WorldWideScience

Sample records for ejection icme driven

  1. ICME-driven sheath regions deplete the outer radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K.; Turner, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    It is an outstanding question in space weather and solar wind-magnetosphere interaction studies, why some storms result in an increase of the outer radiation belt electron fluxes, while others deplete them or produce no change. One approach to this problem is to look at differences in the storm drivers. Traditionally drivers have been classified to Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). However, an 'ICME event' is a complex structure: The core is a magnetic cloud (MC; a clear flux rope structure). If the mass ejection is fast enough, it can drive a shock in front of it. This leads to the formation of a sheath region between the interplanetary shock and the leading edge of the MC. While both the sheath and the MC feature elevated solar wind speed, their other properties are very different. For instance, the sheath region has typically a much higher dynamic pressure than the magnetic cloud. Moreover, the sheath region has a high power in magnetic field and dynamic pressure Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range fluctuations, while the MC is characterised by an extremely smooth magnetic field. Magnetic clouds have been recognised as important drivers magnetospheric activity since they can comprise long periods of very large southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that sheath regions can also act as storm drivers. In this study, we analyse the effects of ICME-driven sheath regions on the relativistic electron fluxes observed by GOES satellites on the geostationary orbit. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of 31 sheath regions from solar cycle 23. Our results show that the sheaths cause an approximately one order of magnitude decrease in the 24h-averaged electron fluxes. Typically the fluxes also stay below the pre-event level for more than two days. Further analysis reveals that the decrease does not depend on, e.g., whether the sheath interval contains predominantly northward

  2. Opening a Window on ICME-driven GCR Modulation in the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Lugaz, Noé; Guo, Jingnan; Joyce, Colin J.; Jordan, Andrew P.; Wilson, Jody K.; Spence, Harlan E.; Lawrence, David J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Mays, M. Leila

    2018-04-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) often cause Forbush decreases (Fds) in the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). We investigate how a single ICME, launched from the Sun on 2014 February 12, affected GCR fluxes at Mercury, Earth, and Mars. We use GCR observations from MESSENGER at Mercury, ACE/LRO at the Earth/Moon, and MSL at Mars. We find that Fds are steeper and deeper closer to the Sun, and that the magnitude of the magnetic field in the ICME magnetic ejecta as well as the “strength” of the ICME sheath both play a large role in modulating the depth of the Fd. Based on our results, we hypothesize that (1) the Fd size decreases exponentially with heliocentric distance, and (2) that two-step Fds are more common closer to the Sun. Both hypotheses will be directly verifiable by the upcoming Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter missions. This investigation provides the first systematic study of the changes in GCR modulation as a function of distance from the Sun using nearly contemporaneous observations at Mercury, Earth/Moon, and Mars, which will be critical for validating our physical understanding of the modulation process throughout the heliosphere.

  3. Data-driven Model of the ICME Propagation through the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalim, M. S.; Pogorelov, N.; Singh, T.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind (SW) emerging from the Sun is the main driving mechanism of solar events which may lead to geomagnetic storms that are the primary causes of space weather disturbances that affect the magnetic environment of Earth and may have hazardous effects on the space-borne and ground-based technological systems as well as human health. Therefore, accurate modeling of the SW is very important to understand the underlying mechanisms of such storms.Getting ready for the Parker Solar Probe mission, we have developed a data-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the global solar corona which utilizes characteristic boundary conditions implemented within the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) - a collection of problem oriented routines incorporated into the Chombo adaptive mesh refinement framework developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Our global solar corona model can be driven by both synoptic and synchronic vector magnetogram data obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) and the horizontal velocity data on the photosphere obtained by applying the Differential Affine Velocity Estimatorfor Vector Magnetograms (DAVE4VM) method on the HMI-observed vector magnetic fields.Our CME generation model is based on Gibson-Low-type flux ropes the parameters of which are determined from analysis of observational data from STEREO/SECCHI, SDO/AIA and SOHO/LASCO, and by applying the Graduate Cylindrical Shell model for the flux rope reconstruction.In this study, we will present the results of three-dimensional global simulations of ICME propagation through our characteristically-consistent MHD model of the background SW from the Sun to Earth driven by HMI-observed vector magnetic fields and validate our results using multiple spacecraft data at 1 AU.

  4. The Strongest Acceleration of >40 keV Electrons by ICME-driven Shocks at 1 au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Tian, Hui; Bale, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We present two case studies of the in-situ electron acceleration during the 2000 February 11 shock and the 2004 July 22 shock, with the strongest electron flux enhancement at 40 keV across the shock, among all the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 through 2014 at 1 au. We find that for this quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shock on 2000 February 11 (2004 July 22), the shocked electron differential fluxes at ∼0.4–50 keV in the downstream generally fit well to a double-power-law spectrum, J ∼ E ‑β , with an index of β ∼ 3.15 (4.0) at energies below a break at ∼3 keV (∼1 keV) and β ∼ 2.65 (2.6) at energies above. For both shock events, the downstream electron spectral indices appear to be similar for all pitch angles, which are significantly larger than the index prediction by diffusive shock acceleration. In addition, the downstream electron pitch-angle distributions show the anisotropic beams in the anti-sunward-traveling direction, while the ratio of the downstream over ambient fluxes appears to peak near 90° pitch angles, at all energies of ∼0.4–50 keV. These results suggest that in both shocks, shock drift acceleration likely plays an important role in accelerating electrons in situ at 1 au. Such ICME-driven shocks could contribute to the formation of solar wind halo electrons at energies ≲2 keV, as well as the production of solar wind superhalo electrons at energies ≳2 keV in interplanetary space.

  5. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  6. Effective Acceleration Model for the Arrival Time of Interplanetary Shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paouris, Evangelos; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2017-12-01

    In a previous work (Paouris and Mavromichalaki in Solar Phys. 292, 30, 2017), we presented a total of 266 interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) with as much information as possible. We developed a new empirical model for estimating the acceleration of these events in the interplanetary medium from this analysis. In this work, we present a new approach on the effective acceleration model (EAM) for predicting the arrival time of the shock that preceds a CME, using data of a total of 214 ICMEs. For the first time, the projection effects of the linear speed of CMEs are taken into account in this empirical model, which significantly improves the prediction of the arrival time of the shock. In particular, the mean value of the time difference between the observed time of the shock and the predicted time was equal to +3.03 hours with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 18.58 hours and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 22.47 hours. After the improvement of this model, the mean value of the time difference is decreased to -0.28 hours with an MAE of 17.65 hours and an RMSE of 21.55 hours. This improved version was applied to a set of three recent Earth-directed CMEs reported in May, June, and July of 2017, and we compare our results with the values predicted by other related models.

  7. Geometric effects of ICMEs on geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, KyungSuk; Lee, Jae-Ok

    2017-04-01

    It has been known that the geomagnetic storm is occurred by the interaction between the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) and the Earth's magnetosphere; especially, the southward Bz component of ICME is thought as the main trigger. In this study, we investigate the relationship between Dst index and solar wind conditions; which are the southward Bz, electric field (VBz), and time integral of electric field as well as ICME parameters derived from toroidal fitting model in order to find what is main factor to the geomagnetic storm. We also inspect locations of Earth in ICMEs to understand the geometric effects of the Interplanetary Flux Ropes (IFRs) on the geomagnetic storms. Among 59 CDAW ICME lists, we select 30 IFR events that are available by the toroidal fitting model and classify them into two sub-groups: geomagnetic storms associated with the Magnetic Clouds (MCs) and the compression regions ahead of the MCs (sheath). The main results are as follows: (1) The time integral of electric field has a higher correlation coefficient (cc) with Dst index than the other parameters: cc=0.85 for 25 MC events and cc=0.99 for 5 sheath events. (2) The sheath associated intense storms (Dst ≤-100nT) having usually occur at flank regions of ICMEs while the MC associated intense storms occur regardless of the locations of the Earth in ICMEs. The strength of a geomagnetic storm strongly depends on electric field of IFR and durations of the IFR passages through the Earth.

  8. The impact of an ICME on the Jovian X-ray aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William R; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Elsner, Ronald F; Vogt, Marissa F; Lamy, Laurent; Ford, Peter G; Coates, Andrew J; Gladstone, G Randall; Jackman, Caitriona M; Nichols, Jonathan D; Rae, I Jonathan; Varsani, Ali; Kimura, Tomoki; Hansen, Kenneth C; Jasinski, Jamie M

    2016-03-01

    We report the first Jupiter X-ray observations planned to coincide with an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). At the predicted ICME arrival time, we observed a factor of ∼8 enhancement in Jupiter's X-ray aurora. Within 1.5 h of this enhancement, intense bursts of non-Io decametric radio emission occurred. Spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics also varied between ICME arrival and another X-ray observation two days later. Gladstone et al. (2002) discovered the polar X-ray hot spot and found it pulsed with 45 min quasiperiodicity. During the ICME arrival, the hot spot expanded and exhibited two periods: 26 min periodicity from sulfur ions and 12 min periodicity from a mixture of carbon/sulfur and oxygen ions. After the ICME, the dominant period became 42 min. By comparing Vogt et al. (2011) Jovian mapping models with spectral analysis, we found that during ICME arrival at least two distinct ion populations, from Jupiter's dayside, produced the X-ray aurora. Auroras mapping to magnetospheric field lines between 50 and 70  R J were dominated by emission from precipitating sulfur ions (S 7+,…,14+ ). Emissions mapping to closed field lines between 70 and 120  R J and to open field lines were generated by a mixture of precipitating oxygen (O 7+,8+ ) and sulfur/carbon ions, possibly implying some solar wind precipitation. We suggest that the best explanation for the X-ray hot spot is pulsed dayside reconnection perturbing magnetospheric downward currents, as proposed by Bunce et al. (2004). The auroral enhancement has different spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics to the hot spot. By analyzing these characteristics and coincident radio emissions, we propose that the enhancement is driven directly by the ICME through Jovian magnetosphere compression and/or a large-scale dayside reconnection event.

  9. The Physical Processes of CME/ICME Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Ward; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Liu, Ying D.; Lugaz, Noé; Riley, Pete; Török, Tibor; Vršnak, Bojan

    2017-11-01

    As observed in Thomson-scattered white light, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are manifest as large-scale expulsions of plasma magnetically driven from the corona in the most energetic eruptions from the Sun. It remains a tantalizing mystery as to how these erupting magnetic fields evolve to form the complex structures we observe in the solar wind at Earth. Here, we strive to provide a fresh perspective on the post-eruption and interplanetary evolution of CMEs, focusing on the physical processes that define the many complex interactions of the ejected plasma with its surroundings as it departs the corona and propagates through the heliosphere. We summarize the ways CMEs and their interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) are rotated, reconfigured, deformed, deflected, decelerated and disguised during their journey through the solar wind. This study then leads to consideration of how structures originating in coronal eruptions can be connected to their far removed interplanetary counterparts. Given that ICMEs are the drivers of most geomagnetic storms (and the sole driver of extreme storms), this work provides a guide to the processes that must be considered in making space weather forecasts from remote observations of the corona.

  10. Evaluating predictions of ICME arrival at Earth and Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Taktakishvili, A.; Pulkkinen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) propagation to Earth and Mars. Because of the significant space weather hazard posed by ICMEs, understanding and predicting their arrival and impact at Mars is important for current and future robotic and manned missions to the pla......We present a study of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) propagation to Earth and Mars. Because of the significant space weather hazard posed by ICMEs, understanding and predicting their arrival and impact at Mars is important for current and future robotic and manned missions...... to the planet. We compare running ENLILv2.6 with coronal mass ejection (CME) input parameters from both a manual and an automated method. We analyze shock events identified at Mars in Mars Global Surveyor data in 2001 and 2003, when Earth and Mars were separated by...

  11. ARE THE FAINT STRUCTURES AHEAD OF SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS REAL SIGNATURES OF DRIVEN SHOCKS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Ok; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Kangjin; Lee, Jin-Yi; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Kim, Sujin

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several studies have assumed that the faint structures ahead of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are caused by CME-driven shocks. In this study, we have conducted a statistical investigation to determine whether or not the appearance of such faint structures depends on CME speeds. For this purpose, we use 127 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle Spectroscopic COronagraph (LASCO) front-side halo (partial and full) CMEs near the limb from 1997 to 2011. We classify these CMEs into two groups by visual inspection of CMEs in the LASCO-C2 field of view: Group 1 has the faint structure ahead of a CME and Group 2 does not have such a structure. We find the following results. (1) Eighty-seven CMEs belong to Group 1 and 40 CMEs belong to Group 2. (2) Group 1 events have much higher speeds (average = 1230 km s –1 and median = 1199 km s –1 ) than Group 2 events (average = 598 km s –1 and median = 518 km s –1 ). (3) The fraction of CMEs with faint structures strongly depends on CME speeds (V): 0.93 (50/54) for fast CMEs with V ≥ 1000 km s –1 , 0.65 (34/52) for intermediate CMEs with 500 km s –1 ≤ V < 1000 km s –1 , and 0.14 (3/21) for slow CMEs with V < 500 km s –1 . We also find that the fraction of CMEs with deca-hecto metric type II radio bursts is consistent with the above tendency. Our results indicate that the observed faint structures ahead of fast CMEs are most likely an enhanced density manifestation of CME-driven shocks

  12. SIMULATIONS OF THE KELVIN–HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE TURBULENT CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Daniel O.; DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mininni, Pablo D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-20

    Recent high-resolution Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory images show evidence of the development of the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability, as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) expand in the ambient corona. A large-scale magnetic field mostly tangential to the interface is inferred, both on the CME and on the background sides. However, the magnetic field component along the shear flow is not strong enough to quench the instability. There is also observational evidence that the ambient corona is in a turbulent regime, and therefore the criteria for the development of the instability are a priori expected to differ from the laminar case. To study the evolution of the KH instability with a turbulent background, we perform three-dimensional simulations of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. The instability is driven by a velocity profile tangential to the CME–corona interface, which we simulate through a hyperbolic tangent profile. The turbulent background is generated by the application of a stationary stirring force. We compute the instability growth rate for different values of the turbulence intensity, and find that the role of turbulence is to attenuate the growth. The fact that KH instability is observed sets an upper limit on the correlation length of the coronal background turbulence.

  13. Composition of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; von Steiger, R.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) less than 10 electronvolts, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q (sub Fe) is greater than 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70 percent over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  14. Predicting the Magnetic Properties of ICMEs: A Pragmatic View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, P.; Linker, J.; Ben-Nun, M.; Torok, T.; Ulrich, R. K.; Russell, C. T.; Lai, H.; de Koning, C. A.; Pizzo, V. J.; Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field plays a crucial role in being able to successfully predict space weather phenomena. Yet, thus far, it has proven extremely difficult to forecast with any degree of accuracy. In this presentation, we describe an empirically-based modeling framework for estimating Bz values during the passage of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). The model includes: (1) an empirically-based estimate of the magnetic properties of the flux rope in the low corona (including helicity and field strength); (2) an empirically-based estimate of the dynamic properties of the flux rope in the high corona (including direction, speed, and mass); and (3) a physics-based estimate of the evolution of the flux rope during its passage to 1 AU driven by the output from (1) and (2). We compare model output with observations for a selection of events to estimate the accuracy of this approach. Importantly, we pay specific attention to the uncertainties introduced by the components within the framework, separating intrinsic limitations from those that can be improved upon, either by better observations or more sophisticated modeling. Our analysis suggests that current observations/modeling are insufficient for this empirically-based framework to provide reliable and actionable prediction of the magnetic properties of ICMEs. We suggest several paths that may lead to better forecasts.

  15. 24th ICM

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David

    2003-01-01

    Since the first Congress in Zürich in 1897, the ICM has been an eagerly­ awaited event every four years. Many of these occasions are celebrated for historie developments and seminal contributions to mathematics. 2002 marks the year of the 24th ICM, the first of the new millennium. Also historie is the first ICM Satellite Conference devoted to game theory and applications. It is one of those rare occasions, in which masters of the field are able to meet under congenial surroundings to talk and share their gathered wisdom. As is usually the case in ICM meetings, participants of the ICM Satellite Conference on Game Theory and Applications (Qingdao, August 2(02) hailed from the four corners of the world. In addition to presentations of high qual­ ity research, the program also included twelve invited plenary sessions with distinguished speakers. This volume, which gathers together selected papers read at the conference, is divided into four sections: (I) Foundations, Concepts, and Structure. (II) Equilibrium P...

  16. An efficient, selective collisional ejection mechanism for inner-shell population inversion in laser-driven plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHROEDER,W. ANDREAS; NELSON,THOMAS R.; BORISOV,A.B.; LONGWORTH,J.W.; BOYER,K.; RHODES,C.K.

    2000-06-07

    A theoretical analysis of laser-driven collisional ejection of inner-shell electrons is presented to explain the previously observed anomalous kilovolt L-shell x-ray emission spectra from atomic Xe cluster targets excited by intense sub-picosecond 248nrn ultraviolet radiation. For incident ponderomotively-driven electrons photoionized by strong above threshold ionization, the collisional ejection mechanism is shown to be highly l-state and significantly n-state (i.e. radially) selective for time periods shorter than the collisional dephasing time of the photoionized electronic wavefunction. The resulting preference for the collisional ejection of 2p electrons by an ionized 4p state produces the measured anomalous Xe(L) emission which contains direct evidence for (i) the generation of Xe{sup 27+}(2p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}) and Xe{sup 28+}(2p{sup 5}3d{sup 9}) ions exhibiting inner-shell population inversion and (ii) a coherent correlated electron state collision responsible for the production of double 2p vacancies. For longer time periods, the selectivity of this coherent impact ionization mechanism is rapidly reduced by the combined effects of intrinsic quantum mechanical spreading and dephasing--in agreement with the experimentally observed and extremely strong {minus}{lambda}{sup {minus}6} pump-laser wavelength dependence of the efficiency of inner-shell (2p) vacancy production in Xe clusters excited in underdense plasmas.

  17. Correlation of ICME Magnetic Fields at Radially Aligned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Möstl, C.

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic field structures of two interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), each observed by a pair of spacecraft close to radial alignment, have been analysed. The ICMEs were observed in situ by MESSENGER and STEREO-B in November 2010 and November 2011, while the spacecraft were separated by more than 0.6 AU in heliocentric distance, less than 4° in heliographic longitude, and less than 7° in heliographic latitude. Both ICMEs took approximately two days to travel between the spacecraft. The ICME magnetic field profiles observed at MESSENGER have been mapped to the heliocentric distance of STEREO-B and compared directly to the profiles observed by STEREO-B. Figures that result from this mapping allow for easy qualitative assessment of similarity in the profiles. Macroscale features in the profiles that varied on timescales of one hour, and which corresponded to the underlying flux rope structure of the ICMEs, were well correlated in the solar east-west and north-south directed components, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of approximately 0.85 and 0.95, respectively; microscale features with timescales of one minute were uncorrelated. Overall correlation values in the profiles of one ICME were increased when an apparent change in the flux rope axis direction between the observing spacecraft was taken into account. The high degree of similarity seen in the magnetic field profiles may be interpreted in two ways. If the spacecraft sampled the same region of each ICME ( i.e. if the spacecraft angular separations are neglected), the similarity indicates that there was little evolution in the underlying structure of the sampled region during propagation. Alternatively, if the spacecraft observed different, nearby regions within the ICMEs, it indicates that there was spatial homogeneity across those different regions. The field structure similarity observed in these ICMEs points to the value of placing in situ space weather monitors well upstream of the

  18. Successive Homologous Coronal Mass Ejections Driven by Shearing and Converging Motions in Solar Active Region NOAA 12371

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P., E-mail: vemareddy@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bengalure-560034 (India)

    2017-08-10

    We study the magnetic field evolution in AR 12371, related to its successive eruptive nature. During the disk transit of seven days, the active region (AR) launched four sequential fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are associated with long duration M-class flares. Morphological study delineates a pre-eruptive coronal sigmoid structure above the polarity inversion line (PIL) similar to Moore et al.’s study. The velocity field derived from tracked magnetograms indicates persistent shear and converging motions of polarity regions about the PIL. While these shear motions continue, the crossed arms of two sigmoid elbows are being brought to interaction by converging motions at the middle of the PIL, initiating the tether-cutting reconnection of field lines and the onset of the CME explosion. The successive CMEs are explained by a cyclic process of magnetic energy storage and release referred to as “sigmoid-to-arcade-to-sigmoid” transformation driven by photospheric flux motions. Furthermore, the continued shear motions inject helicity flux with a dominant negative sign, which contributes to core field twist and its energy by building a twisted flux rope (FR). After a limiting value, the excess coronal helicity is expelled by bodily ejection of the FR, which is initiated by some instability as realized by intermittent CMEs. This AR is in contrast with the confined AR 12192 with a predominant negative sign and larger helicity flux, but much weaker (−0.02 turns) normalized coronal helicity content. While predominant signed helicity flux is a requirement for CME eruption, our study suggests that the magnetic flux normalized helicity flux is a necessary condition accommodating the role of background flux and appeals to a further study of a large sample of ARs.

  19. New Evidence for a Coronal Mass Ejection-driven High Frequency Type II Burst near the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anshu; Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2017-07-01

    We report observations of the high frequency type II radio burst (≈430-30 MHz) that occurred in the solar corona on 2015 November 4. The drift rate of the burst, estimated close to the start frequency of its fundamental component (≈215 MHz), is unusually high (≈2 MHz s-1). Our analysis shows that the estimated speed of the magnetohydrodynamic shock driver of the burst varies with time. The peak speed and acceleration are very large, ≈ 2450 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and ≈ 17 {km} {{{s}}}-2, respectively. There is spatio-temporal correlation between the type II burst and the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) in the whitelight and extreme-ultraviolet images. The time profile of the shock speed and the light curve of the associated soft X-ray flare correlate well. These results indicate that in the present case, (I) the magnetohydrodynamic shock responsible for the high frequency coronal type II burst is driven by the CME and (II) the time profile of the type II burst shock speed represents the near-Sun kinematics of the CME.

  20. Solar Cycle Variation and Multipoint Studies of ICME Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the Living With a Star program is to understand the Sun-Earth connection sufficiently well that we can solve problems critical to life and society. This can most effectively be done in the short term using observations from our past and on-going programs. Not only can this approach solve some of the pressing issues but also it can provide ideas for the deployment of future spacecraft in the LWS program. The proposed effort uses data from NEAR, SOHO, Wind, ACE and Pioneer Venus in quadrature, multipoint, and solar cycle studies to study the interplanetary coronal mass ejection and its role in the magnetic flux cycle of the Sun. ICMEs are most important to the LWS objectives because the solar wind conditions associated with these structures are the most geoeffective of any solar wind phenomena. Their ability to produce strong geomagnetic disturbances arises first because of their high speed. This high speed overtakes the ambient solar wind producing a bow shock wave similar to the terrestrial bow shock. In the new techniques we develop as part of this effort we exploit this feature of ICMEs. This shocked plasma has a greater velocity, higher density and stronger magnetic field than the ambient solar wind, conditions that can enhance geomagnetic activity. The driving ICME is a large magnetic structure expanding outward in the solar wind [Gosling, 19961. The ICMEs magnetic field is generally much higher than that in the ambient solar wind and the velocity is high. The twisted nature of the magnetic field in an ICME almost ensures that sometime during the ICME conditions favorable for geomagnetic storm initiation will occur.

  1. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  2. Quantitative model for the generic 3D shape of ICMEs at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démoulin, P.; Janvier, M.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Dasso, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Interplanetary imagers provide 2D projected views of the densest plasma parts of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), while in situ measurements provide magnetic field and plasma parameter measurements along the spacecraft trajectory, that is, along a 1D cut. The data therefore only give a partial view of the 3D structures of ICMEs. Aims: By studying a large number of ICMEs, crossed at different distances from their apex, we develop statistical methods to obtain a quantitative generic 3D shape of ICMEs. Methods: In a first approach we theoretically obtained the expected statistical distribution of the shock-normal orientation from assuming simple models of 3D shock shapes, including distorted profiles, and compared their compatibility with observed distributions. In a second approach we used the shock normal and the flux rope axis orientations together with the impact parameter to provide statistical information across the spacecraft trajectory. Results: The study of different 3D shock models shows that the observations are compatible with a shock that is symmetric around the Sun-apex line as well as with an asymmetry up to an aspect ratio of around 3. Moreover, flat or dipped shock surfaces near their apex can only be rare cases. Next, the sheath thickness and the ICME velocity have no global trend along the ICME front. Finally, regrouping all these new results and those of our previous articles, we provide a quantitative ICME generic 3D shape, including the global shape of the shock, the sheath, and the flux rope. Conclusions: The obtained quantitative generic ICME shape will have implications for several aims. For example, it constrains the output of typical ICME numerical simulations. It is also a base for studying the transport of high-energy solar and cosmic particles during an ICME propagation as well as for modeling and forecasting space weather conditions near Earth.

  3. SPATIALLY DEPENDENT HEATING AND IONIZATION IN AN ICME OBSERVED BY BOTH ACE AND ULYSSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepri, Susan T. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Laming, J. Martin; Rakowski, Cara E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375-5321 (United States); Von Steiger, Rudolf [International Space Science Institute, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-01

    The 2005 January 21 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by multiple spacecraft at L1 was also observed from January 21-February 4 at Ulysses (5.3 AU). Previous studies of this ICME have found evidence suggesting that the flanks of a magnetic cloud like structure associated with this ICME were observed at L1 while a more central cut through the associated magnetic cloud was observed at Ulysses. This event allows us to study spatial variation across the ICME and relate it to the eruption at the Sun. In order to examine the spatial dependence of the heating in this ICME, we present an analysis and comparison of the heavy ion composition observed during the passage of the ICME at L1 and at Ulysses. Using SWICS, we compare the heavy ion composition across the two different observation cuts through the ICME and compare it with predictions for heating during the eruption based on models of the time-dependent ionization balance throughout the event.

  4. The Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Wood, Susannah

    2010-01-01

    This article explicates the Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) which has been used worldwide to design differentiated curriculum, instruction, and assessment units of study for gifted learners. The article includes a literature review of appropriate curriculum features for the gifted, other extant curriculum models, the theoretical basis for the…

  5. Understanding the variability of magnetic storms caused by ICMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacquista, Remi; Rochel, Sandrine; Rolland, Guy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of magnetic storms due to interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). We used multi-epoch superposed epoch analyses (SEAs) with a choice of epoch times based on the structure of the events. By sorting the events with respect to simple large-scale features (presence of a shock, magnetic structure, polarity of magnetic clouds), this method provides an original insight into understanding the variability of magnetic storm dynamics. Our results show the necessity of seeing ICMEs and their preceding sheaths as a whole since each substructure impacts the other and has an effect on its geoeffectiveness. It is shown that the presence of a shock drives the geoeffectiveness of the sheaths, while both the shock and the magnetic structure impact the geoeffectiveness of the ICMEs. In addition, we showed that the ambient solar wind characteristics are not the same for ejecta and magnetic clouds (MCs). The ambient solar wind upstream magnetic clouds are quieter than upstream ejecta and particularly slower. We also focused on the polarity of magnetic clouds since it drives not only their geoeffectiveness but also their temporal dynamics. South-north magnetic clouds (SN-MCs) and north-south magnetic clouds (NS-MCs) show no difference in geoeffectiveness for our sample of events. Lastly, since it is well-known that sequences of events can possibly induce strong magnetic storms, such sequences have been studied using superposed epoch analysis (SEA) for the first time. We found that these sequences of ICMEs are very usual and concern about 40 % of the ICMEs. Furthermore, they cause much more intense magnetic storms than isolated events do.

  6. The role of aerodynamic drag in propagation of interplanetary coronal mass ejections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vršnak, B.; Žic, T.; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    2010-01-01

    Context. The propagation of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and the forecast of their arrival on Earth is one of the central issues of space weather studies. Aims. We investigate to which degree various ICME parameters (mass, size, take-off speed) and the ambient solar-wind parameters...

  7. Opening a Window on ICME Evolution and GCR Modulation During Propagation in the Innermost Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, R. M.; Lugaz, N.; Schwadron, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Guo, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Wilson, J. K.; Joyce, C.; Jordan, A.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    We use multipoint spacecraft observations to study interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) evolution and subsequent galactic cosmic ray (GCR) modulation during propagation in the inner heliosphere. We illustrate ICME propagation effects through two different case studies. The first ICME was launched from the Sun on 29 December 2011 and was observed in near-perfect longitudinal conjunction at MESSENGER and STEREO A. Despite the close longitudinal alignment, we infer from force-free field modeling that the orientation of the underlying flux rope rotated ˜80o in latitude and ˜65o in longitude. Based on both spacecraft measurements as well as ENLIL model simulations of the steady state solar wind, we find that interactions involving magnetic reconnection with corotating structures in the solar wind dramatically alter the ICME magnetic field. In particular, we observed at STEREO A a highly turbulent region with distinct properties within the flux rope that was not observed at MESSENGER; we attribute this region to interaction between the ICME and a heliospheric plasma sheet/current sheet. This is a concrete example of a sequence of events that can increase the complexity of ICMEs during propagation and should serve as a caution on using very distant observations to predict the geoeffectiveness of large interplanetary transients. Our second case study investigates changes with heliospheric distance in GCR modulation by an ICME event (launched on 12 February 2014) observed in near-conjunction at all four of the inner solar system planets. The ICME caused Forbush decreases (FDs) in the GCR count rates at Mercury (MESSENGER), Earth/Moon (ACE/LRO), and Mars (MSL). At all three locations, the pre-ICME background GCR rate was well-matched, but the depth of the FD of GCR fluxes with similar energy ranges diminished with distance from the Sun. A larger difference in FD size was observed between Mercury and Earth than between Earth and Mars, partly owing to the much larger

  8. US-75 ICM system design document : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This System Design document for the US-75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Program has been : developed as part of the US Department of Transportation Integrated Corridor Management Initiative. The : basic premise behind the ICM initiative is tha...

  9. REDEFINING THE BOUNDARIES OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM OBSERVATIONS AT THE ECLIPTIC PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, C.; Palacios, J.; Saiz, E.; Guerrero, A.

    2016-01-01

    On 2015 January 6–7, an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) was observed at L1. This event, which can be associated with a weak and slow coronal mass ejection, allows us to discuss the differences between the boundaries of the magnetic cloud and the compositional boundaries. A fast stream from a solar coronal hole surrounding this ICME offers a unique opportunity to check the boundaries’ process definition and to explain differences between them. Using Wind and ACE data, we perform a complementary analysis involving compositional, magnetic, and kinematic observations providing relevant information regarding the evolution of the ICME as travelling away from the Sun. We propose erosion, at least at the front boundary of the ICME, as the main reason for the difference between the boundaries, and compositional signatures as the most precise diagnostic tool for the boundaries of ICMEs.

  10. REDEFINING THE BOUNDARIES OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM OBSERVATIONS AT THE ECLIPTIC PLANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, C.; Palacios, J.; Saiz, E.; Guerrero, A. [Space Research Group—Space Weather, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares (Spain)

    2016-09-01

    On 2015 January 6–7, an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) was observed at L1. This event, which can be associated with a weak and slow coronal mass ejection, allows us to discuss the differences between the boundaries of the magnetic cloud and the compositional boundaries. A fast stream from a solar coronal hole surrounding this ICME offers a unique opportunity to check the boundaries’ process definition and to explain differences between them. Using Wind and ACE data, we perform a complementary analysis involving compositional, magnetic, and kinematic observations providing relevant information regarding the evolution of the ICME as travelling away from the Sun. We propose erosion, at least at the front boundary of the ICME, as the main reason for the difference between the boundaries, and compositional signatures as the most precise diagnostic tool for the boundaries of ICMEs.

  11. IcmR-regulated membrane insertion and efflux by the Legionella pneumophila IcmQ protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménil, Guillaume; Montminy, Timothy P; Tang, May; Isberg, Ralph R

    2004-02-06

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates within alveolar macrophages as a central property of Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular growth involves formation of a replicative phagosome, which requires the bacterial Dot/Icm system, a multiprotein secretion apparatus that translocates proteins from the bacterium across the macrophage plasma membrane. Two components of this system, IcmR and IcmQ, are proposed to exhibit a chaperone/substrate relationship similar to that observed in other protein translocation systems. We report here that IcmQ inserts into lipid membranes and forms pores that allow the efflux of the dye calcein but not Dextran 3000. Both membrane insertion and pore formation were inhibited by IcmR. Trypsin digestion mapping demonstrated that IcmQ is subdivided into two functional domains. The N-terminal region of IcmQ was necessary and sufficient for insertion into lipid membranes and calcein efflux. The C-terminal domain was necessary for efficient association of the protein with lipid bilayers. IcmR was found to bind to the N-terminal portion of the protein thus providing a mechanism for its ability to inhibit IcmQ pore-forming activity. Localization of IcmQ on the surface of the L. pneumophila shortly after infection as well as its pore-forming capacities suggest a role for IcmQ in forming a channel that leads translocated effectors out of the bacterium.

  12. Superposed epoch study of ICME sub-structures near Earth and their effects on Galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masías-Meza, J. J.; Dasso, S.; Démoulin, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Janvier, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the interplanetary manifestations of solar eruptions. The overtaken solar wind forms a sheath of compressed plasma at the front of ICMEs. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of ICMEs with specific properties (e.g. the presence of a flux rope). When ICMEs pass near Earth, ground observations indicate that the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) decreases. Aims: The main aims of this paper are to find common plasma and magnetic properties of different ICME sub-structures and which ICME properties affect the flux of GCRs near Earth. Methods: We used a superposed epoch method applied to a large set of ICMEs observed in situ by the spacecraft ACE, between 1998 and 2006. We also applied a superposed epoch analysis on GCRs time series observed with the McMurdo neutron monitors. Results: We find that slow MCs at 1 AU have on average more massive sheaths. We conclude that this is because they are more effectively slowed down by drag during their travel from the Sun. Slow MCs also have a more symmetric magnetic field and sheaths expanding similarly as their following MC, while in contrast, fast MCs have an asymmetric magnetic profile and a sheath in compression. In all types of MCs, we find that the proton density and the temperature and the magnetic fluctuations can diffuse within the front of the MC due to 3D reconnection. Finally, we derive a quantitative model that describes the decrease in cosmic rays as a function of the amount of magnetic fluctuations and field strength. Conclusions: The obtained typical profiles of sheath, MC and GCR properties corresponding to slow, middle, and fast ICMEs, can be used for forecasting or modelling these events, and to better understand the transport of energetic particles in ICMEs. They are also useful for improving future operative space weather activities.

  13. On the relationship between interplanetary coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. J. Kilpua

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of magnetic clouds (MCs to interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs is still an open issue in space research. The view that all ICMEs would originate as magnetic flux ropes has received increasing attention, although near the orbit of the Earth only about one-third of ICMEs show clear MC signatures and often the MC occupies only a portion of the more extended region showing ICME signatures. In this work we analyze 79 events between 1996 and 2009 reported in existing ICME/MC catalogs (Wind magnetic cloud list and the Richardson and Cane ICME list using near-Earth observations by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer and Wind. We perform a systematic comparison of cases where ICME and MC signatures coincided and where ICME signatures extended significantly beyond the MC boundaries. We find clear differences in the characteristics of these two event types. In particular, the events where ICME signatures continued more than 6 h past the MC rear boundary had 2.7 times larger speed difference between the ICME's leading edge and the preceding solar wind, 1.4 times higher magnetic fields, 2.1 times larger widths and they experienced three times more often strong expansion than the events for which the rear boundaries coincided. The events with significant mismatch in MC and ICME boundary times were also embedded in a faster solar wind and the majority of them were observed close to the solar maximum. Our analysis shows that the sheath, the MC and the regions of ICME-related plasma in front and behind the MC have different magnetic field, plasma and charge state characteristics, thus suggesting that these regions separate already close to the Sun. Our study shows that the geometrical effect (the encounter through the CME leg and/or far from the flux rope center does not contribute much to the observed mismatch in the MC and ICME boundary times.

  14. Study of the Cosmic-Ray Modulation During the Passage of ICMEs and CIRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruddin; Kumar, Anand

    2016-02-01

    We compare the cosmic-ray response to interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) during their passage in near-Earth space. We study the relative importance of various structures/features identified during the passage of the ICMEs and CIRs observed during Cycle 23 (1995 - 2009). The identified ICME structures are the shock front, the sheath, and the CME ejecta. We isolate the shock arrival time, the passage of the sheath region, the arrival of ejecta, and the end time of their passage. Similarly, we isolate the CIR arrival, the associated forward shock, the stream interface, and the reverse shock during the passage of a CIR. For the cosmic-ray intensity, we utilize the data from high counting rate neutron monitors. In addition to neutron monitor data, we utilize near-simultaneous and same time-resolution data of interplanetary plasma and field, namely the solar-wind velocity, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) vector, and its variance. Further, we also utilize some derived interplanetary parameters. We apply the method of the superposed-epoch analysis. As the plasma and field properties are different during the passage of different structures, both in ICMEs and CIRs, we systematically vary the epoch time in our superposed-epoch analysis one by one. In this way, we study the role and effects of each of the identified individual structures/features during the passage of the ICMEs and CIRs. Relating the properties of various structures and the corresponding variations in plasma and field parameters with changes of the cosmic-ray intensity, we identify the relative importance of the plasma/field parameters in influencing the amplitude and time profiles of the cosmic-ray intensity variations during the passage of the ICMEs and CIRs.

  15. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahasi@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607–8471 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  16. Integrated corridor management (ICM) knowledge and technology transfer (KTT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The ICM approach involves aggressive, : proactive integration of infrastructure : along major corridors so that : transportation professionals can fully : leverage all existing modal choices : and assets. ICM helps transportation : leaders improve tr...

  17. Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative : ICM Surveillance and Detection Requirements for Arterial and Transit Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The primary objective of the ICM Initiative is to demonstrate how Intelligent Transportation : System (ITS) technologies can efficiently and proactively facilitate the movement of people and : goods through major transportation corridors that compris...

  18. Integrated corridor management (ICM) initiative : ICM surveillance and detection needs analysis for the transit data gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The primary objective of the ICM Initiative is to demonstrate how Intelligent Transportation : System (ITS) technologies can efficiently and proactively facilitate the movement of people and : goods through major transportation corridors that compris...

  19. Using Forbush Decreases to Derive the Transit Time of ICMEs Propagating from 1 AU to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiherr von Forstner, Johan L.; Guo, Jingnan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Hassler, Donald M.; Temmer, Manuela; Dumbović, Mateja; Jian, Lan K.; Appel, Jan K.; Čalogović, Jaša.; Ehresmann, Bent; Heber, Bernd; Lohf, Henning; Posner, Arik; Steigies, Christian T.; Vršnak, Bojan; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2018-01-01

    The propagation of 15 interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) from Earth's orbit (1 AU) to Mars (˜1.5 AU) has been studied with their propagation speed estimated from both measurements and simulations. The enhancement of magnetic fields related to ICMEs and their shock fronts causes the so-called Forbush decrease, which can be detected as a reduction of galactic cosmic rays measured on ground. We have used galactic cosmic ray (GCR) data from in situ measurements at Earth, from both STEREO A and STEREO B as well as GCR measurements by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory on the surface of Mars. A set of ICME events has been selected during the periods when Earth (or STEREO A or STEREO B) and Mars locations were nearly aligned on the same side of the Sun in the ecliptic plane (so-called opposition phase). Such lineups allow us to estimate the ICMEs' transit times between 1 and 1.5 AU by estimating the delay time of the corresponding Forbush decreases measured at each location. We investigate the evolution of their propagation speeds before and after passing Earth's orbit and find that the deceleration of ICMEs due to their interaction with the ambient solar wind may continue beyond 1 AU. We also find a substantial variance of the speed evolution among different events revealing the dynamic and diverse nature of eruptive solar events. Furthermore, the results are compared to simulation data obtained from two CME propagation models, namely the Drag-Based Model and ENLIL plus cone model.

  20. A synthetic aperture radio telescope for ICME observations as a potential payload of SPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, W.; Liu, H.; Xiong, M.; Liu, Y. D.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a potential payload for the Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT), a space weather mission proposed by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is a synthetic aperture radio imager designed to detect radio emissions from interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which is expected to be an important instrument to monitor the propagation and evolution of ICMEs. The radio telescope applies a synthetic aperture interferometric technique to measure the brightness temperature of ICMEs. Theoretical calculations of the brightness temperature utilizing statistical properties of ICMEs and the background solar wind indicate that ICMEs within 0.35 AU from the Sun are detectable by a radio telescope at a frequency <= 150 MHz with a sensitivity of <=1 K. The telescope employs a time shared double rotation scan (also called a clock scan), where two coplanar antennas revolve around a fixed axis at different radius and speed, to fulfill sampling of the brightness temperature. An array of 4+4 elements with opposite scanning directions are developed for the radio telescope to achieve the required sensitivity (<=1K) within the imaging refreshing time (~30 minutes). This scan scheme is appropriate for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft platform while keeping a good sampling pattern. We also discuss how we select the operating frequency, which involves a trade-off between the engineering feasibility and the scientific goal. Our preliminary results indicate that the central frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, which requires arm lengths of the two groups of 14m and 16m, respectively, gives an angular resolution of 2°, a field of view of ×25° around the Sun, and a time resolution of 30 minutes.

  1. Structure and Function of Interacting IcmR-IcmQ Domains from a Type IVb Secretion System in Legionella pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raychaudhury, S.; Farelli, J; Montminy, T; Matthews, M; Menetret, J; Dumenil, G; Roy, C; Head, J; Isberg, R; Akey, C

    2009-01-01

    During infection, Legionella pneumophila creates a replication vacuole within eukaryotic cells and this requires a Type IVb secretion system (T4bSS). IcmQ plays a critical role in the translocase and associates with IcmR. In this paper, we show that the N-terminal domain of IcmQ (Qn) mediates self-dimerization, whereas the C-terminal domain with a basic linker promotes membrane association. In addition, the binding of IcmR to IcmQ prevents self-dimerization and also blocks membrane permeabilization. However, IcmR does not completely block membrane binding by IcmQ. We then determined crystal structures of Qn with the interacting region of IcmR. In this complex, each protein forms an ?-helical hairpin within a parallel four-helix bundle. The amphipathic nature of helices in Qn suggests two possible models for membrane permeabilization by IcmQ. The Rm-Qn structure also suggests how IcmR-like proteins in other L. pneumophila species may interact with their IcmQ partners.

  2. Structure and function of interacting IcmR-IcmQ domains from a type IVb secretion system in Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhury, Suchismita; Farelli, Jeremiah D; Montminy, Timothy P; Matthews, Miguelina; Ménétret, Jean-François; Duménil, Guillaume; Roy, Craig R; Head, James F; Isberg, Ralph R; Akey, Christopher W

    2009-04-15

    During infection, Legionella pneumophila creates a replication vacuole within eukaryotic cells and this requires a Type IVb secretion system (T4bSS). IcmQ plays a critical role in the translocase and associates with IcmR. In this paper, we show that the N-terminal domain of IcmQ (Qn) mediates self-dimerization, whereas the C-terminal domain with a basic linker promotes membrane association. In addition, the binding of IcmR to IcmQ prevents self-dimerization and also blocks membrane permeabilization. However, IcmR does not completely block membrane binding by IcmQ. We then determined crystal structures of Qn with the interacting region of IcmR. In this complex, each protein forms an alpha-helical hairpin within a parallel four-helix bundle. The amphipathic nature of helices in Qn suggests two possible models for membrane permeabilization by IcmQ. The Rm-Qn structure also suggests how IcmR-like proteins in other L. pneumophila species may interact with their IcmQ partners.

  3. Empirical Modeling of ICMEs Using ACE/SWICS Ionic Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Y.; Landi, E.; Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are some of the largest, most energetic events in the solar system releasing an immense amount of plasma and magnetic field into the Heliosphere. The Earth-bound plasma plays a large role in space weather, causing geomagnetic storms that can damage space and ground based instrumentation. As a CME is released, the plasma experiences heating, expansion and acceleration; however, the physical mechanism supplying the heating as it lifts out of the corona still remains uncertain. From previous work we know the ionic composition of solar ejecta undergoes a gradual transition to a state where ionization and recombination processes become ineffective rendering the ionic composition static along its trajectory. This property makes them a good indicator of thermal conditions in the corona, where the CME plasma likely receives most of its heating. We model this so-called `freeze-in' process in Earth-directed CMEs using an ionization code to empirically determine the electron temperature, density and bulk velocity. `Frozen-in' ions from an ensemble of independently modeled plasmas within the CME are added together to fit the full range of observational ionic abundances collected by ACE/SWICS during ICME events. The models derived using this method are used to estimate the CME energy budget to determine a heating rate used to compare with a variety of heating mechanisms that can sustain the required heating with a compatible timescale.

  4. Elliptic-cylindrical analytical flux-rope model for ICMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M.; Hidalgo, M. A. U.; Vourlidas, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analytical flux-rope model for realistic magnetic structures embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections. The framework of this model was established by Nieves-Chinchilla et al. (2016) with the circular-cylindrical analytical flux rope model and under the concept developed by Hidalgo et al. (2002). Elliptic-cylindrical geometry establishes the first-grade of complexity of a series of models. The model attempts to describe the magnetic flux rope topology with distorted cross-section as a possible consequence of the interaction with the solar wind. In this model, the flux rope is completely described in the non-euclidean geometry. The Maxwell equations are solved using tensor calculus consistently with the geometry chosen, invariance along the axial component, and with the only assumption of no radial current density. The model is generalized in terms of the radial dependence of the poloidal current density component and axial current density component. The misalignment between current density and magnetic field is studied in detail for the individual cases of different pairs of indexes for the axial and poloidal current density components. This theoretical analysis provides a map of the force distribution inside of the flux-rope. The reconstruction technique has been adapted to the model and compared with in situ ICME set of events with different in situ signatures. The successful result is limited to some cases with clear in-situ signatures of distortion. However, the model adds a piece in the puzzle of the physical-analytical representation of these magnetic structures. Other effects such as axial curvature, expansion and/or interaction could be incorporated in the future to fully understand the magnetic structure. Finally, the mathematical formulation of this model opens the door to the next model: toroidal flux rope analytical model.

  5. COMPOSITION STRUCTURE OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM MULTISPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS, MODELING, AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinard, Alysha A. [University of Colorado/Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80505 (United States); Lynch, Benjamin J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mulligan, Tamitha, E-mail: alysha.reinard@noaa.gov, E-mail: blynch@ssl.berkeley.edu, E-mail: tamitha.mulligan@aero.org [Space Sciences Department, Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We present an analysis of the ionic composition of iron for two interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed on 2007 May 21-23 by the ACE and STEREO spacecraft in the context of the magnetic structure of the ejecta flux rope, sheath region, and surrounding solar wind flow. This analysis is made possible due to recent advances in multispacecraft data interpolation, reconstruction, and visualization as well as results from recent modeling of ionic charge states in MHD simulations of magnetic breakout and flux cancellation coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. We use these advances to interpret specific features of the ICME plasma composition resulting from the magnetic topology and evolution of the CME. We find that, in both the data and our MHD simulations, the flux ropes centers are relatively cool, while charge state enhancements surround and trail the flux ropes. The magnetic orientations of the ICMEs are suggestive of magnetic breakout-like reconnection during the eruption process, which could explain the spatial location of the observed iron enhancements just outside the traditional flux rope magnetic signatures and between the two ICMEs. Detailed comparisons between the simulations and data were more complicated, but a sharp increase in high iron charge states in the ACE and STEREO-A data during the second flux rope corresponds well to similar features in the flux cancellation results. We discuss the prospects of this integrated in situ data analysis and modeling approach to advancing our understanding of the unified CME-to-ICME evolution.

  6. Ejection Tower Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ejection Tower Facility's mission is to test and evaluate new ejection seat technology being researched and developed for future defense forces. The captive and...

  7. Successive X-class Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections Driven by Shearing Motion and Sunspot Rotation in Active Region NOAA 12673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. L.; Wang, J. C.; Pan, G. M.; Kong, D. F.; Xue, Z. K.; Yang, L. H.; Li, Q. L.; Feng, X. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present a clear case study on the occurrence of two successive X-class flares, including a decade-class flare (X9.3) and two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) triggered by shearing motion and sunspot rotation in active region NOAA 12673 on 2017 September 6. A shearing motion between the main sunspots with opposite polarities began on September 5 and lasted even after the second X-class flare on September 6. Moreover, the main sunspot with negative polarity rotated around its umbral center, and another main sunspot with positive polarity also exhibited a slow rotation. The sunspot with negative polarity at the northwest of the active region also began to rotate counterclockwise before the onset of the first X-class flare, which is related to the formation of the second S-shaped structure. The successive formation and eruption of two S-shaped structures were closely related to the counterclockwise rotation of the three sunspots. The existence of a flux rope is found prior to the onset of two flares by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on the vector magnetograms observed by Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Image. The first flux rope corresponds to the first S-shaped structures mentioned above. The second S-shaped structure was formed after the eruption of the first flux rope. These results suggest that a shearing motion and sunspot rotation play an important role in the buildup of the free energy and the formation of flux ropes in the corona that produces solar flares and CMEs.

  8. On the Rates of Coronal Mass Ejections: Remote Solar and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Schatzman, C.; Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2006-08-01

    We compare the rates of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as inferred from remote solar observations and interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) as inferred from in situ observations at both 1 AU and Ulysses from 1996 through 2004. We also distinguish between those ICMEs that contain a magnetic cloud (MC) and those that do not. While the rates of CMEs and ICMEs track each other well at solar minimum, they diverge significantly in early 1998, during the ascending phase of the solar cycle, with the remote solar observations yielding approximately 20 times more events than are seen at 1 AU. This divergence persists through 2004. A similar divergence occurs between MCs and non-MC ICMEs. We argue that these divergences are due to the birth of midlatitude active regions, which are the sites of a distinct population of CMEs, only partially intercepted by Earth, and we present a simple geometric argument showing that the CME and ICME rates are consistent with one another. We also acknowledge contributions from (1) an increased rate of high-latitude CMEs and (2) focusing effects from the global solar field. While our analysis, coupled with numerical modeling results, generally supports the interpretation that whether one observes a MC within an ICME is sensitive to the trajectory of the spacecraft through the ICME (i.e., an observational selection effect), one result directly contradicts it. Specifically, we find no systematic offset between the latitudinal origin of ICMEs that contain MCs at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane and that of those that do not.

  9. M–I coupling across the auroral oval at dusk and midnight: repetitive substorm activity driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study substorms from two perspectives, i.e., magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling across the auroral oval at dusk and at midnight magnetic local times. By this approach we monitor the activations/expansions of basic elements of the substorm current system (Bostrøm type I centered at midnight and Bostrøm type II maximizing at dawn and dusk during the evolution of the substorm activity. Emphasis is placed on the R1 and R2 types of field-aligned current (FAC coupling across the Harang reversal at dusk. We distinguish between two distinct activity levels in the substorm expansion phase, i.e., an initial transient phase and a persistent phase. These activities/phases are discussed in relation to polar cap convection which is continuously monitored by the polar cap north (PCN index. The substorm activity we selected occurred during a long interval of continuously strong solar wind forcing at the interplanetary coronal mass ejection passage on 18 August 2003. The advantage of our scientific approach lies in the combination of (i continuous ground observations of the ionospheric signatures within wide latitude ranges across the auroral oval at dusk and midnight by meridian chain magnetometer data, (ii "snapshot" satellite (DMSP F13 observations of FAC/precipitation/ion drift profiles, and (iii observations of current disruption/near-Earth magnetic field dipolarizations at geostationary altitude. Under the prevailing fortunate circumstances we are able to discriminate between the roles of the dayside and nightside sources of polar cap convection. For the nightside source we distinguish between the roles of inductive and potential electric fields in the two substages of the substorm expansion phase. According to our estimates the observed dipolarization rate (δ Bz/δt and the inferred large spatial scales (in radial and azimuthal dimensions of the dipolarization process in these strong substorm expansions may lead to 50–100 kV enhancements of the

  10. PREFACE: International Conference on Magnetism (ICM 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Gernot; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.; Loidl, Alois; Pruschke, Thomas; Richter, Manuel; Schultz, Ludwig; Sürgers, Christoph; Wosnitza, Jochen

    2010-11-01

    The International Conference on Magnetism 2009 (ICM 2009) was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, from 26-31 July 2009. Previous conferences in this series were organized in Edingburgh, United Kingdom (1991), Warsaw, Poland (1994), Cairns, Australia (1997), Recife, Brazil (2000), Rome, Italy (2003) and Kyoto, Japan (2006). As with previous ICM conferences, the annual Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES) was integrated into ICM 2009. Conference photograph Participants of ICM 2009 in front of the Stadthalle Karlsruhe. Topics of ICM 2009 were: Strongly Correlated Electron Systems; Quantum and Classical Spin Systems; Magnetic Structures and Interactions; Magnetization Dynamics and Micromagnetics; Spin-Dependent Transport; Spin Electronics; Magnetic Thin Films, Particles, and Nanostructures; Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials and their Applications; Novel Materials and Device Applications; Magnetic Recording and Memories; Measuring Techniques and Instrumentation, as well as Interdisciplinary Topics. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for their help in putting up an attractive program encompassing practically all aspects of magnetism, both experimentally and theoretically. The program committee comprised A Loidl, Germany (Chair), M A Continentino, Brazil, D E Dahlberg, USA, D Givord, France, G Güntherodt, Germany, H Mikeska, Germany, D Kaczorowski, Poland, Ching-Ray Chang, South Korea, I Mertig, Germany, D Vollhardt, Germany and E F Wassermann, Germany was also head of the National Organizing Committee. His help is gratefully acknowledged. Photographs Left: Poster session in the Stadthalle Karlsruhe. Upper right: H v Löhneysen (Conference Chairman), Nobel Laureates A Fert and P. Grünberg, E Umbach (Chairman of the Executive Board of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe) (left to right). Lower right: Nobel Laureate P W Anderson. The scientific program started on Monday 27 July 2009 with opening addresses by the Conference Chairman, the deputy

  11. Test report : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is leading the US 75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) : Demonstration Project for the Dallas region. Coordinated corridor operations and management is : predicated on being able to share transportation informa...

  12. Concept of operations : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This concept of operations (Con Ops) for the US-75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Program has been developed as part of the US : Department of Transportation Integrated Corridor Management Initiative, which is an innovative research initiative ...

  13. Training plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is leading the US 75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Demonstration Project for the Dallas region. Coordinated corridor operations and management is predicated on being able to share transportation information...

  14. METALS IN THE ICM: WITNESSES OF CLUSTER FORMATION AND EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Lovisari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The baryonic composition of galaxy clusters and groups is dominated by a hot, X-ray emitting Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM. The mean metallicity of the ICM has been found to be roughly 0.3 ÷ 0.5 times the solar value, therefore a large fraction of this gas cannot be of purely primordial origin. Indeed, the distribution and amount of metals in the ICM is a direct consequence of the past history of star formation in the cluster galaxies and of the processes responsible for the injection of enriched material into the ICM. We here shortly summarize the current views on the chemical enrichment, focusing on the observational evidence in terms of metallicity measurements in clusters, spatial metallicity distribution and evolution, and expectations from future missions.

  15. The Presence of Turbulent and Ordered Local Structure within the ICME Shock-sheath and Its Contribution to Forbush Decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Zubair; Bhaskar, Ankush [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG), New Panvel, Navi Mumbai-410218 (India); Raghav, Anil, E-mail: raghavanil1984@gmail.com [University Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400098 (India)

    2017-08-01

    The transient interplanetary disturbances evoke short-time cosmic-ray flux decrease, which is known as Forbush decrease. The traditional model and understanding of Forbush decrease suggest that the sub-structure of an interplanetary counterpart of coronal mass ejection (ICME) independently contributes to cosmic-ray flux decrease. These sub-structures, shock-sheath, and magnetic cloud (MC) manifest as classical two-step Forbush decrease. The recent work by Raghav et al. has shown multi-step decreases and recoveries within the shock-sheath. However, this cannot be explained by the ideal shock-sheath barrier model. Furthermore, they suggested that local structures within the ICME’s sub-structure (MC and shock-sheath) could explain this deviation of the FD profile from the classical FD. Therefore, the present study attempts to investigate the cause of multi-step cosmic-ray flux decrease and respective recovery within the shock-sheath in detail. A 3D-hodogram method is utilized to obtain more details regarding the local structures within the shock-sheath. This method unambiguously suggests the formation of small-scale local structures within the ICME (shock-sheath and even in MC). Moreover, the method could differentiate the turbulent and ordered interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) regions within the sub-structures of ICME. The study explicitly suggests that the turbulent and ordered IMF regions within the shock-sheath do influence cosmic-ray variations differently.

  16. Integrated corridor management (ICM) initiative : ICM surveillance and detection requirements needs analysis for the arterial data gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The primary objective of the ICM Initiative is to demonstrate how Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies can efficiently and proactively facilitate the movement of people and goods through major transportation corridors that comprise a ...

  17. Understanding the Internal Magnetic Field Configurations of ICMEs Using More than 20 Years of Wind Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Raymond, J. C.; Linton, M. G.; Al-haddad, N.; Savani, N. P.; Szabo, A.; Hidalgo, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic topology, structure, and geometry of the magnetic obstacles embedded within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are not yet fully and consistently described by in situ models and reconstruction techniques. The main goal of this work is to better understand the status of the internal magnetic field of ICMEs and to explore in situ signatures to identify clues to develop a more accurate and reliable in situ analytical models. We take advantage of more than 20 years of Wind observations of transients at 1 AU to compile a comprehensive database of ICMEs through three solar cycles, from 1995 to 2015. The catalog is publicly available at wind.gsfc.nasa.gov and is fully described in this article. We identify and collect the properties of 337 ICMEs, of which 298 show organized magnetic field signatures. To allow for departures from idealized magnetic configurations, we introduce the term "magnetic obstacle" (MO) to signify the possibility of more complex configurations. To quantify the asymmetry of the magnetic field strength profile within these events, we introduce the distortion parameter (DiP) and calculate the expansion velocity within the magnetic obstacle. Circular-cylindrical geometry is assumed when the magnetic field strength displays a symmetric profile. We perform a statistical study of these two parameters and find that only 35% of the events show symmetric magnetic profiles and a low enough expansion velocity to be compatible with the assumption of an idealized cylindrical static flux rope, and that 41% of the events do not show the expected relationship between expansion and magnetic field compression in the front, with the maximum magnetic field closer to the first encounter of the spacecraft with the magnetic obstacle; 18% show contractions ( i.e. apparent negative expansion velocity), and 30% show magnetic field compression in the back. We derive an empirical relation between DiP and expansion velocity that is the first step toward

  18. Magnetic topology of coronal mass ejection events out of the ecliptic: Ulysses/HI-SCALE energetic particle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Malandraki

    Full Text Available Solar energetic particle fluxes (Ee > 38 keV observed by the ULYSSES/HI-SCALE experiment are utilized as diagnostic tracers of the large-scale structure and topology of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF embedded within two well-identified Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs detected at 56° and 62° south heliolatitudes by ULYSSES during the solar maximum southern high-latitude pass. On the basis of the energetic solar particle observations it is concluded that: (A the high-latitude ICME magnetic structure observed in May 2000 causes a depression in the solar energetic electron intensities which can be accounted for by either a detached or an attached magnetic field topology for the ICME; (B during the traversal of the out-of-ecliptic ICME event observed in July 2000 energetic electrons injected at the Sun are channeled by the ICME and propagate freely along the ICME magnetic field lines to 62° S heliolatitude.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; interplanetary magnetic fields

  19. Magnetic topology of coronal mass ejection events out of the ecliptic: Ulysses/HI-SCALE energetic particle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Malandraki

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energetic particle fluxes (Ee > 38 keV observed by the ULYSSES/HI-SCALE experiment are utilized as diagnostic tracers of the large-scale structure and topology of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF embedded within two well-identified Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs detected at 56° and 62° south heliolatitudes by ULYSSES during the solar maximum southern high-latitude pass. On the basis of the energetic solar particle observations it is concluded that: (A the high-latitude ICME magnetic structure observed in May 2000 causes a depression in the solar energetic electron intensities which can be accounted for by either a detached or an attached magnetic field topology for the ICME; (B during the traversal of the out-of-ecliptic ICME event observed in July 2000 energetic electrons injected at the Sun are channeled by the ICME and propagate freely along the ICME magnetic field lines to 62° S heliolatitude.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; interplanetary magnetic fields

  20. Indoor Ground Ejection Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This climate controlled facility is used to evaluate air stores and equipment to determine ejection velocities, store pitch rates, and arming wire and device system...

  1. Investigations of the sensitivity of a coronal mass ejection model (ENLIL) to solar input parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vršnak, B.; Taktakishvili, A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding space weather is not only important for satellite operations and human exploration of the solar system but also to phenomena here on Earth that may potentially disturb and disrupt electrical signals. Some of the most violent space weather effects are caused by coronal mass ejections...... investigate the parameter space of the ENLILv2.5b model using the CME event of 25 July 2004. ENLIL is a time‐dependent 3‐D MHD model that can simulate the propagation of cone‐shaped interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) through the solar system. Excepting the cone parameters (radius, position...

  2. Project management plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Dallas Integrated Corridor Management System Demonstration Project is a multi-agency, de-centralized operation which will utilize a set of : regional systems to integrate the operations of the corridor. The purpose of the Dallas ICM System is to ...

  3. Information Management Workflow and Tools Enabling Multiscale Modeling Within ICME Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Austin, Nic; Terentjev, Igor; Cebon, Dave; Marsden, Will

    2016-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on reducing the cost and time to market of new materials, the need for analytical tools that enable the virtual design and optimization of materials throughout their processing - internal structure - property - performance envelope, along with the capturing and storing of the associated material and model information across its lifecycle, has become critical. This need is also fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing; consistency, quality and traceability of data; product design; engineering analysis; as well as control of access to proprietary or sensitive information. Fortunately, material information management systems and physics-based multiscale modeling methods have kept pace with the growing user demands. Herein, recent efforts to establish workflow for and demonstrate a unique set of web application tools for linking NASA GRC's Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Granta MI database schema and NASA GRC's Integrated multiscale Micromechanics Analysis Code (ImMAC) software toolset are presented. The goal is to enable seamless coupling between both test data and simulation data, which is captured and tracked automatically within Granta MI®, with full model pedigree information. These tools, and this type of linkage, are foundational to realizing the full potential of ICME, in which materials processing, microstructure, properties, and performance are coupled to enable application-driven design and optimization of materials and structures.

  4. The natural gas ducts and the ICMS; Os dutos de gas natural e o ICMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Gomes, Carlos Roberto de Miranda [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36

    2005-07-01

    With the advent of the Constitutional Emendation no. 9/95 operated it the open of the industry of the oil and the natural gas for companies others that came to be contracted by the State. Ahead of the insertion of new players, the regulation of the sector was given for the Law (no. 9.478/97), as well for legal acts edited for the National Agency of the Oil - ANP. Meanwhile, the Oil norm little disciplined the industry of the natural gas that, for its peculiarities, imposes specific rules. In this context, the transport of the natural gas by means of ducts become prominent for the lack of debates on the correct form to classify them. The present work has for target to analyze the legal types instituted by the Law and for the ANP acts for the ducts, as form of if having a correct understanding of the matter. Thus, will reveal as each one of the adopted classifications can cause (or not) the incidence of the ICMS, or either, as the legal regimen of the gas-lines is correlated with the tax. (author)

  5. Multipoint observations of coronal mass ejection and solar energetic particle events on Mars and Earth during November 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data to study ICMEs and SEPs at Earth, we present a detailed study of three CMEs and flares in late November 2001. In this period, Mars trailed Earth by 56 degrees solar longitude so that the two planets occupied interplanetary magnetic field lines......Multipoint spacecraft observations provide unique opportunities to constrain the propagation and evolution of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) throughout the heliosphere. Using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data to study both ICME and solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Mars and OMNI...... separated by only similar to 25 degrees. We model the interplanetary propagation of CME events using the ENLIL version 2.6 3-D MHD code coupled with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge version 1.6 potential source surface model, using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph...

  6. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD BARRIER AND SOLAR WIND SPEED IN ICME-ASSOCIATED FORBUSH DECREASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta; Subramanian, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    We study 50 cosmic-ray Forbush decreases (FDs) from the Oulu neutron monitor data during 1997–2005 that were associated with Earth-directed interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Such events are generally thought to arise due to the shielding of cosmic rays by a propagating diffusive barrier. The main processes at work are the diffusion of cosmic rays across the large-scale magnetic fields carried by the ICME and their advection by the solar wind. In an attempt to better understand the relative importance of these effects, we analyze the relationship between the FD profiles and those of the interplanetary magnetic field (B) and the solar wind speed (V sw ). Over the entire duration of a given FD, we find that the FD profile is generally (anti)correlated with the B and V sw profiles. This trend holds separately for the FD main and recovery phases too. For the recovery phases, however, the FD profile is highly anti-correlated with the V sw profile, but not with the B profile. While the total duration of the FD profile is similar to that of the V sw profile, it is significantly longer than that of the B profile. Using the convection–diffusion model, a significant contribution of advection by solar wind is found during the recovery phases of the FD.

  7. High-Throughput Thermodynamic Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for ICME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Richard A.; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2017-05-01

    One foundational component of the integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) and Materials Genome Initiative is the computational thermodynamics based on the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The CALPHAD method pioneered by Kaufman has enabled the development of thermodynamic, atomic mobility, and molar volume databases of individual phases in the full space of temperature, composition, and sometimes pressure for technologically important multicomponent engineering materials, along with sophisticated computational tools for using the databases. In this article, our recent efforts will be presented in terms of developing new computational tools for high-throughput modeling and uncertainty quantification based on high-throughput, first-principles calculations and the CALPHAD method along with their potential propagations to downstream ICME modeling and simulations.

  8. Development of Gradient Cemented Carbides Through ICME Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Peng, Yingbiao; Zhang, Weibin; Chen, Weimin; Zhou, Peng; Xie, Wen; Cheng, Kaiming; Zhang, Lijun; Wen, Guanghua; Wang, Shequan

    An integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) including CALPHAD method is a powerful tool for materials process optimization and alloy design. The quality of CALPHAD-type calculations is strongly dependent on the quality of the thermodynamic and diffusivity databases. The development of a thermodynamic database, CSUTDCC1, and a diffusivity database, CSUDDCC1, for cemented carbides is described. Several gradient cemented carbides sintered under vacuum and various partial pressures of N2 have been studied via experiment and simulation. The microstructure and concentration profile of the gradient zones have been investigated via SEM and EPMA. Examples of ICME applications in design and manufacture for different kinds of cemented carbides are shown using the databases and comparing where possible against experimental data, thereby validating its accuracy.

  9. PS ejection septum magnet.

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For the acceleration of lead ions in the PS, the residual gas pressure had to be lowered. Many components, amongst these the septum magnets, had to be replaced by new ones with a lower outgassing rate. This is the new ejection, installed at the beginning of 1994, to direct protons and lead ions into the transfer line to the SPS as part of the LHC pre-acceleration chain.

  10. Proton ejection project for Saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronca, G.; Gendreau, G.

    1959-01-01

    The reasons for choosing the ejection system are given. The characteristics required for the ejected beam are followed by a description of the ejection process, in chronological order from the viewpoint of the protons: movement of the particles, taking into account the various elements which make up the system (internal magnet, external magnet, quadrupoles, ejection correction coils, thin and thick cables,...) and specification of these elements. Then follows an estimation of the delay in manufacture and the cost of the project. Finally, the characteristics of the magnets and quadrupoles are listed in an appendix. (author) [fr

  11. PERKEMBANGAN KOLONI PRIMER EMBRYONIC STEM CELL (ESC MENCIT PASCA VITRIFIKASI INNER CELL MASS (ICM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rinendyaputri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Application or the basic research of the stem cells is continously conducted to explore their potential, particularly the use of stem cells in health. Cryopreservation technology is needed to maintain availability of stem cell. This study was  aimed to observe the development of murine embryonic stem cell (ESC primary colonies post-vitrified inner cell mass (ICM. Inner cell mass (ICM was derived from blastocysts of murine embryos of female Swiss webster mice using pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Inner Cell Mass (ICM was isolated  from blastocysts by immunosurgery. Inner Cell Mass (ICM were divided into two groups: the control and vitrified ICM. Both groups were cultured and observed on the ICM attachment (attachment rate/AR, the primary formation of ESC colonies (primary colony/PC and  diameter of primary colony ESC which grouped into small, medium and large. The results showed that AR and medium diameter’s group of primary colony ESC were lower (p<0.05 in vitrified ICM than control ICM. However the percentage of PC and diameter of primary colonies ESC in small and large groups were not different compared with control (p>0.05. This study shows that vitrification for cryopreserving ICM can be used as an alternative source of ESC. Key words: blastocyst, inner cell mass, ICM, vitrification Abstrak  Submit : 30-01-2013  Review : 08-02-2013 Review : 11-03-2013 revisi : 26–03-2013 Aplikasi maupun penelitian dasar untuk menggali potensi sel punca khususnya pemanfaatan sel punca di bidang kesehatan terus dilakukan. Teknologi kriopreservasi dibutuhkan untuk menjaga ketersediaan sel punca. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati perkembangan koloni primer embryonic stem cell (ESC mencit pasca vitrifikasi inner cell mass (ICM. Inner Cell Mass (ICM diperoleh dari embrio blastosis mencit betina Swis webster menggunakan pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin (PMSG dan human chorionic gonadotropin (h

  12. EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ICM ADOPTION IN WEST JAVA RICE CENTER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikin Sadikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One policies generated by technological innovation that have been adopted by farmers in West Java is a method and resource Integrated Crop Management (ICM. In terms technical-agronomic, rice ICM application implementation at field level, to increase production 8.3 up to15.6 percent, higher than conventional technology applications by farmers. Question: in economic, is there increasing farmers' income implications? Extent to which socio-economic aspects can affect ICM rice technology adoption in different locations? Extent to which differences in effect, increased production and farmers' income participants and non-participants ICM? To learn and understand influence socio-economic factors on use ICM technology requires a particular research method. Survey method and logistic function analysis used in this study, to examine respondent and farmer participants and non-participants ICM at centre rice production in West Java, carried out research in Karawang district and Tasikmalaya. Analysis revealed that ICM technology applications in research site a positive effect on increasing rice production by eleven percent. Technicallyagronomic and socio-economic model ICM is still feasible. But on the other hand, respondent farmers in study sites, in general, have exceed recommendation in use factor inputs (fertilizers Urea, KCL, Pesticides, so that negative impact on rice production and farmers' income.

  13. Re-visiting ICM theory and practice: Lessons learned from the Baltic Sea Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Dinesen, Grete E.; Janssen, Holger

    2017-01-01

    SAF elements had been applied in practice within ICM processes. The results revealed the main ICM driver was ecology or economy. Several ICM elements as defined by the SAF are already standard within the Baltic Sea region. However, in many cases, the omission of stakeholder and institutional mapping...... as instructed by the SAF led to an unbalanced participation of stakeholders, or in some cases, lack of involvement of stakeholders at the start of the process. Most of the ICM processes failed to include an integrated, cross-sectorial, ecological-socio-economic assessment. This extends from the lack of system....../ or lack of manager experiences in conducting a stakeholder participatory process. Finally, due to its stringent structure the SAF was found to be a suitable quality assurance for sustainable ICM processes...

  14. Near-Earth Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During Solar Cycle 23 (1996 - 2009): Catalog and Summary of Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study (Cane and Richardson, J. Geophys. Res. l08(A4), SSH6-1, we investigated the occurrence of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the near-Earth solar wind during 1996 - 2002, corresponding to the increasing and maximum phases of solar cycle 23, and provided a "comprehensive" catalog of these events. In this paper, we present a revised and updated catalog of the approx. =300 near-Earth ICMEs in 1996-2009, encompassing the complete cycle 23, and summarize their basic properties and geomagnetic effects. In particular, solar wind .. composition and charge state observations are now considered when identifying the ICMEs. In general, these additional data confirm the earlier identifications based predominantly on other solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters. However, the boundaries of ICME-like plasma based on charge state/composition data may deviate significantly from those based on conventional plasma/magnetic field parameters. Furthermore, the much studied "magnetic clouds", with flux-rope-like magnetic field configurations, may form just a substructure of the total ICME interval.

  15. Predictions of the arrival time of Coronal Mass Ejections at 1AU: an analysis of the causes of errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Owens

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three existing models of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME transit between the Sun and the Earth are compared to coronagraph and in situ observations: all three models are found to perform with a similar level of accuracy (i.e. an average error between observed and predicted 1AU transit times of approximately 11h. To improve long-term space weather prediction, factors influencing CME transit are investigated. Both the removal of the plane of sky projection (as suffered by coronagraph derived speeds of Earth directed CMEs and the use of observed values of solar wind speed, fail to significantly improve transit time prediction. However, a correlation is found to exist between the late/early arrival of an ICME and the width of the preceding sheath region, suggesting that the error is a geometrical effect that can only be removed by a more accurate determination of a CME trajectory and expansion. The correlation between magnetic field intensity and speed of ejecta at 1AU is also investigated. It is found to be weak in the body of the ICME, but strong in the sheath, if the upstream solar wind conditions are taken into account.

    Key words. Solar physics, astronomy and astrophysics (flares and mass ejections – Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields; sources of the solar wind

  16. ICMS Workshop on Differential Geometry and Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Grinfeld, Michael; Knops, R

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the exciting interface between differential geometry and continuum mechanics, now recognised as being of increasing technological significance. Topics discussed include isometric embeddings in differential geometry and the relation with microstructure in nonlinear elasticity, the use of manifolds in the description of microstructure in continuum mechanics, experimental measurement of microstructure, defects, dislocations, surface energies, and nematic liquid crystals. Compensated compactness in partial differential equations is also treated. The volume is intended for specialists and non-specialists in pure and applied geometry, continuum mechanics, theoretical physics, materials and engineering sciences, and partial differential equations. It will also be of interest to postdoctoral scientists and advanced postgraduate research students. These proceedings include revised written versions of the majority of papers presented by leading experts at the ICMS Edinburgh Workshop on Differential G...

  17. Verification of the NWP models operated at ICM, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melonek, Malgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw (ICM) started its activity in the field of NWP in May 1997. Since this time the numerical weather forecasts covering Central Europe have been routinely published on our publicly available website. First NWP model used in ICM was hydrostatic Unified Model developed by the UK Meteorological Office. It was a mesoscale version with horizontal resolution of 17 km and 31 levels in vertical. At present two NWP non-hydrostatic models are running in quasi-operational regime. The main new UM model with 4 km horizontal resolution, 38 levels in vertical and forecats range of 48 hours is running four times a day. Second, the COAMPS model (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by the US Naval Research Laboratory, configured with the three nested grids (with coresponding resolutions of 39km, 13km and 4.3km, 30 vertical levels) are running twice a day (for 00 and 12 UTC). The second grid covers Central Europe and has forecast range of 84 hours. Results of the both NWP models, ie. COAMPS computed on 13km mesh resolution and UM, are verified against observations from the Polish synoptic stations. Verification uses surface observations and nearest grid point forcasts. Following meteorological elements are verified: air temperature at 2m, mean sea level pressure, wind speed and wind direction at 10 m and 12 hours accumulated precipitation. There are presented different statistical indices. For continous variables Mean Error(ME), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) in 6 hours intervals are computed. In case of precipitation the contingency tables for different thresholds are computed and some of the verification scores such as FBI, ETS, POD, FAR are graphically presented. The verification sample covers nearly one year.

  18. Digital Recovery Sequencer - Advanced Concept Ejection Seats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, David A; Cotter, Lee; Culhane, David; Press, Matthew J

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES) currently uses the Analog Sequencer, designed in the 1960's and 1970's with analog technology, to control ejection event timing and ejection mode selection...

  19. Substorm activity during the main phase of magnetic storms induced by the CIR and ICME events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroyev, R. N.; Vasiliev, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the relation of high-latitude indices of geomagnetic activity (AE, Kp) with the rate of storm development and a solar wind electric field during the main phase of magnetic storm induced by the CIR and ICME events is investigated. 72 magnetic storms induced by CIR and ICME events have been selected. It is shown that for the CIR and ICME events the increase of average value of the Kp index (Kpaver) is observed with the growth of rate of storm development. The value of Kpaver index correlates with the magnitude of minimum value of Dst index (|Dstmin|) only for the ICME events. The analysis of average values of AE and Kp indices during the main phase of magnetic storm depending on the SW electric field has shown that for the CIR events, unlike the ICME events, the value of AEaver increases with the growth of average value of the electric field (Eswaver). The value of Kpaver correlates with the Eswaver only for the ICME events. The relation between geomagnetic indices and the maximum value of SW electric field (Eswmax) is weak. However, for the ICME events Kpaver correlates with Eswmax.

  20. Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Webb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar eruptive phenomena embrace a variety of eruptions, including flares, solar energetic particles, and radio bursts. Since the vast majority of these are associated with the eruption, development, and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, we focus on CME observations in this review. CMEs are a key aspect of coronal and interplanetary dynamics. They inject large quantities of mass and magnetic flux into the heliosphere, causing major transient disturbances. CMEs can drive interplanetary shocks, a key source of solar energetic particles and are known to be the major contributor to severe space weather at the Earth. Studies over the past decade using the data sets from (among others the SOHO, TRACE, Wind, ACE, STEREO, and SDO spacecraft, along with ground-based instruments, have improved our knowledge of the origins and development of CMEs at the Sun and how they contribute to space weather at Earth. SOHO, launched in 1995, has provided us with almost continuous coverage of the solar corona over more than a complete solar cycle, and the heliospheric imagers SMEI (2003 – 2011 and the HIs (operating since early 2007 have provided us with the capability to image and track CMEs continually across the inner heliosphere. We review some key coronal properties of CMEs, their source regions and their propagation through the solar wind. The LASCO coronagraphs routinely observe CMEs launched along the Sun-Earth line as halo-like brightenings. STEREO also permits observing Earth-directed CMEs from three different viewpoints of increasing azimuthal separation, thereby enabling the estimation of their three-dimensional properties. These are important not only for space weather prediction purposes, but also for understanding the development and internal structure of CMEs since we view their source regions on the solar disk and can measure their in-situ characteristics along their axes. Included in our discussion of the recent developments in CME

  1. Solar Cycle Variation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The results show the following: Although most of ICME-associatedCMEsare distributed at lowlatitudes, there is a significant fraction of ICME-associated CMEs occurring at high latitudes. The latitudinal evolution of ICME-associated CMEs do not follow Spörer's sunspot law at low latitudes (thus, no 'butterfly ...

  2. MAVEN Observations of Magnetic Flux Ropes with a Strong Field Amplitude in the Martian Magnetosheath During the ICME Passage on 8 March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takuya; Luhmann, Janet G.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Espley, Jared R.; Seki, Kanako; Brain, David A.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; McFadden, James P.; Mitchell, David L.; Mazelle, Christian; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present initial results of strong field amplitude flux ropes observed by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission around Mars during the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) passage on 8 March 2015. The observed durations were shorter than 5 s and the magnetic field magnitudes peaked above 80 nT, which is a few times stronger than those usually seen in the magnetosheath barrier. These are the first unique observations that MAVEN detected such flux ropes with a strong field at high altitudes (greater than 5000 km). Across these structures, MAVEN coincidentally measured planetary heavy ions with energies higher than a few keV. The spatial properties inferred from the Grad-Shafranov equation suggest that the speed of the structure can be estimated at least an order of magnitude faster than those previously reported quiet-time counterparts. Hence, the space weather event like the ICME passage can be responsible for generating the observed strong field, fast-traveling flux ropes.

  3. O ICMS como instrumento de realização da justiça social: a seletividade do ICMS no Estado da Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Hogla de Alencar Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação versa sobre a função social dos tributos, com o fito de realizar a justiça social, tomando-se como base o princípio da seletividade aplicável ao ICMS - Imposto sobre Operações Relativas à Circulação de Mercadorias e sobre Prestações de Serviços de Transporte Interestadual e Intermunicipal e de Comunicações. Como há 27 (vinte e sete) legislações do ICMS, escolheu-se a legislação do ICMS do Estado da Bahia. Inicialmente será abordada a questão da justiça social, o histórico bra...

  4. Operations and maintenance plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan describes how the Integrated Corridor Management System (ICMS) will be used in daily transportation operations and maintenance activities. The Plan addresses the activities needed to effectively operate the ...

  5. System acceptance test plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is leading the US 75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) : Demonstration Project for the Dallas region. Coordinated corridor operations and management is : predicated on being able to share transportation informa...

  6. Capstan Friction Model for DNA Ejection from Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sandip

    2012-12-01

    Bacteriophages infect cells by attaching to the outer membrane and injecting their DNA into the cell. The phage DNA is then transcribed by the cell’s transcription machinery. A number of physical mechanisms by which DNA can be translocated from the phage capsid into the cell have been identified. A fast ejection driven by the elastic and electrostatic potential energy of the compacted DNA within the viral capsid appears to be used by most phages, at least to initiate infection. In recent in vitro experiments, the speed of DNA translocation from a λ phage capsid has been measured as a function of ejected length over the entire duration of the event. Here, a mechanical model is proposed that is able to explain the observed dependence of exit velocity on ejected length, and that is also consistent with the accepted picture of the geometric arrangement of DNA within the viral capsid.

  7. Integral analysis of cavity pressurization in a fuel rod during an ULOF driven TOP with inclusion of surface tension effects on froth gas bubbles and variable cavity conditions due to fuel melting and ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1984-02-01

    The transient cavity pressurization in an ULOF driven TOP excursion has been analyzed for the SPX-1 reactor with an equation of state that allows to simulate the contribution of small froth gas bubbles to the pressure build-up in a fuel pin with inclusion of restraints from surface tension. Calculations were performed for various bubble parameters. Estimates are made for effective gas availabilities at fuel melting which can be used in a cavity model with an ideal gas equation to arrive at similar pressure transients

  8. ARRIVAL TIME CALCULATION FOR INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH CIRCULAR FRONTS AND APPLICATION TO STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moestl, C.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Biernat, H. K.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Crothers, S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-Φ (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350 km s -1 ) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12 hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6 hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30 0 elongation to obtain arrival time errors < ± 5 hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry.

  9. Coronal Mass Ejections An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In times of growing technological sophistication and of our dependence on electronic technology, we are all affected by space weather. In its most extreme form, space weather can disrupt communications, damage and destroy spacecraft and power stations, and increase radiation exposure to astronauts and airline passengers. Major space weather events, called geomagnetic storms, are large disruptions in the Earth’s magnetic field brought about by the arrival of enormous magnetized plasma clouds from the Sun. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) contain billions of tons of plasma and hurtle through space at speeds of several million miles per hour. Understanding coronal mass ejections and their impact on the Earth is of great interest to both the scientific and technological communities. This book provides an introduction to coronal mass ejections, including a history of their observation and scientific revelations, instruments and theory behind their detection and measurement, and the status quo of theories describing...

  10. Search for galaxy-ICM interaction in rich clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L.; Gandhi, P.; Inada, N.; Kawaharada, M.; Kodama, T.; Konami, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Shimasaku, K.; Xu, Haiguang; Makishima, K.

    2013-04-01

    Based on optical and X-ray data for a sample of 34 relaxed rich clusters with redshift of 0.1-0.9, we studied the relative spatial distribution of the two major baryon contents, the cluster galaxies and the hot plasmas. Using photometric data taken with the UH88 telescope, we determined the integrated radial light profiles of member galaxies in each cluster using two independent approaches, i.e., the field background subtraction and the color-magnitude filtering. The ICM mass profile of each cluster in our sample was derived from a spatially-resolved spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Chandra data. When the sample is divided into three subsamples with redshift intervals of z= 0.11-0.22, 0.22-0.45, and 0.45-0.89, the galaxy light vs. ICM mass ratio profiles for the central 0.65R500 regions were found to steepen from the higher- to lower- redshift subsamples, meaning that the galaxies become more concentrated in the ICM sphere towards lower redshifts. Besides, the galaxy light vs. total mass ratio profiles also exhibit gradual concentration towards lower redshift. We interpret that the galaxies, the ICM, and the dark matter components followed a similar spatial distribution in the early phase (z>0.5), while the galaxies have fallen towards the center relative to the ICM and dark matter. Such galaxy infall is likely to be caused by ICM drag when galaxies move through the ICM, even though the dynamical friction can enhance the infall of the most massive galaxies.

  11. Kinetics Formulations for ICM-Lite: A Tool to Predict and Quantify Ecosystem Benefits in Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Numerous formulae for evaluation and discretization exist. Formulae employed in ICM were selected based on computational efficiency and accuracy. The...ER D C/ EL T R- 15 -8 Ecosystem Management and Restoration Research Program Kinetics Formulations for ICM -Lite: A Tool to Predict and...Restoration Research Program ERDC/EL TR-15-8 July 2015 Kinetics Formulations for ICM -Lite: A Tool to Predict and Quantify Ecosystem Benefits in

  12. Ranking ICME's efficiency for geomagnetic and ionospheric storms and risk of false alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.

    2017-11-01

    A statistical analysis is undertaken on ICME's efficiency in producing the geomagnetic and ionospheric storms. The mutually-consistent thresholds for the intense, moderate and weak space weather storms and quiet conditions are introduced with an analytical model based on relations between the equatorial Dst index and geomagnetic indices AE, aa, ap, ap(τ) and the ionospheric Vσ indices. The ionosphere variability Vσ index is expressed in terms of the total electron content (TEC) deviation from the -15-day sliding median normalized by the standard deviation for the 15 preceding days. The intensity of global positive ionospheric storm, Vσp, and negative storm, Vσn, is represented by the relative density of anomalous ±Vσ index occurrence derived from the global ionospheric maps GIM-TEC for 1999-2016. An impact of total 421 ICME events for 1999-2016 on the geomagnetic and ionospheric storms expressed by AE, Dst, aa, ap, ap(τ), Vσp, Vσn indices and their superposition is analyzed using ICME catalogue by Richardson and Cane (2010) during 24 h after the ICME start time t0. Hierarchy of efficiency of ICME → storm relation is established. The ICMEs have a higher probability (22-25%) to be followed by the intense ionospheric and auroral electrojet storms at global and high latitudes as compared to the intense storms at middle and low latitudes (18-20%) and to moderate and weak storms at high latitudes (5-17%). At the same time ICMEs are more effective in producing the moderate storms (24-28%) at the middle and low latitudes as compared to the intense and weak storms at these latitudes (13-22%) and to moderate storms at high latitudes (8-17%). The remaining cases when quiet conditions are observed after ICMEs present higher chance for a false alarm. The risk factor for a false alarm can vary from 18% if the superposition of all indices is considered, to 51-64% for individual AE, Vσp and Vσn indices. The analysis indicates that the mutually-consistent thresholds

  13. About the Las Acacias, Trelew and Vassouras Magnetic Observatories Monitoring the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly Region Response to an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianibelli, J. C.; Quaglino, N. M.

    2007-05-01

    The South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) Region presents evolutive characteristics very important as were observed by a variety of satelital sensors. Important Magnetic Observatories with digital record monitor the effects of the Sun-Earth interaction, such as San Juan de Puerto Rico (SJG), Kourou (KOU), Vassouras (VSS), Las Acacias (LAS), Trelew (TRW), Vernadsky (AIA), Hermanus (HER) and Huancayo (HUA). In the present work we present the features registered during the geomagnetic storm in January 21, 2005, produced by a geoeffective Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) whose Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) was detected by the instrumental onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Sonde. We analize how the Magnetic Total Intensity records at VSS, TRW and LAS Observatories shows the effect of the entering particles to ionospherical dephts producing a field enhancement following the first Interplanetary Shock (IP) arrival of the ICME. This process manifest in the digital record as an increment over the magnetospheric Ring Current field effect and superinpossed effects over the Antarctic Auroral Electrojet. The analysis and comparison of the records demonstrate that the Ring Current effects are important in SJG and KOU but not in VSS, LAS and TRW observatories, concluding that SAMA region shows a enhancement of the ionospherical currents oposed to those generated at magnetospheric heighs. Moreover in TRW, 5 hours after the ICME shock arrival, shows the effect of the Antarctic Auroral Electrojet counteracting to fields generated by the Ring Current.

  14. PS, septum magnet for ejection of antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Antiprotons circulated in the PS in the sense opposite to that of the so far normal protons (or positive ions). A new ejection system with a new septum magnet was installed in straight section 58 for antiproton ejection, first towards the ISR and then to the principal customer, the SPS p-pbar Collider. Later on, when the PS delivered leptons for LEP, the antiproton ejection system was use for the ejection of electrons.

  15. Real-time forecasting of ICME shock arrivals at L1 during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch: 28 March – 21 April 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sun

    Full Text Available The Sun was extremely active during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch of 2001. We chose this period between a solar flare on 28 March 2001 to a final shock arrival at Earth on 21 April 2001. The activity consisted of two presumed helmet-streamer blowouts, seven M-class flares, and nine X-class flares, the last of which was behind the west limb. We have been experimenting since February 1997 with real-time, end-to-end forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME shock arrival times. Since August 1998, these forecasts have been distributed in real-time by e-mail to a list of interested scientists and operational USAF and NOAA forecasters. They are made using three different solar wind models. We describe here the solar events observed during the April Fool’s 2001 epoch, along with the predicted and actual shock arrival times, and the ex post facto correction to the real-time coronal shock speed observations. It appears that the initial estimates of coronal shock speeds from Type II radio burst observations and coronal mass ejections were too high by as much as 30%. We conclude that a 3-dimensional coronal density model should be developed for application to observations of solar flares and their Type II radio burst observations.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (flare and stream dynamics; interplanetary shocks – Magnetosheric physics (storms and substorms

  16. Real-time forecasting of ICME shock arrivals at L1 during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch: 28 March – 21 April 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sun

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun was extremely active during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch of 2001. We chose this period between a solar flare on 28 March 2001 to a final shock arrival at Earth on 21 April 2001. The activity consisted of two presumed helmet-streamer blowouts, seven M-class flares, and nine X-class flares, the last of which was behind the west limb. We have been experimenting since February 1997 with real-time, end-to-end forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME shock arrival times. Since August 1998, these forecasts have been distributed in real-time by e-mail to a list of interested scientists and operational USAF and NOAA forecasters. They are made using three different solar wind models. We describe here the solar events observed during the April Fool’s 2001 epoch, along with the predicted and actual shock arrival times, and the ex post facto correction to the real-time coronal shock speed observations. It appears that the initial estimates of coronal shock speeds from Type II radio burst observations and coronal mass ejections were too high by as much as 30%. We conclude that a 3-dimensional coronal density model should be developed for application to observations of solar flares and their Type II radio burst observations.Key words. Interplanetary physics (flare and stream dynamics; interplanetary shocks – Magnetosheric physics (storms and substorms

  17. O direito de crédito do ICMS na guerra fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Rogério Sawaya Batista

    2011-01-01

    Aborda o direito de crédito do ICMS na denominada guerra fiscal entre Estados e o Distrito Federal. Investiga a evolução do Imposto sobre Vendas e Consignações - IVC ao Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias ICM, com o surgimento da não-cumulatividade, até o modelo atual do ICMS, Imposto de competência dos Estados e do Distrito Federal de caráter nacional. Verifica se a não-cumulatividade constitui princípio ou regra, as conseqüências dessa classificação e a interpretação atual do Poder Ju...

  18. Guerra fiscal: ICMS e o comércio eletrônico

    OpenAIRE

    Maki Minato

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar as disputas entre os estados envolvendo a tributação pelo ICMS das operações de circulação de mercadoria contratadas pela internet. A despeito da extensa disciplina sobre o tributo na Constituição Federal de 1988, intensificam-se os conflitos entre os estados em torno do ICMS. No caso do comércio eletrônico, a internet impulsiona o aumento das operações de compra e venda realizadas de forma remota. Tendo em vista que o parâmetro de origem foi adotado pe...

  19. Regra-matriz do direito ao crédito de ICMS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, André Felix Ricotta de

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho cuida do estudo do princípio da não cumulatividade como vetor do imposto sobre operações de circulação de mercadorias, sobre prestações de serviços de transportes interestadual e intermunicipal e de comunicação ICMS, verificando o seu forte conteúdo axiológico e a influência que exercer na sistemática do ICMS. Como a norma da não cumulatividade está devidamente positivada na Constituição Federal, utilizamos os ensinamentos do professor Paulo de Barros Carv...

  20. A APLICABILIDADE DO ICMS ECOLÓGICO NOS MUNICÍPIOS PARANAENSES

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Joelma Leopoldino; Nogueira, Vilma Aparecida de Moraes; Stefanello, Paulinho Rene; Fernandes, Alexandre Machado; da Silva, Frederico Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    O ICMS Ecológico é um importante instrumento de Política Pública voltada ao Meio Ambiente, compensando financeiramente municípios paranaenses que possuem em seu território Áreas de Preservação Ambiental e/ou Mananciais de Abastecimento Público. O objetivo geral deste estudo consistiu em verificar a aplicabilidade dos recursos nos municípios beneficiados pela receita advinda do ICMS-e no Estado do Paraná. A metodologia se fundamenta na revisão bibliográfica e documental, e entrevistas com serv...

  1. O ICM na importação mediante arrendamento mercantil The tax on the circulation of goods (ICM in imports conducted by leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Brum Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo é compreender a incidência do Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias - ICM, nas operações de importação, em especial as realizadas mediante arrendamento mercantil ou leasing. Os Estados Federados e do Distrito Federal sempre objetivaram efetuar a cobrança deste tributo sobre toda e qualquer entrada de bens ou mercadorias importadas do exterior, independente da natureza do negócio jurídico efetuado fora do país. Contudo, esta prática realizada pelos Estados tem gerado muita discussão no âmbito do Poder Judiciário, onde os contribuintes têm se insurgido contra esta cobrança. Quase que a totalidade da doutrina tem se posicionado no sentido de que o ICM somente incidirá na importação, desde que nesta operação se concretize a transferência de titularidade do bem ou mercadoria importada do exterior. Isto porque, o evento importação é tão somente um alargamento da incidência do ICM, devendo estar vinculado à matriz constitucional deste tributo. Há também de se ressaltar a existência de um posicionamento minoritário da doutrina, segundo o qual o ICM na importação é uma nova incidência do imposto, outorgado aos Estados Federados e ao Distrito Federal pelo legislador constituinte, aduzindo a incidência do tributo sobre toda e qualquer entrada de bem ou mercadoria do exterior. Frente a este último posicionamento da doutrina é que os Estados se fundamentam para efetuar a cobrança do tributo sobre toda e qualquer operação de importação, independentemente de haver ou não a transferência de titularidade do bem ou mercadoria, quando da importação. Todavia, os Tribunais Superiores tem afastado a cobrança deste tributo quando nas operações de importação não ocorrem a transferência de titularidade do bem ou mercadoria, como nos contratos de importação mediante arrendamento mercantil, ou leasing. Nestes contratos, o bem importado mediante leasing continua como propriedade

  2. Strength and sintering effects at ejection of explosively driven sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnyansky, A D; Weckert, S A

    2014-01-01

    A description of the response of sand to extreme loads is very important for the evaluation of the sand ejecta impact effects on various targets. Sand is a complex material to simulate because of its porosity where the inter-phase equilibrium is hard to achieve under transient shock wave loading. A previously developed two-phase model with strength has been implemented in CTH and applied to sand. The shock response of the sand, including the Hugoniot abnormality known from the literature for highly porous silica, is adequately described with the material model. The sand unloading effects appearing as the ejecta are observed in the present work using dynamic flash X-ray of an aluminium target plate loaded by limestone sand ejecta from the detonation of a buried high explosive charge. The CTH modelling results compared with the flash X-ray images have demonstrated good agreement, particularly, in the description of momentum transfer to the target.

  3. Verification and Validation of ICME Methods and Models for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    morphology common to the mechanical disciplines. A simplified (and incomplete) ICME example is shown in Figure 2. It remains important to decompose such...described the computational implementa- tion thoroughly, thereby reducing debugging to little more than correcting several simple code syntax and

  4. Systems engineering management plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the Dallas ICM System is to implement a multi-modal operations decision support tool enabled by real-time data pertaining to the : operation of freeways, arterials, and public transit. The system will be shared between information syst...

  5. ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1981-05-01

    An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems.

  6. Establishing an Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) program in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, C A; Warianti, A; Wrigley, T

    2001-01-01

    The Brantas is one of Indonesia's most important catchments. It is the "rice bowl" of Java and nationally important for its industrial activity. Surabaya, Indonesia's second largest city, is located at the mouth of the Brantas River which is pivotal to the city's water supply. The challenges associated with the institutional framework for natural resource management in East Java parallels that of many states and provinces around the globe. It is multi-layered and complex. Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) may be defined as "the co-ordinated and sustainable management of land, water, soil vegetation, fauna and other natural resources on a water catchment basis". Over a period of six months, an ICM Strategy was researched and facilitated for the Brantas River Catchment in East Java via a short term advisor attachment. The aim of the Strategy is to improve coordination, co-operation, communication and consistency of government and community efforts towards sustaining the catchment's environmental, economic and social values. The attachment was part of the Pollution Control Implementation (PCI) Project funded by AusAid and the Indonesian Government. The ICM Strategy developed was broad based and addressed the priority natural resource management issues facing the Brantas Catchment. It was co-ordinated by BAPEDALDA, the Provincial Environmental Protection Agency, and developed by all agencies involved in natural resource management in the catchment. Various Universities and Non Government Organisations (NGOs) were also involved in the ICM process which developed the Strategy. At the conclusion of the attachment, a draft ICM Strategy and a proposed institutional framework had been developed. A working group of key agencies was also established to further enhance local "ownership", finalise timescales and implementation responsibilities within the Strategy and bring the institutional arrangements into being through a Governor's Decree.

  7. Chemically triggered ejection of membrane tubules controlled by intermonolayer friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, J-B; Khalifat, N; Puff, N; Angelova, M I

    2009-01-09

    We report a chemically driven membrane shape instability that triggers the ejection of a tubule growing exponentially toward a chemical source. The instability is initiated by a dilation of the exposed monolayer, which is coupled to the membrane spontaneous curvature and slowed down by intermonolayer friction. Our experiments are performed by local delivery of a basic pH solution to a giant vesicle. Quantitative fits of the data give an intermonolayer friction coefficient b approximately 2x10;{9} J s/m;{4}. The exponential growth of the tubule may be explained by a Marangoni stress yielding a pulling force proportional to its length.

  8. Numerical Simulations of a Flux Rope Ejection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomena observed on the Sun. One of the most successful models to explain CMEs is the flux rope ejection model, where a magnetic flux rope is expelled from the solar corona after a long phase along which the flux rope stays in equilibrium while ...

  9. Probable cases which gives ICMS credit in electric power tariffs; Estudo de casos passiveis de credito de ICMS em tarifas de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira; Oliveira, Angelo Rocha de

    2006-07-01

    There are laws and many forms of using them that are ignored by a great part of the population. In this work one of those laws is emphasised, the complementary law n. 102/2000 of 11/07/2000 (that changed the C.L. 87/1996), that concerns the credit of ICMS in electric power taxes. The main focus of the work is the way the law is put into practice, how it can be used , who is able to receive the support of this law and who is not, ways of decisions that justifies the validation and two studies of real cases of companies that already process credits in his bill. In those two studies of accomplished cases they will be demonstrated in an emphatic way as you accomplish them and its importance. One of the cases is a consumer of small load, of the tax group B, where there is only a way of accomplishing the study, in case it is framed in the debit regime and credit. Already the second study of cases is of a consumer of the tax group A, of blue seasonal hour tax. As a last proposal of this work is the one of verifying, with those two accomplished cases, the difference of the decision evidentiary between the two companies and in that consumer kind (of the group A or B), it is usually the largest index of restitution of ICMS. (author)

  10. Créditos do ICMS: inconstitucionalidade da legislação complementar

    OpenAIRE

    Demilson Dagostim

    2005-01-01

    A não-cumulatividade do ICMS - Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços de transporte e comunicação é um princípio assegurado pela Constituição do Brasil de 1988 que faz nascer para o contribuinte um crédito fiscal financeiro toda vez que este adquire uma mercadoria ou um serviço com incidência do imposto. A Lei Complementar n° 87 de 1996 veio confirmar que o crédito no ICMS é financeiro, ou seja, não apenas produtos intermediários e matérias-primas dão direito a este crédito, como ...

  11. Halo coronal mass ejections during Solar Cycle 24: reconstruction of the global scenario and geoeffectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolini Camilla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections (CMEs,  in particular Earth-directed ones, are regarded as the main drivers of geomagnetic activity. In this study, we present a statistical analysis of a set of 53 fast (V ≥ 1000 km·s−1 Earth-directed halo CMEs observed by the SOHO/LASCO instrument during the period Jan. 2009–Sep. 2015, and we then use this CME sample to test the forecasting capabilities of a new Sun-to-Earth prediction scheme for the geoeffectiveness of Earth-directed halo CMEs. First, we investigate the CME association with other solar activity features such as solar flares, active regions, and others, by means of multi-instrument observations of the solar magnetic and plasma properties, with the final aim of identifying recurrent peculiar features that can be used as precursors of CME-driven geomagnetic storms. Second, using coronagraphic images to derive the CME kinematical properties at 0.1 AU, we propagate the events to 1 AU by means of 3D global MHD simulations. In particular, we use the WSA-ENLIL+Cone model to reconstruct the propagation and global evolution of each event up to their arrival at Earth, where simulation results are compared with interplanetary CME (ICME in-situ signatures. We then use simulation outputs upstream of Earth to predict their impact on geospace. By applying the pressure balance condition at the magnetopause and the coupling function proposed by Newell et al. [J Geophys Res: Space Phys 113 (2008] to link upstream solar wind properties to the global Kp index, we estimate the expected magnetospheric compression and geomagnetic activity level, and compare our predictions with global data records. The analysis indicates that 82% of the fast Earth-directed halo CMEs arrived at Earth within the next 4 days. Almost the totality of them compressed the magnetopause below geosynchronous orbits and triggered a minor or major geomagnetic storm afterwards. Among them, complex sunspot-rich active regions associated

  12. Halo coronal mass ejections during Solar Cycle 24: reconstruction of the global scenario and geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolini, Camilla; Messerotti, Mauro; Poedts, Stefaan; Rodriguez, Luciano

    2018-02-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), in particular Earth-directed ones, are regarded as the main drivers of geomagnetic activity. In this study, we present a statistical analysis of a set of 53 fast (V ≥ 1000 km·s-1) Earth-directed halo CMEs observed by the SOHO/LASCO instrument during the period Jan. 2009-Sep. 2015, and we then use this CME sample to test the forecasting capabilities of a new Sun-to-Earth prediction scheme for the geoeffectiveness of Earth-directed halo CMEs. First, we investigate the CME association with other solar activity features such as solar flares, active regions, and others, by means of multi-instrument observations of the solar magnetic and plasma properties, with the final aim of identifying recurrent peculiar features that can be used as precursors of CME-driven geomagnetic storms. Second, using coronagraphic images to derive the CME kinematical properties at 0.1 AU, we propagate the events to 1 AU by means of 3D global MHD simulations. In particular, we use the WSA-ENLIL+Cone model to reconstruct the propagation and global evolution of each event up to their arrival at Earth, where simulation results are compared with interplanetary CME (ICME) in-situ signatures. We then use simulation outputs upstream of Earth to predict their impact on geospace. By applying the pressure balance condition at the magnetopause and the coupling function proposed by Newell et al. [J Geophys Res: Space Phys 113 (2008)] to link upstream solar wind properties to the global Kp index, we estimate the expected magnetospheric compression and geomagnetic activity level, and compare our predictions with global data records. The analysis indicates that 82% of the fast Earth-directed halo CMEs arrived at Earth within the next 4 days. Almost the totality of them compressed the magnetopause below geosynchronous orbits and triggered a minor or major geomagnetic storm afterwards. Among them, complex sunspot-rich active regions associated with X- and M-class flares are the

  13. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  14. The Drag-based Ensemble Model (DBEM) for Coronal Mass Ejection Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbović, Mateja; Čalogović, Jaša; Vršnak, Bojan; Temmer, Manuela; Mays, M. Leila; Veronig, Astrid; Piantschitsch, Isabell

    2018-02-01

    The drag-based model for heliospheric propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a widely used analytical model that can predict CME arrival time and speed at a given heliospheric location. It is based on the assumption that the propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space is solely under the influence of magnetohydrodynamical drag, where CME propagation is determined based on CME initial properties as well as the properties of the ambient solar wind. We present an upgraded version, the drag-based ensemble model (DBEM), that covers ensemble modeling to produce a distribution of possible ICME arrival times and speeds. Multiple runs using uncertainty ranges for the input values can be performed in almost real-time, within a few minutes. This allows us to define the most likely ICME arrival times and speeds, quantify prediction uncertainties, and determine forecast confidence. The performance of the DBEM is evaluated and compared to that of ensemble WSA-ENLIL+Cone model (ENLIL) using the same sample of events. It is found that the mean error is ME = ‑9.7 hr, mean absolute error MAE = 14.3 hr, and root mean square error RMSE = 16.7 hr, which is somewhat higher than, but comparable to ENLIL errors (ME = ‑6.1 hr, MAE = 12.8 hr and RMSE = 14.4 hr). Overall, DBEM and ENLIL show a similar performance. Furthermore, we find that in both models fast CMEs are predicted to arrive earlier than observed, most likely owing to the physical limitations of models, but possibly also related to an overestimation of the CME initial speed for fast CMEs.

  15. Multi-point Shock and Flux Rope Analysis of Multiple Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections around 2010 August 1 in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C.; Farrugia, C. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Jian, L. K.; Liu, Y.; Eastwood, J. P.; Harrison, R. A.; Webb, D. F.; Temmer, M.; Odstrcil, D.; Davies, J. A.; Rollett, T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Nitta, N.; Mulligan, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Forsyth, R.; Lavraud, B.; de Koning, C. A.; Veronig, A. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Zhang, T. L.; Anderson, B. J.

    2012-10-01

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120° in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index (≈ - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  16. MULTI-POINT SHOCK AND FLUX ROPE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AROUND 2010 AUGUST 1 IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moestl, C.; Liu, Y.; Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Farrugia, C. J. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Kilpua, E. K. J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland); Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Eastwood, J. P.; Forsyth, R. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); Webb, D. F. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Newton, MA (United States); Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A. M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Odstrcil, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nitta, N. [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Mulligan, T. [Space Science Applications Laboratory, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Jensen, E. A. [ACS Consulting, Houston, TX (United States); Lavraud, B. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), F-31400 Toulouse (France); De Koning, C. A., E-mail: christian.moestl@uni-graz.at [NOAA/SWPC, Boulder, Colorado (United States); and others

    2012-10-10

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120 Degree-Sign in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index ( Almost-Equal-To - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  17. Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME 2015). Held in Colorado Springs, CO on May 31-June 4, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    papers in PDF format are available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com. By way of example, some select papers from the ICME 3rd World Congress Proceedings...Integrated Computational N000141512537 Materials Engineering ( ICME 2015) 5b. GRANT NUMBER N000141512537 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Computational Materials Engineering ( ICME ) has received international attention due to its great potential to shorten product and process development

  18. Connecting speeds, directions and arrival times of 22 coronal mass ejections from the sun to 1 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möstl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V. [Kanzelhöhe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz (Austria); Amla, K.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Colaninno, R. C. [Space Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A. [RAL Space, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Liu, Y. D. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vršnak, B., E-mail: christian.moestl@uni-graz.at [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kačićeva 26, HR-10000, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s{sup –1}). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of –26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-Φ, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s{sup –1}. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s{sup –1}. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line.

  19. Créditos do ICMS: inconstitucionalidade da legislação complementar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilson Dagostim

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A não-cumulatividade do ICMS - Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços de transporte e comunicação é um princípio assegurado pela Constituição do Brasil de 1988 que faz nascer para o contribuinte um crédito fiscal financeiro toda vez que este adquire uma mercadoria ou um serviço com incidência do imposto. A Lei Complementar n° 87 de 1996 veio confirmar que o crédito no ICMS é financeiro, ou seja, não apenas produtos intermediários e matérias-primas dão direito a este crédito, como também bens do ativo fixo, de uso ou consumo, serviços, energia elétrica e comunicações. A legislação complementar vem adiando desde 1996 o direito dos contribuintes de utilizarem esse crédito financeiro, o que é inconstitucional. The no-cumulative of ICMS Tax on Circulation of Goods and trans port Services andcommunication is an insured rule for the Constitution of Brazi! 1988 that generatesfor the taxpayer financial fiscal credit when he acquires merchandise or servicewith incidence of the taxo The Law ComplementaI n' 87 of 1996 came to confirm thatthe credit in /CMS is financial, in other words, products notjust consumed in theproductive process they give right to the credit, also goods of the fixed assets, of useor consumption, services, electric power and communications. The ComplementaIlegislation is postponing since 1996 the taxpayers' right they to use that financialcredit, what is unconstitutional.

  20. 557 Test and Manage Protocol for 841 Patients Requiring Iodinated Contrast Media (Icm) in Pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Maria Cristina; Lavrut, Alberto Jorge; Spinelli, Silvia Susana

    2012-01-01

    Background ICM's adverse effects are quite frequent and potentially serious. The use of protocols to test and manage patients receiving ICM could help to decrease the adverse effects because they advise against the studies or prescribe the administration of premedication; however, its use in pediatrics is still limited. We describe the results of the use of a test and management protocol for pediatric patients requiring ICM. Methods All the patients of a pediatric hospital prescribed with ICM between 31st January 2008 and 5th March 2011 were included. The following variables have been analyzed: age, sex, type of study to be performed, diagnoses and hospitalized or outpatient, risk (regular, increased or non-advised) and the presence of adverse reactions. We also analyzed the relation between risk and age, sex and condition (chi cuadrado o t test). Significance level P < 0.05. Results We included 841 patients (56.9% male, age = 92.7 ± 24.5 months, 60% hospitalized). The most frequent test was chest Tc (36%) and the most frequent diagnosis was solid tumors (25%). Patients with increased risk were significantly lower than those with regular risk (75.7 ± 69.7 months vs 109.7 ± 61.6, P < 0.001). During the research period there were no adverse effects. Conclusions The classification of risk groups by this Goverment Buenos Aires City protocols allows a rational management of the patients requiring ICM and minimize the adverse effects.

  1. Polarized DNA Ejection from the Herpesvirus Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, William W.; Cockrell, Shelley K.; Homa, Fred L.; Brown, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Ejection of DNA from the capsid is an early step in infection by all herpesviruses. Ejection or DNA uncoating occurs after a parental capsid has entered the host cell cytoplasm, migrated to the nucleus and bound to a nuclear pore. DNA exits the capsid through the portal vertex and proceeds by way of the nuclear pore complex into the nucleoplasm where it is transcribed and replicated. Here we describe use of an in vitro uncoating system to determine which genome end exits first from the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) capsid. Purified DNA-containing capsids were bound to a solid surface and warmed under conditions in which some, but not all, of the DNA was ejected. Restriction endonuclease digestion was then used to identify the genomic origin of the ejected DNA. The results support the view that the S segment end exits the capsid first. Preferential release at the S end demonstrates that herpesvirus DNA uncoating conforms to the paradigm in dsDNA bacteriophage where the last end packaged is the first to be ejected. Release of HSV-1 DNA beginning at the S end causes the first gene to enter the host cell nucleus to be α4, a transcription factor required for expression of early genes. PMID:19631662

  2. Coronal mass ejections and coronal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildner, E.; Bassi, J.; Bougeret, J. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Gary, D. E.; Gergely, T. E.; Harrison, R. A.; Howard, R. A.; Illing, R. M. E.; Jackson, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    Research on coronal mass ejections (CMF) took a variety of forms, both observational and theoretical. On the observational side there were: case studies of individual events, in which it was attempted to provide the most complete descriptions possible, using correlative observations in diverse wavelengths; statistical studies of the properties CMEs and their associated activity; observations which may tell us about the initiation of mass ejections; interplanetary observations of associated shocks and energetic particles even observations of CMEs traversing interplanetary space; and the beautiful synoptic charts which show to what degree mass ejections affect the background corona and how rapidly (if at all) the corona recovers its pre-disturbance form. These efforts are described in capsule form with an emphasis on presenting pictures, graphs, and tables so that the reader can form a personal appreciation of the work and its results.

  3. STRIPPED ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES AS PROBES OF ICM PHYSICS. I. TAILS, WAKES, AND FLOW PATTERNS IN AND AROUND STRIPPED ELLIPTICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roediger, E. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-4, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching, D-85741 (Germany); Kokotanekova, R., E-mail: eroediger@hs.uni-hamburg.de [AstroMundus Master Programme, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25/8, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-06-10

    Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.

  4. Optimization Using Metamodeling in the Context of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammi, Youssef; Horstemeyer, Mark F; Wang, Paul; David, Francis; Carino, Ricolindo

    2013-11-18

    Predictive Design Technologies, LLC (PDT) proposed to employ Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) tools to help the manufacturing industry in the United States regain the competitive advantage in the global economy. ICME uses computational materials science tools within a holistic system in order to accelerate materials development, improve design optimization, and unify design and manufacturing. With the advent of accurate modeling and simulation along with significant increases in high performance computing (HPC) power, virtual design and manufacturing using ICME tools provide the means to reduce product development time and cost by alleviating costly trial-and-error physical design iterations while improving overall quality and manufacturing efficiency. To reduce the computational cost necessary for the large-scale HPC simulations and to make the methodology accessible for small and medium-sized manufacturers (SMMs), metamodels are employed. Metamodels are approximate models (functional relationships between input and output variables) that can reduce the simulation times by one to two orders of magnitude. In Phase I, PDT, partnered with Mississippi State University (MSU), demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed methodology by employing MSU?s internal state variable (ISV) plasticity-damage model with the help of metamodels to optimize the microstructure-process-property-cost for tube manufacturing processes used by Plymouth Tube Company (PTC), which involves complicated temperature and mechanical loading histories. PDT quantified the microstructure-property relationships for PTC?s SAE J525 electric resistance-welded cold drawn low carbon hydraulic 1010 steel tube manufacturing processes at seven different material states and calibrated the ISV plasticity material parameters to fit experimental tensile stress-strain curves. PDT successfully performed large scale finite element (FE) simulations in an HPC environment using the ISV plasticity

  5. A regra matriz do direito ao crédito na não-cumulatividade do ICMS

    OpenAIRE

    Balanin, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar se a Não-Cumulatividade deve ser considerada como verdadeira Regra Constitucional e não como Princípio, criada juntamente com a própria competência para a instituição do ICMS. Independente de a Não-Cumulatividade dever ser enquadrada como Princípio ou Regra, também buscaremos demonstrar que o ICMS não pode existir sem o seu pleno atendimento. Diante dessa consideração, buscaremos melhor identificar como a Regra da Não- Cumlatividade es...

  6. Magnetic Source Regions of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The majority of flare activity arises in active regions which contain sunspots, while Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) activity can also originate from decaying active regions and even so-called quiet solar regions which contain a filament. Two classes of CME, namely flare-related CME events and CMEs ...

  7. Magnetic storm generation by large-scale complex structure Sheath/ICME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, E. E.; Yermolaev, Y. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Yermolaev, M. Y.; Riazantseva, M.; Borodkova, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    We study temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters as well as magnetospheric indices. We use our catalog of large-scale solar wind phenomena for 1976-2000 interval (see the catalog for 1976-2016 in web-side ftp://ftp.iki.rssi.ru/pub/omni/ prepared on basis of OMNI database (Yermolaev et al., 2009)) and the double superposed epoch analysis method (Yermolaev et al., 2010). Our analysis showed (Yermolaev et al., 2015) that average profiles of Dst and Dst* indices decrease in Sheath interval (magnetic storm activity increases) and increase in ICME interval. This profile coincides with inverted distribution of storm numbers in both intervals (Yermolaev et al., 2017). This behavior is explained by following reasons. (1) IMF magnitude in Sheath is higher than in Ejecta and closed to value in MC. (2) Sheath has 1.5 higher efficiency of storm generation than ICME (Nikolaeva et al., 2015). The most part of so-called CME-induced storms are really Sheath-induced storms and this fact should be taken into account during Space Weather prediction. The work was in part supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant 16-12-10062. References. 1. Nikolaeva N.S., Y. I. Yermolaev and I. G. Lodkina (2015), Modeling of the corrected Dst* index temporal profile on the main phase of the magnetic storms generated by different types of solar wind, Cosmic Res., 53(2), 119-127 2. Yermolaev Yu. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2009), Catalog of Large-Scale Solar Wind Phenomena during 1976-2000, Cosmic Res., , 47(2), 81-94 3. Yermolaev, Y. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Y. Yermolaev (2010), Specific interplanetary conditions for CIR-induced, Sheath-induced, and ICME-induced geomagnetic storms obtained by double superposed epoch analysis, Ann. Geophys., 28, 2177-2186 4. Yermolaev Yu. I., I. G. Lodkina, N. S. Nikolaeva and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2015), Dynamics of large-scale solar wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch

  8. Propagation Characteristics of Two Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun Far into Interplanetary Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun far into interplanetary space is not well understood, due to limited observations. In this study we examine the propagation characteristics of two geo-effective CMEs, which occurred on 2005 May 6 and 13, respectively. Significant heliospheric consequences associated with the two CMEs are observed, including interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) at the Earth and Ulysses , interplanetary shocks, a long-duration type II radio burst, and intense geomagnetic storms. We use coronagraph observations from SOHO /LASCO, frequency drift of the long-duration type II burst, in situ measurements at the Earth and Ulysses , and magnetohydrodynamic propagation of the observed solar wind disturbances at 1 au to track the CMEs from the Sun far into interplanetary space. We find that both of the CMEs underwent a major deceleration within 1 au and thereafter a gradual deceleration when they propagated from the Earth to deep interplanetary space, due to interactions with the ambient solar wind. The results also reveal that the two CMEs interacted with each other in the distant interplanetary space even though their launch times on the Sun were well separated. The intense geomagnetic storm for each case was caused by the southward magnetic fields ahead of the CME, stressing the critical role of the sheath region in geomagnetic storm generation, although for the first case there is a corotating interaction region involved.

  9. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection effects on thermospheric density as inferred from International Space Station orbital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendaza, T.; Blanco-Ávalos, J. J.; Martín-Torres, J.

    2017-11-01

    The solar activity induces long term and short term periodical variations in the dynamics and composition of Earth's atmosphere. The Sun also shows non periodical (i.e., impulsive) activity that reaches the planets orbiting around it. In particular, Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) reach Earth and interact with its magnetosphere and upper neutral atmosphere. Nevertheless, the interaction with the upper atmosphere is not well characterized because of the absence of regular and dedicated in situ measurements at high altitudes; thus, current descriptions of the thermosphere are based on semi empirical models. In this paper, we present the total neutral mass densities of the thermosphere retrieved from the orbital data of the International Space Station (ISS) using the General Perturbation Method, and we applied these densities to routinely compiled trajectories of the ISS in low Earth orbit (LEO). These data are explicitly independent of any atmospheric model. Our density values are consistent with atmospheric models, which demonstrates that our method is reliable for the inference of thermospheric density. We have inferred the thermospheric total neutral density response to impulsive solar activity forcing from 2001 to the end of 2006 and determined how solar events affect this response. Our results reveal that the ISS orbital parameters can be used to infer the thermospheric density and analyze solar effects on the thermosphere.

  10. An Experimental Study on Effectiveness of Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) in Social Studies Education for Gifted and Talented Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Özlem; Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study examines the effects of Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) on 4th grade elementary gifted and talented students' academic achievement, creativity and critical thinking (Control Group N= 10, Experimental Group N= 11) in the social studies classroom context, in Istanbul, Turkey. Integrated Curriculum Model was utilized to…

  11. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Topology Optimization with Frequency Constraints Using Composite Exponential Function and ICM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology optimization of three-dimensional continuum structures subject to frequency constraints is investigated using Independent Continuous Mapping (ICM design variable fields. The composite exponential function (CEF is selected to be a filter function which recognizes the design variables and to implement the changing process of design variables from “discrete” to “continuous” and back to “discrete.” Explicit formulations of frequency constraints are given based on filter functions, first-order Taylor series expansion. And an improved optimal model is formulated using CEF and the explicit frequency constraints. Dual sequential quadratic programming (DSQP algorithm is used to solve the optimal model. The program is developed on the platform of MSC Patran & Nastran. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.

  12. Robust Informatics Infrastructure Required For ICME: Combining Virtual and Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Holland, Frederic A. Jr.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on reducing the cost and time to market of new materials, the need for robust automated materials information management system(s) enabling sophisticated data mining tools is increasing, as evidenced by the emphasis on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) and the recent establishment of the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI). This need is also fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing; consistency, quality and traceability of data; product design; engineering analysis; as well as control of access to proprietary or sensitive information. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and or multi-scale models requires both the processing of large volumes of test data and complex materials data necessary to establish processing-microstructure-property-performance relationships. Fortunately, material information management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to enable: (i) the capture of both point wise data and full spectra of raw data curves, (ii) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls;(iii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iv) data pedigree traceability mechanisms; (v) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (vi) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. This paper discusses key principles for the development of a robust materials information management system to enable the connections at various length scales to be made between experimental data and corresponding multiscale modeling toolsets to enable ICME. In particular, NASA Glenn's efforts towards establishing such a database for capturing constitutive modeling behavior for both monolithic and composites materials

  13. COMET 22P/KOPFF: DUST ENVIRONMENT AND GRAIN EJECTION ANISOTROPY FROM VISIBLE AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Fernando; Pozuelos, Francisco; Aceituno, Francisco; Casanova, Victor; Sota, Alfredo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Castellano, Julio; Reina, Esteban, E-mail: fernando@iaa.es [Amateur Association Cometas-Obs (Spain)

    2012-06-20

    We present optical observations and Monte Carlo models of the dust coma, tail, and trail structures of the comet 22P/Kopff during the 2002 and 2009 apparitions. Dust loss rates, ejection velocities, and power-law size distribution functions are derived as functions of the heliocentric distance using pre- and post-perihelion imaging observations during both apparitions. The 2009 post-perihelion images can be accurately fitted by an isotropic ejection model. On the other hand, strong dust ejection anisotropies are required to fit the near-coma regions at large heliocentric distances (both inbound at r{sub h} = 2.5 AU and outbound at r{sub h} = 2.6 AU) for the 2002 apparition. These asymmetries are compatible with a scenario where dust ejection is mostly seasonally driven, coming mainly from regions near subsolar latitudes at far heliocentric distances inbound and outbound. At intermediate to near-perihelion heliocentric distances, the outgassing would affect much more extended latitude regions, the emission becoming almost isotropic near perihelion. We derived a maximum dust production rate of 260 kg s{sup -1} at perihelion, and an averaged production rate over one orbit of 40 kg s{sup -1}. An enhanced emission rate, also accompanied by a large ejection velocity, is predicted at r{sub h} > 2.5 pre-perihelion. The model has also been extended to the thermal infrared in order to be applied to available trail observations of this comet taken with IRAS and Infrared Space Observatory spacecrafts. The modeled trail intensities are in good agreement with those observations, which is remarkable taking into account that those data are sensitive to dust ejection patterns corresponding to several orbits before the 2002 and 2009 apparitions.

  14. A Legionella pneumophila effector protein encoded in a region of genomic plasticity binds to Dot/Icm-modified vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Ninio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. In the environment, L. pneumophila is found in fresh water reservoirs in a large spectrum of environmental conditions, where the bacteria are able to replicate within a variety of protozoan hosts. To survive within eukaryotic cells, L. pneumophila require a type IV secretion system, designated Dot/Icm, that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. In recent years, a number of Dot/Icm substrate proteins have been identified; however, the function of most of these proteins remains unknown, and it is unclear why the bacterium maintains such a large repertoire of effectors to promote its survival. Here we investigate a region of the L. pneumophila chromosome that displays a high degree of plasticity among four sequenced L. pneumophila strains. Analysis of GC content suggests that several genes encoded in this region were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Protein translocation studies establish that this region of genomic plasticity encodes for multiple Dot/Icm effectors. Ectopic expression studies in mammalian cells indicate that one of these substrates, a protein called PieA, has unique effector activities. PieA is an effector that can alter lysosome morphology and associates specifically with vacuoles that support L. pneumophila replication. It was determined that the association of PieA with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila requires modifications to the vacuole mediated by other Dot/Icm effectors. Thus, the localization properties of PieA reveal that the Dot/Icm system has the ability to spatially and temporally control the association of an effector with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila through activities mediated by other effector proteins.

  15. Role of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in bacteriophage genome ejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemay, Serge Joseph Guy; Panja, D.; Molineux, I.

    2013-01-01

    A critical step in the bacteriophage life cycle is genome ejection into host bacteria. The ejection process for double-stranded DNA phages has been studied thoroughly in vitro, where after triggering with the cellular receptor the genome ejects into a buffer. The experimental data have been

  16. Cervical Spline Analysis for Ejection Injury Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-30

    problems that motivated such modelling effort are 1) pilot ejection , 2) whiplash due to auto- mobile accidents, 3) athletic injuries, 4) the effect of...bones are united into two structures; the first five form the sacrum and the remaining two the coccyx . A typical vertebra consists of an anterior...CRVICAL SPINE SECTION R- 1 REFNCS (11 Aho, A. et al., "Segmentary mobility of the lumbar spine in antero- posterior flexion", Ann. MED. INT. SENN

  17. Topological friction strongly affects viral DNA ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenduzzo, Davide; Micheletti, Cristian; Orlandini, Enzo; Sumners, De Witt

    2013-12-10

    Bacteriophages initiate infection by releasing their double-stranded DNA into the cytosol of their bacterial host. However, what controls and sets the timescales of DNA ejection? Here we provide evidence from stochastic simulations which shows that the topology and organization of DNA packed inside the capsid plays a key role in determining these properties. Even with similar osmotic pressure pushing out the DNA, we find that spatially ordered DNA spools have a much lower effective friction than disordered entangled states. Such spools are only found when the tendency of nearby DNA strands to align locally is accounted for. This topological or conformational friction also depends on DNA knot type in the packing geometry and slows down or arrests the ejection of twist knots and very complex knots. We also find that the family of (2, 2k+1) torus knots unravel gradually by simplifying their topology in a stepwise fashion. Finally, an analysis of DNA trajectories inside the capsid shows that the knots formed throughout the ejection process mirror those found in gel electrophoresis experiments for viral DNA molecules extracted from the capsids.

  18. Ejection-collision orbits in the RTBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé, Mercè; Rodríguez, Òscar; Soler, Jaume

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we analyse the ejection-collision (EC) orbits of the planar restricted three body problem. Being μ ∈ (0, 0.5] the mass parameter, and taking the big (small) primary with mass 1 - μ (μ), an EC orbit will be an orbit that ejects from the big primary, does an excursion and collides with it. As it is well known, for any value of the mass parameter μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and sufficiently restricted Hill regions (that is, for big enough values of the Jacobi constant C), there are exactly four EC orbits. We check their existence and extend numerically these four orbits for μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and for smaller values of the Jacobi constant. We introduce the concept of n-ejection-collision orbits (n-EC orbits) and we explore them numerically for μ ∈ (0, 0.5] and values of the Jacobi constant such that the Hill bounded possible region of motion contains the big primary and does not contain the small one. We study the cases 1 ≤ n ≤ 10 and we analyse the continuation of families of such n-EC orbits, varying the energy, as well as the bifurcations that appear.

  19. Simultaneous Observations of p-mode Light Walls and Magnetic Reconnection Ejections above Sunspot Light Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Xiaohong, E-mail: yijunhou@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-10-10

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal bright wall-shaped structures in active regions (ARs), especially above sunspot light bridges. Their most prominent feature is the bright oscillating front in the 1400/1330 Å channel. These structures are named light walls and are often interpreted to be driven by p-mode waves. Above the light bridge of AR 12222 on 2014 December 06, we observed intermittent ejections superimposed on an oscillating light wall in the 1400 Å passband. At the base location of each ejection, the emission enhancement was detected in the Solar Dynamics Observatory 1600 Å channel. Thus, we suggest that in wall bases (light bridges), in addition to the leaked p-mode waves consistently driving the oscillating light wall, magnetic reconnection could happen intermittently at some locations and eject the heated plasma upward. Similarly, in the second event occurring in AR 12371 on 2015 June 16, a jet was simultaneously detected in addition to the light wall with a wave-shaped bright front above the light bridge. At the footpoint of this jet, lasting brightening was observed, implying magnetic reconnection at the base. We propose that in these events, two mechanisms, p-mode waves and magnetic reconnection, simultaneously play roles in the light bridge, and lead to the distinct kinetic features of the light walls and the ejection-like activities, respectively. To illustrate the two mechanisms and their resulting activities above light bridges, in this study we present a cartoon model.

  20. An unusual giant spiral arc in the polar cap region during the northward phase of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rosenqvist

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The shock arrival of an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME at ~09:50 UT on 22 November 1997 resulted in the development of an intense (Dst<−100 nT geomagnetic storm at Earth. In the early, quiet phase of the storm, in the sheath region of the ICME, an unusual large spiral structure (diameter of ~1000 km was observed at very high latitudes by the Polar UVI instrument. The evolution of this structure started as a polewardly displaced auroral bulge which further developed into the spiral structure spreading across a large part of the polar cap. This study attempts to examine the cause of the chain of events that resulted in the giant auroral spiral. During this period the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was dominantly northward (Bz>25 nT with a strong duskward component (By>15 nT resulting in a highly twisted tail plasma sheet. Geotail was located at the equatorial dawnside magnetotail flank and observed accelerated plasma flows exceeding the solar wind bulk velocity by almost 60%. These flows are observed on the magnetosheath side of the magnetopause and the acceleration mechanism is proposed to be typical for strongly northward IMF. Identified candidates to the cause of the spiral structure include a By induced twisted magnetotail configuration, the development of magnetopause surface waves due to the enhanced pressure related to the accelerated magnetosheath flows aswell as the formation of additional magnetopause deformations due to external solar wind pressure changes. The uniqeness of the event indicate that most probably a combination of the above effects resulted in a very extreme tail topology. However, the data coverage is insufficient to fully investigate the physical mechanism behind the observations.

  1. Solar Cycle Variation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-25

    Aug 25, 2010 ... 3Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ... ICME-associated CME latitudes during solar cycle 23 using Song et al.'s method. ..... latitudes during the three phases of cycle 23 separately for the northern (left panel) and southern. (right panel) ...

  2. Generation of coincedent EMIC and whistler mode waves by an ICME-shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, A. J.; Mann, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    Radiation belt dynamics are controlled by the competition of multiple acceleration and loss mechanisms. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC), chorus, and hiss waves have all been implicated as potential loss mechanisms of radiation belt electrons. Chorus waves are also proposed as a mechanism for accelerating the lower energy source population to MeV energies. Understanding the relative importance of these waves as well as where and under what conditions they are generated is vital to predicting radiation belt dynamics. Although the size of the solar wind compression on 9 Jan. 2014 event discussed here was modest, it gave us an opportunity to clearly observe how a magnetospheric compression can lead to the generation of EMIC, chorus, and hiss waves. The ICME generated shock encountered the Earth's magnetosphere at 20:11 UT on 9 Jan. 2014, and the Van Allen Probes observe the coincident excitation of EMIC and Chorus waves outside the plasmasphere, and hiss waves inside the plasmasphere. As the shock encountered the magnetosphere, an electric field impulse was observed to generate an increase in temperature anisotropy for both ions and electrons. This increased temperature anisotropy led to increased wave growth on both the ion and electron cyclotron branches. The simultaneous generation of multiple wave types may lead to significant impacts on the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons, especially during geomagnetic compressions observed during storms and substorms, as well as during quiet time sudden impulse events. For example, the excitation of both EMIC and chorus waves at the same place and time, may complicate studies seeking a causal connection between specific individual plasma wave bursts and observations of particle loss to the atmosphere. During this relatively small event, BARREL had three payloads in conjunction with the Van Allen Probes, two of the payloads inferred electron precipitation within the energy range typically associated with

  3. Non-Extensive Statistical Analysis of Magnetic Field and SEPs during the March 2012 ICME event, using a multi-spacecraft approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlos, George; Malandraki, Olga; Pavlos, Evgenios; Iliopoulos, Aggelos; Karakatsanis, Leonidas

    2017-04-01

    As the solar plasma lives far from equilibrium it is an excellent laboratory for testing non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this study, we present the highlights of Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics as concerns their applications at solar plasma dynamics, especially at solar wind phenomena and magnetosphere. In this study we present some new and significant results concerning the dynamics of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed in the near Earth at L1 solar wind environment, as well as its effect in Earth's magnetosphere. The results are referred to Tsallis non-extensive statistics and in particular to the estimation of Tsallis q-triplet, (qstat, qsen, qrel) of SEPs time series observed at the interplanetary space and magnetic field time series of the ICME observed at the Earth resulting from the solar eruptive activity on March 7, 2012 at the Sun. For the magnetic field, we used a multi-spacecraft approach based on data experiments from ACE, CLUSTER 4, THEMIS-E and THEMIS-C spacecraft. For the data analysis different time periods were considered, sorted as "quiet", "shock" and "aftershock", while different space domains such as the Interplanetary space (near Earth at L1 and upstream of the Earth's bowshock), the Earth's magnetosheath and magnetotail, were also taken into account. Our results reveal significant differences in statistical and dynamical features, indicating important variations of the SEPs profile in time, and magnetic field dynamics both in time and space domains during the shock event, in terms of rate of entropy production, relaxation dynamics and non-equilibrium meta-stable stationary states. So far, Tsallis non-extensive statistical theory and Tsallis extension of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy principle to the q-entropy entropy principle (Tsallis, 1988, 2009) reveal strong universality character concerning non-equilibrium dynamics (Pavlos et al. 2012a,b, 2014, 2015, 2016; Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Tsallis q

  4. Contribuição do ICMS ecológico e conservaçao da biodiversidade no estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    O ICMS Ecológico, criado pioneiramente no Paraná, trata de critérios ambientais para o repasse de recursos financeiros do ICMS a que os municípios têm direito constitucionalmente. Nesta tese avalia-se a contribuição do ICMS Ecológico à conservação da biodiversidade no Paraná. Isto se dá mediante a análise da evolução do número e da superfície das unidades de conservação registradas para efeito de crédito do ICMS Ecológico aos municípios; bem como da qualidade da conservação de parques e RPPN;...

  5. Relativistic charged particle ejection from optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, E. N.; Dik, A. V.; Dabagov, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    We have analyzed relativistic (~ MeV) electron ejection from potential channels of standing laser wave taking into account both rapid and averaged oscillations within the region of declining field of standing wave. We show that only a few last rapid oscillations can define transverse speed and, therefore, angle at which a particle leaves standing wave. This conclusion might drastically simplify numerical simulations of charged particles channeling and accompanying radiation in crossed lasers field. Moreover, it might provide a valuable information for estimation of charged particle beams parameters after their interaction with finite standing wave.

  6. The icmF3 locus is involved in multiple adaptation- and virulence-related characteristics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshui eLin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. Three separate T6SSs called H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS have been discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Recent studies suggest that, in contrast to the H1-T6SS that targets prokaryotic cells, H2-T6SS and H3-T6SS are involved in interactions with both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. However, the detailed functions of T6SS components are still uncharacterized. The intracellular multiplication factor (IcmF protein is conserved in type VI secretion systems (T6SS of all different bacterial pathogens. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that IcmF3 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 is different from other IcmF homologues and may represent a new branch of these proteins with distinct functions. Herein, we have investigated the function of IcmF3 in this strain. We have shown that deletion of the icmF3 gene in P. aeruginosa PAO1 is associated with pleiotropic phenotypes. The icmF3 mutant has variant colony morphology and an hypergrowth phenotype in iron-limiting medium. Surprisingly, this mutant is also defective for the production of pyoverdine, as well as defects in swimming motility and virulence in a C. elegans worm model. The icmF3 mutant exhibits higher conjugation frequency than the wild type and increased biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, expression of two phenazine biosynthetic loci is increased in the icmF3 mutant, leading to the overproduction of pyocyanin. Finally, the mutant exhibits decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides such as tobramycin and gentamicin. And the detected phenotypes can be restored completely or partially by trans complementation of wild type icmF3 gene. The pleiotropic effects observed upon icmF3 deletion demonstrate that icmF3 plays critical roles in both pathogenesis and environmental adaptation in P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  7. ACCELERATION DEVELOPMENT OF CORN ICM TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION AT SEVERAL AGROECOSYSTEM AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Sirappa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology innovation of corn integrated crop management (ICM is formed of concept with integrated a variety of technology component which synergy interdependent so disperse local problem, increasing eficiency input, take care of and increasingsoil fertility. Agriculture Agency of Research Development agitating for assemble new superior varieties which have a highest production, early ripening, resistent main pest and disease, tolerance of marginal domain, and yield quality which accord with consumer preference. A new superior variety which admissible for agroecosystem rain field are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1, dan Semar-10; For dry land wet climate are Bisma, Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1 and Semar-10; For acid dry land wet climate are Sukmaraga; and for dry land and dry climate are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. For necessity silage, development directed towards varieties of Bisma, Lamuru, Bima-1, and Semar-10, whereas for food matter are Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. Several strategy for accelerate of corn development, especially varieties which producting by Agriculture Agency of Research Development for farmer are trough survey or PRA, verification and evaluation technology production, field encountered, socialization of technology production, and management of seed measuring.

  8. A INCONSTITUCIONALIDADE DA COBRANÇA “POR DENTRO” DO ICMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iásin Schäffer Stahlhöfer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho tem por objetivo analisar dois casos concretos com fundamentos semelhantes: o questionamento da constitucionalidade da utilização da base de cálculo “por dentro” do ICMS. Não obstante os desfechos  e desdobramentos  dos casos em estudo, concluindo pela legalidade do método, argui-se a sua inconstitucionalidade neste artigo. Considera-se também a emenda constitucional de n° 33 de 11 de dezembro de 2001 que, na esteira dos entendimentos jurisprudenciais cristalizados nos casosparadigma em estudo neste artigo, visava a legitimar em sede constitucional a  deletéria  prática, com o objetivo de extinguir os reiterados questionamentos judiciais. Entretanto, como será demonstrado, o poder de reforma foi mal-empregado, levando à inserção de norma teratológica no âmbito da Constituição Federal de 1988, conflitante com a principiologia da sistemática tributária por ela adotada e com as limitações instituídas ao poder de tributar.

  9. The bipolar ejection in MWC560

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, O. E.; Tomov, T.; Munari, U.; Brandi, E.; Garcia, L.; Georgiev, L.; Barba, R.

    1998-11-01

    The symbiotic binary MWC560 is a very peculiar system. Consisting of a M giant and a magnetic white dwarf companion, its behaviour resembles only that of CH Cyg. The massive and fast outflows and jets, the rapid variations in brightness with a time scale of the order of twenty minutes, and the alternance between low and high activity phases, are phenomena which only could be caused by the presence of the magnetic white dwarf secondary (Mikolajewski et al. 1997). The spectrum is clearly dominated by narrow emission lines of singly ionized metals and by the Balmer lines, which show variable profiles, consisting of a strong emission component and complex absorption profiles displaying two kinds of components: a broad component with velocities of the order of -300 Km/s, always present, and violet shifted components, with velocities between -300 Km/s and -7000 Km/s, produced by the discrete ejection of material along the line of sight (Tomov et al. 1990, 1992). The radial velocities of the narrow emission lines do not show any change, and so do the velocities of the absorption lines of the M giant, supporting then the idea of face-on location for the orbital plane of the system (Tomov & Kolev 1997). The emission of the Balmer lines could be formed in an accretion disk and/or envelope around the hot companion, and the violet-shifted absorption components would be caused by the bipolar ejection of highly collimated jets by the magnetized white dwarf (Tomov & Kolev 1997). Probable spectral signatures of this bipolar ejection were previously presented (Tomov et al 1997). We are presenting here a clear evidence of the presence of the corresponding red-shifted jets, signatures of which are seen in the behaviour of the red wing of the H alpha emission profiles, mirroring the strongly violet-shifted absorption components when present. We show high resolution H alpha profiles secured between 1993 and 1998 with the Rozhen (Bulgaria) 2-m, the Asiago (Italy) 1.82-m, the San Pedro

  10. Comparison of the International Crowding Measure in Emergency Departments (ICMED) and the National Emergency Department Overcrowding Score (NEDOCS) to measure emergency department crowding: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Adrian; Abel, Gary; Raut, Pramin; Austin, Richard; Dhakshinamoorthy, Vijayasankar; Ayyamuthu, Ravi; Murdoch, Iona; Burton, Joel

    2016-05-01

    There is uncertainty about the best way to measure emergency department crowding. We have previously developed a consensus-based measure of crowding, the International Crowding Measure in Emergency Departments (ICMED). We aimed to obtain pilot data to evaluate the ability of a shortened form of the ICMED, the sICMED, to predict senior emergency department clinicians' concerns about crowding and danger compared with a very well-studied measure of emergency department crowding, the National Emergency Department Overcrowding Score (NEDOCS). We collected real-time observations of the sICMED and NEDOCS and compared these with clinicians' perceptions of crowding and danger on a visual analogue scale. Data were collected in four emergency departments in the East of England. Associations were explored using simple regression, random intercept models and models accounting for correlation between adjacent time points. We conducted 82 h of observation in 10 observation sets. Naive modelling suggested strong associations between sICMED and NEDOCS and clinician perceptions of crowding and danger. Further modelling showed that, due to clustering, the association between sICMED and danger persisted, but the association between these two measures and perception of crowding was no longer statistically significant. Both sICMED and NEDOCS can be collected easily in a variety of English hospitals. Further studies are required but initial results suggest both scores may have potential use for assessing crowding variation at long timescales, but are less sensitive to hour-by-hour variation. Correlation in time is an important methodological consideration which, if ignored, may lead to erroneous conclusions. Future studies should account for such correlation in both design and analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Animal models of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Conceição; I.H.A. Heinonen (Ilkka); A.P. Lourenço; D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); I. Falcão-Pires

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes a clinical syndrome in which the diagnostic criteria of heart failure are not accompanied by gross disturbances of systolic function, as assessed by ejection fraction. In turn, under most circumstances, diastolic function

  12. Dayside and nightside contributions to cross-polar cap potential variations: the 20 March 2001 ICME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Andalsvik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the association between temporal-spatial structure of polar cap convection and auroral electrojet intensifications during a 5-h-long interval of strong forcing of the magnetosphere by an ICME/Magnetic cloud on 20 March 2001. We use data from coordinated ground-satellite observations in the 15:00–20:00 MLT sector. We take advantage of the good latitudinal coverage in the polar cap and in the auroral zone of the IMAGE chain of ground magnetometers in Svalbard – Scandinavia – Russia and the stable magnetic field conditions in ICMEs. The electrojet events are characterized by a sequence of 10 min-long AL excursions to −1000/−1500 nT followed by poleward expansions and auroral streamers. These events are superimposed on a high disturbance level when the AL index remains around −500 nT for several hours. These signatures are different from those appearing in classical substorms, most notably the absence of a complete recovery phase when AL usually reaches above −100 nT. We concentrate on polar cap convection in both hemispheres (DMSP F13 data in relation to the ICME By conditions, electrojet intensifications, and the global UV auroral configuration obtained from the IMAGE spacecraft. The temporal evolution of convection properties such as the cross-polar cap potential (CPCP drop and flow channels at the dawn/dusk polar cap (PC boundaries around the time of the electrojet events are investigated. This approach allows us to distinguish between dayside (magnetopause reconnection and nightside (magnetotail reconnection sources of the PC convection events within the context of the expanding-contracting model of high-latitude convection in the Dungey cycle. Inter-hemispheric symmetries/asymmetries in the presence of newly-discovered convection channels at the dawn or dusk side PC boundaries are determined.

  13. M2-F1 ejection seat test at South Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 was fitted with an ejection seat before the airtow flights began. The project selected the seat used in the T-37 as modified by the Weber Company to use a rocket rather than a ballistic charge for ejection. To test the ejection seat, the Flight Research Center's Dick Klein constructed a plywood mockup of the M2-F1's top deck and canopy. On the first firings, the test was unsuccessful, but on the final test the dummy in the seat landed safely. The M2-F1 ejection seat was later used in the two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles and the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Three of them crashed, but in each case the pilot ejected from the vehicle successfully. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with

  14. Modelo de previsão da receita tributária : o caso do ICMS no Estado de Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cordeiro Teti, Aloisio

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem como principal objetivo apresentar os modelos de previsão de arrecadação do ICMS, por segmento econômico, para a Secretaria da Fazenda do Estado de Pernambuco, utilizando as técnicas econométricas. Objetiva-se, com essa pesquisa, disponibilizar aos gestores púbicos do Estado mais um modelo de previsão consistente e com certo grau de confiabilidade. Para tanto, utilizou-se da metodologia Box-Jenkins, mais especificamente os modelos: ARIMA - modelo autorregre...

  15. The immunity of the ICMS (Circulation Tax) on interstate operations involving natural gas; Da imunidade do ICMS (Imposto sobre Circulacao de Mercadorias e Servicos) em operacoes interestaduais envolvendo gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvy, Maytta A.S.; Galvao, Katia C.P.; Mendonca, Fabiano A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    The Federal Constitution of Brazil, in the article 155, para. 2nd, X, b, determines that there will not be Circulation Taxs (ICMS) over operations that destinates to other States petroleum, including lubricants, liquid and gaseous fuels of him derived. It establishes, therefore, hypothesis of tributary immunity. However, the interpretation of this rule in the juridical scenery is rounded by doubts. There are two possible interpretations: or the natural gas is included in this hypothesis of tributary immunity, considering it is a derived gaseous fuel of the petroleum or, in the other hand, it is not included in the hypothesis, since it is not admitted as a petroleum product. Using not juridical interpretative elements and using constitutional principles and interpretative rules, the conclusion is that the natural gas doesn't integrate the normative hypothesis, in view that the opposite comprehension would surpass the meaning of the norm in exam, falling in inconstitutionality. However, having in mind the convenience of enlarging the natural gas participation in the national energy head office, the possibility of granting tributary discharge through exemption of ICMS over operations between States involving natural gas is open. (author)

  16. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michelle W; Greenberg, Barry; Jaarsma, Tiny; Januzzi, James L; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Trochu, Jean-Noël; Butler, Javed

    2017-08-24

    Heart failure is a global public health problem that affects more than 26 million people worldwide. The global burden of heart failure is growing and is expected to increase substantially with the ageing of the population. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction accounts for approximately 50% of all cases of heart failure in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and reduced quality of life. Several diseases, such as myocardial infarction, certain infectious diseases and endocrine disorders, can initiate a primary pathophysiological process that can lead to reduced ventricular function and to heart failure. Initially, ventricular impairment is compensated for by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but chronic activation of these pathways leads to worsening cardiac function. The symptoms of heart failure can be associated with other conditions and include dyspnoea, fatigue, limitations in exercise tolerance and fluid accumulation, which can make diagnosis difficult. Management strategies include the use of pharmacological therapies and implantable devices to regulate cardiac function. Despite these available treatments, heart failure remains incurable, and patients have a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Consequently, the development of new therapies is imperative and requires further research.

  17. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasmas Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Singh, T.; Srivastava, A. K., E-mail: n.g.gyenge@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi (India)

    2017-03-20

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  18. Evidence linking coronal mass ejections with interplanetary magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1983-12-01

    Using proxy data for the occurrence of those mass ejections from the solar corona which are directed earthward, we investigate the association between the post-1970 interplanetary magnetic clouds of Klein and Burlaga and coronal mass ejections. The evidence linking magnetic clouds following shocks with coronal mass ejections is striking. Six of nine clouds observed at Earth were preceded an appropriate time earlier by meter-wave type II radio bursts indicative of coronal shock waves and coronal mass ejections occurring near central meridian. During the selected periods when no clouds were detected near Earth, the only type II bursts reported were associated with solar activity near the limbs. Where the proxy solar data to be sought are not so clearly suggested, that is, for clouds preceding interaction regions and clouds within cold magnetic enhancements, the evidence linking the clouds and coronal mass ejections is not as clear proxy data usually suggest many candidate mass-ejection events for each cloud. Overall, the data are consistent with and support the hypothesis suggested by Klein and Burlaga that magnetic clouds observed with spacecraft at 1 AU are manifestations of solar coronal mass ejection transients

  19. A seletividade em função da essencialidade no Imposto sobre a Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços (ICMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Feliciano Bainy

    2012-01-01

    No presente trabalho será apresentado um estudo sobre a seletividade em função da essencialidade no Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços(ICMS). O ICMS é o tributo responsável pela maior parte da arrecadação dos Estados brasileiros, e a norma da seletividade é fator decisivo na configuração dessa arrecadação. A Constituição de 1988, ao instituir o ICMS, trouxe para este tributo a seletividade em função da essencialidade das mercadorias e dos serviços tributados. A partir da verif...

  20. IMPORTÂNCIA DA PRODUÇÃO PRIMÁRIA NO RETORNO DO ICMS NOS MUNICÍPIOS DO VALE DO TAQUARI/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Schnorrenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current essay aimed to estimate primary production in The Taquari Valley cities and investigate its relevance for the financial return through resource transfers of State Tax for Goods and Services - ICMS - by the State Government. In order to carry out the research data were collected from the city’s reports as well as from reports published by The Farm Secretary of RS - SEFAZ. Results show that ICMS is one of the main sources of revenue for the Taquari Valley cities and it is connected to the capacity of aggregated value generation of economical activities among them primary production is essential. Notes that this activity is considerably relevant for the ICMS distribution criteria, the development of public policies promoting such activity is suggested in order to extend city tax collection so that it may contribute for the reduction of disparities among cities.

  1. Implantable cardiac monitors in high-risk post-infarction patients with cardiac autonomic dysfunction and moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: Design and rationale of the SMART-MI trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Wolfgang; Rizas, Konstantinos D; Stülpnagel, Lukas von; Vdovin, Nikolay; Massberg, Steffen; Kääb, Stefan; Bauer, Axel

    2017-08-01

    Most deaths after myocardial infarction (MI) occur in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >35%, for whom no specific prophylactic strategies exist. Deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate and periodic repolarization dynamics (PRD) are noninvasive electrophysiological markers depending on the vagal and sympathetic tone. The combination of abnormal DC and/or PRD identifies a new high-risk group among postinfarction patients with LVEF 36%-50%. This new high-risk group has similar characteristics with respect to prognosis and patient numbers to those of the established high-risk group identified by LVEF ≤ 35%. The SMART-MI trial is an investigator-initiated randomized prospective multicenter trial that tests the efficacy of implantable cardiac monitors (ICM) in this new high-risk group. The study will enroll approximately 1,600 survivors of acute MI with sinus rhythm and an LVEF of 35%-50% in 17 centers in Germany who will be tested for presence of cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Four hundred patients with either abnormal DC (≤2.5 ms) and/or PRD (≥5.75deg 2 ) will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to intensive follow-up via telemonitoring using an ICM device (experimental arm) or conventional follow-up (control arm). For the ICM arm, specific treatment paths have been developed according to current guidelines. The primary end point is time to detection of predefined serious arrhythmic events during follow-up, including atrial fibrillation ≥6minutes, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (cycle length≤320 ms; ≥40 beats), atrioventricular block ≥IIb, and sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. The median follow-up period is 18months with a minimum follow-up of 6months. The effect of remote monitoring on clinical outcomes will be tested as secondary outcome measure (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02594488). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effector protein translocation by the Coxiella burnetii Dot/Icm type IV secretion system requires endocytic maturation of the pathogen-occupied vacuole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley J Newton

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Coxiella burnetii encodes a type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm that is essential for intracellular replication. The Dot/Icm system delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cytosol during infection. The effector proteins delivered by C. burnetii are predicted to have important functions during infection, but when these proteins are needed during infection has not been clearly defined. Here, we use a reporter system consisting of fusion proteins that have a β-lactamase enzyme (BlaM fused to C. burnetii effector proteins to study protein translocation by the Dot/Icm system. Translocation of BlaM fused to the effector proteins CBU0077, CBU1823 and CBU1524 was not detected until 8-hours after infection of HeLa cells, which are permissive for C. burnetii replication. Translocation of these effector fusion proteins by the Dot/Icm system required acidification of the Coxiella-containing vacuole. Silencing of the host genes encoding the membrane transport regulators Rab5 or Rab7 interfered with effector translocation, which indicates that effectors are not translocated until bacteria traffic to a late endocytic compartment in the host cell. Similar requirements for effector translocation were discerned in bone marrow macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice, which are primary cells that restrict the intracellular replication of C. burnetii. In addition to requiring endocytic maturation of the vacuole for Dot/Icm-mediated translocation of effectors, bacterial transcription was required for this process. Thus, translocation of effector proteins by the C. burnetii Dot/Icm system occurs after acidification of the CCV and maturation of this specialized organelle to a late endocytic compartment. This indicates that creation of the specialized vacuole in which C. burnetii replicates represents a two-stage process mediated initially by host factors that regulate endocytic maturation and then by bacterial effectors delivered into

  3. Magazine Influence on Cartridge Case Ejection Patterns with Glock Pistols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Wim; Alberink, Ivo; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the cartridge case ejection patterns of six different Glock model pistols (one specimen per model) were compared under three conditions: firing with a loaded magazine, an empty magazine, and without magazine. The distances, covered by the ejected cartridge cases given these three conditions, were compared for each of the six models. A significant difference was found between the groups of data for each of the tested specimens. This indicates that it is important that, to reconstruct a shooting scene incident based on the ejection patterns of a pistol, test shots are fired with the same pistol type and under the correct magazine condition. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Experimental Ejection Forces of Thermoplastic Parts From Rapid Tooled Injection Mold Inserts (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinsella, Mary E; Lilly, Blaine

    2007-01-01

    .... Ejection forces for cylindrical parts molded with high density polyethylene and high impact polystyrene were measured directly and compared with values calculated from an ejection force differently...

  5. Videodensitometric ejection fraction from intravenous digital subtraction right ventriculograms: correlation with first pass radionuclide ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrano, R.; MacIntyre, W.; Salcedo, E.E.; O' Donnell, J.; Underwood, D.A.; Simpfendorfer, C.; Go, R.T.; Butters, K.; Withrow, S.

    1985-06-01

    Thirty-one consecutive patients undergoing intravenous blurred mask digital subtraction right ventriculography were submitted to first pass radionuclide angiography. Second order mask resubtraction of end-diastolic and end-systolic right ventricular digital image frames was executed using preinjection end-diastolic and end-systolic frames to rid the digital subtraction images of mis-registration artifact. End-diastolic and end-systolic perimeters were drawn manually by two independent observers with a light pen. Ejection fractions calculated from the integrated videodensitometric counts within these perimeters correlated well with those derived from the first pass radionuclide right ventriculogram (r = 0.84) and the interobserver correlation was acceptable (r = 0.91). Interobserver differences occurred more frequently in patients with atrial fibrillation and in those whose tricuspid valve planes were difficult to discern on the digital subtraction right ventriculograms. These results suggest that videodensitometric analysis of digital subtraction right ventriculograms is an accurate method of determining right ventricular ejection fraction and may find wide clinical applicability.

  6. Particle ejection during mergers of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen, 2100 Denmark (Denmark); Joyce, Michael, E-mail: carucci@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: sparre@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: hansen@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: joyce@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS IN2P3 UMR 7585, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris Cedex 05, 75752 France (France)

    2014-06-01

    Dark matter halos are built from accretion and merging. During merging some of the dark matter particles may be ejected with velocities higher than the escape velocity. We use both N-body simulations and single-particle smooth-field simulations to demonstrate that rapid changes to the mean field potential are responsible for such ejection, and in particular that dynamical friction plays no significant role in it. Studying a range of minor mergers, we find that typically between 5–15% of the particles from the smaller of the two merging structures are ejected. We also find that the ejected particles originate essentially from the small halo, and more specifically are particles in the small halo which pass later through the region in which the merging occurs.

  7. Anti-ejection system for control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    A linearly movable latch mechanism is provided to move into engagement with a deformable collet whenever an undesired ejection of a leadscrew is initiated from a nuclear reactor mounted control rod drive. Such an undesired ejection would occur in the event of a rupture in a housing of the control rod drive. The collet is deformed by the linear movement of the latch mechanism to wedge itself against the leadscrew and prevent the ejection of the leadscrew from the housing. The latch mechanism is made to be controllably engageable with the leadscrew and when thus engaged to allow the leadscrew to move in a control direction while moving with the leadscrew to engage and deform the collet when the leadscrew moves in an ejection direction. 13 claims, 2 figures

  8. Mass Ejection in Failed Supernovae: Variation with Stellar Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Quataert, Eliot; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Coughlin, Eric R.

    2018-02-01

    We study the ejection of mass during stellar core-collapse when the stalled shock does not revive and a black hole forms. Neutrino emission during the protoneutron star phase causes a decrease in the gravitational mass of the core, resulting in an outward going sound pulse that steepens into a shock as it travels out through the star. We explore the properties of this mass ejection mechanism over a range of stellar progenitors using spherically-symmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations that treat neutrino mass loss parametrically and follow the shock propagation over the entire star. We find that all types of stellar progenitor can eject mass through this mechanism. The ejected mass is a decreasing function of the surface gravity of the star, ranging from several M⊙ for red supergiants to ˜0.1M⊙ for blue supergiants and ˜10-3M⊙ for Wolf-Rayet stars. We find that the final shock energy at the surface is a decreasing function of the core-compactness, and is ≲ 1047 - 1048 erg in all cases. In progenitors with a sufficiently large envelope, high core-compactness, or a combination of both, the sound pulse fails to unbind mass. Successful mass ejection is accompanied by significant fallback accretion that can last from hours to years. We predict the properties of shock breakout and thermal plateau emission produced by the ejection of the outer envelope of blue supergiant and Wolf-Rayet progenitors in otherwise failed supernovae.

  9. The driver in flares and coronal mass ejections: Magnetic expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1988-01-01

    Chromospheric filaments, and hence the sheared magnetic fields that they trace, are observed to erupt in flares and coronal mass ejections. In the eruption, the filament-traced field is seen to expand in volume. For frozen-in magnetic field and isotropic expansion, the magnetic energy in a flux tube decreases as the flux tube expands. The amount of expansion of the magnetic field and the corresponding decrease in magnetic energy in a filament-eruption flare and/or coronal mass ejection can be estimated to order of magnitude from the observed expansion of the erupting filament. This evaluation for filament-eruption events in which the filament expansion is clearly displayed gives decreases in magnetic energy of the order of the total energy of the accompanying flare and/or coronal mass ejection. This simple expanding flux tube model can also fit the observed acceleration of coronal mass ejections, if it is assumed that the increase in mechanical energy of the mass ejection comes from the magnetic energy decrease in the expansion. These results encourage the view that magnetic expansion such as seen in filament eruptions drives both the plasma particle energization in flares and the bulk mass motion in coronal mass ejections.

  10. Jet behaviors and ejection mode recognition of electrohydrodynamic direct-write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianyi; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Jiaxin; Wang, Xiang; Li, Wenwang; Liu, Yifang; Liu, Juan; Zheng, Gaofeng

    2018-01-01

    By introducing image recognition and micro-current testing, jet behavior research was conducted, in which the real-time recognition of ejection mode was realized. To study the factors influencing ejection modes and the current variation trends under different modes, an Electrohydrodynamic Direct-Write (EDW) system with functions of current detection and ejection mode recognition was firstly built. Then a program was developed to recognize the jet modes. As the voltage applied to the metal tip increased, four jet ejection modes in EDW occurred: droplet ejection mode, Taylor cone ejection mode, retractive ejection mode and forked ejection mode. In this work, the corresponding relationship between the ejection modes and the effect on fiber deposition as well as current was studied. The real-time identification of ejection mode and detection of electrospinning current was realized. The results in this paper are contributed to enhancing the ejection stability, providing a good technical basis to produce continuous uniform nanofibers controllably.

  11. Studying the ICM in clusters of galaxies via surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Gilfanov, Marat; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2018-02-01

    We study surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) using Chandra data of XBOOTES. After masking out resolved sources we compute the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB for angular scales from {≈ } 2 arcsec to ≈3°. The non-trivial large-scale structure (LSS) signal dominates over the shot noise of unresolved point sources on angular scales above {˜ } 1 arcmin and is produced mainly by the intracluster medium (ICM) of unresolved clusters and groups of galaxies, as shown in our previous publication. The shot-noise-subtracted power spectrum of CXB fluctuations has a power-law shape with the slope of Γ = 0.96 ± 0.06. Their energy spectrum is well described by the redshifted emission spectrum of optically thin plasma with the best-fitting temperature of T ≈ 1.3 keV and the best-fitting redshift of z ≈ 0.40. These numbers are in good agreement with theoretical expectations based on the X-ray luminosity function and scaling relations of clusters. From these values we estimate the typical mass and luminosity of the objects responsible for CXB fluctuations, M500 ∼ 1013.6 M⊙ h-1 and L0.5-2.0 keV ∼ 1042.5 erg s-1. On the other hand, the flux-weighted mean temperature and redshift of resolved clusters are T ≈ 2.4 keV and z ≈ 0.23 confirming that fluctuations of unresolved CXB are caused by cooler (i.e. less massive) and more distant clusters, as expected. We show that the power spectrum shape is sensitive to the ICM structure all the way to the outskirts, out to ∼few × R500. We also searched for possible contribution of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) to the observed CXB fluctuations. Our results underline the significant diagnostic potential of the CXB fluctuation analysis in studying the ICM structure in clusters.

  12. A seletividade como instrumento concretizador da justiça fiscal no âmbito do ICMS

    OpenAIRE

    Menescal, Ana Mônica Filgueiras

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho se propõe a analisar a aplicação do princípio da seletividade do ICMS, com vistas à realização da justiça fiscal, ou seja, da distribuição mais justa da carga tributária entre os cidadãos/contribuintes e da distribuição das receitas tributárias observando critérios de justiça e igualdade tributária. A seletividade como forma de realização do princípio da capacidade contributiva, basilar para o Direito tributário justo. O direito tributário de um Estado de Di...

  13. Solar and interplanetary activities of isolated and non-isolated coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendict Lawrance, M.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Moon, Y.-J.; Umapathy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report our results on comparison of two halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) associated with X-class flares of similar strength (X1.4) but quite different in CME speed and acceleration, similar geo-effectiveness but quite different in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) intensity. CME1 (non-isolated) was associated with a double event in X-ray flare and it was preceded by another fast halo CME of speed = 2684 km/s (pre-CME) associated with X-ray flare class X5.4 by 1 h from the same location. Since this pre-CME was more eastern, interaction with CME1 and hitting the earth were not possible. This event (CME1) has not suffered the cannibalism since pre-CME has faster speed than post-CME. Pre-CME plays a very important role in increasing the intensity of SEP and Forbush Decrease (FD) by providing energetic seed particles. So, the seed population is the major difference between these two selected events. CME2 (isolated) was a single event. We would like to address on the kinds of physical conditions related to such CMEs and their associated activities. Their associated activities such as, type II bursts, SEP, geomagnetic storm and FD are compared. The following results are obtained from the analysis. (1) The CME leading edge height at the start of metric/DH type II bursts are 2 R⊙/ 4 R⊙ for CME1, but 2 R⊙/ 2.75 R⊙ for CME2. (2) Peak intensity of SEP event associated with the two CMEs are quite different: 6530 pfu for CME1, but 96 pfu for CME2. (3) The Forbush decrease occurred with a minimum decrease of 9.98% in magnitude for CME1, but 6.90% for CME2. (4) These two events produced similar intense geomagnetic storms of intensity of Dst index -130 nT. (5) The maximum southward magnetic fields corresponding to Interplanetary CME (ICME) of these two events are nearly the same, but there is difference in Sheath Bz maximum (-14.2, -6.9 nT). (6) The time-line chart of the associated activities of two CMEs show some difference in the time delay between the onsets of

  14. The origin of ICM enrichment in the outskirts of present-day galaxy clusters from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.; Rasia, E.; Murante, G.; Fabjan, D.; Gaspari, M.

    2018-05-01

    The uniformity of the intracluster medium (ICM) enrichment level in the outskirts of nearby galaxy clusters suggests that chemical elements were deposited and widely spread into the intergalactic medium before the cluster formation. This observational evidence is supported by numerical findings from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, as presented in Biffi et al., including the effect of thermal feedback from active galactic nuclei. Here, we further investigate this picture, by tracing back in time the spatial origin and metallicity evolution of the gas residing at z = 0 in the outskirts of simulated galaxy clusters. In these regions, we find a large distribution of iron abundances, including a component of highly enriched gas, already present at z = 2. At z > 1, the gas in the present-day outskirts was distributed over tens of virial radii from the main cluster and had been already enriched within high-redshift haloes. At z = 2, about 40 {per cent} of the most Fe-rich gas at z = 0 was not residing in any halo more massive than 10^{11} h^{-1} M_{⊙} in the region and yet its average iron abundance was already 0.4, w.r.t. the solar value by Anders & Grevesse. This confirms that the in situ enrichment of the ICM in the outskirts of present-day clusters does not play a significant role, and its uniform metal abundance is rather the consequence of the accretion of both low-metallicity and pre-enriched (at z > 2) gas, from the diffuse component and through merging substructures. These findings do not depend on the mass of the cluster nor on its core properties.

  15. O ICMS-Ecológico e as Unidades de Conservação no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Ranção Conti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “ICMS-Ecológico” is an economic instrument adopted in Brazil that encourages the adoption of environmental actions at the municipal level and has been used as an innovative tool, in support of public policies for biodiversity conservation. It establishes environmental criteria as conditions for channeling funds raised with added-value taxes to municipalities, rewarding environmentally desirable performances and encouraging the implementation of actions for this purpose. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, the “ICMS-E” was legally established in 2007, and several criteria have been set for the transfer of funds, including the existence of protected areas in municipal territory. Having this context as inspiration, the purpose of this article is to interpret the role of the “ICMS-Ecológico” as a mechanism of economic incentive for environmental conservation and its implications in the creation and management of protected areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Therefore, the methodology involved a literature review about the “ICMS-E” as an economic instrument in the Brazilian environmental policy, the construction of a database about the protected areas creation process in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in addition to holding interviews with institutional actors linked to the process of creation and implementation of this policy in the state. The research results show that the “ICMS-E” has promoted important advances regarding the creation and expansion of protected areas in this state, but there are still many difficulties to be overcome so that we can ensure effective management of these protected areas.

  16. ROLE OF MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH AND NUMERICAL RESOLUTION IN SIMULATIONS OF THE HEAT-FLUX-DRIVEN BUOYANCY INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avara, Mark J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The role played by magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is complex. The weakly collisional nature of the ICM leads to thermal conduction that is channeled along field lines. This anisotropic heat conduction profoundly changes the instabilities of the ICM atmosphere, with convective stabilities being driven by temperature gradients of either sign. Here, we employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the local non-linear behavior of the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI) relevant in the cores of cooling-core clusters where the temperature increases with radius. We study a grid of two-dimensional simulations that span a large range of initial magnetic field strengths and numerical resolutions. For very weak initial fields, we recover the previously known result that the HBI wraps the field in the horizontal direction, thereby shutting off the heat flux. However, we find that simulations that begin with intermediate initial field strengths have a qualitatively different behavior, forming HBI-stable filaments that resist field-line wrapping and enable sustained vertical conductive heat flux at a level of 10%-25% of the Spitzer value. While astrophysical conclusions regarding the role of conduction in cooling cores require detailed global models, our local study proves that systems dominated by the HBI do not necessarily quench the conductive heat flux

  17. Suppression of AGN-driven Turbulence by Magnetic Fields in a Magnetohydrodynamic Model of the Intracluster Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambic, Christopher J.; Morsony, Brian J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in turbulent heating of galaxy clusters. Specifically, we analyze the production of turbulence by g-modes generated by the supersonic expansion and buoyant rise of AGN-driven bubbles. Previous work that neglects magnetic fields has shown that this process is inefficient, with less than 1% of the injected energy ending up in turbulence. This inefficiency primarily arises because the bubbles are shredded apart by hydrodynamic instabilities before they can excite sufficiently strong g-modes. Using a plane-parallel model of the intracluster medium (ICM) and 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, we examine the role of a large-scale magnetic field that is able to drape around these rising bubbles, preserving them from hydrodynamic instabilities. We find that while magnetic draping appears better able to preserve AGN-driven bubbles, the driving of g-modes and the resulting production of turbulence is still inefficient. The magnetic tension force prevents g-modes from transitioning into the nonlinear regime, suppressing turbulence in our model ICM. Our work highlights the ways in which ideal MHD is an insufficient description for the cluster feedback process, and we discuss future work such as the inclusion of anisotropic viscosity as a means of simulating high β plasma kinetic effects. These results suggest the hypothesis that other mechanisms of heating the ICM plasma such as sound waves or cosmic rays may be responsible for the observed feedback in galaxy clusters.

  18. Failure and Ejection Behavior of Concrete Materials under Internal Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the failure and ejection behavior of concrete materials under internal blast, the default Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma (RHT concrete model in AUTODYN and a meshfree processor called SPH are employed in this numerical simulation. It is shown that the failure mechanisms are significantly different in these damaged zones. Crushed zone is caused by shear failure while fractured zone is induced by tensile failure, and spalled zone is formed by a combination of shear and tensile failure. In addition, the ejection velocity distribution of the fragmented concrete mass on free surface is examined. The results indicate that the ejection velocity declines monotonously with the increase of the distance to symmetry axis of computational model. On the wall of the prefabricated borehole, two types of fragmented concrete mass are analyzed, and bottom initiation is recommended to eject the fragmented concrete mass effectively. Moreover, an algorithm of average ejection speed is developed to effectively estimate the drill capacity of high velocity, energetic (HE projectiles. At last, the validity of numerical simulation is verified by physical experiments.

  19. POWER LEVEL EFFECT IN A PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bromley, B.P.; Aronson, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the initial power level during a rod ejection accident (REA) on the ejected rod worth and the resulting energy deposition in the fuel. The model used is for the hot zero power (HZP) conditions at the end of a typical fuel cycle for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 pressurized water reactor. PARCS , a transient, three-dimensional, two-group neutron nodal diffusion code, coupled with its own thermal-hydraulics model, is used to perform both steady-state and transient simulations. The worth of an ejected control rod is affected by both power level, and the positions of control banks. As the power level is increased, the worth of a single central control rod tends to drop due to thermal-hydraulic feedback and control bank removal, both of which flatten the radial neutron flux and power distributions. Although the peak fuel pellet enthalpy rise during an REA will be greater for a given ejected rod worth at elevated initial power levels, it is more likely the HZP condition will cause a greater net energy deposition because an ejected rod will have the highest worth at HZP. Thus, the HZP condition can be considered the most conservative in a safety evaluation

  20. Inhibition of DNA ejection from bacteriophage by Mg+2 counterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sell; Tran, C. V.; Nguyen, T. T.

    2011-03-01

    The problem of inhibiting viral DNA ejection from bacteriophages by multivalent counterions, specifically Mg+2 counterions, is studied. Experimentally, it is known that MgSO4 salt has a strong and nonmonotonic effect on the amount of DNA ejected. There exists an optimal concentration at which the minimum amount of DNA is ejected from the virus. At lower or higher concentrations, more DNA is ejected from the capsid. We propose that this phenomenon is the result of DNA overcharging by Mg+2 multivalent counterions. As Mg+2 concentration increases from zero, the net charge of DNA changes from negative to positive. The optimal inhibition corresponds to the Mg+2 concentration where DNA is neutral. At lower/higher concentrations, DNA genome is charged. It prefers to be in solution to lower its electrostatic self-energy, which consequently leads to an increase in DNA ejection. By fitting our theory to available experimental data, the strength of DNA-DNA short range attraction energies, mediated by Mg+2, is found to be -0.004 kBT per nucleotide base. This and other fitted parameters agree well with known values from other experiments and computer simulations. The parameters are also in agreement qualitatively with values for tri- and tetravalent counterions.

  1. Polyhedra Formation and Transient Cone Ejection of a Resonant Microdrop Forced by an ac Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Maheshwari, Siddharth; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2006-06-01

    New deformation or fission phenomena are reported for microdrops driven by an ac electric field at their resonant frequencies. The Maxwell forces that pull out the vertices from a drop can be enhanced when the ac frequency is comparable to both the drop resonant frequency and the inverse charge relaxation time of the diffuse layer. The selected polyhedra possess symmetries that ensure a global force balance of the Maxwell forces and a linear dimension consistent with a sphere whose nth harmonic (n is up to six in the observation) coincides with the applied ac frequency. At high voltages, the resonant focusing of charges by the vibration modes produces evenly distributed and transient Taylor cones that can eject charged nanodrops.

  2. Highly supersonic bipolar mass ejection from a red giant OH/IR source - OH 0739 - 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M.; Dopita, M. A.; Schwartz, R. D.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1985-01-01

    From long-slit spectrophotometry of the bipolar nebula associated with the unusual OH source, OH 0739 - 14, the presence of a blue companion to the M9 III central star was shown and a Herbig-Haro-like knot beyond each nebular lobe was discovered. From differential colors of the lobes and from radial velocities of these knots it was demonstrated that the system inclines its northern lobe in the forward direction. It was also shown that the nebulous knots are shocks being driven into an extensive circumstellar envelope, and that this material is very overabundant in nitrogen, suggesting that it is matter lost from a star of mass greater than 3 solar masses. A model of biconical ejection from a central binary is consistent with the OH observations, and a possible relation of OH 0739 - 14 to the symbiotic stars and to bipolar planetary nebulae is suggested.

  3. Chromospheric Plasma Ejections in a Light Bridge of a Sunspot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Donguk; Chae, Jongchul; Yang, Heesu; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Kwak, Hannah [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314-9672 (United States); Lim, Eun-Kyung; Cho, Kyung-Suk, E-mail: dusong@astro.snu.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    It is well-known that light bridges (LBs) inside a sunspot produce small-scale plasma ejections and transient brightenings in the chromosphere, but the nature and origin of such phenomena are still unclear. Utilizing the high-spatial and high-temporal resolution spectral data taken with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph and the TiO 7057 Å broadband filter images installed at the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory, we report arcsecond-scale chromospheric plasma ejections (1.″7) inside a LB. Interestingly, the ejections are found to be a manifestation of upwardly propagating shock waves as evidenced by the sawtooth patterns seen in the temporal-spectral plots of the Ca ii 8542 Å and H α intensities. We also found a fine-scale photospheric pattern (1″) diverging with a speed of about 2 km s{sup −1} two minutes before the plasma ejections, which seems to be a manifestation of magnetic flux emergence. As a response to the plasma ejections, the corona displayed small-scale transient brightenings. Based on our findings, we suggest that the shock waves can be excited by the local disturbance caused by magnetic reconnection between the emerging flux inside the LB and the adjacent umbral magnetic field. The disturbance generates slow-mode waves, which soon develop into shock waves, and manifest themselves as the arcsecond-scale plasma ejections. It also appears that the dissipation of mechanical energy in the shock waves can heat the local corona.

  4. Non-radial solar wind flows induced by the motion of interplanetary coronal mass ejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Owens

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the non-radial flows (NRFs during nearly five years of interplanetary observations revealed the average non-radial speed of the solar wind flows to be ~30km/s, with approximately one-half of the large (>100km/s NRFs associated with ICMEs. Conversely, the average non-radial flow speed upstream of all ICMEs is ~100km/s, with just over one-third preceded by large NRFs. These upstream flow deflections are analysed in the context of the large-scale structure of the driving ICME. We chose 5 magnetic clouds with relatively uncomplicated upstream flow deflections. Using variance analysis it was possible to infer the local axis orientation, and to qualitatively estimate the point of interception of the spacecraft with the ICME. For all 5 events the observed upstream flows were in agreement with the point of interception predicted by variance analysis. Thus we conclude that the upstream flow deflections in these events are in accord with the current concept of the large-scale structure of an ICME: a curved axial loop connected to the Sun, bounded by a curved (though not necessarily circular cross section.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (flare and stream dynamics; interplanetary magnetic fields; interplanetary shocks

  5. Numerical simulations of the solar corona and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poedts, S.; Jacobs, C.; van der Holst, B.; Chane, E.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations Of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) call provide a deeper Insight ill the Structure and propagation of these impressive solar events. lit this work, we present our latest results Of numerical simulations of the initial evolution Of a fast CME. For this purpose, the equations Of

  6. Electronic circuit detects left ventricular ejection events in cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic circuit processes arterial blood pressure waveform to produce discrete signals that coincide with beginning and end of left ventricular ejection. Output signals provide timing signals for computers that monitor cardiovascular systems. Circuit operates reliably for heart rates between 50 and 200 beats per minute.

  7. Popping the cork: mechanisms of phage genome ejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molineux, I.J.; Panja, D.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty years after Hershey and Chase showed that nucleic acid is the major component of phage particles that is ejected into cells, we still do not fully understand how the process occurs. Advances in electron microscopy have revealed the structure of the condensed DNA confined in a phage capsid, and

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Dispersion of Liquids by Ejection Atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Bondarchuk, S. S.; Evsevleev, M. Ya.; Zharova, I. K.; Zhukov, A. S.; Zmanovskii, S. V.; Kozlov, E. A.; Konovalenko, A. I.; Trofimov, V. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the dispersivity of liquid droplets in the spray cone of ejection atomizers. The calculational droplet size distribution function was measured by the method of low angles of the probe laser radiation scattering indicatrix on a pneumohydraulic bench under cold blow conditions. The efficiency of the proposed circuit designs of atomizers has been analyzed.

  9. Distribution of Latitudes and Speeds of Coronal Mass Ejections in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), known as the most energetic form of solar magnetic activity, are now ... from the CPA of the CME, assuming that CMEs propagate radially away from the solar source region .... and southern hemispheres (second panel,vertical bars) observed by SOHO/LASCO in cycle 23 from September ...

  10. EUV and Coronagraphic Observations of Coronal Mass Ejections ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1998-01-25

    Jan 25, 1998 ... steady solar wind outflow and the sporadic ejection of large plasma structures which are called ... opment of arcades of bright loops on the solar disk after the CME eruption (Kahler. 1977-Skylab ... tion of a prominence (marked with an arrow in the left panel) and the consequent post-eruptive arcade.

  11. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. - Highlights: • This study aims to calculate the dose rate profiles after cobalt device ejection from open-pool-type reactor core. • MicroShield code was used to evaluate the dose rates inside the reactor control room. • McSKY code was used to evaluate the dose rates outside the reactor building. • The calculated dose rates for workers are higher than the permissible limits after 18 s from device ejection.

  12. Protect, correct, and eject : Ostracism as a social influence tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hales, A.H.; Ren, Dongning; Williams, K.D.; Harkins, S.G.; Williams, K.D.; Burger, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism—ignoring and excluding—is an evolutionarily adaptive response that protects groups from burdensome members either by correcting the misbehavior while promoting sameness and civility, or, if correction is not achieved, then ejecting the member, resulting again in a homogeneous, albeit

  13. Invasive hemodynamic characterization of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Borlaug, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    Recent hemodynamic studies have advanced our understanding of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite improved pathophysiologic insight, clinical trials have failed to identify an effective treatment for HFpEF. Invasive hemodynamic assessment can diagnose or exclude HFp...... of pathophysiological differences and inform the design and entry criteria for future trials....

  14. Solar Cycle Variation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-25

    Aug 25, 2010 ... Spörer's sunspot law at low latitudes (thus, no 'butterfly diagram'); how- ever, at high latitudes, there may be a poleward motion and an equator- ward motion from the rise to the maximum to the declining phases. Key words. Sun: activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs). 1. Introduction. Interplanetary coronal ...

  15. A global view of the accretion/ejection flow in AGN: the role of accretion disk winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, M.; Done, C.; Proga, D.

    2017-10-01

    By merging theories and X-ray/UV observations we insert winds and failed winds into the geometrical and evolutionary scenarios for the inner regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Physically and geometrically different mass accretion flow states onto supermassive black holes correspond to different photon outflows. The photon outflows determine the AGN spectral energy distribution intensity and shape, that affect the presence of different ejection flow states and the consequent mass outflows. The mass and photon accretion and ejection flows in AGN are coupled. We show how by mainly - but not only - varying the Eddington ratio, AGN display different accretion/ejection flows that can explain the observed phenomenology from LLAGN up to highly luminous, super-Eddington QSOs, going through e.g. Seyferts, mini-BAL and BAL QSOs. In particular, during the actively accreting Seyfert/QSO phase of AGN, the presence/absence of powerful line driven accretion disk winds is crucial to explain the observed X-ray/UV phenomenology, including the α_{ox}-L_{UV} correlation and the Baldwin effect.

  16. Abordagem da concessão de crédito presumido de ICMS na Paraíba e a questão do desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Saulo Medeiros da Costa

    2014-01-01

    A presente investigação analisou as normas concessivas de subsídios fiscais de ICMS, especificamente o crédito presumido no Estado da Paraíba e a repercussão de tais benefícios fiscais e a sua vinculação, ou não, com o desenvolvimento regional, no período compreendido entre os anos 2001 a 2013. O objetivo geral foi analisar as relações entre as normas concessivas de créditos presumidos do ICMS, na Paraíba, e o desenvolvimento regional. Os objetivos específicos foram: 1) discorr...

  17. O ICMS NA EXPORTAÇÃO E SEUS REFLEXOS NA ADMINISTRAÇÃO TRIBUTÁRIA DO ESTADO DE SANTA CATARINA NO ANO DE 2004.

    OpenAIRE

    Macanhão, Rogério

    2005-01-01

    O presente trabalho possui como tema esclarecer o funcionamento do Sistema Tributário Nacional com destaque à legislação do ICMS do Estado de Santa Catarina. Procura descrever aspectos inerentes ao ICMS, como os princípios da não-cumulatividade e seletividade, passando pelo fato gerador, definição de contribuintes e outros institutos como o do crédito do imposto. A forma como se dá a acumulação de crédito é fator preponderante para que se opere a transferência do crédito. O crédito acumulado...

  18. ICMS: problems from the oil well to gas station (a risk for the investment planning in the oil, gas and energy data); ICMS: problemas do poco ao posto (um risco para o planejamento de investimentos no setor de petroleo, gas e energia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Luciano [Lex Consult, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In 1988, by changing the Constitution, that taxed the oil, based products and electric power with single tax, of Federal responsibility, going to ICMS and, as a consequence, to the states, the tributes on this products, caused not only a tribute reform, but also, as a bad view an undesired administrative reform of electric power policy. The Union, that used to keep the control of policy and tributes on that section, kept with the policy, but had lost the control over theses tributes. The workability of these investment projects now has to consider the tax charged by ICMS. Is good to say that the public's policy, after 1988, those do not regard the ICMS, may not be possible to be done. Further this worrying situation, the ICMS application has been discordant with this section, promoting juridical obstacle and doubtful legal interpretation, from the upstream to the downstream. Facing this situation, what is wanted in this work is to stimulate discussion about the necessity to find alternatives ways out, either to rescue to the public section the effective conduction of the policy over this section, or to alert the investor about the necessity to make a suitable plan, looking forward to protect your investment from the dangers of tax legislation. (author)

  19. Studying Geoeffective Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Between the Sun and Earth: Space Weather Implications of Solar Mass Ejection Imager Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    AGU, #7(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SH33A-0395. Gopalswamy, N., A. Lara , S. Yashiro, M. Kaiser, and R. A. Howard (2001), Predicting the 1-AL...and W. D. Gonzalez (2005), The association of coronal mass ejections with their effects near the Earth, Ann. Geophys., 23, 1033-1059. Sun, W„ C. S

  20. CHALLENGING SOME CONTEMPORARY VIEWS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. THE CASE FOR BLAST WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, T. A.; Pizzo, V. J.

    2016-01-01

    Since the closure of the “solar flare myth” debate in the mid-1990s, a specific narrative of the nature of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been widely accepted by the solar physics community. This narrative describes structured magnetic flux ropes at the CME core that drive the surrounding field plasma away from the Sun. This narrative replaced the “traditional” view that CMEs were blast waves driven by solar flares. While the flux rope CME narrative is supported by a vast quantity of measurements made over five decades, it does not adequately describe every observation of what have been termed CME-related phenomena. In this paper we present evidence that some large-scale coronal eruptions, particularly those associated with EIT waves, exhibit characteristics that are more consistent with a blast wave originating from a localized region (such as a flare site) rather than a large-scale structure driven by an intrinsic flux rope. We present detailed examples of CMEs that are suspected blast waves and flux ropes, and show that of our small sample of 22 EIT-wave-related CMEs, 91% involve a blast wave as at least part of the eruption, and 50% are probably blast waves exclusively. We conclude with a description of possible signatures to look for in determining the difference between the two types of CMEs and with a discussion on modeling efforts to explore this possibility.

  1. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Noncardiac Comorbidities in Heart Failure With Reduced Versus Preserved Ejection Fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentz, Robert J.; Kelly, Jacob P.; von Lueder, Thomas G.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Cowie, Martin R.; Kjeldsen, Keld; Jankowska, Ewa A.; Atar, Dan; Butler, Javed; Fiuzat, Mona; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure patients are classified by ejection fraction (EF) into distinct groups: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Although patients with heart failure commonly have multiple comorbidities that complicate management

  3. Evidence for highly processed material ejected from Abell 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard, C.; Terlvich, R.; Ferland, G.; Sargent, W.L.W.

    1980-01-01

    The discovery of compact knots of highly processed material apparently ejected from the central star of the emission nebula Abell 30 is reported here. Spectra obtained from the compact nebulosities surrounding the central star, which indicate a remarkable enhancement of helium relative to hydrogen, are discussed. Preliminary model calculations to investigate the properties of hydrogen deficient nebulae and to study the abundances of some heavy elements have been applied to the results. (UK)

  4. Energy and angular distributions of electrons ejected from CH

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relative cross sections, differential in energy and angle, for electrons ejected from CH4 and C3H8 molecules under 16.0 keV electron impact have been measured. Electrons were analyzed by a 45° parallel plate electrostatic analyzer at emission angles varying from 60° to 135° with energies from 50 eV to 1000 eV.

  5. Energy and angular distributions of electrons ejected from CH and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Relative cross sections, differential in energy and angle, for electrons ejected from CH4 and C3H8 molecules under 16.0 keV electron impact have been measured. Electrons were analyzed by a 45Ж parallel plate electrostatic analyzer at emission angles varying from 60Ж to 135Ж with en- ergies from 50 eV to ...

  6. Survivability rate among pilots in case of ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GHEORGHIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a statistical analysis of a recent research made by the author [1], showing the factors causing the accidents that happened in Romanian Air Force from 1952 to 2014. Also the decision of ejection is analyzed. The study contains 225 events: 110 catastrophes and 115 accidents. 280 fighter pilots and 235 aircraft were involved in this analysis. The below information is a personal one and does not reflect an official position of the Ministry of National Defence.

  7. The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-30

    subtracted, and heliospheric in-situ and IPS velocity measurements, are used to improve the solution for the density and velocity of material...Howard, T. A. and DeForest , C. E., “Inner Heliosphere Flux Rope Evolution via Imaging of Coronal Mass Ejections,” Astrophys. J., 746, Feb 2012...L109-L112. [51] Howard, T. A., DeForest , C. E., and Reinard, A. A., “White-Light Observations of Solar Wind Transients and Comparison with

  8. Droplet ejection and sliding on a flapping film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water recovery and subsequent reuse are required for human consumption as well as industrial, and agriculture applications. Moist air streams, such as cooling tower plumes and fog, represent opportunities for water harvesting. In this work, we investigate a flapping mechanism to increase droplet shedding on thin, hydrophobic films for two vibrational cases (e.g., ± 9 mm and 11 Hz; ± 2 mm and 100 Hz. Two main mechanisms removed water droplets from the flapping film: vibrational-induced coalescence/sliding and droplet ejection from the surface. Vibrations mobilized droplets on the flapping film, increasing the probability of coalescence with neighboring droplets leading to faster droplet growth. Droplet departure sizes of 1–2 mm were observed for flapping films, compared to 3–4 mm on stationary films, which solely relied on gravity for droplet removal. Additionally, flapping films exhibited lower percentage area coverage by water after a few seconds. The second removal mechanism, droplet ejection was analyzed with respect to surface wave formation and inertia. Smaller droplets (e.g., 1-mm diameter were ejected at a higher frequency which is associated with a higher acceleration. Kinetic energy of the water was the largest contributor to energy required to flap the film, and low energy inputs (i.e., 3.3 W/m2 were possible. Additionally, self-flapping films could enable novel water collection and condensation with minimal energy input.

  9. Management of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shane; Kaye, David M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the clinical management of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). For this critical review, electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed) were searched for relevant basic research studies and randomized clinical trials recently published or presented at major meetings. Details of in-progress or planned studies were obtained from the ClinicalTrials.gov website. The range of publication dates was the year 2000 to 2015. Search terms included HFPEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFPSF, heart failure with preserved systolic function, diastolic heart failure, diastolic dysfunction, HFNEF, heart failure with normal ejection fraction, treatment, management, therapy. Patients with HFPEF account for up to half of all patients with a clinical diagnosis of HF. Key contributing factors include hypertension, obesity, and atrial fibrillation, and other chronic diseases, including diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and anemia, frequently coexist. To date, large-scale clinical trials, particularly those focused on antagonism of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, have provided limited evidence of clinical benefit. The aggressive management of contributing factors, including hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial ischemia, is key in the management of HFPEF. New insights into the mechanisms and thus the identification of potential therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutrino transport in black hole-neutron star binaries: Neutrino emission and dynamical mass ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Kiuchi, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    We study the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries by fully general-relativistic neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamics simulations throughout the coalescence, particularly focusing on the role of neutrino irradiation in dynamical mass ejection. Neutrino transport is incorporated by an approximate transfer scheme based on the truncated moment formalism. While we fix the mass ratio of the black hole to the neutron star to be 4 and the dimensionless spin parameter of the black hole to be 0.75, the equations of state for finite-temperature neutron-star matter are varied. The hot accretion disk formed after tidal disruption of the neutron star emits a copious amount of neutrinos with the peak total luminosity ˜1 - 3 ×1053 erg s-1 via thermal pair production and subsequent electron/positron captures on free nucleons. Nevertheless, the neutrino irradiation does not modify significantly the electron fraction of the dynamical ejecta from the neutrinoless β -equilibrium value at zero temperature of initial neutron stars. The mass of the wind component driven by neutrinos from the remnant disk is negligible compared to the very neutron-rich dynamical component, throughout our simulations performed until a few tens milliseconds after the onset of merger, for the models considered in this study. These facts suggest that the ejecta from black hole-neutron star binaries are very neutron rich and are expected to accommodate strong r -process nucleosynthesis, unless magnetic or viscous processes contribute substantially to the mass ejection from the disk. We also find that the peak neutrino luminosity does not necessarily increase as the disk mass increases, because tidal disruption of a compact neutron star can result in a remnant disk with a small mass but high temperature.

  11. Coronal Mass Ejections and Dimmings: A Comparative Study using MHD Simulations and SDO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, M.; Cheung, C. M. M.; DeRosa, M. L.; Nitta, N.; Schrijver, K.

    2017-12-01

    Solar coronal dimmings have been observed extensively in the past two decades. Due to their close association with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), there is a critical need to improve our understanding of the physical processes that cause dimmings and determine their relationship with CMEs. In this study, we investigate coronal dimmings by combining simulation and observational efforts. By utilizing a data-driven global magnetohydrodynamics model (AWSoM: Alfven-wave Solar Model), we simulate coronal dimmings resulting from different CME energetics and flux rope configurations. We synthesize the emissions of different EUV spectral bands/lines and compare with SDO/AIA and EVE observations. A detailed analysis of simulation and observation data suggests that although the transient dimming / brightening patterns could relate to plasma heating processes (either by adiabatic compression or reconnection), the long-lasting "core" and "remote" (also known as "secondary") dimmings both originate from regions with open/quasi-open fields and are caused by mass loss process. The mass loss in the remote dimming region is induced by CME-driven shock. Using metrics such as dimming depth, dimming slope, and recovery time, we investigate the relationship between dimmings and CME properties (e.g., CME mass, CME speed) in the simulation. Our result suggests that coronal dimmings encode important information about CME energetics, CME-driven shock properties, and magnetic configuration of erupting flux ropes. We also discuss how our knowledge about solar coronal dimmings could be extended to the study of stellar CMEs, which may prove important for exoplanet atmospheres and habitability but which are currently not observable.

  12. Reflexo da introdução da substituição tributária de ICMS – imposto sobre circulação de mercadorias e serviços – na arrecadação do Estado de São Paulo = Reflection of the introduction of ICMS tax substitution on revenue at São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gonzales

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O ICMS- Imposto sobre Mercadorias e Serviços é um componente importante nos preços praticados pelas empresas comerciais e industriais. A sistemática de cobrança deste tributo por substituição tributária vem ganhando corpo no Estado de São Paulo, e tem por objetivos aumentar a eficácia da arrecadação e facilitar a fiscalização do referido tributo. O estudo apresentado teve por objetivo identificar, com a utilização de regressão múltipla, a existência de influência na arrecadação de ICMS de um determinado segmento no Estado de São Paulo, por decorrência da adoção da sistemática supra citada. Concluiu-se que nesse caso especificamente, ficou evidenciado o acréscimo de arrecadação após a adoção do regime de substituição tributária de ICMS, o que vai de encontro às justificativas para adoção da substituição tributária.The ICMS – which is a tax on goods and services, is a key component of the prices charged by business and industry. The systematic collection of this tax by substitution has been increased in the State of São Paulo, and aims to rise the efficiency of collection and facilitate the monitoring of that tribute. The present study aimed to identify, using multiple regression, the existence of influence in the collection of ICMS in a given section in the State of São Paulo, due to the adoption by the systematic mentioned above. It was concluded that in this case specifically, it was evident the increase in collection of taxes after adopting the collection of ICMS by substitution, which meets the reasons for adoption of the tax substitution.

  13. MHD modeling for Formation Process of Coronal Mass Ejections: Interaction between Ejecting Flux Rope and Ambient Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Daikou; Kusano, Kanya; Miyoshi, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), in which large amount of magnetic flux is launched into the interplanetary space, are most explosive phenomena in the solar corona. Due to their large influences to the space environment near the Earth, it is very important to make cleat how CMEs are formed and how determine the field orientations within CMEs. In order to examine the sufficient conditions, we performed three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of formation processes of CMEs, focusing on interaction (reconnection) between an ejecting flux rope and its ambient field. We examined three cases with different ambient fields: no ambient field, and cases with dipole field of two opposite directions which are parallel and anti-parallel to that of the flux rope surface. As the results, while the flux rope disappears in the anti-parallel case, in other cases the flux ropes can evolve to CMEs and however shows different amount of rotation of the flux rope. The results mean that the interaction between an ejecting flux rope and its ambient field is a significant process for determining CME formation and CME orientation, and also show that the amount and direction of magnetic flux within the flux rope and the ambient field are key parameters for CME formation. Especially, the interaction (reconnection) plays a significant role to the rotation of the flux rope, with a process similar to "tilting instability" in a spheromak-type experiment of laboratory plasma.

  14. Performance of a fully automated program for measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, K.H.; Tibbits, P.; Kasecamp, W.; Han, S.T.; Koller, D.; Links, J.M.; Wagner, H.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A fully automated program developed by us for measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction from equilibrium gated blood studies was evaluated in 130 additional patients. Both of 6-min (130 studies) and 2-min (142 studies in 31 patients) gated blood pool studies were acquired and processed. The program successfully generated ejection fractions in 86% of the studies. These automatically generated ejection fractions were compared with ejection fractions derived from manually drawn regions the interest. When studies were acquired for 6-min with the patient at rest, the correlation between automated and manual ejection fractions was 0.92. When studies were acquired for 2-min, both at rest and during bicycle exercise, the correlation was 0.81. In 25 studies from patients who also underwent contrast ventriculography, the program successfully generated regions of interest in 22 (88%). The correlation between the ejection fraction determined by contrast ventriculography and the automatically generated radionuclide ejection fraction was 0.79. (orig.)

  15. A repartição tributária dos recursos do ICMS nos municípios da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurélio Soares

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da geração e da distribuição da receita pública contribui para a transparência das contas públicas, para o planejamento dos orçamentos públicos e para o fornecimento de informações de melhor qualidade aos diversos usuários da contabilidade pública. A concepção e a importância da aplicação da receita pública dimensionam a capacidade governamental em fixar sua despesa e, no momento de sua arrecadação, torna-se instrumento condicionante de execução orçamentária da despesa. O Imposto sobre a Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços (ICMS é uma das principais fontes de recursos, para compor o planejamento orçamentário dos estados e municípios, provenientes da produção e movimentação das riquezas econômicas. O presente estudo objetiva investigar a relação entre a arrecadação de ICMS oriunda do movimento econômico dos municípios da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba (RMC e as transferências governamentais da cota-parte do ICMS repassada pelo governo estadual aos municípios. Os resultados indicam que, apesar dos dilemas a respeito da distribuição do imposto, comprova-se a importância que o tributo tem na política fiscal e nos orçamentos públicos, especialmente naqueles municípios de menor porte, em que sua existência depende em boa parte dessa fonte de recurso.

  16. Isenção de ICMS para deficiente físico na compra de veículo automotor.

    OpenAIRE

    Leôncio, Albano Gabriel Marques

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho trata da isenção do ICMS na compra de veículo automotor adaptado por deficiente físico, faz considerações a respeito do tema, apresentando idéias, opiniões, e problemas relacionados, foi delimitado o assunto a análise da questão a luz do princípio constitucional da igualdade, teve a intenção de dar informação, para um entendimento maior, gerando assim a discussão do tema, para quem sabe uma solução do problema.

  17. O stare decisis no Brasil: Análise do RE 572.762/SC e suas repercussões no ICMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Filipe Lôbo; Ramos, Maria Raquel Firmino

    2017-01-01

    No presente artigo, pretendemos analisar os elementos fundamentais do civil law e do common law, para, a partir disso, compreendermos como a adoção do precedente no Brasil tem ocorrido e, se a par da legislação existente e do novo código de processo civil, recém-promulgado, é possível estabelecer uma doutrina do stare decisis brasileira.  Ademais, utilizamos a última decisão prolatada nos autos do RE 572.762/SC do STF, que trata da repartição da receita do ICMS, a fim de verificar a possibili...

  18. Spironolactone for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Bertram; Pfeffer, Marc A; Assmann, Susan F; Boineau, Robin; Anand, Inder S; Claggett, Brian; Clausell, Nadine; Desai, Akshay S; Diaz, Rafael; Fleg, Jerome L; Gordeev, Ivan; Harty, Brian; Heitner, John F; Kenwood, Christopher T; Lewis, Eldrin F; O'Meara, Eileen; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Shaburishvili, Tamaz; Shah, Sanjiv J; Solomon, Scott D; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Yang, Song; McKinlay, Sonja M

    2014-04-10

    Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists improve the prognosis for patients with heart failure and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. We evaluated the effects of spironolactone in patients with heart failure and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 3445 patients with symptomatic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or more to receive either spironolactone (15 to 45 mg daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for the management of heart failure. With a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 320 of 1722 patients in the spironolactone group (18.6%) and 351 of 1723 patients in the placebo group (20.4%) (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.04; P=0.14). Of the components of the primary outcome, only hospitalization for heart failure had a significantly lower incidence in the spironolactone group than in the placebo group (206 patients [12.0%] vs. 245 patients [14.2%]; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99, P=0.04). Neither total deaths nor hospitalizations for any reason were significantly reduced by spironolactone. Treatment with spironolactone was associated with increased serum creatinine levels and a doubling of the rate of hyperkalemia (18.7%, vs. 9.1% in the placebo group) but reduced hypokalemia. With frequent monitoring, there were no significant differences in the incidence of serious adverse events, a serum creatinine level of 3.0 mg per deciliter (265 μmol per liter) or higher, or dialysis. In patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction, treatment with spironolactone did not significantly reduce the incidence of the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for the management of heart failure. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood

  19. Exercise physiology in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) suggest that noncardiac peripheral factors contribute to the reduced peak V(o2) (peak exercise oxygen uptake) and to its improvement after endurance exercise training. A greater understanding of the peripheral skeletal muscle vascular adaptations that occur with physical conditioning may allow for tailored exercise rehabilitation programs. The identification of specific mechanisms that improve whole body and peripheral skeletal muscle oxygen uptake could establish potential therapeutic targets for medical therapies and a means to follow therapeutic response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Murine Models of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valero-Muñoz, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is characterized by signs and symptoms of heart failure in the presence of a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Despite accounting for up to 50% of all clinical presentations of heart failure, the mechanisms implicated in HFpEF are poorly understood, thus precluding effective therapy. The pathophysiological heterogeneity in the HFpEF phenotype also contributes to this disease and likely to the absence of evidence-based therapies. Limited access to human samples and imperfect animal models that completely recapitulate the human HFpEF phenotype have impeded our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings that exist in this disease. Aging and comorbidities such as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes and obesity, pulmonary hypertension, and renal dysfunction are highly associated with HFpEF, yet the relationship and contribution between them remains ill-defined. This review discusses some of the distinctive clinical features of HFpEF in association with these comorbidities and highlights the advantages and disadvantage of commonly used murine models used to study the HFpEF phenotype.

  1. Investigating the Wave Nature of the Outer Envelope of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: rkwon@gmu.edu [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the nature of the outer envelope of halo coronal mass ejections (H-CMEs) using multi-viewpoint observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-A , -B , and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory coronagraphs. The 3D structure and kinematics of the halo envelopes and the driving CMEs are derived separately using a forward modeling method. We analyze three H-CMEs with peak speeds from 1355 to 2157 km s{sup −1}; sufficiently fast to drive shocks in the corona. We find that the angular widths of the halos range from 192° to 252°, while those of the flux ropes range between only 58° and 91°, indicating that the halos are waves propagating away from the CMEs. The halo widths are in agreement with widths of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves in the low corona further demonstrating the common origin of these structures. To further investigate the wave nature of the halos, we model their 3D kinematic properties with a linear fast magnetosonic wave model. The model is able to reproduce the position of the halo flanks with realistic coronal medium assumptions but fails closer to the CME nose. The CME halo envelope seems to arise from a driven wave (or shock) close to the CME nose, but it is gradually becoming a freely propagating fast magnetosonic wave at the flanks. This interpretation provides a simple unifying picture for CME halos, EUV waves, and the large longitudinal spread of solar energetic particles.

  2. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1993-01-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  3. Ejection fraction response to exercise in patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, R.L.; Lee, K.L.; Cobb, F.; Jones, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this study we describe the ejection fraction response to upright exercise using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in a group of 60 patients with chest pain, normal coronary ateriograms and normal resting ventricular function. A wide range of resting function (heart rate and ejection fraction) and exercise function (heart rate, ejection fraction, peak work load and estimated peak oxygen uptake) were measured. The ejection fraction response to exercise demonstrated wide variation, ranging from a decrease of 23% to an increase of 24%. Six of 22 clinical and radionuclide angiocardiographic variables (resting ejection fraction, peak work load, age, sex, body surface area and the change in end-diastolic volume index with exercise) were significant univariate predictors of the ejection fraction response to exercise. Multivariable analysis identified resting ejection fraction, the change in end-diastolic volume index with exercise and either sex or peak work load as variables that provided significant independent predictive information. These observations indicate that the ejection fraction response to exercise is a complex response that is influenced by multiple physiologic variables. The wide variation in this population suggests that the ejection fraction response to exercise is not a reliable test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease because of its low specificity

  4. Developer Driven and User Driven Usability Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    to measure performance of usability evaluation efforts. These criteria cover thoroughness, validity, reliability, downstream utility and cost effectiveness. This leads to my overall research question: Can we provide support that enables software development practitioners and users to drive usability...... evaluations, and how do they perform with respect to the quality criteria? I studied the developer driven and user driven approaches by firstly conducting literature surveys related to each of these topics followed by artificial settings research and finally by conducting research in natural settings....... The four primary findings from my studies are: 1) The developer driven approach reveals a high level of thoroughness and downstream utility. 2) The user driven approach has higher performance regarding validity 3) The level of reliability is comparable between the two approaches. 4) The user driven...

  5. The effects of stress on left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiess, M.C.; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Liu, P.; Newell, J.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston

    1988-01-01

    The left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was studied in 17 healthy volunteers with a new ambulatory left ventricular function monitor. Heart rate, EF, and blood pressure measurements were made during rest, a psychiatric stress interview, cold exposure, exercise, and eating. An increase in EF was seen during emotional stress (from 0.45±0.09 to 0.51±0.13, P<0.001). This increase was comparable to that observed during exercise (0.52±0.14) and eating (0.52±0.10, P<0.001). In contrast, cold exposure caused a decrease in EF (0.43±0.13, P<0.05). These observations demonstrate the powerful hemodynamic consequences of common behaviors as well as the utility and feasability of studying such behavioral factors in ambulatory subjects. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of right and left ventricular ejection fraction in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynjolf, I.; Qvist, J.; Mygind, T.; Jordening, H.; Dorph, S.; Munck, O.

    1983-08-01

    Three techniques for measurement of right (RVEF) and two techniques for left (LVEF) ventricular ejection fraction were evaluated in five dogs. RVEF was measured with a first-pass radionuclide technique using erythrocytes labelled in vitro with Technetium-99m methylene disphosphonate (MDP) and compared with RVEF measured with a thermodilution technique. Thermodilution-determined RVEF was compared with RVEF values measured with cine angiocardiography. LVEF was measured with a radionuclide ECG-gated equilibrium technique and compared with cine angiocardiography. Measurements were performed before and during a continuous infusion of dopamine. There was an excellent correlation between RVEF measured with the first-pass and the thermodilution technique. LVEF measured with the ECG-gated equilibrium technique correlated well with cine angiocardiography.

  7. Geoeffectiveness of Coronal Mass Ejections in the SOHO Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumbovic, M.; Devos, A.; Vrsnak, B.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to determine the probability distributions of the geomagnetic Dst index as a function of the coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare parameters for the purpose of establishing a probabilistic forecast tool for the geomagnetic storm intensity. Several CME...... and flare parameters as well as the effect of successive-CME occurrence in changing the probability for a certain range of Dst index values, were examined. The results confirm some of already known relationships between remotely-observed properties of solar eruptive events and geomagnetic storms, namely...... the importance of initial CME speed, apparent width, source position, and the associated solar flare class. In this paper we quantify these relationships in a form to be used for space weather forecasting in future. The results of the statistical study are employed to construct an empirical statistical model...

  8. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  9. Inter-observer variation in estimates by nuclear angiography of left ventricular ejection fraction and ejection rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.; Railton, R.

    1980-01-01

    The recent decline in the cost of computing has led to the introduction of data processing of gamma-camera images in many medical centres, allowing the development and widespread use of radionuclide techniques for assessing left ventricular performance. Methods such as ECG-gated blood-pool imaging have the advantage of being less invasive than contrast ventriculography and do not rely on geometrical assumptions about the shape of the ventricle. A study has been made of the inter-observer variation in estimates of ejection fraction and average and maximum systolic contraction rates using a micro-computer (VIP-450 Video Image Processor, Ohio-Nuclear Limited, Rugby) to analyse gated blood-pool images of the left ventricle. (author)

  10. Ejection Regimes in Picosecond Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a 3D direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials, including pure metals. To understand the ejection mechanism and thereby improve deposition, here we present visualizations of ejection events at high-spatial (submicrometer) and

  11. Left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Angela B. S.; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Bello, Natalie; Claggett, Brian; Zile, Michael R.; Pieske, Burkert; Voors, Adriaan A.; McMurray, John J. V.; Packer, Milton; Bransford, Toni; Lefkowitz, Marty; Shah, Amil M.; Solomon, Scott D.

    Aims Mechanical dyssynchrony has been postulated to play a pathophysiologic role in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods and results We quantified left ventricular (LV) systolic dyssynchrony in 130 HFpEF patients with NYHA class II-IV symptoms, ejection fraction (EF) 45,

  12. Septum magnet for ejection from the PS to the E-Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Pulsed septum magnet for ejection from PS straight sections 61/62 to the East-Hall. This septum magnet, for ss 61, had only 1 turn, for minimum thickness. It was followed by another septum in ss 62, with 2 turns, as there the ejected beam was already farther away from the circulating beam. Both septa were water-cooled.

  13. 3D ejection behavior of different sized particles in the grain-bed collision process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mao; He, Caiyun

    2013-04-01

    The impact-ejection process on a mixed-grain-size bed with granular packing was simulated with the discrete element method in order to understand the interaction between different sized grains in natural aeolian sand transport. In this model, the granular bed was formed by settling the randomly generated two-sized particles under gravity, and then a foreign particle was shot onto the granular bed at different speeds and angles. The recorded speed, direction and number of the ejected particles were then analyzed. It was found that the probability distributions of the ejection speed and angle for different sized particles are all identical to those for the single size grain-bed collision process, the mean ejection speeds of different sized particles are nearly equal, and the mean ejection angles of different sized particles are all equal to a constant of 60°. The average number of each size of ejected particles grows linearly with the increasing impact speed but remains invariant for various impact angles. Moreover, the smaller particles are preferentially ejected and the ratio between the mean numbers of different sized particles is independent of both the impact speed and angle. Additionally, the ejected particles were found to move in a 3D space, they become distributed symmetrically around the incident plane and jump not only forward but also backward. These results are critical to understanding the grain size-induced inhomogeneity in aeolian sand transport.

  14. Exercise hemodynamics in patients with and without diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads J; Ersbøll, Mads; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common after myocardial infarction (MI) despite preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, yet it remains unclear how or whether DD affects cardiac hemodynamics with stress.......Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common after myocardial infarction (MI) despite preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, yet it remains unclear how or whether DD affects cardiac hemodynamics with stress....

  15. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women : The dutch queen of hearts program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ruijter, H.; Pasterkamp, G.; Rutten, F. H.; Lam, C. S P; Chi, C.; Tan, K. H.; van Zonneveld, A. J.; Spaanderman, M.; de Kleijn, D. P V

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) poses a heavy burden on patients, their families and society. The syndrome of HF comes in two types: with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The latter is on the increase and predominantly present in women, especially the older ones. There

  16. Patient Selection in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Jacob P.; Mentz, Robert J.; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Voors, Adriaan A.; Butler, Javed; Roessig, Lothar; Fiuzat, Mona; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Lam, Carolyn S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical trials in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have provided important insights into participant selection strategies. Historically, HFpEF trials have included patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction ranging from 40% to

  17. Numerical Simulations of a Flux Rope Ejection P. Pagano1,∗, D. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenom- ena observed on the Sun. One of the most successful models to explain. CMEs is the flux rope ejection model, where a magnetic flux rope is expelled from the solar corona after a long phase along which the flux rope stays in equilibrium while magnetic ...

  18. Femtosecond pulse-width dependent trapping and directional ejection dynamics of dielectric nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Weiyi

    2013-09-19

    We demonstrate that laser pulse duration, which determines its impulsive peak power, is an effective parameter to control the number of optically trapped dielectric nanoparticles, their ejections along the directions perpendicular to polarization vector, and their migration distances from the trapping site. This ability to controllably confine and eject the nanoparticle is explained by pulse width-dependent optical forces exerted on nanoparticles in the trapping site and ratio between the repulsive and attractive forces. We also show that the directional ejections occur only when the number of nanoparticles confined in the trapping site exceeds a definite threshold. We interpret our data by considering the formation of transient assembly of the optically confined nanoparticles, partial ejection of the assembly, and subsequent filling of the trapping site. The understanding of optical trapping and directional ejections by ultrashort laser pulses paves the way to optically controlled manipulation and sorting of nanoparticles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Water-Droplet Formation and Ejection Process Using Hollow Microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Norihisa; Oka, Ryotaro; Sakai, Takahiro; Shibata, Takayuki; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nagai, Moeto; Mineta, Takashi; Makino, Eiji

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of liquid delivery using fabricated hollow silicon dioxide microneedles of approximately 2 µm in diameter. As a fundamental study, the water-droplet formation and ejection process was examined via dynamic observations during water ejection tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The experimental results indicated that fluid flow in a microneedle follows the Hagen-Poiseuille law, i.e., the flow rate is approximately directly proportional to the fourth power of the inner diameter. Moreover, the ejection pressure and maximum droplet curvature obtained using the proposed microfluid ejection model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The resulting ejection pressure is equal to the theoretical pressure difference of a spherical droplet, which is determined using the Young-Laplace equation. The maximum curvature of a droplet formed at the tip of a microneedle can be estimated on the basis of the contact angle theory expressed by the Young equation.

  20. Achieving ICME with Multiscale Modeling: The Effects of Constituent Properties and Processing on the Performance of Laminated Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) is a useful approach for tailoring the performance of a material. For fiber-reinforced composites, not only do the properties of the constituents of the composite affect the performance, but so does the architecture (or microstructure) of the constituents. The generalized method of cells is demonstrated to be a viable micromechanics tool for determining the effects of the microstructure on the performance of laminates. The micromechanics is used to predict the inputs for a macroscale model for a variety of different fiber volume fractions, and fiber architectures. Using this technique, the material performance can be tailored for specific applications by judicious selection of constituents, volume fraction, and architectural arrangement given a particular manufacturing scenario

  1. A extrafiscalidade no ICMS: seletividade, essencialidade, neutralidade e efeito indutor das normas tributárias à luz da Constituição Federal de 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael Vega Possebon da

    2015-01-01

    A presente dissertação tem por escopo a análise, do ponto de vista jurídico, dos elementos extrafiscais relacionados ao ICMS, entendidos estes como os efeitos causados pela cobrança desse tributo, além da própria arrecadação ao erário. Para tanto, iniciamos com o estudo dos efeitos econômicos da tributação e dos sistemas sociais e históricos de justificação da imposição fiscal. A partir da compreensão de que o fenômeno tributário implica interdependência entre o sistema jurídico e social, ver...

  2. The Impact of the Ecological ICMS on Investments on Sanitation and Environmental Management: Analysis of Municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Assis Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a growing economic and industrial development scenario, public policy can be used to encourage environment-friendly behaviour. In this context, it is a part of the Ecological ICMS, which is the VAT percentage of transfer raised by the States in favour of their municipalities, according to criteria established by law. In this paper, we seek to assess the contribution of the Ecological VAT in the State of Rio de Janeiro for the environmental development in this State. Therefore, of the 92 municipalities, data of budget expenses were collected for 87 of them (5 were excluded from analysis due to lack of information for some periods in sanitation functions and environmental management from 2005 to 2012 and therefore the 4 years before and after the validity of the Ecological VAT (2009. From the collected data, the mean difference test was used (Wilcoxon. The hypothesis tested was that the institution of the Ecological VAT in the State of Rio de Janeiro generated an increase of municipal expenditures in sanitation functions and environmental management. The results indicated that the average spending on sanitation and environmental management of municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro before and after the ecological ICMS institution are, from a statistical point of view, different and that the this benefit has contributed to an increase of environmental investments there. Moreover, the average expense on environmental management showed the largest percentage increase in the periods before and after the start of the distribution of resources to the Ecological VAT, although spending on sanitation express a higher total sum.

  3. Left atrial strain in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, S M; Güler, A; Güler, Y; Huraibat, A; Karabay, C Y; Akdemir, I

    2017-04-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a syndrome in which patients have symptoms and signs of heart failure but preserved ejection fraction. Left atrial (LA) volume and function are known to be impaired in these patients. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) has recently enabled the quantification of LA deformation dynamics. In this study, we evaluated the use of 2D-STE for the diagnosis of HFpEF. The study included 83 patients with suspected HFpEF. Patients were divided into two groups after HFpEF had been diagnosed according to current guidelines. Parameters of diastolic dysfunction were evaluated, including left ventricular mass index (LVMI), LA volume index (LAVI), E/A ratio, deceleration time (DT), E/E', and STE parameters such as global longitudinal LA strain during ventricular systole (GLAs-res) and strain during late diastole (GLAs-pump). The values of BNP, LVMI, DT, LAVI, and GLAs-res were significantly different between the two groups. In univariate analysis, a strong negative correlation was seen between GLAs-res and BNP (r = -0.567, p < 0.001) as well as between GLAs-res and DT (r = -0.665, p < 0.001), while a moderate negative correlation was found between GLAs-res and LVMI (r = -0.458, p < 0.001) and GLAs-res and LAVI (r = -0.316, p = 0.004). In logistic regression analysis, GLAs-res (p = 0.049, OR = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.451-0.99), BNP (p = 0.025, OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.14), and LAVI (p = 0.042, OR = 1.59, 95 % CI = 1.02-2.48) were found to be independent predictors of HFpEF. LA function as assessed by 2D-STE is impaired in patients with HFpEF. A GLAs-res value of < 17.5 % can be useful for the diagnosis of HFpEF.

  4. Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Incremental to Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction for the Prediction of Future Arrhythmic Events in Patients With Systolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Yoko; Jolly, Umjeet; Heydari, Bobak; Peng, Mingkai; Almehmadi, Fahad; Zahrani, Mohammed; Bokhari, Mahmoud; Stirrat, John; Lydell, Carmen P; Howarth, Andrew G; Yee, Raymond; White, James A

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction remains the primary risk stratification tool used in the selection of patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. However, this solitary marker fails to identify a substantial portion of patients experiencing sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we examined the incremental value of considering right ventricular ejection fraction for the prediction of future arrhythmic events in patients with systolic dysfunction using the gold standard of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Three hundred fourteen consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance were followed for the primary outcome of sudden cardiac arrest or appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. Blinded quantification of left ventricular and right ventricular (RV) volumes was performed from standard cine imaging. Quantification of fibrosis from late gadolinium enhancement imaging was incrementally performed. RV dysfunction was defined as right ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%. Among all patients (164 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 150 nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy), the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 32±12% (range, 6-54%) with mean right ventricular ejection fraction of 48±15% (range, 7-78%). At a median of 773 days, 49 patients (15.6%) experienced the primary outcome (9 sudden cardiac arrest, 40 appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies). RV dysfunction was independently predictive of the primary outcome (hazard ratio=2.98; P=0.002). Among those with a left ventricular ejection fraction >35% (N=121; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 45±6%), RV dysfunction provided an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.2 (P=0.02). RV dysfunction is a strong, independent predictor of arrhythmic events. Among patients with mild to moderate LV dysfunction, a cohort greatly contributing to global sudden cardiac arrest burden, this marker

  5. Coronal Mass Ejections: Models and Their Observational Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections (CMEs are the largest-scale eruptive phenomenon in the solar system, expanding from active region-sized nonpotential magnetic structure to a much larger size. The bulk of plasma with a mass of ∼10^11 – 10^13 kg is hauled up all the way out to the interplanetary space with a typical velocity of several hundred or even more than 1000 km s^-1, with a chance to impact our Earth, resulting in hazardous space weather conditions. They involve many other much smaller-sized solar eruptive phenomena, such as X-ray sigmoids, filament/prominence eruptions, solar flares, plasma heating and radiation, particle acceleration, EIT waves, EUV dimmings, Moreton waves, solar radio bursts, and so on. It is believed that, by shedding the accumulating magnetic energy and helicity, they complete the last link in the chain of the cycling of the solar magnetic field. In this review, I try to explicate our understanding on each stage of the fantastic phenomenon, including their pre-eruption structure, their triggering mechanisms and the precursors indicating the initiation process, their acceleration and propagation. Particular attention is paid to clarify some hot debates, e.g., whether magnetic reconnection is necessary for the eruption, whether there are two types of CMEs, how the CME frontal loop is formed, and whether halo CMEs are special.

  6. The Interaction of Coronal Mass Ejections with Alfvenic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.

    2017-12-01

    We provide a first attempt to understand the interaction between Alfven wave turbulence, kinetic instabilities and temperature anisotropies in the environment of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME). The impact of a fast CME on the solar corona causes turbulent energy, thermal energy and dissipative heating to increase by orders of magnitude, and produces conditions suitable for a host of kinetic instabilities. We study these CME-induced effects with the recently developed Alfven Wave Solar Model, with which we are able to self-consistently simulate the turbulent energy transport and dissipation as well as isotropic electron heating and anisotropic proton heating. Furthermore, the model also offers the capability to address the effects of firehose, mirror mode, and cyclotron kinetic instabilities on proton energy partitioning, all in a global-scale numerical simulation. We find turbulent energy greatly enhanced in the CME sheath, strong wave reflection at the shock, which leads to wave dissipation rates increasing by more than a factor of 100. In contrast, wave energy is greatly diminished by adiabatic expansion in the flux rope. Finally, we find proton temperature anisotropies are limited by kinetic instabilities to a level consistent with solar wind observations.

  7. A numerical study of two interacting coronal mass ejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schmidt

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction in the solar wind between two coronal mass ejections (CMEs is investigated using numerical simulations. We show that the nature of the interaction depends on whether the CME magnetic structures interact, but in all cases the result is an equilisation of the speed of the two CMEs. In the absence of magnetic interaction, the forward shock of the faster trailing CME interacts with the slow leading CME, and accelerates it. When the two CMEs have magnetic fields with the same sense of rotation, magnetic reconnection occurs between the two CMEs, leading to the formation of a single magnetic structure: in the most extreme cases, one CME "eats" the other. When the senses of rotation are opposite, reconnection does not occur, but the CMEs collide in a highly non-elastic manner, again forming a single structure. The possibility of enhanced particle acceleration in such processes is assessed. The presence of strong magnetic reconnection provides excellent opportunities for the acceleration of thermal particles, which then form a seed population for further acceleration at the CME shocks. The presence of a large population of seed particles will thus lead to an overall increase in energetic particle fluxes, as suggested by some observations.

  8. Regarding the detectability and measurement of coronal mass ejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review I discuss the problems associated with the detection and measurement of coronal mass ejections (CMEs. CMEs are important phenomena both scientifically, as they play a crucial role in the evolution of the solar corona, and technologically, as their impact with the Earth leads to severe space weather activity in the form of magnetic storms. I focus on the observation of CMEs using visible white light imagers (coronagraphs and heliospheric imagers, as they may be regarded as the binding agents between different datasets and different models that are used to reconstruct them. Our ability to accurately measure CMEs observed by these imagers is hampered by many factors, from instrumental to geometrical to physical. Following a brief review of the history of CME observation and measurement, I explore the impediments to our ability to measure them and describe possible means for which we may be able to mitigate those impediments. I conclude with a discussion of the claim that we have reached the limit of the information that we can extract from the current generation of white light imagers, and discuss possible ways forward regarding future instrument capabilities.

  9. Electron temperature and density relationships in coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, C. M.; Phillips, J. L.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    We examine 10 coronal mass ejections from the in-ecliptic portion of the Ulysses mission. Five of these CMEs are magnetic clouds. In each case we observe an inverse relationship between electron temperature and density. For protons this relationship is less clear. Earlier work has shown a similar inverse relationship for electrons inside magnetic clouds and interpreted it to mean that the polytropic index governing the expansion of electrons is less than unity. This requires electrons to be heated as the CME expands. We offer an alternative view that the inverse relationship between electron temperature and density is caused by more rapid cooling of the denser plasma through collisions. More rapid cooling of denser plasma has been shown for 1 AU measurements in the solar wind. As evidence for this hypothesis we show that the denser plasma inside the CMEs tends to be more isotropic indicating a different history of collisions for the dense plasma. Thus, although the electron temperature inside CMEs consistently shows an inverse correlation with the density, this is not an indication of the polytropic index of the plasma but instead supports the idea of collisional modification of the electrons during their transit from the sun.

  10. INTERCOMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR A PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIAMOND,D.J.; ARONSON,A.; JO,J.; AVVAKUMOV,A.; MALOFEEV,V.; SIDOROV,V.; FERRARESI,P.; GOUIN,C.; ANIEL,S.; ROYER,M.E.

    1999-10-01

    This study is part of an overall program to understand the uncertainty in best-estimate calculations of the local fuel enthalpy during the rod ejection accident. Local fuel enthalpy is used as the acceptance criterion for this design-basis event and can also be used to estimate fuel damage for the purpose of determining radiological consequences. The study used results from neutron kinetics models in PARCS, BARS, and CRONOS2, codes developed in the US, the Russian Federation, and France, respectively. Since BARS uses a heterogeneous representation of the fuel assembly as opposed to the homogeneous representations in PARCS and CRONOS, the effect of the intercomparison was primarily to compare different intra-assembly models. Quantitative comparisons for core power, reactivity, assembly fuel enthalpy and pin power were carried out. In general the agreement between methods was very good providing additional confidence in the codes and providing a starting point for a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in calculated fuel enthalpy using best-estimate methods.

  11. Spironolactone in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, C; Mendoza-Ruiz de Zuazu, H F; Formiga, F; Manzano, L; Ceresuela, L M; Carrera-Izquierdo, M; González Franco, Á; Epelde-Gonzalo, F; Cerqueiro-González, J M; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M

    2015-01-01

    Aldosterone inhibitors have been shown to be beneficial for patients with systolic heart failure. However, the evidence from patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is limited. We evaluated the role of spironolactone in the prognosis of a cohort of patients with HFPEF. We analyzed the outcomes of patients hospitalized for HFPEF in 52 departments of internal medicine of the Spanish RICA registry according to those who did and did not take spironolactone. We recorded the posthospital mortality rate and readmissions at 1 year and performed a multivariate survival analysis. We included 1212 patients with HFPEF, with a mean age of 79 years (standard deviation, 7.9), (64.1% women), the majority of whom had hypertensive heart disease (50.7%). The patients treated with spironolactone, compared with those who were not treated with this diuretic, had a more advanced functional class, a higher number of readmissions (44.3 vs. 29.1%; p<0.001) and a higher rate in the combined variable of readmissions/mortality (39.0 vs. 29.0%; p=0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the administration of spironolactone was associated with an increase in readmissions (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.16-1.78; p=0.001). For patients with HFPEF, the administration of spironolactone was associated with an increase in all-cause readmission, perhaps due to the higher rate of hyperpotassemia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. EUV and coronagraphic observations of coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh

    2005-02-01

    To identify the exact source regions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and to understand the basic physical mechanisms involved in their initiation are amongst the major challenges of modern day solar physics. The Extreme-ultraviolet Imgaing Telescope (EIT) and Large Angle Spectrometric COronagraph (LASCO) aboard Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) provides unique opportunity to study CMEs from 1.1 to 30 R⊙ since launch in December 1995. This thesis provides basic physical properties of EUV post-eruptive arcades (PEAs) observed by EIT at 195 Å and their role as tracers of source regions of CMEs. A detailed study of a specific EUV PEA event led to the discovery of a bright coronal inflow above the PEA. For specific PEA events line-of-sight magnetograms are analyzed to study the basic mechanism involved in CME initiation. Different varieties of evolutions in the photospheric magnetic field was detected during the time of CME eruption. We expect that the upcoming missions like STEREO and SOLAR-B will work in conjunction, helping us to understand the coupling between the photosphere and the corona.

  13. Incremental first pass technique to measure left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, R.; Gulliford, P.; Hoggard, C.; Critchley, M.

    1980-01-01

    An incremental first pass technique was devised to assess the acute effects of any drug on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with or without a physiological stress. In particular, the effects of the vasodilater isosorbide dinitrate on LVEF before and after exercise were studied in 11 patients who had suffered cardiac failure. This was achieved by recording the passage of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate through the heart at each stage of the study using a gamma camera computer system. Consistent values for four consecutive first pass values without exercise or drug in normal subjects illustrated the reproducibility of the technique. There was no significant difference between LVEF values obtained at rest and exercise before or after oral isosorbide dinitrate with the exception of one patient with gross mitral regurgitation. The advantages of the incremental first pass technique are that the patient need not be in sinus rhythm, the effects of physiological intervention may be studied and tests may also be repeated at various intervals during long term follow-up of patients. A disadvantage of the method is the limitation in the number of sequential measurements which can be carried out due to the amount of radioactivity injected. (U.K.)

  14. Blob Formation and Ejection in Coronal Jets due to the Plasmoid and Kelvin–Helmholtz Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Zhang, Qing-Min [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Murphy, Nicholas A., E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    We perform 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal jets driven by flux emergence along the lower boundary. The reconnection layers are susceptible to the formation of blobs that are ejected in the jet. Our simulation with low plasma β (Case I) shows that magnetic islands form easily and propagate upward in the jet. These islands are multithermal and thus are predicted to show up in hot channels (335 Å and 211 Å) and the cool channel (304 Å) in observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The islands have maximum temperatures of 8 MK, lifetimes of 120 s, diameters of 6 Mm, and velocities of 200 km s{sup −1}. These parameters are similar to the properties of blobs observed in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets by AIA. The Kelvin–Helmholtz instability develops in our simulation with moderately high plasma β (Case II) and leads to the formation of bright vortex-like blobs above the multiple high magnetosonic Mach number regions that appear along the jet. These vortex-like blobs can also be identified in the AIA channels. However, they eventually move downward and disappear after the high magnetosonic Mach number regions disappear. In the lower plasma β case, the lifetime for the jet is shorter, the jet and magnetic islands are formed with higher velocities and temperatures, the current-sheet fragments are more chaotic, and more magnetic islands are generated. Our results show that the plasmoid instability and Kelvin–Helmholtz instability along the jet are both possible causes of the formation of blobs observed at EUV wavelengths.

  15. The density compression ratio of shock fronts associated with coronal mass ejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Ryun-Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to extract the three-dimensional electron density profile and density compression ratio of shock fronts associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs observed in white light coronagraph images. We demonstrate the method with two examples of fast halo CMEs (∼2000 km s−1 observed on 2011 March 7 and 2014 February 25. Our method uses the ellipsoid model to derive the three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of the fronts. The density profiles of the sheaths are modeled with double-Gaussian functions with four free parameters, and the electrons are distributed within thin shells behind the front. The modeled densities are integrated along the lines of sight to be compared with the observed brightness in COR2-A, and a χ2 approach is used to obtain the optimal parameters for the Gaussian profiles. The upstream densities are obtained from both the inversion of the brightness in a pre-event image and an empirical model. Then the density ratio and Alfvénic Mach number are derived. We find that the density compression peaks around the CME nose, and decreases at larger position angles. The behavior is consistent with a driven shock at the nose and a freely propagating shock wave at the CME flanks. Interestingly, we find that the supercritical region extends over a large area of the shock and lasts longer (several tens of minutes than past reports. It follows that CME shocks are capable of accelerating energetic particles in the corona over extended spatial and temporal scales and are likely responsible for the wide longitudinal distribution of these particles in the inner heliosphere. Our results also demonstrate the power of multi-viewpoint coronagraphic observations and forward modeling in remotely deriving key shock properties in an otherwise inaccessible regime.

  16. The formation and launch of a coronal mass ejection flux rope: a narrative based on observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a data-driven narrative of the launch and early evolution of the magnetic structure that gave rise to the coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2008 December 12. The structure formed on December 7 and launched early on December 12. We interpret this structure as a flux rope based on prelaunch morphology, postlaunch magnetic measurements, and the lack of large-scale magnetic reconnection signatures at launch. We ascribe three separate onset mechanisms to the complete disconnection of the flux rope from the Sun. It took 19 hr for the flux rope to be fully removed from the Sun, by which time the segment that first disconnected was around 40 R ☉ away. This implies that the original flux rope was stretched or broken; we provide evidence for a possible bisection. A transient dark arcade was observed on the Sun that was later obscured by a bright arcade, which we interpret as the strapping field stretching and magnetically reconnecting as it disconnected from the coronal field. We identify three separate structures in coronagraph images to be manifestations of the same original flux rope, and we describe the implications for CME interpretation. We cite the rotation in the central flux rope vector of the magnetic clouds observed in situ by ACE/Wind and STEREO-B as evidence of the kink instability of the eastern segment of the flux rope. Finally, we discuss possible alternative narratives, including multiple prelaunch magnetic structures and the nonflux rope scenario. Our results support the view that, in at least some CMEs, flux rope formation occurs before launch.

  17. The density compression ratio of shock fronts associated with coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2018-02-01

    We present a new method to extract the three-dimensional electron density profile and density compression ratio of shock fronts associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed in white light coronagraph images. We demonstrate the method with two examples of fast halo CMEs (˜2000 km s-1) observed on 2011 March 7 and 2014 February 25. Our method uses the ellipsoid model to derive the three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of the fronts. The density profiles of the sheaths are modeled with double-Gaussian functions with four free parameters, and the electrons are distributed within thin shells behind the front. The modeled densities are integrated along the lines of sight to be compared with the observed brightness in COR2-A, and a χ2 approach is used to obtain the optimal parameters for the Gaussian profiles. The upstream densities are obtained from both the inversion of the brightness in a pre-event image and an empirical model. Then the density ratio and Alfvénic Mach number are derived. We find that the density compression peaks around the CME nose, and decreases at larger position angles. The behavior is consistent with a driven shock at the nose and a freely propagating shock wave at the CME flanks. Interestingly, we find that the supercritical region extends over a large area of the shock and lasts longer (several tens of minutes) than past reports. It follows that CME shocks are capable of accelerating energetic particles in the corona over extended spatial and temporal scales and are likely responsible for the wide longitudinal distribution of these particles in the inner heliosphere. Our results also demonstrate the power of multi-viewpoint coronagraphic observations and forward modeling in remotely deriving key shock properties in an otherwise inaccessible regime.

  18. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Segars, W. Paul; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-01

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac-gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the EF measurement. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimating the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction has been shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  19. Evidence for direct geographic influences on linguistic sounds: the case of ejectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Everett

    Full Text Available We present evidence that the geographic context in which a language is spoken may directly impact its phonological form. We examined the geographic coordinates and elevations of 567 language locations represented in a worldwide phonetic database. Languages with phonemic ejective consonants were found to occur closer to inhabitable regions of high elevation, when contrasted to languages without this class of sounds. In addition, the mean and median elevations of the locations of languages with ejectives were found to be comparatively high. The patterns uncovered surface on all major world landmasses, and are not the result of the influence of particular language families. They reflect a significant and positive worldwide correlation between elevation and the likelihood that a language employs ejective phonemes. In addition to documenting this correlation in detail, we offer two plausible motivations for its existence. We suggest that ejective sounds might be facilitated at higher elevations due to the associated decrease in ambient air pressure, which reduces the physiological effort required for the compression of air in the pharyngeal cavity--a unique articulatory component of ejective sounds. In addition, we hypothesize that ejective sounds may help to mitigate rates of water vapor loss through exhaled air. These explications demonstrate how a reduction of ambient air density could promote the usage of ejective phonemes in a given language. Our results reveal the direct influence of a geographic factor on the basic sound inventories of human languages.

  20. Noninvasive iPhone Measurement of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Using Intrinsic Frequency Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema M; Rinderknecht, Derek G; Tavallali, Peyman; Razavi, Marianne; Tran, Thao T; Fong, Michael W; Kloner, Robert A; Csete, Marie; Gharib, Morteza

    2017-07-01

    The study is based on previously reported mathematical analysis of arterial waveform that extracts hidden oscillations in the waveform that we called intrinsic frequencies. The goal of this clinical study was to compare the accuracy of left ventricular ejection fraction derived from intrinsic frequencies noninvasively versus left ventricular ejection fraction obtained with cardiac MRI, the most accurate method for left ventricular ejection fraction measurement. After informed consent, in one visit, subjects underwent cardiac MRI examination and noninvasive capture of a carotid waveform using an iPhone camera (The waveform is captured using a custom app that constructs the waveform from skin displacement images during the cardiac cycle.). The waveform was analyzed using intrinsic frequency algorithm. Outpatient MRI facility. Adults able to undergo MRI were referred by local physicians or self-referred in response to local advertisement and included patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction diagnosed by a cardiologist. Standard cardiac MRI sequences were used, with periodic breath holding for image stabilization. To minimize motion artifact, the iPhone camera was held in a cradle over the carotid artery during iPhone measurements. Regardless of neck morphology, carotid waveforms were captured in all subjects, within seconds to minutes. Seventy-two patients were studied, ranging in age from 20 to 92 years old. The main endpoint of analysis was left ventricular ejection fraction; overall, the correlation between ejection fraction-iPhone and ejection fraction-MRI was 0.74 (r = 0.74; p iPhone] + 1.9). Analysis of carotid waveforms using intrinsic frequency methods can be used to document left ventricular ejection fraction with accuracy comparable with that of MRI. The measurements require no training to perform or interpret, no calibration, and can be repeated at the bedside to generate almost continuous analysis of left ventricular ejection fraction

  1. Two codes used in analysis of rod ejection accident for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinguan

    1987-12-01

    Two codes were developed to analyse rod ejection accident for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. One was based on point model with temperature reactivity feedback. In this code, the worth of ejected rod was obtained under'adiabatic' approximation. In the other code, the Nodal Green's Function Method was used to solve space-time dependent neutron diffusion equation. Using these codes, the transient core-power have been calculated for two rod ejection cases at beginning of core-life in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

  2. Cavitation dynamics and directional microbubble ejection induced by intense femtosecond laser pulses in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, D.; Tamošauskas, G.; Rubino, E.; Darginavičius, J.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Tzortzakis, S.; Couairon, A.; Dubietis, A.

    2012-09-01

    We study cavitation dynamics when focusing ring-shaped femtosecond laser beams in water. This focusing geometry reduces detrimental nonlinear beam distortions and enhances energy deposition within the medium, localized at the focal spot. We observe remarkable postcollapse dynamics of elongated cavitation bubbles with high-speed ejection of microbubbles out of the laser focal region. Bubbles are ejected along the laser axis in both directions (away and towards the laser). The initial shape of the cavitation bubble is also seen to either enhance or completely suppress jet formation during collapse. In the absence of jetting, microbubble ejection occurs orthogonal to the laser propagation axis.

  3. Cavitation dynamics and directional microbubble ejection induced by intense femtosecond laser pulses in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, D; Tamošauskas, G; Rubino, E; Darginavičius, J; Papazoglou, D G; Tzortzakis, S; Couairon, A; Dubietis, A

    2012-09-01

    We study cavitation dynamics when focusing ring-shaped femtosecond laser beams in water. This focusing geometry reduces detrimental nonlinear beam distortions and enhances energy deposition within the medium, localized at the focal spot. We observe remarkable postcollapse dynamics of elongated cavitation bubbles with high-speed ejection of microbubbles out of the laser focal region. Bubbles are ejected along the laser axis in both directions (away and towards the laser). The initial shape of the cavitation bubble is also seen to either enhance or completely suppress jet formation during collapse. In the absence of jetting, microbubble ejection occurs orthogonal to the laser propagation axis.

  4. Prolonged vortex formation during the ejection period in the left ventricle with low ejection fraction: a study by vector flow mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Nobuaki; Itatani, Keiichi; Kimura, Koichi; Ebihara, Aya; Negishi, Kazuaki; Uno, Kansei; Miyaji, Kagami; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Takenaka, Katsu

    2014-07-01

    Vortex formation in the left ventricle (LV) can be visualized by novel vector flow mapping (VFM) based on color Doppler and speckle tracking data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a vortex during the ejection period using VFM. Color Doppler images were obtained to produce VFM images in 80 subjects (20 normal, 29 with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 31 with old myocardial infarction). The duration of the LV vortex was measured and expressed as the ratio to the ejection time (VTRe). The VTRe showed significant correlations with EDV (ρ = 0.672, p vortex existed for only a limited time during the early ejection period. In contrast, the lower the EF was, the longer the vortex remained during systole. Evaluation of vortices by VFM may noninvasively provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of impaired cardiac function.

  5. Evolution of coronal mass ejections and their heliospheric imprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollett, T.

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most powerful eruptions on the Sun and can reach speeds up to more than 3000 km/s. CMEs are the most important drivers of space weather and can cause geomagnetic storms when interacting with the Earth magnetosphere.The evolution and propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space is still not well understood. Interactions with the solar wind as well as other CMEs make accurate forecasting of arrival times difficult. The Constrained Harmonic Mean (CHM) method combines remote sensing white light data of STEREO/HI with in situ data and offers the possibility to derive kinematical profiles for any segment along the CME front to study its evolution in interplanetary space. We studied the influence of the ambient solar wind flow on the propagation behavior for three CME events. The kinematics revealed by the CHM method were compared to the simulated background solar wind. We found that CMEs are highly dependent on speed variations of the ambient medium. The CHM method was tested by analyzing a simulated CME as observed by STEREO/HI. After applying the CHM method, the resulting CME kinematics were compared to the real kinematics of the simulated CME. We found that the CHM method works best for small separation angles between the spacecraft. A case study of a fast CME that has been remotely observed by both STEREO/HI and in situ measured by four spacecraft at different heliocentric distances is also presented. Using this high number of in situ detections and the two side views we derived different speed profiles for the two different segments of the same CME causing a deformation of the overall structure of the CME. The studies presented show the effects of different influences of the ambient solar wind on the CME evolution. Interaction of CMEs with the solar wind or other CMEs lead to disturbances of the speed as well as the shape of CMEs, affecting their arrival time and their geoeffectivity. (author) [de

  6. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean ± SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52±17% and 52±16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  7. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H. [School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2010-12-15

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean {+-} SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52{+-}17% and 52{+-}16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  8. PREDICTING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS USING MACHINE LEARNING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobra, M. G.; Ilonidis, S. [W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Usually, solar active regions that produce large flares will also produce a CME, but this is not always true. Despite advances in numerical modeling, it is still unclear which circumstances will produce a CME. Therefore, it is worthwhile to empirically determine which features distinguish flares associated with CMEs from flares that are not. At this time, no extensive study has used physically meaningful features of active regions to distinguish between these two populations. As such, we attempt to do so by using features derived from (1) photospheric vector magnetic field data taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory ’s Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument and (2) X-ray flux data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite’s X-ray Flux instrument. We build a catalog of active regions that either produced both a flare and a CME (the positive class) or simply a flare (the negative class). We then use machine-learning algorithms to (1) determine which features distinguish these two populations, and (2) forecast whether an active region that produces an M- or X-class flare will also produce a CME. We compute the True Skill Statistic, a forecast verification metric, and find that it is a relatively high value of ∼0.8 ± 0.2. We conclude that a combination of six parameters, which are all intensive in nature, will capture most of the relevant information contained in the photospheric magnetic field.

  9. Predicting Coronal Mass Ejections Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M. G.; Ilonidis, S.

    2016-04-01

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Usually, solar active regions that produce large flares will also produce a CME, but this is not always true. Despite advances in numerical modeling, it is still unclear which circumstances will produce a CME. Therefore, it is worthwhile to empirically determine which features distinguish flares associated with CMEs from flares that are not. At this time, no extensive study has used physically meaningful features of active regions to distinguish between these two populations. As such, we attempt to do so by using features derived from (1) photospheric vector magnetic field data taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument and (2) X-ray flux data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite’s X-ray Flux instrument. We build a catalog of active regions that either produced both a flare and a CME (the positive class) or simply a flare (the negative class). We then use machine-learning algorithms to (1) determine which features distinguish these two populations, and (2) forecast whether an active region that produces an M- or X-class flare will also produce a CME. We compute the True Skill Statistic, a forecast verification metric, and find that it is a relatively high value of ∼0.8 ± 0.2. We conclude that a combination of six parameters, which are all intensive in nature, will capture most of the relevant information contained in the photospheric magnetic field.

  10. Normal gall bladder ejection fraction in patients with cholelithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Bharathi Dasan, J.; Choudhury, S.K.; Malhotra, A.; Guddati, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose - Recent literature suggests that increased bile turnover time may underlie cholelithiasis even in the absence of decreased gall bladder ejection fraction (GBEF). With this in mind we evaluated the GBEF in symptomatic cholelithiasis patients. Materials and Methods - Twenty five patients (20 females and 5 males), aged 35-55 years (mean 43.5 + 7.6 yrs) with ultrasonographically confirmed cholelithiasis, normal gall bladder wall thickness and normal liver function tests underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Following injection of 2-5 mCi Tc-99m-Mebrofenin, dynamic imaging was carried out at 1 min per frame for 40 minutes. Thereafter a fatty meal consisting of 4 slices of toast and 50 gms butter was given. Static images of 60 seconds each were obtained immediately after the fatty meal and thereafter at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mins. Regions of interest were drawn over the gall bladder, liver and upper intestine in each static image and GBEF calculated. Results - The mean GBEF at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mins post fatty meal were 42.61 + 23.57%, 50.1 + 24.64 %, 56.4 + 23.58%, 62.2 + 22.05%, 65.1 + 21.01% and 65.7 + 19.92% respectively. Only 3 out of 25 patients had a GBEF of < 35% at 30 mins and < 50% at 60 mins post fatty meal. Conclusion. Our study is consistent with the fact that patients with cholelithiasis may have normal GBEF. Therefore increased gall bladder bile turnover time and not decreased GBEF may be an underlying cause for cholelithiasis

  11. Light-Driven Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Antonyuk, Boris P

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with influencing the properties of solids by light-driven electron transport. The theoretical basis of these effects, light-driven ordering and self-organisation, as well as optical motors are presented. With light as a tool, new ways to produce materials are opened.

  12. Predictors and progression of aortic stenosis in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads; Schulte, Phillip J; Al Enezi, Fawaz

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the hemodynamic progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in a contemporary unselected cohort of patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Current guidelines recommend echocardiographic surveillance of hemodynamic progression. However, limited data exist on th...

  13. Right ventricular dysfunction in heart failure with reduced vs. preserved ejection fraction : non-identical twins?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Thomas M; Rienstra, Michiel; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    This article refers to 'Different correlates but similar prognostic implications for right ventricular dysfunction in heart failure patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction' by S. Ghio et al., published in this issue on pages 873-879.

  14. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  15. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  16. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  17. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  18. The control system for the CERN proton synchrotron continuous transfer ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloess, D.; Boucheron, J.; Flander, D.; Grier, D.; Krusche, A.; Ollenhauer, F.; Pearce, P.; Riege, H.; Schneider, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the hardware and the software structure of a stand-alone control system for the continuous transfer ejection from the CERN Proton Synchrotron to the Super Proton Synchrotron. The process control system is built around a PDP 11/40 mini-computer interfaced to the ejection elements via CAMAC. It features automatic failure recovery and real-time process optimization. Performance, flexibility, and reliability of the system is evaluated. (Auth.)

  19. Assessment of poststress left ventricular ejection fraction by gated SPECT: comparison with equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acampa, Wanda; Liuzzi, Raffaele; De Luca, Serena; Capasso, Enza; Luongo, Luca; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); Caprio, Maria Grazia [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, Emanuele [SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    We compared left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction obtained by gated SPECT with that obtained by equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography in a large cohort of patients. Within 1 week, 514 subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent same-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. For both studies, data were acquired 30 min after completion of exercise and after 3 h rest. In the overall study population, a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.82, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.83, p<0.0001). In Bland-Altman analysis, the mean differences in ejection fraction (radionuclide angiocardiography minus gated SPECT) were -0.6% at rest and 1.7% after stress. In subjects with normal perfusion (n=362), a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.72, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.70, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were -0.9% at rest and 1.4% after stress. Also in patients with abnormal perfusion (n=152), a good correlation between the two techniques was observed both at rest (r=0.89, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.90, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were 0.1% at rest and 2.5% after stress. In a large study population, a good agreement was observed in the evaluation of LV ejection fraction between gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. However, in patients with perfusion abnormalities, a slight underestimation in poststress LV ejection fraction was observed using gated SPECT as compared to equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography. (orig.)

  20. Custo Tributário em Projetos de Investimento: o caso dos créditos de ICMSTax Cost of Investment Projects: the case of ICMS creditsEl Costo Tributario de los Proyectos de Inversión: el caso de los créditos del ICMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPANÁRIO, Milton de Abreu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO presente artigo trata do impacto da Lei Complementar 102/2000, que derrogou a Lei 89/96 – Lei Kandir, e passou a permitir a apropriação dos créditos de ICMS, em razão de investimento em bens destinados ao ativo permanente, na razão de 1/48 por mês. O artigo procura demonstrar como essa nova sistemática – que implicou na transformação do ICMS, enquanto imposto sobre o valor acrescido, do tipo consumo para o tipo renda – conduz a uma perda de aproximadamente 30% do valor dos créditos a serem recuperados e o impacto disso sobre os gastos com investimento e sobre os lucros de pequenas, médias e grandes empresas. Do ponto de vista metodológico, trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de natureza quantitativa, que procedeu em três etapas. Inicialmente, foi obtida estimativa de valor de receita líquida de vendas e de volume de investimentos, com base nos relatórios Painel de Competitividade elaborado pela Federação das Indústrias do Estado de São Paulo (Fiesp/Serasa. Com base nessas informações, foi possível obter estimativas dos fatores de geração de débitos e créditos de ICMS, com base no modelo Controle do Crédito do Ativo Permanente (CIAP. Por fim, foram calculados três indicadores: valor presente dos créditos a recuperar/valor dos créditos; valor presente dos créditos a recuperar/valor do investimento; valor presente dos créditos a recuperar/rentabilidade vendas. Conclui-se que a sistemática introduzida pela Lei Complementar 102/2000 implica grande custo de oportunidade para as empresas e que a legislação deveria ser revista, a partir dessa perspectiva, com o objetivo de garantir menores custos associados a projetos de investimento.ABSTRACTThis article discusses the impact on the profitability of firms under Complementary Law 102/2000 (which abrogated the Law 89/96 – Kandir Law allowing the appropriation of ICMS credits, due to investment in fixed assets goods, at a ratio of 1 / 48 per month. The paper

  1. The Interaction of Successive Coronal Mass Ejections: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugaz, Noé; Temmer, Manuela; Wang, Yuming; Farrugia, Charles J.

    2017-04-01

    We present a review of the different aspects associated with the interaction of successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the corona and inner heliosphere, focusing on the initiation of series of CMEs, their interaction in the heliosphere, the particle acceleration associated with successive CMEs, and the effect of compound events on Earth's magnetosphere. The two main mechanisms resulting in the eruption of series of CMEs are sympathetic eruptions, when one eruption triggers another, and homologous eruptions, when a series of similar eruptions originates from one active region. CME - CME interaction may also be associated with two unrelated eruptions. The interaction of successive CMEs has been observed remotely in coronagraphs (with the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment - LASCO - since the early 2000s) and heliospheric imagers (since the late 2000s), and inferred from in situ measurements, starting with early measurements in the 1970s. The interaction of two or more CMEs is associated with complex phenomena, including magnetic reconnection, momentum exchange, the propagation of a fast magnetosonic shock through a magnetic ejecta, and changes in the CME expansion. The presence of a preceding CME a few hours before a fast eruption has been found to be connected with higher fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEPs), while CME - CME interaction occurring in the corona is often associated with unusual radio bursts, indicating electron acceleration. Higher suprathermal population, enhanced turbulence and wave activity, stronger shocks, and shock - shock or shock - CME interaction have been proposed as potential physical mechanisms to explain the observed associated SEP events. When measured in situ, CME - CME interaction may be associated with relatively well organized multiple-magnetic cloud events, instances of shocks propagating through a previous magnetic ejecta or more complex ejecta, when the characteristics of the individual eruptions

  2. Impact of melt-layer ejection from metallic first wall on tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2012-10-01

    At present, all-metallic tokamak first wall is preferred over carbon composite materials for next generation fusion devices, such as ITER, due to favorable thermo-physical and chemical properties of metals in fusion plasma environment. However, recent experiments demonstrate that surface of metallic components, including tungsten ones, under high transient heat load pertinent to next step tokamaks can melt and eject molten material into fusion plasma in form of droplets or fine spray [1]. The ejected material can be a source of impurity contamination of fusion plasmas and even in some cases cause discharge termination, as was observed recently on LHD. In this work, we investigate impact of ejection of beryllium droplets of various sizes on ITER-like plasmas using coupled dust-plasma edge transport code DUSTT/UEDGE [2]. Different ejection scenarios are modeled, including intermittent and prolonged ejection of molten material at the top, midplane and divertor poloidal locations in ITER. Using the modeling we assess modifications of the plasma profiles, radiation power losses, and impurity particle fluxes to the plasma core produced by various quantities of the ejectile. Critical amounts of the different materials ejected, which can lead to discharge termination, are evaluated.[4pt] [1] J.W. Coenen, et al., Nucl. Fusion 51 (2011) 113020;[0pt] [2] R.D. Smirnov, et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 415 (2011) S1067.

  3. Classification of the ejection mechanisms of charged macromolecules from liquid droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consta, Styliani; Malevanets, Anatoly

    2013-01-28

    The relation between the charge state of a macromolecule and its ejection mechanism from droplets is one of the important questions in electrospray ionization methods. In this article, effects of solvent-solute interaction on the manifestation of the charge induced instability in a droplet are examined. We studied the instabilities in a prototype system of a droplet comprised of charged poly(ethylene glycol) and methanol, acetonitrile, and water solvents. We observed instances of three, previously only conjectured, [S. Consta, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 5263 (2010)] mechanisms of macroion ejection. The mechanism of ejection of charged macroion in methanol is reminiscent of "pearl" model in polymer physics. In acetonitrile droplets, the instability manifests through formation of solvent spines around the solvated macroion. In water, we find that the macroion is ejected from the droplet through contiguous extrusion of a part of the chain. The difference in the morphology of the instabilities is attributed to the interplay between forces arising from the macroion solvation energy and the surface energy of the droplet interface. For the contiguous extrusion of a charged macromolecule from a droplet, we demonstrate that the proposed mechanism leads to ejection of the macromolecule from droplets with sizes well below the Rayleigh limit. The ejected macromolecule may hold charge significantly higher than that suggested by prevailing theories. The simulations reveal new mechanisms of macroion evaporation that differ from conventional charge residue model and ion evaporation mechanisms.

  4. Créditos do ICMS: inconstitucionalidade da legislação complementar - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.16930/2237-7662/rccc.v4n12p65-73

    OpenAIRE

    Demilson Dagostim

    2011-01-01

    A não-cumulatividade do ICMS - Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços de transporte e comunicação é um princípio assegurado pela Constituição do Brasil de 1988 que faz nascer para o contribuinte um crédito fiscal financeiro toda vez que este adquire uma mercadoria ou um serviço com incidência do imposto. A Lei Complementar n° 87 de 1996 veio confirmar que o crédito no ICMS é financeiro, ou seja, não apenas produtos intermediários e matérias-primas dão direito a este crédito, como ...

  5. Efeitos de interrupções na cadeia de impostos sobre valor adicionado: evidências em dados de declaração de ICMS no estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Zulian, Bruno Lopau

    2015-01-01

    Utilizando dados do Estado de São Paulo sobre declarações de um imposto do tipo IVA, o ICMS, encontro indícios de que firmas cujos clientes possam utilizar crédito de ICMS para compensar seu próprio passivo tributário – como no funcionamento padrão de um IVA –apresentam menor nível de evasão fiscal que empresas cujos clientes, devido à inscrição em regime especial para pequenas empresas, não sejam autorizados pela legislação brasileira a utilizar o imposto incidente em suas compras de insumos...

  6. A implantação do princípio do destino na cobrança do ICMS e suas implicações dinâmicas sobre os Estados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Leitão Paes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, utilizou-se um modelo de equilíbrio geral dinâmico para estimar os efeitos econômicos e sobre a arrecadação dos Estados da adoção do princípio do destino na tributação do ICMS, de longe o principal tributo brasileiro. Os resultados mostram impactos importantes sobre a arrecadação dos Estados, com ganhos de quase 40% no Piauí, e perda de mais de 13% no Espírito Santo, o maior prejudicado. De maneira geral, os Estados menos desenvolvidos são beneficiados pela nova sistemática, contribuindo para a redução das desigualdades na distribuição da arrecadação na federação, mas com pouco efeito sobre o produto e o consumo.In this paper, we used a dynamic general equilibrium model to estimate the effects of the adoption of destination principle at ICMS, the most important Brazilian tax, on the states public finance. The results had shown that Piauí could increase its revenue from ICMS by almost 40%, while Espírito Santo could suffer a loss by more than 13%. In general, less developed states will gain with the adoption of destination principle, contributing to reduce the inequality of tax revenues between states in Brazil, with little effect in output and consumption.

  7. Better Visual Outcome by Intraocular Lens Ejection in Geriatric Patients with Ruptured Ocular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Tadasu; Tsunekawa, Taichi; Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Kachi, Shu; Ito, Yasuki; Ueno, Shinji; Nonobe, Norie; Kataoka, Keiko; Suzumura, Ayana; Iwase, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Because of the popularity of cataract surgeries, aged individuals with ocular trauma commonly have a surgical wound in their eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of cases that were coincident with intraocular lens (IOL) ejection in the eyes with ruptured open-globe ocular injuries. Consecutive patients with open-globe ocular injuries were first reviewed. Patients’ characteristics, corrected distance visual acuities (CDVAs) over 3 years after the trauma, causes of injuries, traumatic wound patterns, and coexistence of retinal detachment were examined. The relationships between poor CDVA and the other factors, including the complications of crystalline lens and IOL ejection, were examined. A total of 105 eyes/patients [43 eyes with rupture, 33 with penetrating, 28 with intraocular foreign body (IOFB), and 1 with perforating injuries] were included. Rupture injuries were common in aged patients and were mostly caused by falls, whereas penetrating and IOFB injuries were common in young male patients. CDVAs of the eyes with rupture injuries were significantly worse than those of the eyes with penetrating or IOFB injuries. CDVA from more than 50% of the ruptured eyes resulted in no light perception or light perception to 20/500. CDVA of the ruptured eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection was significantly worse than that of those complicated by IOL ejection. The wounds of the ruptured eyes complicated by IOL ejection were mainly located at the superior corneoscleral limbus, whereas those of the eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection were located at the posterior sclera. There were significant correlations between poor CDVA and retinal detachment and crystalline lens ejection. These results proposed a new trend in the ocular injuries that commonly occur in aged patients; history of cataract surgery might affect the final visual outcome after open

  8. Better Visual Outcome by Intraocular Lens Ejection in Geriatric Patients with Ruptured Ocular Injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kaneko

    Full Text Available Ocular trauma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Because of the popularity of cataract surgeries, aged individuals with ocular trauma commonly have a surgical wound in their eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of cases that were coincident with intraocular lens (IOL ejection in the eyes with ruptured open-globe ocular injuries. Consecutive patients with open-globe ocular injuries were first reviewed. Patients' characteristics, corrected distance visual acuities (CDVAs over 3 years after the trauma, causes of injuries, traumatic wound patterns, and coexistence of retinal detachment were examined. The relationships between poor CDVA and the other factors, including the complications of crystalline lens and IOL ejection, were examined. A total of 105 eyes/patients [43 eyes with rupture, 33 with penetrating, 28 with intraocular foreign body (IOFB, and 1 with perforating injuries] were included. Rupture injuries were common in aged patients and were mostly caused by falls, whereas penetrating and IOFB injuries were common in young male patients. CDVAs of the eyes with rupture injuries were significantly worse than those of the eyes with penetrating or IOFB injuries. CDVA from more than 50% of the ruptured eyes resulted in no light perception or light perception to 20/500. CDVA of the ruptured eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection was significantly worse than that of those complicated by IOL ejection. The wounds of the ruptured eyes complicated by IOL ejection were mainly located at the superior corneoscleral limbus, whereas those of the eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection were located at the posterior sclera. There were significant correlations between poor CDVA and retinal detachment and crystalline lens ejection. These results proposed a new trend in the ocular injuries that commonly occur in aged patients; history of cataract surgery might affect the final visual outcome

  9. A study on interaction of DNA molecules and carbon nanotubes for an effective ejection of the molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, N.; Wang, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The ejection of DNA molecules from carbon nanotubes is reported from interaction energy perspectives by molecular dynamics simulations. The critical ejection energy, which is to be applied to a DNA molecule for a successful ejection from a carbon nanotube, is investigated based on a study on the friction and binding energy between the DNA molecule and the tube. An effective ejection is realized by subjecting a kinetic energy on the DNA molecule that is larger than the solved critical ejection energy. In addition, the relationship between ejection energies and sizes of DNA molecules and carbon nanotubes is investigated. -- Highlights: ► Report the ejection of DNA molecules from CNTs from interaction energy perspectives. ► Develop a methodology for the critical energy of an effective ejection of a DNA molecule from a CNT. ► Present the relationship between critical ejection energies and sizes of DNA molecules and CNTs. ► Provide a general guidance on the ejection of encapsulated molecules from CNTs.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Ejected Molten Metal Nanoparticles Liquified by Laser Irradiation: Interplay of Geometry and Dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, S.; Kondic, L.

    2013-07-01

    Metallic nanoparticles, liquified by fast laser irradiation, go through a rapid change of shape attempting to minimize their surface energy. The resulting nanodrops may be ejected from the substrate when the mechanisms leading to dewetting are sufficiently strong, as in the experiments involving gold nanoparticles [Habenicht et al., Science 309, 2043 (2005)]. We use a direct continuum-level approach to accurately model the process of liquid nanodrop formation and the subsequent ejection from the substrate. Our computations show a significant role of inertial effects and an elaborate interplay of initial geometry and wetting properties: e.g., we can control the direction of ejection by prescribing appropriate initial shape and/or wetting properties. The basic insight regarding ejection itself can be reached by considering a simple effective model based on an energy balance. We validate our computations by comparing directly with the experiments specified above involving the length scales measured in hundreds of nanometers and with molecular dynamics simulations on much shorter scales measured in tens of atomic diameters, as by M. Fuentes-Cabrera et al. [Phys. Rev. E 83, 041603 (2011)]. The quantitative agreement, in addition to illustrating how to control particle ejection, shows utility of continuum-based simulation in describing dynamics on nanoscale quantitatively, even in a complex setting as considered here.

  11. Regional ejection fraction: a quantitative radionuclide index of regional left ventricular performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, D.E.; Wynne, J.; Uren, R.; Parker, J.A.; Idoine, J.; Siegel, L.C.; Neill, J.M.; Cohn, P.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Left ventricular regional ejection fractions were derived from background-corrected, time-activity curves in 43 patients assessed by both gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography and left ventricular contrast angiography. From a single, modified left anterior oblique projection, the regional change in background corrected counts was determined in each of three anatomic regions. The normal range for regional radionuclide ejection fraction was determined in 10 patients with normal contrast ventriculograms and without obstructive coronary artery disease at coronary arteriography. Regional ejection fraction was compared with percent segmental axis shortening and extent of akinetic segments in corresponding regions of the contrast ventriculogram. Radionuclide and roentgenographic methods were in agreement as to the presence or absence of abnormal wall motion in 83 of 99 left ventricular regions (84%) in 33 patients evaluated prospectively. Comparison of regional ejection fraction demonstrated significant differences between regions with roentgenographically determined normokinesis hypokinesis, and akinesis. We conclude that the left ventricular regional ejection fraction provides a reliable quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular performance

  12. THE NATURE OF HYPERVELOCITY STARS AND THE TIME BETWEEN THEIR FORMATION AND EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cohen, Judith G., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jlc@astro.caltech.edu [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We obtain Keck HIRES spectroscopy of HVS5, one of the fastest unbound stars in the Milky Way halo. We show that HVS5 is a 3.62 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} main-sequence B star at a distance of 50 {+-} 5 kpc. The difference between its age and its flight time from the Galactic center is 105 {+-} 18 (stat) {+-}30 (sys) Myr; flight times from locations elsewhere in the Galactic disk are similar. This 10{sup 8} yr 'arrival time' between formation and ejection is difficult to reconcile with any ejection scenario involving massive stars that live for only 10{sup 7} yr. For comparison, we derive arrival times of 10{sup 7} yr for two unbound runaway B stars, consistent with their disk origin where ejection results from a supernova in a binary system or dynamical interactions between massive stars in a dense star cluster. For HVS5, ejection during the first 10{sup 7} yr of its lifetime is ruled out at the 3{sigma} level. Together with the 10{sup 8} yr arrival times inferred for three other well-studied hypervelocity stars (HVSs), these results are consistent with a Galactic center origin for the HVSs. If the HVSs were indeed ejected by the central black hole, then the Galactic center was forming stars {approx_equal}200 Myr ago, and the progenitors of the HVSs took {approx_equal}100 Myr to enter the black hole's loss cone.

  13. THE NATURE OF HYPERVELOCITY STARS AND THE TIME BETWEEN THEIR FORMATION AND EJECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    We obtain Keck HIRES spectroscopy of HVS5, one of the fastest unbound stars in the Milky Way halo. We show that HVS5 is a 3.62 ± 0.11 M ☉ main-sequence B star at a distance of 50 ± 5 kpc. The difference between its age and its flight time from the Galactic center is 105 ± 18 (stat) ±30 (sys) Myr; flight times from locations elsewhere in the Galactic disk are similar. This 10 8 yr 'arrival time' between formation and ejection is difficult to reconcile with any ejection scenario involving massive stars that live for only 10 7 yr. For comparison, we derive arrival times of 10 7 yr for two unbound runaway B stars, consistent with their disk origin where ejection results from a supernova in a binary system or dynamical interactions between massive stars in a dense star cluster. For HVS5, ejection during the first 10 7 yr of its lifetime is ruled out at the 3σ level. Together with the 10 8 yr arrival times inferred for three other well-studied hypervelocity stars (HVSs), these results are consistent with a Galactic center origin for the HVSs. If the HVSs were indeed ejected by the central black hole, then the Galactic center was forming stars ≅200 Myr ago, and the progenitors of the HVSs took ≅100 Myr to enter the black hole's loss cone.

  14. Propagation and Interaction Properties of Successive Coronal Mass Ejections in Relation to a Complex Type II Radio Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. D.; Zhao, X.; Zhu, B.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the propagation and interaction properties of three successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from 2001 November 21-22, with a focus on their connection with the behaviors of the associated long-duration complex type II radio burst. In combination with coronagraph and multi-point in situ observations, the long-duration type II burst provides key features that help resolve the propagation and interaction complexities of the three CMEs. The two CMEs from November 22 interacted first and then overtook the November 21 CME at a distance of about 0.85 AU from the Sun. The time scale that the shock originally driven by the last CME spent inside the preceding two CMEs is estimated to be about 14 and 6 hr, respectively. We present a simple analytical model without any free parameters to characterize the whole Sun-to-Earth propagation of the shock, which shows a remarkable consistency with all the available data and MHD simulations even out to the distance of Ulysses (2.34 AU). The coordination of in situ measurements at the Earth and Ulysses, which were separated by 73o in latitude, gives important clues for the understanding of shock structure and the interpretation of in situ signatures. The results also indicate means to increase geo-effectiveness with three CMEs, similar to the the ``perfect storm" scenario proposed by te{liu14a} although the current case is not ``super" in the same sense as the 2012 July 23 event.

  15. Signatures of the impact of flare-ejected plasma on the photosphere of a sunspot light bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, T.; Collados, M.; Khomenko, E.; Rajaguru, S. P.; Franz, M.; Kuckein, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the properties of a sunspot light bridge, focusing on the changes produced by the impact of a plasma blob ejected from a C-class flare. Methods: We observed a sunspot in active region NOAA 12544 using spectropolarimetric raster maps of the four Fe I lines around 15 655 Å with the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph, narrow-band intensity images sampling the Fe I 6173 Å line with the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer, and intensity broad-band images in G-band and Ca II H-band with the High-resolution Fast Imager. All these instruments are located at the GREGOR telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. The data cover the time before, during, and after the flare event. The analysis is complemented with Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The physical parameters of the atmosphere at differents heights were inferred using spectral-line inversion techniques. Results: We identify photospheric and chromospheric brightenings, heating events, and changes in the Stokes profiles associated with the flare eruption and the subsequent arrival of the plasma blob to the light bridge, after traveling along an active region loop. Conclusions: The measurements suggest that these phenomena are the result of reconnection events driven by the interaction of the plasma blob with the magnetic field topology of the light bridge. Movies attached to Figs. 1 and 3 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  16. The Eruption of a Small-scale Emerging Flux Rope as the Driver of an M-class Flare and of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Wang, J. C.; Yang, L. H.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming 650216, Yunnan (China); Jiang, C. W. [Institute of Space Science and Applied Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 5180055 (China); Priest, E. R. [Mathematics Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cao, W. D. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Ji, H. S., E-mail: yanxl@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-08-10

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are the most powerful explosions in the Sun. They are major sources of potentially destructive space weather conditions. However, the possible causes of their initiation remain controversial. Using high-resolution data observed by the New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, we present unusual observations of a small-scale emerging flux rope near a large sunspot, whose eruption produced an M-class flare and a coronal mass ejection. The presence of the small-scale flux rope was indicated by static nonlinear force-free field extrapolation as well as data-driven magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the dynamic evolution of the coronal three-dimensional magnetic field. During the emergence of the flux rope, rotation of satellite sunspots at the footpoints of the flux rope was observed. Meanwhile, the Lorentz force, magnetic energy, vertical current, and transverse fields were increasing during this phase. The free energy from the magnetic flux emergence and twisting magnetic fields is sufficient to power the M-class flare. These observations present, for the first time, the complete process, from the emergence of the small-scale flux rope, to the production of solar eruptions.

  17. Nest Sanitation as the Evolutionary Background for Egg Ejection Behaviour and the Role of Motivation for Object Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Pol??ek, Miroslav; Griggio, Matteo; Bart?kov?, Michaela; Hoi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i) motivation and its underlying function and, ii) which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection ...

  18. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for estimation stress intensity factor. Surface crack on ICM housing for penetration in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation. 1. Surface Crack on ICM Housing for Penetration in Reactor Vessel (JNES-RE-2012-0011). Example FEM analysis results, measurements and comparisons of them for residual stresses are described in the above 6 volumes of Data Book of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. And these analyses were performed with material properties up to high temperature which were obtained in IAF project. It is proposed that evaluation formulas for K of simple structures like a cylinder and a plane are applied to calculate K of complex structures and comparisons with FEM analyses and described as an evidence of reasonability and conservativeness in the above Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation. However, the analysis models and conditions are described on condition of functions of specified analysis code. It is necessary to investigate references from activity reports of IAF project if another analysis code is applied. This report is described simplified evaluation method of stress intensity factor required to predict crack growth in dissimilar weld joint and also application conditions, for ICM housing of BWR as one example. And further, reasonability of the simplified method based on comparison with FEM analysis was described as exposition. (author)

  19. Anti-ejection device, which can be released, for control rods of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belz, G.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention proposes an anti-ejection device which allows to withdraw the control rod out of a PWR reactor core if the locking systems of the rod translation are streck. This device prohibits the control rod ejection as long as an effort lower than a predetermined value is not applied on the control rod. This limit value is determined with regard of the efforts which may be applied on the control rod in case of an external accidental source. Nevertheless, if the anti-ejection mechanism remains stuck, it is however possible to withdraw the control rod out of the core applying on its control rod drives an effort higher than the limit value [fr

  20. Experimental study of window-ejected flame and plume on glass curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an experimental study to investigate the performance of glass curtain walls exposed to exterior flame and plume ejected from windows. A test facility with 3-storey in height was constructed using steel frame to perform full-scale tests. Ventilation-controlled fire scenarios were designed to generate exterior flame and plume ejected from the burning room through a window opening. To characterize potential threats from window-ejected flame and plume to the glass curtain walls of upper floors, temperature, heat flux and air velocity at different heights above the opening upon curtain walls were measured during each test. The effects of window aspect ratio, horizontal projection were studied. It was found that the window with large aspect ratio provided more severe threat to the curtain walls on upper floors. A horizontal projection of 0.5m in depth was able to protect the glass on the upper floor from breaking.

  1. Synergistic effects in radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki

    1990-01-01

    A description is given on radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces, emphasizing synergistic effects arising from multi-species particle irradiation and from irradiation under complex environments. First, it is pointed out that synergisms can be treated by introducing the effects of material modification on radiation-induced particle ejection. As examples of the effects of surface modification on the sputtering induced by elastic encounters, sputtering of alloys and chemical sputtering of graphite are briefly discussed. Then the particle ejection induced by electronic encounters is explained emphasizing the difference in the behaviors from materials to materials. The possible synergistic effects of electronic and elastic encounters are also described. Lastly, we point out the importance of understanding the elementary processes of material-particle interaction and of developing computer codes describing material behaviors under irradiation. (author)

  2. Density and white light brightness in looplike coronal mass ejections - Temporal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Hundhausen, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Three ambient coronal models suitable for studies of time-dependent phenomena were used to investigate the propagation of coronal mass ejections initiated in each atmosphere by an identical energy source. These models included those of a static corona with a dipole magnetic field, developed by Dryer et al. (1979); a steady polytropic corona with an equatorial coronal streamer, developed by Steinolfson et al. (1982); and Steinolfson's (1988) model of heated corona with an equatorial coronal streamer. The results indicated that the first model does not adequately represent the general characteristics of observed looplike mass ejections, and the second model simulated only some of the observed features. Only the third model, which included a heating term and a streamer, was found to yield accurate simulation of the mess ejection observations.

  3. Geomagnetic response of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruddin; Mustajab, F.; Derouich, M.

    2018-05-01

    A coronal mass ejections (CME) is the huge mass of plasma with embedded magnetic field ejected abruptly from the Sun. These CMEs propagate into interplanetary space with different speed. Some of them hit the Earth's magnetosphere and create many types of disturbances; one of them is the disturbance in the geomagnetic field. Individual geomagnetic disturbances differ not only in their magnitudes, but the nature of disturbance is also different. It is, therefore, desirable to understand these differences not only to understand the physics of geomagnetic disturbances but also to understand the properties of solar/interplanetary structures producing these disturbances of different magnitude and nature. In this work, we use the spacecraft measurements of CMEs with distinct magnetic properties propagating in the interplanetary space and generating disturbances of different levels and nature. We utilize their distinct plasma and field properties to search for the interplanetary parameter(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic response of different coronal mass ejections.

  4. Integrated Nucleosynthesis in Neutrino Driven Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L F; Woosley, S E; Hoffman, R D

    2010-03-26

    Although they are but a small fraction of the mass ejected in core-collapse supernovae, neutrino-driven winds (NDWs) from nascent proto-neutron stars (PNSs) have the potential to contribute significantly to supernova nucleosynthesis. In previous works, the NDW has been implicated as a possible source of r-process and light p-process isotopes. In this paper we present time-dependent hydrodynamic calculations of nucleosynthesis in the NDW which include accurate weak interaction physics coupled to a full nuclear reaction network. Using two published models of PNS neutrino luminosities, we predict the contribution of the NDW to the integrated nucleosynthetic yield of the entire supernova. For the neutrino luminosity histories considered, no true r-process occurs in the most basic scenario. The wind driven from an older 1.4M{sub {circle_dot}} model for a PNS is moderately neutron-rich at late times however, and produces {sup 87}Rb, {sup 88}Sr, {sup 89}Y, and {sup 90}Zr in near solar proportions relative to oxygen. The wind from a more recently studied 1.27M{sub {circle_dot}} PNS is proton-rich throughout its entire evolution and does not contribute significantly to the abundance of any element. It thus seems very unlikely that the simplest model of the NDW can produce the r-process. At most, it contributes to the production of the N = 50 closed shell elements and some light p-nuclei. In doing so, it may have left a distinctive signature on the abundances in metal poor stars, but the results are sensitive to both uncertain models for the explosion and the masses of the neutron stars involved.

  5. Rapid estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction in acute myocardial infarction by echocardiographic wall motion analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, J; Rokkedal Nielsen, J; Launbjerg, J

    1992-01-01

    Echocardiographic estimates of left ventricular ejection fraction (ECHO-LVEF) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained by a new approach, using visual analysis of left ventricular wall motion in a nine-segment model. The method was validated in 41 patients using radionuclide ventriculog......Echocardiographic estimates of left ventricular ejection fraction (ECHO-LVEF) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained by a new approach, using visual analysis of left ventricular wall motion in a nine-segment model. The method was validated in 41 patients using radionuclide...

  6. Ejection fraction and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Amitava; Taillandier, Sophie; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) increases the risk of stroke and thrombo-embolism (TE) in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), and is incorporated in stroke risk stratification scores. We aimed to establish the role of ejection fraction (EF) in risk prediction in patients with NVAF and HF.......Heart failure (HF) increases the risk of stroke and thrombo-embolism (TE) in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), and is incorporated in stroke risk stratification scores. We aimed to establish the role of ejection fraction (EF) in risk prediction in patients with NVAF and HF....

  7. Gated cardiac imaging: manual calculations and observations of left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, T.; Keavey, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Using gamma camera imaging, the fixed region and moving region methods of calculating left ventricular ejection fraction were studied. Data were obtained from gated blood pool studies on 125 cardiac patients with myocardial infarcts of varying extent and location. Ejection fractions ranged from 10 to 76%. The left anterior oblique angulation for optimal visualisation of the ventricles showed considerable patient variation. The authors conclude that a fixed angulation cannot be recommended and that there is little to justify it. Where the septum is not seen distinctly during setting up, a larger rather than smaller angle is generally advised. (U.K.)

  8. Observations and Analyses of Heliospheric Faraday Rotation of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Using the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and Space-Based Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Mario Mark; Jensen, Elizabeth; Sobey, Charlotte; Fallows, Richard; Jackson, Bernard; Barnes, David; Giunta, Alessandra; Hick, Paul; Eftekhari, Tarraneh; Yu, Hsiu-Shan; Odstrcil, Dusan; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Wood, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms of the highest intensity are general driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) impacting the Earth's space environment. Their intensity is driven by the speed, density, and, most-importantly, their magnetic-field orientation and magnitude of the incoming solar plasma. The most-significant magnetic-field factor is the North-South component (Bz in Geocentric Solar Magnetic - GSM - coordinates). At present, there are no reliable prediction methods available for this magnetic-field component ahead of the in-situ monitors around the Sun-Earth L1 point. Observations of Faraday rotation (FR) can be used to attempt to determine average magnetic-field orientations in the inner heliosphere. Such a technique has already been well demonstrated through the corona, ionosphere, and also the interstellar medium. Measurements of the polarisation of astronomical (or spacecraft in superior conjunction) radio sources (beacons/radio frequency carriers) through the inner corona of the Sun to obtain the FR have been demonstrated but mostly at relatively-high radio frequencies. Here we show some initial results of true heliospheric FR using the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) below 200 MHz to investigate the passage of a coronal mass ejection (CME) across the line of sight. LOFAR is a next-generation low-frequency radio interferometer, and a pathfinder to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) - LOW telescope. We demonstrate preliminary heliospheric FR results through the analysis of observations of pulsar J1022+1001, which commenced on 13 August 2014 at 13:00UT and spanned over 150 minutes in duration. We also show initial comparisons to the FR results via various modelling techniques and additional context information to understand the structure of the inner heliosphere being detected. This observation could indeed pave the way to an experiment which might be implemented for space-weather purposes that will eventually lead to a near-global method for determining the magnetic

  9. Pressure Changes before and after Explosive Rhyolitic Bomb Ejection at Chaiten, Chile Recorded By Water Diffusion Profiles Around Tuffisite Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, H.; McGowan, E.; Castro, J. M.; Berlo, K.; James, M. R.; Owen, J.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Saubin, E.; Wehbe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The recent rhyolitic eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle have provided valuable new insights into the relationship between explosive and effusive activity, and the gas escape mechanisms that permit rapid effusion of degassed lava[1,2]. Bombs ejected during mixed explosive-effusive activity host spectacular tuffisite veins cutting both dense obsidian (Fig 1a) and highly-expanded pumice. Tuffisite veins are ash-filled fracture networks that act as ephemeral permeable pathways for gas escape in shallow conduits and lava domes. Previous studies have revealed water depletion adjacent to tuffisite veins, leading to models of fracture-triggered pressure release[2] and estimates of gas escape timescales[2,3]. We have characterised water diffusion profiles from a new suite of tuffisite-bearing Chaitén bombs, using synchrotron-source FTIR at the Diamond Light Source, Oxford, UK. Unexpectedly, one exceptionally large tuffisite vein, which is 30 mm thick (Fig. 1a, b) is mantled by zones of strong water enrichment, which enclose the usual narrow depletion zones immediately adjacent to the vein (Fig. 1c). Consistent results from different branches of this vein (Fig. 1b) indicate a similar history. The plausible range of diffusion model solutions points towards ~2-4 hours of vein pressurisation, followed by a brief pre-quench period of lower pressure conditions. In our model the vein opened during a period of overpressure at the lava dome base, sustained by gas influx from a deeper catchment extending hundreds of metres into the upper conduit. Overpressure culminated in violent bomb ejection, after which vein pressure decreased due to gas leakage to the atmosphere through the incompletely welded vein, as observed in rhyolitic bombs from Cordón Caulle (Fig. 1d). Commonly-seen water depletion zones[2,3] may therefore merely record post-fragmentation degassing. However, the enrichment zone points towards the type of deep pressurisation associated with cycles of tilt and

  10. The Driven Spinning Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Ioan; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    This driven top is quite a novelty and can, with some trials, be made using the principles outlined here. This new top has many applications in developing both understanding and skills and these are detailed in the article. Depending on reader's available time and motivation they may feel an urge to make one themselves, or simply invest a few…

  11. Constellations-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2011-01-01

    a particularly useful point of departure for engaging in researching innovation and didactic design of digital teaching and learning instruments such as the Theme Board that are programmed and serviced 'in the sky'. I call this approach: constellation-driven innovations....

  12. Data-driven storytelling

    CERN Document Server

    Henry Riche, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    This book is an accessible introduction to data-driven storytelling, resulting from discussions between data visualization researchers and data journalists. This book will be the first to define the topic, present compelling examples and existing resources, as well as identify challenges and new opportunities for research.

  13. Desempenho operacional e ambiental de unidades de reciclagem e disposição final de resíduos sólidos domésticos financiadas pelo ICMS Ecológico de Minas Gerais Operational and environmental performance of sanitary landfills and recycling facilities supported by the Ecological ICMS in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco do Prado Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia sistemas de reciclagem e de disposição de resíduos sólidos domésticos que possuem incentivos fiscais definidos pela Lei Estadual nº 13.803/2000 de Minas Gerais. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por análise de documentação de licenciamento ambiental de aterros sanitários e usinas de reciclagem e compostagem de resíduos financiados pela referida Lei e por visitas às unidades sanitárias, sendo usados os instrumentos metodológicos da agência ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB que avaliam as condições de instalação e operação desses tipos de empreendimentos. Do estudo, constatou-se que o incentivo de Minas Gerais, definido pela Lei do ICMS Ecológico, traz importantes benefícios ambientais aos municípios, embora ainda seja reduzido o número dos contemplados por esse fomento à gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Conclui-se, também, que algumas das unidades estudadas apresentam problemas de natureza ambiental e operacional.This paper reports a qualitative assessment made at the sanitary landfill, recycling centers and composting units sponsored by the State Law No 13.803/2000, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analyses of all the documentation used for the environmental licensing process as well as field trips to sanitary landfills and domestic recycle/composting unities were performed. The IQC and IQR indexes from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB were used as quality assessment tools. It is concluded that this State Law (Ecological ICMS Law has been promoting substantial environmental benefits to the local communities, despite it is still small the number of cities which have been attended by this regulation for solid waste management. On the other hand, it can be noticed that some operational and environmental issues remain to be addressed in the visited facilities.

  14. Effects of pulling forces, osmotic pressure, condensing agents and viscosity on the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA ejection from bacteriophages to bacterial cells: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Anton S; Douglas, Scott S; Harvey, Stephen C

    2013-03-20

    In this work, we report on simulations of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) ejection from bacteriophage φ29 into a bacterial cell. The ejection was studied with a coarse-grained model, in which viral dsDNA was represented by beads on a torsion-less string. The bacteriophage's capsid and the bacterial cell were defined by sets of spherical constraints. To account for the effects of the viscous medium inside the bacterial cell, the simulations were carried out using a Langevin dynamics protocol. Our simplest simulations (involving constant viscosity and no external biasing forces) produced results compatible with the push-pull model of DNA ejection, with an ejection rate significantly higher in the first part of ejection than in the latter parts. Additionally, we performed more complicated simulations, in which we included additional factors such as external forces, osmotic pressure, condensing agents and ejection-dependent viscosity. The effects of these factors (independently and in combination) on the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA ejection were studied. We found that, in general, the dependence of ejection forces and ejection rates on the amount of DNA ejected becomes more complex if the ejection is modeled with a broader, more realistic set of parameters and influences (such as variation in the solvent's viscosity and the application of an external force). However, certain combinations of factors and numerical parameters led to the opposition of some ejection-driving and ejection-inhibiting influences, ultimately causing an apparent simplification of the ejection profiles.

  15. Physical Characteristics of Coronal Region Driving Out the Interplanetary Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Oh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the solar wind data of 2000 observed by ACE, We classified the interplanetary shock on basis of shock driver. We examined the physical properties of shock drivers such as the ratio of charge states(O7/O6 and thermal index(I_{th}. Most of 51 interplanetary shocks are driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections(ICME; magnetic cloud and ejecta and high speed streams. According to the test of temperature(O7/O6 and I_{th}, we found that ICMEs originated from region with hot source in corona.

  16. Impact of Ejection Fraction on the Clinical Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Mild Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Cecilia; Daubert, Claude; Abraham, William T

    2013-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in mild heart failure (HF) patients with QRS prolongation and ejection fraction (EF) ≤30%. To assess the effect of CRT in less severe systolic dysfunction, outcomes in the REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic left v...

  17. Association between Hypotension, Low Ejection Fraction and Cognitive Performance in Cardiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F. Gottesman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Impaired cardiac function can adversely affect the brain via decreased perfusion. The purpose of this study was to determine if cardiac ejection fraction (EF is associated with cognitive performance, and whether this is modified by low blood pressure.

  18. Outcome of patients with low-gradient "severe" aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Minners, Jan; Holme, Ingar

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies have suggested that patients with a low transvalvular gradient in the presence of an aortic valve area <1.0 cm² and normal ejection fraction may represent a subgroup with an advanced stage of aortic valve disease, reduced stroke volume, and poor prognosis requiring early sur...

  19. CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AS A MECHANISM FOR PRODUCING IR VARIABILITY IN DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, Rachel; Livio, Mario; Lubow, Steve; Pringle, J. E.; Soderblom, David; Valenti, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent observations of short-timescale variations in the infrared emission of circumstellar disks, we propose that coronal mass ejections can remove dust grains on timescales as short as a few days. Continuous monitoring of stellar activity, coupled with infrared observations, can place meaningful constraints on the proposed mechanism.

  20. Impaired Systolic Function by Strain Imaging in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Shah, Amil M.; Gupta, Deepak K.; Santos, Angela; Claggett, Brian; Pieske, Burkert; Zile, Michael R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Lefkowitz, Marty P.; Packer, Milton; McMurray, John J. V.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine the frequency and magnitude of impaired systolic deformation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Background Although diastolic dysfunction is widely considered a key pathophysiologic mediator of HFpEF, the prevalence of concomitant

  1. Impaired left atrial function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Angela B. S.; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Gupta, Deepak K.; Claggett, Brian; Zile, Michael R.; Pieske, Burkert; Voors, Adriaan A.; Lefkowitz, Marty; Bransford, Toni; Shi, Victor; Packer, Milton; McMurray, John J. V.; Shah, Amil M.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    AimsLeft atrial (LA) enlargement is present in the majority of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients and is a marker of risk. However, the importance of LA function in HFpEF is less well understood. Methods and resultsThe PARAMOUNT trial enrolled HFpEF patients (LVEF 45%,

  2. Sex-specific cardiovascular structure and function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Mauro; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Gupta, Deepak K.; Santos, Angela B. S.; Cheng, Susan; Shah, Amil M.; Claggett, Brian; Zile, Michael R.; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Pieske, Burkert; Voors, Adriaan A.; Packer, Milton; Bransford, Toni; Lefkowitz, Martin; McMurray, John J. V.; Solomon, Scott D.

    Aims Women are more likely to develop heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) than men. We studied the relationship between sex and cardiovascular structure and function in patients with HFpEF. Methods and resultsThe study included 279 participants from the PARAMOUNT study (57% women)

  3. Association between renal function and cardiovascular structure and function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Mauro; Senni, Michele; Gupta, Deepak K.; Charytan, David M.; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Pieske, Burkert; Claggett, Brian; Shah, Amil M.; Santos, Angela B. S.; Zile, Michael R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; McMurray, John J. V.; Packer, Milton; Bransford, Toni; Lefkowitz, Martin; Solomon, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Renal dysfunction is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We sought to determine whether renal dysfunction was associated with measures of cardiovascular structure/function in patients with HFpEF. Methods We studied 217 participants from

  4. Angular distribution of electrons ejected by charged particles. IV. Combined classical and quantum-mechanical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.G.J.; Bonsen, T.F.M.

    1975-01-01

    Angular distributions of electrons ejected from helium by 100 and 300 keV protons have been calculated by a method which is a comination of the classical three-body collision theory and the quantum-mechanical Born approximation. The results of this theory have been compared with the corresponding

  5. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction : a nephrologist-directed primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsar, Baris; Rossignol, Patrick; van Heerebeek, Loek; Paulus, Walter J.; Damman, Kevin; Heymans, Stephane; van Empel, Vanessa; Sag, Alan; Maisel, Alan; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial causal and consequential interaction between the ever-growing heart failure and renal failure patients. Half of the patients with heart failure (HF) have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is difficult to diagnose and rising in prevalence relative to HF

  6. Prognostic importance of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Shah, Sanjiv J; Anand, Inder

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony has been described in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but its prognostic significance is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 3445 patients with HFpEF enrolled in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an...

  7. Imaging of the ejection process of nanosecond laser-induced forward transfer of gold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Sun, Chao; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer is a direct-write process suitable for high precision 3D printing of several materials. However, the driving forces related to the ejection mechanism of the donor ma-terial are still under debate. So far, most of the experimental studies of nanosecond LIFT, are based

  8. A long-duration active region: Evolution and quadrature observations of ejective events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, H.; Mandrini, C. H.; Fuentes, M. C. López; Merenda, L.; Cabello, I.; López, F. M.; Poisson, M.

    2017-10-01

    Unknown aspects of the initiation, evolution, and associated phenomena of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), together with their capability of perturbing the fragile technological equilibrium on which nowadays society depends, turn them a compelling subject of study. While space weather forecasts are thus far not able to predict when and where in the Sun will the next CME take place, various CME triggering mechanisms have been proposed, without reaching consensus on which is the predominant one. To improve our knowledge in these respects, we investigate a long-duration active region throughout its life, from birth until decay along five solar rotations, in connection with its production of ejective events. We benefit from the wealth of solar remote-sensing data with improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution provided by the ground-breaking space missions STEREO, SDO, and SOHO. During the investigated time interval, which covers the months July - November 2010, the STEREO spacecraft were nearly 180 degrees apart, allowing for the uninterrupted tracking of the active region and its ensuing CMEs. The ejective aspect is examined from multi-viewpoint coronagraphic images, while the dynamics of the active region photospheric magnetic field are inspected by means of SDO/HMI data for specific subintervals of interest. The ultimate goal of this work in progress is to identify common patterns in the ejective aspect that can be connected with the active region characteristics.

  9. Ethyl Radical Ejection During Photodecomposition of Butanone on TiO2(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The photodecomposition of acetone and butanone were examined on the (110) surface of rutile TiO2 using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). In both cases, photodecomposition was proceeded by a required thermal reaction between the adsorbed ketone and coadsorbed oxygen resulting in a diolate species. The diolate photodecomposed by ejection of an organic radical from the surface leaving behind a carboxylate species. In the acetone case, only methyl radical PSD was detected and acetate was left on the surface. In the butanone case there was a possibility of either methyl or ethyl radical ejection, with propionate or acetate left behind, respectively. However, only ethyl radical PSD was detected and the species left on the surface (acetate) was the same as in the acetone case. The preference for ethyl radical ejection is linked to the greater thermal stability of the ethyl radical over that of the methyl radical. Unlike in the acetone case, where the ejected methyl radicals did not participate in thermal chemistry on the TiO2(110) surface after photoactivation of the acetone diolate, ethyl radicals photodesorbing at 100 K from butanone diolate showed a preference for dehydrogenation to ethene through the influence of coadsorbed oxygen. These results reemphasize the mechanistic importance of organic radical production during photooxidation reactions on TiO2 surface. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy

  10. The feasibility of repeated left ventricular ejection fraction analysis with sequential single-dose radionuclide ventriculography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vleuten, PA; Slart, RHJA; Tio, RA; van der Horst, ICC; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Dierckx, RA; Zijlstra, F

    Objective Repeated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) analyses with sequential single-dose radionuclide ventriculography might be an interesting technique for monitoring the effect of positive inotropic interventions. The aim of the study was to assess the reproducibility of LVEF measurement

  11. Evaluation of the rod ejection accident in Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors using spatial kinetics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risher, D.H. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The consequences of a rod ejection accident are investigated in relation to the latest, high power density Westinghouse reactors. Limiting criteria are presented, based on experimental evidence, and if not exceeded these criteria will ensure that there will be no interference with core cooling capability, and radiation releases, if any, will be within the guidelines of 10CFR100. A basis is presented for the conservative selection of plant parameters to be used in the analysis, such that the analysis is applicable to a wide range of past, present, and future reactors. The calculational method employs a one-dimensional spatial kinetics computer code and a transient fuel heat transfer computer code to determine the hot spot fuel temperature versus time following a rod ejection. Using these computer codes, the most limiting hot channel factor (which does not cause the fuel damage limit criteria to be exceeded) has been determined as a function of the ejected rod worth. By this means, the limit criteria have been translated into ejected rod worths and hot channel factors which can be used effectively by the nuclear designer and safety analyst. The calculational method is shown to be conservative, compared to the results of a three-dimensional spatial kinetics analysis

  12. Numerical analysis of the liquid ejection due to the gaseous jet impact through computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiuller Castro Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal droplets generated by an impinging jet, play an important role in metal refining processes, mainly in oxygen steelmaking, where the droplets are ejected into the slag phase. Since the available interfacial area of droplets is very high in this process, the generated droplets enhance the rates of heat transfer and chemical reactions. Therefore, knowledge of the metal droplet generation rate, size distribution and residence time in the slag are of industrial relevance. In this work, the isothermal, transient flow of an incompressible air jet impinging onto an air/water interface at room temperature has been simulated to obtain a better understanding of the droplet ejection phenomenon. The interface was tracked throughout time using the volume of fluid (VOF technique. The governing equations formulated for mass and momentum conservation and the k-e turbulence model are solved in the axisymmetric computational domain using the commercial code FLUENT. The droplet ejection rates calculated with computational fluid dynamics model are compared to experimental data reported in literature, showing partial agreement, being the incompressibility assumption the probable reason for the deviation observed, which was as far pronounced as the great jet velocity. Nevertheless, the model presented shows itself as a relatively good starting point for the construction of more complex ones (with less simplifying assumptions which should be able to offer a means to increase the understanding of the droplet ejection phenomena.

  13. Automatic detection of the optimal ejecting direction based on a discrete Gauss map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomo Inui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors propose a system for assisting mold designers of plastic parts. With a CAD model of a part, the system automatically determines the optimal ejecting direction of the part with minimum undercuts. Since plastic parts are generally very thin, many rib features are placed on the inner side of the part to give sufficient structural strength. Our system extracts the rib features from the CAD model of the part, and determines the possible ejecting directions based on the geometric properties of the features. The system then selects the optimal direction with minimum undercuts. Possible ejecting directions are represented as discrete points on a Gauss map. Our new point distribution method for the Gauss map is based on the concept of the architectural geodesic dome. A hierarchical structure is also introduced in the point distribution, with a higher level “rough” Gauss map with rather sparse point distribution and another lower level “fine” Gauss map with much denser point distribution. A system is implemented and computational experiments are performed. Our system requires less than 10 seconds to determine the optimal ejecting direction of a CAD model with more than 1 million polygons.

  14. Right heart dysfunction and failure in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Thomas M; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Bauersachs, Johann; Borlaug, Barry A; Celutkiene, Jelena; Coats, Andrew J S; Crespo-Leiro, Marisa G; Guazzi, Marco; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Heymans, Stephane; Hill, Loreena; Lainscak, Mitja; Lam, Carolyn S P; Lund, Lars H; Lyon, Alexander R; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Mueller, Christian; Paulus, Walter J; Pieske, Burkert; Piepoli, Massimo F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Rutten, Frans H; Seferovic, Petar M; Solomon, Scott D; Shah, Sanjiv J; Triposkiadis, Filippos; Wachter, Rolf; Tschöpe, Carsten; de Boer, Rudolf A

    There is an unmet need for effective treatment strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Until recently, attention in patients with HFpEF was almost exclusively focused on the left side. However, it is now increasingly

  15. AP600 Rod Ejection Accident Analysis Under Low Power Operating Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutando, Tegas

    2000-01-01

    AP600 is one of PWRs type reactors being developed by Westinghouse. It was designed to have a Rapid Power Reduction System (RPRS) in its Operating and Control System which enable it to operate under low power level condition, i.e. below 50% of rated power, following a great load rejection (>50%). with this feature, it is important to conduct some safety analysis for this low power operating condition, the same as those normally imposed to the normal power operating condition including the case of Rod Ejection Accident. This paper presents the result of analysis relating with the Rod Ejection case under low power operating mode (RPRS is in operation), as part of preliminary studies for the feasibility of the implementation of the RPRS. There are two main points to be investigated in this analysis i.e., the fuel integrity and the Shutdown Capability of the available control rods. This was performed through the observation of the Maximum Linear Power (MLP) arised following Rod Ejection event and through the Subcriticality test. The results indicate that the resulted MLP was still far below the maximum design limit for transient conditions, assuring the fuel integrity and the available rods could still bring the reactor to subcritical condition following the Rod Ejection event

  16. Coronal mass ejections observed during the solar maximum mission: Latitude distribution and rate of occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundhausen, A.J.; Sawyer, C.B.; House, L.; Illing, R.M.E.; Wagner, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-five coronal mass ejections have been identified in a systematic examination of white-light coronal images obtained between March and September 1980 by the coronagraph/polarimeter flown on the solar maximum mission spacecraft. These ejections were more uniformly distributed in position angle (or ''projected'' solar latitude) than the similar events observed during the Skylab mission in 1973--1974; 27% of the solar maximum mission mass ejections were centered at positions more than 45 0 from the solar equator. The average rate of occurrence of the observed mass ejections for the entire solar maximum mission epoch, based on the assumption that one coronagraph image per spacecraft orbit is sufficient for detection, was 0.9 +- 0.15 per 24-hour day. Application of the same sampling assumption to the Skylab data set leads to a rate of 0.75 per 24-hour day and thus a change in this rate from the Skylab era (on the declining phase of sunspot cycle 20) to solar maximum mission (near the maximum of sunspot cycle 21) of only approx.20%

  17. High-resolution imaging of ejection dynamics in laser-induced forward transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Sun, C.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Lohse, Detlef; Nakata, Yoshiki; Xianfan, Xianfan; Roth, Stephan; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a 3D direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials. As the ejection mechanism of picosecond LIFT has not been visualized in detail, the governing physics are not fully understood yet. Therefore, this article presents an experimental

  18. Internal Energy Loss of the Electrons Ejected in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukarev, E. G.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    The excitations of the electron shell in neutrinoless double beta decay shifts the limiting energy available for ejected electrons. We present the general equations for this shift and make computations for the decays of two nuclei—germanium and xenon. (author)

  19. Ejection of solvated ions from electrosprayed methanol/water nanodroplets studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Elias; Konermann, Lars

    2011-06-22

    The ejection of solvated small ions from nanometer-sized droplets plays a central role during electrospray ionization (ESI). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide insights into the nanodroplet behavior. Earlier MD studies have largely focused on aqueous systems, whereas most practical ESI applications involve the use of organic cosolvents. We conduct simulations on mixed water/methanol droplets that carry excess NH(4)(+) ions. Methanol is found to compromise the H-bonding network, resulting in greatly increased rates of ion ejection and solvent evaporation. Considerable differences in the water and methanol escape rates cause time-dependent changes in droplet composition. Segregation occurs at low methanol concentration, such that layered droplets with a methanol-enriched periphery are formed. This phenomenon will enhance the partitioning of analyte molecules, with possible implications for their ESI efficiencies. Solvated ions are ejected from the tip of surface protrusions. Solvent bridging prior to ion secession is more extensive for methanol/water droplets than for purely aqueous systems. The ejection of solvated NH(4)(+) is visualized as diffusion-mediated escape from a metastable basin. The process involves thermally activated crossing of a ~30 kJ mol(-1) free energy barrier, in close agreement with the predictions of the classical ion evaporation model.

  20. PINEX-2: pinhole-TV imaging of fuel ejection from an internally vented capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzins, G.J.; Lumpkin, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    The LASL pinhole-intensified TV system was used at the TREAT reactor to image an internally vented, fuel-ejection capsule designed and built by HEDL. Several improvements in the imaging system over PINEX-1 were incorporated. A sequence of 16-ms TV frames shows axial expansion, expulsion of fuel from the pin, and retention of clad integrity during the time of coverage

  1. "Trampoline" ejection of organic molecules from graphene and graphite via keV cluster ions impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Gołuński, Mikołaj; Verkhoturov, Dmitriy S; Geng, Sheng; Postawa, Zbigniew; Schweikert, Emile A

    2018-04-14

    We present the data on ejection of molecules and emission of molecular ions caused by single impacts of 50 keV C 60 2+ on a molecular layer of deuterated phenylalanine (D8Phe) deposited on free standing, 2-layer graphene. The projectile impacts on the graphene side stimulate the abundant ejection of intact molecules and the emission of molecular ions in the transmission direction. To gain insight into the mechanism of ejection, Molecular Dynamic simulations were performed. It was found that the projectile penetrates the thin layer of graphene, partially depositing the projectile's kinetic energy, and molecules are ejected from the hot area around the hole that is made by the projectile. The yield, Y, of negative ions of deprotonated phenylalanine, (D8Phe-H) - , emitted in the transmission direction is 0.1 ions per projectile impact. To characterize the ejection and ionization of molecules, we have performed the experiments on emission of (D8Phe-H) - from the surface of bulk D8Phe (Y = 0.13) and from the single molecular layer of D8Phe deposited on bulk pyrolytic graphite (Y = 0.15). We show that, despite the similar yields of molecular ions, the scenario of the energy deposition and ejection of molecules is different for the case of graphene due to the confined volume of projectile-analyte interaction. The projectile impact on the graphene-D8Phe sample stimulates the collective radial movement of analyte atoms, which compresses the D8Phe layer radially from the hole. At the same time, this compression bends and stretches the graphene membrane around the hole thus accumulating potential energy. The accumulated potential energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of correlated movement upward for membrane atoms, thus the membrane acts as a trampoline for the molecules. The ejected molecules are effectively ionized; the ionization probability is ∼30× higher compared to that obtained for the bulk D8Phe target. The proposed mechanism of ionization involves

  2. Predictors and outcomes of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction : Predictors of HFmrEF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhambhani, Vijeta; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lima, Joao A.c.; Van Der Harst, Pim; Bahrami, Hossein; Nayor, Matthew; De Filippi, Christopher R.; Enserro, Danielle; Blaha, Michael J.; Cushman, Mary; Wang, Thomas J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Fox, Caroline S.; Gaggin, Hanna K.; Kop, W.J.; Liu, Kiang; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Lee, Douglas S.; Brouwers, Frank P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Bartz, Traci M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Chan, Cheeling; Allison, Matthew; Gardin, Julius M.; Januzzi, James L.; Levy, Daniel; Herrington, David M.; Van Gilst, Wiek H.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Larson, Martin G.; De Boer, Rudolf A.; Gottdiener, John S.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Ho, Jennifer E.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: While heart failure with preserved (HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are well described, determinants and outcomes of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) remain unclear. We sought to examine clinical and biochemical predictors of incident HFmrEF in the

  3. Hydrocode modeling of the spallation process during hypervelocity impacts: Implications for the ejection of Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kosuke; Okamoto, Takaya; Genda, Hidenori

    2018-02-01

    Hypervelocity ejection of material by impact spallation is considered a plausible mechanism for material exchange between two planetary bodies. We have modeled the spallation process during vertical impacts over a range of impact velocities from 6 to 21 km/s using both grid- and particle-based hydrocode models. The Tillotson equations of state, which are able to treat the nonlinear dependence of density on pressure and thermal pressure in strongly shocked matter, were used to study the hydrodynamic-thermodynamic response after impacts. The effects of material strength and gravitational acceleration were not considered. A two-dimensional time-dependent pressure field within a 1.5-fold projectile radius from the impact point was investigated in cylindrical coordinates to address the generation of spalled material. A resolution test was also performed to reject ejected materials with peak pressures that were too low due to artificial viscosity. The relationship between ejection velocity veject and peak pressure Ppeak was also derived. Our approach shows that "late-stage acceleration" in an ejecta curtain occurs due to the compressible nature of the ejecta, resulting in an ejection velocity that can be higher than the ideal maximum of the resultant particle velocity after passage of a shock wave. We also calculate the ejecta mass that can escape from a planet like Mars (i.e., veject > 5 km/s) that matches the petrographic constraints from Martian meteorites, and which occurs when Ppeak = 30-50 GPa. Although the mass of such ejecta is limited to 0.1-1 wt% of the projectile mass in vertical impacts, this is sufficient for spallation to have been a plausible mechanism for the ejection of Martian meteorites. Finally, we propose that impact spallation is a plausible mechanism for the generation of tektites.

  4. Comparison between tagged MRI and standard cine MRI for evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornier, Christophe; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Didier, Dominique; Vallee, Jean-Paul [Departement de Radiologie et d' Informatique Medicale, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, 24 rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Somsen, G. Aernout; Righetti, Alberto [Div. de Cardiologie, Departement de Medecine Interne, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, 24 rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Osman, Nael F. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 North Wolfe Street, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Global left ventricular function is a prognostic indicator and is used to evaluate therapeutical interventions in patients with heart failure. Regional left ventricular function can be determined with tagged MRI. Assessment of global left ventricular function using the tagging data may have additional clinical value without incurring extra scanning time, which is currently a limiting factor in cardiac imaging. Direct determination of end-diastolic volume is not possible with conventional tagged MRI. However, end-systolic volume can be directly measured because myocardium-blood contrast improves through a tagged image series. We investigated the potential of tagged MRI using frequency-domain analysis software to retrospectively track end-diastolic contour from end-systolic contour and subsequently calculate the ejection fraction. Tagged MRI was compared with the standard bright-blood cine MRI in healthy volunteers (n=20) and patients with previous myocardial infarction (n=8). Left ventricular ejection fraction derived from tagged MRI is linearly correlated to left ventricular ejection fraction obtained by standard cardiac cine MRI (y=1.0x+1.31, r>0.98, p=0.014). In addition, the inter-observer and intra-observer coefficient of variation for left ventricular ejection fraction measurements was low (CV{sub intra}=0.4%, CV{sub inter}=1.3%). With tagged MRI, only end-systolic volume needs to be manually determined, and accurate estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction is obtained because end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes are determined using identical anatomical points. Our data indicate that tagged MRI can be used to quantitatively assess both regional and global left ventricular function. Therefore, tagged MRI may be a valuable clinical tool for determining the prognosis and evaluating the effect of therapeutical intervention using a single imaging session in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. (orig.)

  5. Investigating pyroclast ejection dynamics using shock-tube experiments: temperature, grain size and vent geometry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigala, V.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions eject large quantities of gas and particles into the atmosphere. The portion directly above the vent commonly shows characteristics of underexpanded jets. Understanding the factors that influence the initial pyroclast ejection dynamics is necessary in order to better assess the resulting near- and far-field hazards. Field observations are often insufficient for the characterization of volcanic explosions due to lack of safe access to such environments. Fortunately, their dynamics can be simulated in the laboratory where experiments are performed under controlled conditions. We ejected loose natural particles from a shock-tube while controlling temperature (25˚ and 500˚C), overpressure (15MPa), starting grain size distribution (1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 0.125-0.250 mm), sample-to-vent distance and vent geometry. For each explosion we quantified the velocity of individual particles, the jet spreading angle and the production of fines. Further, we varied the setup to allow for different sample-to-gas ratios and deployed four different vent geometries: 1) cylindrical, 2) funnel with a flaring of 30˚, 3) funnel with a flaring of 15˚ and 4) nozzle. The results showed maximum particle velocities up to 296 m/s, gas spreading angles varying from 21˚ to 37˚ and particle spreading angles from 3˚ to 40˚. Moreover we observed dynamically evolving ejection characteristics and variations in the production of fines during the course of individual experiments. Our experiments mechanistically mimic the process of pyroclast ejection. Thus the capability for constraining the effects of input parameters (fragmentation conditions) and conduit/vent geometry on ballistic pyroclastic plumes has been clearly established. These data obtained in the presence of well-documented conduit and vent conditions, should greatly enhance our ability to numerically model explosive ejecta in nature.

  6. Test-driven programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, are presented some possibilities concerning the implementation of a test-driven development as a programming method. Here is offered a different point of view for creation of advanced programming techniques (build tests before programming source with all necessary software tools and modules respectively). Therefore, this nontraditional approach for easier programmer's work through building tests at first is preferable way of software development. This approach allows comparatively simple programming (applied with different object-oriented programming languages as for example JAVA, XML, PYTHON etc.). It is predictable way to develop software tools and to provide help about creating better software that is also easier to maintain. Test-driven programming is able to replace more complicated casual paradigms, used by many programmers.

  7. Gas-driven microturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; McWhorter, P.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Miller, W.M.

    1996-06-27

    This paper describes an invention which relates to microtechnology and the fabrication process for developing microelectrical systems. It describes a means for fabricating a gas-driven microturbine capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power devices by direct linkage or turbo-electric generators components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers.

  8. Affinity driven social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

  9. Is there a referral bias against catheterization of patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction? Influence of ejection fraction and inducible ischemia on post-single-photon emission computed tomography management of patients without a history of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachamovitch, Rory; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Cohen, Ishac; Kang, Xingping; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this work was to define the relationship between left ventricular perfusion/ function measures and referral rates to catheterization and revascularization early after stress gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS). Although revascularization yields the greatest survival benefit in patients with low ejection fraction (EF) and extensive coronary artery disease, referral patterns to catheterization and revascularization after noninvasive testing are not well defined. We identified 3,369 patients without previous myocardial infarction or revascularization who underwent exercise or adenosine stress MPS and who were followed-up (97% complete) for occurrence of early (stress MPS, 445 catheterizations (13.2%) and 254 revascularizations (7.5%) occurred, including 140 coronary artery bypass graft surgeries (4.1%) and 114 percutaneous coronary interventions (3.4%). Both post-stress gated EF and percent of the myocardium ischemic by stress MPS were independent predictors of revascularization. Logistic regression revealed that the likelihood of catheterization increased with both increasing ischemia and decreasing EF (c-index = 0.94, chi-square = 590). Predicted referral rates to catheterization increased with decreasing EF except in patients with severe ischemia (>15% of myocardium), where rates decreased with decreasing EF. Similar modeling of revascularization (c-index = 0.94, chi-square = 329) revealed that the likelihood of revascularization increased with increasing ischemia but, in general, decreased with decreasing EF. Although post-SPECT referral to both catheterization and revascularization is driven by ischemia, EF has the opposite effect on these two outcomes. Further studies evaluating the appropriateness of these referral patterns are warranted.

  10. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 2012 JULY 12 CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND ASSOCIATED GEO-EFFECTIVENESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huidong; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Möstl, Christian, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2016-10-01

    We analyze multi-spacecraft observations associated with the 2012 July 12 coronal mass ejection (CME), covering the source region on the Sun from the Solar Dynamics Observatory , stereoscopic imaging observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ), magnetic field characteristics from Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging ( MESSENGER ), and type II radio burst and in situ measurements from Wind . A triangulation method based on STEREO stereoscopic observations is employed to determine the kinematics of the CME, and the outcome is compared with the results derived from the type II radio burst using a solar wind electron density model. A Grad–Shafranov technique is applied to Wind in situ data to reconstruct the flux-rope structure and compare it with the observations of the solar source region, which helps in understanding the geo-effectiveness associated with the CME structure. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) the CME undergoes an impulsive acceleration, a rapid deceleration before reaching MESSENGER , and then a gradual deceleration out to 1 au, which should be considered in CME kinematics models; (2) the type II radio burst was probably produced from a high-density interaction region between the CME-driven shock and a nearby streamer or from the shock flank with lower heights, which implies uncertainties in the determination of CME kinematics using solely type II radio bursts; (3) the flux-rope orientation and chirality deduced from in situ reconstructions at Wind agree with those obtained from solar source observations; (4) the prolonged southward magnetic field near the Earth is mainly from the axial component of the largely southward inclined flux rope, which indicates the importance of predicting both the flux-rope orientation and magnetic field components in geomagnetic activity forecasting.

  11. CHROMOSPHERE TO 1 au SIMULATION OF THE 2011 MARCH 7th EVENT: A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF CORONAL MASS EJECTION PROPAGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Manchester, W. B.; Holst, B. van der; Sokolov, I.; Tóth, G.; Gombosi, T. I. [Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vourlidas, A. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Koning, C. A. de, E-mail: jinmeng@lmsal.com, E-mail: chipm@umich.edu, E-mail: angelos.vourlidas@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: curt.a.dekoning@noaa.gov [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We perform and analyze the results of a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 March 7. The simulation is made using the newly developed Alfvén Wave Solar Model (AWSoM), which describes the background solar wind starting from the upper chromosphere and extends to 24 R {sub ⊙}. Coupling AWSoM to an inner heliosphere model with the Space Weather Modeling Framework extends the total domain beyond the orbit of Earth. Physical processes included in the model are multi-species thermodynamics, electron heat conduction (both collisional and collisionless formulations), optically thin radiative cooling, and Alfvén-wave turbulence that accelerates and heats the solar wind. The Alfvén-wave description is physically self-consistent, including non-Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin reflection and physics-based apportioning of turbulent dissipative heating to both electrons and protons. Within this model, we initiate the CME by using the Gibson-Low analytical flux rope model and follow its evolution for days, in which time it propagates beyond STEREO A . A detailed comparison study is performed using remote as well as in situ observations. Although the flux rope structure is not compared directly due to lack of relevant ejecta observation at 1 au in this event, our results show that the new model can reproduce many of the observed features near the Sun (e.g., CME-driven extreme ultraviolet [EUV] waves, deflection of the flux rope from the coronal hole, “double-front” in the white light images) and in the heliosphere (e.g., shock propagation direction, shock properties at STEREO A ).

  12. Contabilidade tributária e planejamento fiscal aplicado à logística - o ICMS no transporte rodoviário de cargas: estudo das alternativas fiscais e contabilização - crédito outorgado versus crédito nas entradas de insumos - um estudo de caso no segmento de transporte rodoviário de valores

    OpenAIRE

    Campoi, José Carlos Sanches

    2009-01-01

    Os serviços de transportes apresentam-se como elo fundamental da cadeia logística e demandam níveis consideráveis de recursos no processo de colocação de bens e serviços à disposição do consumidor final. Este trabalho aplicou planejamento tributário à logística, especificamente, planejamento tributário aplicado ao ICMS incidente nos serviços de transporte. Objetivo: Determinar a forma menos onerosa entre as sistemáticas de crédito de ICMS: Crédito de ICMS gerado pelas compras e a de 20% sobre...

  13. Flow acceleration time and ratio of acceleration time to ejection time for prosthetic aortic valve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zekry, Sagit; Saad, Robert M; Ozkan, Mehmet; Al Shahid, Maie S; Pepi, Mauro; Muratori, Manuela; Xu, Jiaqiong; Little, Stephen H; Zoghbi, William A

    2011-11-01

    We sought to evaluate whether ejection dynamics, particularly acceleration time (AT) and the ratio of AT to ejection time (ET), can differentiate prosthetic aortic valve (PAV) stenosis from controls and prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM). Diagnosing PAV stenosis, especially in mechanical valves, may be challenging and has significant clinical implications. Doppler echocardiography was quantitated in 88 patients with PAV (44 mechanical and 44 bioprosthetic; age 63 ± 16 years; valve size range 18 to 25 mm) of whom 22 patients had documented PAV stenosis, 22 had PPM, and 44 served as controls. Quantitative Doppler parameters included ejection dynamics (AT, ET, and AT/ET) and conventional PAV parameters. Patients with PAV stenosis had significantly lower effective orifice area (EOA) values and higher gradients compared with controls and PPM. Flow ejection parameters (AT and AT/ET) were significantly longer in the stenotic valves compared with PPM and controls (respective values for AT: 120 ± 24 ms, 89 ± 16 ms, and 71 ± 15 ms; for AT/ET: 0.4, 0.32, and 0.3, p ≤ 0.001). Patients with PPM had gradients and ejection dynamics that were intermediate between normal and stenotic valves. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that AT and AT/ET discriminated PAV stenosis from PPM and controls (area under ROC curve = 0.92 and 0.88, respectively). Combining AT with the conventional Doppler velocity index gave the highest area under the curve of 0.98 but was not statistically different from that of AT alone (p = 0.12). A cutoff of AT = 100 ms had a sensitivity and specificity of 86% for identifying PAV stenosis; for an AT/ET = 0.37, the sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 82%, respectively. Analysis by valve type (mechanical and biological) revealed similar results; however, biological valves had slightly higher areas under the curve for all systolic time intervals. Ejection dynamics through PAV, particularly AT and AT/ET, are reliable angle

  14. ICMS ecológico: conceito e repercussões na conservação ambiental do município de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelze Serrat de Souza Campos Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A legislação ambiental brasileira define os instrumentos de intervenção do Estado no planejamento e na gestão ambiental. Um desses instrumentos é o Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Prestação de Serviços Ecológico (ICMS Ecológico. Por meio da arrecadação do ICMS (Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Prestação de Serviços, os estados podem disponibilizar uma parcela do seu montante aos municípios, com a utilização de diversos critérios, dentre eles o ambiental. Este artigo apresenta o sistema de redistribuição desse imposto, segundo os critérios ambientais, executado no estado de Minas Gerais, e analisa suas implicações na conservação ambiental do município de Uberlândia, oeste de Minas Gerais. Por meio de revisão bibliográfica, pesquisa documental e trabalhos de campo, constata-se a potencialidade desse instrumento e a falta de seu alcance no que tange ao índice de conservação ambiental. Por fim, propõe-se algumas mudanças na normatização estadual, a fim de se atingir o seu objetivo: a melhoria da qualidade ambiental.

  15. Prospective Out-of-ecliptic White-light Imaging of Coronal Mass Ejections Traveling through the Corona and Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ming; Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A.; Zhou, Yufen; Feng, Xueshang; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Liu, Ying D.; Hayashi, Keiji; Li, Huichao; Yang, Liping

    2018-01-01

    The in-flight performance of the Coriolis/SMEI and STEREO/HI instruments substantiates the high-technology readiness level of white-light (WL) imaging of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere. The WL intensity of a propagating CME is jointly determined by its evolving mass distribution and the fixed Thomson-scattering geometry. From their in-ecliptic viewpoints, SMEI and HI, the only heliospheric imagers that have been flown to date, integrate the longitudinal dimension of CMEs. In this paper, using forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling, we synthesize the WL radiance pattern of a typical halo CME viewed from an out-of-ecliptic (OOE) vantage point. The major anatomical elements of the CME identified in WL imagery are a leading sheath and a trailing ejecta; the ejecta-driven sheath is the brightest feature of the CME. The sheath, a three-dimensional (3D) dome-like density structure, occupies a wide angular extent ahead of the ejecta itself. The 2D radiance pattern of the sheath depends critically on viewpoint. For a CME modeled under solar minimum conditions, the WL radiance pattern of the sheath is generally a quasi-straight band when viewed from an in-ecliptic viewpoint and a semicircular arc from an OOE viewpoint. The dependence of the radiance pattern of the ejecta-driven sheath on viewpoint is attributed to the bimodal nature of the 3D background solar wind flow. Our forward-modeling results suggest that OOE imaging in WL radiance can enable (1) a near-ecliptic CME to be continuously tracked from its coronal initiation, (2) the longitudinal span of the CME to be readily charted, and (3) the transporting speed of the CME to be reliably determined. Additional WL polarization measurements can significantly limit the ambiguity of localizing CMEs. We assert that a panoramic OOE view in WL would be highly beneficial in revealing CME morphology and kinematics in the hitherto-unresolved longitudinal dimension and hence for monitoring the propagation and

  16. Functional Domain Driven Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Guzmán, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...

  17. Ejection mechanics and trajectory of the ascospores of Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fuarium graminearum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Frances; Gaffoor, Iffa; Vogel, Steven

    2005-06-01

    Since wind speed drops to zero at a surface, forced ejection should facilitate spore dispersal. But for tiny spores, with low mass relative to surface area, high ejection speed yields only a short range trajectory, so pernicious is their drag. Thus, achieving high speeds requires prodigious accelerations. In the ascomycete Gibberella zeae, we determined the launch speed and kinetic energy of ascospores shot from perithecia, and the source and magnitude of the pressure driving the launch. We asked whether the pressure inside the ascus suffices to account for launch speed and energy. Launch speed was 34.5 ms-1, requiring a pressure of 1.54 MPa and an acceleration of 870,000 g--the highest acceleration reported in a biological system. This analysis allows us to discount the major sugar component of the epiplasmic fluid, mannitol, as having a key role in driving discharge, and supports the role of potassium ion flux in the mechanism.

  18. ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN CORONAL, MASS EJECTIONS AND THE SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Goslin, J. T.; Crooker, . U.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic connectivity of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Sun using Ulysses observations of suprathermal electrons at various distances between 1 and 5.2 AU. Drawing on ideas concerning the eruption and evolution of CMEs, we had anticipated that there might be a tendency for CMEs to contain progressively more open field lines, as reconnection back at the Sun either opened or completely disconnected previously closed field lines threading the CMEs. Our results, however, did not yield any discernible trend. By combining the potential contribution of CMEs to the heliospheric flux with the observed buildup of flux during the course of the solar cycle, we also derive a lower limit for the reconnection rate of CMEs that is sufficient to avoid the "flux catastrophe" paradox. This rate is well below our threshold of detectability. Subject headings: solar wind - Sun: activity - Sun: corona - Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - On-line material: color figure Sun: magnetic fields

  19. A many-body embedded atom potential for describing ejection of atoms from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, B.J.; Walzl, K.; El-Maazawi, M.; Winograd, N.; Reimann, C.T.; Deaven, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we show that many-body interactions are important for describing the energy- and angle-resolved distributions of neutral Rh atoms ejected from keV-ion-bombarded Rh{111}. We compare separate classical-dynamics simulations of the sputtering process assuming either a many-body potential or a pairwise additive potential. The most dramatic difference between the many-body potential and the pair potential is the predicted kinetic energy distributions. The pair-potential kinetic energy distribution peaks at ∼ 2 eV, whereas the many-body potential predicts a broader peak at ∼ 4 eV, giving much better agreement with experiment. This difference between the model potentials is due to the predicted nature of the attractive interaction in the surface region through which all ejecting particles pass. (author)

  20. Density and white light brightness in looplike coronal mass ejections - Importance of the preevent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinolfson, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Following studies of Sime et al. (1984), in which some models that simulate coronal mass ejections were found to be inaccurate simulators, two of these models (a model of a static corona in a current-free magnetic field, and a model of a polytropic corona with a coronal streamer) were reexamined, along with a new model, which differed from the second model in that it contained an atmospheric heating term. It is shown that the inclusion of a realistic preevent atmosphere can improve agreement with observations. The essential improvement in the heated atmosphere is that the fast-mode speed is increased to the extent that shocks may not form for typical ejection velocities.

  1. Stellar dynamics. The fastest unbound star in our Galaxy ejected by a thermonuclear supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S; Fürst, F; Ziegerer, E; Kupfer, T; Heber, U; Irrgang, A; Wang, B; Liu, Z; Han, Z; Sesar, B; Levitan, D; Kotak, R; Magnier, E; Smith, K; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H; Kaiser, N; Wainscoat, R; Waters, C

    2015-03-06

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) travel with velocities so high that they exceed the escape velocity of the Galaxy. Several acceleration mechanisms have been discussed. Only one HVS (US 708, HVS 2) is a compact helium star. Here we present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of US 708. Traveling with a velocity of ~1200 kilometers per second, it is the fastest unbound star in our Galaxy. In reconstructing its trajectory, the Galactic center becomes very unlikely as an origin, which is hardly consistent with the most favored ejection mechanism for the other HVSs. Furthermore, we detected that US 708 is a fast rotator. According to our binary evolution model, it was spun-up by tidal interaction in a close binary and is likely to be the ejected donor remnant of a thermonuclear supernova. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Understanding the Global Structure and Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress made during the first six months of the second year of the NASA Living with a Star program contract Understanding the global structure and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period November 18, 2003 - May 17,2004. Under this contract SAIC has conducted numerical and data analysis related to fundamental issues concerning the origin, intrinsic properties, global structure, and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind. During this working period we have focused on a quantitative assessment of 5 flux rope fitting techniques. In the following sections we summarize the main aspects of this work and our proposed investigation plan for the next reporting period. Thus far, our investigation has resulted in 6 refereed scientific publications and we have presented the results at a number of scientific meetings and workshops.

  3. Enhancement of weld failure and tube ejection model in PENTAP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jaehoon; An, Sang Mo; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2014-01-01

    The reactor vessel pressure, the debris mass, the debris temperature, and the component of material can have an effect on the penetration tube failure modes. Furthermore, these parameters are interrelated. There are some representative severe accident codes such as MELCOR, MAAP, and PENTAP program. MELCOR decides on a penetration tube failure by its failure temperature such as 1273K simply. MAAP considers all penetration failure modes and has the most advanced model for a penetration tube failure model. However, the validation work against the experimental data is very limited. PENTAP program which evaluates the possible penetration tube failure modes such as creep failure, weld failure, tube ejection, and a long term tube failure under given accident condition was developed by KAERI. The experiment for the tube ejection is being performed by KAERI. The temperature distribution and the ablation rate of both weld and lower vessel wall can be obtained through the experiment. This paper includes the updated calculation steps for the weld failure and the tube ejection modes of the PENTAP program to apply the experimental results. PENTAP program can evaluate the possible penetration tube failure modes. It still requires a large amount of efforts to increase the prediction of failure modes. Some calculation steps are necessary for applying the experimental and the numerical data in the PENTAP program. In this study, new calculation steps are added to PENTAP program to enhance the weld failure and tube ejection models using KAERI's experimental data which are the ablation rate and temperature distribution of weld and lower vessel wall

  4. Modeling observations of solar coronal mass ejections with heliospheric imagers verified with the eliophysics System Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Möstl, C.; Isavnin, A.; Boakes, P. D.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Barnes, D.; Krupař, Vratislav; Eastwood, J.; Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.; Bothmer, V.; Reiss, M. A.; Amerstorfer, T.; Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B.J.; Philpott, L. C.; Rodriguez, L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Gallagher, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2017), s. 955-970 ISSN 1539-4956 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : space weather * coronal mass ejections * STEREO * heliospheric imagers * Heliophysics System Observatory * heliophysics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017SW001614/full

  5. Ejection of molecules from solid deuterium excited by keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrys, R.; Warczak, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    The energy distribution of sputtered D-2 from electron-bombarded solid deuterium has been studied for the first time. The spectra from this quantum solid show features that may originate from an energy release sequence of association of atoms. For ejection energies above 1 meV the gross features...... of the spectrum are similar to those from electronic sputtering of ether much less volatile condensed gases. Sputtered D-4 molecules have been observed for the first time as well....

  6. Differing prognostic value of pulse pressure in patients with heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Colette E; Castagno, Davide; Maggioni, Aldo P

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Low pulse pressure is a marker of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) but the prognostic value of pulse pressure in patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) is unknown. We examined the prognostic value of pulse pressure......) and 5008 with HF-PEF (828 deaths). Pulse pressure was analysed in quintiles in a multivariable model adjusted for the previously reported Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure prognostic variables. Heart failure and reduced ejection fraction patients in the lowest pulse pressure quintile had...

  7. Wave speeds in the corona and the dynamics of mass ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.; Moore, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A disturbance or coronal mass ejection being advected by the solar wind will expand at the fastest local characteristic speed - typically approximately the fast-mode speed. To estimate this characteristic wave speed and the velocity field in the ambient corona, it is necessary to know the magnetic field, temperature, and density. Only the density is known from coronal observations. The temperature, magnetic field, and velocity are not yet directly measured in the outer corona and must be estimated from a model. In this study, it is estimated that the magnetic field, solar wind velocity, and characteristic speeds use the MHD model of coronal expansion between 1 and 5 solar radii (R solar radii) with a dipole magnetic field at the base. This model, for a field strength of about 2 gauss at the base, gives flow speeds at low latitudes (near the heliospheric current sheet) of 250 km/s at 5 R solar radii and, 50 km/s at 2 solar radii, and fast-mode speeds to 400 to 500 km/s everywhere between 2 and 5 solar radii. This suggests that the outer edge of a velocity of mass ejection reported by MacQueen and Fisher (1983) and implies that the acceleration mechanism for coronal mass ejections is other than simple entrainment in the solar wind

  8. Propagation of capillary waves and ejection of small droplets in rapid droplet spreading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Hang

    2012-03-12

    A new regime of droplet ejection following the slow deposition of drops onto a near-complete wetting solid substrate is identified in experiments and direct numerical simulations; a coalescence cascade subsequent to pinch-off is also observed for the first time. Results of numerical simulations indicate that the propagation of capillary waves that lead to pinch-off is closely related to the self-similar behaviour observed in the inviscid recoil of droplets, and that motions of the crests and troughs of capillary waves along the interface do not depend on the wettability and surface tension (or Ohnesorge number). The simulations also show that a self-similar theory for universal pinch-off can be used for the time evolution of the pinching neck. However, although good agreement is also found with the double-cone shape of the pinching neck for droplet ejection in drop deposition on a pool of the same liquid, substantial deviations are observed in such a comparison for droplet ejection in rapid drop spreading (including the newly identified regime). This deviation is shown to result from interference by the solid substrate, a rapid downwards acceleration of the top of the drop surface and the rapid spreading process. The experiments also confirm non-monotonic spreading behaviour observed previously only in numerical simulations, and suggest substantial inertial effects on the relation between an apparent contact angle and the dimensionless contact-line speed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  9. Overexpanding coronal mass ejections at high heliographic latitudes: Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Riley, P.; McComas, D.J.; Pizzo, V.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ulysses observations reveal that most coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed in the solar wind far from the Sun at high heliographic latitudes have large radial widths and are still expanding as they pass the spacecraft. CME radial widths ranging between 0.5 and 2.5 AU have been observed at heliocentric distances between 1.4 and 4.6 AU and at latitudes greater than 22 degree. A CME may expand simply because it is ejected from the Sun with a leading edge speed that is greater than its trailing edge speed. Rarefaction waves produced by relative motion between a CME and the surrounding wind also can cause a CME to expand. Finally, a CME may expand because it is ejected into the wind with an internal pressure that is greater than that of the surrounding wind. In the latter case, which we have called 'overexpansion', the expansion tends to drive compressive waves into the surrounding solar wind; these waves commonly steepen into shocks at large distances from the Sun. The relative importance of these various expansion processes differs from event to event depending upon initial conditions within the CME and the surrounding wind. Using Ulysses observations and a simple one-dimensional, gasdynamic code, we have explored how initial conditions affect the radial evolution of solar wind disturbances associated with overexpanding CMEs. We find good qualitative agreement between the results of our simulations and Ulysses observations of such disturbances. copyright 1998 American Geophysical Union

  10. Structural and Functional Phenotyping of the Failing Heart: Is the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Michael R; Kao, David P; Breathett, Khadijah K; Altman, Natasha L; Gorcsan, John; Gill, Edward A; Lowes, Brian D; Gilbert, Edward M; Quaife, Robert A; Mann, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and development of new therapies for diseases or syndromes depend on a reliable means of identifying phenotypes associated with distinct predictive probabilities for these various objectives. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) provides the current basis for combined functional and structural phenotyping in heart failure by classifying patients as those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and those with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Recently the utility of LVEF as the major phenotypic determinant of heart failure has been challenged based on its load dependency and measurement variability. We review the history of the development and adoption of LVEF as a critical measurement of LV function and structure and demonstrate that, in chronic heart failure, load dependency is not an important practical issue, and we provide hemodynamic and molecular biomarker evidence that LVEF is superior or equal to more unwieldy methods of identifying phenotypes of ventricular remodeling. We conclude that, because it reliably measures both left ventricular function and structure, LVEF remains the best current method of assessing pathologic remodeling in heart failure in both individual clinical and multicenter group settings. Because of the present and future importance of left ventricular phenotyping in heart failure, LVEF should be measured by using the most accurate technology and methodologic refinements available, and improved characterization methods should continue to be sought. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pre-ejection period by radial artery tonometry supplements echo doppler findings during biventricular pacemaker optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamruddin Salima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biventricular (Biv pacemaker echo optimization has been shown to improve cardiac output however is not routinely used due to its complexity. We investigated the role of a simple method involving computerized pre-ejection time (PEP assessment by radial artery tonometry in guiding Biv pacemaker optimization. Methods Blinded echo and radial artery tonometry were performed simultaneously in 37 patients, age 69.1 ± 12.8 years, left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (EF 33 ± 10%, during Biv pacemaker optimization. Effect of optimization on echo derived velocity time integral (VTI, ejection time (ET, myocardial performance index (MPI, radial artery tonometry derived PEP and echo-radial artery tonometry derived PEP/VTI and PEP/ET indices was evaluated. Results Significant improvement post optimization was achieved in LV ET (286.9 ± 37.3 to 299 ± 34.6 ms, p Conclusion An acute shortening of PEP by radial artery tonometry occurs post Biv pacemaker optimization and correlates with improvement in hemodynamics by echo Doppler and may provide a cost-efficient approach to assist with Biv pacemaker echo optimization.

  12. Cross-stream ejection in the inter-wheel region of aircraft landing gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Philip; Ekmekci, Alis

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of aircraft noise is an important challenge currently faced by aircraft manufacturers. During approach and landing, the landing gears contribute a significant proportion of the aircraft generated noise. It is therefore critical that the key noise sources be identified and understood in order for effective mitigation methods to be developed. For a simplified two-wheel nose landing gear, a strong cross stream flow ejection phenomena has been observed to occur in the inter-wheel region in presence of wheel wells. The location and orientation of these flow ejections causes highly unsteady, three dimensional flow between the wheels that may impinge on other landing gear components, thereby potentially acting as a significant noise generator. The effects of changing the inter-wheel geometry (inter-wheel spacing, the wheel well depth and main strut geometry) upon the cross-stream ejection behaviour has been experimentally investigated using both qualitative flow visualisation and quantitative PIV techniques. A summary of the key results will be presented for the three main geometrical parameters under examination and the application of these findings to real life landing gears will be discussed. Thanks to Messier-Bugatti-Dowty and NSERC for their support for this project.

  13. Pressure Driven Poiseuille Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2018-01-01

    and lithosphere mutually exchange, by virtue of Newton's third law of motion. In light of these constraints, the notion that subduction is the main driver of present–day Pacific plate motion becomes somewhat unviable, as the pulling force that would be required by slabs exceeds the maximum available from......The Pacific plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians–Japan, Marianas–Izu–Bonin and Tonga–Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub–Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e. Couette flow......), and that the associated shear–stresses at the lithosphere's base are resisting such motion. Recent studies on glacial isostatic adjustment and lithosphere dynamics provide tighter constraints on the viscosity and thickness of Earth's asthenosphere and, therefore, on the amount of shear–stress that asthenosphere...

  14. Soliton driven angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Terragni, F; Birnir, B

    2016-08-09

    Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process.

  15. Employee-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    of contemporary research on routine and organizational decision making to the specific case of EDI. Findings – The main result of the paper is that, from a theoretical point of view, it makes perfect sense to involve ordinary employees in innovation decisions. However, it is also outlined that naıve or ungoverned...... participation is counterproductive, and that it is quite difficult to realize the hidden potential in a supportive way. Research limitations/implications – The main implication is that basic mechanisms for employee participation also apply to innovation decisions, although often in a different way. However......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the “grand structure” of the phenomenon in order to identify both the underlying processes and core drivers of employee-driven innovation (EDI). Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper. It particularly applies the insights...

  16. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  17. Optimising the dichotomy limit for left ventricular ejection fraction in selecting patients for defibrillator therapy after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The selection of patients for prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrilator (ICD) treatment after myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. AIM: To determine the optimum left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) dichotomy limit for ICD treatment in patients with a history...

  18. Comparison of characteristics and outcomes of patients with heart failure preserved ejection fraction versus reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in an urban cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Rene; Doros, Gheorghe; Shaw, Peter; Liang, Chang-Seng; Gauthier, Diane F; Sam, Flora

    2014-02-15

    Despite significant advances in therapies for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there are no evidence-based therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), also known as diastolic heart failure (HF). Differences in pathophysiologic mechanisms are touted as to why patients with HFpEF purportedly do not derive similar therapeutic benefits compared with HFrEF. Similarly, the relative frequencies of HFpEF and HFrEF may differ between hospitalized and ambulatory settings. There are limited data on the prevalence, characteristics, treatment, and short-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with HFpEF. We sought to investigate these in patients hospitalized with HFpEF in an urban, hospitalized setting using the Get With The Guidelines registry. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive discharges (n = 1,701) with a diagnosis of acute decompensated HF from December 1, 2006 to September 30, 2008. Patients with HFpEF (n = 499) were older, overweight, predominantly women, and had underlying hypertension and dyslipidemia. Presenting blood pressure and levels of creatinine were higher, with lower brain natriuretic peptide levels compared with patients with HFrEF (n = 598). Length of stay and 30-day mortality were comparable between patients with HFpEF and HFrEF. Thirty-day readmission was initially lower in patients with HFpEF. However 30-day mortality from any cause after the index HF hospitalization and survival curve at 1-year was no different between patients with HFpEF and HFrEF. In conclusion, lower 30-day readmissions do not translate into improved long-term outcome in patients with HFpEF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects-Driven IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design and organizatio......We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design...

  20. The relationship between the parameters (Heart rate, Ejection fraction and BMI) and the maximum enhancement time of ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Ill; June, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyeong Rae

    2007-01-01

    In this study, Bolus Tracking method was used to investigate the parameters affecting the time when contrast media is reached at 100 HU (T 100 ) and studied the relationship between parameters and T 100 because the time which is reached at aorta through antecubital vein after injecting contrast media is different from person to person. Using 64 MDCT, Cadiac CT, the data were obtained from 100 patients (male: 50, female: 50, age distribution: 21⁓81, average age: 57.5) during July and September, 2007 by injecting the contrast media at 4 ml∙sec -1 through their antecubital vein except having difficulties in stopping their breath and having arrhythmia. Using Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 Siemens, patients’ height and weight were measured to know their mean Heart rate and BMI. Ejection Fraction was measured using Argus Program at Wizard Workstation. Variances of each parameter were analyzed depending on T 100 ’s variation with multiple comparison and the correlation of Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI were analyzed, as well. According to T 100 ’s variation caused by Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI variations, the higher patients’ Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the faster T 100 ’s variations caused by Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were. The lower their Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the slower T 100 ’s variations were, but T 100 ’s variations caused by BMI were not affected. In the correlation between T 100 and parameters, Heart Rate (p⁄0.01) and Ejection Fraction (p⁄0.05) were significant, but BMI was not significant (p¤0.05). In the Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI depending on Fast (17 sec and less), Medium (18⁓21 sec), Slow (22 sec and over) Heart Rate was significant at Fast and Slow and Ejection Fraction was significant Fast and Slow as well as Medium and Slow (p⁄0.05), but BMI was not statistically significant. Of the parameters (Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI) which would affect T 100 , Heart

  1. Ispitivanje piropatrona i raketnog motora pilotskog sedišta / Testing pyrocartridges and the rocket motor of the ejection seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Savković

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Raketni motor pilotskog sedišta ima složen geometrijski oblik, tako da njegov potisak deluje pod određenim uglom u odnosu na ravan simetrije pilotskog sedišta. Radi određivanja intenziteta i napadne linije potiska izvršen je veći broj eksperimenata. Meren je potisak raketnog motora na višekomponentnom opitnom stolu. Letno ispitivanje pilotskog sedišta obavljeno je pomoću lutke koja simulira masu pilota. Takođe, analizirano je letno ispitivanje pilotskog sedišta u početnom periodu katapultiranja za vreme rada raketnog motora. Obrađeni su i rezultati merenja ubrzanja, koji su korišćeni za određivanje karakteristika leta pilotskog sedišta. U radu je prikazan teorijski model kretanja sedišta. / Due to a complex geometrical shape of the rocket motor of the ejection seat, the rocket motor thrust occurs under certain angle in relation to the plane of symmetry of the ejection seat. A number of tests were carried out in order to determine thrust intensity and angle of attack. The rocket motor thrust was measured on the multicomponent test stand. The ejection seat whit a dummy simulating a mass of a pilot was tested during ejection. The paper presents an analysis of the ejection seat flight in the initial phase of ejection, during the rocket motor running. The results of the acceleration read-outs were processed and then used for the determination of the characteristics of the ejection seat flight. A theoretical model of the ejection seat flight is given in the paper.

  2. Ejection Performance of Coated Core Pins Intended for Application on High Pressure Die Casting Tools for Aluminium Alloys Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Terek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure die casting (HPDC process of aluminium alloys cast alloy soldering severely damages tool surfaces. It hampers casting ejection, reduces the casting quality and decreases the overall production efficiency. Thin ceramic PVD (physical vapor deposition coatings applied on tool surfaces successfully reduce these effects. However, their performance is still not recognised for surfaces with various topographies. In this investigation, soldering tendency of Al-Si-Cu alloy toward EN X27CrMoV51 steel, plasma nitrided steel, CrN and TiAlN duplex PVD coatings is evaluated using ejection test. The coatings were prepared to a range of surface roughness and topographies. After the tests sample surfaces were analysed by different microscopy techniques and profilometry. It was found that the ejection performance is independent of the chemical composition of investigated materials. After the ejection, the cast alloy soldering layer was found on surfaces of all tested materials. This built-up layer formed by effects of mechanical soldering, without corrosion reactions. Coated samples displayed a pronounced dependence of ejection force on surface roughness and topography. By decreasing roughness, ejection force increased, which is a consequence of intensified adhesion effects. Presented findings are a novel information important for efficient application of PVD coatings intendent for protection of HPDC tools.

  3. Effects of pulling forces, osmotic pressure, condensing agents and viscosity on the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA ejection from bacteriophages to bacterial cells: a computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Anton S; Harvey, Stephen C; Douglas, Scott S

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report on simulations of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) ejection from bacteriophage ϕ29 into a bacterial cell. The ejection was studied with a coarse-grained model, in which viral dsDNA was represented by beads on a torsion-less string. The bacteriophage’s capsid and the bacterial cell were defined by sets of spherical constraints. To account for the effects of the viscous medium inside the bacterial cell, the simulations were carried out using a Langevin dynamics protocol. Our simplest simulations (involving constant viscosity and no external biasing forces) produced results compatible with the push–pull model of DNA ejection, with an ejection rate significantly higher in the first part of ejection than in the latter parts. Additionally, we performed more complicated simulations, in which we included additional factors such as external forces, osmotic pressure, condensing agents and ejection-dependent viscosity. The effects of these factors (independently and in combination) on the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA ejection were studied. We found that, in general, the dependence of ejection forces and ejection rates on the amount of DNA ejected becomes more complex if the ejection is modeled with a broader, more realistic set of parameters and influences (such as variation in the solvent’s viscosity and the application of an external force). However, certain combinations of factors and numerical parameters led to the opposition of some ejection-driving and ejection-inhibiting influences, ultimately causing an apparent simplification of the ejection profiles. (paper)

  4. Effects of pulling forces, osmotic pressure, condensing agents and viscosity on the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA ejection from bacteriophages to bacterial cells: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Anton S.; Douglas, Scott S.; Harvey, Stephen C.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we report on simulations of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) ejection from bacteriophage ϕ29 into a bacterial cell. The ejection was studied with a coarse-grained model, in which viral dsDNA was represented by beads on a torsion-less string. The bacteriophage’s capsid and the bacterial cell were defined by sets of spherical constraints. To account for the effects of the viscous medium inside the bacterial cell, the simulations were carried out using a Langevin dynamics protocol. Our simplest simulations (involving constant viscosity and no external biasing forces) produced results compatible with the push-pull model of DNA ejection, with an ejection rate significantly higher in the first part of ejection than in the latter parts. Additionally, we performed more complicated simulations, in which we included additional factors such as external forces, osmotic pressure, condensing agents and ejection-dependent viscosity. The effects of these factors (independently and in combination) on the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA ejection were studied. We found that, in general, the dependence of ejection forces and ejection rates on the amount of DNA ejected becomes more complex if the ejection is modeled with a broader, more realistic set of parameters and influences (such as variation in the solvent’s viscosity and the application of an external force). However, certain combinations of factors and numerical parameters led to the opposition of some ejection-driving and ejection-inhibiting influences, ultimately causing an apparent simplification of the ejection profiles.

  5. The temporal evolution of pyroclast ejection velocity and exit trajectory, a laboratory case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigala, Valeria; Kueppers, Ulrich; José Peña Fernández, Juan; Sesterhenn, Jörn; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2017-04-01

    Pyroclast ejection dynamics during explosive volcanic eruptions are highly variable. This variability is due to complex interaction among different parameters, which define the boundary conditions for a certain eruption. Scaled and controlled laboratory experiments come in hand to characterize the effect of specific physical parameters on the ejection dynamics. We focus, in particular, on the dynamics of pyroclasts ejection in the region just above the vent, also called gas-thrust region, for the case of impulsively released gas-pyroclast mixtures (i.e., unsteady eruptions). In this study, gas-particle mixtures were released in a series of shock-tube experiments with varying 1) tube length, 2) vent geometry, 3) gas-particle ratio, 4) initial temperature and 5) particle size distribution. The tube length was varied by changing the starting sample load, resulting in a gas-particle ratio of 1, 2.5 and 8, respectively. Thereby, the initial distance of the sample from the exit varied between 320, 230 and 140 mm, respectively, allowing for variable time for accelerating (and possibly decelerating) the particles prior to exit. Moreover, four vent geometries were employed, a nozzle with converging walls (5°), a cylinder and two funnels with walls diverging at 15° and 30° respectively. All of them are characterized by a value h/D=1.07, where h is the length between the throat and the lip of the vent and D is throat diameter. The experiments were performed at both 500°C and room temperature using particles from 2 to 0.125 mm in diameter. In all experiments, initial pressure was 15 MPa. High speed videos of the ejection behaviour were analyzed to obtain the temporal evolution of particle velocity and exit trajectory depending on boundary conditions. Max velocity of 300 m/s was observed together with a non-linear decay of exit velocity over time. The exit trajectories were found to deviate from the vertical by 5° to 45° and also display a non-linear evolution with time

  6. Customer-driven competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro's Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro's franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro's system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation

  7. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisa­tion focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as prag­matic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  8. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  9. Coronal mass ejection and stream interaction region characteristics and their potential geomagnetic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, G.M.; Russell, C.T.; Luhmann, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the largest geomagnetic storms are caused by extraordinary increases in the solar wind velocity and/or southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) produced by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their associated interplanetary shocks. However, much more frequent small to moderate increases in solar wind velocity and compressions in the IMF can be caused by either coronal mass ejections or fast/slow stream interactions. This study examines the relative statistics of the magnitudes of disturbances associated with the passage of both interplanetary coronal mass ejections and stream interaction regions, using an exceptionally continuous interplanetary database from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter at 0.7 AU throughout most of solar cycle 21. It is found that both stream interaction and CMEs produce magnetic fields significantly larger than the nominal IMF. Increases in field magnitude that are up to 2 and 3 times higher than the ambient field are observed for stream interaction regions and CMEs, respectively. Both stream interactions and CMEs produce large positive and negative Β z components at 0.7 AU, but only CMEs produce Β z magnitudes greater than 35 nT. CMEs are often associated with sustained periods of positive or negative Β z whereas stream interaction regions are more often associated with fluctuating Β z . CMEs tend to produce larger solar wind electric fields than stream interactions. Yet stream interactions tend to produce larger dynamic pressures than CMEs. Dst predictions based on solar wind duskward electric field and dynamic pressure indicate that CMEs produce the largest geomagnetic disturbances while the low-speed portion of stream interaction regions are least geomagnetically effective. Both stream interaction regions and CMEs contribute to low and moderate levels of activity with relative importance determined by their solar-cycle-dependent occurrence rates

  10. High-entropy ejections from magnetized proto-neutron star winds: implications for heavy element nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Todd A.; ud-Doula, Asif

    2018-02-01

    Although initially thought to be promising for production of the r-process nuclei, standard models of neutrino-heated winds from proto-neutron stars (PNSs) do not reach the requisite neutron-to-seed ratio for production of the lanthanides and actinides. However, the abundance distribution created by the r, rp, or νp-processes in PNS winds depends sensitively on the entropy and dynamical expansion timescale of the flow, which may be strongly affected by high magnetic fields. Here, we present results from magnetohydrodynamic simulations of non-rotating neutrino-heated PNS winds with strong dipole magnetic fields from 1014 - 1016 G, and assess their role in altering the conditions for nucleosynthesis. The strong field forms a closed zone and helmet streamer configuration at the equator, with episodic dynamical mass ejections in toroidal plasmoids. We find dramatically enhanced entropy in these regions and conditions favorable for third-peak r-process nucleosynthesis if the wind is neutron-rich. If instead the wind is proton-rich, the conditions will affect the abundances from the νp-process. We quantify the distribution of ejected matter in entropy and dynamical expansion timescale, and the critical magnetic field strength required to affect the entropy. For B ≳ 1015 G, we find that ≳10-6 M⊙ and up to ˜10-5 M⊙ of high entropy material is ejected per highly-magnetized neutron star birth in the wind phase, providing a mechanism for prompt heavy element enrichment of the universe. Former binary companions identified within (magnetar-hosting) supernova remnants, the remnants themselves, and runaway stars may exhibit overabundances. We provide a comparison with a semi-analytic model of plasmoid eruption and discuss implications and extensions.

  11. Stoichiometric relationship between energy-dependent proton ejection and electron transport in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    The number of protons ejected during electron transport per pair of electrons per energy-conserving site (the H+/site ratio) was measured in rat liver mitochondria by three different methods under conditions in which transmembrane movements of endogenous phosphate were minized or eliminated. (1) In the Ca2+ pulse method, between 3.5 and 4.0 molecules of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 1.75 to 2.0 Ca2+ ions were accumulated per 2 e- per site during Ca2+ induced electron transport in the presence of rotenone, when measured under conditions in which movements of endogenous phosphate were negligible. Since entry of 3-hydroxybutyrate requires its protonation to the free acid these data correspond to an H+/site ratio of 3.5-4.0 (2) In the oxygen pulse method addition of known amounts of oxygen to anaerobic mitochondria in the presence of substrate yielded H+/site ratios of 3.0 when phosphate transport was eliminated by addition of N-ethylmaleimide or by anaerobic washing to remove endogenous phosphate. In the absence of such measures the observed H+/site ratio was 2.0. (3) In the reductant pulse method measurement of the initial steady rates of H+ ejection and oxygen consumption by mitochondria in an aerobic medium after addition of substrate gave H+/site near 4.0 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide; in the absence of the inhibitor the observed ratio was only 2.0. These and other experiments reported indicate that the values of 2.0 earlier obtained for the H+/site ratio by Mitchell and Moyle [Biochem J. (1967) 105, 1147-1162] and others were underestimates due to the unrecognized masking of H+ ejection by movements of endogenous phosphate. The results presented here show that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport is at least 3.0 and may be as high as 4.0. PMID:1061146

  12. Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction – Concept, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Challenges for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Veterovska Miljkovik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF with preserved left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (HFpEF occurs in 40 to 60% of the patients with HF, with a prognosis which is similar to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF. HFpEF pathophysiology is different from that of HFrEF, and has been characterized with diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction has been defined with elevated left ventricular stiffness, prolonged iso-volumetric LV relaxation, slow LV filing and elevated LV end-diastolic pressure. Arterial hypertension occurs in majority cases with HFpEF worldwide. Patients are mostly older and obese. Diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation appear proportionally in a high frequency of patients with HFpEF. The HFpEF diagnosis is based on existence of symptoms and signs of heart failure, normal or approximately normal ejection and diagnosing of LV diastolic dysfunction by means of heart catheterization or Doppler echocardiography and/or elevated concentration of plasma natriuretic peptide. The present recommendations for HFpEF treatment include blood pressure control, heart chamber frequency control when atrial fibrillation exists, in some situations even coronary revascularization and an attempt for sinus rhythm reestablishment. Up to now, it is considered that no medication or a group of medications improve the survival of HFpEF patients. Due to these causes and the bad prognosis of the disorder, rigorous control is recommended of the previously mentioned precipitating factors for this disorder. This paper presents a universal review of the most important parameters which determine this disorder.

  13. Mid-range Ejection Fraction Does Not Permit Risk Stratification Among Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Otero, Inés; Ferrero-Gregori, Andreu; Varela Román, Alfonso; Seijas Amigo, José; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A; Delgado Jiménez, Juan; Álvarez-García, Jesús; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Worner Diz, Fernando; Alonso-Pulpón, Luis; Cinca, Juan; Gónzalez-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2017-05-01

    European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines include a new patient category with mid-range (40%-49%) left ventricular ejection fraction (HFmrEF). HFmrEF patient characteristics and prognosis are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to analyze the HFmrEF category in a cohort of hospitalized heart failure patients (REDINSCOR II Registry). A prospective observational study was conducted with 1420 patients classified according to ejection fraction as follows: HFrEF, < 40%; HFmrEF, 40%-49%; and HFpEF, ≥ 50%. Baseline patient characteristics were examined, and outcome measures were mortality and readmission for heart failure at 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Propensity score matching was used to compare the HFmrEF group with the other ejection fraction groups. Among the study participants, 583 (41%) had HFrEF, 227 (16%) HFmrEF, and 610 (43%) HFpEF. HFmrEF patients had a clinical profile similar to that of HFpEF patients in terms of age, blood pressure, and atrial fibrillation prevalence, but shared with HFrEF patients a higher proportion of male participants and ischemic etiology, and use of class I drugs targeting HFrEF. All other features were intermediate, and comorbidities were similar among the 3 groups. There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality, cause of death, or heart failure readmission. The similar outcomes were confirmed in the propensity score matched cohorts. The HFmrEF patient group has characteristics between the HFrEF and HFpEF groups, with more similarities to the HFpEF group. No between-group differences were observed in total mortality, cause of death, or heart failure readmission. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Turbulence and Heating in the Flank and Wake Regions of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Siteng; He, Jiansen; Yan, Limei; Tomczyk, Steven; Tian, Hui; Song, Hongqiang; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    As a coronal mass ejection (CME) passes, the flank and wake regions are typically strongly disturbed. Various instruments, including the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP), observed a CME close to the east limb on 26 October 2013. A hot ({≈} 10 MK) rising blob was detected on the east limb, with an initial ejection flow speed of {≈} 330 km s^{-1}. The magnetic structures on both sides and in the wake of the CME were strongly distorted, showing initiation of turbulent motions with Doppler-shift oscillations enhanced from {≈} ± 3 km s^{-1} to {≈} ± 15 km s^{-1} and effective thermal velocities from {≈} 30 km s^{-1} to {≈} 60 km s^{-1}, according to the CoMP observations at the Fe xiii line. The CoMP Doppler-shift maps suggest that the turbulence behaved differently at various heights; it showed clear wave-like torsional oscillations at lower altitudes, which are interpreted as the antiphase oscillation of an alternating red/blue Doppler shift across the strands at the flank. The turbulence seems to appear differently in the channels of different temperatures. Its turnover time was {≈} 1000 seconds for the Fe 171 Å channel, while it was {≈} 500 seconds for the Fe 193 Å channel. Mainly horizontal swaying rotations were observed in the Fe 171 Å channel, while more vertical vortices were seen in the Fe 193 Å channel. The differential-emission-measure profiles in the flank and wake regions have two components that evolve differently: the cool component decreased over time, evidently indicating a drop-out of cool materials due to ejection, while the hot component increased dramatically, probably because of the heating process, which is suspected to be a result of magnetic reconnection and turbulence dissipation. These results suggest a new turbulence-heating scenario of the solar corona and solar wind.

  15. Bi-temporal 3D active appearance models with applications to unsupervised ejection fraction estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Pedersen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    in four-dimensional MRI. The theoretical foundation of our work is the generative two-dimensional Active Appearance Models by Cootes et al., here extended to bi-temporal, three-dimensional models. Further issues treated include correction of respiratory induced slice displacements, systole detection......, and a texture model pruning strategy. Cross-validation carried out on clinical-quality scans of twelve volunteers indicates that ejection fraction and cardiac blood pool volumes can be estimated automatically and rapidly with accuracy on par with typical inter-observer variability....

  16. Closer clutch inspection—quicker egg ejection: timing of host responses toward parasitic eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Polačiková, Lenka; Honza, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2011), s. 46-51 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * egg discrimination * egg ejection time * great reed warbler * nest inspection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.083, year: 2011

  17. Sildenafil and diastolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction in patients with preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads J; Ersbøll, Mads; Axelsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    with diastolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy patients with diastolic dysfunction and near normal left ventricular ejection fraction on echocardiography were randomly assigned sildenafil 40 mg thrice daily or matching placebo for 9 weeks. Before randomization and after 9......, and systemic vascular resistance index (resting, P=0.0002; peak exercise, P=0.007) and diastolic blood pressure (resting, P=0.005; peak exercise, P=0.02) were lower in the sildenafil group. Resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume index increased (P=0.001) within the sildenafil group but was unchanged...

  18. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a nephrologist-directed primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Rossignol, Patrick; van Heerebeek, Loek; Paulus, Walter J; Damman, Kevin; Heymans, Stephane; van Empel, Vanessa; Sag, Alan; Maisel, Alan; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2017-11-01

    There is substantial causal and consequential interaction between the ever-growing heart failure and renal failure patients. Half of the patients with heart failure (HF) have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is difficult to diagnose and rising in prevalence relative to HF with reduced EF (HFpEF). To date, only weight reduction, exercise training, and diuretics have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and morbidity in HFpEF. This review aims to establish the baseline kidney-related concepts specific to the diagnosis and treatment of HFpEF patients and the different aspects of HFpEF and HFpEF in the clinical setting.

  19. The sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floras, John S.; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic imbalance, a cardinal phenotype of human heart failure, has adverse implications for symptoms during wakefulness and sleep; for cardiac, renal, and immune function; for exercise capacity; and for lifespan and mode of death. The objectives of this Clinical Review are to summarize current knowledge concerning mechanisms for disturbed parasympathetic and sympathetic circulatory control in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and its clinical and prognostic implications; to demonstrate the patient-specific nature of abnormalities underlying this common phenotype; and to illustrate how such variation provides opportunities to improve or restore normal sympathetic/parasympathetic balance through personalized drug or device therapy. PMID:25975657

  20. Evidence for shock generation in the solar corona in the absence of coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eselevich, V. G.; Eselevich, M. V.; Zimovets, I. V.; Sharykin, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    The solar event SOL2012-10-23T03:13, which was associated with a X1.8 flare without an accompanying coronal mass ejection (CME) and with a Type II radio burst, is analyzed. A method for constructing the spatial and temporal profiles of the difference brightness detected in the AIA/SDOUVand EUV channels is used together with the analysis of the Type II radio burst. The formation and propagation of a region of compression preceded by a collisional shock detected at distances R heating from magnetic reconnection. The cessation of the eruption of the rope could result from its interaction with surrounding magnetic structures (coronal loops).

  1. An analysis of interplanetary solar radio emissions associated with a coronal mass ejection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Eastwood, J. P.; Krupařová, Oksana; Santolík, Ondřej; Souček, Jan; Magdalenic, J.; Vourlidas, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Bonnin, X.; Bothmer, V.; Mrotzek, N.; Pluta, A.; Barnes, D.; Davies, J. A.; Oliveros, J.C.M.; Bale, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 823, č. 1 (2016) ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-16050Y; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar-terrestrial relations * coronal mass ejections (CMEs) * radio radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L5/meta

  2. Assessment of right ventricular ejection fraction during intravenous /sup 133/Xe pulmonary ventilation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Spencer, R.P.; Herrera, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Intravenous /sup 133/Xe in saline was used to estimate right-ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF). In three healthy volunteers, the first pass RVEF with /sup 133/Xe was followed by RVEF estimation by intravenous /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate. There was agreement between the /sup 133/Xe and 99mTc determined values. Subjects rebreathed the liberated /sup 133/Xe gas, allowing an estimation of regional pulmonary ventilation. Intravenous /sup 133/Xe in saline may have potential use in measuring RVEF, as well as in evaluating pulmonary function in cor pulmonale.

  3. Large density amplification measured on jets ejected from a magnetized plasma gun

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gunsu S.; You, Setthivoine; Bellan, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of a large density amplification in the collimating plasma jet ejected from a coplanar coaxial plasma gun is reported. The jet velocity is ~30 km s^-1 and the electron density increases from ~10^20 to 10^(22–23) m^-3. In previous spheromak experiments, electron density of the order 10^(19–21) m^-3 had been measured in the flux conserver region, but no density measurement had been reported for the source gun region. The coplanar geometry of our electrodes permits direct observation...

  4. Automatic determination of the regional ejection fraction of the left ventricle (gated bloodpool)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feser, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The left ventricular volume curve and the ejection fraction are calculated according to the ''sliding region of interest'' method in which the ventricle contour is redetermined for every single picture of the various phases of the heart beat. The original set of data, consisting of 32 pictures in 64 x 64 matrix resolution, is processed by a three-dimensional filtering process in space (x,y) and time (t). The ventricle contour is determined by convolution of the filtered images with a 7-point Laplacian operator in 4 independent directions. The atrial and ventricular phase histograms are then calculated on the basis of this contour. (WU) [de

  5. Accretion-Ejection Instability in magnetized accretion disk around compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varniere, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    The major problem in accretion physics come from the origin of angular momentum transfer in the disk. My PhD deal with a mechanism (the Accretion-Ejection Instability, AEI) able to explain and link together accretion in the inner region of the disk and ejection. This instability occurs in magnetized accretion disk near equipartition with gas pressure. We first study the impact of some relativistic effects on the instability, particularly on the m = 1 mode. And compared the results with the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) observed in micro-quasars. In the second part we study analytically and numerically the Alfven wave emission mechanism which re-emit the angular momentum and energy taken from the inner region of the disk into the corona. The last part deals with MHD numerical simulation. First of all a 2D non-linear disk simulation which contribute to QPO modelization. The last chapter is about a beginning collaboration on 3D simulation in order to study the Alfven wave emission in the corona. (author) [fr

  6. Response of left ventricular ejection fraction to recovery from general anesthesia: measurement by gated radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriat, P.; Mundler, O.; Bousseau, D.; Fauchet, M.; Rous, A.C.; Echter, E.; Viars, P.

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that, after anesthesia for noncardiac surgical procedures, the increased cardiac work during recovery induces wall motion and ejection fraction (EF) abnormalities in patients with mild angina pectoris, gated radionuclide angiography was performed in patients undergoing simple cholecystectomy under narcotic-relaxant general anesthesia. The ejection fraction was determined during anesthesia at the end of surgery, and then determined 3 min and 3 hr after extubation. A new angiography was performed 24 hr later, and a myocardial scintigraphy (Thallium 201) was performed during infusion of the coronary vasodilator, dipyridamole. In the first part of the investigation, eight patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) (group 1) and 20 patients with mild angina (group 2) were studied. In the second part of the study, seven patients (group 3) with mild angina pectoris received an intravenous infusion of 0.4 microgram X kg-1 X min-1 of nitroglycerin started before surgery and gradually decreased 4 hr after extubation. In group 1, EF remained unchanged at recovery. In contrast in group 2, EF responded abnormally to recovery: EF decreased from 55% during anesthesia to 45% 3 min after extubation (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3, who received intravenous nitroglycerin, showed no change of EF at recovery. This study demonstrates that recovery from general anesthesia causes abnormalities in left ventricular function in patients suffering from CAD. These abnormalities are prevented by prophylactic intravenous nitroglycerin

  7. Left atrial function in heart failure with impaired and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2014-09-01

    Left atrial structural and functional changes in heart failure are relatively ignored parts of cardiac assessment. This review illustrates the pathophysiological and functional changes in left atrium in heart failure as well as their prognostic value. Heart failure can be divided into those with systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Left atrial enlargement and dysfunction commonly occur in systolic heart failure, in particular, in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Atrial enlargement and dysfunction also carry important prognostic value in systolic heart failure, independently of known parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction. In HFPEF, there is evidence of left atrial enlargement, impaired atrial compliance, and reduction of atrial pump function. This occurs not only at rest but also during exercise, indicating significant impairment of atrial contractile reserve. Furthermore, atrial dyssynchrony is common in HFPEF. These factors further contribute to the development of new onset or progression of atrial arrhythmias, in particular, atrial fibrillation. Left atrial function is an integral part of cardiac function and its structural and functional changes in heart failure are common. As changes of left atrial structure and function have different clinical implications in systolic heart failure and HFPEF, routine assessment is warranted.

  8. Extracellular Volume Fraction for Characterization of Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Karl-Philipp; von Roeder, Maximilian; Latuscynski, Konrad; Oberueck, Christian; Blazek, Stephan; Fengler, Karl; Besler, Christian; Sandri, Marcus; Lücke, Christian; Gutberlet, Matthias; Linke, Axel; Schuler, Gerhard; Lurz, Philipp

    2016-04-19

    Optimal patient characterization in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is essential to tailor successful treatment strategies. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived T1 mapping can noninvasively quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis as extracellular volume fraction (ECV). This study aimed to elucidate the diagnostic performance of T1 mapping in HFpEF by examining the relationship between ECV and invasively measured parameters of diastolic function. It also investigated the potential of ECV to differentiate among pathomechanisms in HFpEF. We performed T1 mapping in 24 patients with HFpEF and 12 patients without heart failure symptoms. Pressure-volume loops were obtained with a conductance catheter during basal conditions and handgrip exercise. Transient pre-load reduction was used to extrapolate the diastolic stiffness constant. Patients with HFpEF showed higher ECV (p Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [STIFFMAP]; NCT02459626). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Harmonic subtraction for evaluating right ventricle ejection fraction from planar equilibrium radionuclide angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Dacian V; Aarsvold, John N; Grant, Sandra F; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2017-11-01

    We report an initial investigation of a subtraction-based method to estimate right ventricle ejection fraction (RVEF) from ECG-gated planar equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA) data. Twenty-six consecutive patients referred for scintigraphic evaluation of cardiac function prior to chemotherapy had ECG-gated first-pass (FP) imaging and ERNA imaging performed following the same radiotracer injection. RVEF was computed from FP images (RVEF FP ) and separately from ERNA images (RVEF ERNA ). Standard methods for computing ejection fractions were used to obtain RVEF FP values. RVEF ERNA values were obtained using harmonic subtraction of the left ventricular contribution from a biventricular region of interest contoured on the equilibrium images acquired in the shallow right anterior oblique projection. Clinically acquired chest CT data were used to derive information regarding the relative position of the left and right ventricle and about the presence of pulmonary artery enlargement. Computation of RVEF ERNA was successful for each of the 26 patients. Computation of RVEF FP failed for four patients. For the 22 patients for which RVEF was computed using both methods, the average RVEF FP was 49% and the average RVEF ERNA was 51%, with coefficients of variation of 11 and 7.5%, respectively. Low RVEF ERNA values were associated with pulmonary artery dilation. Estimation of RVEF ERNA , using a harmonic subtraction-based method of computation is clinically feasible and accurate in the patient population studied. The results support further investigation in patients with frank heart failure.

  10. The Peculiar Behavior of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections in Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the remarkable finding that the halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in cycle 24 are more abundant than in cycle 23, although the sunspot number in cycle 24 has dropped by approx. 40%. We also find that the distribution of halo-CME source locations is different in cycle 24: the longitude distribution of halos is much flatter with the number of halos originating at a central meridian distance greater than or equal to 60deg twice as large as that in cycle 23. On the other hand, the average speed and associated soft X-ray flare size are the same in both cycles, suggesting that the ambient medium into which the CMEs are ejected is significantly different. We suggest that both the higher abundance and larger central meridian longitudes of halo CMEs can be explained as a consequence of the diminished total pressure in the heliosphere in cycle 24. The reduced total pressure allows CMEs to expand more than usual making them appear as halos.

  11. The luminous red nova M101-OT2015-1: a candidate for common envelope ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kotak, Rubina

    2017-01-01

    Binary interaction is an important phase in the study of stellar evolution. Approximately 50% of O star population live in close binary systems as to allow interaction with the companion. Although massive binary progenitors have been associated with thermonuclear supernovae, stripped core collapse supernovae, cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, or the mind blowing massive binary black holes recently detected by LIGO, the exact evolutionary path followed by the system is still under debate. One of the critical phases is the common envelope (CE) phase, required to bring a long period binary into a much shorter orbit. Currently, this phase also represents a challenge for the current stellar evolution models. Given the uncertainty, observational constraints are valuable input to advance in this field. One particular class of transient objects, called Luminous Red Novae (LRNe), has been associated with the termination of the CE phase, when a total or partial ejection of the least bound layers of the primary star are expelled at the expense of decreasing the orbital energy of the system. In my talk I will discuss the results of 16 years of observations of M101-OT2015-1, a LRN in M101 galaxy. I will describe the progenitor star (system) and the main characteristics of the outburst. Finally, I will present the results of the evolution of its remnant in infrared wavelengths. Given the long time span of our observations, this event represents one of the best studied CE ejection candidate at extragalactic distances.

  12. A planetary dust ring generated by impact-ejection from the Galilean satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    All outer planets in the Solar System are surrounded by a ring system. Many of these rings are dust rings or they contain at least a high proportion of dust. They are often formed by impacts of micro-meteoroids onto embedded bodies. The ejected material typically consists of micron-sized charged particles, which are susceptible to gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Generally, detailed information on the dynamics and distribution of the dust requires expensive numerical simulations of a large number of particles. Here we develop a relatively simple and fast, semi-analytical model for an impact-generated planetary dust ring governed by the planet's gravity and the relevant perturbation forces for the dynamics of small charged particles. The most important parameter of the model is the dust production rate, which is a linear factor in the calculation of the dust densities. We apply our model to dust ejected from the Galilean satellites using production rates obtained from flybys of the dust sources. The dust densities predicted by our model are in good agreement with numerical simulations and with in situ measurements by the Galileo spacecraft. The lifetimes of large particles are about two orders of magnitude greater than those of small ones, which implies a flattening of the size distribution in circumplanetary space. Information about the distribution of circumplanetary dust is also important for the risk assessment of spacecraft orbits in the respective regions.

  13. Angular distribution of atoms ejected by laser ablation of different metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T.; Asaoka, T.

    2009-01-01

    Angular distributions of 13 different metals ejected by laser ablation using fourth harmonics (wavelength=266 nm) of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser and a fluence close to near-threshold value (2.3 J/cm 2 ) have been investigated with a high angular resolution. The angular distribution which is characterized by the exponent n of cos n θ distribution showed very broad range of values between 3 and 24 for different metals. A simple relation that the exponent n is proportional to the square root of particle atomic weight as reported previously has not been observed. Instead, a general trend has been found that the metals with higher sublimation energy such as Ta and Zr show narrower angular distribution than those with lower sublimation energy such as Sn and In. While the sublimation energy of metals has a great influence on the angular distribution of ejected atoms, a simple consideration suggests that their thermal conductivity and specific heat have little effect on it.

  14. Puddle jumping: Spontaneous ejection of large liquid droplets from hydrophobic surfaces during drop tower tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, B.; Weislogel, M.; Wollman, A.; Chen, Y.; Snyder, T.

    2016-10-01

    Large droplets and puddles jump spontaneously from sufficiently hydrophobic surfaces during routine drop tower tests. The simple low-cost passive mechanism can in turn be used as an experimental device to investigate dynamic droplet phenomena for drops up to 104 times larger than their normal terrestrial counterparts. We provide and/or confirm quick and qualitative design guides for such "drop shooters" as employed in drop tower tests including relationships to predict droplet ejection durations and velocities as functions of drop volume, surface texture, surface contour, wettability pattern, and fluid properties including contact angle. The latter is determined via profile image comparisons with numerical equilibrium interface computations. Water drop volumes of 0.04-400 ml at ejection speeds of -0.007-0.12 m/s are demonstrated herein. A sample application of the drop jump method is made to the classic problem of low-gravity phase change heat transfer for large impinging drops. Many other candidate problems might be identified by the reader.

  15. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women: the Dutch Queen of Hearts program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ruijter, H; Pasterkamp, G; Rutten, F H; Lam, C S P; Chi, C; Tan, K H; van Zonneveld, A J; Spaanderman, M; de Kleijn, D P V

    2015-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) poses a heavy burden on patients, their families and society. The syndrome of HF comes in two types: with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The latter is on the increase and predominantly present in women, especially the older ones. There is an urgent need for mortality-reducing drugs in HFpEF, a disease affecting around 5 % of those aged 65 years and over. HFpEF develops in patients with risk factors and comorbidities such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, COPD, but also preeclampsia. These conditions are likely to drive microvascular disease with involvement of the coronary microvasculature, which may eventually evolve into HFpEF. Currently, the diagnosis of HFPEF relies mainly on echocardiography. There are no biomarkers that can help diagnose female microvascular disease or facilitate the diagnosis of (early stages of) HFpEF. Recently a Dutch consortium was initiated, Queen of Hearts, with support from the Netherlands Heart Foundation, with the aim to discover and validate biomarkers for diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF in women. These biomarkers come from innovative blood-derived sources such as extracellular vesicles and circulating cells. Within the Queen of Hearts consortium, we will pursue female biomarkers that have the potential for further evolution in assays with point of care capabilities. As a spin-off, the consortium will gain knowledge on gender-specific pathology of HFpEF, possibly opening up novel treatment options.

  16. Ejection of matrix-polymer clusters in matrix-assisted laser evaporation: Experimental observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellinger, Aaron T; Leveugle, Elodie; Gogick, Kristy; Peman, Guillaume; Zhigilei, Leonid V; Fitz-Gerald, James M

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of polymer films deposited with the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique is explored for various target compositions and laser fluences. Composite targets of 1 to 5 wt.% poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, dissolved in a volatile matrix material, toluene, were ablated using an excimer laser at fluences ranging from 0.045 J/cm 2 to 0.75 J/cm 2 . Films were deposited on Si substrates at room temperature in a dynamic 100 mTorr Ar atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging revealed that the morphology of the deposited films varied significantly with both laser fluence and PMMA concentration. The morphologies of large deposited particles were similar to that of deflated ''balloons''. It is speculated that during ablation of the frozen target, clusters comprised of both polymer and solvent ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm in size are ejected and deposited onto the substrate. The solvent begins to evaporate from the clusters during flight from the target, but does not completely evaporate until deposited on the room temperature substrate. The dynamics of the toluene evaporation may lead to the formation of the deflated structures. This explanation is supported by the observation of stable polymer-matrix droplets ejected in molecular dynamics simulations of MAPLE

  17. The great escape - II. Exoplanet ejection from dying multiple-star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Tout, Christopher A.

    2012-05-01

    Extrasolar planets and belts of debris orbiting post-main-sequence single stars may become unbound as the evolving star loses mass. In multiple-star systems, the presence or co-evolution of the additional stars can significantly complicate the prospects for orbital excitation and escape. Here, we investigate the dynamical consequences of multi-phasic, non-linear mass loss and establish a criterion for a system of any stellar multiplicity to retain a planet whose orbit surrounds all of the parent stars. For single stars which become white dwarfs, this criterion can be combined with the Chandrasekhar Limit to establish the maximum allowable mass-loss rate for planet retention. We then apply the criterion to circumbinary planets in evolving binary systems over the entire stellar mass phase space. Through about 105 stellar evolutionary track realizations, we characterize planetary ejection prospects as a function of binary separation, stellar mass and metallicity. This investigation reveals that planets residing at just a few tens of au from a central concentration of stars are susceptible to escape in a wide variety of multiple systems. Further, planets are significantly more susceptible to ejection from multiple-star systems than from single-star systems for a given system mass. For system masses greater than about 2 M⊙, multiple-star systems represent the greater source of free-floating planets.

  18. Calculation of cardiac pressures using left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) derived from radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommer, E.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop formulas to determine cardiac pressures in an undisturbed flow in patients without valvular or shunt diseases. These are based entirely on the results of left ventricular ejection fraction rates, permitting pressure analysis of several compartments at the same tine. According to BORER et al. they also enable determination of left ventricular 'Functional Reserve' after bycycle exercise as well as left ventricular 'Relaxation Reserve'. They support the views of NYHA in determining the grades of cardiac insufficiency proving the system- and low-pressure participation. A single formula for pulmonary flow can determine the pulmonary arterial pressure. The left ventricular enddiastolic pressure can also be exclusively calculated by values of left ventricular functions, thus both formulas may be used in disorders of the mitral valves. The possibility to calculate pressures of all the compartments of the heart from left ventricular ejection rate shows, that in undisturbed flow global heart function depends on left ventricular function. Therefore the mutual dependence of these formulas presents an intercompartimental pressure regulation of the heart through pulmonary flow and pulmonary vascular pressure, which leaves an aspect of autonomous cardiac regulation open to discussion. (orig.) [de

  19. Comparative Examination of Plasmoid Ejection at Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2011-01-01

    The onset of magnetic reconnection in the near-tail of Earth, long known to herald the fast magnetospheric convection that leads to geomagnetic storms and substorms, is very closely associated with the formation and down-tail ejection of magnetic loops or flux ropes called plasmoids. Plasmoids form as a result of the fragmentation of preexisting cross-tail current sheet as a result of magnetic reconnection. Depending upon the number, location, and intensity of the individual reconnection X-lines and how they evolve, some of these loop-like or helical magnetic structures may also be carried sunward. At the inner edge of the tail they are expected to "re-reconnect' with the planetary magnetic field and dissipate. Plasmoid ejection has now been observed in the magnetotails of Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. These magnetic field and charged particle measurements have been taken by the MESSENGER, Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, and numerous Earth missions. Here we present a comparative examination of the structure and dynamics of plasmoids observed in the magnetotails of these 5 planets. The results are used to learn more about how these magnetic structures form and to assess similarities and differences in the nature of magnetotail reconnection at these planets.

  20. A Unified Bond Graph Modeling Approach for the Ejection Phase of the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUBNA MOIN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is presented, simulated and validated. The integro-differential and ordinary differential equations obtained from the bond graph models are simulated using ODE45 (Ordinary Differential Equation Solver on MATLAB and Simulink. The results, thus, obtained are compared with CVS (Cardiovascular System physiological data present in Simbiosys (a software for simulating biological systems and also with the CVS Wiggers diagram of heart cycle. As the cardiac activity is a multi domain process that includes mechanical, hydraulic, chemical and electrical events; therefore, for modeling such systems a unified modeling approach is needed. In this paper the unified Bond Graph model of the left ventricle ejection phase is proposed. The Bond Graph conventionalism approach is a graphical method principally powerful to portray multi-energy systems, as it is formulated on the portrayal of power exchanges. The model takes into account a simplified description of the left ventricle which is close to the medical investigation promoting the apperception and the dialogue between engineers and physiologists.

  1. Ejection and Lofting of Dust from Hypervelocity Impacts on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalyn, B.; Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Hypervelocity impact events mobilize and redistribute fine-grained regolith dust across the surfaces of planetary bodies. The ejecta mass-velocity distribution controls the location and emplacement of these materials. The current flux of material falling on the moon is dominated by small bolides and should cause frequent impacts that eject dust at high speeds. For example, approximately 25 LCROSS-sized (~20-30m diameter) craters are statistically expected to be formed naturally on the moon during any given earth year. When scaled to lunar conditions, the high-speed component of ejecta from hypervelocity impacts can be lofted for significant periods of time (as evidenced by the LCROSS mission results, c.f., Schultz, et al., 2010, Colaprete, et al., 2010). Even at laboratory scales, ejecta can approach orbital velocities; the higher impact speeds and larger projectiles bombarding the lunar surface may permit a significant portion of material to be launched closer to escape velocity. When these ejecta return to the surface (or encounter local topography), they impact at hundreds of meters per second or faster, thereby "scouring" the surface with low mass oblique impacts. While these high-speed ejecta represent only a small fraction of the total ejected mass, the lofting and subsequent ballistic return of this dust has the highest mobilization potential and will be directly applicable to the upcoming LADEE mission. A suite of hypervelocity impact experiments into granular materials was performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). This study incorporates both canonical sand targets and air-fall pumice dust to simulate the mechanical properties of lunar regolith. The implementation of a Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) technique permits non-intrusive measurement of the ejecta velocity distribution within the ejecta curtain by following the path of individual ejecta particles. The PTV system developed at the AVGR uses a series of high-speed cameras (ranging

  2. NEW EMPHASES ON THE STUDY OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WITH PRESERVED EJECTION FRACTION: FOCUS ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the long time the systolic myocardial dysfunction was traditionally associated with the severity of chronic heart failure (CHF. Increasing number of patients with symptoms of CHF but without systolic dysfunction has drawn the attention of specialists to so-called CHF with preserved ejection fraction. Prognosis in CHF with preserved ejection fraction may be as bad as in CHF with reduced ejection fraction. Significant changes in views on the pathogenesis of CHF led to the creation of new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of this disease. However, at present, convincing evidence base of mortality reduction in patients with CHF with preserved ejection fraction using well-known therapeutic agents is unavailable. It makes conduct active searches for new biological markers of diastolic heart function. Participation of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular GDF-15, in the process of elasticity reduction and relaxation disorders of left ventricular myocardium, may be of great importance in the development of new medical agents designed to delay the progression of CHF with preserved ejection fraction.

  3. Economics-driven software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Mistrik, Ivan; Kazman, Rick; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Economics-driven Software Architecture presents a guide for engineers and architects who need to understand the economic impact of architecture design decisions: the long term and strategic viability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of applications and systems. Economics-driven software development can increase quality, productivity, and profitability, but comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in dealing with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an economic way. This book covers how to apply economic consider

  4. ON THE VALIDITY OF THE 'HILL RADIUS CRITERION' FOR THE EJECTION OF PLANETS FROM STELLAR HABITABLE ZONES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuntz, M.; Yeager, K. E.

    2009-01-01

    We challenge the customary assumption that the entering of an Earth-mass planet into the Hill radius (or multiples of the Hill radius) of a giant planet is a valid criterion for its ejection from the star-planet system. This assumption has widely been used in previous studies, especially those with an astrobiological focus. As intriguing examples, we explore the dynamics of the systems HD 20782 and HD 188015. Each system possesses a giant planet that remains in or crosses into the stellar habitable zone, thus effectively thwarting the possibility of habitable terrestrial planets. In the case of HD 188015, the orbit of the giant planet is almost circular, whereas in the case of HD 20782, it is extremely elliptical. Although it is found that Earth-mass planets are eventually ejected from the habitable zones of these systems, the 'Hill Radius Criterion' is identified as invalid for the prediction of when the ejection is actually occurring.

  5. Designing a Tool System for Lowering Friction during the Ejection of In-Die Sintered Micro Gears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Emil Krabbe; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    is affected by the influence of friction during the ejection phase, caused by radial expansion of the compacted and sintered powder. This paper presents the development of a pre-stressed tool system for the manufacture of micro gears made of aluminum. By using the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) sintering......The continuous improvements in micro-forging technologies generally involve process, material, and tool design. The field assisted sintering technique (FAST) is a process that makes possible the manufacture of near-net-shape components in a closed-die setup. However, the final part quality...... process and different combinations of process parameters, the designed tool system was compared to a similar tool system designed without a pre-stressing strategy. The comparison between the two tool systems was based on the ejection force and part fidelity. The ejection force was measured during...

  6. Factors influencing the variations of ejection fraction during exercise in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassand, J.P.; Faivre, R.; Berthout, P.; Maurat, J.P.; Cardot, J.C.; Verdenet, J.; Bidet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of left ventricular volume variations and regurgitant fraction variations upon left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise was examined using equilibrium radionuclide angiography in patients suffering from aortic regurgitation. Ejection fraction (EF), regurgitant fraction (RF), end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systolic volume (ESV) variations from rest to peak exercise were determined in 44 patients suffering from chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) and in 8 healthy volunteers (C). In C, EF increased (+0.10±0.03, P<0.01) and ESV decreased significantly (-23%±12%, P<0.01), RF and EDV did not vary significantly. In AR patients, EF, EDV and ESV did not vary significantly because of important scattering of individual values. Changes in EF and ESV were inversely correlated (r=-0.79, P<0.01) and RF decreased significantly (-0.12±0.10, P<0.01). Volumes and EF changes during exercise occurred in three different ways. In a 1st subgroup of 7 patients, EF increased (+0.09±0.03, P<0.05) in conjunction with a reduction of ESV (-24%±12%, P<0.05) without a significant change in EDV. In a 2nd group of 22 patients, EF decreased (-0.04±0.07, P<0.01) in association with an increase in ESV (+17%±16%, P<0.01) and no changes in EDV. In a 3rd subgroup of 15 patients, EF decreased (-0.02±0.06, P<0.01) despite a reduction in ESV (-7%±6%, P<0.01) because of a dramatic EDV decrease (-10%±6%, P<0.05). In this subgroup, changes in EF were inversely correlated with changes in ESV (r=-0.55, P<0.01) and positively related to EDV variations (r=0.42, P=0.02). EDV changes were weakly, but significantly, correlated to RF decrease (r=0.39, P<0.05). We conclude that changes in left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation are significantly related in some patients to changes in ventricular loading conditions as well as contractile state. (orig./MG)

  7. Nest Sanitation as the Evolutionary Background for Egg Ejection Behaviour and the Role of Motivation for Object Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláček, Miroslav; Griggio, Matteo; Bartíková, Michaela; Hoi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i) motivation and its underlying function and, ii) which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus) population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs. PMID:24223165

  8. Expression of epicardial adipose tissue thermogenic genes in patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belmonte, Luis M; Moreno-Santos, Inmaculada; Gómez-Doblas, Juan J; García-Pinilla, José M; Morcillo-Hidalgo, Luis; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Santiago-Fernández, Concepción; Crespo-Leiro, María G; Carrasco-Chinchilla, Fernando; Sánchez-Fernández, Pedro L; de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has been proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The aim of our study was to assess the expression of thermogenic genes (Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), and PR-domain-missing 16 (PRDM16) in epicardial adipose tissue in patients with heart failure, stablishing the difference according to left ventricular ejection fraction (reduced or preserved). Among the 75 patients in our study, 42.7% (n=32) had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. UCP1, PGC1α and PRDM16 mRNA in EAT were significantly lower in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, male gender, body max index, presence of obesity, type-2-diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction were associated with the expression levels of UCP1, PGC1α and PRDM16 mRNA. Thermogenic genes expressions in epicardial adipose tissue (UCP1: OR 0.617, 95%CI 0.103-0.989, p=0.042; PGC1α: OR 0.416, 95%CI 0.171-0.912, p=0.031; PRDM16: OR 0.643, 95%CI 0.116-0.997, p=0.044) were showed as protective factors against the presence of heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and age (OR 1.643, 95%CI 1.001-3.143, p=0.026), presence of coronary artery disease (OR 6.743, 95%CI 1.932-15.301, pthermogenic genes has been shown as possible protective factors against heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, suggesting that a loss of functional epicardial adipose tissue brown-like features would participate in a deleterious manner on heart metabolism. Thermogenic genes could represent a future novel therapeutic target in heart failure.

  9. Nest sanitation as the evolutionary background for egg ejection behaviour and the role of motivation for object removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláček, Miroslav; Griggio, Matteo; Bartíková, Michaela; Hoi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i) motivation and its underlying function and, ii) which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus) population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs.

  10. Nest sanitation as the evolutionary background for egg ejection behaviour and the role of motivation for object removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Poláček

    Full Text Available Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i motivation and its underlying function and, ii which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs.

  11. Dynamic analysis of material ejection from cathodic metal nano-tips due to local heating and field generated stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, X.; Joshi, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    The potential for explosive cathode emission due to nanoprotrusions subjected to Maxwell stress and heating from strong electric fields is probed self-consistently based on non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics. The focus is on determining the electric field magnitudes that could lead to material ejection, assessing dependencies of the instability on the nanoprotrusion height and cross-sectional area, and the role of time-dependent thermal conductivity and local temperature changes. Our results indicate that large aspect ratios would facilitate mass ejection, with protrusion break up occurring over times in the 25 ns range, in agreement with experimental reports on explosive emission.

  12. Hierarchically-driven Approach for Quantifying Materials Uncertainty in Creep Deformation and Failure of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    integrated computational materials engineering ( ICME ) provide a conceptual roadmap for how to design materials, but the community also agrees that...there are still a number of challenges that must be addressed before ICME reaches its full potential. Nevertheless, success stories in the automotive and...2013, TMS (The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society), 2013: pp. 301–310. 2. This paper was selected as an Editor’s Choice as having special

  13. Production and ejection of solid hydrogen-isotope pellet (single pellet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Koichi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Ishibori, Ikuo

    1986-03-01

    The pneumatic gun type pellet injector (single pellet) has been constructed, which is basic type used at ORNL. The pellet in the carrier is 1.65 mm in diameter and 1.65 mm in length, and another is 1 mmD x 1 mmL. Hydrogen pellet velocity of about 900 m/s was observed at propellant gas (He) pressure of 14 kg/cm 2 . In the injection experiment into a plasma, typical velocity is 714 ∼ 833 m/s. These values are 80 ∼ 95 % of velocity calculated from the ideal gun model. The ejected pellet size is 71 ∼ 90 % of the hole size in the carrier disk (1.65 mmD x 1.65 mmL) and 46 ∼ 56 % (1 mmD x 1 mmL). The spread in the pellet trajectories is about 26 mm in diameter at a plasma center. (author)

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). METHODS: Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate......, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left...... ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. RESULTS: Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT (P=0.45); left...

  15. FRiED: A Novel Three-dimensional Model of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isavnin, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel three-dimensional (3D) model of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that unifies all key evolutionary aspects of CMEs and encapsulates their 3D magnetic field configuration. This fully analytic model is capable of reproducing the global geometrical shape of a CME with all major deformations taken into account, I.e., deflection, rotation, expansion, “pancaking,” front flattening, and rotational skew. Encapsulation of 3D magnetic structure allows the model to reproduce in-situ measurements of magnetic field for trajectories of spacecraft-CME encounters of any degree of complexity. As such, the model can be used single-handedly for the consistent analysis of both remote and in-situ observations of CMEs at any heliocentric distance. We demonstrate the latter by successfully applying the model for the analysis of two CMEs.

  16. Fabrication and Application of Mono-sized Spherical Micro Particles by Pulsated Orifice Ejection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel technology called pulsated orifice ejection method(POEM and used for preparing mono-sized and high-precision spherical micro particles was introduced in this article. The working principle of the technique was illustrated and it was in two modes:low-melting point diaphragm mode and high-melting point rod mode, depending on the different melting points of materials. The particles prepared by POEM have the advantages of mono-sized, uniform and controllable particle size, high sphericity, and consistent thermal history. By introducing the application of particles prepared by this method, showing the huge application prospects of this technology in electronic packaging, bioengineering, micro-fabrication, rapid solidification analysis of metal droplets, additive manufacturing and so on.With the development of POEM, this technology is predicted to have wider prospects due to its unique characteristics.

  17. Ion Trapping, Storage, and Ejection in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Prost, Spencer A; Webb, Ian K; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Norheim, Randolph V; Baker, Erin S; Anderson, Gordon A; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D

    2015-06-16

    A new Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module, having electrode arrays patterned on a pair of parallel printed circuit boards (PCB), was constructed and utilized to investigate capabilities for ion trapping at a pressure of 4 Torr. Positive ions were confined by application of RF voltages to a series of inner rung electrodes with alternating phase on adjacent electrodes, in conjunction with positive DC potentials on surrounding guard electrodes on each PCB. An axial DC field was also introduced by stepwise varying the DC potentials applied to the inner rung electrodes to control the ion transport and accumulation inside the ion trapping region. We show that ions can be trapped and accumulated with up to 100% efficiency, stored for at least 5 h with no significant losses, and then could be rapidly ejected from the SLIM trap. The present results provide a foundation for the development of much more complex SLIM devices that facilitate extended ion manipulations.

  18. Factor analysis of radionuclide ejection fraction response during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Masashi

    1986-01-01

    In 204 patients with ischemic heart disease and 25 normal subjects who underwent exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV), multivariate analyses and other statistical methods were employed to study factors affecting changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (ΔEF). Twenty one variables were obtained from clinical diagnosis, cardiac catheterization, and RNV. Multivariate analyses showed that coronary score for the severity of coronary artery lesions was the most significant factor, followed by exercise duration, resting heart rate, the number of diseased vessels, and exercise heart rate. Statistically significant decrease in ΔEF was associated with regional wall motion abnormality, ECG changes, and chest pain. Lesions in the left main trunk and the proximal area of left anterior descending artery were greatly involved in the decrease of ΔEF. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in children: hormonal imbalance between aldosterone and brain natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutani, Satoshi; Saiki, Hirofumi; Kurishima, Clara; Ishido, Hirotaka; Tamura, Masanori; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    There is no information on heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, EF >50%) in children. Through a retrospective review of 3,907 pediatric patients with cardiovascular disease, we examined the characteristics of pediatric HFpEF over a 10-year period. We identified 18 patients with HFpEF (0.5%). They were predominantly young children (1.1±0.9 years, no sex preponderance), who had undergone surgery for congenital heart disease. They also had concentric hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction with elevated blood pressure. Notably, HFpEF patients had more pronounced elevation of serum aldosterone but less pronounced elevation of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) than 22 systolic HF patients (SHF, EF ≤50%) (aldosterone: 1,375±1,200 vs. 511±563pg/ml, Phormonal profiles and HFpEF.

  20. Natriuretic peptides in the monitoring of anthracycline induced reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Lassen, Ulrik; Bie, Peter

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of anthracyclines in treatment of cancer is limited by cardiotoxicity of these compounds and may lead to heart failure. Therefore monitoring of cardiac function is necessary during therapy. AIM: We evaluated the value of natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic...... peptide (N-ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)) for monitoring and predicting anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity using radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) measurements as reference. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 107 consecutive patients receiving anthracycline as part...... of their chemotherapy for malignant disease were studied. Plasma concentrations of the peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay and EF by radionuclide cardiography. For reduced EF values, i.e. below 0.50 a fairly strong correlation was found between N-ANP or BNP and EF. Of 48 patients with serial EF and peptide...

  1. Periodicity in the most violent solar eruptions: recent observations of coronal mass ejections and flares revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Pengxin; Xie Jinglan; Liang Hongfei

    2012-01-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform method, we investigate the periodicity in the monthly occurrence numbers and monthly mean energy of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment on board the Solar and Heliographic Observatory from 1999 March to 2009 December. We also investigate the periodicity in the monthly occurrence numbers of Hα flares and monthly mean flare indices from 1996 January to 2008 December. The results show the following. (1) The period of 5.66 yr is found to be statistically significant in the monthly occurrence numbers of CMEs; the period of 10.5 yr is found to be statistically significant in the monthly mean energy of CMEs. (2) The periods of 3.05 and 8.70yr are found to be statistically significant in the monthly occurrence numbers of Hα flares; the period of 9.14yr is found to be statistically significant in the monthly mean flare indices.

  2. Urinary Proteomics Pilot Study for Biomarker Discovery and Diagnosis in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Kasper; Bosselmann, Helle Skovmand; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    and Results Urine samples were analyzed by on-line capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization micro time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-MS) to generate individual urinary proteome profiles. In an initial biomarker discovery cohort, analysis of urinary proteome profiles from 33 HFr......Background Biomarker discovery and new insights into the pathophysiology of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) may emerge from recent advances in high-throughput urinary proteomics. This could lead to improved diagnosis, risk stratification and management of HFrEF. Methods.......6%) in individuals with diastolic left ventricular dysfunction (N = 176). The HFrEF-related peptide biomarkers mainly included fragments of fibrillar type I and III collagen but also, e.g., of fibrinogen beta and alpha-1-antitrypsin. Conclusion CE-MS based urine proteome analysis served as a sensitive tool...

  3. A transcatheter intracardiac shunt device for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (REDUCE LAP-HF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasenfuß, Gerd; Hayward, Chris; Burkhoff, Dan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a common, globally recognised, form of heart failure for which no treatment has yet been shown to improve symptoms or prognosis. The pathophysiology of HFPEF is complex but characterised by increased left atrial pressure......, especially during exertion, which might be a key therapeutic target. The rationale for the present study was that a mechanical approach to reducing left atrial pressure might be effective in HFPEF. METHODS: The REDUCe Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients with Heart Failure (REDUCE LAP-HF) study...... eligible patients were entered into the study. IASD placement was successful in 64 patients and seemed to be safe and well tolerated; no patient had a peri-procedural or major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event or need for cardiac surgical intervention for device-related complications during 6 months...

  4. Anomalous Expansion of Coronal Mass Ejections During Solar Cycle 24 and Its Space Weather Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Xie, Hong; Makela, Pertti; Michalek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The familiar correlation between the speed and angular width of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is also found in solar cycle 24, but the regression line has a larger slope: for a given CME speed, cycle 24 CMEs are significantly wider than those in cycle 23. The slope change indicates a significant change in the physical state of the heliosphere, due to the weak solar activity. The total pressure in the heliosphere (magnetic + plasma) is reduced by approximately 40%, which leads to the anomalous expansion of CMEs explaining the increased slope. The excess CME expansion contributes to the diminished effectiveness of CMEs in producing magnetic storms during cycle 24, both because the magnetic content of the CMEs is diluted and also because of the weaker ambient fields. The reduced magnetic field in the heliosphere may contribute to the lack of solar energetic particles accelerated to very high energies during this cycle.

  5. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: Insights into mechanisms and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi B; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Shah, Sanjiv J; Butler, Javed

    2017-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist, and the outcomes of patients who have both AF and HF are considerably worse than those with either condition in isolation. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous clinical entity and accounts for approximately one-half of current HF. At least one-third of patients with HFpEF are burdened by comorbid AF. The current understanding of the relationship between AF and HFpEF is limited, but the clinical implications are potentially important. In this review, we explore 1) the pathogenesis that drives AF and HFpEF to coexist; 2) pharmacologic therapies that may attenuate the impact of AF in HFpEF; and 3) future directions in the management of this complex syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extracellular matrix remodeling in patients with ischemic chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Syvolap

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify features, relationships between parameters of the extracellular matrix and renal function in 110 patients with ischemic chronic heart failure the activity of collagen metabolism markers (MMP-9, TIMP-1, PICP, cystatin C, structural and functional parameters of the heart were studied using ELISA, echocardiography. Results. It was established that imbalance in the system MMP/TIMP in ischemic heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction leads to disruption of the extracellular matrix structural functional sufficiency, increases functional failure and is associated with impaired renal function. Conclusion. Correlation analysis showed significant relationships between MMP/TIMP and GFR, cystatin C, indicating that the significant role of extracellular matrix imbalance in the development of renal dysfunction in patients with ischemic chronic heart failure.

  7. Analysis of Nonlinear Dispersion of a Pollutant Ejected by an External Source into a Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinyoka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the transient analysis of nonlinear dispersion of a pollutant ejected by an external source into a laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a channel. The influence of density variation with pollutant concentration is approximated according to the Boussinesq approximation, and the nonlinear governing equations of momentum and pollutant concentration are obtained. The problem is solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, pollutant concentration, skin friction, and wall mass transfer rate for various parametric values. The model can be a useful tool for understanding the polluting situations of an improper discharge incident and evaluating the effects of decontaminating measures for the water body.

  8. How Interplanetary Scintillation Data Can Improve Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejection Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Manoharan, P. K.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can have a significant impact on the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system and cause widespread anomalies for satellites from geosynchronous to low-Earth orbit and produce effects such as geomagnetically induced currents. At the NASA/GSFC Community Coordinated Modeling Center we have been using ensemble modeling of CMEs since 2012. In this presnetation we demonstrate that using of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations from the Ooty Radio Telescope facility in India can help to track CME propagaion and improve ensemble forecasting of CMEs. The observations of the solar wind density and velocity using IPS from hundreds of distant sources in ensemble modeling of CMEs can be a game-changing improvement of the current state of the art in CME forecasting.

  9. Angular distribution of ejected electrons from 20 keV He/sup +/ impact on He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokoro, N.; Takenouchi, S.; Urakawa, J.; Oda, N. (Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. of Nuclear Reactor)

    1982-10-28

    The angular distributions of ejected electrons in the energy range 5-70 eV have been measured at angles from 30 to 150/sup 0/ for 20 keV He/sup +/ impact on He. The angular dependence of excitation cross sections of autoionisation states 2s/sup 2/ /sup 1/S and 2p/sup 2/ /sup 1/D+2s2p /sup 1/P are in good agreement with previous data measured by Bordenave-Montesquieu et al (Phys. Rev.; A25:245 (1982)). The continuous parts of the electron spectra show symmetrical angular distributions around 90/sup 0/ in the laboratory frame for low-energy electrons (

  10. Baroreflex Activation Therapy in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Available Data and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Marcel; Fritz, Thorsten; Madershahian, Navid; Pfister, Roman; Reuter, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is promoted by sympathovagal imbalance. Baroreflex activation therapy, i.e., electrical stimulation of baroreceptors at the carotid sinus, can restore sympathovagal balance. Large animal studies of baroreflex activation therapy revealed improvements in cardiac function, susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias, and a survival benefit as compared to untreated controls. Recently, the first randomized and controlled trial of optimal medical and device therapy alone or plus baroreflex activation therapy in patients suffering from HFrEF was published. It demonstrated a reasonable safety profile in this severely ill patient population. Moreover, the study found significant improvements in New York Heart Association class, quality of life, 6-min walk distance, and NT-proBNP levels. This review provides an overview on baroreflex activation therapy for the treatment of HFrEF-from the concept and preclinical findings to most recent clinical data and upcoming trials.

  11. Effect of calf stimulation on milk ejection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjøstein

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish methods for stimulating the milk ejection in reindeer kept for milking purpose. Calves were used to stimulate milk does’ let down. In experiment 1, five does were allowed olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with their calves during milking, whereas four does were milked in isolation. The treatment of the groups was alternated every day during the eight days experiment. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with the calf did not influence the doe’s milk yield. The milk yield varied significantly between individual females within treatment (P < 0.01. In experiment 2, the calves were allowed to suckle their mother for a short period (two seconds prior to milking being initiated. The same alternate design as in experiment 1 with groups consisting of three and two animals respectively was used, and the experiment lasted four days. The pre-suckling stimulation significantly increased the milk ejection measured as milk yield (P < 0.05, and the residual milk after the treatment was negectible. Moreover, the milk ejection varied between individual females within treatment (P < 0.05. We conclude that it is possible to achieve a complete milk removal by machine milking after the does have been pre-stimulated by suckling of calves. Olfactory, acoustic and visual contact with calves during milking failed to influence the milk ejection in this study. However, the results have to be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Formålet med dette forsøket var å prøve ut ulike metoder for å stimulere nedgivninga av melk hos rein. Kalvene ble tatt i bruk for å stimulere nedgivninga. I forsøk 1 hadde simla lyd-, lukt og synskontakt med kalven mens melkingen pågikk. Vi benyttet et ”switch back design” der fem simler hadde kontakt med kalven under melkingen og fire ble melket uten kontakt. Behandlingen ble byttet om annenhver dag i de åtte dagene fors

  12. Energy and exergy analyses of a bi-evaporator compression/ejection refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Lihong; Liu, Huadong; Wei, Xinli; Hou, Zhonglan; Wang, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A bi-evaporator compression/ejection refrigeration cycle was studied experimentally. • Experiments were operated at the same external conditions and cooling capacities. • COP improvement was 16.94–30.59% higher than that of the conventional system. • The exergy efficiency of the R134a cycle was improved by 7.57–28.29%. - Abstract: Aiming to reduce the throttling loss in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle, a bi-evaporator compression/ejection refrigeration cycle (BCERC) using an ejector as the expansion device was experimentally investigated with R134a refrigerant. The effects of the compressor frequency and the operating conditions on the coefficient of performance (COP) and the amount of exergy destruction of each component were studied. The results were compared with that of the conventional vapor compression refrigeration cycle under the same external operating conditions and cooling capacities. Results showed that the refrigeration cycle with an ejector as the expansion device exhibited lower irreversibility for each component and total system in comparison with the conventional vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The COP and the exergy efficiency of the BCERC were higher than that of the conventional system. The COP and exergy efficiency improvements became more significant as the condenser water temperature increased, the evaporator water temperature decreased and the compressor frequency increased. In the BCERC with a constant frequency compressor, the COP and the exergy efficiency could be improved by 16.94–30.59%, 7.57–28.29%, respectively. The COP and the exergy efficiency of the BCERC with a variable frequency compressor could increase by around 32.64% and 23.32%, respectively.

  13. Follistatin-Like 1 Regulates Hypertrophy in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komei Tanaka, MD, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF accounts for ∼50% of all clinical presentations of heart failure, (HF and its prevalence is expected to increase. However, there are no evidence-based therapies for HFpEF; thus, HFpEF represents a major unmet need. Although hypertension is the single most important risk factor for HFpEF, with a prevalence of 60% to 89% from clinical trials and human HF registries, blood pressure therapy alone is insufficient to prevent and treat HFpEF. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1, a divergent member of the follistatin family of extracellular glycoproteins, has previously been shown to be elevated in HF with reduced ejection fraction and associated with increased left ventricular mass. In this study, blood levels of Fstl1 were increased in humans with HFpEF. This increase was also evident in mice with hypertension-induced HFpEF and adult rat ventricular myocytes stimulated with aldosterone. Treatment with recombinant Fstl1 abrogated aldosterone-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, suggesting a role for Fstl1 in the regulation of hypertrophy in HFpEF. There was also a reduction in the E/A ratio, a measure of diastolic dysfunction. Furthermore, HFpEF induced in a mouse model that specifically ablates Fstl1 in cardiac myocytes (cardiac myocyte-specific Fstl1 knockout [cFstl1-KO] showed exacerbation of HFpEF with worsened diastolic dysfunction. In addition, cFstl1-KO-HFpEF mice demonstrated more marked cardiac myocyte hypertrophy with increased molecular markers of atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide expression. These findings indicate that Fstl1 exerts therapeutic effects by modulating cardiac hypertrophy in HFpEF.

  14. Left Atrial Structure and Function in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A RELAX Substudy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique A Abbasi

    Full Text Available Given the emerging recognition of left atrial structure and function as an important marker of disease in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-pEF, we investigated the association between left atrial volume and function with markers of disease severity and cardiac structure in HF-pEF. We studied 100 patients enrolled in the PhosphdiesteRasE-5 Inhibition to Improve CLinical Status and EXercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart Failure (RELAX trial who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and blood collection before randomization. Maximal left atrial volume index (LAVi; N = 100, left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF; N = 99; including passive and active components (LAEFP, LAEFA; N = 80, 79, respectively were quantified by CMR. After adjustment for multiple testing, maximal LAVi was only associated with age (ρ = 0.39, transmitral filling patterns (medial E/e' ρ = 0.43, and N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP; ρ = 0.65; all p<0.05. Lower LAEF was associated with older age, higher transmitral E/A ratio and higher NT-proBNP. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were not associated with left atrial structure or function. After adjustment for age, sex, transmitral E/A ratio, CMR LV mass, LV ejection fraction, and creatinine clearance, NT-proBNP remained associated with maximal LAVi (β = 0.028, p = 0.0007 and total LAEF (β = -0.033, p = 0.001. Passive and active LAEF were most strongly associated with age and NT-proBNP, but not gas exchange or other markers of ventricular structure or filling properties. Left atrial volume and emptying function are associated most strongly with NT-proBNP and diastolic filling properties, but not significantly with gas exchange, in HFpEF. Further research to explore the relevance of left atrial structure and function in HF-pEF is warranted.

  15. Right and left ventricular ejection fraction at rest and during exercise assessed with radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstroem, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Right (RVEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) assessed with radionuclide angiocardiography were compared to simultaneously obtained catheterization results at rest and during exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Blood pool imaging was performed with red blood cells (RBC) labelled with 99 Tcsup(m) in vivo as this method gave more stable 99 Tcsup(m) levels in blood compared to 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled human serum albumin and because it was more convenient than labelling RBC in vitro. RVEF measured with first pass (FP) technique and equilibrium (EQ) technique correlated well at rest, r = 0.86, and during exercise, r = 0.91. The FP technique had the best reproducibility and reference values at rest were 49+-5 per cent increasing with exercise. When 99 Tcsup(m) and 133 Xe were compared to assess RVEF with FP technique, the correlation was good, r = 0.88. LVEF assessed with EQ technique and a fixed end-diastolic region of interest was very reproducible at rest and during exercise; reference values at rest were 56+-8 per cent increasing with exercise. In 10 patients with pulmonary hypertension significant negative correlations were found between RVEF assessed with FP technique and pressures in pulmonary artery and right atrium. Abnormal RVEF was found in all patients with right ventricular disfunction. In 22 patients with recent myocardial infarction measurements of LVEF detected left ventricular disfunction better than did measurement of pulmonary artery diastolic pressure. During effort angina in another 10 patients all had abnormal LVEF and abnormal hemodynamics. By combining ejection fraction and stroke volume, ventricular volumes were calculated at rest and during exercise. (author)

  16. Parametric studies on containment thermal hydraulic loads during high pressure melt ejection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silde, A.; Lindholm, I. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The containment thermal hydraulic loads during high pressure melt ejection in a Nordic BWR are studied parametrically with the CONTAIN and the MELCOR codes. The work is part of the Nordic RAK-2 project. The containment analyses were divided into two categories according to composition of the discharged debris: metallic and oxidic debris cases. In the base case with highly metallic debris, all sources from the reactor coolant system to the containment were based on the MELCOR/BH calculation. In the base case with the oxidic debris, the source data was specified assuming that {approx} 15% of the whole core material inventory and 34,000 kg of saturated water was discharged from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during 30 seconds. In this case, the debris consisted mostly of oxides. The highest predicted containment pressure peaks were about 8.5 bar. In the scenarios with highly metallic debris source, very high gas temperature of about 1900 K was predicted in the pedestal, and about 1400 K in the upper drywell. The calculations with metallic debris were sensititive to model parameters, like the particle size and the parameters, which control the chemical reaction kinetics. In the scenarios with oxidic debris source, the predicted pressure peaks were comparable to the cases with the metallic debris source. The maximum gas temperatures (about 450-500 K) in the containment were, however, significantly lower than in the respective metallic debris case. The temperatures were also insensitive to parametric variations. In addition, one analysis was performed with the MELCOR code for benchmarking of the MELCOR capabilities against the more detailed CONTAIN code. The calculations showed that leak tightness of the containment penetrations could be jeopardized due to high temperature loads, if a high pressure melt ejection occurred during a severe accident. Another consequence would be an early containment venting. (au). 28 refs.

  17. Delayed Repolarization Underlies Ventricular Arrhythmias in Rats With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hyung; Zhang, Rui; Kilfoil, Peter J; Gallet, Romain; de Couto, Geoffrey; Bresee, Catherine; Goldhaber, Joshua I; Marbán, Eduardo; Cingolani, Eugenio

    2017-11-21

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents approximately half of heart failure, and its incidence continues to increase. The leading cause of mortality in HFpEF is sudden death, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) from 7 weeks of age to induce HFpEF (n=38). Rats fed a normal-salt diet (0.3% NaCl) served as controls (n=13). Echocardiograms were performed to assess systolic and diastolic function from 14 weeks of age. HFpEF-verified and control rats underwent programmed electrical stimulation. Corrected QT interval was measured by surface ECG. The mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) were probed by optical mapping, whole-cell patch clamp to measure action potential duration and ionic currents, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to investigate changes in ion channel expression. After 7 weeks of a high-salt diet, 31 of 38 rats showed diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction along with signs of heart failure and hence were diagnosed with HFpEF. Programmed electric stimulation demonstrated increased susceptibility to VA in HFpEF rats ( P hearts demonstrated prolonged action potentials ( P hearts. Susceptibility to VA was markedly increased in rats with HFpEF. Underlying abnormalities include QT prolongation, delayed repolarization from downregulation of potassium currents, and multiple reentry circuits during VA. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that potassium current downregulation leads to abnormal repolarization in HFpEF, which in turn predisposes to VA and sudden cardiac death. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Frac-tion: 10 Key Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Afşin Oktay; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common clinical syndrome associated with high rates of morbidi-ty and mortality. Due to the lack of evidence-based therapies and increasing prevalence of HFpEF, clinicians are often con-fronted with these patients and yet have little guidance on how to effectively diagnose and manage them. Here we offer 10 key lessons to assist with the care of patients with HFpEF: (1) Know the difference between diastolic dysfunction, diastolic heart failure, and HFpEF; (2) diagnosing HFpEF is challenging, so be thorough and consider invasive hemodynamic testing to confirm the diagnosis; (3) a normal B-type natriuretic peptide does not exclude the diagnosis of HFpEF; (4) elevated pul-monary artery systolic pressure on echocardiography in the presence of a normal ejection fraction should prompt considera-tion of HFpEF; (5) use dynamic testing in evaluating the possibility of HFpEF in patients with unexplained dyspnea or exer-cise tolerance; (6) all patients with HFpEF should be systematically evaluated for the presence of coronary artery disease; (7) use targeted treatment for HFpEF patients based on their phenotypic classification; (8) treat HFpEF patients now by treating their comorbidities; (9) understand the importance of heart rate in HFpEF—lower is not always better; and (10) do not forget to consider rare diseases (“zebras”) as causes for HFpEF when evaluating and treating patients. Taken together, these 10 key lessons can help clinicians care for challenging patients with HFpEF while we eagerly await the results of ongoing HFpEF clinical trials and observational studies. PMID:24251461

  19. Possible quasi-periodic ejections in quasar B1308+326

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S. J.; Britzen, S.; Witzel, A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Gan, H. Q.

    2017-08-01

    Context. The search for periodic features in flux variability and kinematics of superluminal components in blazars is capable of providing significant clues for the understanding of the physical processes in their central engines (black-hole/accretion-disk systems), especially concerning the formation and structure of their relativistic jets and radiation mechanisms. Aims: The jet swing on parsec-scales and the change of the ejection position angle of the superluminal components with time in the quasar B1308+326 (z = 0.997) are investigated as quasi-periodic behaviors. Methods: A previously published precessing jet nozzle model is applied to model the source kinematics and a possible jet precession period is found. Results: Based on the model fitting of the kinematics for a subset of components, it is shown that their kinematics, including the shape of the inner trajectories and the motion of the components, could be well fitted in terms of the precessing jet nozzle model and a precession period of 16.9 ± 0.3 yr is derived. Different precession mechanisms are discussed and compared. Conclusions: It is shown that the swing of the ejection position angle of the superluminal knots observed in B1308+326 may be due to the orbital motion of a putative supermassive black hole binary in its nucleus. Some relevant parameters of the binary model are estimated. We also discuss the spin-induced precession mechanism in the single black hole scenario and an estimate for the spin of the Kerr black hole is obtained.

  20. Comparison of ejection events in the jet and accretion disc outflows in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Markowitz, A.

    2012-07-01

    We present a comparison of the parameters of accretion disc outflows and the jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 on subparsec (sub-pc) scales. We make use of published X-ray observations of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) and new 43-GHz Very Long Baseline Array images to track the jet knot ejection. We find that the superluminal jet coexists with the mildly relativistic outflows on sub-pc scales, possibly indicating a transverse stratification of a global flow. The two are roughly in pressure equilibrium, with the UFOs potentially providing additional support for the initial jet collimation. The UFOs are much more massive than the jet, but their kinetic power is probably about an order of magnitude lower, at least for the observations considered here. However, their momentum flux is equivalent and both of them are powerful enough to exert a concurrent feedback impact on the surrounding environment. A link between these components is naturally predicted in the context of magnetohydrodynamic models for jet/outflow formation. However, given the high radiation throughput of active galactic nuclei, radiation pressure should also be taken into account. From the comparison with the long-term 2-10 keV Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer light curve, we find that the UFOs are preferentially detected during periods of increasing flux. We also find the possibility to place the UFOs within the known X-ray dips-jet ejection cycles, which has been shown to be a strong proof of the disc-jet connection, in analogue with stellar mass black holes. However, given the limited number of observations presently available, these relations are only tentative and additional spectral monitoring is needed to test them conclusively.

  1. Cardiac I123-MIBG Correlates Better than Ejection Fraction with Symptoms Severity in Systolic Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Sandra M.; Moscavitch, Samuel D.; Carestiato, Larissa R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Felix, Renata M. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ronaldo C.; Messias, Leandro R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo, Jader C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nóbrega, Antonio Cláudio L.; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco, E-mail: ctinocom@cardiol.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    The association of autonomic activation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart failure functional class is poorly understood. Our aim was to correlate symptom severity with cardiac sympathetic activity, through iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy and with LVEF in systolic heart failure (HF) patients without previous beta-blocker treatment. Thirty-one patients with systolic HF, class I to IV of the New York Heart Association (NYHA), without previous beta-blocker treatment, were enrolled and submitted to {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy and to radionuclide ventriculography for LVEF determination. The early and delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio and the washout rate (WR) were performed. According with symptom severity, patients were divided into group A, 13 patients in NYHA class I/II, and group B, 18 patients in NYHA class III/IV. Compared with group B patients, group A had a significantly higher LVEF (25% ± 12% in group B vs. 32% ± 7% in group A, p = 0.04). Group B early and delayed H/M ratios were lower than group A ratios (early H/M 1.49 ± 0.15 vs. 1.64 ± 0.14, p = 0.02; delayed H/M 1.39 ± 0.13 vs. 1.58 ± 0.16, p = 0.001, respectively). WR was significantly higher in group B (36% ± 17% vs. 30% ± 12%, p= 0.04). The variable that showed the best correlation with NYHA class was the delayed H/M ratio (r= -0.585; p=0.001), adjusted for age and sex. This study showed that cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG correlates better than ejection fraction with symptom severity in systolic heart failure patients without previous beta-blocker treatment.

  2. Evaluation of right ventricular ejection fraction by first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, T.; Nishimura, T.; Naito, H.; Hayashida, K.; Kozuka, T. (National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-08-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography is a convenient and good parameter of the left ventricular function. Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) also seems to be a good parameter of the right ventricular function. RVEF calculated from volumetry with contrast right ventriculography is not necessarily correct because of the complex figure of the right ventricle. On the other hand, the method of calculation of RVEF with radionuclide angiocardiography has the advantage of being able to ignore the complexity of figure of RV, because RI counts extracted from the time-activity curve represent changes in ventricular volume. In this study, we developped an original method to calculate RVEF with first pass method. After setting of region of interest (ROI) of RV, background and ROI for correction of motion of tricuspid valve, we calculated RVEF with these time-activity curves, Since we found that too rapid infusion of RI made the time-activity curve of RV too steep, and too slow infusion of RI made the background of lung field too high, the appropriate infusion rate was required to get correct value of RVEF. In addition, the time-activity curve often became steep or flat in dependence of the speed of venous return and cardiac output of patients. In order to avoid the effect of infusion speed, the time-activity curve was fitted to linear curves and the value of RVEF was corrected. The validity of these methods was confirmed in our study. As the result, RVEF obtained with our methods appeared to have good correlation with that obtained from volumetry of contrast right ventriculography (r = 0.77) and to be very useful in clinical estimation of right ventricular function.

  3. From current driven to neoclassically driven tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Goodman, T.; Pochelon, A.

    2001-12-01

    In the TCV tokamak, the m/n = 2/1 island is observed in low density discharges with central electron cyclotron current drive. The evolution of its width has two distinct growth phases, one of which can be linked to a 'conventional' tearing mode driven unstable by the current profile and the other to a neoclassical tearing mode driven by a perturbation of the bootstrap current. The TCV results provide the first clear observation of such a destabilization mechanism and reconcile the theory of conventional and neoclassical tearing modes, which only differ in their dominant driving term. (author)

  4. ICMS ecológico: conceito e repercussões na conservação ambiental do município de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelze Serrat de Souza Campos Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A legislação ambiental brasileira define os instrumentos de intervenção do Estado no planejamento e na gestão ambiental. Um desses instrumentos é o Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Prestação de Serviços Ecológico (ICMS Ecológico. Por meio da arrecadação do ICMS (Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Prestação de Serviços, os estados podem disponibilizar uma parcela do seu montante aos municípios, com a utilização de diversos critérios, dentre eles o ambiental. Este artigo apresenta o sistema de redistribuição desse imposto, segundo os critérios ambientais, executado no estado de Minas Gerais, e analisa suas implicações na conservação ambiental do município de Uberlândia, oeste de Minas Gerais. Por meio de revisão bibliográfica, pesquisa documental e trabalhos de campo, constata-se a potencialidade desse instrumento e a falta de seu alcance no que tange ao índice de conservação ambiental. Por fim, propõe-se algumas mudanças na normatização estadual, a fim de se atingir o seu objetivo: a melhoria da qualidade ambiental. Abstract ECOLOGICAL GOODS AND SERVICES TAX: CONCEPT AND REPERCUSSIONS IN THE UBERLÂNDIA MUNICIPALITY ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION, MINAS GERAIS The Brazilian environmental legislation sets the intervention instruments of the states on environmental management and planning. One of such instruments is the Ecological Goods and Services Tax. Through this tax fundraising, the states can share part of the total with the cities, by the usage of many criteria, among 76. GeoTextos, vol. 10, n. 2, dez. 2014. G. Rodrigues 75-97 them the environmental criteria. This article shows this tax redistribution system, according to the environmental criteria, executed in Minas Gerais state, and analyses its implications on the environmental conservation of Uberlândia, western Minas Gerais. Through bibliographic revision, documental research and fieldwork, it is noted the potential of such

  5. Detection and Diagnostics of a Coronal Shock Wave Driven by a Partial-Halo Coronal Mass Ejection on 2000 June 28

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciaravella, A; Raymond, J. C; Kahler, S. W; Vourlidas, A; Li, J

    2005-01-01

    ... (UVCS). The broad profile of the O VI lambda-1032 line gives evidence of a shock front at the leading edge, supporting the identification of white-light CME sharp leading edges as fast-mode shocks...

  6. Plasma Biomarkers Reflecting Profibrotic Processes in Heart Failure With a Preserved Ejection Fraction : Data From the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB on Management of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zile, Michael R.; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Baicu, Catalin F.; Claggett, Brian L.; Pieske, Burkert; Voors, Adriaan A.; Prescott, Margaret F.; Shi, Victor; Lefkowitz, Martin; McMurray, John J. V.; Solomon, Scott D.

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a clinical syndrome that has been associated with changes in the extracellular matrix. The purpose of this study was to determine whether profibrotic biomarkers accurately reflect the presence and severity of disease and underlying

  7. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  8. Knowledge-Driven Versus Data-Driven Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubois, D.; Hájek, Petr; Prade, H.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2000), s. 65-89 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:CNRS(FR) 4008 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : epistemic logic * possibility theory * data-driven reasoning * deontic logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Test Driven Development: Performing Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Emily

    The art of Test Driven Development (TDD) is a skill that needs to be learnt, and which needs time and practice to master. In this workshop a select number of conference participants with considerable skill and experience are invited to perform code katas [1]. The aim is for them to demonstrate excellence and the use of Test Driven Development, and result in some high quality code. This would be for the benefit of the many programmers attending the conference, who could come along and witness high quality code being written using TDD, and get a chance to ask questions and provide feedback.

  10. Impact of the Icme-Earth Geometry on the Strength of the Associated Geomagnetic Storm: The September 2014 and March 2015 Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K.-S.; Marubashi, K.; Kim, R.-S.; Park, S.-H.; Lim, E.-K.; Kim, S.-J.; Kumar, P.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, J.-O.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate two abnormal CME-Storm pairs that occurred on 2014 September 10 - 12 and 2015 March 15 - 17, respectively. The first one was a moderate geomagnetic storm (Dst_{min} ˜ -75 nT) driven by the X1.6 high speed flare-associated CME (1267 km s^{-1}) in AR 12158 (N14E02) near solar disk center. The other was a very intense geomagnetic storm (Dst_{min} ˜ -223 nT) caused by a CME with moderate speed (719 km s^{-1}) and associated with a filament eruption accompanied by a weak flare (C9.1) in AR 12297 (S17W38). Both CMEs have large direction parameters facing the Earth and southward magnetic field orientation in their solar source region. In this study, we inspect the structure of Interplanetary Flux Ropes (IFRs) at the Earth estimated by using the torus fitting technique assuming self-similar expansion. As results, we find that the moderate storm on 2014 September 12 was caused by small-scale southward magnetic fields in the sheath region ahead of the IFR. The Earth traversed the portion of the IFR where only the northward fields are observed. Meanwhile, in case of the 2015 March 17 storm, our IFR analysis revealed that the Earth passed the very portion where only the southward magnetic fields are observed throughout the passage. The resultant southward magnetic field with long-duration is the main cause of the intense storm. We suggest that 3D magnetic field geometry of an IFR at the IFR-Earth encounter is important and the strength of a geomagnetic storm is strongly affected by the relative location of the Earth with respect to the IFR structure.

  11. Laboratory Studies of Magnetically Driven, Radiatively Cooled Supersonic Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Sergey V.

    2010-05-01

    Results of the recent experiments with radiatively cooled jets performed on the pulsed power MAGPIE facility (1.5MA, 250ns) at Imperial College will be presented. The experiments are scalable to astrophysical flows in that critical dimensionless numbers such as the plasma collisionality, the plasma beta, Reynolds number and the magnetic Reynolds number are all in the astrophysically appropriate ranges. The experimental results will be compared with computer simulations performed with laboratory plasma codes and with astrophysical codes. The main part of the presentation will concentrate on the dynamics of magnetically driven jets, in particular on formation of episodic outflows [1]. The experimental results show the periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities. Experimental data on the energy balance in the magnetically driven jets, the conversion of the Poynting flux energy into kinetic energy of the outflow, will be also presented. *) In collaboration with A. CIARDI, F.A. SUZUKI-VIDAL, S.N. BLAND, M. BOCCHI, G. BURDIAK, J.P. CHITTENDEN, P. de GROUCHY, G. HALL, A. HARVEY-THOMSON, A. MAROCCHINO, G. SWADLING, A. FRANK, E. G. BLACKMAN, C. STEHLE, M. CAMENZIND. This research was sponsored by EPSRC, by the OFES DOE, by the NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-02NA00057 and by the European Community's Marie Curie Actions within the JETSET network under Contract No. MRTNCT- 2004 005592. References [1] A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev, A. Frank et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 691: L147-L150 (2009).

  12. Massive outflows driven by magnetic effects - II. Comparison with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuko; Sakurai, Yuya; Hosokawa, Takashi; Machida, Masahiro N.

    2018-03-01

    The driving mechanism of massive outflows observed in high-mass star-forming regions is investigated using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and protostellar evolution calculations. In our previous paper, we showed that the mass outflow rate depends strongly on the mass accretion rate on to the circumstellar disc around a high-mass protostar, and massive outflows may be driven by the magnetic effect in high-mass star-forming cores. In this study, in order to verify that the MHD disc wind is the primary driving mechanism of massive outflows, we quantitatively compare outflow properties obtained through simulations and observations. Since the outflows obtained through simulations are slightly younger than those obtained through observations, the time-integrated quantities of outflow mass, momentum, and kinetic energy are slightly smaller than those obtained through observations. On the other hand, time-derivative quantities of mass ejection rate, outflow momentum flux, and kinetic luminosity obtained through simulations are in very good agreement with those obtained through observations. This indicates that the MHD disc wind greatly contributes to the massive outflow driving from high-mass protostars, and the magnetic field might significantly control the high-mass star formation process.

  13. Deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in bead dispenser for single bead-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated bead dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of beads into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of bead-encapsulated droplets. Single bead-encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-bead dispensing with deterministic control of the number of beads was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, bead-based streptavidin-biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of beads. The results evidenced the number of beads in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic bead-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired beads onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules.

  14. Attempting to train a digital human model to reproduce human subject reach capabilities in an ejection seat aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehner, G.F.; Hudson, J.A.; Oudenhuijzen, A.

    2006-01-01

    From 1997 through 2002, the Air Force Research Lab and TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Business Unit Human Factors) were involved in a series of tests to quantify the accuracy of five Human Modeling Systems (HMSs) in determining accommodation limits of ejection seat aircraft. The results of these

  15. Can Skylarks Alauda arvensis discriminate a parasite nestling? Possible case of nestling Cuckoo Cuculus canorus ejection by its host parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegemann, Arne; Voesten, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus is an obligate brood parasite and many studies have dealt with egg rejection by host species. However, evidence for ejection of Cuckoo nestlings by host parents has not been reported. Here we describe an observation of a Skylark Alauda arvensis pair that probably

  16. Effect of Basic Residue on the Kinetics of Peptide Fragmentation Examined Using Surface-Induced Dissociation Combined with Resonant Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia

    2015-11-30

    In this work, resonant ejection coupled with surface-induced dissociation (SID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer is used to examine fragmentation kinetics of two singly protonated hexapeptides, RYGGFL and KYGGFL, containing the basic arginine residue and less basic lysine residue at the N-terminus. The kinetics of individual reaction channels at different collision energies are probed by applying a short ejection pulse (1 ms) in resonance with the cyclotron frequency of a selected fragment ion and varying the delay time between ion-surface collision and resonant ejection while keeping total reaction delay time constant. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) modeling of the experimental data provides accurate threshold energies and activation entropies of individual reaction channels. Substitution of arginine with less basic lysine has a pronounced effect on the observed fragmentation kinetics of several pathways, including the b2 ion formation, but has little or no effect on formation of the b5+H2O fragment ion. The combination of resonant ejection SID, time- and collision energy-resolved SID, and RRKM modeling of both types of experimental data provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the primary dissociation pathways of complex gaseous ions.

  17. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in low ejection fraction/low transvalvular gradient patients : the rule of 40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrotto, Federico; D’Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Stella, Pieter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814717; Pavani, Marco; Rossi, Marco Luciano; Brambilla, Nedy; Napodano, Massimo; Covolo, Elisa; Saia, Francesco; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34169276X; Marzocchi, Antonio; Presbitero, Patrizia; Bedogni, Francesco; Salizzoni, Stefano; D’Amico, Maurizio; Moretti, Claudio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    BACKGROUND: Several factors have been identified as predictors of events after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) but the impact of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and mean transaortic gradient (MTG) is controversial. This multicenter study aimed to clarify the prognostic role

  18. Renal effects of the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Gori, Mauro; Liu, Licette C. Y.; Claggett, Brian; Zile, Michael R.; Pieske, Burkert; McMurray, John J. V.; Packer, Milton; Shi, Victor; Lefkowitz, Martin P.; Solomon, Scott D.

    BackgroundIncreases in serum creatinine with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors can lead to unnecessary discontinuation of these agents. The dual-acting angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 improves clinical outcome patients with heart failure with reduced ejection

  19. Serelaxin in acute heart failure patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction : results from the RELAX-AHF trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippatos, Gerasimos; Teerlink, John R.; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Felker, G. Michael; Greenberg, Barry H.; Hua, Tsushung; Ponikowski, Piotr; Severin, Thomas; Unemori, Elaine; Voors, Adriaan A.; Metra, Marco

    Aims Serelaxin is effective in relieving dyspnoea and improving multiple outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF). Many AHF patients have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Given the lack of evidence-based therapies in this population, we evaluated the effects of serelaxin according to EF in

  20. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Prognosis in Heart Failure Patients With Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Linssen, Gerard C. M.; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Hoes, Arno W.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Paulus, Walter J.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Hillege, Hans L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine the prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), in comparison to data in HF patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) EF ( Background Management of patients with HFPEF is

  1. A systematic review concerning the relation between the sympathetic nervous system and heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, Willemien L.; Beeftink, Martine M A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413589242; Santema, Bernadet T.; Bots, Michiel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Blankestijn, Peter J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086704850; Cramer, Maarten J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155240706; Doevendans, Pieter A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164248366; Voskuil, Michiel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/254745954

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF) affects about half of all patients diagnosed with heart failure. The pathophysiological aspect of this complex disease state has been extensively explored, yet it is still not fully understood. Since the sympathetic

  2. Right ventricular dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Thomas M.; Hoendermis, Elke S.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Willems, Tineke P.; Melle, van Joost P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension (PH) are increasingly recognized in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The prevalence and prognostic value of RV dysfunction in HFpEF have been widely but variably reported. We therefore conducted a systematic

  3. Dementia-related adverse events in PARADIGM-HF and other trials in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Jane A.; Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Inhibition of neprilysin, an enzyme degrading natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides, is beneficial in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), as shown in PARADIGM-HF which compared the angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril/valsartan with enalapril. As...

  4. Verapamil and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with coronary artery disease and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J F; Tingsted, L; Rasmussen, Verner

    1996-01-01

    for 3 months. We found a significant increase in ejection fraction from 28 +/- 6 to 35 +/- 11 (p exercise duration from 6.9 +/- 2.5 to 7.7 +/- 2.9 minutes (p exercise to rest rate-pressure product from 2.2 +/- 0...

  5. Effects-Driven IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    For customers information technology (IT) is a means to an end. This tight association between IT systems and their use is, however, often absent during their development and implementation, resulting in systems that may fail to produce desired ends. Effects-driven IT development aims to avoid...

  6. Synchrotron-driven spallation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1996-01-01

    The use of synchrotrons for pulsed neutron spallation sources is an example of scientific and technological spin-off from the accelerator development for particle physics. Accelerator-driven sources provide an alternative to the continuous-flux, nuclear reactors that currently furnish the majority of neutrons for research and development. Although the present demand for neutrons can be adequately met by the existing reactors, this situation is unlikely to continue due to the increasing severity of safety regulations and the declared policies of many countries to close down their reactors within the next decade or so. Since the demand for neutrons as a research tool is, in any case,expected to grow, there has been a corresponding interest in sources that are synchrotron-driven or linac-driven with a pulse compression ring and currently several design studies are being made. These accelerator-driven sources also have the advantage of a time structure with a high peak neutron flux. The basic requirement is for a...

  7. Work(er)-Driven Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The focus on innovation as a foundational element of enhanced organisational performance has led to the promoting and valuing of greater levels of employee participation in innovation processes. An emergent concept of employee-driven innovation could be argued to have hindered understandings of the creative and transformative nature of…

  8. Data-Driven Proficiency Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Behrooz; Liu, Zhongxiu; Barnes, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Deep Thought is a logic tutor where students practice constructing deductive logic proofs. Within Deep Thought is a data-driven mastery learning system (DDML), which calculates student proficiency based on rule scores weighted by expert-decided weights in order to assign problem sets of appropriate difficulty. In this study, we designed and tested…

  9. PC driven integrated vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, M.; Culcer, M.; Brandea, I.; Anghel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a integrated vacuum system which was designed and manufactured in our institute. The main parts of this system are the power supply unit for turbo-melecular pumps and the vacuummeter. Both parts of the system are driven by means of a personal computer using a serial communication, according to the RS 232 hardware standard.(author)

  10. Driven shielding capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor); McConnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A capacitive proximity sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage as and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect the field lines away from a grounded robot arm towards an intruding object, thus dramatically increasing the sensor's range and sensitivity.

  11. Employee-Driven Innovation (EDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    illogical to reserve such a 'license' to so few individuals. This paper argues that some parts of that license should indeed be extended to include 'ordinary' employees, as they are potential drivers of innovation. Research on Employee Driven Innovation (EDI) is still at its beginnings. In the paper we...

  12. Improved ejection fraction after exercise training in obesity is accompanied by reduced cardiac lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Meex, Ruth; van der Made, Sanne; Schär, Michael; Lamb, Hildo; Wildberger, Joachim E; Glatz, Jan; Snoep, Gabriel; Kooi, M Eline; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Skeletal muscle and cardiac lipid accumulation are associated with diminished insulin sensitivity and cardiac function, respectively. In skeletal muscle, physical activity paradoxically increases fat accumulation, despite improvement in insulin sensitivity. Whether cardiac muscle responds similarly remains unknown. The objective of the study was to investigate cardiac lipid content and cardiac function after a 12-wk training program. This was an intervention study with pre/postmeasurements. The study was conducted at Maastricht University Medical Center. Participants included 14 healthy, male overweight/obese subjects (age 58.4 +/- 0.9 yr, body mass index 29.9 +/- 0.01 kg/m(2)). Intervention included a supervised 12-wk training program with three sessions per week (endurance and strength training). Maximal whole-body oxygen uptake, fasting plasma parameters, systolic function (by CINE-magnetic resonance imaging), and cardiac lipid content (by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were measured. Maximal whole-body oxygen uptake increased (from 2559 +/- 131 to 2702 +/- 124 ml/min after training, P = 0.05). Plasma concentrations of glucose decreased (from 6.3 +/- 0.2 to 5.7 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter, P < 0.001); plasma triacylglycerols and (free) fatty acids did not change. Also, body weight (from 94.2 +/- 3.6 to 92.9 +/- 3.6 kg, P = 0.10) and fat percentage (from 33.6 +/- 1.7 to 32.5 +/- 2.0%, P = 0.14) was unchanged. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved (from 52.2 +/- 1.3 to 54.2 +/- 1.2%, P = 0.02), and cardiac lipid content in the septum was decreased after training (0.99 +/- 0.15 to 0.54 +/- 0.04%, P = 0.02). Twelve weeks of endurance/strength training significantly reduced cardiac lipid content in overweight subjects and was paralleled by improved ejection fraction. This is in line with a lipotoxic action of (excess) cardiac lipids on cardiac function, although a causal relationship cannot be derived from this study. Further research is needed to clarify the

  13. Thrombocytopaenia as a Prognostic Indicator in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Galeas, Jose Nahun; Goodman-Meza, David; Eshtehardi, Parham; Msaouel, Pavlos; Kelesidis, Iosif; Zaman, Muhammad Omer; Winoker, Jared S; Roberts, Scott C; Christia, Panagiota; Zolty, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    Studies suggest that thrombocytopaenia is associated with a higher mortality in several diseases. Little is known about the effect of low platelet count on mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of thrombocytopaenia in these patients by assessing all-cause mortality. A total of 1,907 patients with HFrEF, defined by left ventricular ejection fraction <40% on echocardiography, were analysed in this multi-centre retrospective study. All patients were on medical therapy with a beta-blocker and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Patients were categorised into two groups based on platelet count measured within one month of the diagnosis of HFrEF: normal to mild thrombocytopaenia (platelet count 100,000-450,000 per uL); and moderate to severe thrombocytopaenia (platelet count <100,000 per uL). One-year all-cause mortality was compared between the two groups. Mean age was 65±15 years and 62% of patients were male. Overall one-year mortality was 17.2% with higher mortality among patients with HFrEF and moderate/severe thrombocytopaenia compared to those with normal/mild thrombocytopaenia (33.0% vs. 15.4%, p <0.001). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, patients with HFrEF and moderate/severe thrombocytopaenia had a higher mortality compared to patients with normal/mild thrombocytopaenia (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.33-2.56, p <0.001). In patients with HFrEF, higher degree of thrombocytopaenia is associated with higher all-cause mortality. These findings may support the use of platelet counts as a prognostic marker in the assessment of the patient with HFrEF. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel Experiencing a Fast Control Rod Ejection Transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortensi, J.; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-10-01

    A rapid increase of the temperature and the mechanical stress is expected in TRISO coated particle fuel that experiences a fast Total Control Rod Ejection (CRE) transient event. During this event the reactor power in the pebble bed core increases significantly for a short time interval. The power is deposited instantly and locally in the fuel kernel. This could result in a rapid increase of the pressure in the buffer layer of the coated fuel particle and, consequently, in an increase of the coating stresses. These stresses determine the mechanical failure probability of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). A new calculation procedure has been implemented at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), which analyzes the transient fuel performance behavior of TRISO fuel particles in PBRs. This early capability can easily be extended to prismatic designs, given the availability of neutronic and thermal-fluid solvers. The full-core coupled neutronic and thermal-fluid analysis has been modeled with CYNOD-THERMIX. The temperature fields for the fuel kernel and the particle coatings, as well as the gas pressures in the buffer layer, are calculated with the THETRIS module explicitly during the transient calculation. Results from this module are part of the feedback loop within the neutronic-thermal fluid iterations performed for each time step. The temperature and internal pressure values for each pebble type in each region of the core are then input to the PArticle STress Analysis (PASTA) code, which determines the particle coating stresses and the fraction of failed particles. This paper presents an investigation of a Total Control Rod Ejection (TCRE) incident in the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular reactor design using the above described calculation procedure. The transient corresponds to a reactivity insertion of $3 (~2000 pcm) reaching 35 times the nominal power in 0.5 seconds. For each position in the core

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane; Støylen, Asbjørn; Dalen, Håvard; Delagardelle, Charles; Larsen, Alf-Inge; Hole, Torstein; Mezzani, Alessandro; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Videm, Vibeke; Beckers, Paul; Christle, Jeffrey W; Winzer, Ephraim; Mangner, Norman; Woitek, Felix; Höllriegel, Robert; Pressler, Axel; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Snoer, Martin; Feiereisen, Patrick; Valborgland, Torstein; Kjekshus, John; Hambrecht, Rainer; Gielen, Stephan; Karlsen, Trine; Prescott, Eva; Linke, Axel

    2017-02-28

    Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT ( P =0.45); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter changes compared with RRE were -2.8 mm (-5.2 to -0.4 mm; P =0.02) in HIIT and -1.2 mm (-3.6 to 1.2 mm; P =0.34) in MCT. There was also no difference between HIIT and MCT in peak oxygen uptake ( P =0.70), but both were superior to RRE. However, none of these changes was maintained at follow-up after 52 weeks. Serious adverse events were not statistically different during supervised intervention or at follow-up at 52 weeks (HIIT, 39%; MCT, 25%; RRE, 34%; P =0.16). Training records showed that 51% of patients exercised below prescribed target during supervised HIIT and 80% above target in MCT. HIIT was not superior to MCT in changing left ventricular remodeling or aerobic capacity, and its feasibility remains unresolved in patients with heart failure. URL: http

  16. Thermoelectric-Driven Liquid-Metal Plasma-Facing Structures (TELS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzic, David [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-12-17

    The Thermoelectric-Driven Liquid-Metal Plasma-Facing Structures (TELS) project was able to establish the experimental conditions necessary for flowing liquid metal surfaces in order to be utilized as surfaces facing fusion relevant energetic plasma flux. The work has also addressed additional developments along with progressing along the timeline detailed in the proposal. A no-cost extension was requested to conduct other relevant experiment- specifically regarding the characterization droplet ejection during energetic plasma flux impact. A specially designed trench module, which could accommodate trenches with different aspect ratios was fabricated and installed in the TELS setup and plasma gun experiments were performed. Droplet ejection was characterized using high speed image acquisition and also surface mounted probes were used to characterize the plasma. The Gantt chart below had been provided with the original proposal, indicating the tasks to be performed in the third year of funding. These tasks are listed above in the progress report outline, and their progress status is detailed below.

  17. Design and Experiment of a Solder Paste Jetting System Driven by a Piezoelectric Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoudong Gu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for the insufficiency and instability of solder paste dispensing and printing that are used in the SMT (Surface Mount Technology production process, a noncontact solder paste jetting system driven by a piezoelectric stack based on the principle of the nozzle-needle-system is introduced in this paper, in which a miniscule gap exists between the nozzle and needle during the jetting process. Here, the critical jet ejection velocity is discussed through theoretical analysis. The relations between ejection velocity and needle structure, needle velocity, and nozzle diameter were obtained by FLUENT software. Then, the prototype of the solder paste jetting system was fabricated, and the performance was verified by experiments. The effects of the gap between nozzle and needle, the driving voltage, and the nozzle diameter on the jetting performance and droplet diameter were obtained. Solder paste droplets 0.85 mm in diameter were produced when the gap between the nozzle and needle was adjusted to 10 μm, the driving voltage to 80 V, the nozzle diameter to 0.1 mm, and the variation of the droplet diameter was within ±3%.

  18. A comparison of coronal mass ejections identified by manual and automatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yashiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections (CMEs are related to many phenomena (e.g. flares, solar energetic particles, geomagnetic storms, thus compiling of event catalogs is important for a global understanding these phenomena. CMEs have been identified manually for a long time, but in the SOHO era, automatic identification methods are being developed. In order to clarify the advantage and disadvantage of the manual and automatic CME catalogs, we examined the distributions of CME properties listed in the CDAW (manual and CACTus (automatic catalogs. Both catalogs have a good agreement on the wide CMEs (width>120° in their properties, while there is a significant discrepancy on the narrow CMEs (width≤30°: CACTus has a larger number of narrow CMEs than CDAW. We carried out an event-by-event examination of a sample of events and found that the CDAW catalog have missed many narrow CMEs during the solar maximum. Another significant discrepancy was found on the fast CMEs (speed>1000 km/s: the majority of the fast CDAW CMEs are wide and originate from low latitudes, while the fast CACTus CMEs are narrow and originate from all latitudes. Event-by-event examination of a sample of events suggests that CACTus has a problem on the detection of the fast CMEs.

  19. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND TRACKING OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. MULTISCALE FILTERING OF CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  20. The Influence of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Mass-loss Rates of Hot-Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherenkov, A.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 48 Pyatnitskaya St. 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fossati, L.; Möstl, C., E-mail: bisikalo@inasan.ru [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2017-09-01

    Hot-Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation and plasma flows coming from their host stars. Past ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope observations, supported by hydrodynamic models, confirmed that these factors lead to the formation of an extended envelope, part of which lies beyond the Roche lobe. We use gas-dynamic simulations to study the impact of time variations in the parameters of the stellar wind, namely that of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the envelope of the typical hot-Jupiter HD 209458b. We consider three CMEs characterized by different velocities and densities, taking their parameters from typical CMEs observed for the Sun. The perturbations in the ram-pressure of the stellar wind during the passage of each CME tear off most of the envelope that is located beyond the Roche lobe. This leads to a substantial increase of the mass-loss rates during the interaction with the CME. We find that the mass lost by the planet during the whole crossing of a CME is of ≈10{sup 15} g, regardless of the CME taken into consideration. We also find that over the course of 1 Gyr, the mass lost by the planet because of CME impacts is comparable to that lost because of high-energy stellar irradiation.