Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Research Questions. Through an analysis of business plans, borrower files, repayment data, applicant questionnaires, as well as information from interviews with...

  6. El Salvador at War: An Oral History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    No Strong Basis for Democracy General John R. Galvin-The root causes go back 400 years. First of all, there was never any franchise for the indigenous...and industry, such as it was-mining, and so forth-in the countries. So, a combination of lack of franchise for indigenous peoples and extremely weak...city was not on a war footing. The clubs, the sidewalk cafes in the Zona Rosa, were going full blast. The discos were jumping. There was gasoline. The

  7. El Salvador - Improving Quality of General Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Mathematica Policy Research (MPR) was contracted by MCC to conduct an impact evaluation of the Integrated Systems of Full-Time Inclusive Schools model (SI-EITP for...

  8. El Salvador. Political will to expand renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johst, Claus-Bernhardt

    2012-07-01

    The smallest country in Central America faces large social and economic challenges. Private and public institutions are trying to improve the situation and implement projects for a sustainable supply of energy. (orig.)

  9. Salvador Dali Kopenhaagenis / Ave Räkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räkk, Ave

    1999-01-01

    Salvador Dalí näitus Kopenhaageni moodsa kunsti muuseumis Arkenis kuni 2. I 2000. Eksponeeritud 119 originaaljoonistust autobiograafilisest raamatust 'The secret life of Salvador Dali', umbes 300 illustratsiooni, graafikat, skulptuure, kuld ja klaasehistöid, mööblit ja üks maal: 1944. a. valminud, esmakordselt avalikkuse ees olev 'Papillion'.

  10. REDES DO COMÉRCIO DE RUA DE SALVADOR, BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Nogueira Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo representa un estudio de caso de comercio de la calle que se produce en la Centralización Iguatemi y Avenida Lima e Silva, en Salvador, Bahia. Al caminar por las calles es la diversidad notable que esta actividad presenta son bienes de todo tipo, ropa, electrónica, productos alimenticios y los que están diseñados para satisfacer una necesidad momentánea. Buscamos entender el camino que lleva a la diversidad bienes desde la producción hasta el consumo, se analizan los productos de “extranjero” en un intento de controlar todo el trayecto del camino para ellos. Por lo tanto, desarrollamos un entendimiento en torno a redes posibles formados detrás de la venta ambulante, es decir, las redes de suministro de este comercio.

  11. Boosting the agricultural production capabilities of Indian rural communities in the micro region of South Ahuachapán (El Salvador, in order to improve food safety and raise income for the local population Renforcement des capacités de production agricole des communautés rurales indiennes dans la micro région du Sud Ahuachapán (République du Salvador pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et augmenter les revenus pour la population locale Aumento de las capacidades de producción agrícola de las comunidades rurales indígenas en la microrregión del sur de Ahuachapán (El Salvador, para mejorar la seguridad alimentaria y aumentar los ingresos para la población local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-M. Fouillade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case with many Latin American countries, El Salvador, which is regularly affected by hurricanes and is in transition towards democracy following a period of violent civil war, suffers from major inequality in the distribution of its national wealth, with almost half the population living below the poverty line. It was in light of this that, in 2002, the Secours populaire français intervened in the North-West of the country in the coffee growing area of the southern part of the Ahuachapán department, an area classified as a priority development area by governmental authorities.  This was in the form of a project undertaken in partnership with the NGO FUNDESYRAM (Fundación para el desarrollo socioeconómico y la restauración ambiental - the Foundation for Social-Economic Development and Environmental Rehabilitation, and was co-funded by the European Union and developed over a period of nine years. Its aim was to improve food security and family economics of those in conditions of extreme poverty and it was undertaken using the principles of inter-family solidarity and respect for the environment. The involvement of the partner and the beneficiaries led to a strengthening of communal associations (the ADESCO (Asociación de desarrollo comunal - Community Improvement Associations as well as to the creation of a production association (‘AGROCESA’ Asociación de productores agropecuarios centro sur Ahuachapán – Association of Agriculture and Livestock Production in order to improve the organization, management and support of social and economic development projects. It was this that guaranteed the success of the program and enabled both the capacity building for self-management and the autonomous and unified development of those communities that benefited from the project. This project, that, among other things, contributed to the eradication of infantile malnutrition by ensuring food safety within the family and empowered women

  12. Arreteeriti Salvador Dali võltsija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Hispaania politsei arreteeris Cadaquesis Salvador Dali endise sekretäri, ameeriklase John Peter Moore'i, kes tabati Dali võltslitograafiate müümiselt. Läbiotsimisel leiti Moore'i majast sadu võltsinguid

  13. Lenini ilmumine Salvador Dalile / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2007-01-01

    Salvador Dali maali "Osaline kangastus. Kuus Lenini ilmumist tiibklaveril" ("Hallucination partielle. Six apparitions de Lénine sur un piano") verbaalsest interpretatsioonist Harkovi ülikooli uurija Oleg Zaslavski teooria alusel

  14. El Salvador’s Crime Prevention Policies - From Mano Dura to El Salvador Seguro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    the program was my advisor, Thomas Bruneau, whom I consider a giant among academics throughout the world . He exceeded any expectations I may have had...Borgh, “Gang Violence in Central America: Comparing Anti-gang approaches and policies,” The Broker—Connecting Worlds of Knowledge, April 2, 2009...create the conditions for rehabilitation and reintegration in these facilities instead. The government is aware that prisons are overpopulated , so

  15. Salvador, un reto para las políticas de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larissa Centeno Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador, para el año 2003, la población de 15 a 24 años representa un poco más de un tercio de la población clasificada como en edad fértil. Los indicadores de salud reflejan una situación que demanda atención y acciones concretas hacia las necesidades de la salud reproductiva que afrontan los adolescentes. Según la Encuesta nacional de salud familiar realizada en 1998, el 48.8% de las mujeres menores de 24 años han tenido experiencia sexual, menos del 10% utilizaron algún método anticonceptivo en su primera relación y el 42% han tenido al menos un embarazo antes de los 24 años. Dado que los problemas de salud sexual y reproductiva fueron de los primeros en poner a la adolescencia en el tapete como sujeto prioritario de atención de la salud, la promoción de la salud del adolescente debe constituir uno de los principales objetivos de cualquier proyecto de desarrollo, tanto a nivel local como nacional. Al utilizar los datos de la FESAL–98 e información proporcionada por el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social de El Salvador, se presentan en este artículo algunas cifras y reflexiones acerca de la situación referente a la salud sexual y reproductiva de las adolescentes salvadoreñas de 15 a 24 años y algunas acciones que se realizan al respecto. Se plantea el modelo de atención a los y las adolescentes implementado en el país y las principales implicaciones y retos que aun hay que atender.

  16. Manual de valoración de puestos de trabajo en las áreas funcionales de la empresa Comercial Salvador Pacheco Mora, a mayo de 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hermida Sánchez, Gabriel Gerardo; Piedra Pulla, Diego Armando

    2009-01-01

    El tema de este trabajo de tesis es Manual de Valoración de puestos de Trabajo en la empresa "Salvador Pacheco Mora", se escogió este tema porque la mayoría de organizaciones en el país no cuentan con un manual de valoración que les permita establecer la jerarquía de cada uno de los puestos y determinar escalas remunerativas justas y equitativas. La principal razón que abaliza está investigación se fundamenta en el hecho de que Comercial Salvador Pacheco Mora no cuenta con un manual de va...

  17. Nacionalismo y multiculturalismo en la España actual. Entrevista con Salvador Cardús

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Winter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista realizada en diciembre de 2003 con el sociólogo catalán Salvador Cardús (profesor titular de Sociología en la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, en torno a temas como las diversas identidades culturales de la España del siglo XXI y los nacionalismos españoles después del Franquismo.

  18. El primer aporte de los obispos de Brasil a la codificación del derecho canónico de 1917: los 'postulata' de los arzobispos de San Salvador de Bahía y de Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salinas Araneda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La redacción del primer Código de Derecho Canónico que tuvo la Iglesia latina fue ordenada por el Papa san Pío X en 1904. La tarea codificadora, empero, no fue obra de un grupo cerrado de expertos, sino que tuvo en cuenta el parecer del episcopado latino, el que fue consultado en dos momentos diferentes y en ambos fueron consultados los obispos de las provincias eclesiásticas de Brasil. En este trabajo se estudia, a partir de la documentación guardada en el Archivo Secreto Vaticano, el aporte de los obispos de las provincias eclesiásticas de Brasil en el primero de dichos momentos.

  19. Salvador Alvarado y las elecciones de 1920, una candidatura olvidada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Iván Méndez Lara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra una de las facetas menos estudiadas del general Salvador Alvarado: su papel en la sucesión presidencial de 1920. A través de la revisión de fuentes poco exploradas como los periódicos El Heraldo de México y El Monitor Republicano podrá observarse la complejidad y tensión del ambiente político en la coyuntura electoral. Alvarado modificó su postura conforme avanzó la contienda, de una actitud belicosa que lo llevó a crear su propio partido político contra los generales Pablo González y Álvaro Obregón, pasó a ser un aliado del grupo sonorense en la lucha contra la imposición del candidato carrancista, Ignacio Bonillas. Además de comprender a un Alvarado interesado en la silla presidencial, este trabajo muestra el accionar de los periódicos capitalinos como espacios de discusión e impulsores de plataformas políticas en las elecciones que posicionaron a los sonorenses en la cúspide del poder.

  20. Carles Salvador, l'autoritat gramatical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Pitarch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carles Salvador had strong nationalistic convictions and was very active in promoting the Catalan language in several areas, specifically in developing treatises on spelling, grammar and lexicography. His work would help consolidate the standardization of Catalan in the Valencian Country and would make him an unquestionable authority on Catalan grammar.

  1. Estudio comparativo de los planes de actuación frente al riesgo volcánico (Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, España, México y Nicaragua)

    OpenAIRE

    Ona Corominas; Joan Martí

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio hace una comparativa de actuación frente el riesgo volcánico entre varios países con la intención que sea una muestra de América Latina y España. El objetivo es comprobar si el nivel socioeconómico de un país se corresponde con la eficacia de los sistemas de prevención del riesgo volcánico que utilizan, analizar los motivos y los métodos en la medida de lo posible y aprender de los sistemas de trabajo para hacer frente a este riesgo, los cuales probablemente podrían ser ap...

  2. Movimiento de mujeres en El Salvador (1986-2008) : desde su invisibilidad histórica y política hasta la incorporación de la perspectiva de género /

    OpenAIRE

    Navas de Melgar María, Candelaria

    2013-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctorado en Ciencia Política, presenta Candelaria Navas de Melgar María ; tutora principal de tesis Silvia Soriano Hernández. 315 páginas. Doctorado en Ciencia Política Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2013

  3. Periodismo salvadoreño: de la intolerancia política a las posibilidades informativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alfredo Cantarero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea la historia reciente del periodismo salvadoreño: antes de los acuerdos de paz y después de los acuerdos de paz. Se sostiene que durante la guerra el periodismo se realizaba con las limitaciones que impuso la intolerancia política. A partir de los acuerdos de paz, por la distensión política y la instauración de la democracia, el periodismo tiene mayores posibilidades de realizar un trabajo más profesional. Sin embargo, profesionalizarlo más implica superar dificultades propias del gremio de periodistas, que se encuentran el orden de la responsabilidad social, el manejo técnico, el respeto a las leyes y a la asunción de normas éticas.

  4. Crecimiento y estado nutricional infantil en San Salvador de Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano, Ignacio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La recolección de datos antropométricos dentro de un programa de asistencia sanitaria y alimentaria permite definir el estado nutricional y de salud de los individuos y en base a esta información planificar, ejecutar y valorar la incidencia de dicho programa en la población. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento y estado nutricional de una población infantil (1-5 años residente en barrios periféricos de San Salvador de Jujuy y comprendida en el Programa Materno Infantil (PROMIN. Los datos procedieron de mediciones de peso (kg y talla (cm realizadas en 4616 niños, los que se agruparon por sexo y edad decimal. Los indicadores utilizados fueron: peso, talla, puntuación z (Pz, índice de masa corporal (IMC. Los resultados indicaron que: 1 la mayoría de la población se encontró entre 2z: 98,9% para talla/edad (T/E y 96.6% para peso/edad (P/E (estándar nacional; 99.4% para T/E y 97.7% para P/E (estándar internacional; 2 los valores promedios del IMC en todos los grupos de edad y en ambos sexos, fueron superiores a los de referencia, resultando estas diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.01. Se concluye que el crecimiento y el estado nutricional de esta población se ajusta al de las poblaciones de referencia nacional e internacional y que, probablemente este comportamiento, el cual no refleja la situación general del resto de las poblaciones infantiles de la Provincia de Jujuy, responda al efecto de la asistencia alimentaria, médica y sanitaria ofrecida por el PROMIN y a las características socioeconómicas, demográficas y culturales propias de esta población infantil.

  5. Cooperativismo y reciclado: estrategias de supervivencia de los seleccionadores de basura de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Hilda Maria de Carvalho

    1999-01-01

    Este artículo trata de la producción, tratamiento y disposición final de los residuos sólidos urbanos en la ciudad de Salvador, Bahia-Brasil con énfasis en las actividades desarrolladas por los badameiros, basureros clandestinos del reciclado y de los avances alcanzados con el Proyecto de Promoción Social de los badameiros. La metodología utilizada esta basada en los datos estadísticos de la producción, desperdício y reciclado de los residuos sólidos urbanos en el periodo de 1992-1998 y en el...

  6. Identification of Focal Mechanisms of Seisms Occurring in the San Salvador Volcano-Ilopango Lake Area Between 1994 and March 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Mendez Martinez, Luz de; Portillo, Mercy

    2009-01-01

    We studied the geographic area located in the central part of El Salvador, between the San Salvador Volcano (Quezaltepec) and Ilopango Lake. Its latitude is between 13 deg. 36' and 13 deg. 54', and longitude is between -89 deg. 18' and -88 deg. 57'. This area is directly affected by the WNW axis, the most prominent weak tectonic system in the region. Our research aimed to determine the focal mechanisms of seisms occurring in the studied area between 1994 and March 2005. Our analysis provided information about displacement types of the geological faults, using the wave impulse P method and computer applications ARCGIS and SEISAN, with the subroutine FOCMEC. Information of the studied seisms was obtained from the National Service of Territorial Studies (SNET) database. Geographic models used in the preparation of maps are from the geographic information system of the School of Physics at the University of El Salvador. The 37 focal mechanisms on the map of faults were identified in digital seismographs to determinate the arrival polarity of the wave P for each seism station. Data from the focal mechanisms were analyzed and correlated with their replications. The analysis allowed us to identify evidences to consider the fault continuity not reported by the last geological mission in El Salvador conducted in the 1970s. The fault continuity is located northwest of the studied geographical area, between San Salvador City and the San Salvador Volcano. The compression and strain axes for this area are two main horizontal force axes. The average orientation for the strain axis is NNE-SSW, and WNW-SEE for the compression axis. There is also important seismic activity in the Ilopango Lake and surrounding area. However, data did not allow us to make any inference. The tensors distribution resulted in a high dispersion corresponding to typical fauces models.

  7. En búsqueda de los salvadoreños en los Estados Unidos: contextualizando los datos etnográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Ricardo Machuca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presento una visión de conjunto de la literatura etnográfica sobre los salvadoreños en Estados Unidos. La migración salvadoreña a los Estados Unidos comienza a finales del siglo XIX, sin embargo los salvadoreños no llegan en masa a ese país hasta principios de la década de los ochenta, a principios de la guerra civil que duraría doce años (1980-1992. En las pasadas tres décadas, la literatura general sobre salvadoreños en Estados Unidos es extensa y cubre una amplia variedad de disciplinas. Muchos trabajos académicos estudian a los migrantes salvadoreños bajo la categoría de “centroamericanos”. Con el notable incremento de la migraciónsalvadoreña a los Estados Unidos a partir de 1980, se ha publicado un número significativo de etnografías sobre su experiencia migratoria en las pasadas dos décadas.En este artículo se discuten y comparan nueve de esos trabajos académicos. Estos trabajos tratan a los salvadoreños desde temas, tópicos y perspectivas particulares,los cuales incluyen inmigración y emigración, diáspora y transnacionalismo, cambios en relaciones de género, leyes migratorias estadounidenses y estatus migratorio,remesas y derecho al voto. A medida que los migrantes salvadoreños forjan nuevas redes de conexión e interacción social entre su país de origen y los Estados Unidos,los trabajos académicos buscan entender y teorizar sobre estos emergentes espaciostransnacionales.

  8. Obituary -- Salvador González Bedolla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, H. José

    1997-04-01

    It is with great sadness that I must communicate the passing of our colleague Salvador Félix González Bedolla. The observational astronomers of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional owe much to his pioneering effort at San Pedro Mártir, work that formed him as an astronomer, and helped him become one of the best photometric observers in México and, at the Instituto de Astronomóa of the UNAM, the academic technician with the highest productivity of articles derived from observations at the OAN. Salvador was an excellent student. He obtained the highest achievement award (Gabino Barreda) in high school, studied physics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and also finished the credits for his Master's degree in Physics with only his thesis separating him from his degree, an act which was constantly put off until his death. He began his career in Astronomy in 1973 under Dr. Eugenio Mendoza. Later he worked with Josef Warman in the observation of short period stars in the Observatorio `José Arbol y Bonilla'' in Zacatecas, México. I then began working continuously with him in this field of research which, thanks to his great work capacity, produced very good results. He continued in these fields of research not only within the Institute of Astronomy, but also in other research facilities, especially two: With the variable group from the Observatory at Nice, France, beginning in 1985, specializing in the pulsation of early stars. His main interest was in the β Cep stars and in the possibility of relating these stars to the new types of variables (such as the OB stars, the `53 Per' variables, the `ultrashort' period and the ``slow'' and Be variables) discovered near this zone. Hence, in view of this, his efforts were aimed at monitoring the stars that belong to these new groups in order to discover if they are really different from the classical β Cep stars. Moreover, beginning in 1984, Salvador began working with a group of astronomers from

  9. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Mazz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  10. Social network characteristics and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in San Salvador: identifying opportunities for HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.

  11. flacso sede costa rica flacso programa el salvador informe final

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Personal

    efectos de las investigación tenían que cumplir con varios criterios: territorios ...... se convierte, desde inicios de los años noventa, en una zona estratégica ...... y operaciones del OIJ con información estadística, lugares en donde se están dando ...... cada cuadrante hay gente capaz de desarrollar, de hacer una planeación,.

  12. Addressing Youth Violence in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most of the victims are young men aged 15 to 30 living in urban areas. Increases in overall criminal activity in the region are linked to the drug trade, arms smuggling, human trafficking, sexual exploitation, extortion rackets, and robberies on public transportation. Although governments attribute ... Date de début. 5 mars 2012 ...

  13. Dollarization In El Salvador And Ecuador: A Model Worth Following

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    great soil quality ready to be converted to banana plantations, the climate was ideal, plant disease in the area was minimal, and the area was...14, 2016, http://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/index.php?db=FM. Figure 14 graphs the inflation rates of Ecuador, Colombia , Peru, and Bolivia...from 1992–2014. Although Peru and Colombia both had high inflation through the 1990s, prior to 2001 Ecuador clearly had the highest rates. All four

  14. Area Handbook Series: El Salvador: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the majority of these people was no longer completely Indian. Most were ladinoized, Hispanic acculturated, monolingual Spanish speakers who did not wear...Latin American Historical Dictionaries , No. 5.) Metuchen, New Jersey: Scare- crow Press, 1972. Harris, Kevin, and Mario Espinosa. "Reform

  15. Medicolegal investigation of political killings in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J L; Gruschow, J; Stover, E

    1989-06-17

    An axiom of Thomas Hobbes states that "people are never more helpless than when the force meant to protect their rights turns against them." Hobbes' axiom holds true today, with Amnesty International reporting that hundreds of thousands have been murdered by their governments. This article examines the medicolegal aspects of an investigation into the deaths of two Salvadoran peasants who were reportedly tortured and executed by soldiers in February 1988. One of the authors, Thomsen, participated in the investigation as a court-ordered expert, and as a representative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of a Salvadoran legal aid organization. His necropsy findings are reported with observations and comments. The article concludes with suggestions for initiatives that might be undertaken by individual physicians and institutions to improve the quality and impartiality of medicolegal investigations into political killings.

  16. Addressing Youth Violence in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will evaluate the impact of existing policies, document ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's second ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  17. Promoting Non-violent Masculine Identities in El Salvador and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... conditions under which non-violent masculine role models and identities can emerge. Focusing on young men from vulnerable urban communities in both countries ... IDRC will partner with the Nicaraguan organization Fundación Puntos de ...

  18. Fair-trade indigo in El Salvador | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... Jose Cosme is a 54-year old family man. ... Since 2000, Asociación Bálsamo, a Salvadorian organization, has been trying to ... of Alberta and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has joined the project.

  19. Violence in Counterinsurgency - The Case of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    bodies were heaped together behind the morgue; a handful ofwomen in the pile had their panties and stockings rolled down to their knees. I didn’t...over time. , A little girl is crying . .. "They’re burning my dress. They’re burning my dress." Nine villagers, one a fifteen year old boy, are

  20. Magnetostratigraphy of the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucugauchi, Jaime Urrutia [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Lab. de Paleomagnetismo y Geofisica Nuclear, Coyoacan (Mexico); Rodriguez, Vicente Torres; Partida, Eduardo Gonzalez [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Dept. de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    1997-12-01

    The volcanic stratigraphy for the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa geothermal field is defined on the basis of the magnetostratigraphic results on 156 oriented samples from 33 sites. The magnetostratigraphic sequence shows that the major volcanism associated with the Concepcion de Ataco caldera and the Cuyanausul volcano took place during the middle Brunhes chron (Quaternary). Pre-caldera activity of small centers such as Empalizada and Apaneca in the southern sector of the field occurred during the early Brunhes (0.77{+-}0.07 Ma). Basaltic-andesitic activity associated with the Cuyanausul volcano took place earlier, i.e. during the Matuyama chron, possibly around 1.3{+-}0.15 and 1.7{+-}0.3 Ma. The local igneous basement is composed of Late Miocene-Pliocene andesites, ignimbrites and volcano-sedimentary deposits. Normal polarities and a K-Ar date of 7.37{+-}0.73 Ma indicate that the volcanic activity in the study area extends beyond the Gauss chron. The polarity of some of the units in the post-caldera sequence and in the Concepcion de Ataco and Cuyanausul sequences suggest that they may have recorded short polarity sub-chrons. (Author)

  1. Rethinking El Salvador's public transit trouble | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-19

    Jul 19, 2017 ... Highlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium on impact of Internet on economic growth. An IDRC-sponsored symposium exploring the impact of the Internet on economic growth and public service delivery in the Caribbean was held in Saint. View moreHighlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium ...

  2. Microearthquakes in the ahuachapan geothermal field, el salvador, central america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P L; Jacob, K H

    1971-07-23

    Microearthquakes occur on a steeply dipping plane interpreted here as the fault that allows hot water to circulate to the surface in the geothermal region. These small earthquakes are common in many geothermal areas and may occur because of the physical or chemical effects of fluids and fluid pressure.

  3. Adela Salvador. Una vida dedicada a las Matemáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Martín Díaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el verano de 2012 tuve la oportunidad de entrevistar a la matemática Adela Salvador,que no sólo se ha preocupado de la enseñanza de la materia en Institutos o Universidades,sino que también ha realizado importantes investigaciones en el campo de la Lógica Borrosa (entre otros y especializado en la vida de otras Mujeres Matemáticas que la precedieron. Lleva dando clases unos 45 años, de forma ininterrumpida. Ha dirigido, coordinado o colaborado con más de 83 proyectos de investigación o de innovación educativa. Ha escrito 76 libros, 116 artículos, 94 ponencias a congresos, y ha impartido montones de cursos, seminarios, conferencias durante todos esos años.

  4. Proteccion Social en Salud en America Latina y el Caribe ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dentro de la salud pública, y con vistas a contribuir en los procesos de cambio de ... la PSS en el marco de las reformas de la salud en América Latina y el Caribe. ..... neoliberal” en tanto extiende la racionalidad mercantil a todas las esferas de la ... Excluyentes como El Salvador, Honduras, Bolivia, Ecuador y Guatemala.

  5. El

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, P.T.; Luttikhuizen, R.; Barbier, J.C.; Gautii, J.

    1998-01-01

    El objetivo de esta publicacisn es aportar una serie de novedosas contribuciones que abordan, desde diversos angulos, el candente problema del empleo. Su contenido se refiere a los principales pamses de la Comunidad Econsmica Europea y Estados Unidos, analizando las caractermsticas y causas del

  6. La cultura de los negros esclavizados del Brasil: Arquitectura y rito en la ciudad de Salvador, Bahía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este texto es presentar parte de la cultura, arquitectura, religión y modos de vida de Brasil a través de la historia de los africanos esclavizados que llegaron al país y sus descendientes. Este artículo plantea un vínculo entre arquitectura y rito, analizando los quilombos como refugio de los esclavos; el candomblé como rito de celebración y las fiestas religiosas como la de Nuestro Senhor do Bonfim. El texto se refiere asimismo a Salvador de Bahía y a su Barrio del Pelourinho, un lugar que resume y representa toda la cultura, el patrimonio físico e inmaterial de la cultura africana, hoy afro-brasileña.

  7. Discusión de la hipótesis geológica de Gregorio Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Maruri, J.R. (José Ramón)

    1986-01-01

    Gregorio Salvador explica el fenómeno lingüístico de la pérdida de F- inicial latina recurriendo a la geología; las aguas calizas y sin flúor garantizan la pérdida temprana de la dentadura, hecho que provoca una dificultad articulatoria. Sin embargo, Maruri comprueba experimentalmente cómo tanto las aguas de los manantiales castellanos como altoaragoneses son deficitarias en flúor, por lo que no se explica la conservación de la F- inicial intacta latina por parte de los hablantes altoaragones...

  8. L'aspecte pedagògic de Carles Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Quixal San-Abdon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the educational background of Carles Salvador, first with his studies at the Escola Normal, followed by lectures and experiences which would guide his professional development, to the degraded situation as a high school teacher of the Spanish State.

  9. (Sur)realistic link Salvador Dali/Le Corbusier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, J.

    2012-01-01

    This is a story about the remarkable relationship and connection between two men, who on first sight, don't seem to have any relation at all. The first one is known as Salvador Dali (pic1.), the surrealist, the Spanish artist praised for his extraordinary paintings and of course his Paranoid

  10. Los cumpleaños de San Simón. Etnografías salvadoreñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Espada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de trabajos de campo, hechos desde la metodología de la observación participante, sobre fiestas y celebraciones relacionadas con el culto a San Simón en El Salvador entre los años 2011 y 2014. Nos ocuparemos, de la forma más descriptiva posible, de seis casos que mantienen entre sí sustanciales diferencias de forma y fondo y que, en su conjunto, prueban la extraordinaria maleabilidad de este culto, así como la imposibilidad de reducir su existencia y el extraordinario éxito de difusión experimentado en los últimos años a razonamientos simplistas y paternalistas como la pobreza, la ignorancia o la marginalidad.

  11. MERCADO IMOBILIÁRIO E MERCATILIZAÇÃO DA NATUREZA EM SALVADOR E REGIÃO METROPOLITANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendel Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artiulo es un análisis sobre el proceso de producción y usa del espacio urbano relacionado com la comercialización de la naturaleza por los agentes de lo mercado de biens inmuebles, com el capital nacional y internacional, en Salvador de Bahia y otras localidades en su Área Metropolitana. Nuestra investigación se centra el período de tiempo comprendido entre 2006 y el primer trimestre del 2010 y empezamos nuestra base de datos sobre los nuevos inmubles lanzados por las empresas con el material de publicidad acerca de estos edifi cios y condominios en la internet y prensa. Durante este período se encuentran 363 proyectos y la mayoría de ellos tienen algún tipo de relación con alguna representación de la naturaleza, y hemos elaborado mapas con la localización, el precio y las empresas respnsables por estas inmuebles. En esta promoción estratégica de una vida con la naturaleza, se observa un uso desigual del espacio urbano que tiene incrementado la densidad de algunas áreas específicas, como Pituba, Iguatemi e Paralela en Salvador y la zona costera de Lauro de Freitas, Camaçari y Mata de São João. Las áreas dónde los agentes del mercado de bienes inmuebles no tienen interés están en la margen del proceso, la naturaleza es sólo un problema y no una solución para aumentar los precios de los inmuebles.

  12. Protocolo para el uso y aplicación racional de productos químicos, microbiológicos y antibióticos en la producción de camarón marino de cultivo en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete Soriano, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Este protocolo tiene por objeto establecer los requisitos y medidas sanitarias de prevención y control de la dispersión de enfermedades de alto impacto y para el uso adecuado y racional de fármacos de uso específico en la acuicultura, específicamente para la producción camaronera y de los laboratorios de producción de nauplios y post larvas del país. Este documento es resultado del proyecto de investigación denominado Muestreo y diagnóstico de la calidad microbiológica del agua durante u...

  13. Tabagismo em amostra de adolescentes escolares de Salvador-Bahia Smoking among school adolescents in Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Souza Machado Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O hábito de fumar em geral se inicia na adolescência. No Brasil, as estimativas da freqüência deste hábito entre adolescentes variam de 1% até 35%. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo entre os adolescentes da oitava série do ensino fundamental à terceira série do curso médio, em escolas de Salvador - Bahia, Brasil. MÉTODO: Feito um estudo do tipo corte transversal de caráter exploratório. Foram aplicados 3.500 questionários a alunos matriculados entre a 8ª série do ensino fundamental e a 3ª série do ensino médio, em cinco escolas da região metropolitana de Salvador (BA. Análise estatística: medidas descritivas e de associação (razão de prevalência e o teste t de Student e o do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo entre adolescentes de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, considerando-se os 3.180 questionários válidos, sendo maior no sexo masculino (14% que no feminino (6%. À medida que aumentava a idade, elevava-se essa prevalência. A média de idade do início do tabagismo foi de 14 ± 2 anos. Dentre adolescentes, 46% experimentaram o cigarro e 20% destes continuaram fumando. Entre filhos de fumantes a freqüência foi maior. O número médio de cigarros consumidos por dia pelos adolescentes que fumavam diariamente (n = 132 foi de 7 ± 6, sendo maior no sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do tabagismo em uma amostra selecionada de adolescentes escolares de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, sendo maior entre os indivíduos do sexo masculino. A experimentação e a influência dos pais foram associadas ao tabagismo nos adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Most tobacco users become addicted during adolescence. In Brazil, smoking prevalence among teenagers varies from 1% to 35%. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among teenagers, aged from 13 to 20, in fundamental and high school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Thirty five hundred questionnaires were

  14. El impacto del sistema tributario y el gasto social en la distribución del ingreso y la pobreza en América Latina: Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Perú, República Dominicana, Uruguay y Venezuela Una aplicación del marco metodológico del proyecto Compromiso con la Equidad (CEQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Lustig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Este artículo aplica el método de incidencia fiscal tradicional y los nuevos desarrollos del Instituto Compromiso con la Equidad (CEQ para estimar el impacto de la política fiscal en la desigualdad y la pobreza en 16 países de América Latina alrededor del año 2010.Método: A partir de la información disponible sobre ingresos y gastos y otras dimensiones en las encuestas de hogares y del conocimiento de las características del sistema fiscal, el método del CEQ consiste en asignar a cada individuo según corresponda la carga de los impuestos a la renta y al consumo, y los beneficios de las transferencias monetarias, los subsidios al consumo y el gasto en educación y salud. De esta manera, se construyen los diferentes conceptos de ingreso prefiscal y posfiscal, mismos que se utilizan para generar los correspondientes indicadores de desigualdad y pobreza. Esto permite estimar, para cada país, el impacto sobre la distribución del ingreso y la pobreza de cada componente del sistema fiscal, así como el del sistema en su conjunto. Como la metodología es común, los resultados se pueden comparar entre países.Resultados: Los países que más redistribuyen son Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica y Uruguay, y los que menos, Guatemala, Honduras y Perú. La política fiscal reduce la pobreza extrema (monetaria en 12 de los 16 países. Sin embargo, la incidencia de la pobreza después de impuestos, subsidios y transferencias monetarias es mayor que la incidencia para el ingreso de mercado en Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua, aun cuando en estos cuatro países la política fiscal sí reduce la desigualdad. El efecto de las pensiones contributivas sobre la desigualdad es heterogéneo y, contrariamente a lo que a veces se arguye, igualador en nueve países de la región. El gasto en educación preescolar y primaria es igualador y propobre (el beneficio por persona baja con el ingreso por persona en todos los países. El gasto en

  15. Women and gun violence: Key Findings from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), San Salvador (El Salvador) and Maputo (Mozambique)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rita; Roque, Sílvia; Araújo, Sara; Moura, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Since men constitute the majority of those who use and are victimised by guns worldwide, prevention and combat policies and programmes have been aimed almost exclusively at men and boys, paying scant attention to the roles and impacts of gun violence on women and girls. However, the continuum of violence experienced by women and girls in these contexts is a synthesis of the main social ingredients of violence and its cultural basis. Thus, alongside sound knowledge of men’s and boys’ involveme...

  16. Análisis multifactorial de los factores de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer en Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solla Jorge José Santos Pereira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio constituye un análisis multifactorial de los factores de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer en un grupo de recién nacidos en una zona urbana del Brasil. Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 1 023 nacidos vivos, dados a luz en cuatro maternidades de Salvador, Bahia, entre julio de 1987 y febrero de 1988. Las fuentes de información fueron las historias clínicas y las entrevistas con las madres en la maternidad. El análisis se realizó mediante regresión logística. En el modelo final los factores de riesgo incluidos fueron los siguientes: edad materna menos de 21 años o más de 35; edad gestacional menos de 38 semanas; resultado desfavorable del embarazo anterior; intervalo intergenésico previo de 12 meses o menos; tabaquismo; e hipertensión. Se presentan los valores del riesgo atribuible poblacional para los factores de riesgo incluidos en el modelo final. Esos factores deben emplearse para detectar a las gestantes con alto riesgo de dar a luz un niño de bajo peso, a las que debe brindarse mayor atención prenatal.

  17. Conocimientos de los pediatras de Salvador, Brasil, sobre la vacuna antisarampionosa

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    Moreira Luiza A. Cabus

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El éxito de las iniciativas internacionales para la erradicación del sarampión depende en gran medida del grado de conocimiento sobre la vacunación. En 1992 se evaluaron mediante un estudio transversal los conocimientos sobre la vacuna antisarampionosa de los pediatras de la ciudad brasileña de Salvador, Bahia. Del total de 506 pediatras residentes en la ciudad, 299 (59% pudieron ser localizados y respondieron a un cuestionario de 15 preguntas en las que se planteaban situaciones hipotéticas sobre indicaciones y contraindicaciones de esta vacuna. El promedio de aciertos fue de 9,3 preguntas de las 15, lo que muestra el poco conocimiento de los pediatras sobre la vacunación antisarampiososa. Situaciones comunes en la práctica pediátrica brasileña -desnutrición, infección de vías respiratorias altas, diarrea y estado prematuro- fueron a menudo erróneamente consideradas como contraindicaciones para la inmunización. Más de la mitad (62% de los pediatras no conocían la vía correcta de administración de la vacuna. Los conocimientos sobre la vacuna no variaron en función del tiempo transcurrido desde la formación universitaria del pediatra o de su trabajo en centros sanitarios de la Secretaría Estatal de Salud. Los profesores universitarios, los pediatras con maestría y los que cursaban estudios de posgrado tuvieron una media de aciertos ligeramente superior a la del resto. Estos resultados indican la necesidad de reforzar la enseñanza sobre la vacunación antisarampionosa en las facultades de medicina y en los programas de formación continuada para pediatras.

  18. Conocimientos de los pediatras de Salvador, Brasil, sobre la vacuna antisarampionosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. Cabus Moreira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available El éxito de las iniciativas internacionales para la erradicación del sarampión depende en gran medida del grado de conocimiento sobre la vacunación. En 1992 se evaluaron mediante un estudio transversal los conocimientos sobre la vacuna antisarampionosa de los pediatras de la ciudad brasileña de Salvador, Bahia. Del total de 506 pediatras residentes en la ciudad, 299 (59% pudieron ser localizados y respondieron a un cuestionario de 15 preguntas en las que se planteaban situaciones hipotéticas sobre indicaciones y contraindicaciones de esta vacuna. El promedio de aciertos fue de 9,3 preguntas de las 15, lo que muestra el poco conocimiento de los pediatras sobre la vacunación antisarampiososa. Situaciones comunes en la práctica pediátrica brasileña -desnutrición, infección de vías respiratorias altas, diarrea y estado prematuro- fueron a menudo erróneamente consideradas como contraindicaciones para la inmunización. Más de la mitad (62% de los pediatras no conocían la vía correcta de administración de la vacuna. Los conocimientos sobre la vacuna no variaron en función del tiempo transcurrido desde la formación universitaria del pediatra o de su trabajo en centros sanitarios de la Secretaría Estatal de Salud. Los profesores universitarios, los pediatras con maestría y los que cursaban estudios de posgrado tuvieron una media de aciertos ligeramente superior a la del resto. Estos resultados indican la necesidad de reforzar la enseñanza sobre la vacunación antisarampionosa en las facultades de medicina y en los programas de formación continuada para pediatras.

  19. Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the year 2000, the Balsam Association, a nongovernmental organization, approached members of the Health Dyes Project, Department of Human Ecology, University of Alberta, for assistance with small-scale indigo projects in El Salvador. This project will explore the feasibility of reintroducing indigo production in the ...

  20. Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Production and Commercialization of Indigo in El Salvador - Phase II ... During the first phase of the project (104599), researchers reviewed the history ... titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions ... IDRC and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) signed a scientific ...

  1. Paisaje forestal y representación social en Castilla (siglos XIV-XVI. Los montes de San Salvador de Oña (Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco REYES TÉLLEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es tratar de analizar la representación social del paisaje forestal perteneciente al señorío del monasterio de San Salvador de Oña (Burgos, durante los siglos XIV-XVI, a partir de las descripciones que se realizan del mismo en la documentación judicial relacionada con pleitos, pesquisas, etc. por el uso y aprovechamiento de los bosques y montes, para procurar conocer cuál era la construcción simbólica de esos paisajes de los distintos agentes sociales, e intentar valorar si esa forma de aproximarnos al territorio nos puede aportar nuevos enfoques o posibilidades de interpretación en el estudio de esa realidad.

  2. Semiótica del dibujo infantil: una aproximación latinoamericana sobre la influencia de la televisión en los niños: casos de estudios en ciudades de Chile, El Salvador y México

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Yáñez, César E.; Mancinas-Chávez, Rosalba

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación une al niño y al dibujo como una sola unidad discursiva pero que a través del dibujo infantil nos entrega nuevos elementos para su análisis y discusión. Desde esta perspectiva, medir el contenido simbólico del discurso presente del niño nos ayuda a identificar, a través de sus dibujos, los elementos identificativos que le dan forma a qué espacio de conocimiento pertenecen, y si éstos proceden directamente de la influencia de la televisión o si pertenece...

  3. Tabagismo: conhecimentos, atitudes, hábitos e grau de dependência de jovens fumantes em Salvador Tabaquismo: conocimientos, actitudes, hábitos y grado de dependencia de jóvenes fumadores en Salvador Smoking: knowledge, attitudes, habits and degree of dependence of young adults in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Farias de Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar o grau de dependência ao cigarro e caracterizar dados sócio-demográficos, conhecimentos, hábitos e atitudes de jovens fumantes. Responderam um questionário 102 estudantes de Salvador, sendo 11 tabagistas. A idade média dos fumantes foi 18,2 anos e de experimentação do cigarro 13,4 anos. Houve predomínio de homens, jovens no 1.º ano colegial, de cor parda e entes próximos fumantes. A maioria recebeu orientação familiar e escolar sobre os prejuízos do fumo, mas poucos sabiam dos benefícios de parar de fumar. Quase metade fumava há mais de três anos e iniciou o hábito por curiosidade. Mais da metade fumava um cigarro por dia, com baixo teor de nicotina, comprava o cigarro em lojas, desejava parar de fumar, já fez tentativas, mas nunca parou. O grau de dependência foi baixo para a maioria dos jovens. O estudo oferece pistas para enfermeiras atuarem junto aos jovens no controle do tabagismo.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo evaluar el grado de dependencia al cigarro y caracterizar datos sociodemográficos, conocimientos, hábitos y actitudes de jóvenes fumadores. Respondieron un cuestionario 102 estudiantes de Salvador, de los cuales 11 eran tabaquistas. La edad media de los fumadores fue 18,2 años y de experimentación del cigarro 13,4 años. Hubo predominio de hombres, jóvenes en el 1.º año colegial, de color pardo y con personas próximas, también, fumadoras. La mayoría recibió orientación familiar y escolar sobre los perjuicios del humo de cigarro, pero pocos sabían de los beneficios de parar de fumar. Casi la mitad fumaba desde hace más de tres años e inició el hábito por curiosidad. Más de la mitad fumaba un cigarro por dia, con bajo tenor de nicotina, compraba el cigarro en tiendas, deseaba parar de fumar, hizo intentos, pero nunca paró. El grado de dependencia fue bajo para la mayoría de los jóvenes.El estudio ofrece pistas para que las enfermeras actúen junto a los j

  4. ¿Comprendemos realmente el significado del ALCA?

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Zelaya Martínez; Luis Murillo Orozco

    2004-01-01

    Después de finalizada la segunda guerra mundial, Estados Unidos se convierte en el gendarme del mundo tanto en lo económico como en lo político, razón por cual decide no únicamente convertirse en el banquero del mundo, sino en su salvador ante el potencial peligro que representaba el comunismo como sistema. De esta forma crea un nuevo tipo de guerra de intensidad en el enfrentamiento directo, pero trasladando tal circunstancia al campo de la amenaza nuclear. Nos estamos refiriendo a la "Guerr...

  5. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PORT OF SALVADOR IMPROVEMENTS ON THE BRAZILIAN COTTON INDUSTRY

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    Rafael Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatial price equilibrium model of the international cotton sector was used to analyze the impacts of the Port of Salvador improvements on the Brazilian cotton industry and world cotton trade. The port of Salvador is undergoing relevant improvements in its facilities and physical structure. As a result of these improvements, the port of Salvador is expected to become more competitive and attract ocean shipping companies which are willing to export products directly to Asian importing markets. Scenarios with different reduction in export cost for the port of Salvador were examined. For all scenarios, the new direct ocean shipping lines were found to be important for the cotton exporters in Brazil, especially for the producers in the state of Bahia. In addition, results suggested that the state of Bahia would have the potential of becoming the largest cotton exporting state in Brazil.

  6. Salvadorianae. III. Una descripció prelinneana de Silene niceensis All., deguda a Jaume Salvador i Pedrol, a l'edició de 1686 del Botanicum Monspeliense de Pèire Magnol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarasa, Josep M.

    2000-12-01

    'una descripció sumaria deguts a Jaume Salvador i Pedrol. Es conserva un plec d'aquesta planta a l'herbari Salvador, l’etiqueta de la qual porta una descripció abreujada que podria ser la original de Jaume Salvador. La segona de les descripcions prelinneanes es de Tournefort que la publica a les seves Institutiones Rei herbariae. i sola aquesta identitat es troba a l'Herbari Salvador un segon plec de S. niceensis All. Pourret, cap a finals del segle XVIII ( 1792-98, s’adonà de la identitat dels exemplars d' ambdós plecs i, desconeixent la descripció d' Allioni, els assignà el nom de S. Arenaria Pourr , el mateix que va fer Desfontaines amb els exemplars de la planta que herboritzà al S de la península ibèrica. Un i altre noms son invàlids i han passar a la sinonímia.

  7. Caracterización clínico-terapéutica del sangramiento digestivo alto: Hospital "Dr. Salvador Allende". Primer semestre 2006 Clinicotherapeutical characterization of upper digestive bleeding: "Dr. Salvador Allende" Hospital. First semester 2006

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    José de Jesús Rego Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia digestiva constituye una de las principales causas de ingreso hospitalario por enfermedades del tracto gastrointestinal, En la mayoría de casos se presenta de forma aguda y con importantes repercusiones sistémicas, por lo que obliga a adoptar medidas urgentes para estabilizar a los pacientes y permitir efectuar un tratamiento específico adecuado, Esta entidad sigue ocasionando una mortalidad elevada, que se acumula en determinados grupos de riesgo como son los pacientes con edad avanzada y enfermedades graves asociadas, por lo que se decide realizar la caracterización clínico-terapéutica del sangramiento digestivo alto en el Hospital "Dr, Salvador Allende" durante el primer semestre del 2006 mediante un estudio descriptivo que tomó como fuente la revisión de las 161 historias clínicas de los pacientes egresados con este diagnóstico en ese período, El 73,3 % de los pacientes con sangramiento digestivo alto fueron mayores de 60 años de edad; no existieron diferencias en cuanto al sexo; el café y el tabaquismo fueron los hábitos tóxicos más reportados; los antiinflamatorios no esteroides, el grupo farmacológico más relacionado con esta entidad y dentro de ellos, el ácido acetilsalicílico, y la melena, la manifestación clínica más frecuente, En el 91,9 % la pauta de tratamiento fue adecuada, así como el tratamiento en general; hubo solo la asociación irracional de un inhibidor de la bomba de protones con un anti-H2Digestive haemorrhage is one of the main cause of hospital admission due to gastrointestinal tract diseases. In most of the cases, it appears in an acute form, and with important systemic repercussions that lead to the adoption of emergency measures to stabilize the patients and to apply an adequate specific treatment. This entity is still causing a high mortality that is accumulated in certain risk groups as the elderly patients with severe associated diseases. That's why, it was decided to make the

  8. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Controllership has been the subject of studies and analyzes and reflections of prominentresearchers of the sciences that focus on the field management of organizations such as theAdministration and Accounting. It is important to note the contribution of the Controllershipof public governance, the foundation of a democratic and participative management. In this context, it fits the purpose of this study, reflect on public performance of the comptroller of the city of Salvador, noting the contribution that effective governance in the municipality. The studies were developed in the Department of Finance (SEFAZ Controllership of the municipality who is linked to. With exploratory, descriptive investigation that involved field research, analysis of documents and reports issued by SEFAZ and the Court of the City(TCM. It is the chart of SEFAZ, your budget and the opinions of TCM. The results show the importance of the Comptroller and denote the impression that the institution studied, this area is not performing their role well.

  9. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Controladoria tem sido alvo de estudos e destaque de análises e reflexões dos estudiosos das ciências que têm como foco o campo gerencial das organizações como a da Administração e Contabilidade. É importante observar a contribuição da Controladoria à governança pública, fundamento de uma gestão democrática e participativa. Nesse contexto, insere-se o objetivo deste estudo, refletir sobre atuação da controladoria pública da cidade de Salvador, observando a contribuição efetiva na governança nesse município. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos na Secretaria da Fazenda (SEFAZ do município a quem Controladoria vincula-se. Com caráter exploratório, essa investigação descritiva envolveu pesquisa de campo, análise de documentos e relatórios emitidos pela SEFAZ e pelo Tribunal de Contas do Município (TCM. Verificou-se o organograma da SEFAZ, seu orçamento e os pareceres do TCM. Os resultados expressam a importância da Controladoria e denotam a impressão de que, na instituição estudada, essa área não esteja cumprindo bem seu papel. 

  10. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil

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    Adorno Elisângela Vitória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb and alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8% were FAS; 36 (6.5% FAC; one (0.2% SF; and five (0.9% FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2% newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7% were heterozygous and 13 (2.5% homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  11. [The knowledge of pediatricians in Salvador, Brazil about measles vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L A; Carvalho, F M; Silvany-Neto, A M; Peres, M F

    1997-12-01

    The success of international initiatives for the eradication of measles depends in large part on knowledge about vaccination. In 1992, a cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate knowledge about measles vaccine among pediatricians in the Brazilian city of Salvador, Bahia. Of the 506 pediatricians residing in the city, 299 (59%) could be located and responded to a questionnaire containing 15 questions that posed hypothetical situations regarding indications and contraindications for this vaccine. The average number of correct responses was 9.3 out of 15, which illustrates the pediatricians' poor knowledge of measles vaccine. Conditions commonly seen in pediatric practice in Brazil--malnutrition, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, and prematurity--were often erroneously considered contraindications for immunization. More than half (62%) of the pediatricians did not know the correct way to administer the vaccine. Knowledge about the vaccine did not differ according to the length of time that had elapsed since the physicians' university training in pediatrics or as a result of working in health centers operated by the State Health Secretariat. University professors, pediatricians with a postgraduate degree, and those pursuing postgraduate studies scored slightly higher than the rest. These results point to the need to strengthen training on measles vaccination in medical schools and programs of continuing education for pediatricians.

  12. Organización barrial Tupac Amaru en San Salvador de Jujuy: ¿Un movimiento social urbano?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Valeria Torres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone revisitar la categoría movimientos sociales urbanos, enlazando con las concepciones posibles de ciudad que dicha categoría analítica puede asumir. Nos referimos, por un lado, a las interpretaciones que comprenden los movimientos sociales por su contexto de intervención: la ciudad o el campo, basándose en una concepción del espacio como escenario y “contenedor” de hechos y procesos sociales. Por otro lado, encontramos aproximaciones que identifican a los movimientos sociales urbanos por sus acciones colectivas conscientemente destinadas a modificar el papel de la ciudad en la sociedad, o a redefinir el significado histórico de lo “urbano”. En cualquier caso, se mantiene la distinción entre lo urbano y lo rural, que ha demostrado ser una dicotomía poco productiva para analizar procesos que, las más de las veces, se presentan como formas de hibridación entre ambas situaciones. Específicamente, me propongo analizar el caso de la Organización Barrial Tupac Amaru en la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy-Argentina, atendiendo a su identificación como un movimiento social urbano o no y las connotaciones que dicha caracterización podrían tener, en la búsqueda de comprender parte de la relación que puede plantearse entre ciudad, territorio, movimientos sociales y construcción de identidades.

  13. Using Peer-Referral Chains with Incentives to Promote HIV Testing and Identify Undiagnosed HIV Infections Among Crack Users in San Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasman, Laura R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas

    2016-06-01

    In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p < .001) and decayed more slowly (Z = 5.93, p < .001), and the total number of crack-using testers increased nearly fourfold. Testers in the peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ(2)(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals.

  14. Litogeoquímica dos granulitos ortoderivados da cidade de Salvador, Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Júnior, Aryon de Almeida; Barbosa, Johildo Salomão Figueirêdo; Correa-Gomes, Luiz César

    2010-01-01

    p. 339-354 A região que compreende a cidade de Salvador é subdividida em três domínios geológicos principais:(i) a Bacia Sedimentar do Recôncavo, limitada a leste pela Falha de Salvador; (ii) a Margem Costeira Atlântica, formada por depósitos terciários e quaternários modelados por flutuações climáticas e do nível relativo do mar; e (iii) o Alto de Salvador, que representa um horst de litotipos cristalinos, metamórficos de alto e médio grau. Estudos realizados por Barbosa et al (2005...

  15. People's Front in Defence of Land, San Salvador Atenco: A testimony

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Pérez Pineda

    2011-01-01

    Martha Pérez Pineda gives her statement of the Peoples Front in Defence of the Land (The Peoples Front in Defence of Land (Frente del Pueblo en Defensa de la Tierra, FPDT) was formed in 2002, by residents of San Salvador Atenco, to resist their forced displacement by the federal government of Mexico and Estado de Mexico. The government planned to displace them to make way for the new Mexico City Airport. The people of San Salvador Atenco refused and battled, the most common fights were disput...

  16. A implantação do projeto de atendimento Móvel de Urgência em Salvador/BA: panorama e desafios La implantación del proyecto de Atención de Urgencia Móvil en Salvador/BAHIA: panorama y retos Implantation of the Emergency Ambulance Service in Salvador, Bahia: reality and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Sales Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou relatar a experiência na implantação e estruturação do projeto do Serviço Móvel de Urgência (SAMU-192, em Salvador, cujas bases legais foram portarias do Ministério da Saúde e a Norma Operacional de Assistência à Saúde 02/2002. O serviço tem como finalidade prestar assistência gratuita ao indivíduo, em um primeiro nível de atenção, com agravos de natureza clínica, cirúrgica, traumática e psiquiátrica que acarretam sofrimento, seqüelas ou morte e ocorrem fora do ambiente hospitalar. O objetivo específico foi garantir o atendimento às situações de urgência e emergência por meio do SAMU-192, regulado, hierarquizado e integrado ao Sistema Único de Saúde, assegurando recursos públicos inclusive integrados à rede complementar de assistência. Despesas para sua instalação foram pactuadas no município e em comissões intergestoras federal e estadual. Os desafios do serviço incluem educação comunitária, capacitação profissional, avaliação de recursos humanos e materiais, na dinâmica e qualidade da atenção.El estudio tuvo por objetivo narrar la experiencia sobre la implantación y estructuración del proyecto de Servicio de Urgencia Móvil (SAMU-192 en Salvador, basado legalmente por decretos del Ministerio de Salud y la Norma Operacional de Asistencia a la Salud 02/2002. La finalidad del servicio es brindar asistencia gratuita fuera del hospital al individuo en un primer nivel de atención, en casos de tipo clínico, quirúrgico, traumático y psiquiátrico que provocan sufrimiento, secuelas o muerte. El objetivo específico fue garantizar la atención en casos de urgencia y emergencia a través del SAMU-192, reglamentado, jerarquizado e integrado al Sistema Único de Salud, asegurando recursos públicos, inclusive integrados a la red complementaria de asistencia. Gastos por instalación fueron establecidos entre la municipalidad y comisiones inter-gestoras federales y estatales. Como

  17. Influencia del perfil docente en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la UFG

    OpenAIRE

    Cóbar Menjívar, Margarita Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    Todas las sociedades, en las diversas épocas se han elaborado imágenes y valores sobre la persona del maestro y su labor pedagógica. Estas representaciones expresan la finalidad social asociada a la educación y son legitimadas a través de las doctrinas pedagógicas hegemónicas en cada momento histórico En la sociedad actual en El Salvador, específicamente en el sector educativo, se maneja el concepto de perfil docente como el de una persona que facilita el aprendizaje siendo un ente o agent...

  18. Las estrategias en el aprendizaje de las artes visuales en los estudiantes del I ciclo

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cruz Ormeño, Jhonny Robert

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación, tuvo como problema general: ¿Cuál es la relación entre las estrategias en el aprendizaje de las artes visuales en los estudiantes del I ciclo del Institución de Educación Superior Tecnológico Publico “Julio César Tello” Villa el Salvador 2016?. Además el objetivo general fue determinar la relación entre las estrategias y el aprendizaje de las artes visuales, de igual forma la muestra estuvo integrada por 100 estudiantes del I ciclo del Inst...

  19. [Vagotonía. The medical thesis of Salvador Zubirán].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Salvador Zubirán submitted his thesis for his MD degree in 1923. This thesis falls within the context of the new Mexican physiological medicine and denotes the visionary character of its author. Zubirán appears here as the introducer in Mexico of the physiopharmacological approach in autonomic nervous system disorders.

  20. Chupar frutas in Salvador da Bahia. A case of practice-specific alterities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.P.J.; Mol, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we interfere with the naturalization of 'eating' by comparing two modes of engaging with fruits in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. One of these is comer, which translates as 'to eat'. The other is chupar, 'to suck'. In comer, a piece of fruit crosses distinct bodily boundaries and gets

  1. Chupar frutas in Salvador da Bahia: a case of practice-specific alterities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.; Mol, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we interfere with the naturalization of ‘eating’ by comparing two modes of engaging with fruits in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. One of these is comer, which translates as ‘to eat’. The other is chupar, ‘to suck’. In comer, a piece of fruit crosses distinct bodily boundaries and gets

  2. Salvador Dalí et le mécénat du Zodiaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    When Salvador Dalí settled in Paris with the avowed aim to conquer the art world, he was unknown and virtually penniless. The great Economic Crisis which had hit Europe at that time, did nothing to improve his prospects. Yet, during his early years in the French capital, 1929-1935, he was able to

  3. Phytolith analysis in fluvial quaternary sediment (San Salvador and Palmar formation) Uruguay river and Argentina eastern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterer, N.; Passeggi, E.; Zucol, A.; Brea, M.; Krohling, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about two microfossils fluvial units deposited by the Uruguay river during the Quaternary. These are San Salvador and Palmar formation (Plio-Pleistocene - Upper Pleistocene).The Palmar formation is a band of 4-15 km along the right bank of the Uruguay river outcropping from the eastern provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios, to Concepcion del Uruguay

  4. Observaciones sobre el estado del sonido fricativo palatal sordo en el español salvadoreño

    OpenAIRE

    Quintanilla Aguilar, José Roberto Alexander

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se discute la situación actual del sonido fricativo palatal sordo en el español salvadoreño. El uso de este sonido en esta variedad de español se ha mantenido inicialmente por el influjo de la lengua pipil, una de las lenguas autóctonas de El Salvador. Dado que hoy en día el pipil se encuentra en estado casi agónico, se cree que la presencia de este sonido en el español salvadoreño también podría estar en detrimento. Sin embargo, el pipil no es la única lengua que ...

  5. Right-Sizing Intervention: The Philippines, El Salvador, and the Future of American Foreign Internal Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    version of the title Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon, or “People’s Anti- Japanese Army.” The Hukbalahap originated as a resistance movement during the... Japanese occupation, but continued to fight against the government, primarily over land-tenancy issues that will be detailed in chapter four. 5 Like...The Uses and Limits of Small Scale Military Interventions, 23. 25 This critique even has an analogue in fiction and cinema . See The Quiet

  6. Measurement of radon (222Rn) in thermal water of Cerro Pacho, Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Ramiro; Olmos, Rodolfo; Payes, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations and radio ( 226 Ra) evaluation dissolved in thermal spring water are presented to contribute to volcanic monitoring, adapting and validating analytical methodology. Sampling was discreet and monthly type, from June 2011 to March 2013. Radon levels was vary from 0,48 ± 0,1 to 1,54 ± 0,13 Bq/L (average 1,24 Bq/L). Radio concentrations were evaluated from January to December 2012. The values found do not show radio detection confidence level of 95% with respect to the detection limit (4,2 mBq/L). A decrease in radon was observed possibly related to subduction anomalies with epicenter at 143 km from Cerro Pacho, in November 2012, volcanic seismicity was also recorded 40 days before with increments of microearthquakes and volcano-tectonic activity. The first measurements of radon in thermal water have been generated, establishing the baseline to evaluate the behavior of these radionuclides with seismic activity. (author) [es

  7. U.S. - Latin American Relations Beyond Cuba, Panama, Nicaragua and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-08

    be foolish for the Peruvian Armed Forces to salvage president Garcia’s reputation by ousting him, and face a catastrophic economic situation and world...traditions are well known, admired and imitated worldwide. Millions would gladly immigrate to this country. Private enterprise inundate television, cinema

  8. Insurgents to Presidents: Contemporary Civil-Military Relations In Brazil, El Salvador, and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Investigación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay, September 15, 2014. 156 Ibid., 17. 157 National...Interpretación de su Record,” Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política 23, no. 1 (2014). 159 Vales, “Operações de Paz,” 40. 160 Gonzalez Guyer, “La Contribución de...Proceso de Negociación.” Paper presented at XIII Jornada de Investigación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo

  9. Coffee Beans and Rice Paddies - War on the Cheap: American Advisors in El Salvador and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    notable frictions. The enemy departed the area 24 hours prior, leaving only rear-guard forces. ARVN forces captured notable military hardware, to...regional paternalism , containment of communism, and human rights violations. The conflict did not terminate in 1992 with a climatic and triumphal...Methods for Students of Political Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997. Waghelstein, John. “Reading the tea leaves : Proto-insurgency in

  10. Tessier 3 Cleft in a Pre-Hispanic Anthropomorphic Figurine in El Salvador, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ramon Manuel; Martinez, Maria Guadalupe

    2017-03-01

    In 1976, Paul Tessier provided a numerical classification system for rare facial clefts, numbered from 0 to 14. The Tessier 3 cleft is a rare facial cleft extending from the philtrum of the upper lip through the wing of the nostril, and reaches the medial canthus of the eye. The aim of this document was to describe a pre-Hispanic anthropomorphic figurine dating from the classic period (200 A.D.-900 A.D.), which has a Tessier 3 cleft. We also discuss the documented pre-Hispanic beliefs about facial clefts.

  11. Perspectives in Early Childhood Education: Belize, Brazil, Mexico, El Salvador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Farmer, Judith Lynne; Cook, Pamela R.; Farmer, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) provision is becoming a growing priority. During the past twenty years, Latin America has shown a growing recognition in the provision of educational programs for young children, birth to age eight, is essential. Urban and rural populations intimated in 2009, that many countries utilizing equitable access to…

  12. State Capacity and Effectiveness in Combating Crime: A Comparative Study of El Salvador and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    the 85 Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales , “Report on the Security Sector in Latin America...Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales . “Report on the Security Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean.” August 2007. Farau, Douglas...Central America, but pays particular attention to Guatemala’s democratic, economic, social , and political development. In his article , “Global Forces and

  13. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. El Salvador and Guatemala: Security Sector Reform and Political Party System Effects on Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). 117 Ibid. 118 Call...Free Market Myth.” June 2005. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /2975 (accessed May 22, 2009). ———. “Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995...http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). Richani, Nazih. “Systems of Violence and their Political Economy in Post-Conflict

  15. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-12

    separation of powers, both of which significantly advanced the importance of the rule of law in Western political philosophy . The Declaration of Independence...and civil libertarians on the left, and perhaps helped exacerbate existing class tensions.180 More importantly, the inability of democratically

  16. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [CIS No. 2510-11; DHS... Beneficiaries; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), DHS. ACTION: Notice... Operations Directorate, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security, 20...

  17. Police Training in El Salvador: Challenges and Opportunities in Promoting the Community Police Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carolina Arévalo Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Peace Accords emphasized creating a new police force that would be diametrically opposite to previous security forces. This change would have to be expressed symbolically, and from the onset it would have to underscore the fact that the main weapon of the police would be intelligence. From its foundation to June 2011, a total of 30,344 people have graduated from the Academy. Currently, in the process of training new police with greater quality, and modernizing the entire police force, it faces the difficult challenge of adopting the Community Police philosophy to empower this model for action, promoting a new relationship between community and law enforcement, and between managers and operational personnel in the agency. Nevertheless,police training is not enough if there are no significantchanges in the organizational climate and culture within the law enforcement agency.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1390

  18. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atha, Roberto J

    2008-01-01

    .... It reveals how the influence of the military affected the implementation of internal security reforms, influencing the professionalism and effectiveness of police forces in the fight against violence and gangs today...

  19. Exploring segmentation in rural financial markets : an application in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.; Ruben, R.; Mol, E.W.G.; Sanders, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the segmentation in rural financial markets is of major importance for the identification of feasible relationships between clients and financial institutions. In this article we combine different insights into segmentation in rural financial markets into a two-dimensional analysis,

  20. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and Relations With the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare

    2005-01-01

    .... The United States is working with President Saca to combat narco-trafficking, to resolve immigration issues, and to promote free trade, possibly through the proposed United States- Dominican Republic...

  1. Intervention to reduce heat stress and improve efficiency among sugarcane workers in El Salvador: Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, T; García-Trabanino, R; Weiss, I; Jarquín, E; Glaser, J; Jakobsson, K; Lucas, R A I; Wesseling, C; Hogstedt, C; Wegman, D H

    2016-06-01

    Chronic heat stress and dehydration from strenuous work in hot environments is considered an essential component of the epidemic of chronic kidney disease in Central America. (1) To assess feasibility of providing an intervention modelled on OSHA's Water.Rest.Shade programme (WRS) during sugarcane cutting and (2) to prevent heat stress and dehydration without decreasing productivity. Midway through the 6-month harvest, the intervention introduced WRS practices. A 60-person cutting group was provided water supplied in individual backpacks, mobile shaded rest areas and scheduled rest periods. Ergonomically improved machetes and efficiency strategies were also implemented. Health data (anthropometric, blood, urine, questionnaires) were collected preharvest, preintervention, mid-intervention and at the end of harvest. A subsample participated in focus group discussions. Daily wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) were recorded. The employer provided individual production records. Over the harvest WBGT was >26°C from 9:00 onwards reaching average maximum of 29.3±1.7°C, around 13:00. Postintervention self-reported water consumption increased 25%. Symptoms associated with heat stress and with dehydration decreased. Individual daily production increased from 5.1 to a high of 7.3 tons/person/day postintervention. This increase was greater than in other cutting groups at the company. Focus groups reported a positive perception of components of the WRS, and the new machete and cutting programmes. A WRS intervention is feasible in sugarcane fields, and appears to markedly reduce the impact of the heat stress conditions for the workforce. With proper attention to work practices, production can be maintained with less impact on worker health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, mul...

  3. Microseismic monitoring during production and reinjection tests in the Chipilapa geothermal field (El Salvador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabriol, H.; Beauce, A.; Jacobo, R.; Quijano, J.

    1992-01-01

    The microseismic monitoring of the Chipilapa geothermal field has investigated the microseismic activity prior to and during the production and injection tests of three wells drilled between 1989 and 1991. Two surveys were carried out, in 1988 and 1991-1992 respectively, in order to study the reservoir and its recharge and to monitor microseismicity induced by reinjection. Natural microseismicity is distributed around the known geothermal area, and related either to tectonic activity under the volcanic range sited at the south (and which is the upflow zone of the geothermal field) or to the Central Graben at the north. No evidences of induced microseismicity appeared at this stage of interpretation, probably due to the unfavourable conditions prevailing during the tests: Namely reinjection by gravity and low productivity

  4. The January 2001, El Salvador Earthquake: A Multi-data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallee, M.; Bouchon, M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    On January 13, 2001, a large normal intermediate depth event (Mw=7.7) occured 40 km away from the Salvadorian coast (Central America). We analysed this earthquake with different sets of seismic data. Because teleseismic waves are the only data which offer a good azimuthal coverage, we first built a kinematic source model with P, SH and surface waves provided by the IRIS,GEOSCOPE and NCEDC networks. P and SH waves were used through a theoretical Green function approach whereas surface waves were used through an Empirical Green Function (EGF) approach. The ambigu- ity between the 30-dipping plane (plunging toward Pacific Ocean) and the 60-degree dipping plane (plunging toward Central America) lead us to do a parallel analysis of the two possible planes. After having relocated the hypocentral depth to 54 km, we tried to retrieve the kinematic features of the rupture. We allowed variable rupture ve- locity (through a finite difference scheme) and variable slip and solved this inverse problem with a combination of the Neighborhood algorithm of Sambridge (1999) and the Simplex method. We found for both planes an updip and northwest rupture prop- agation yielding a centroid depth around 48km. The teleseismic data give a slight preferrence for the 60-dipping plane. In the second part of the study, we tested the two possible fault models with other seismological data, that are (1) regional broad- band data and (2) near-field accelerometers provided by Universidad Centroameri- cana (UCA). Regional data do not allow to discriminate between the two models but near-field data confirm that the fault plane is the steeper one plunging toward Central America. This event initiated at a depth of about 54km on the 60-dipping plane, and rupture propagated mostly updip and to the northwest, breaking a surface of approx- imately 30km*50km with an average slip of about 3.5 m. The large amount of slip occurs updip from the hypocenter near the plate interface. This is better explained by the bending of the subducting plate rather than by a complete decoupling of the slab.

  5. The January 2001, El Salvador event: a multi-data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallee, M.; Bouchon, M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2001-12-01

    On January 13, 2001, a large normal event (Mw=7.6) occured 100 kilometers away from the Salvadorian coast (Central America) with a centroid depth of about 50km. The size of this event is surprising according to the classical idea that such events have to be much weaker than thrust events in subduction zones. We analysed this earthquake with different types of data: because teleseismic waves are the only data which offer a good azimuthal coverage, we first built a kinematic source model with P and SH waves provided by the IRIS-GEOSCOPE networks. The ambiguity between the 30o plane (plunging toward Pacific Ocean) and the 60o degree plane (plunging toward Central America) leaded us to do a parallel analysis of the two possible planes. We used a simple point-source modelling in order to define the main characteristics of the event and then used an extended source to retrieve the kinematic features of the rupture. For the 2 possible planes, this analysis reveals a downdip and northwest rupture propagation but the difference of fit remains subtle even when using the extended source. In a second part we confronted our models for the two planes with other seismological data, which are (1) regional data, (2) surface wave data through an Empirical Green Function given by a similar but much weaker earthquake which occured in July 1996 and lastly (3) nearfield data provided by Universidad Centroamericana (UCA) and Centro de Investigationes Geotecnicas (CIG). Regional data do not allow to discriminate the 2 planes neither but surface waves and especially near field data confirm that the fault plane is the steepest one plunging toward Central America. Moreover, the slight directivity toward North is confirmed by surface waves.

  6. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and the National Guard, which operated in rural areas.”133 A National Intelligence Directorate supported the 60,000 strong security personnel in...Londoño, Juan Luis, Alejandro Gaviria, and Rodrigo Guerrero eds., Asalto al Desarrollo (Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank, 2000...Guerrero eds., Asalto al desarrollo . Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank, 2000. “Saca unimpressed with size of U.S. funding.” Latin

  7. Strategic Mapping of economic intelligence in the public sector of El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica María Cerritos Ascencio

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to focus on the implementation and development of economic intelligence as a tool for strategic decision making at the governmental level. Likewise, it is also expected that the identification of key players in economic intelligence will allow to create areas of complementarity and coordination to achieve common goals. The document contains a brief summary of economic intelligence today, a theoretical approach to implementation – as economic intelligence should be implemented ...

  8. Acessibilidade à atenção básica a famílias negras em bairro popular de Salvador, Brasil Acceso a la atención básica de familias negras en comunidad popular de Salvador, Brasil Accessibility to primary health care by black families in a poor neighborhood of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a acessibilidade de famílias negras de bairro popular aos serviços de atenção básica à saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo etnográfico, ancorado na antropologia de base interpretativa, realizado com 18 famílias selecionadas de um bairro popular de Salvador, BA, no período de dois anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram residência no bairro e autoclassificação como negros. A análise se baseou na antropologia interpretativa e considerou as categorias: autorreferência étnico-racial; experiências de discriminação nos serviços; percepção sobre acessibilidade na atenção básica; e barreiras de acessibilidade. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Identificaram-se os seguintes aspectos: a identidade étnico-racial e saúde: percepção dos usuários de que as barreiras organizacionais e de acesso se devem a um amplo contexto social que produz cidadãos "de primeira e de segunda categorias", mais do que a um racismo institucional; b acessibilidade no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: acesso problemático, permeado pela demora no atendimento, falta de compromisso dos profissionais de saúde, omissão dos gestores no controle e correção dessas situações; c acessibilidade na atenção básica: visão sobre o contexto mais geral do SUS e apoio na descrição dos entrevistados sobre o acesso aos serviços de atenção básica. CONCLUSÕES: Há barreiras de acessibilidade econômicas, organizacionais e culturais que se interpõem entre a oferta de serviços e o atendimento efetivo e oportuno das necessidades da população estudada.OBJETIVO: Analizar el acceso de familias negras de comunidad popular a los servicios de atención básica de salud MÉTODOS: Estudio etnográfico, basado en antropología de base interpretativa, realizado con 18 familias seleccionadas de una comunidad popular de Salvador, BA, Brasil, en período de dos años. Los criterios de inclusión fueron residencia en la comunidad y auto-clasificación como negros. El an

  9. Entretenimiento, espiritualidad, familia y la influencia de pares universitarios en el consumo de drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydee Rivera de Parada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación de los factores socio-culturales de familia, entretenimiento y espiritualidad y la influencia de pares y el consumo de drogas entre los estudiantes universitarios. Estudio es multicéntrico, con un diseño transversal, participaron 250 estudiantes de una universidad en San Salvador, El Salvador. Se realizaron análisis porcentuales, pruebas de asociación y correlación. Se encontró que los factores socioculturales de familia y espiritualidad podrían estar protegiendo ya que la mayoría 80% valoran positivamente estos dos valores. La mayoría de estudiantes consumen muy poco drogas ilícitas, marihuana 2%, cocaína 1% y anfetaminas 1.2%; pero consume más las drogas lícitas alcohol 42%, tabaco 21%.

  10. ¿Comprendemos realmente el significado del ALCA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Zelaya Martínez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Después de finalizada la segunda guerra mundial, Estados Unidos se convierte en el gendarme del mundo tanto en lo económico como en lo político, razón por cual decide no únicamente convertirse en el banquero del mundo, sino en su salvador ante el potencial peligro que representaba el comunismo como sistema. De esta forma crea un nuevo tipo de guerra de intensidad en el enfrentamiento directo, pero trasladando tal circunstancia al campo de la amenaza nuclear. Nos estamos refiriendo a la "Guerra Fría": el incentivo para que las dos nuevas potencias militares del mundo desarrollen una infraestructura de industria pesada bélica.

  11. Arquivos secretos eclesiásticos em Salvador Archivos secretos eclesiásticos en Salvador de Bahía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aparecida Gonzaga da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investiga os critérios empregados por arquivos de ordens religiosas e pelo Arquivo da Cúria de Salvador para identificar o teor secreto de seus documentos. Consideram-se as relações históricas entre a Igreja Católica e o poder civil para compreender o porquê de muitos documentos depositados nos arquivos eclesiásticos brasileiros serem identificados como de interesse público e social pela lei nacional. O trabalho também destaca as disposições normativas existentes nas legislações civil e canônica relacionadas aos arquivos secretos. Apresenta ainda uma breve discussão sobre a questão do acesso e sigilo da informação, bem como sobre o direito à informação. Quanto aos procedimentos de pesquisa, utilizou-se o sítio eletrônico da Arquidiocese de Salvador na seleção das ordens masculinas e femininas estudadas; em seguida, foi aplicada entrevista com questões semi-estruturadas com a finalidade de coletar dados para os resultados empíricos desta pesquisa. Conclui-se que não existem critérios explícitos para a classificação dos documentos considerados secretos nos arquivos eclesiásticos católicos de Salvador, o que leva à utilização de critérios aleatórios e que seus responsáveis não demonstraram possuir domínio do significado de documentos secretos, já que entram em contradição em suas afirmações.

  12. Restauración de la torre mudéjar del salvador de Teruel. Aragón, España

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    Pérez Sánchez, Antonio

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The Torre del Salvador together with the rest of the Mudejar architecture of Teruel was included in the World Heritage List in Í986. Its restoration, promoted by the Aragón Government, has kept in mind its value as architectural element, a key piece of the Mudejar style of Aragón and Spain and as a symbolic part of the city. Paying attention to these meanings, the intervention tries to extend its survival and return it its splendor. There are no spatial transformations but merely an encounter with the traditional materials, a study and a contemporary interpretation of them and of the techniques through which they were applied. It was necessary to pay special attention to the plaster since it was the only composite used, as well as to another fundamental part of the Mudejar style of Teruel, the glazed ceramics of the facades, partly lost or deteriorated. The article tries to transmit the methodology of the project and the work which, together with the close familiarity with the building itself have been essential in the documentary and complementary studies.

    La Torre del Salvador, junto con el resto de arquitectura mudéjar de Teruel, fue incluida en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial en 1986. Su restauración, promovida por el Gobierno de Aragón, ha tenido en cuenta su valor como elemento arquitectónico, pieza clave del mudéjar aragonés y español y como parte simbólica de la ciudad. Atendiendo estos significados la intervención trata de prolongar su supervivencia y devolverle su esplendor. No hay transformaciones espaciales, tan sólo un encuentro con los materiales tradicionales, su estudio, y una interpretación actual de los mismos y de las técnicas con las que fueron aplicados. Ha sido necesario prestar especial atención al yeso por ser el único aglomerante con que se construyó y a la cerámica vidriada de fachadas, inseparable del mudéjar turolense, en parte perdida o deteriorada. El artículo intenta transmitir la

  13. Características da assistência ao parto na cidade do Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Characteristics of the maternity care in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Celia Guimarães Neto Dias

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Levou-se a efeito estudo para analisar a disponibilidade de serviços de maternidade na cidade do Salvador, Brasil. Foi elaborado questionário destinado à obtenção de informações sobre o tipo de hospital, meios de manutenção, número de leitos obstétricos existentes, tempo e percentual de ocupação de leitos hospitalares. Informações sobre o tipo de assistência fornecida por ocasião da admissão, foram obtidas a partir do livro de ocorrências de cada instituição. Os dados referentes a mortalidade para o período 1961-1970 foram obtidos de duas fontes diferentes. No primeiro período de 1971, o estudo assim conduzido, demonstrou elevada demanda para leitos hospitalares mantidos pelo Governo estadual e período de permanência muito curto na maioria dos hospitais. As taxas de abortos e de mortalidade materna, em 1970, revelaram-se muito elevadas. Ambos os aspectos da assistência à maternidade apresentam-se como problemas importantes de Saúde Pública na cidade do Salvador.A study was made attempting to analyse the availability of maternity services in the City of Salvador, Brazil. A questionaire was designed aiming at to obtain information on the type of the hospital, owner ship, number of existing lying-beds, length of stay and percentage of occupation of hospital beds. The kind of natal care delivered by the time of the admission, was obtained from the book of ocurrences of each institution, while the mortality data to the period 1961-1970 were derived from two different sources. The study was conducted in the first period of 1971 and has indicated: a high demand for the hospital beds maintained by the state government and a very low length of stay in most of the lying in hospitals. The abortion rate observed in 1970 as well as the maternal mortality rates were found extremelly high, and both aspects of maternity care appeared as important public health problems in the City of Salvador.

  14. Tectónica Activa y Geodinámica en el Norte de Centroamérica

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    El norte de Centroamérica puede ser entendido geográficamente como el área comprendida por Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala y el sur de México (Chiapas). Geológicamente es un bloque de corteza continental soldado parcialmente a la placa de Caribe, el bloque de Chortís, siendo su extremo nor-occidental. Este bloque limita con dos placas litosféricas, al noroeste con la placa de Norteamérica a través de la zona de desgarre siniestra de Motagua – Polochic – Transformante de la Isla de...

  15. El Congreso de Praga

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    Aguirre de Yraola, Fernando

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available This is the title of the first general theme to be discussed by the Seminar on the Evolution of the Structure of the Construction Industry, during its recent meeting in Prague. In the present article the various stages of this development are studied. Firstly, the principles of industrial organisation are reviewed; the formation of teams for large scale development; the study of requirements and the general state of demand, which may make it possible to apply methods of prefabrication. Secondly, the various development stages are differentiated. Special stress is laid on research and experimental construction, and also on the transition to mass production and the development of standardised designs and modular coordination. Finally, reference is made to the meeting held in 1962 in El Salvador, to establish the bases for modular coordination in housing construction.Siendo este el título del primer tema general que fue objeto de estudio por los participantes al «Seminario sobre la Evolución de la Estructura de la Industria de la Construcción», desarrollado recientemente en Praga, en este artículo se estudian las distintas etapas de dicho desarrollo. En primer lugar, se hace una revisión de los principios de organización industrial, de la formación de equipos para la proyección en gran escala del estudio de las exigencias y del estado de la demanda, que traen consigo la posibilidad de aplicar los métodos prefabricados. Distingue las distintas fases del desarrollo, haciendo especial hincapié en la investigación, en la construcción experimental, en la decisión de pasar a la construcción en serie y en la elaboración de «proyectos-tipo», aplicando la tipificación y la coordinación modular. Finalmente, se hace referencia a una reunión celebrada en 1962 en El Salvador, para establecer las bases de la coordinación modular en la edificación de viviendas.

  16. [Professional Burnout Syndrome of intensive care physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tironi, Márcia Oliveira Staffa; Nascimento Sobrinho, Carlito Lopes; Barros, Dalton de Souza; Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Marques Filho, Edson Silva; Almeida, Alessandro; Bitencourt, Almir; Feitosa, Ana Isabela Ramos; Neves, Flávia Serra; Mota, Igor Carlos Cunha; França, Juliana; Borges, Lorena Guimarães; Lordão, Manuela Barreto de Jesus; Trindade, Maria Valverde; Teles, Marcelo Santos; Almeida, Mônica Bastos T; Souza, Ygor Gomes de

    2009-01-01

    Describe prevalence of the Burnout syndrome in intensive care physicians of Salvador, associated to demographic data and aspects of the work environment (psychological demand and job control). This cross sectional study has investigated the association between work conditions and Burnout Syndrome in a population of 297 Intensive Care Physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An individual, self-report questionnaire evaluated the physicians' psychological aspects of work, using the demand-control model (Job Content Questionnaire) and their mental health, using the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI). The study found work overload,a high proportion of on duty physicians and low income for the hours worked. Prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 7.4% and it was more closely associated with aspects of the job's psychological demand than with its control. Physicians under great stress (high demand and low control) presented prevalence of the Bornout Syndrome 10.2 times higher than those under low stress (low demand and high control) jobs.

  17. The necessity of environmental impact evaluation of petroleum flux in Salvador metropolitan region, Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.G. de; Cunha, R.P.P. da; Lemos, A.L.M.; Leite, J.V.; Oliveira, L.M. de.

    1990-01-01

    This paper, through the analysis of the petrol flux's in a Regiao Metropolitana de Salvador (RMS), tries to identify the environmental impacts related to their activity from the research/extraction, production, storage and, transportation to the refinery. The Energetic and Environmental Diagnostic of the state of Bahia, in development by the Interdisciplinary Sector of Energy (SIEnergia-NST/UFBA) is the reference in which this work is inside. (author)

  18. Salvador Dalí's paintings to introduce Quantum Mechanics concepts in High School

    OpenAIRE

    Rúbia de Fátima Antunes Martins Fernandes; Flaviston Ferreira Pires; Thaís Cyrino de Mello Forato; José Alves da Silva

    2017-01-01

    A few papers have presented results of teaching Quantum Mechanics in High School. As a high abstraction level is demanded, it is necessary to reconsider theoretical assumptions, approaches and methodologies, in order to reduce difficulties in its insertion. This paper presents the achievements of a research, which is a didactic proposal for High School comprising discussions about Quantum Mechanics, involving elements that relate Physics and some paintings of Salvador Dalí. Embracing the rela...

  19. Epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute bacterial diarrhea in children from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz-Santos, Daniel R.; Santana, José S.; Barretto, Junaura R.; Andrade, Maria Goreth M.; Silva, Luciana R.

    2005-01-01

    In the few cases of acute childhood diarrhea that require antimicrobial therapy, the correct choice of the drug depends on detailed previous knowledge of local strains. In order to establish such parameters in our city, we reviewed the results of all 260 positive stool cultures of children between 0 and 15 years of age during two years at a pediatric tertiary care facility in Salvador, Brazil. Bacterial strains had been presumptively identified by culturing in selective media and by biochemic...

  20. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Italo A. Sherlock

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores iniciam com êste, uma série de trabalhos sôbre a Dermatozoonose provocada pela picada de Culicoides, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. No presente, tratam das espécies de Culicoides encontradas em Salvador, baseados na coleta de 2.947 exemplares, durante os anos de 1959 a 1963. Encontraram as 4 espécies seguintes; C. (O. paraensis (Goeldi, 1905 C. (O. limonensis Ortiz & Leon, 1955 C. (C. insignis Lutz, 1913 C. (C. flavivenula Costa Lima, 1937. Não reencontraram o C. (C. maruim, Lutz, 1913 assinalado por fox (1948 e WIRTH & BLANTON (1956 para Salvador. Dessas espécies o C. (C. paraensis se mostrou a predominante, abrangendo 98% de exemplares coletados. Apresentam a distribuição das espécies por bairros e respectivas quantidades coletadas. Finalizando, dão as principais características morfológicas das espécies, ilustrando essas com desenhos do material por êles estudado.

  1. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deely, A.E.; Blackwell, B.A.B.; Mylroie, J.E.; Carew, J.L.; Blickstein, J.I.B.; Skinner, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 ± 0.3 to 7.1 ± 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 ± 6 to 75 ± 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 ± 6 to 138 ± 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  2. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  3. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deely, A.E. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Blackwell, B.A.B., E-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States); Mylroie, J.E. [Dept. of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762-5448 (United States); Carew, J.L. [Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Skinner, A.R. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 {+-} 0.3 to 7.1 {+-} 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 {+-} 6 to 75 {+-} 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 {+-} 6 to 138 {+-} 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  4. Documentos: democratizar el espectro radioeléctrico

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    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elseminario "Democratizar el espectro radioeléctrico" reunió, en Pozo de Rosas, Venezuela, del 11 al 15 de noviembre de 1996, a coordinadoras nacionales y representantes de medios comunitarios de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, ElSalvador, Guatemala, México, Paraguay, Uruguay y Venezuela; a abogados provenientes de variospaíses de la región, y a directivos de lasdiez redes que integran el G-S: ALER, AMARe; CIESPAL, FELAFACS, FIp, PROA, RNTC, SCe; VIDEAZIMUfY WACC: con el auspicio de la Fundación Priedricb Eoert deAlemaniay el CECI de Canadá. Presentamos a continuación las conclusiones de este evento.

  5. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de Medicina de Salvador (BA Psychoactive substance use by medical students from Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleuber Moreira Lemos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Estudos indicam que estudantes de Medicina, apesar do seu dedutível conhecimento sobre os efeitos das substâncias psicoativas, consomem-nas em proporção semelhante à dos jovens de mesma idade na população geral. OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão local do consumo dessas substâncias entre graduandos de Medicina e contribuir na formulação de atividades preventivas. MÉTODOS: Aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado no qual foi avaliada a freqüência de uso das substâncias psicoativas entre os estudantes, assim como as principais razões apontadas para o consumo. Foram analisados 404 questionários obtidos entre alunos dos seis anos de curso das duas maiores escolas médicas de Salvador. RESULTADOS: As drogas mais utilizadas no critério uso na vida foram álcool (92,8% e lança-perfume (46,2%. O uso de álcool apresentou-se constante nos seis anos de curso. Entretanto, o uso de tabaco, lança-perfume e tranqüilizantes aumentou significativamente para os alunos dos últimos anos (p BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students consume psychoactive substances at the same rates as the same age youth on general population, despite their predictable knowledge about drugs effects. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local pattern of psychoactive substances use among medical students and contribute for the formulation of preventive activities. METHODS: The frequency of psychoactive substances use was evaluated by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that also asked the main reasons for that use. Four hundred and four students in the first to sixth year from the two biggest medical schools in Salvador answered the questionnaire. RESULTS: The lifetime use was bigger for alcohol (92.8% and inhalant (46.2%. Alcohol use was constant for the students from first to sixth year of course, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. However, tobacco, inhalants and tranquilizers use had a significant increase at the last two years

  6. La violencia y los movimientos sociales en el gobierno de Vicente Fox, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Velázquez García

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el movimiento social contra la construcción del aeropuerto en San Salvador Atenco entre 2001 y 2002. Este movimiento es la primera movilización social que enfrenta el presidente Vicente Fox. Se examinan los recursos utilizados en sus acciones, lo que incluye la utilización de la violencia y las consecuencias que tuvo para la imagen presidencial; se emplea la teoría de movilización de recursos para observar las formas de manifestación utilizadas frente al Estado.

  7. Prevalência de dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial de Salvador, Brasil Prevalence of dyslipidemias in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil

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    Ines Lessa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial não-hospitalar da cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Casuística procedente de amostra probabilística de 25% dos laboratórios não-hospitalares da cidade que usavam o método enzimático para dosagem dos lípides séricos e controle de qualidade da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (93% do total; LDL estimado pela fórmula de Friedewald. Sorteados os meses ímpares de 1995 para o estudo. Critérios para dislipidemias, em mg/dl: colesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200. Análise: prevalências, seus intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% e qui-quadrado (chi². RESULTADOS: Excluídos uma recusa e um laboratório que arquivava laudos só por 3 meses, foram analisados dados de 24 dos 26 laboratórios amostrados. Dos 7392 adultos, 65,5% eram mulheres. Prevalências estimadas e valores dos IC a 95% para homens, foram: hipercolesterolemia =24,0% (20,5; 27,5; LDL elevado =26,1 (22,4; 29,3; HDL baixo =15,9 (14,2; 17,8 e hipertrigliceridemia =27,6 (25,7; 29,5. Para mulheres: hipercolesterolemia =30,0 (27,8; 32,2, LDL elevado =33,1 (30,8; 35,4; HDL baixo =8,0 (7,1; 8,9 e hipertrigliceridemia =30,4 (29,0; 31,4. Todas as prevalências diferiram significantemente inter-gênero (p, 0,05 a pPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in subjects from a probabilistic sample of 25% of a total of 104 local laboratories that used the same enzymatic method for lipid analysis with the quality control as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analyses. These represented 93% of all non-hospital laboratories of Salvador in 1995. The odd months of 1995 were selected for sampling in the present study. Criteria for dyslipidemias were: total cholesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200mg/dl. Prevalence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI and chi² test were

  8. La tecnología de identificación por radiofrecuencia (RFID) como una alternativa en el control de inventarios y recursos

    OpenAIRE

    Villeda Viana, Mario Roberto

    2009-01-01

    La tecnología RFID está ganando terreno en el mundo y, cada vez más, se encuentran aplicaciones que buscan facilitar el control y la eficiencia en el manejo de recursos humanos y de equipo. Esta ha venido para quedarse en amplios sectores productivos y económicos de El Salvador. Con esta novedosa tecnología se puede conocer la ubicación de los equipos y las personas en tareas administrativas en el momento preciso, así como sus desplazamientos dentro del área de cobertura.

  9. Las nuevas tecnologías dijeron presente : Un estudio de caso sobre el Plan Conectar Igualdad

    OpenAIRE

    Belinche Montequin, Manuela; Hoya, Manuela; Vergani, Lorena Mariel

    2012-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, distintos países de Latinoamérica han desarrollado políticas orientadas a incorporar a las Nuevas Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (NTIC) en el espacio áulico y en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Uruguay, Chile, Perú, Colombia, El Salvador y Guatemala impulsaron disímiles programas de equipamiento y capacitación1 con el objetivo común de introducir a las NTIC en el entramado escolar. Estas iniciativas se vinculan con el reconocimiento de los pr...

  10. Uma nota sobre ilusionismos e alegorias na pintura barroca de Salvador da Bahia A Note on Illusionism and Allegory in the Baroque Painting of Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de Moura Sobral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As principais tendências da pintura no Brasil colonial podem ser estudadas na Catedral de Salvador, a igreja do antigo Colégio da Companhia de Jesus. Datando dos finais do século XVII, várias séries de quadros de qualidade diversa, compõem com as esculturas dos altares um soberbo e complexo bel composto de propaganda inaciana. Para decorar o forro da Biblioteca, por cima da sacristia, os Jesuítas encomendaram cerca de 1735-1736 uma monumental quadratura ao pintor português António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. A pintura é estudada em função da tradição de decoração das bibliotecas durante a época moderna. Para além da quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduziu na arte brasileira as figuras alegóricas, tornando-se assim o primeiro pintor brasileiro verdadeiramente barroco e o criador da chamada Escola Bahiana.The main trends of the painting in colonial Brazil can be studied in the Cathedral of Salvador, Bahia, the church of the former Jesuit College. Dating from the late 17th Century, several cycles of paintings on the walls and the ceiling of the sacristy, of varying quality, accomplish particular symbolic functions; in conjunction with the sculpture of the altars, they compose a complex bel composto of Jesuit propaganda. To decorate the ceiling of their Library, above the sacristy, the Jesuits commissioned around 1735-1736 a huge quadratura from the Portuguese born painter António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. This painting is discussed within the tradition of Library decoration in the Modern period. Besides the quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduced in the Brazilian art the allegorical figures and became the first full-Baroque painter in Brazil and the initiator of the so-called Bahian School.

  11. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Kathryn P; Seto, Karen C; Costa, Federico; Corburn, Jason; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2013-10-20

    The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading.

  12. Potential of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas, as Nursery Habitat for Juvenile Reef Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy, Ian Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This project assessed the significance of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas as a nursery habitat for coral reef fishes. Pigeon Creek’s perimeter is lined with mangrove and limestone bedrock. The bottom is sand or seagrass and ranges in depth from exposed at low tide to a 3-m deep, tide-scoured channel. In June 2006 and January 2007, fish were counted and their maturity was recorded while sampling 112 of 309 possible 50-m transects along the perimeter of the Pigeon Creek. Excluding silversides (Atherinidae, 52% of fish counted, six families each comprised >1% of the total abundance (Scaridae/parrotfishes, 35.3%; Lutjanidae/snappers, 23.9%; Haemulidae/grunts, 21.0%; Gerreidae/mojarras, 8.5%; Pomacentridae/damselfishes, 6.1%; Labridae/wrasses, 2.4%. There were few differences in effort-adjusted counts among habitats (mangrove, bedrock, mixed, sections (north, middle, southwest and seasons (summer 2006 and winter 2007. Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle, covering 68% of the perimeter was where 62% of the fish were counted. Snappers, grunts and parrotfishes are important food fishes and significant families in terms of reef ecology around San Salvador. Mangrove was the most important habitat for snappers and grunts; bedrock was most important for parrotfishes. The southwest section was important for snappers, grunts and parrotfishes, the north section for grunts and parrotfishes, and the middle section for snappers. Among the non-silverside fish counted, 91.2% were juveniles. These results suggest that Pigeon Creek is an important nursery for the coral reefs surrounding San Salvador and should be protected from potential disturbances.

  13. Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans Invade San Salvador, Bahamas: No Early Effects on Coral and Fish Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander, Amanda K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological invaders are a leading contributor to global losses of biodiversity. A recent invader to the waters surrounding San Salvador, Bahamas, the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, was first reported in 2006; by 2009 they were common in waters 2-40 m deep around the island. Our study collected data on coral communities and fish assemblages at three patch reef complexes (Rice Bay, Rocky Point, Lindsay Reef in 2007, during the initial phase of the invasion, and compared the results to a nearly identical study done in 2001 before P. volitans colonized San Salvador. Prey selection and quantity of consumption by P. volitans were also examined. Coral and fish species richness, diversity, percent cover (corals and abundance (fish were similar in 2001 and 2007. Of the 5,078 fish recorded during our study on shallow patch reefs, only two were P. volitans, but they were more prevalent in deeper water along San Salvador’s “wall.” Captured P. volitans ranged in size from 19-32 cm, all longer than maturity length. Pallid goby (Coryphopterus eidolon, black cap basslet (Gramma melacara and red night shrimp (Rynchocienetes rigens were the most commonly identified stomach contents. The effects of the successful invasion and increasing population of P. volitans on San Salvador’s reef ecosystem are uncertain at this time; future monitoring of potential changes in coral and fish communities on the patch reefs of San Salvador is recommended to determine if population control measures need to be considered. Initial post-invasion data (2007, along with pre-invasion data (2001, are valuable benchmarks for future studies.

  14. Wi-Fi Salvador: mapeamento colaborativo e redes sem fio no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, André; Pastor, Leonardo; Oliveira, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    O trabalho faz uma breve demonstração de políticas públicas para inclusão digital por meio da disponibilização do acesso à internet por meio de redes sem fio e discute a forma como as pessoas se relacionam com os lugares, de acordo com a existência ou inexistência de acessibilidade à internet. O objetivo é discutir o acesso à internet pelas redes sem fio no Brasil e, mais especificamente, na cidade de Salvador. Este trabalho é fruto de pesquisa realizada no âmbito do Grupo de Pesquisa em Cibe...

  15. Condições atuais da esquistossomose no "Dique do Tororó" em Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Amorim

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados de observações realizadas entre os anos de 1971 a 1974 sobre a incidência humana da esquistosomose no Dique do Tororó, em Salvador, Bahia, após alí terem sido realizadas melhorias pela engenhària sanitária e medidas de combate biológico ao caramujo vetor pelo uso de peixes predadores. Comparando com os resultados obtidos por outros Autores em 1960, concluem que o Dique do Tororó não mais representa uma importante fonte de propagação da esquistosomose.

  16. Informe Especial de la Procuraduria para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos sobre el legado de la Mina San Sebastian y sus impactos en la vida de las poblaciones afectadas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir; Quiñonez Basagoitia, Julio Cesar; Van Ho, Tara

    This reports is the result of a study carried out to analyse the socio-economic impacts of the San Sebastian Mine in eastern El Salvador. The impacts are divided into 3 areas: land ownership, water resources and artisanal miner's livelihoods. The report contains 20 recommendations for the Salvado...

  17. Sacrificarse por el otro, salvarse por el arte. “El Cristo negro” de Salarrué

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    Martha Elena Munguía Zaratain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La literatura no ha sido nunca ajena a la ética, hunde sus raíces en ella y de ahí toma el oxígeno para construir mundos ficticios llenos de sentido. Pero algunas obras se orquestan alrededor del problema de una compleja relación con lo ético, como el caso de esta leyenda, de origen oral, llevada a la literatura culta por Salvador Arrué, Salarrué, escritor salvadoreño que pone en juego todo el conflicto que anida en la idea del sacrificio para salvar al otro. ¿Es posible un nuevo Cristo en la tierra sin que resulte un verdadero demonio? Parece ser la pregunta que late detrás de la historia que narra. Mal y bien se funden y es imposible distinguirlos. El escritor encuentra la última redención, la verdadera posibilidad de salvarse en la amorosa mirada artística, la única capacitada para comprender. Literature has never been unawareof ethics. The first one is rooted in the second, and it takes from it the oxygen needed to build fictional worlds full of sense. However, some works are orchestrated around the problem of a complex relationship with ethics, like the case of this legend, oral in its origins and brought to highbrow literature by Salvador Arrué, Salarrué, the Salvadoran writer that puts the whole conflict nested in the idea of sacrificing one’s life to save the lives of others at stake. ¿Is it possible to have a new Christ on Earth without him turning out to be a demon? This seems to be the question behind the story told by him. Evil and Good merge together, and they become impossible to distinguish from one another. The writer finds the last redemption, the true chance for salvation, in the loving gaze of art, the only one he´s able to understand.

  18. [Stigma and resistance among travestis and transsexual women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Laio; Dourado, Inês; Silva, Luis Augusto Vasconcelos da

    2018-01-01

    This was a qualitative study based on an analysis of narratives produced by travestis and transsexual women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, with the aim of analyzing their experiences with stigmatization by describing events, actors, and contexts that have marked their life stories, as well as elucidating the relationship between stigma and their female performances. The narratives came from 19 in-depth interviews during an epidemiological survey, based on a prior script that explored the production of narratives on lifestyles and experiences of travestis and transsexual women in the city of Salvador. The life stories that emerged in the field were transcribed and analyzed from a theoretical and narrative perspective. The narratives of many travestis and transsexual women described an "effeminate" gender performance that had been identified since their childhood by family and community members. This performance was presented as insubordination to the power established by heteronormative society's legal system. The process of stigmatization begins to operate when social expectations concerning the coherence between "biological sex" and "gender performance" are frustrated in social interactions, submitting the individuals to discrimination and violence. Thus, stigmatization is operated through the power exercised over bodies by the laws of compulsory heterosexuality. However, during the life stories of travestis and transsexual women, strategies of resistance to stigma are produced, with the potential to transform this situation.

  19. Ocorrência de Chlamydophila psittaci em pombos (Columba livia na cidade de Salvador, Bahia

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    D.C. Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A existência de populações numerosas de pombos (Columba livia em centros urbanos, em quase todo o mundo, tem se tornado um risco à saúde pública em vista das zoonoses que podem transmitir. A infecção por Chlamydophila psittaci foi avaliada em pombos que frequentam áreas públicas, como praças, ruas e pontos turísticos na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, por meio da PCR em amostras de fezes frescas, suabes cloacais e orofaríngeos. O estudo revelou uma frequência de infecção por C. psittaci de 11,7% (16/137 dos pombos, e oito dos 10 locais pesquisados apresentavam aves infectadas. A detecção de C. psittaci em amostras de cloaca e orofaringe foi maior (15,8% - 3/19 que em amostras de fezes frescas (11% - 13/118. Os resultados demonstram a ocorrência de infecção por C. psittaci em pombos que habitam as áreas públicas da cidade de Salvador e apontam para a necessária elaboração de medidas de controle e monitoramento das populações de pombos urbanos, bem como de ações voltadas à conscientização da sociedade sobre os riscos à saúde pública.

  20. Contribution to the use of marble in Central-Lusitania in Roman times: The stone architectural decoration of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taelman, Devi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a quantitative and qualitative study of the imported architectural decorative stone of the Roman town of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal, located centrally in the province of Lusitania. All studied ornamental stones were counted, weighed, classified and their provenance was determined. Six types of stone were used for the architectural decoration at Ammaia: white marble, pink–purple limestone, grey– white marble, two marble breccias and granite. Granite was the most widely used building stone and was used for the production of columns and capitals. Previous studies have established a local source for the Ammaia granite (Taelman et alii in press. The provenance of the remaining ornamental stones is primarily regional (the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Only the two marble breccia varieties were imported from the Mediterranean: africano from Teos (Turkey and breccia di Sciro from the island of Skyros also (Greece. The predominant use of regionally available stones is observed in other Roman towns located in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula, such as Emerita Augusta, Asturica Augusta and Munigua, and results mainly from the geographic location of the sites, remote from any seaport and/or navigable river.El presente trabajo presenta los resultados de una valorización cuantitativa y cualitativa de la utilización de las piedras decorativas arquitectónicas importadas de la ciudad romana lusitana de Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal. Todas las piedras decorativas estudiadas fueron contadas, pesadas, clasificadas y su procedencia fue determinada. En la época romana se utilizaron seis tipos de piedra para la decoración arquitectónica de la ciudad de Ammaia: mármol blanco, caliza morada–rosa, mármol blanco y gris, dos brechas compuestas de fragmentos de mármol blanco y granito. El granito fue la piedra de construcción principal en Ammaia. Además, el granito se utiliz