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Sample records for eisenia fetida exposed

  1. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  2. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanetti, Anna; Fesenko, Sergey; Cozzella, Maria L.; Asencio, Lisbet D.; Sansone, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg -1 . Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  3. Uptake kinetics of metals by the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: nahmani@univ-metz.f [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Devin, Simon [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Vijver, Martina G. [Leiden University, Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    It is well known that earthworms can accumulate metals. However, most accumulation studies focus on Cd-, Cu-, Pb- or Zn-amended soils, additionally few studies consider accumulation kinetics. Here we model the accumulation kinetics of 18 elements by Eisenia fetida, exposed to 8 metal-contaminated and 2 uncontaminated soils. Tissue metal concentration was determined after 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days. Metal elimination rate was important in determining time to reach steady-state tissue metal concentration. Uptake flux to elimination rate ratios showed less variation and lower values for essential than for non-essential metals. In theory kinetic rate constants are dependent only on species and metal. Therefore it should be possible to predict steady-state tissue metal concentrations on the basis of very few measurements using the rate constants. However, our experiments show that it is difficult to extrapolate the accumulation kinetic constants derived using one soil to another. - Earthworm metal uptake and elimination constants derived from a one-compartment model show little systematic variation with soil properties.

  4. Transcriptional responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed to naphthenic acids in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jinhua; Chai, Liwei; Huang, Yi; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to commercial NAs contaminated soil, and changes in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and gene expressions of their defense system were monitored. The effects on the gene expression involved in reproduction and carcinogenesis were also evaluated. Significant increases in ROS levels was observed in NAs exposure groups, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes were both up-regulated at low and medium exposure doses, which implied NAs might exert toxicity by oxidative stress. The transcription of CRT and HSP70 coincided with oxidative stress, which implied both chaperones perform important functions in the protection against oxidative toxicity. The upregulation of TCTP gene indicated a potential adverse effect of NAs to terrestrial organisms through induction of carcinogenesis, and the downregulation of ANN gene indicated that NAs might potentially result in deleterious reproduction effects. - Highlights: • The first attempt to study gene ecotoxicity of NAs in terrestrial environment. • NAs exert toxicity by oxidative stress on earthworm. • NAs might cause carcinogenesis and reproductive disruption to earthworm. - NAs induced oxidative stress and altered transcriptions of genes involved in defense, reproduction, and carcinogenesis

  5. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Courtney D; Blaine, Andrea C; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-01-20

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids-amended and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils results in two potential pathways for movement of these environmental contaminants into terrestrial foodwebs. Uptake of PFAAs by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to unspiked soils with varying levels of PFAAs (a control soil, an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and two AFFF-impacted soils) was measured. Standard 28 day exposure experiments were conducted in each soil, and measurements taken at additional time points in the municipal soil were used to model the kinetics of uptake. Uptake and elimination rates and modeling suggested that steady state bioaccumulation was reached within 28 days of exposure for all PFAAs. The highest concentrations in the earthworms were for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (2160 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) in the industrially impacted soil (737 ng/g). Wet-weight (ww) and organic carbon (OC)-based biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for the earthworms were calculated after 28 days of exposure for all five soils. The highest BSAF in the industrially impacted soil was for PFDoA (0.42 goc/gww,worm). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, dry-weight-basis, dw) were also calculated at 28 days for each of the soils. With the exception of the control soil and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in the industrially impacted soil, all BAF values were above unity, with the highest being for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (139 gdw,soil/gdw,worm). BSAFs and BAFs increased with increasing chain length for the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and decreased with increasing chain length for the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). The results indicate that PFAA bioaccumulation into earthworms depends on soil concentrations, soil characteristics, analyte, and duration of exposure, and that accumulation into earthworms may be a potential

  6. Effects of Particle Size on Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability of Copper to Earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) Exposed to Copper Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; O Tsyusko; S Hunyadi; J Judy; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    To investigate the role of particle size on the oxidation, bioavailability, and adverse effects of manufactured Cu nanoparticles (NPs) in soils, we exposed the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a series of concentrations of commercially produced NPs labeled as 20- to 40-nm or <100-nm Cu in artificial soil media. Effects on growth, mortality, reproduction, and expression of a variety of genes associated with metal homeostasis, general stress, and oxidative stress were measured. We also used X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy to characterize changes in chemical speciation and spatial distribution of the NPs in soil media and earthworm tissues. Exposure concentrations of Cu NPs up to 65 mg kg{sup -1} caused no adverse effects on ecologically relevant endpoints. Increases in metallothionein expression occurred at concentrations exceeding 20 mg kg-1 of Cu NPs and concentrations exceeding 10 mg kg{sup -1} of CuSO{sub 4} Based on the relationship of Cu tissue concentration to metallothionein expression level and the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of Cu in the tissues, we conclude that Cu ions and oxidized Cu NPs were taken up by the earthworms. This study suggests that oxidized Cu NPs may enter food chains from soil but that adverse effects in earthworms are likely to occur only at relatively high concentrations (>65 mg Cu kg{sup -1} soil).

  7. Responses of growth inhibition and antioxidant gene expression in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane and decabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-juan; Xu, Xiang-bo; Zheng, Xiao-qi; Lu, Yong-long

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), suspected ubiquitous contaminants, account for the largest volume of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) since penta-BDE and octa-BDE have been phased out globally. In this paper, the growth inhibition and gene transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and the stress-response gene involved in the prevention of oxidative stress (Hsp70) of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to TBBPA, HBCD and BDE 209 were measured to identify the toxicity effects of selected BFRs on earthworms. The growth of earthworms treated by TBBPA at 200 and 400 mg/kg dw were inhibited at rate of 13.7% and 22.0% respectively, while there was no significant growth inhibition by HBCD and BDE 209. A significant (Pearthworms exposed to TBBPA at 50 mg/kg dw (1.77-fold) and to HBCD at 400 mg/kg dw (2.06-fold). The transcript level of Hsp70 gene was significantly up-regulated (Pearthworms exposed to TBBPA at concentration of 50-200 mg/kg (2.16-2.19-fold) and HBCD at 400 mg/kg (2.61-fold). No significant variation of CAT gene expression in all the BFRs treatments was observed, neither does all the target gene expression level exposed to BDE 209. Assessed by growth inhibition and the changes at mRNA levels of encoding genes in earthworms, TBBPA showed the greatest toxicity, followed by HBCD and BDE 209, consistent with trends in molecular properties. The results help to understand the molecular mechanism of antioxidant defense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative toxicity in earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris exposed to cadmium nitrate using artificial soil and filter paper protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Muratti-Ortiz, J.F. [City of Denton Water/Wastewater Laboratory, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Laboratories Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Earthworms are ideal soil organisms for use in terrestrial ecotoxicology. As such, several earthworm protocols have been developed for testing toxic potential of chemicals and contaminated soils. Of these, the 48-h filter paper contact (FP) and the 14-d artificial soil exposure (AS) protocols, using mortality (LC50) as the toxic endpoint and Eisenia fetida as the test species, have received the most attention, with the latter being adopted by both OECD and EEC in Europe and the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the United States. Although the FP technique, adopted by EEC, provides for inexpensive reproducible toxicity screening for chemicals (i.e. establishing relative toxicities), it has been criticized for lacking the ecotoxicological relevance of the AS protocol. Choice of earthworm species for laboratory testing also has been controversial. The manure worm, E. fetida, is criticized for not being sufficiently sensitive to chemicals or representative of {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} earthworms. Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea caliginosa have been suggested as more sensitive and ecologically relevant earthworms by Dean-Ross and Martin, respectively. This paper compares the AS and FP protocols in assessing toxicity of cadminum to L. terrestris and E. fetida using LC50s and LC50s. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Gene expression analysis of 4 biomarker candidates in Eisenia fetida exposed to an environmental metallic trace elements gradient: A microcosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck; Lemiere, Sebastien [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, Lille 1, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Douay, Francis [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Groupe ISA, 48 boulevard Vauban, F-59046 Lille Cedex (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, Lille 1, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-11-15

    Past activities of 2 smelters (Metaleurop Nord and Nyrstar) led to the accumulation of high amounts of Metal Trace Elements (TEs) in top soils of the Noyelles-Godault/Auby area, Northern France. Earthworms were exposed to polluted soils collected in this area to study and better understand the physiological changes, the mechanisms of acclimation, and detoxification resulting from TE exposure. Previously we have cloned and transcriptionally characterized potential biomarkers from immune cells of the ecotoxicologically important earthworm species Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to TE-spiked standard soils. In the present study, analysis of expression kinetics of four candidate indicator genes (Cadmium-metallothionein, coactosin like protein, phytochelatin synthase and lysenin) was performed in E. fetida after microcosm exposures to natural soils exhibiting an environmental cadmium (Cd) gradient in a kinetic manner. TE body burdens were also measured. This microcosm study provided insights into: (1) the ability of the 4 tested genes to serve as expression biomarkers, (2) detoxification processes through the expression analysis of selected genes, and (3) influence of land uses on the response of potential biomarkers (gene expression or TE uptake). - Highlights: {yields} Expression biomarkers in animals exposed to Cadmium-contaminated field soils. {yields} Expression kinetics to test the ability of genes to serve as expression biomarkers. {yields} Study of detoxification processes through the expression analysis of selected genes.

  10. Avoidance of Ag nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the avoidance behaviour of earthworms, Eisenia fetida to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly as antibacterial agents....... The avoidance behaviour could not be explained by the release of silver ions in the soil-solution. Although, Ag-ions release (if any) may still have had an influence on behaviour. The present results suggests that the earthworms perceive the presence of actual nanoparticles in the soil. Our results suggest that...... and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworms avoided commercially fabricated silver nanoparticles in a dose and time dependent manner. The earthworms were exposed to 3 nanoparticles: NM...

  11. Evidence for proteins involved in prophenoloxidase cascade Eisenia fetida earthworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohlerová, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Stijlemans, B.; Dieu, M.; Halada, Petr; Josková, Radka; Beschin, A.; De Baetselier, P.; Bilej, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 176, - (2006), s. 581-587 ISSN 0174-1578 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/04/0806; GA AV ČR KJB500200613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : protein * prophenoloxidase cascade * eisenia fetida Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2006

  12. Eisenia fetida increased removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Bernal, Dioselina [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Dendooven, Luc [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx

    2006-06-15

    The removal of phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene added at three different concentrations was investigated with or without earthworms (Eisenia fetida) within 11 weeks. Average anthracene removal by the autochthonous micro-organisms was 23%, 77% for phenanthrene and 13% for benzo(a)pyrene, while it was 51% for anthracene, 47% for benzo(a)pyrene and 100% for phenanthrene in soil with earthworms. At 50 and 100 mg phenanthrene kg{sup -1} E. fetida survival was 91% and 83%, but at 150 mg kg{sup -1} all died within 15 days. Survival of E. fetida in soil amended with anthracene {<=}1000 mg kg{sup -1} and benzo(a)pyrene {<=}150 mg kg{sup -1} was higher than 80% and without weight loss compared to the untreated soil. Only small amounts of PAHs were detected in the earthworms. It was concluded that E. fetida has the potential to remove large amounts of PAHs from soil, but more work is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved. - Addition of earthworms, Eisenia fetida, accelara removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil.

  13. Eisenia fetida increased removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M.; Alvarez-Bernal, Dioselina; Dendooven, Luc

    2006-01-01

    The removal of phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene added at three different concentrations was investigated with or without earthworms (Eisenia fetida) within 11 weeks. Average anthracene removal by the autochthonous micro-organisms was 23%, 77% for phenanthrene and 13% for benzo(a)pyrene, while it was 51% for anthracene, 47% for benzo(a)pyrene and 100% for phenanthrene in soil with earthworms. At 50 and 100 mg phenanthrene kg -1 E. fetida survival was 91% and 83%, but at 150 mg kg -1 all died within 15 days. Survival of E. fetida in soil amended with anthracene ≤1000 mg kg -1 and benzo(a)pyrene ≤150 mg kg -1 was higher than 80% and without weight loss compared to the untreated soil. Only small amounts of PAHs were detected in the earthworms. It was concluded that E. fetida has the potential to remove large amounts of PAHs from soil, but more work is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved. - Addition of earthworms, Eisenia fetida, accelara removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

  14. Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahmani, Johanne; Hodson, Mark E.; Black, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg -1 ), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg -1 , 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg -1 ). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites

  15. Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nahmani@univ-metz.fr; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg{sup -1}), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg{sup -1}, 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg{sup -1}). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites.

  16. Survival, growth, detoxifying and antioxidative responses of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to soils with industrial DDT contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajuan; Zhang, Qiangbin; Huang, Dunqi; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Yajing

    2016-03-01

    The survival, growth, activity of the biotransformation system phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the oxidative defense enzyme catalase (CAT) of earthworms exposed to the contaminated soils from a former DDT plant and reference soils were investigated, and compared with the corresponding indicators in simulated soil-earthworm system, unpolluted natural soils with spiked-in DDT series, to identify the toxic effects of DDT on earthworms and their cellular defense system in complex soil system. The results indicated that DDT level in the contaminated soils was significantly higher than that in the reference soils with similar level of other pollutants and soil characters. The mortality, growth inhibition rates, GST and CST activities of earthworms exposed to the contaminated soils were significantly higher than that in reference soils. The contribution of historical DDT in contaminated soils to earthworms was confirmed by the DDT spiked tests. DDT spiked in soils at rates of higher than 200 mg·kg(-1) was significantly toxic to both the survival and the growth of earthworms. DDT significantly stimulated GST and CAT activity in earthworms after 14 days. The CAT and GST activities were also stimulated by DDT exposure at rates of 100 mg·kg(-1) after chronic exposure (42 days). The results provide implications for validating the extrapolation from laboratory simulated soils criteria to contaminated soils and for making site risk assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative perturbations in lead-exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10 mg kg(-1)) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500 mg kg(-1)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that ·OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of ·OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, ·OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms.

  18. Eisenia fetida increased removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvia M. Contreras-Ramos; Dioselina Alvarez-Bernal; Luc Dendooven [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-06-15

    The removal of phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene added at three different concentrations was investigated with or without earthworms (Eisenia fetida) within 11 weeks. Average anthracene removal by the autochthonous micro-organisms was 23%, 77% for phenanthrene and 13% for benzo(a)pyrene, while it was 51% for anthracene, 47% for benzo(a)pyrene and 100% for phenanthrene in soil with earthworms. At 50 and 100 mg phenanthrene kg{sup -1} E. fetida survival was 91% and 83%, but at 150 mg kg{sup -1} all died within 15 days. Survival of E. fetida in soil amended with anthracene {<=}1000 mg kg{sup -1} and benzo(a)pyrene {<=}150 mg kg{sup -1} was higher than 80% and without weight loss compared to the untreated soil. Only small amounts of PAHs were detected in the earthworms. It was concluded that E. fetida has the potential to remove large amounts of PAHs from soil, but more work is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  19. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Dvořák

    Full Text Available Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  20. Correlations of Eisenia fetida metabolic responses to extractable phenanthrene concentrations through time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.c [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to phenanthrene for thirty days to compare hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction of soil and {sup 1}H NMR earthworm metabolomics as indicators of bioavailability. The phenanthrene 28-d LC{sub 50} value was 750 mg/kg (632-891, 95% confidence intervals) for the peat soil tested. The initial phenanthrene concentration was 319 mg/kg, which biodegraded to 16 mg/kg within 15 days, at which time HPCD extraction suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that phenanthrene exposed and control earthworms differed throughout the 30 day experiment despite the low phenanthrene concentrations present after 15 days. This metabolic response was better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations (Q{sup 2} = 0.59) than HPCD-extractable phenanthrene concentrations (Q{sup 2} = 0.46) suggesting that {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor the bioavailability of contaminants to earthworms in the environment. - Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms to phenanthrene exposure are better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations than to cyclodextrin-extractable concentrations through time.

  1. Correlations of Eisenia fetida metabolic responses to extractable phenanthrene concentrations through time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2010-01-01

    Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to phenanthrene for thirty days to compare hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction of soil and 1 H NMR earthworm metabolomics as indicators of bioavailability. The phenanthrene 28-d LC 50 value was 750 mg/kg (632-891, 95% confidence intervals) for the peat soil tested. The initial phenanthrene concentration was 319 mg/kg, which biodegraded to 16 mg/kg within 15 days, at which time HPCD extraction suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of 1 H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that phenanthrene exposed and control earthworms differed throughout the 30 day experiment despite the low phenanthrene concentrations present after 15 days. This metabolic response was better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations (Q 2 = 0.59) than HPCD-extractable phenanthrene concentrations (Q 2 = 0.46) suggesting that 1 H NMR metabolomics offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor the bioavailability of contaminants to earthworms in the environment. - Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms to phenanthrene exposure are better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations than to cyclodextrin-extractable concentrations through time.

  2. Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dasong; Zhou Qixing; Xu Yingming; Chen Chun; Li Ye

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC 50 values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. - Highlights: ► Reproductive endpoints were assessed for Eisenia fetida exposed to chlortectracyline (CTC). ► CTC may induce physiological and molecular responses in E. fetida. ► A clear relationship was observed between CTC doses and DNA damage of coelomocytes. - Chlortetracycline in soil could induce physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms at realistic environmental concentrations.

  3. Vermistabilization of Municipal Wastewater Sludge with Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvaresh, H Movahedian, L Hamidian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Sludges are stabilized to reduce pathogens, eliminate offensive odors and inhibit, reduce or eliminate the potential for putrification. In this study, stabilization of municipal wastewater sludge with and without earthworms (Eisenia fetida was tested in a pilot study. The earthworms were fed at the optimum level of 0.75 kg-feed/kg-worm/day. Decomposition and stabilization of wastewater sludge occurred both in the presence and in the absence of earthworms during 9 weeks but the process was accelerated in their presence. Phosphorus content increased in the sludge with earthworms but decreased in it without them. Nitrogen content in the resulting vermicompost showed no difference with its quantity in the original substrate while it increased in the control treatment.

  4. Recycling of organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V K

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the recycling of nutrients by vermicomposting of cow dung (CD), poultry droppings (PD) and food industry sludge (FIS) employing earthworms (Eisenia fetida). A total of six vermicomposting units were established and dynamics of chemical and biological parameters has been studied for 13 weeks. The waste mixture containing 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS had better fertilizer value among studied waste combinations. At the end of experiment, vermicomposts showed decrease in pH and organic C, but increase in EC, total Kjeldhal N, total available P and total K contents. The C:N ratio of final vermicomposts also reduced to 10.7-12.7 from 22.8 to 56 in different waste combinations. The earthworms have good biomass gain and cocoon production in all vermicomposting units but CD alone and 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS were better than other studied combinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil type influence on Ag Nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the importance of soil type on the toxicity to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to earthworms, Eisenia fetida. Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly...... as antibacterial agents and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworm toxicity was strongly dependent on the soil type, with strongest effect in low organic matter soil. Studies on the organic...... matter content, clay and cation exchange capacity along with the metal solution activity will provide insight into the bioavailability of metals in different soils, hence For each of the soil type the fate of the AgNPs was also measured....

  6. Pertumbuhan cacing tanah Eisenia fetida sp. Pada kompos limbah fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of earthworm as a source of income and a means for managing organic solid waste such as fleshing waste has been widely applied. The aim of this research was to find the optimum ratio between fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium of Eisenia fetida sp. This research was conducted by growing the E. fetida sp. earthworm in the medium containing fleshing waste mixed with cow dung. The ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung was varied at 0:100; 10:90; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60; and 50:50. In addition, 2 parts of chopped stubbles per part of every sample was added as a carbon source. The prepared media were fermented for three weeks with EM4 as a starter, followed by incubation of the earthworm for six weeks. The weight and the number of earthworm were evaluated every two weeks. The optimum growth of earthworm was achieved at the 2nd week of incubation with 185.48% and 121.10% increase of weight and number of earthworm, respectively, at 40:60 ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium.

  7. Toxicity of selected organic chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.; Milligan, D.L.; Durkin, P.R.

    A number of methods recently have been developed to biologically evaluate the impact of man's activities on soil ecosystems. Two test methods, the 2-d contact test and the 14-d artificial soil test, were used to evaluate the impact of six major classes of organic chemicals on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny). Of the organic chemicals tested, phenols and amines were the most toxic to the worms, followed in descending order of toxicity by the substituted aromatics, halogenated aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates. No relationship was found between earthworm toxicity as determined by the contact test and rat, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout and mouse, Mus musculus L. LD/sub 50/ values. The physicochemical parameters of water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficient for the chemicals tested in the contact test did not show a significant relationship to the E. fetida LC/sub 50/ values. These studies indicate that: (i) earthworms can be a suitable biomonitoring tool to assist in measuring the impact of organic chemicals in wastes added to soils and (ii) contact and artificial soil tests can be useful in measuring biological impacts.

  8. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  9. DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by imidacloprid exposure in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Guangchi; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the soil ecological effect of imidacloprid, earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed to various concentrations of imidacloprid (0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 mg kg(-1) soil) respectively after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. The effect of imidacloprid on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant enzymes activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST)], malondialdehyde (MDA) content and DNA damage of the E. fetida was investigated. Significant increase of the ROS level was observed. The SOD and GST activity were significantly induced at most exposure intervals. CAT activity was inhibited and reflected a dose-dependent relationship on days 7, 14 and 21. High MDA levels were observed and the olive tail moment (OTM) as well as the percentage of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%) in comet assay declined with increasing concentrations and exposure time after 7 d. Our results suggested that the sub-chronic exposure of imidacloprid caused DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO) leading to antioxidant responses in earthworm E. fetida. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of acute gamma radiation on the reproductive ability of the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowmithra, K.; Shetty, N.J.; Harini, B.P.; Jha, S.K.; Chaubey, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are the parts of nutritional webs, and are present in relatively high numbers. Four months old Eisenia fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, namely 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy to study the effects of radiation on different reproductive parameters. The number of cocoons laid and the hatchlings emerged were recorded for all the selected doses. There was no reduction in cocoon production, however; decreasing size and weight of the cocoons was observed from the samples exposed to 20 Gy and above doses. Significant reductions in the hatchlings were recorded in earthworms exposed to 10 Gy and above doses. The dose response curves for a percentage reduction in hatchlings were constructed. Exposure to radiation dose of 1 and 2 Gy did not show any reduction, however, there was ≈10%, ≈50% and ≈90% decrease in the hatchlings in samples exposed to 3, 15 and 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses respectively. Delayed hatchability was also reported at al exposure level. Histology of irradiated earthworms revealed that the structural damage in the seminal vesicles was prominent at the exposed dose of 3 Gy onwards with complete degeneration on exposure to 60 Gy of gamma radiation. - Highlights: • Eisenia fetida exposed to several doses of gamma-radiation to study the impact on reproduction. • There was no reduction in the cocoon production however. • There was reduction in size, weight and change in shape of the cocoons observed. • Reduction in number of hatchlings and degradation of seminal vesicles was pragmatic

  11. Ecotoxicological assessment of TiO{sub 2} byproducts on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Foucaud, Laurent [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Lapied, Emmanuel [Bioforsk, Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Labille, Jerome; Botta, Celine [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Sirguey, Catherine [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Falla, Jairo [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rose, Jerome [CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology iCEINT, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Joner, Erik J. [Nancy Universite, INPL/INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, BP 172-2, Avenue de la foret de Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Rodius, Francois; Nahmani, Johanne [Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Rue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France)

    2011-10-15

    The increasing production of nanomaterials will in turn increase the release of nanosized byproducts to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour, uptake and ecotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} byproducts in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Worms were exposed to suspensions containing 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L of byproducts for 24 h. Size of TiO{sub 2} byproducts showed aggregation of particles up to 700 {mu}m with laser diffraction. Only worms exposed at 10 mg/L showed bioaccumulation of titanium (ICP-AES), increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA (Real-time PCR) and induction of apoptotic activity (Apostain and TUNEL). TiO{sub 2} byproducts did not induce cytotoxicity on coelomocytes, but a significant decrease of phagocytosis was observed starting from 0.1 mg/L. In conclusion, bioaccumulation of byproducts and their production of reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the alteration of the antioxidant system in worms. - Highlights: > Aggregation of TiO{sub 2} byproducts up to 700 {mu}m in the medium of exposure. > Bioaccumulation of titanium in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Increasing expression of metallothionein and superoxide dismutase mRNA. > Induction of apoptotic activity in worms exposed at 10 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. > Decrease of coelomocytes phagocytosis starting from 0.1 mg/L of TiO{sub 2} byproducts. - A short time exposure to TiO{sub 2} byproducts can induce sublethal effects on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

  12. Annotation of nerve cord transcriptome in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthakumar Ponesakki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In annelid worms, the nerve cord serves as a crucial organ to control the sensory and behavioral physiology. The inadequate genome resource of earthworms has prioritized the comprehensive analysis of their transcriptome dataset to monitor the genes express in the nerve cord and predict their role in the neurotransmission and sensory perception of the species. The present study focuses on identifying the potential transcripts and predicting their functional features by annotating the transcriptome dataset of nerve cord tissues prepared by Gong et al., 2010 from the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Totally 9762 transcripts were successfully annotated against the NCBI nr database using the BLASTX algorithm and among them 7680 transcripts were assigned to a total of 44,354 GO terms. The conserve domain analysis indicated the over representation of P-loop NTPase domain and calcium binding EF-hand domain. The COG functional annotation classified 5860 transcript sequences into 25 functional categories. Further, 4502 contig sequences were found to map with 124 KEGG pathways. The annotated contig dataset exhibited 22 crucial neuropeptides having considerable matches to the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, suggesting their possible role in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. In addition, 108 human stem cell marker homologs were identified including the crucial epigenetic regulators, transcriptional repressors and cell cycle regulators, which may contribute to the neuronal and segmental regeneration. The complete functional annotation of this nerve cord transcriptome can be further utilized to interpret genetic and molecular mechanisms associated with neuronal development, nervous system regeneration and nerve cord function.

  13. DNA adduct quantification in Eisenia fetida after subchronic exposures to creosote contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrois, J.W.A.; McGill, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Within soil ecosystems contaminant toxicity can vary from acute and chronic, depending on the time of exposure. Due to the long times involved chronic toxicity is difficult to determine. DNA adducts fall into the category of biochemical markers that act as an early warning system in environmental monitoring. It has been proposed that they could be used as a sensitive method to determine environmental exposures to compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can occur, although not exclusively, in creosote. In this connection, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a PAH that can be transformed into an electrophilic metabolite, which ultimately results in DNA adduct formation. Use was made of a 32P postlabeling method to quantify the number of DNA adducts occurring in the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to weathered creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils with and without additions of extra BaP. DNA adducts can be measured in earthworms exposed to creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils. E. fetida exposed to weathered creosote contaminated soils had significantly more DNA adducts than those exposed to a pristine control soil. Exposures to creosote contaminated soils with additional BaP (1000 mg/kg) or biotreatment did not yield statistically significant increases in DNA adducts compared to the pristine control. (Abstract only)

  14. Micro-PIXE studies of Cd distribution in the nephridia of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinsloo, M.W. E-mail: 9341188@narga.sun.ac.za; Reinecke, S.A.; Przybylowicz, W.J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Reinecke, A.J

    1999-09-02

    The distribution and accumulation of Cd in the nephridia of earthworms of the species Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta) was studied using the NAC nuclear microprobe. Worms were exposed to CdSO{sub 4} in a cattle manure substrate. Elemental maps were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (dynamic analysis). It was found that at a substrate concentration of 300 mg kg{sup -1} CdSO{sub 4}, Cd did accumulate in the nephridia, showing clear patterns in its distribution within this organ. It accumulated to the greatest extent in the region between the nephridiopore and first loop, and the urinary vasiculus, reaching values of 890 {+-} 40 mg kg{sup -1} and 570 {+-} 20 mg kg{sup -1} in these regions, respectively. This is in contrast to the lower concentrations in the body wall (76 {+-} 15 mg kg{sup -1}) of the worm.

  15. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined ...

  16. Fate and O-methylating detoxification of Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in two earthworms (Metaphire guillelmi and Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian; Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Yongfeng; Gu, Xueyuan; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xiaorong; Ji, Rong

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the world's most widely used brominated flame retardant but there is growing concern about its fate and toxicity in terrestrial organisms. In this study, two ecologically different earthworms, Metaphire guillelmi and Eisenia fetida, were exposed to soil spiked with 14 C-labeled TBBPA for 21 days. M. guillelmi accumulated more TBBPA than E. fetida, evidenced by a 2.7-fold higher 14 C-uptake rate and a 1.3-fold higher biota-soil accumulation factor. Considerable amounts of bound residues (up to 40% for M. guillelmi and 18% for E. fetida) formed rapidly in the bodies of both earthworms. 14 C accumulated mostly in the gut of M. guillemi and in the skin of E. fetida, suggesting that its uptake by M. guillelmi was mainly via gut processes whereas in E. fetida epidermal adsorption predominated. The TBBPA transformation potential was greater in M. guillelmi than in E. fetida, since only 5% vs. 34% of extractable 14 C remained as the parent compound after 21 days of exposure. Besides polar metabolites, the major metabolites in both earthworms were TBBPA mono- and dimethyl ethers (O-methylation products of TBBPA). Acute toxicity assessments using filter paper and natural soil tests showed that the methylation metabolites were much less toxic than the parent TBBPA to both earthworms. It indicated that earthworms used O-methylation to detoxify TBBPA, and M. guillelmi exhibited the higher detoxification ability than E. fetida. These results imply that if only the free parent compound TBBPA is measured, not only bioaccumulation may be underestimated but also its difference between earthworm species may be misestimated. The species-dependent fate of TBBPA may provide a better indicator of the differing sensitivities of earthworms to this environmental contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uptake pathways and toxicity of Cd and Zn in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.-Z.; Zhou, D.-M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Wang, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Jin, S.-Y.; Wang, Q.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of Cd and Zn by the earthworm Eisenia fetida was determined at varying Ca concentrations and with pre-exposure to different metabolic inhibitors in simulated soil solutions over a 48-h period. The presence of Ca in the solution had complex actions on Cd uptake. At a low Cd concentration

  18. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A.; Alaee, Mehran; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: → NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. → Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. → NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - 1 H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  19. Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after sub-lethal exposure to organic contaminants with different toxic modes of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda A. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Alaee, Mehran [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - based metabolomics has the potential to identify toxic responses of contaminants within a mixture in contaminated soil. This study evaluated the metabolic response of Eisenia fetida after exposure to an array of organic compounds to determine whether contaminant-specific responses could be identified. The compounds investigated in contact tests included: two pesticides (carbaryl and chlorpyrifos), three pharmaceuticals (carbamazephine, estrone and caffeine), two persistent organohalogens (Aroclor 1254 and PBDE 209) and two industrial compounds (nonylphenol and dimethyl phthalate). Control and contaminant-exposed metabolic profiles were distinguished using principal component analysis and potential contaminant-specific biomarkers of exposure were found for several contaminants. These results suggest that NMR-based metabolomics offers considerable promise for differentiating between the different toxic modes of action (MOA) associated with sub-lethal toxicity to earthworms. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the toxic mode of action of various environmental contaminants. > Organic chemicals with different toxic modes of action resulted in varied metabolomic responses for E. fetida. > NMR-based metabolomics differentiates between the different modes of action associated with sub-lethal toxicity. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of organic contaminant exposure in Eisenia fetida earthworms.

  20. Management of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Khan, Anisa B

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, potential of Eisenia fetida to recycle the different types of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) used as substrate in different reactors (Azolla pinnata reactor, Trapa natans reactor, Ceratophyllum demersum reactor, free-floating macrophytes mixture reactor, and submerged macrophytes mixture reactor) during 2 months experiment is investigated. E. fetida showed significant variation in number and weight among the reactors and during the different fortnights (P macrophytes mixture reactor (number 105 ± 5.77 %; weight 41.07 ± 3.97 % ). ANOVA showed significant variation in cocoon production (F4 = 15.67, P macrophyte affects the growth and reproduction pattern of E. fetida among the different reactors, further the addition of A. pinnata in other macrophytes reactors can improve their recycling by E. fetida.

  1. Use of Avoidance Tests for Investigating Potential of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida to Improve Composting of Grass Clippings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illmer, P.; Liebensteiner, M.

    2011-01-01

    The earthworm Eisenia fetida is the most commonly used worm for worm-supported composting of organic residues. Within the present study, the potential of E. fetida for decomposing grass clippings, an organic waste which usually causes anoxic conditions and thus insufficient degradation in the course

  2. 1H NMR-based metabolomics of time-dependent responses of Eisenia fetida to sub-lethal phenanthrene exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankadurai, Brian P.; Wolfe, David M.; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2011-01-01

    1 H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the response of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene over time. Earthworms were exposed to 0.025 mg/cm 2 of phenanthrene (1/64th of the LC 50 ) via contact tests over four days. Earthworm tissues were extracted using a mixture of chloroform, methanol and water, resulting in polar and non-polar fractions that were analyzed by 1 H NMR after one, two, three and four days. NMR-based metabolomic analyses revealed heightened E. fetida responses with longer phenanthrene exposure times. Amino acids alanine and glutamate, the sugar maltose, the lipids cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine emerged as potential indicators of phenanthrene exposure. The conversion of succinate to fumarate in the Krebs cycle was also interrupted by phenanthrene. Therefore, this study shows that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for elucidating time-dependent relationships in addition to the mode of toxicity of phenanthrene in earthworm exposure studies. - Highlights: → NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the mode of action of phenanthrene is presented. → The earthworm species E. fetida were exposed to sub-lethal phenanthrene concentrations. → Both polar and non-polar metabolites of E. fetida tissue extracts were analyzed by 1 H NMR. → Longer phenanthrene exposure times resulted in heightened earthworm responses. → An interruption of the Krebs cycle was also observed due to phenanthrene exposure. - 1 H NMR metabolomics is used to determine the relationship between phenanthrene exposure and the metabolic response of the earthworm E. fetida over time and also to elucidate the phenanthrene mode of toxicity.

  3. Vermikompos Sampah Kebun dengan Menggunakan Cacing Tanah Eudrilus eugeneae dan Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etik Rahmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Durasi yang panjang diperlukan dalam pengomposan konvensional sampah organik yang memerlukan waktu selama 2-3 bulan. Pengurangan waktu pengomposan dapat dilakukan dengan digunakannya cacing sebagai dekomposer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat degradasi sampah kebun menggunakan proses vermikomposting dan menentukan pengaruh jenis cacing Eudrilus eugeneae dan Eisenia fetida. Empat reaktor berukuran 8 L digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Percobaan dilakukan secara duplo selama 60 hari. Parameter yang dianalisis pada penelitian ini adalah ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, nitrat nitrogen (NO3-N, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN, dan C/N. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat degradasi sampah kebun dengan pengolahan vermikomposting yang dapat dicapai adalah 64,94-72,52%. Produksi kompos yang lebih tinggi dengan penggunaan Eisenia fetida.

  4. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China.

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    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model: [Formula in text], where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg(-1 (p<0.05 when 29-90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1-15.0 kg m(-2 of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation.

  5. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of heavy metals of several soils and sediments (from industrialized urban areas) for Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, C; Foret, C; Bazin, C; Leduc, L; Hammada, M; Inácio, M; Bedell, J P

    2018-09-01

    Soils and sediments are susceptible to anthropogenic contamination with Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs) and it can present some risks to ecosystems and human health. The levels of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were assessed in soils (C, G, K, L) from Estarreja (Portugal) and sediments from a stormwater basin in Lyon (DJG), a harbour (LDB) and a Rhône river site (TRS) (France). An ecotoxicological study was performed with Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) to infer about potential transfer risks to the soil invertebrates. To assess risks associated with MTEs contamination, it is important to know their total concentrations, fractionation and the potential available fractions. CaCl 2 , DTPA and NaOAc extractions were performed to assess the extractable and available MTEs fractions. The studied sediments were much more contaminated than the soils for all the MTEs analysed. The trace elements fraction linked with DTPA extraction shows higher values when compared with the NaOAc and the CaCl 2 pools. Low mortality effects were recorded in the tests with E. fetida. The MTEs levels in soils and sediments and the concentrations bioaccumulated in adult earthworms contributed to a reduction in the number of juveniles produced. E. fetida adults and juveniles accumulated ETMs as follows: Cd > Cu = Zn > Ni > Pb > Fe. Determined BAFs were mostly lower than 1 with some higher values for Cd, Cu and Zn. Calculated SET and ERITME indexes allowed to classify the samples from the most to the less toxic for E. fetida as: LDB > DJG > L > G > C > K > TRS. Despite this order of toxicity, the earthworms exposed to the sediment TRS presented the lowest reproduction rate. The combination of "chemical" measurements with the calculation of BAFs, but especially SET and ERITME indexes can be a useful tool in risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of silver nanoparticles to soil invertebrates: Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Susana I.L.; Hansen, Ditte; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most produced NPs worldwide having several applications in consumer products. Ag-NPs are known to cause oxidative stress in several organisms and cell lines, however comparatively less information is available regarding their effects on soil living invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Ag-NPs cause oxidative stress on soil invertebrates. The model soil species Eisenia fetida was used. Our results showed that total glutathione (TG) is the first mechanism triggered by Ag-NPs, followed by glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), however oxidative damage was observed for higher doses and exposure time (increased lipid peroxidation, LPO). AgNO 3 exposure caused impairment in GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), probably as result of the higher bioavailability of Ag in the salt-form. The current results indicate that effects are partly caused by Ag ions released from Ag-NPs, but specific particle effects cannot be excluded. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress of Ag-NPs and AgNO 3 was assessed in Eisenia fetida. • Both Ag forms induced oxidative damage (LPO) via different mechanisms. • Ag-NPs activated total glutathione, followed by GPx and GR. • AgNO 3 impaired GPx and GST. • Overall results indicated effects from Ag ionization and NPs specific effects. - Oxidative stress to Ag in Eisenia fetida occurs via different mechanisms for Ag nanoparticles and AgNO 3

  8. Effects of Rhamnolipid and Microbial Inoculants on the Vermicomposting of Green Waste with Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqiang; Wei, Le; Yu, Xin; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Wang, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of adding the biosurfactant rhamnolipid, the lignolytic and cellulolytic fungus Phanerochete chrysosporium, and the free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chrococcum on vermicomposting of green waste with Eisenia fetida was investigated. The addition of rhamnolipid and/or either microorganism alone or in all combinations significantly increased E. fetida growth rate, the number of E. fetida juveniles and cocoons, the population densities of cellulolytic fungi and Azotobacter bacteria, and cellulase and urease activities in the vermicomposts. The quality of the final vermicompost (in terms of electrical conductivity, nutrient content, C/N ratio, humic acid content, lignin and cellulose contents, and phytotoxicity to germinating seeds) was enhanced by addition of rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms. The physical characteristics of vermicomposts produced with rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms were acceptable for agricultural application. The best quality vermicompost was obtained with the combined addition of P. chrysosporium, A. chrococcum, and rhamnolipid.

  9. EFFICIENCY OF COMPOSTING PARTHENIUM PLANT AND NEEM LEAVES IN THE PRESENCE AND ABSENCE OF AN OLIGOCHAETE, EISENIA FETIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivakumar ، H. Kasthuri ، P. Senthilkumar ، C. V. Subbhuraam ، Y. C. Song

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium plants and neem leaves were composted using the epigeic earthworm, Eisenia fetida (worm-worked compost to study the growth and reproductive indices of earthworm involved in the process of composting. Similarly, parthenium plants and neem leaves were composted without worms (worm-unworked compost. Efficacy of the resulting composts in supporting the growth of plant was tested with the germination and growth of Vigna radiate seedlings. The results showed that higher parthenium amendment significantly reduced the growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida compared with control. The two-way ANOVA results showed a significant difference in the growth rate of worms when exposed to different amended concentrations of parthenium plants and neem leaves at different durations as fixed factors. The following compost parameters were not significantly different when compared with control: pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron for parthenium worm-worked compost; nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, organic carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio for neem worm-worked compost; nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon for parthenium worm-unworked compost and pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and carbon/nitrogen ratio for neem worm-unworked compost. Between parthenium plant composts and neem leaves composts, significant differences were not observed in any of the plant biometric parameters. The results obtained from the present study indicated that the parthenium composting at low amendments with cow dung may help its eradication for better utilization.

  10. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetidaIts Histological Perspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobi, M.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor) on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production) and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg/ kg -1 , 0.5150 mg/ kg -1 , and 2.5750 mg/ kg -1 of butachlor based on the LC 50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated

  11. Accumulation of {sup 14}C-trinitrotoluene and related nonextractable (bound) residues in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, Jason B., E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Lotufo, Guillerme R. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fisher, Jonathan C. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Dave R.; Boyd, Robert E.; Sims, Jerre G. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in earthworms and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to TNT and its deaminated metabolites, Eisenia fetida was exposed to {sup 14}C-TNT using dermal contact to filter paper or exposure to soil. Nonextractable residues made up 32-68% of total body burden depending on exposure media and depuration time. Parent TNT accounted for less than 3% of radioactivity, while ADNTs accounted for 7-38%. Elimination half-lives were 61-120 h for TNT, ADNTs, and DANTs, which was significantly lower than the half-lives found for nonextractable residues, 201-240 h. However, over 80% of the nonextractable residue was solubilized using weak acid (pH 2). Based on our findings that TNT accumulation occurs primarily as nonextractable residues, which have a longer half-life, and that nonextractable residues can be solubilized, we propose that nonextractable residues could be used as a selective biomarker for assessing TNT contamination. - Highlights: > Trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms primarily occurs as nonextractable residues. > Nonextractable residues have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites. > Nonextractable residue may be useful as a biomarker for exposure to TNT. - The majority of trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms occurs as nonextractable residues that have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites.

  12. Relationship between hemolytic molecules in Eisenia fetida earthworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohlerová, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Felsberg, Jürgen; Josková, Radka; Beschin, A.; De Baetselier, P.; Bilej, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2006), s. 381-392 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/04/0806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fetidin * lysenin * eisenia Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2006

  13. Efectos subletales de la lambda-cialotrina sobre Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae Sublethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El uso intensivo de agroquímicos provoca efectos dañinos sobre la fauna no blanco. Dentro de la misma, los oligoquetos contribuyen a mantener la estructura y fertilidad del suelo. La lambda-cialotrina es uno de los insecticidas piretroides más utilizados en la Argentina, pero son escasos los datos existentes acerca de su toxicidad sobre oligoquetos. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar mediante bioensayos de toxicidad crónica los efectos de lambda-cialotrina (producto comercial al 5% en Eisenia fetida sobre los parámetros de comportamiento, sobrevivencia, biomasa, reproducción y bioacumulación, así como la persistencia en suelo OECD de dicho tóxico. Los resultados muestran un comportamiento de huída intenso a partir de la concentración más baja, con un EC50 de 1,36 mg kg-1 (95% C.L. 0,24 - 2,80. No se observaron efectos en sobrevivencia y alimentación. La reproducción fue afectada significativamente (F= 11,94, PThe intensive use of agrochemicals has deleterious effects on non-target organisms. Among these organisms, earthworms are important because of their role in keeping the soil structure and fertility. Lambda-cyhalothrin is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticide in Argentina, but there are not enough studies of the effects of this pesticide on earthworms. The goals of this work were to perform chronic toxicity bioassays to determine the effects of commercial lambda-cyhalothrin (at 5% on Eisenia fetida. The parameters of behaviour, survival, biomass, reproduction, bioaccumulation and the degradation time of lambda-cyhalotrin in an OECD standard soil were also estimated. Results showed a hard avoidance behaviour in the lowest lambda-cyhalothrin concentration with an EC50 of 1.36 mg kg-1 (95% C.L 0.24-2.80. Eisenia fetida chronic test survival and feeding were not affected by lambda-cyhalothrin but negative effects on reproduction were significant (P<0.05. Cocoon production and fertility were reduced and

  14. Uptake of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by the earthworm Eisenia fetida through dermal contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Ping [SpecPro, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)], E-mail: ping.gong@erdc.usace.army.mil; Escalon, B. Lynn; Hayes, Charolett A. [SpecPro, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2008-02-01

    The explosive compound hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) has been shown to cause both lethal and sublethal (reproductive and neurotoxic) effects in exposed oligochaetes. However, whether worms take up CL-20 and how much CL-20 enters worm bodies leading to toxicity (e.g., lethality) remain to be determined. In the present study, we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and radiolabeled tracer methods to investigate the CL-20 uptake in the whole worm body after contact exposures. Worms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to filter paper spiked with non-radioactive or [U-{sup 14}C]-labeled CL-20 for 1-3 d. The radiolabeled tracer method allowed us to detect the parent compound and transformation products in worms exposed to as low as 0.04 {mu}g CL-20 cm{sup -2} of filter paper. The HPLC method without radiolabeled tracer was far less sensitive with a detection limit of 2.17 {mu}g CL-20 cm{sup -2}. Using the radiolabeled tracer, we were able to demonstrate that the worm body concentration linearly correlated to the filter paper concentration {<=} 0.34 {mu}g cm{sup -2} (r = 0.94) if no breakdown products are assumed. At higher concentrations, the body concentration increased slowly and saturated at around 11 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry mass resulting in an estimated lethal critical body burden of 10-15 {mu}g CL-20 g{sup -1} dry mass. These findings demonstrate that CL-20 or potential transformation products are taken into the earthworm body through dermal contact. This information should prove valuable in assessing the bioaccumulation potential and ecological risks of CL-20.

  15. Uptake of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by the earthworm Eisenia fetida through dermal contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ping; Escalon, B. Lynn; Hayes, Charolett A.; Perkins, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    The explosive compound hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) has been shown to cause both lethal and sublethal (reproductive and neurotoxic) effects in exposed oligochaetes. However, whether worms take up CL-20 and how much CL-20 enters worm bodies leading to toxicity (e.g., lethality) remain to be determined. In the present study, we used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and radiolabeled tracer methods to investigate the CL-20 uptake in the whole worm body after contact exposures. Worms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to filter paper spiked with non-radioactive or [U- 14 C]-labeled CL-20 for 1-3 d. The radiolabeled tracer method allowed us to detect the parent compound and transformation products in worms exposed to as low as 0.04 μg CL-20 cm -2 of filter paper. The HPLC method without radiolabeled tracer was far less sensitive with a detection limit of 2.17 μg CL-20 cm -2 . Using the radiolabeled tracer, we were able to demonstrate that the worm body concentration linearly correlated to the filter paper concentration ≤ 0.34 μg cm -2 (r = 0.94) if no breakdown products are assumed. At higher concentrations, the body concentration increased slowly and saturated at around 11 μg g -1 dry mass resulting in an estimated lethal critical body burden of 10-15 μg CL-20 g -1 dry mass. These findings demonstrate that CL-20 or potential transformation products are taken into the earthworm body through dermal contact. This information should prove valuable in assessing the bioaccumulation potential and ecological risks of CL-20

  16. Die metaboliseerbare energiewaarde van erdwurmmeel (Eisenia fetida, Oligochaeta as potensiële proteïenbron vir dierevoeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Alberts

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Die komposwurm, Eisenia fetida, kan op groot skaal op organiese afval geteel word. Dit is dus potensieel moontlik om dierlike afvalproteiene te herwin indien E. fetida as proteienbron in gebalanseerde veerantsoene aangewend kan word. Daarom is dieproteienwaarde van die erdwurmspesie ondersoek deur die metaboliseerbare energiewaarde te bepaal. WME-waardes was relatief hoog vir erdwurmmeel, nl. 15,51 en 15,3 MJ kg-1. Dit stem goed ooreen met die van vismeel en karkasmeel.

  17. Antioxidant gene expression and metabolic responses of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to various concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajuan; Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Juan; Liang, Ruoyu; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Yajing; Wang, Yurong

    2018-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a ubiquitous suspected contaminant, is one of the world's most prominent brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In the present study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to HBCD. The expression of selected antioxidant enzyme genes was measured, and the metabolic responses were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to identify the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant stress reaction and the metabolic reactions of earthworms to HBCD. A significant up-regulation (p  0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the metabolic responses showed that all groups could be clearly differentiated, and the highest concentration dose group was the most distant from the control group. Except for fumarate, the measured metabolites, which included adenosine triphosphate (ATP), valine, lysine, glycine, betaine and lactate, revealed significant (p earthworm exposure studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

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    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  19. The influence of age on the composting rate of organic material by Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of a vermicomposting plant is to achieve a maximum composting rate of organic waste. Apart from population densities, substrate characteristics and environmental factors, age structure of the population is expected to affect the rate of composting. The composting rate of worms was studied in the laboratory under optimal conditions over a period of 55 days. Growth and sexual maturity were monitored as well as the composting rate during various stages of the life-cycle of Eisenia fetida. The composting rate was initially slow and reached a maximum peak when the worms were pre-clitellate.

  20. Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil.

  1. Toxic responses of cytochrome P450 sub-enzyme activities to heavy metals exposure in soil and correlation with their bioaccumulation in Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiufeng; Bi, Ran; Song, Yufang

    2017-10-01

    The dose- and time- dependent responses of cytochrome P450 (CYP) sub-enzyme activities to heavy metals in soil, and the relationships between biomarker responses and metal bioaccumulation in Eisenia fetida were evaluated. Earthworms were exposed to soils spiked with increasing doses of Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn for 21 d. Results demonstrated that EROD and CYP3A4 activities responded significantly with increasing dose and exposure duration. EROD activity significantly (P metal burdens had significant correlation with the total metal concentrations in soil (P metal concentration in soil. The order of metal bioavailability to E. fetida was Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb. CYP3A4 activity in Pb-exposed earthworms had a significant correlation with the accumulated metal (P heavy metals exposure, and we also concluded that different biomarkers with multiple durations could be conducted in the eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and Pb on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) in a soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Liang, Jun; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-01-01

    BDE209 and Pb are ubiquitous contaminants at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs). This study aimed to determine acute and sub-acute toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida induced by BDE209 and Pb in natural soil. Results demonstrated that the inhibition of Pb on growth and reproduction of earthworms followed a dose-dependent pattern. Earthworms exposed to 100 mg kg −1 of BDE209 displayed avoidance responses, while the soil indicated a more obvious decline of habitat function with the increase of Pb level. Comet assay suggested that increasing concentrations of Pb exposure resulted in a gradual increase in the tail length and olive tail moment, which meant that the degree of DNA damage was promoted. BDE209 addition could reduce the damage; therefore the joint effects of both chemicals showed antagonistic. These results revealed that joint exposure (BDE209-Pb) could elicit pronounced biochemical and physiological responses in earthworms, and the DNA damage might be potential molecular biomarker of the two pollutants. - Highlights: • 48 h and 14 d LC 50 values of BDE209 were lower than that of Pb, suggesting Pb was more toxic to earthworms. • Inhibition of Pb on the growth and reproduction of earthworms followed certain dose–response relationships. • Joint effects of BDE209 and Pb on earthworms might be antagonistic in comet assay. - This study demonstrated the biological effects of BDE209-Pb joint exposure on earthworm Eisenia fetida in a soil system for the first time.

  3. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  4. Both released silver ions and particulate Ag contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs to earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; , van, Gestel C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    To disentangle the contribution of ionic and nanoparticulate Ag to the overall toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a semi-permeable membrane strategy was used to separate Ag+ released from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous exposure. Internal Ag fractionation, activities of antioxidant

  5. Interactions between sewage sludge-amended soil and earthworms--comparison between Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei composting species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Agnieszka; Suleiman, Hanine; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Płytycz, Barbara; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2016-02-01

    Vermicomposting is an eco-friendly technology, where earthworms are introduced in the waste, inter alia sewage sludge, to cooperate with microorganisms and enhance decomposition of organic matter. The main aims of the present study was to determine the influence of two different earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei, on the changes of selected metallic trace elements content in substratum during vermicomposting process using three different sewage sludge mainly differentiated by their metal contents. Final vermicompost has shown a slight reduction in Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, while the Zn concentration tends to increase. Accumulation of particular heavy metals in earthworms' bodies was assessed. Both species revealed high tendency to accumulate Cd and Zn, but not Cu, Ni, and Pb, but E. andrei has higher capabilities to accumulate some metals. Riboflavin content, which content varies depending on metal pollution in several earthworms species, was measured supravitaly in extruded coelomocytes. Riboflavin content decreased slightly during the first 6 weeks of exposure and subsequently restored till the end of the 9-week experiment. Selected agronomic parameters have also been measured in the final product (vermicompost) to assess the influence of earthworms on substratum.

  6. Influence of temperature on the toxicity of zinc to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, D.J.; Tomlin, M.A.; Hopkin, S.P. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    A range of toxicity tests have been proposed to assess the potential hazards of pollutants to earthworms. Of these, the two acute toxicity tests using Eisenia fetida recommended by the OECD and EEC have become routinely used in the risk assessment and regulation of new and existing chemicals. In addition to the acute tests, procedures have also been proposed for measuring the sub-lethal effects of chemicals on parameter such as reproduction and weight change. In both the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity tests developed with worms, attempts have been made to standardise test conditions to allow results from different laboratories to be directly compared. However, variability in exposure conditions and responses are fundamental to determine the effects of pollutants under natural conditions. In the field, conditions such as light, moisture availability, pH, temperature and humidity all fluctuate over time. Such variations affect both the sensitivity and exposure of individuals to toxic chemicals. Hence when evaluating the potential effects of pollutants, it may be important to known how changes in test conditions influence toxicity. This study assessed the effects of different temperatures on the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of zinc for the earthworm Eisenia fetida. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Effects of different gamma exposure regimes on reproduction in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel-Aas, Turid, E-mail: turid.hertel-aas@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Brunborg, Gunnar, E-mail: Gunnar.Brunborg@fhi.no [Department of Chemical Toxicology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo (Norway); Jaworska, Alicja, E-mail: Alicja.Jaworska@nrpa.no [Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, 1332, Osteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit, E-mail: brit.salbu@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, Deborah Helen, E-mail: deborah.oughton@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    Ecological risk assessment of ionising radiation requires knowledge about the responses of individuals and populations to chronic exposures, including situations when exposure levels change over time. The present study investigated processes such as recovery and the adaptive response with respect to reproduction endpoints in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Furthermore, a crossed experiment was performed to investigate the influence of F0 parental and F1 embryonic irradiation history on the response of irradiated or non-irradiated F1 offspring. Recovery: The sterility induced by sub-chronic exposure at 17 mGy/h (accumulated dose: 25 Gy) was temporary, and 8 weeks after irradiation the worms had regained their reproductive capacity (number of viable offspring produced per adult per week). Adaptive response: Adult worms were continuously exposed at a low priming dose rate of 0.14 mGy/h for 12 weeks (accumulated dose: 0.24 Gy), followed by 14 weeks exposure at a challenge dose rate of 11 mGy/h. The results suggest a lack of adaptive response, since there were no significant differences in the effects on reproduction capacity between the primed and the unprimed groups after challenge doses ranging from 7.6 to 27 Gy. Crossed experiment: The effects of exposure at 11 mGy/h for 21 weeks on growth, sexual maturation and reproduction of offspring, derived either from parent worms and cocoons both exposed at 11 mGy/h, or from non-irradiated parents and cocoons (total accumulated dose 44 and 38 Gy, respectively) were compared. There were no significant differences between the two exposed offspring groups for any of the endpoints. The reproduction capacity was very low for both groups compared to the controls, but the reproduction seemed to be maintained at the reduced level, which could indicate acclimatisation or stabilisation. Finally, parental and embryonic exposures at 11 mGy/h did not affect reproduction in the F1 offspring as adults.

  8. Toxicity of RDX, HMX, TNB, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT to the Earthworm, Eisenia Fetida, in a Sandy Loam Soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simini, Michael; Checkai, Ronald T; Kuperman, Roman G; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Kurnas, Carl W; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2006-01-01

    ...) for ecological risk assessment of soil contaminants at Superfund sites. Insufficient information existed to generate Eco-SSLs for explosives and related materials in soil. The earthworm (Eisenia fetida...

  9. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management.

  10. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-05-01

    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single

  11. Pathogen reduction in septic tank sludge through vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Canché, L G; Cardoso Vigueros, L; Maldonado-Montiel, T; Martínez-Sanmiguel, M

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the potential of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to remove pathogens from the sludge from septic tanks. Three earthworm population densities, equivalent to 1, 2, and 2.5kgm(-2), were tested for pathogen removal from sludge. The experimental phase lasted 60days, starting from the initial earthworm inoculation. After 60days, it was found that earthworms reduced concentrations of fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and helminth ova to permissible levels (<1000MPN/g, <3MPN/g, and <1viable ova/g on a dry weight basis, respectively) in accordance with Official Mexican Standard of environmental protection (NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002) (SEMARNAT, 2002). Thus, sludge treatment with earthworms generated Class A biosolids, useful for forest, agricultural, and soil improvement. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene expression program of regeneration in Eisenia fetida: a transcriptomics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksheev Bhambri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Annelids form a connecting link between segmented and non-segmented organisms.  In other words, phylogenetically, the segmented body pattern starts from Annelida, a phylum that consists of thousands of species, including marine worms, freshwater leeches and earthworms that inhabit deep layers of soil to environmental niches in forests and cultivated land. We are using Eisenia fetida (Indian isolate a top dwelling, vermicomposting worm due to its ability to regenerate its posterior after damage, injury or complete removal. On average, Eisenia fetida has 100-110 segments. We separated the anterior (upto 55-60th segment and posterior of the worm, and allowed it to regenerate.  In this model, only the posterior could be regenerated after injury.  We isolated RNA from the regenerated tissue and the immediate adjacent old tissue at 15 days, 20 days and 30 days during regeneration. We carried out transcriptome sequencing and analysis. With the aim of identifying specific factors which promote nerve regeneration, we have annotated the differentially expressed genes. In all organisms which possess a segmented body, the expression pattern of the Hox cluster is conserved. Hox gene expression, a conserved developmental phenomenon in establishment of body plan has been studied by comparative genomics of other annelids like the marine worm Capitella telleta, the leech Helobdella robusta.  We have used a combination of high-throughput sequencing based techniques and validation through cell and molecular biology to identify key aspects of the gene expression program of regeneration in this worm. Besides the transcriptome, we have also done whole genome sequencing, miRnome and metagenome sequencing of this terrestrial annelid.

  13. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolomics of time-dependent responses of Eisenia fetida to sub-lethal phenanthrene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankadurai, Brian P.; Wolfe, David M.; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 Canada (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 Canada (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the response of the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene over time. Earthworms were exposed to 0.025 mg/cm{sup 2} of phenanthrene (1/64th of the LC{sub 50}) via contact tests over four days. Earthworm tissues were extracted using a mixture of chloroform, methanol and water, resulting in polar and non-polar fractions that were analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR after one, two, three and four days. NMR-based metabolomic analyses revealed heightened E. fetida responses with longer phenanthrene exposure times. Amino acids alanine and glutamate, the sugar maltose, the lipids cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine emerged as potential indicators of phenanthrene exposure. The conversion of succinate to fumarate in the Krebs cycle was also interrupted by phenanthrene. Therefore, this study shows that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for elucidating time-dependent relationships in addition to the mode of toxicity of phenanthrene in earthworm exposure studies. - Highlights: > NMR-based earthworm metabolomic analysis of the mode of action of phenanthrene is presented. > The earthworm species E. fetida were exposed to sub-lethal phenanthrene concentrations. > Both polar and non-polar metabolites of E. fetida tissue extracts were analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR. > Longer phenanthrene exposure times resulted in heightened earthworm responses. > An interruption of the Krebs cycle was also observed due to phenanthrene exposure. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics is used to determine the relationship between phenanthrene exposure and the metabolic response of the earthworm E. fetida over time and also to elucidate the phenanthrene mode of toxicity.

  14. BIOCONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN VERMICOMPOSTING EARTHWORMS (Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus and Lampito mauritii IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Panday

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important part during the waste management process in larger cities such as Kathmandu where 70% of the waste generated is organic. In this study, the possibility of heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr bioaccumulation by three different species of earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lampito mauritii and Perionyx excavatus in domestic waste vermicompost was investigated. Quantification of heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS in final vermicompost showed a significant reduction in concentration of metals, Pb (11.4-26.0%, Cd (48-61%, Cu (4.9- 29.01% and Cr (18.90-33.60% at the end. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal in the composting earthworms was also recorded. Comparison of the three groups of earthworms showed that the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu and Cr was greater for P. excavatus whereas E. fetida was the most reluctant. Heavy metal content in the vermicompost was within the limit of USEPA for Biosolids and the compost could be used for the agriculture purpose.

  15. Toxicity effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate to Eisenia fetida at enzyme, cellular and genetic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is a dominant phthalic acid ester (PAE that has aroused public concern due to its resistance to degradation and its toxicity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Effects of different concentrations of DEHP on Eisenia fetida in spiked natural soil have been studied in the body of the earthworm by means of soil cultivation tests 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after exposure. The results indicated that, in general, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA content, metallothionein (MT content, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70 and all the tested geno-toxicity parameters are promoted as time elapses and with increasing concentration of DEHP. However, peroxidase (POD activity, neutral red retention time (NRRT and mitochondrial membrane potential difference values were found to decrease even at a low concentration of DEHP of 1 mg kg-1 soil (p<0.05. Clear toxic effects of DEHP on E. fetida have been generally recognized by means of the disturbance of antioxidant enzyme activity/content and critical proteins, cell membrane and organelle disorder and DNA damage estimated by length of tail, tail DNA ratio, and tail moment parameters. A concentration of DEHP of 3 mg kg-1 may be recommended as a precaution against the potential risk of PAEs in soils and for indicating suitable threshold values for other soil animals and soil micro-organisms.

  16. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Harikesh B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC

  17. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akanksha, E-mail: bhuaks29@gmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Jain, Akansha, E-mail: akansha007@rediffmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Sarma, Birinchi K., E-mail: birinchi_ks@yahoo.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pca.iesd@bhu.ac.in [Institute for Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, Harikesh B., E-mail: hbs1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  18. Cloning, analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirooznia, Mehdi; Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Inouye, Laura S; Yang, Kuan; Perkins, Edward J; Deng, Youping

    2007-01-01

    Background Eisenia fetida, commonly known as red wiggler or compost worm, belongs to the Lumbricidae family of the Annelida phylum. Little is known about its genome sequence although it has been extensively used as a test organism in terrestrial ecotoxicology. In order to understand its gene expression response to environmental contaminants, we cloned 4032 cDNAs or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two E. fetida libraries enriched with genes responsive to ten ordnance related compounds using suppressive subtractive hybridization-PCR. Results A total of 3144 good quality ESTs (GenBank dbEST accession number EH669363–EH672369 and EL515444–EL515580) were obtained from the raw clone sequences after cleaning. Clustering analysis yielded 2231 unique sequences including 448 contigs (from 1361 ESTs) and 1783 singletons. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 743 or 33% of the unique sequences shared high similarity with existing genes in the GenBank nr database. Provisional function annotation assigned 830 Gene Ontology terms to 517 unique sequences based on their homology with the annotated genomes of four model organisms Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Seven percent of the unique sequences were further mapped to 99 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways based on their matching Enzyme Commission numbers. All the information is stored and retrievable at a highly performed, web-based and user-friendly relational database called EST model database or ESTMD version 2. Conclusion The ESTMD containing the sequence and annotation information of 4032 E. fetida ESTs is publicly accessible at . PMID:18047730

  19. Transmission of nephridial bacteria of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Seana K; Stahl, David A

    2006-01-01

    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common bacterial ancestor. Previous microscopy and culture studies revealed the presence of bacteria within the egg capsules and on the surface of embryos but did not demonstrate that the bacteria within the egg capsule were the same bacteria that colonized the nephridia. We present evidence, based on curing experiments, in situ hybridizations with Acidovorax-specific probes, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, that the egg capsules contain high numbers of the bacterial symbiont and that juveniles are colonized during development within the egg capsule. Studies exposing aposymbiotic hatchlings to colonized adults and their bedding material suggested that juvenile earthworms do not readily acquire bacteria from the soil after hatching but must be colonized during development by bacteria deposited in the egg capsule. Whether this is due to the developmental stage of the host or the physiological state of the symbiont remains to be investigated.

  20. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conder, J.M.; Lanno, R.P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with toxicity. Objective. The objectives of this research were to: i) develop LD{sub 50}s (total earthworm metal concentration associated with 50% mortality) for Cd, Pb, and Zn; ii) evaluate the LD{sub 50} for Zn in a lethal Zn-smelter soil; iii) evaluate the lethal mixture toxicity of Cd, Pb, and Zn using earthworm metal concentrations and the toxic unit (TU) approach; and iv) evaluate total and fractionated earthworm concentrations as indicators of sublethal exposure. Methods. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny)) were exposed to artificial soils spiked with Cd, Pb, Zn, and a Cd-Pb-Zn equitoxic mixture to estimate lethal CBRs and mixture toxicity. To evaluate the CBR developed for Zn, earthworms were also exposed to Zn-contaminated field soils receiving three different remediation treatments. Earthworm metal concentrations were measured using a procedure devised to isolate toxicologically active metal burdens via separation into cytosolic and pellet fractions. (orig.)

  2. Biodegradation of Garden Waste, Market Waste Using Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugenia and Assessment of Manure Quality on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S. Mariraj

    2014-06-01

    Comparative study was performed to evaluate the vermicomposting efficiency of two earthworm species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugenia from the garden wastes, vegetable market wastes. Three different experimental works were conducted. For each experiment three plastic vermibins were used. Experiment (1) mentioned for control without earthworms. Experiment (2) bedded with Eudrilus eugenia, Experiment (3) comprised of bedding with Eisenia fetida. Pre composting was allowed for 10 days after that Eudrilus eugenia, Eisenia fetida were added in respective vermibins. The multiplication of earthworms in terms of number was calculated at the end of vermicomposting. The N, P, K value of the manure in each vermibin was estimated before and after the completion of the experiment. High N, P, K value was obtained in Experiment (2) and Experiment (3) compared to control. Among the solid wastes, the vegetable wastes were degraded quickly by Eudrilus eugenia and also it has the best quality of manure. Eudrilus eugenia was found to be efficient for quick degradation of both garden wastes and vegetable wastes. After manure production, field trials were conducted using different fertilizers to assess the manure quality in the growth and yield of tomato plants. Six types of experimental trial pots were prepared where one was kept as control and five others were treated with different category of fertilizers. The treatment pots (P3) showed better growth parameters (leaf numbers, stem diameter, plant height) than the rest of the trial.

  3. Avoidance test with Eisenia fetida as indicator for the habitat function of soils. Results of a laboratory comparison test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Schmallenberg (Germany); Achazi, R.; Warnecke, D. [Free Univ. of Berlin, Inst. for Biology, Berlin (Germany); Roembke, J. [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Intention, Goal, Scope, Background. The habitat function of soils is often assessed using the reproduction test with Eisenia fetida. As this test is rather labour-intensive, an alternative is needed which is less cost-intensive in terms of duration and workload, but gives reasonable results. The avoidance test with E. fetida is a suitable screening test meeting these criteria. However, before a novel test system can be generally recommended it has to be ensured that comparable results are acquired from different laboratories on the basis of the respective test guideline. Objective. The avoidance test with E. fetida was performed as laboratory comparison test. The results were compared with those of the earthworm acute and reproduction tests carried out with the same soils. Methods. The three tests were performed by three laboratories using eight contaminated soils and three control soils. The contaminated soils were mixed with the control soils to obtain different concentrations of the contamination. (orig.)

  4. Effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the avoidance response, survival, growth and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianchuan; Qian, Yan; Wu, Yingxin; Yin, Jun; Zhai, Jianping

    2013-04-01

    The effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on avoidance response, survival, growth, and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated under laboratory conditions using natural and artificial soils as substrate. Results showed that no significant avoidance response was observed when earthworms were exposed to 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 for 48 h. After 28-days exposure, no significant effects on survival and growth of adult earthworms was induced by 0.1-1000 mg/kg of BDE-209 indicating the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) of BDE-209 on their survival and body weight was more than 1000 mg/kg. Except for a significant decrease in the number of juveniles per hatched cocoon in artificial soils at 1000 mg/kg of BDE-209, no significant effects on reproductive parameters (e.g. cocoon production per earthworms, weight per cocoon and cocoon hatchability) were observed. These results suggest that adult earthworms have a strong tolerance for BDE-209 exposure in soils, but a potential toxicity does exist for earthworm embryos or juveniles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochemical responses and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) induced by ionic liquid [omim]PF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shumin; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Shao, Yuting; Zhu, Lusheng

    2016-04-01

    Ionic liquids that are not that "green" to many organisms have recently been identified. This study examined the subchronic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([omim]PF6) to earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Earthworms were exposed for a 28-day period (sampled on days 7, 14, 21, and 28) at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD)), detoxifying enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST)), lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage were measured. ROS significantly accumulated in all the treatment groups; the maximum ROS content was 51.9% higher than the control at 40 mg/kg [omim]PF6 on day 28. Increased SOD activities attenuated over the time of exposure, while the CAT activities of the treatment groups were similar to the controls, except on day 14. Furthermore, the activities of POD and GST were stimulated. Lipid peroxidation in earthworms was not apparent at 5 and 10 mg/kg [omim]PF6 but was quite obvious at 40 mg/kg [omim]PF6. In addition, DNA damage was dose- and time-dependent. In conclusion, [omim]PF6 caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in earthworms.

  6. Bioaccumulation of Zn and Ag Nanoparticles in the Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Lee Seung; Sung-Dae, Kim; Yi, Yang Song; Byeong-Gweon, Lee

    2014-05-01

    Many studies are carried out to evaluate environmental effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Most of the previous studies primarily focused on the effects of nanoparticles into the aquatic environment and human. Model studies predict that ENPs released into environment would transferred primarily to the soil of the terrestrial environment. Despite this prediction, biogeochemical behavior of ENPs in soil environment as well as bioavailability of ENPs to soil-dwelling organisms such as earthworm, springtail, isopod and nematodes are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to compare the bioaccumulation factor (BAFs) and subcellular partitioning of nanoparticles in the soil-dwelling earthworm (Eisenia fetida) from ENP (ZnO and Ag nanoparticles) or ionic metal (Zn2+, Ag+) contaminated soil. And the sequential extraction was also used to determine the mobility of metals in soil which could be used as to predict bioavailability and compare that with bioaccumulation factor. The radiotracer method was employed to trace the transfer of ENPs and ionic metal among different environmental media and animals. Radiolabeled 65ZnO, 110mAgNPs coated with PVP or citrate were synthesized in the laboratory and their chemical and biological behavior was compared to ionic 65Zn and 110mAg. The BAFs of Zn and Ag in the earthworms were determined after animals exposed to the contaminated soils. After the 7 days of elimination phase, subcellular partitioning of metals were also obtained. BAF for ZnO(0.06) was 31 times lower than that for Zn ion (1.86), suggesting that ZnO was less bioavailable than its ionic form from contaminated soil. On the other hands, BAFs for AgNPs coated with PVP (0.12) or with citrate (0.11) were comparable to those for Ag ion (0.17), indicating that Ag from contaminated soil was bioavailable in a similar rate regardless of chemical forms. The subcellular partitioning results showed that bioaccumulated Zn from Zn ion and ZnO contaminated soil were

  7. Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Sun, Rui-Juan; Yu, Yuan-Chun; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: •Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. •Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. •The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. •The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

  8. Lead and zinc bioavailability to Eisenia fetida after phosphorus amendment to repository soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ownby, David R.; Galvan, Kari A.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Four phosphorus forms were investigated as potential soil amendments to decrease the bioavailability of Pb and Zn in two repository soils to the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Treatments were evaluated by examining differences in bioaccumulation factors between amended and non-amended soils. Triple super phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased both Pb and Zn bioavailability in both soils. Rock phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased Zn bioavailability, but not Pb bioavailability in both repository soils. Monocalcium phosphate and tricalcium phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg did not significantly decrease Pb or Zn bioavailability to earthworms in either repository soil. In order to optimize phosphorus amendments, additional phosphorus (up to 15,000 mg P/kg) and lowered pH were used in a series of tests. The combination of lowering the pH below 6.0 and increasing phosphorus concentrations caused complete mortality in all triple super phosphate amended soils and partial mortality in the highest rock phosphate amended soils. Results indicate that triple super phosphate and rock phosphate are viable soil amendments, but care should be taken when optimizing amendment quantity and pH so that adverse environmental effects are not a by-product. - Phosphorus form and pH were controlling factors in the effectiveness of phosphorus amendment in decreasing Pb and Zn bioavailability

  9. Evidence for Bioavailability of Au Nanoparticles from Soil and Biodistribution within Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; S Hunyadi; O Tsyusko; W Rao; A Shoults-Wilson; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    Because Au nanoparticles (NPs) are resistant to oxidative dissolution and are easily detected, they have been used as stable probes for the behavior of nanomaterials within biological systems. Previous studies provide somewhat limited evidence for bioavailability of Au NPs in food webs, because the spatial distribution within tissues and the speciation of Au was not determined. In this study, we provide multiple lines of evidence, including orthogonal microspectroscopic techniques, as well as evidence from biological responses, that Au NPs are bioavailable from soil to a model detritivore (Eisenia fetida). We also present limited evidence that Au NPs may cause adverse effects on earthworm reproduction. This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate that Au NPs can be taken up by detritivores from soil and distributed among tissues. We found that primary particle size (20 or 55 nm) did not consistently influence accumulated concentrations on a mass concentration basis; however, on a particle number basis the 20 nm particles were more bioavailable. Differences in bioavailability between the treatments may have been explained by aggregation behavior in pore water. The results suggest that nanoparticles present in soil from activities such as biosolids application have the potential to enter terrestrial food webs.

  10. Role of Eisenia fetida in rapid recycling of nutrients from bio sludge of beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Kaur, A; Vig, A P; Rup, P J

    2010-03-01

    Beverage industry bio sludge proved to be toxic when given alone to earthworms even after stabilization for 15 days, therefore, it was mixed in various proportions with cattle dung. Best suitable mixture for highest survival, maximum growth and highest population buildup of Eisenia fetida was determined by observing mortality, growth rate, rate of cocoon production, population buildup and time taken for decomposition of waste. Minimum mortality and maximum population buildup were observed in 50:50 mixture of bio sludge and cattle dung. Nitrogen, phosphorous, sodium and pH increased in all the feed mixtures, while electrical conductivity, organic carbon and potassium declined in all the samples in comparison to traditional compost (without worms). Degradation of 50:50 mixture could be achieved in 75 days when worms were inoculated at 25 g/kg feed mixture. But the best-quality product was obtained after 105-110 days with 7.5 g worms/kg feed mixture. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Chen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Qian, Yongzhong, E-mail: qyzcaas@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Xueping [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang2003@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  12. An enzyme from the earthworm Eisenia fetida is not only a protease but also a deoxyribonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Zhou, Yuan; He, Hai-Jin; He, Rong-Qiao

    2011-04-01

    The earthworm enzyme Eisenia fetida Protease-III-1 (EfP-III-1) is known as a trypsin-like protease which is localized in the alimentary canal of the earthworm. Here, we show that EfP-III-1 also acts as a novel deoxyribonuclease. Unlike most DNases, this earthworm enzyme recognizes 5'-phosphate dsDNA (5'P DNA) and degrades it without sequence specificity, but does not recognize 5'OH DNA. As is the case for most DNases, Mg(2+) was observed to markedly enhance the DNase activity of EfP-III-1. Whether the earthworm enzyme functioned as a DNase or as a protease depended on the pH values of the enzyme solution. The protein acted as a protease under alkaline conditions whereas it exhibited DNase activity under acid conditions. At pH 7.0, the enzyme could work as either a DNase or a protease. Given the complex living environment of the earthworm, this dual function of EfP-III-1 may play an important role in the alimentary digestion of the earthworm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypotensive and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Eisenia fetida Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of an Eisenia fetida extract (EFE and its possible mechanisms in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats. Methods. Sixteen-week-old SHR rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY rats were used in this study. Rats were, respectively, given EFE (EFE group, captopril (captopril group, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (normal control group and SHR group for 4 weeks. ACE inhibitory activity of EFE in vitro was determined. The systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured using a Rat Tail-Cuff Blood Pressure System. Levels of angiotensin II (Ang II, aldosterone (Ald, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1α in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay, and serum nitric oxide (NO concentration was measured by Griess reagent systems. Results. EFE had marked ACE inhibitory activity in vitro (IC50 = 2.5 mg/mL. After the 4-week drug management, SHR rats in EFE group and in captopril group had lower SBP and DBP, lower levels of Ang II and Ald, and higher levels of 6-keto-PGF1α and NO than the SHR rats in SHR group. Conclusion. These results indicate that EFE has hypotensive effects in SHR rats and its effects might be associated with its ACE inhibitory activity.

  14. Lead and zinc bioavailability to Eisenia fetida after phosphorus amendment to repository soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ownby, David R. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Galvan, Kari A. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2005-07-15

    Four phosphorus forms were investigated as potential soil amendments to decrease the bioavailability of Pb and Zn in two repository soils to the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Treatments were evaluated by examining differences in bioaccumulation factors between amended and non-amended soils. Triple super phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased both Pb and Zn bioavailability in both soils. Rock phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased Zn bioavailability, but not Pb bioavailability in both repository soils. Monocalcium phosphate and tricalcium phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg did not significantly decrease Pb or Zn bioavailability to earthworms in either repository soil. In order to optimize phosphorus amendments, additional phosphorus (up to 15,000 mg P/kg) and lowered pH were used in a series of tests. The combination of lowering the pH below 6.0 and increasing phosphorus concentrations caused complete mortality in all triple super phosphate amended soils and partial mortality in the highest rock phosphate amended soils. Results indicate that triple super phosphate and rock phosphate are viable soil amendments, but care should be taken when optimizing amendment quantity and pH so that adverse environmental effects are not a by-product. - Phosphorus form and pH were controlling factors in the effectiveness of phosphorus amendment in decreasing Pb and Zn bioavailability.

  15. Effect of Lignite Fly Ash on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarojini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is an amorphous ferroalumino silicate, an important solid waste around thermal power plants. It creates problems leading to environmental degradation due to improper utilization or disposal. However, fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients when it is used with biosolids. Supply of nutrients from fly ash with biosolids may enhance their agricultural use. The growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida was studied during vermicomposting of fly ash with cowdung and pressmud in four different proportions (T1,T2,T3 & T4 and one control i.e., cow dung and pressmud alone. The growth, cocoon and hatchlings production were observed at the interval of 15 days over a period of 60 days. The maximum worm growth and reproduction was observed in bedding material alone. Next to that the T1 was observed as the best mixture for vermiculture.

  16. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Qian, Yongzhong; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment

  17. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Shen Guoqing; Yu Yueshu; Zhu Hongling

    2009-01-01

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  18. Effects of soil properties on copper toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiongwei; Xu, Meng; Zhou, Youya; Yan, Zengguang; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chaoyan; Bai, Liping; Nie, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals in soil are influenced by a variety of soil properties, and this principle should be recognized in establishing soil environmental quality criteria. In the present study, the uptake and toxicity of Cu to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils with various soil properties were investigated, and regression models for predicting Cu toxicity across soils were developed. The results showed that earthworm survival and body weight change were less sensitive to Cu than earthworm cocoon production. The soil Cu-based median effective concentrations (EC50s) for earthworm cocoon production varied from 27.7 to 383.7 mg kg(-1) among 15 Chinese soils, representing approximately 14-fold variation. Soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content were identified as key factors controlling Cu toxicity to earthworm cocoon production, and simple and multiple regression models were developed for predicting Cu toxicity across soils. Tissue Cu-based EC50s for earthworm cocoon production were also calculated and varied from 15.5 to 62.5 mg kg(-1) (4-fold variation). Compared to the soil Cu-based EC50s for cocoon production, the tissue Cu-based EC50s had less variation among soils, indicating that metals in tissue were more relevant to toxicity than metals in soil and hence represented better measurements of bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of imidacloprid residues on the development of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of greenhouse plant waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2011-09-15

    Pesticide application in agriculture causes residues in post-harvest plant waste at different concentrations. Knowledge concerning how pesticide concentrations in such waste affect earthworms is essential for recycling greenhouse plant debris through vermicomposting. Here, we have evaluated the effects of imidacloprid (IMD) residues on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) during the vermicomposting of plant waste from greenhouse crops in Spain. Before, the effect of different IMD concentrations on earthworms was tested using cattle manure as an optimum waste for worm development. The results after using cattle manure indicate that IMD dose ≥ 5 mg kg(-1) hinders worm growth and even causes death, whereas IMD dose ≤ 2 mg IMD kg(-1) allows worm growth similar to control but impedes reproduction. The results from the vermicomposting of plant waste reveal that IMD inhibits adequate worm growth and increases mortality. Although 89% worms became sexually mature in substrate containing 2 mg IMD kg(-1), they did not produce cocoons. IMD also affected microorganisms harboured in the substrates for vermicomposting, as indicated by the reduction in their dehydrogenase activity. This enzyme activity was restored after vermicomposting. This study provides a sound basis for the vermicomposting of pesticide-contaminated plant waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The hormetic effect of cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yan [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen Guoqing, E-mail: gqsh@sjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu Yueshu; Zhu Hongling [Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The hormetic dose-response relationships induced by environmental toxic agents are often characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Confirmation of the general phenomenon of hormesis may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment, although the mechanisms that underlie hormesis remain an enigma. In this study, a model-based approach for describing a dose-response relationship incorporating the hormetic effect was applied to the detection and estimation of the hormetic effect of cadmium (Cd) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but high concentrations inhibited the enzymes, and this was reflected in an inverted U-shaped curve. The maximum hormetic magnitude of SOD activity was higher than that of catalase. The presence of hormesis induced by cadmium in the earthworm may be related to activation of adaptive pathways. - A model-based approach and careful preliminary experiments are needed for detecting and estimating the hormetic effect.

  1. Self-assemblage and quorum in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Zirbes

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence of self-assembled social structures in earthworms and describe key mechanisms involved in cluster formation. We found that the probability of an individual joining a group increased with group size, while the probability of leaving decreased. Moreover, attraction to groups located at a distance was observed, suggesting a role for volatile cues in cluster formation. The size of earthworm clusters appears to be a key factor determining the stability of the group. These findings enhance our understanding of intra-specific interactions in earthworms and have potential implications for extraction and collection of earthworms in vermicomposting processes.

  2. Serotonin-induced nitric oxide production in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Y; Naganoma, Y; Horita, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, K

    2001-10-01

    Effect of serotonin on nitric oxide (NO) production in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was investigated by a bio-imaging and an electrochemical technique. In the bio-imaging, the spatial pattern of NO production in VNC was visualized using an NO-specific fluorescent dye, diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2 DA). Application of serotonin (100 microM) increased NO production in VNC by about 65% (PVNC. In the electrochemical technique, real-time basal and serotonin-induced NO production was estimated with an NO-specific electrode. On the ventral surface of VNC, the estimated basal NO production was stable at 200+/-52 nM, and was transiently augmented to 840+/-193 nM by the addition of 10 microM serotonin. In conclusion, the estimated basal NO production in the earthworm VNC is relatively high compared with other nervous systems earlier reported, and transiently augmented by serotonin. Our results suggest that NO signaling in VNC is involved in neuromodulation by serotonin.

  3. Comparative toxicity of tetra ethyl lead and lead oxide to earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, J.; Kavitha, P.; Padmanabha Rao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Leaded gasoline contains tetra ethyl lead (TEL) as an antiknocking agent, which produces major amounts of lead oxide in automobile exhaust along with traces of TEL. To minimize the lead contamination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is used as a substitute for producing unleaded gasoline. It has become increasingly apparent that young children are highly susceptible to the harmful effects of lead. Hence, a study was carried out to monitor lead toxicity in soil, using adult earthworms (Eisenia fetida, Savigny). Leaded gasoline (TEL) and lead oxide are 383- and 211-fold more toxic than unleaded gasoline (MTBE) in 7 days of exposure and 627- and 290-fold more toxic in 14 days, respectively. Results indicate that the presence of TEL in leaded gasoline and lead oxide has a significant effect on behavior, morphology, and histopathology of earthworms. Absorption of TEL into the tissues is comparatively less than that of lead oxide but toxic effects were severe. Rupture of the cuticle, extrusion of coelomic fluid and inflexible metameric segmentation were observed, causing desensitization of the posterior region leading to fragmentation in earthworms

  4. Effects of biochar and the earthworm Eisenia fetida on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L.; Sizmur, Tom; Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were monitored over 56 days in calcareous contaminated-soil amended with either or both biochar and Eisenia fetida. Biochar reduced total (449 to 306 mg kg -1 ) and bioavailable (cyclodextrin extractable) (276 to 182 mg kg -1 ) PAHs, PAH concentrations in E. fetida (up to 45%) but also earthworm weight. Earthworms increased PAH bioavailability by >40%. Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment. Earthworms increased water soluble Co (3.4 to 29.2 mg kg -1 ), Cu (60.0 to 120.1 mg kg -1 ) and Ni (31.7 to 83.0 mg kg -1 ) but not As, Cd, Pb or Zn; biochar reduced water soluble Cu (60 to 37 mg kg -1 ). Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment but gave a greater reduction in As and Cd mobility. Biochar has contaminated land remediation potential, but its long-term impact on contaminants and soil biota needs to be assessed. - Research highlights: → Biochar reduced total and bioavailable PAH concentrations. → Biochar was less effective at immobilising PTEs, due to its low cation exchange capacity. → E. fetida increased PAH bioavailability and PTE mobility. → When used in combination biochar reduced the concentration of PTEs mobilised by E. fetida. → Biochar had a negative effect on E. fetida in terms of weight loss. - Biochar decreased PAH biovailability but was less effective at reducing PTE mobility, whilst E. fetida increased both PAH and PTE bioavailability.

  5. Effects of biochar and the earthworm Eisenia fetida on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Sizmur, Tom; Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were monitored over 56 days in calcareous contaminated-soil amended with either or both biochar and Eisenia fetida. Biochar reduced total (449 to 306 mg kg{sup -1}) and bioavailable (cyclodextrin extractable) (276 to 182 mg kg{sup -1}) PAHs, PAH concentrations in E. fetida (up to 45%) but also earthworm weight. Earthworms increased PAH bioavailability by >40%. Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment. Earthworms increased water soluble Co (3.4 to 29.2 mg kg{sup -1}), Cu (60.0 to 120.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and Ni (31.7 to 83.0 mg kg{sup -1}) but not As, Cd, Pb or Zn; biochar reduced water soluble Cu (60 to 37 mg kg{sup -1}). Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment but gave a greater reduction in As and Cd mobility. Biochar has contaminated land remediation potential, but its long-term impact on contaminants and soil biota needs to be assessed. - Research highlights: Biochar reduced total and bioavailable PAH concentrations. Biochar was less effective at immobilising PTEs, due to its low cation exchange capacity. E. fetida increased PAH bioavailability and PTE mobility. When used in combination biochar reduced the concentration of PTEs mobilised by E. fetida. Biochar had a negative effect on E. fetida in terms of weight loss. - Biochar decreased PAH biovailability but was less effective at reducing PTE mobility, whilst E. fetida increased both PAH and PTE bioavailability.

  6. Cocomposting with and without Eisenia fetida for conversion of toxic paper mill sludge to a soil conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Arvinder; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Dhaliwal, S S; Rup, Pushpinder J

    2010-11-01

    Present study was envisaged for fast bioremediation of toxic paper mill sludge into a soil ameliorating agent. Although a rich source of organic carbon this sludge cannot be directly applied in fields and is recycled very slowly in landfills as it is deficient in other nutrients. Therefore it was mixed with cattle dung in various proportions and subjected to aerobic cocomposting (without worms) and vermicocomposting (with Eisenia fetida). It was observed that mixing cattle dung with the sludge improved physico-chemical characteristics (with transition metals in the permissible range for manures) of the products of both the processes and enhanced its acceptability for worms. Higher decline in organic carbon and higher content of nitrogen and phosphorous along with lower electrical conductivity and higher pH of the products of vermicomposting indicated that E. fetida helped in fast conversion of toxic paper mill sludge into a soil conditioner in 100days. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Amelioration of acidic soil increases the toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailin; Wang, Shaoyun; Luo, Kun; Liu, Xiangying; Yu, Yunlong

    2013-12-01

    Ameliorating acidic soils is a common practice and may affect the bioavailability of an ionizable organic pollutant to organisms. The toxicity of the weak base carbendazim to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was studied in an acidic soil (pH-H₂O, 4.6) and in the ameliorated soil (pH-H₂O, 7.5). The results indicated that the median lethal concentration of carbendazim for E. fetida decreased from 21.8 mg/kg in acidic soil to 7.35 mg/kg in the ameliorated soil. To understand why the amelioration increased carbendazim toxicity to the earthworm, the authors measured the carbendazim concentrations in the soil porewater. The authors found increased carbendazim concentrations in porewater, resulting in increased toxicity of carbendazim to earthworms. The increased pore concentrations result from decreased adsorption because of the effects of pH and calcium ions. © 2013 SETAC.

  8. The sublethal effects of the organochlorines dieldrin and lindane on growth and reproduction of Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta

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    Editorial Office

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental exposure of the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae to organochlorines showed that dieldrin causes damage to sperm ultrastructure when viewed electronmicroscopically. Worms containing concentrations of 7,27 mg/kg dieldrin and higher showed more than 10% sperm damage. Exposure of Eisenia fetida to sublethal concentrations of lindane did not result in sperm damage but demonstrated an increase in growth and reproductive activity. It is argued that quantification of sperm damage and correlation with pesticide concentration could provide a useful tool for evaluating environmental quality. Furthermore, the effects of sublethal concentrations of pesticides that manifest themselves in increased growth and reproductive activity could affect ecological balances.

  9. Design, validation and annotation of transcriptome-wide oligonucleotide probes for the oligochaete annelid Eisenia fetida.

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    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available High density oligonucleotide probe arrays have increasingly become an important tool in genomics studies. In organisms with incomplete genome sequence, one strategy for oligo probe design is to reduce the number of unique probes that target every non-redundant transcript through bioinformatic analysis and experimental testing. Here we adopted this strategy in making oligo probes for the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species for which we have sequenced transcriptome-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our objectives were to identify unique transcripts as targets, to select an optimal and non-redundant oligo probe for each of these target ESTs, and to annotate the selected target sequences. We developed a streamlined and easy-to-follow approach to the design, validation and annotation of species-specific array probes. Four 244K-formatted oligo arrays were designed using eArray and were hybridized to a pooled E. fetida cRNA sample. We identified 63,541 probes with unsaturated signal intensities consistently above the background level. Target transcripts of these probes were annotated using several sequence alignment algorithms. Significant hits were obtained for 37,439 (59% probed targets. We validated and made publicly available 63.5K oligo probes so the earthworm research community can use them to pursue ecological, toxicological, and other functional genomics questions. Our approach is efficient, cost-effective and robust because it (1 does not require a major genomics core facility; (2 allows new probes to be easily added and old probes modified or eliminated when new sequence information becomes available, (3 is not bioinformatics-intensive upfront but does provide opportunities for more in-depth annotation of biological functions for target genes; and (4 if desired, EST orthologs to the UniGene clusters of a reference genome can be identified and selected in order to improve the target gene specificity of designed probes. This approach is

  10. Biochemical and genetic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Yang, Jinhui

    2016-02-01

    Ionic liquids also known as "green solvents," are used in many fields. However, the dispersion of ionic liquids in soil systems is likely to cause damage to soil organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8 mim]Cl) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). For this purpose, earthworms were exposed to different concentrations of [C8 mim]Cl (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg artificial soil) and sampled at 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d. The results indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could cause an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms, even at the lowest concentration (5 mg/kg). Compared with the controls, during the [C8 mim]Cl exposure period, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased and then increased, whereas the activities of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased. These changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GST indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could induce oxidative damage in earthworms. The malondialdehyde content was increased by high levels of [C8 mim]Cl at 14 d and 28 d, indicating that [C8 mim]Cl could lead to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. In addition, the degree of DNA damage significantly increased with increasing [C8 mim]Cl concentrations and exposure time. The present study shows that [C8 mim]Cl caused biochemical and genetic toxicity in earthworms. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Evaluation of DNA damage and antioxidant system induced by di-n-butyl phthalates exposure in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Xinyi

    2015-05-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. The effect of DBP on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and DNA damage were used as biomarkers to analyze the relationship between DNA damage and oxidative stress and to evaluate the genotoxic effect of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100mg per kg of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. The results showed that SOD and CAT levels were significantly inhibited in the 100mgkg(-1) treatment group on day 28. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to oxidative stress in cells. A dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil DBP levels. The comet assay showed that increasing concentrations of DBP resulted in a gradual increase in the OTM, Comet Tail Length and Tail DNA %. The degree of DNA damage was increased with increasing concentration of DBP. These results suggested that DBP induced serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. The excessive generation of ROS caused damage to vital macromolecules including lipids and DNA. DBP in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The existence of fertile hybrids of closely related model earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and E. fetida.

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    Barbara Plytycz

    Full Text Available Lumbricid earthworms Eisenia andrei (Ea and E. fetida (Ef are simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal insemination capable of self-fertilization while the existence of hybridization of these two species was still debatable. During the present investigation fertile hybrids of Ea and Ef were detected. Virgin specimens of Ea and Ef were laboratory crossed (Ea+Ef and their progeny was doubly identified. 1 -identified by species-specific maternally derived haploid mitochondrial DNA sequences of the COI gene being either 'a' for worms hatched from Ea ova or 'f' for worms hatched from Ef ova. 2 -identified by the diploid maternal/paternal nuclear DNA sequences of 28s rRNA gene being either 'AA' for Ea, 'FF' for Ef, or AF/FA for their hybrids derived either from the 'aA' or 'fF' ova, respectively. Among offspring of Ea+Ef pairs in F1 generation there were mainly aAA and fFF earthworms resulted from the facilitated self-fertilization and some aAF hybrids from aA ova but none fFA hybrids from fF ova. In F2 generation resulting from aAF hybrids mated with aAA a new generations of aAA and aAF hybrids were noticed, while aAF hybrids mated with fFF gave fFF and both aAF and fFA hybrids. Hybrids intercrossed together produced plenty of cocoons but no hatchlings independently whether aAF+aAF or aAF+fFA were mated. These results indicated that Ea and Ef species, easy to maintain in laboratory and commonly used as convenient models in biomedicine and ecotoxicology, may also serve in studies on molecular basis of interspecific barriers and mechanisms of introgression and speciation. Hypothetically, their asymmetrical hybridization can be modified by some external factors.

  13. Effects of Biosolids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Springtails (Folsomia candida

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    N. Artuso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (biosolids, but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of biosolids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Collembola (Folsomia candida, in laboratory tests. Five biosolids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1. Biosolids applied at 2 and 5 t ha−1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20 t ha−1. At 5, 10 and 20 t ha−1, all biosolids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10 t ha−1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20 t ha−1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for biosolids applied at the 2 t ha−1 when compared with controls, and also when biosolids were applied at 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 relative to 2 t ha−1. Some significant difference between biosolids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in biosolids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen be investigated in future work. It is concluded that biosolids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2 t ha−1 are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  14. Growth, reproduction and biochemical toxicity of chlorantraniliprole in soil on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Xiuguo; Chen, Dan; Li, Yiqiang; Wang, Fenglong

    2018-04-15

    Diamide insecticides have become the fourth most commonly used insecticide class in the world. Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is a first-generation diamide insecticide with broad application potential. In this experiment, the eco-toxicity of CAP in soil at 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) was evaluated during a 42 d exposure. More specifically, the environmental fate and transport of CAP between soil and earthworms was monitored during the exposure period. The present results indicated that the CAP contents of 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg treatments decreased to no more than 20% in the soil after 42 d of exposure. The accumulation of CAP in earthworms was 0.03, 0.58, 4.28 and 7.21mg/kg earthworm (FW) at 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg after 42 d of exposure. At 0.1mg/kg and 1.0mg/kg, CAP had no effect on earthworms during the exposure period. The weight of earthworms was significantly reduced at 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg at 28 and 42 days after CAP application. After the 14th day, CAP induced excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg, resulting in oxidative damage to biomacromolecules. We believe that CAP has a high risk potential for earthworms when used at 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioaccumulation studies with Eisenia fetida using an established degradation test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norr, C.; Riepert, F. [Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Inst. for Ecotoxicology and Ecochemistry in Plant Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Background. Earthworms are considered as an appropriate test system to assess the bioaccumulation potential of substances in the terrestrial environment. For regulatory purposes test methods were developed and incorporated in the validation process. A test design that is particularly suited for testing {sup 14}C-labelled substances will be described here. This design was adapted from an established degradation test system for bioaccumulation tests with earthworms in soil. The antibiotic sulfadiazine was used as test substance in this study. Due to the biological activity and the widespread entering into soil by manure application, veterinary medicines have become the target of ecotoxicological risk assessment. A German research group provided the soil samples mixed with liquid pig manure, which contained the {sup 14}C-labelled test substance after having passed through the gut of animals. This exposure pathway reflects the real environmental conditions. Therefore, sulfadiazine was tested even though a significant bioaccumulation potential was not expected to be detected owing to its chemical properties. Methods. Two adult earthworms of the species Eisenia fetida were inserted in a 500 ml glass container filled with 100 g soil. The test substrate consisted of soil mixed with liquid manure containing {sup 14}C-sulfadiazine. The glass containers were fitted with a soda-lime trap, which is permeable for oxygen but absorbs produced CO{sub 2} and other volatile metabolites. As food source for the earthworms, 5 g of mashed potato powder was applied per test container at the beginning of the test. The levels of radioactivity in soil samples and earthworms were determined by combustion in an oxidizer over a four-week exposure phase. The test design follows the instructions described by the OECD draft guideline for testing the bioaccumulation behaviour of chemicals with oligochaetes in soil. (orig.)

  16. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Richard [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: rp232604@muhlenberg.edu; Kelsey, Jason W. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.edu; White, Jason C. [Department of Soil and Water, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.white@po.state.ct.us

    2007-07-15

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. - Availability of p,p'-DDE to earthworms and plants was dramatically different in soil and compost.

  17. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W; White, Jason C

    2007-07-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media.

  18. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W.; White, Jason C.

    2007-01-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. - Availability of p,p'-DDE to earthworms and plants was dramatically different in soil and compost

  19. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna J. Simpson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that were comprised of two separate modes of action: a non-polar narcosis type mechanism after two days of exposure and increased fatty acid oxidation after seven and fourteen days of exposure. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate (HEFS, betaine, leucine, arginine, glutamate, maltose and ATP are potential indicators of PFOS exposure, as the concentrations of these metabolites fluctuated significantly. Overall, NMR-based metabolomic analysis suggests elevated fatty acid oxidation, disruption in energy metabolism and biological membrane structure and a possible interruption of ATP synthesis. These conclusions obtained from analysis of the metabolic profile in response to sub-lethal PFOS exposure indicates that NMR-based metabolomics is an excellent discovery tool when the mode of action (MOA of contaminants is not clearly defined.

  20. Identification of a cytochrome P450 gene in the earthworm Eisenia fetida and its mRNA expression under enrofloxacin stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinsheng; Zhao, Chun; Lu, Xiaoxu; Ai, Xiaojie; Qiu, Jiangping

    2018-04-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are a family of hemoproteins primarily responsible for detoxification functions. Earthworms have been used as a bioindicator of soil pollution in numerous studies, but no CYP450 gene has so far been cloned. RT-PCR and RACE-PCR were employed to construct and sequence the CYP450 gene DNA from the extracted mRNA in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The cloned gene (EW1) has an open reading frame of 477bp. The 3'-terminal region contained both the consensus and the signature sequences characteristic of CYP450. It was closely related to the CYP450 gene from the flatworm genus Opisthorchis felineus with 87% homology. The predicted structure of the putative protein was 97% homologous to human CYP450 family 27. This gene has been deposited in GenBank (accession no. KM881474). Earthworms (E. fetida) were then exposed to 1, 10, 100, and 500mgkg -1 enrofloxacin in soils to explore the mRNA expression by real time qPCR. The effect of enrofloxacin on mRNA expression levels of EW1 exhibited a marked hormesis pattern across the enrofloxacin dose range tested. This is believed to be the first reported CYP450 gene in earthworms, with reference value for molecular studies on detoxification processes in earthworms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to 17β-Oestradiol Induces Oxidative Stress in the Non-Oestrogen Receptor Invertebrate Species Eisenia fetida.

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    Zbynek Heger

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of various substances on all levels of organisms are under investigation. Among these substances, endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs present a threat, although the environmental significance of these compounds remains largely unknown. To shed some light on this field, we assessed the effects of 17β-oestradiol on the growth, reproduction and formation of free radicals in Eisenia fetida.Although the observed effects on growth and survival were relatively weak, a strong impact on reproduction was observed (50.70% inhibition in 100 μg/kg of E2. We further demonstrated that the exposure of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to a contaminant of emerging concern, 17β-oestradiol (E2, significantly affected the molecules involved in antioxidant defence. Exposure to E2 results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the stimulation of antioxidant systems (metallothionein and reduced oxidized glutathione ratio but not phytochelatins at both the mRNA and translated protein levels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-imaging revealed the subcuticular bioaccumulation of oestradiol-3,4-quinone, altering the levels of local antioxidants in a time-dependent manner.The present study illustrates that although most invertebrates do not possess oestrogen receptors, these organisms can be affected by oestrogen hormones, likely reflecting free diffusion into the cellular microenvironment with subsequent degradation to molecules that undergo redox cycling, producing ROS, thereby increasing environmental contamination that also perilously affects keystone animals, forming lower trophic levels.

  2. Comparison of techniques for estimating PAH bioavailability: Uptake in Eisenia fetida, passive samplers and leaching using various solvents and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergknut, Magnus [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: magnus.bergknut@chem.umu.se; Sehlin, Emma [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Lundstedt, Staffan [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Andersson, Patrik L. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Haglund, Peter [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden); Tysklind, Mats [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for assessing the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. This was done by comparing the amounts (total and relative) taken up by the earthworm Eisenia fetida with the amounts extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), leaching with various solvent mixtures, leaching using additives, and sequential leaching. Bioconcentration factors of PAHs in the earthworms based on equilibrium partitioning theory resulted in poor correlations to observed values. This was most notable for PAHs with high concentrations in the studied soil. Evaluation by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between the evaluated techniques and, generally, there were larger proportions of carcinogenic PAHs (4-6 fused rings) in the earthworms. These results suggest that it may be difficult to develop a chemical method that is capable of mimicking biological uptake, and thus estimating the bioavailability of PAHs. - The total and relative amounts of PAHs extracted by abiotic techniques for assessing the bioavailability of PAHs was found to differ from the amounts taken up by Eisenia fetida.

  3. Different routes, same pathways: Molecular mechanisms under silver ion and nanoparticle exposures in the soil sentinel Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novo, Marta; Lahive, Elma; Díez-Ortiz, María; Matzke, Marianne; Morgan, Andrew J.; Spurgeon, David J.; Svendsen, Claus; Kille, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology products is increasing; with silver (Ag) nanoparticles particularly widely used. A key uncertainty surrounding the risk assessment of AgNPs is whether their effects are driven through the same mechanism of action that underlies the toxic effects of Ag ions. We present the first full transcriptome study of the effects of Ag ions and NPs in an ecotoxicological model soil invertebrate, the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Gene expression analyses indicated similar mechanisms for both silver forms with toxicity being exerted through pathways related to ribosome function, sugar and protein metabolism, molecular stress, disruption of energy production and histones. The main difference seen between Ag ions and NPs was associated with potential toxicokinetic effects related to cellular internalisation and communication, with pathways related to endocytosis and cilia being significantly enriched. These results point to a common final toxicodynamic response, but initial internalisation driven by different exposure routes and toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Highlights: • Molecular effects underlying Ag ions and NPs exposure were studied in Eisenia fetida. • Full transcriptomic study of a genetically characterised lineage. • NPs and ions presented a similar toxicodynamic response. • Internalisation of the two Ag forms by different toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Transcriptomic analyses after exposure of earthworms to silver NPs or ions showed a final common toxicodynamic response, but internalisation by different toxicokinetic mechanisms

  4. Comparison of techniques for estimating PAH bioavailability: Uptake in Eisenia fetida, passive samplers and leaching using various solvents and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Sehlin, Emma; Lundstedt, Staffan; Andersson, Patrik L.; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for assessing the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. This was done by comparing the amounts (total and relative) taken up by the earthworm Eisenia fetida with the amounts extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), leaching with various solvent mixtures, leaching using additives, and sequential leaching. Bioconcentration factors of PAHs in the earthworms based on equilibrium partitioning theory resulted in poor correlations to observed values. This was most notable for PAHs with high concentrations in the studied soil. Evaluation by principal component analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences between the evaluated techniques and, generally, there were larger proportions of carcinogenic PAHs (4-6 fused rings) in the earthworms. These results suggest that it may be difficult to develop a chemical method that is capable of mimicking biological uptake, and thus estimating the bioavailability of PAHs. - The total and relative amounts of PAHs extracted by abiotic techniques for assessing the bioavailability of PAHs was found to differ from the amounts taken up by Eisenia fetida

  5. Effects of Different Ratios of Sewage Sludge and Cattle Manure on Growth and Propagation of Eisenia Fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukui Li

    Full Text Available Domestic sewage sludge and cattle manure are rich in nutrition elements, but without proper disposal, are harmful to the environment. Here with an indoor culture method, we used Eisenia fetida to dispose different ratios of sewage sludge and cattle manure, and thereby investigated the effects and acting rules of these sludge-manure mixtures on the growth and reproduction of E. fetida. We find these mixtures are food sources for E. fetida, and their physiochemical properties are significantly changed after disposal by earthworms. Paired samples t-test shows the average change after different treatments is -20.37% for total organic carbon, 85.71% for total Kjeldahl N, -6.67% for total P, 8.33% for pH, -24.78% for EC (ms·cm-1, and -57.10% for C/N ratio. The average growth rate after treatment CD-70 is 9.20 mg·worm-1·day-1; the average growth rates of E. fetida on day 0-28, day 29-56, and day 57-91 are 9.33, 11.90 and 6.95 mg·worm-1·day-1, respectively, indicating a trend of "rapid-rapidest-slow" growth. Other treatments all show this trend. Though all earthworms developed reproductive rings during the test periods, the appearing time and the cocoon production time both differed among these treatments. The cocoon production amount is maximized to 233 after treatment CD-70. The cocoon production rates are significantly different among these treatments, and the maximum and mean are 0.32 and 0.17-0.32, cocoons·worm-1· day-1, respectively. E. fetida can modestly enrich Cd, but is not very effective over Sb or other heavy metals. E. fetida can remove a part of heavy metals from sewage sludge and cattle manure. Generally, the mixtures of sewage sludge and cattle manure can largely affect the growth and propagation of E. fetida in a ratio-dependent way.

  6. Effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on the acute lethality, accumulation, and enzyme activity of cadmium in Eisenia fetida in a simulated soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Long; Wang, Yu-Jun; Xuan, Liang; Dang, Fei; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) to Eisenia fetida were investigated in a simulated soil solution. The LMWOAs protected E. fetida from Cd toxicity, as indicated by the increased median lethal concentration (LC50) values and the increased activity of superoxide dismutase. In addition, Cd concentrations in E. fetida decreased dramatically in the presence of LMWOAs. These results were likely because of the complexation between Cd and LMWOAs, which decreased the bioavailability and consequential toxicity of Cd to E. fetida. Notably, LMWOAs reduced Cd toxicity in decreasing order (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid [EDTA] > citric acid > oxalic acid > malic acid > acetic acid), which was consistent with the decreasing complexation constants between LMWOAs and Cd. These results advance our understanding of the interactions between Cd and LMWOAs in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1005-1011. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuofin, F.O., E-mail: funmifrank2009@gmail.com; Mnkeni, P.N.S., E-mail: pmnkeni@ufh.ac.za

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup -1} resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg{sup −1} feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered.

  8. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unuofin, F.O.; Mnkeni, P.N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg -1 resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg −1 dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg −1 resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg −1 feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered

  9. Endocrine disruptors in soil: Effects of bisphenol A on gene expression of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, M; Verdú, I; Trigo, D; Martínez-Guitarte, J L

    2018-04-15

    Xenobiotics such as bisphenol A (BPA), are present in biosolids, which are applied as organic fertilizers in agricultural fields. Their effects on soil life have been poorly assessed, and this is particularly important in the case of earthworms, which represent the main animal biomass in this medium. In the present work we study the impacts of BPA on gene expression of Eisenia fetida, a widely used ecotoxicological model. Chronic soil tests and acute contact tests were performed, and gene expression was analyzed in total tissue and in masculine reproductive organs of the earthworms. The genes studied in this research played a role in endocrine pathways, detoxification mechanisms, stress response, epigenetics, and genotoxicity. Most of the genes were identified for the first time, providing potentially useful biomarkers for future assessments. For chronic exposures, no changes were detected in whole-body tissue; however, masculine reproductive organs showed changes in the expression of genes related to endocrine function (EcR, MAPR, AdipoR), epigenetic mechanisms (DNMTs), genotoxicity (PARP1), and stress responses (HSC70 4). For acute exposures, the expression of one epigenetic-related gene was altered for both whole-body tissues and male reproductive organs (Piwi2). Further changes were detected for whole-body tissues involved in detoxification (Metallothionein), stress (HSC70 4), and genotoxicity (PARP1) mechanisms. Acute exposure effects were also tested in whole-body tissues of juveniles, showing changes in the expression of Metallothionein and Piwi2. The molecular changes found in the analyzed earthworms indicate that exposure to BPA may have negative implications in their populations. Particularly interesting are the alterations related to epigenetic mechanisms, which suggest that future generations may be impacted. This study is the first to evaluate the molecular effects of BPA on soil organisms, and further assays will be necessary to better characterize

  10. Bioremediation of the Soils Contaminated with Cadmium and Chromium, by the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aseman- Bashiz1

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the world is the soils contamination by heavy metals in the industrial areas, and especially the contamination of the agricultural lands. The use of earthworms to bioremediate the soils results in reducing the pollutants concentration through a bioaccumulation mechanism on the contaminants in the earthworm's body. Hence, the present study aimed to prove the biological effectiveness of Eisenia fetida earthworms in bioremediation the soils contaminated with chromium and cadmium. Concentration of chromium and cadmium pollution in soil was determined to be 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g respectively. 30 worms were added to 500 g soil samples. Chromium and cadmium concentration in soil and in the body of worms was measured at two time periods of 21 and 42 days. To measure the concentration of chromium and cadmium we used ICP spectrometry. Software in usage was SPSS version 17. There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. on the other hand chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 mg/g to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Comparison of mortality in two different time periods showed that by passing the time and by increase in soil chromium and cadmium concentrations the death toll of worms rises. The increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, say that using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended at such concentration of chromium but using the worms for the removal of cadmium at concentrations of 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g in the soil is recommended.

  11. Impacts of BDE209 addition on Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene toxicity in earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Kou; Li, Jing; Liang, Jun; Lin, Kuangfei [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • 10 or 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 addition caused histological changes in Pb-exposed earthworms’ body wall. • Strong histopathological effects with BDE209 addition confirmed the enhanced Pb bioavailability. • The presence of higher levels of BDE209 altered subcellular partitioning of Pb in earthworm. • Co-exposure to Pb and BDE209 declined SOD and CAT gene transcripts synergistically. • BDE209 addition elicited up-regulation of Hsp90 gene expression compared to Pb exposure alone. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the mainly co-existed contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. The potential toxicity of Pb (250 μg g{sup −1}) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 (1, 10 and 100 μg g{sup −1}) was determined during 14-d incubation period. Compared to Pb treatment alone, the co-exposure with 1 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 barely affected Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene expression; however, histopathological changes in earthworms’ body wall (epidermal, circular and longitudinal muscles) demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 additions enhanced Pb uptake and altered its subcellular partitioning, indicating that Pb redistributed from fractions E (cell debris) and D (metal-rich granules) to fraction C (cytosols); Additionally, BDE209 supply significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the induction of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) gene expressions (maximum down-regulation 59% for SOD gene at Pb + 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 and 89% for CAT gene at Pb + 10 μg g{sup −1} BDE209), while facilitated (p < 0.05) Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) gene expression with maximum induction rate of 120% after exposure to Pb + 10 μg g{sup −1} BDE209. These findings illustrate the importance of considering environmental BDE209 co-exposure when assessing Pb bioaccumulation and toxicity in multi-contaminated soil ecosystems.

  12. Impacts of BDE209 addition on Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene toxicity in earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kou; Li, Jing; Liang, Jun; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 10 or 100 μg g −1 BDE209 addition caused histological changes in Pb-exposed earthworms’ body wall. • Strong histopathological effects with BDE209 addition confirmed the enhanced Pb bioavailability. • The presence of higher levels of BDE209 altered subcellular partitioning of Pb in earthworm. • Co-exposure to Pb and BDE209 declined SOD and CAT gene transcripts synergistically. • BDE209 addition elicited up-regulation of Hsp90 gene expression compared to Pb exposure alone. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the mainly co-existed contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. The potential toxicity of Pb (250 μg g −1 ) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 (1, 10 and 100 μg g −1 ) was determined during 14-d incubation period. Compared to Pb treatment alone, the co-exposure with 1 μg g −1 BDE209 barely affected Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene expression; however, histopathological changes in earthworms’ body wall (epidermal, circular and longitudinal muscles) demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg g −1 BDE209 additions enhanced Pb uptake and altered its subcellular partitioning, indicating that Pb redistributed from fractions E (cell debris) and D (metal-rich granules) to fraction C (cytosols); Additionally, BDE209 supply significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the induction of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) gene expressions (maximum down-regulation 59% for SOD gene at Pb + 100 μg g −1 BDE209 and 89% for CAT gene at Pb + 10 μg g −1 BDE209), while facilitated (p < 0.05) Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) gene expression with maximum induction rate of 120% after exposure to Pb + 10 μg g −1 BDE209. These findings illustrate the importance of considering environmental BDE209 co-exposure when assessing Pb bioaccumulation and toxicity in multi-contaminated soil ecosystems.

  13. A comparison of POPs bioaccumulation in Eisenia fetida in natural and artificial soils and the effects of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlčková, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    The close relationship between soil organic matter and the bioavailability of POPs in soils suggests the possibility of using it for the extrapolation between different soils. The aim of this study was to prove that TOC content is not a single factor affecting the bioavailability of POPs and that TOC based extrapolation might be incorrect, especially when comparing natural and artificial soils. Three natural soils with increasing TOC and three artificial soils with TOC comparable to these natural soils were spiked with phenanthrene, pyrene, lindane, p,p'-DDT, and PCB 153 and studied after 0, 14, 28, and 56 days. At each sampling point, total soil concentration and bioaccumulation in earthworms Eisenia fetida were measured. The results showed different behavior and bioavailability of POPs in natural and artificial soils and apparent effects of aging on these differences. Hence, direct TOC based extrapolation between various soils seems to be limited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the Toxicity, AChE Activity and DNA Damage Caused by Imidacloprid on Earthworms, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Qi, Suzhen; Mu, Xiyan; Chai, Tingting; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Li, Dongzhi; Che, Wunan; Wang, Chengju

    2015-10-01

    Imidacloprid is a well-known pesticide and it is timely to evaluate its toxicity to earthworms (Eisenia fetida). In the present study, the effect of imidacloprid on reproduction, growth, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and DNA damage in earthworms was assessed using an artificial soil medium. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and the median number of hatched cocoons (EC50) of imidacloprid to earthworms was 3.05 and 0.92 mg/kg respectively, the lowest observed effect concentration of imidacloprid about hatchability, growth, AChE activity and DNA damage was 0.02, 0.5, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively.

  15. Responses to silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in a battery of biomarkers measured in coelomocytes and in target tissues of Eisenia fetida earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia, Curieses Silvana; Nerea, García-Velasco; Erik, Urionabarrenetxea; Elena, Sáenz María; Eider, Bilbao; Darío, Di Marzio Walter; Manu, Soto

    2017-07-01

    The current use and development of applications with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) could lead to potential inputs of these NPs to soils. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the ecotoxicological risks posed by Ag NPs in the terrestrial compartment. In the present investigation, the effects produced by PVP-PEI coated Ag NPs were assessed in Eisenia fetida earthworms in comparison with the soluble form (AgNO 3 ). Earthworms were exposed for 1, 3 and 14 days to a range of sublethal concentrations of Ag (0, 0.05 and 50mg/kg) and at each exposure time, apart from mortality and weight loss of individuals, metallothionein (MT) protein concentration and catalase (CAT) activity were quantified in earthworm tissues. In addition, cellular and molecular level endpoints (cell viability, absolute and relative trophic indices and transcription levels of catalase-cat- and metallothionein-mt-) were measured in coelomocytes extruded from exposed earthworms. Despite the lack of effects in traditional endpoints (mortality and weight loss), Ag NPs and AgNO 3 posed changes at lower levels of biological complexity (biochemical, cellular and molecular levels). Both Ag forms induced similar changes in the metal detoxification mechanism (MT, mt) and in the antioxidant response system (CAT, cat) of E. fetida. In contrast, Ag form dependant cytotoxicity and subpopulation ratio alterations (eleocytes/amoebocytes) were recorded in extruded coelomocytes. Complementarily, the use of coelomocytes to assess molecular level endpoints represented a relevant alternative for development of non-invasive biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2010-01-01

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  17. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnaik, S.; Vikram, M.

    2010-01-01

    Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW) and floral waste (FW) processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters temperature, moisture, ph, and electrical conductivity were also recorded. The nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  18. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  19. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD, reactive oxygen species (ROS content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed.

  20. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on growth, the antioxidant system, and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in 2 different soil types under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochen; Xu, Li; Song, Jing; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare the toxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to screen for rapid and sensitive biomarkers that can be used to assess the environmental risks of BaP in earthworms in different natural soil types. The authors exposed Eisenia fetida to 2 types of soil (red soil and fluvo-aquic soil) spiked with different concentrations (0 mg kg(-1), 1 mg kg(-1), 10 mg kg(-1), 100 mg kg(-1), and 500 mg kg(-1)) of BaP for 7 d or 14 d. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced weight variation altered the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD]; catalase [CAT]; and guaiacol peroxidase [POD]) and changed the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, using the comet assay, the authors determined the DNA damage in earthworms. The results revealed that the comet assay was suitable for evaluating the genotoxicity of BaP in the soil, even at the lowest examined concentration. The MDA content was the least sensitive indicator of BaP toxicity. A 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether the soil type, exposure concentration, and duration affected the BaP toxicity. The antioxidant enzyme activities and the MDA content were shown to be significantly correlated with the exposure concentration. The percentage of weight variation (p earthworms is a simple and efficient means of assessing BaP genotoxicity in a terrestrial environment, and the effects of the soil type and exposure time on the other parameters that were investigated in E. fetida, which were used as responsive biomarkers, should be considered. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Perfluoroalkylsulfonic and carboxylic acids in earthworms (Eisenia fetida): Accumulation and effects results from spiked soils at PFAS concentrations bracketing environmental relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Deb, Sanjit K; Subbiah, Seenivasan; Wang, Degeng; Anderson, Todd A

    2018-05-01

    Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soils contaminated with these compounds at 0.1, 1, 10, 1,000, and 100,000 μg kg -1 dry weight, covering concentration levels found in background, biosolid-amended, and facility-surrounding soils, were investigated. Earthworms were exposed to spiked soil for 21 days. Concentrations of these compounds in earthworms after 21-d exposure ranged from below detection to 127 mg kg -1 wet weight with the rank order of PFNA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFBS; no mortality of earthworms was observed in all treatments including controls, except PFBS at 1,000 μg kg -1 and all PFASs at 100,000 μg kg -1 . The highest weight loss (29%) was observed for earthworms exposed to PFNA at 100,000 μg kg -1 , which was significantly different from all other treatments except PFHpA at 100,000 μg kg -1 . These results are expected to fill some data gaps in toxicity of PFASs in terrestrial environments and provide helpful information on the potential for trophic transport of PFASs from soil to higher organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilização de casca de arroz e esterco bovino como substrato Eisenia fetida Savigny (1826 Rice husk and cattle manure used as substrate for the Eisenia fetida Savigny (1826 multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de minhocas, principalmente para a alimentação animal, vem sendo adotada e estudada, pois esses organismos apresentam em sua constituição vitaminas e aminoácidos. Entre os materiais possíveis de serem utilizados na minhocultura, atualmente incentiva-se o aproveitamento de resíduos agroindustriais de alta disponibilidade, como a casca de arroz no Rio Grande do Sul. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de substratos à base de casca de arroz e esterco bovino na multiplicação e produção de biomassa de minhocas (Eisenia fetida. A população de minhocas foi avaliada quanto ao número de cocons, ao índice de multiplicação (população final/população inicial e à biomassa de minhocas frescas e secas. A avaliação foi realizada aos 60 dias após a instalação do experimento, com quatro repetições. A análise estatística dos resultados mostrou que a inclusão de casca de arroz favoreceu o desenvolvimento e a taxa de reprodução das minhocas. A maior biomassa de minhocas foi obtida nos tratamentos: 50% casca de arroz inteira e 50% esterco bovino, esterco bovino mais casca de arroz inteira tratada com hidróxido de amônio a 20 e 40%, e esterco bovino mais casca de arroz moída tratada com hidróxido de sódio a 10 e 40%. Conclui-se que a adição de casca de arroz ao esterco bovino favorece a multiplicação e o desenvolvimento de E. fetida.The use of earthworms for animal feeding has been adopted and studied, because these organisms are rich in vitamins and essential amino acids. Among the organic materials that could be used in the earthworm breeding, highly available agroindustrial residues such as rice husk are being currently used in Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this work was to evaluate substrate based on rice husk and cattle manure on the multiplication and biomass of earthworms (Eisenia fetida. In this work, the population of earthworms, the cocoon numbers, the multiplication index, as well as

  3. Development of a standardized reproduction toxicity test with the earthworm species Eisenia fetida andrei using copper, pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dichloroaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Gestel, C.A.; van Dis, W.A.; van Breemen, E.M.; Sparenburg, P.M. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, BA Bilthoven (Netherland))

    1989-12-01

    This article describes a standardized test method for determining the effect of chemical substances on the reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei. It is based on the existing guidelines for acute toxicity testing with earthworms, and for reasons of standardization the same artificial soil substrate and earthworm species were chosen as prescribed by these guidelines. After being preconditioned for one week in untreated soil, earthworms are exposed to the chemical substances for 3 weeks. The number of cocoons produced is determined, and cocoons are incubated in untreated artificial soil for 5 weeks to assess hatchability. Results are presented from toxicity experiments with pentachlorophenol, copper, and 2,4-dichloroaniline. For these compounds no-effect levels (NEL) for cocoon production were 32, 60-120, and 56 mg.kg-1 dry soil, respectively. Hatching of cocoons was influenced by pentachlorophenol (NEL, 10 mg.kg-1), but not by copper and dichloroaniline. Following exposure, earthworms were incubated in clean soil again to study the possibility of recovery of cocoon production. For copper and dichloroaniline earthworms did recover cocoon production to a level as high as the control level or even higher; in case of pentachlorophenol, cocoon production was still reduced after 3 weeks in clean soil.

  4. Nickel in Soil Modifies Sensitivity to Diazinon Measured by the Activity of Acetylcholinesterase, Catalase, and Glutathione S-Transferase in Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel in typical soils is present in a very low concentration, but in the contaminated soils it occurs in locally elevated concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nickel in the concentrations of 300 (very high, close to LOEC for reproduction and 900 (extremely high, close to LOEC for mortality mg/kg dry soil on the life history and acetylcholinesterase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activities in earthworm Eisenia fetida and to establish how nickel modifies the sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide—diazinon. Cocoons production and juveniles’ number were significantly lower only in groups exposed to Ni in the concentration of 900 mg/kg dry soil for two months. Diazinon administration diminished the AChE activity in the GI tract and in the body wall. The interaction between diazinon and nickel was observed, and, in consequence, the AChE activity after the pesticide treatment was similar to controls in worms preexposed to nickel. Both pesticide administration and exposure to nickel caused an increase in the GST activity in examined organs and CAT activity in body wall. Both biometric and development data and simple enzymatic analysis, especially the AChE and GST, show a Ni pretreatment effect on the subsequent susceptibility to pesticide.

  5. Soil pH effects on the comparative toxicity of dissolved zinc, non-nano and nano ZnO to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Laura R; Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lofts, Stephen; Lahive, Elma; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Cedergreen, Nina; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus

    2014-08-01

    To determine how soil properties influence nanoparticle (NP) fate, bioavailability and toxicity, this study compared the toxicity of nano zinc oxide (ZnO NPs), non-nano ZnO and ionic ZnCl2 to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in a natural soil at three pH levels. NP characterisation indicated that reaction with the soil media greatly controls ZnO properties. Three main conclusions were drawn. First that Zn toxicity, especially for reproduction, was influenced by pH for all Zn forms. This can be linked to the influence of pH on Zn dissolution. Secondly, that ZnO fate, toxicity and bioaccumulation were similar (including relationships with pH) for both ZnO forms, indicating the absence of NP-specific effects. Finally, earthworm Zn concentrations were higher in worms exposed to ZnO compared to ZnCl2, despite the greater toxicity of the ionic form. This observation suggests the importance of considering the relationship between uptake and toxicity in nanotoxicology studies.

  6. Cellular and molecular responses of E. fetida coelomocytes exposed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@univ-lorraine.fr; Foucaud, Laurent [Universite de Lorraine-Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologique Biodiversite Ecosystemes (LIEBE) (France); Caillet, Celine [Universite de Lorraine-Laboratoire Environnement et Mineralurgie (LEM) CNRS UMR7569 (France); Giamberini, Laure; Nahmani, Johanne [Universite de Lorraine-Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologique Biodiversite Ecosystemes (LIEBE) (France); Thomas, Fabien [Universite de Lorraine-Laboratoire Environnement et Mineralurgie (LEM) CNRS UMR7569 (France); Rodius, Francois [Universite de Lorraine-Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologique Biodiversite Ecosystemes (LIEBE) (France)

    2012-07-15

    An in vitro approach using coelomocytes of Eisenia fetida was investigated to evaluate toxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Coelomocytes were exposed to well-dispersed suspension of small aggregates (130 nm) of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (1-25 {mu}g/ml) during 4, 12 and 24 h. Intracellular localisation suggested that the main route of uptake was endocytosis. Cellular responses showed that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and had no effect on phagocytosis at any of the four concentrations for each time tested. Concerning molecular responses, an increase of fetidin and metallothionein mRNA expression was observed starting from 4 h of exposure. In contrast, expression of coelomic cytolytic factor mRNA decreased for 10 and 25 {mu}g/ml after 4 h. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase expression were not modified suggesting that oxidative stress was not induced by TiO{sub 2} in our experimental conditions. This in vitro approach showed that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were taken up by coelomocytes and they could modify the molecular response of immune and detoxification system.

  7. Potentiality of Eisenia fetida to degrade disposable paper cups-an ecofriendly solution to solid waste pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Karthika; Ganesan, Seethadevi; Muthunarayanan, Vasanthy; Vivek, Swabna; Sugumar, Susila; Munusamy, Vivekanadhan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to subject the post-consumer waste, namely paper cups for vermicomposting along with cow dung in three different ratios for a period of 90-140 days employing Eisenia fetida. The post-consumer wastes are a menace in many developing countries including India. This waste was provided as feed for earthworms and was converted to vermicompost. Vermicompost prepared with paper cup waste was analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Based on the physicochemical properties, it was evident that the best manure is obtained from type A (paper cup/cow dung in the ratio 1:1) than type B (paper cup/cow dung in the ratio 1.5:0.5) and type C (paper cup/cow dung in the ratio 0.5:1.5). The results showed that earthworms accelerated the rate of mineralization and converted the wastes into compost with needed elements which could support the growth of crop plants. The predominant bacterial strains in the vermicompost were characterized biochemically as well as by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. The bacterial strains like Bacillus anthracis (KM289159), Bacillus endophyticus (KM289167), Bacillus funiculus (KM289165), Virigibacillius chiquenigi (KM289163), Bacillus thuringiensis (KM289164), Bacillus cereus (KM289160), Bacillus toyonensis (KM289161), Acinetobacter baumanni (KM289162), and Lactobacillus pantheries (KM289166) were isolated and identified from the final compost. The total protein content of E. fetida involved in vermicomposting was extracted, and the banding pattern was analyzed. During final stages of vermicomposting, it was observed that the earthworm did not act on the plastic material coated inside the paper cups and stagnated it around the rim of the tub. Further, the degradation of paper cup waste was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Hence, vermicomposting was found to be an effective technology for the conversion of the paper cup waste material into a nutrient-rich manure, a value

  8. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida and subcellular fractionation of Zn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.-Z.; Zhou, D.-M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Jin, S.-Y.; Wang, Y.-J.; Wang, P.

    2011-01-01

    The extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of applications has raised great concerns about their environmental fate and biological effects. This study examined the impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and salts on ZnO NP dispersion/solubility and toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia

  9. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months.

  10. Influence of activated carbon amendment on the accumulation and elimination of PCBs in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Piuly; Ghosh, Upal

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the use of activated carbon (AC) as a soil amendment for reducing bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Artificial soil was contaminated with PCBs and used in bioaccumulation experiments fresh or after aging for 19 months. PCB bioaccumulation in earthworms was reduced by 68% when AC was placed as a layer without mixing and by 94% when AC was manually mixed into the soil. Aging of the same AC mixed soil for 19 months resulted in an overall reduction of 99% in PCB biouptake. AC-treated aged soil also showed two orders of magnitude lower equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PCBs compared to untreated aged soils. The findings from this study indicate that application of engineered sorbents like AC to PCB impacted soils may greatly reduce PCB uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Activated carbon studied as a sorbent for PCB impacted unsaturated soil. → Bioaccumulation of PCB greatly reduced in earthworms after carbon amendment. → Aging of the activated carbon amended soil further reduced bioaccumulation. → Activated carbon can be used for in-situ stabilization of PCB impacted soil. - Addition of activated carbon to PCB impacted soil reduces equilibrium aqueous concentrations and uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain.

  11. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K A; Mamta; Rao, R J

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste.

  12. A comparison of POPs bioaccumulation in Eisenia fetida in natural and artificial soils and the effects of aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlčková, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    The close relationship between soil organic matter and the bioavailability of POPs in soils suggests the possibility of using it for the extrapolation between different soils. The aim of this study was to prove that TOC content is not a single factor affecting the bioavailability of POPs and that TOC based extrapolation might be incorrect, especially when comparing natural and artificial soils. Three natural soils with increasing TOC and three artificial soils with TOC comparable to these natural soils were spiked with phenanthrene, pyrene, lindane, p,p′-DDT, and PCB 153 and studied after 0, 14, 28, and 56 days. At each sampling point, total soil concentration and bioaccumulation in earthworms Eisenia fetida were measured. The results showed different behavior and bioavailability of POPs in natural and artificial soils and apparent effects of aging on these differences. Hence, direct TOC based extrapolation between various soils seems to be limited. - Highlights: ► Artificial and natural soils with the same TOC content were used in this study. ► BAF and total concentration of five POPs were measured during 56 days after spiking. ► Bioaccumulation was significantly lower in NS than in AS with the same TOC. ► Direct extrapolation according to TOC was possible for soils with levels >10%. ► Microbial degradation probably influences PAHs bioavailability. - Organic matter is an important factor in the bioavailability of POPs in soils, but direct extrapolation based on TOC content might lead to incorrect results in risk assessment.

  13. Influence of activated carbon amendment on the accumulation and elimination of PCBs in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Piuly [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MA 21250 (United States); Ghosh, Upal, E-mail: ughosh@umbc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MA 21250 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In this study we investigated the use of activated carbon (AC) as a soil amendment for reducing bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Artificial soil was contaminated with PCBs and used in bioaccumulation experiments fresh or after aging for 19 months. PCB bioaccumulation in earthworms was reduced by 68% when AC was placed as a layer without mixing and by 94% when AC was manually mixed into the soil. Aging of the same AC mixed soil for 19 months resulted in an overall reduction of 99% in PCB biouptake. AC-treated aged soil also showed two orders of magnitude lower equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PCBs compared to untreated aged soils. The findings from this study indicate that application of engineered sorbents like AC to PCB impacted soils may greatly reduce PCB uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Activated carbon studied as a sorbent for PCB impacted unsaturated soil. > Bioaccumulation of PCB greatly reduced in earthworms after carbon amendment. > Aging of the activated carbon amended soil further reduced bioaccumulation. > Activated carbon can be used for in-situ stabilization of PCB impacted soil. - Addition of activated carbon to PCB impacted soil reduces equilibrium aqueous concentrations and uptake at the base of the terrestrial food chain.

  14. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K.A.; Mamta; Rao, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste. PMID:23961230

  15. Investigations performed on the compost worm Eisenia fetida and selected species of earthworms concerning the intake of HCB and pyrene with the goal of deriving a bioaccumulation test; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme von HCB und Pyren durch den Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und ausgewaehlte Regenwurmwildarten. Ableitung eines Bioakkumulationstests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vespermann, A.; Riepert, F.; Pflugmacher, J. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Inst. fuer Oekotoxikologie im Pflanzenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The man issues of the studies described were the validation of a test design for the assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of environmental pollutants and the applicability of Eisenia fetida as a model-organism and artificial soil (OECD) as a standard test substrate. The test organisms used were E. fetida of our own breeding stock and Allolobophora caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Allolobophora longa and Lumbricus rubellus sampled from a field site. Test soils used were the artificial soil (OECD) and a BBA field soil. Soils were each contaminated with 10 mg HCB and Pyrene per soil dry-weight. Within the test period of 4 weeks, samples were taken weekly for residue analysis in the worms and soils. Bioaccumulation factors (AF) calculated for E. fetida and the free-living species were in the range of 10-17 (HCB) and 0.9-1.7 (Pyrene) depending on the soil used. By re-calculation of the concentrations in soil to concentrations in soil water, the resulting bioconcentration factors are compared with published BCF values determined from QSAR's of other worm species and fresh water fish. It could be concluded that the existing earthworm tests (OECD 1984, ISO 1998) represent an appropriate design for testing the bioconcentration potential of chemicals in soil. (orig.) [German] Ziel der beschriebenen Untersuchungen war die praktische Ueberpruefung eines Methodenentwurfs zur Erfassung der Bioakkumulation von Umweltchemikalien mit Eisenia fetida, der Eignung von E. fetida als Modellorganismus und des OECD-Kunstbodens als Standardsubstrat. Als Testorganismen wurden aus eigener Zucht der Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und nach Feldentnahme Allolobophora caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Allolobophora longa und Lumbricus rubellus eingesetzt. Testboeden waren der OECD-Kunstboden und ein Boden vom Versuchsfeld der BBA in Berlin-Dahlem. Beiden Boeden wurden die Testsubstanzen Hexachlorbenzol und Pyren in einer Konzentration von 10 mg/kg Bodentrockengewicht zugemischt

  16. Die chemiese en aminosuursamestelling van die komposwurm, Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta as potensiële proteïenbron vir dierevoeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Daar bestaan ’n toenemende behoefte aan proteïenryke grondstowwe vir die veevoerbedryf in Suid-Afrika. Die intensiewe veebedryf en abattoirs produseer jaarliks groot hoeveelhede organiese afvalmateriaal waarvan die proteïeninhoud nie benut word nie. Die komposwurm, Eisenia fetida, kan op groot skaal op die afval geteel word. Dit is dus potensieel moontlik om dierlike afvalproteïene te herwin indien E. fetida as proteïenbron in gebalanseerde veerantsoene aangewend kan word. Daarom is die proteïenwaarde van die erdwurmspesie ondersoek deur die algemene chemiese samestelling en aminosuursamestelling te bepaal. Erdwurmmeel bevat al tien essensiële aminosure vir pluimvee, in besonder gunstige verhoudings. Daarbenewens is die listen- en metionienbeskikbaarheid van erdwurmmeel hoër as die van vismeel.

  17. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces by Eisenia fetida: effect of stocking density on feed consumption rate, growth characteristics and vermicompost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum stocking density for feed consumption rate, biomass growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida as well as determining and characterising vermicompost quantity and product, respectively, during vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces. For this, a number of experiments spanning up to 3 months were conducted using soil and vermicompost as support materials. Stocking density in the range of 0.25-5.00 kg/m(2) was employed in different tests. The results showed that 0.40-0.45 kg-feed/kg-worm/day was the maximum feed consumption rate by E. fetida in human faeces. The optimum stocking densities were 3.00 kg/m(2) for bioconversion of human faeces to vermicompost, and 0.50 kg/m(2) for earthworm biomass growth and reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodiversity of Earthworms in Taiwan: a Species Checklist with the Confirmation and New Records of the Exotic Lumbricids Eisenia fetida and Eiseniella tetraedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Blakemore

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial megadrile earthworms variously reported from Taiwan including Lanyu Island (Botel Tobago number approximately 70 species with 29 of these, or 40%, non-natives for which 69% are Asiatic Megascolecidae and 21% are Lumbricidae of Holarctic origin. An additional 27 unnamed species have been identified from Ilan county north-eastern Taiwan by Chen et al. (2003 that, if published, would bring the total to around 100 known species. The checklist is also provided with the confirmation and new records of the exotic lumbricids Eisenia fetida (Savigny and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny.

  19. Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Mac A; Stewart, Arthur J; Alarcón, Clara; McMillen, Sara J

    2002-08-01

    Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land-farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. Results indicated that plant growth was greater in earthworm-treated land-farm soil. Furthermore, addition of wheat straw resulted in greater total respiration in all soils tested (land-farm soil, noncontaminated reference soil, and a 1:1 mixture of land-farm and reference soils). We observed a 30% increase in soil respiration in straw-amended oily soil, whereas respiration increased by 246% in straw-amended reference soil. Much of the difference between oily and reference soils was attributable to higher basal respiration rates of nonamended oily soil compared to nonamended reference soil. Addition of earthworms resulted in greater total respiration of all soil and straw treatments except two (the land-farm and the 1:1 mixture soil treatments without straw). Straw and earthworm treatments did not affect O&G or TPH concentrations. Nevertheless, our findings that earthworm additions improved plant growth and that straw additions enhanced microbial activity in land-farm soil suggest that these treatments may be compatible with plant-based remediation techniques currently under evaluation in field trials, and could reduce the time required to restore soil ecosystem function.

  20. Vermicompostagem de lodo de curtume em associação com esterco bovino utilizando Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O lodo gerado pela indústria curtumeira é um exemplo de resíduo que provoca graves problemas ambientais. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a vermicompostagem de lodo de curtume, como método de reaproveitamento desse resíduo. Devido às características tóxicas do lodo de curtume, o mesmo foi misturado com esterco em várias proporções, em base seca. Durante 105 dias, a biomassa e a população das minhocas (Eisenia fetida foram avaliadas, além do pH, humidade e temperatura das unidades experimentais estabelecidas. Os substratos foram quimicamente caracterizados no início e no final do processo de vermicompostagem. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada em pH nos grupos com menores concentrações de lodo, no entanto, houve uma diminuição significativa no pH nos grupos com maiores concentrações do resíduo durante a vermicompostagem. As concentrações de Mg, Fe, Mn e Zn foram elevadas no vermicompostagem em todos os tratamentos. A relação C/N foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos, indicando o amadurecimento do substrato final. Os resultados indicam que vermicompostagem promove a conversão do lodo em composto em um curto intervalo de tempo, o que constitui um processo biotecnológico de tratamento capaz de adicionar o valor agronômico para este resíduo.

  1. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinshengli@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Matthew, Cory [Institute of Agriculture & Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Cavanagh, Jo [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640 (New Zealand); Qiu, Jiangping [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg{sup −1}) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg{sup −1} soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO{sub 2} production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  2. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li; Matthew, Cory; Cavanagh, Jo; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg"−"1) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg"−"1 soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg"−"1 soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO_2 production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  3. Cloning, expression and characterization of a gene from earthworm Eisenia fetida encoding a blood-clot dissolving protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GangQiang Li

    Full Text Available A lumbrokinase gene encoding a blood-clot dissolving protein was cloned from earthworm (Eisenia fetida by RT-PCR amplification. The gene designated as CST1 (GenBank No. AY840996 was sequence analyzed. The cDNA consists of 888 bp with an open reading frame of 729 bp, which encodes 242 amino acid residues. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that CST1 shares similarities and conserved amino acids with other reported lumbrokinases. The amino acid sequence of CST1 exhibits structural features similar to those found in other serine proteases, including human tissue-type (tPA, urokinase (uPA, and vampire bat (DSPAα1 plasminogen activators. CST1 has a conserved catalytic triad, found in the active sites of protease enzymes, which are important residues involved in polypeptide catalysis. CST1 was expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3. The molecular mass of recombinant CST1 (rCST was 25 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE, and further confirmed by Western Blot analysis. His-tagged rCST1 was purified and renatured using nickel-chelating resin with a recovery rate of 50% and a purity of 95%. The purified, renatured rCST1 showed fibrinolytic activity evaluated by both a fibrin plate and a blood clot lysis assay. rCST1 degraded fibrin on the fibrin plate. A significant percentage (65.7% of blood clot lysis was observed when blood clot was treated with 80 mg/mL of rCST1 in vitro. The antithrombotic activity of rCST1 was 912 units/mg calculated by comparison with the activity of a lumbrokinase standard. These findings indicate that rCST1 has potential as a potent blood-clot treatment. Therefore, the expression and purification of a single lumbrokinase represents an important improvement in the use of lumbrokinases.

  4. In vitro anthelmintic activity and chemical composition of methanol extracts and fractions of Croton paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana against Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leticia Cáceres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical composition and the anthelmintic activity of the methanol extracts and the acid and basic fractions of Croton paraguayensis (C. paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana (V. brasiliana against Eisenia fetida. Methods: A preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed to assess the presence of groups of secondary metabolites. The plants were extracted with methanol to obtain the crude extracts. A differential pH extraction was performed to isolate basic compounds like alkaloids. The methanolic extracts and the fractions obtained were tested for anthelmintic activity against Eisenia fetida, using albendazole as positive control. Results: The phytochemical test demonstrated the presence of alkaloids in the crude extracts and alkaline fractions, along with flavonoids, coumarins, steroids/triterpenes and tannins. The anthelmintic activity of the extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana showed a statistically significant decrease of the times for paralysis and death compared to albendazole. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana contain compounds that possess anthelmintic activity. The isolation of the substances responsible for the biological effect described could result in the development of new drugs to treat helminth diseases.

  5. Data on proteins of lysenin family in coelomocytes of Eisenia andrei and E. fetida obtained by tandem mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Swiderska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data described are related to the article “Lysenin family proteins in earthworm coelomocytes – comparative approach” (B. Swiderska, S. Kedracka-Krok, T. Panz, A.J. Morgan, A. Falniowski, P.Grzmil, B. Plytycz, 2016 [1]. Lysenin family proteins were identified based on unique peptides sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS in lumbricid earthworms Eisenia andrei and E. fetida, the latter with or without the MUG-like fluorophore. Lysenin and lysenin-related protein 2 (LRP-2, fetidin were identified in all 9 investigated specimens of Eisenia sp. LRP-1 was identified in 5 of 6 specimens of E. fetida, while LRP-3 was present in 2 of 3 investigated specimens of E. andrei. Here, the detailed characteristics of identified peptides unique to the particular members of lysenin family present in each particular earthworm specimen was provided. The information concerning mass to charge ratio, retention time, modifications and score of unique peptides was given.

  6. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  7. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment.

  8. Enzymatic dynamics into the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) gut during vermicomposting of coffee husk and market waste in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Arévalo, Berenice; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Huerta, Esperanza; Cuevas, Raúl; Calixto-Romo, M Angeles

    2018-01-01

    Epigeic worms modify microbial communities through their digestive processes, thereby influencing the decomposition of organic matter in vermicomposting systems. Nevertheless, the enzyme dynamics within the gut of tropically adapted earthworms is unknown, and the enzymes involved have not been simultaneously studied. The activities of 19 hydrolytic enzymes within three different sections of the intestine of Eisenia fetida were determined over a fasting period and at 24 h and 30, 60, and 90 days of vermicomposting, and data were evaluated by multivariate analyses. There were found positive correlations between the maximal activity of glycosyl hydrolases and one esterase with the anterior intestine (coincident with the reduction of hemicellulose in the substrate) and the activity of the protease α-chymotrypsin with posterior intestine. The results suggest that activities of enzymes change in a coordinated manner within each gut section, probably influenced by selective microbial enzyme enrichment and by the availability of nutrients throughout vermicomposting.

  9. Cellular and molecular responses of E. fetida cœlomocytes exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigorgne, Emilie; Foucaud, Laurent; Caillet, Céline; Giambérini, Laure; Nahmani, Johanne; Thomas, Fabien; Rodius, François

    2012-07-01

    An in vitro approach using cœlomocytes of Eisenia fetida was investigated to evaluate toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles. Cœlomocytes were exposed to well-dispersed suspension of small aggregates (130 nm) of TiO2 nanoparticles (1-25 μg/ml) during 4, 12 and 24 h. Intracellular localisation suggested that the main route of uptake was endocytosis. Cellular responses showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and had no effect on phagocytosis at any of the four concentrations for each time tested. Concerning molecular responses, an increase of fetidin and metallothionein mRNA expression was observed starting from 4 h of exposure. In contrast, expression of coelomic cytolytic factor mRNA decreased for 10 and 25 μg/ml after 4 h. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase expression were not modified suggesting that oxidative stress was not induced by TiO2 in our experimental conditions. This in vitro approach showed that TiO2 nanoparticles were taken up by cœlomocytes and they could modify the molecular response of immune and detoxification system.

  10. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species—Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pattnaik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW and floral waste (FW processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters—temperature, moisture, pH, and electrical conductivity—were also recorded. The nutrients—nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium—increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  11. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Li; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms were exposed to artificially contaminated soils with ten perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). PFASs with longer perfluorinated carbon chain displayed higher uptake rate coefficients (k u ), longer half-life (t 1/2 ) and time to steady-state (t ss ) but lower elimination rate coefficients (k e ) than the shorter ones. Similarly, perfluorosulfonates acids (PFSAs) displayed higher k u , longer t 1/2 and t ss but lower k e than perflurocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with the same perfluorinated chain length. All the studied PFASs, including those with seven or less perfluorinated carbons, were bioaccumulated in the earthworms and the biota-to-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) increased with perfluorinated carbon chain length and were greater for PFSAs than for PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. The BSAFs were found to be dependent on the concentrations of PFASs in soil and decreased as the level of PFASs in soil increased. -- Highlights: •PFASs with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbons were bioaccumulated in earthworm. •The BSAFs of PFASs in earthworm increased with perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The BSAFs of PFSAs were greater than PFCAs of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length. •The k u increased with perfluorinated chain length while k e decreased. •The BSAFs of PFASs decreased as their concentrations in soil increased. -- Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be effectively bioaccumulated in earthworms including those with seven or less perfluoroalkyl carbon chain length

  12. Assessment of DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by radiation in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Exposure of eukaryotic cells to ionizing radiation results in the immediate formation of free radicals and the occurrence of oxidative cell damage. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Based on their radioecological properties and their important role in the soil ecosystem, earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants (RAPs) to be used in environmental radiation protection. The investigation shows that oxidative stress is closely related to the exposed dose of radiation in the environment. To evaluate oxidative stress by ionizing radiation in the earthworm, we performed several experiments. The comet assay is known as a measurement which is one of the best techniques in assessing the DNA damage by oxidative stress. The SOD is a key enzyme in protecting cells against oxidative stress. An increase in the level of antioxidant enzyme such as SOD indicated that the exposure to radiation caused stress responses. Glutathione oxidation is considered as a maker for detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The GSSG levels increased progressively with increased exposure dose of ionizing radiation, which suggested a dose-dependent ROS generation.

  13. The effects of the insecticide lambda-Cyhalothrin on the earthworm Eisenia fetida under experimental conditions of tropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos; Scheffczyk, Adam; Garcia, Terezinha; Römbke, Jörg

    2011-02-01

    Plant Protection Products can affect soil organisms and thus might have negative impacts on soil functions. Little research has been performed on their impact on tropical soils. Therefore, the effects of the insecticide lambda-Cyhalothrin on earthworms were evaluated in acute and chronic laboratory tests modified for tropical conditions, i.e. at selected temperatures (20 and 28°C) and with two strains (temperate and tropical) of the compost worm Eisenia fetida. The insecticide was spiked in two natural soils, in OECD artificial soil and a newly developed tropical artificial soil. The effects of lambda-Cyhalothrin did rarely vary in the same soil at tropical (LC50: 68.5-229 mg a.i./kg dry weight (DW); EC50: 54.2-60.2 mg a.i./kg DW) and temperate (LC50: 99.8-140 mg a.i./kg DW; EC50: 37.4-44.5 mg a.i./kg DW) temperatures. In tests with tropical soils and high temperature, effect values differed by up to a factor of ten. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrient changes and biodynamics of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of water lettuce (Pistia sp.) biomass: a noxious weed of aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surindra; Pandey, Bhawna; Gusain, Rita; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Kumar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of vermicomposting of water lettuce biomass (WL) spiked with cow dung at ratios of 20, 40, 60, and 80 % employing Eisenia fetida. A total of four treatments were established and changes in chemical properties of mixtures were observed. Vermicomposting caused a decrease in pH, TOC, volatile solids, and C/N ratio by 1.01-1.08-fold, 0.85-0.92-fold, 0.94-0.96-fold, 0.56-0.70-fold, respectively, but increase in EC, tot N, tot P, tot K, tot Ca, tot Zn, tot Fe, and tot Cu, by 1.19-1.42-fold, 1.33-1.68-fold, 1.38-1.69-fold, 1.13-1.24-fold, 1.04-1.11-fold, 1.16-1.37-fold, 1.05-1.113-fold, 1.10-1.27-fold, respectively. Overall, the treatment with 60-80 % of WL showed the maximum decomposition and mineralization rates. The earthworm showed the growth and reproduction rate in considerable ranges in all treatment setups but setups with 60-80 % WL proportion exhibited the optimum results. Results reveal that biomass of water lettuce can be utilized effectively for production of valuable manure through vermicomposting system.

  15. The effects of the insecticide lambda-Cyhalothrin on the earthworm Eisenia fetida under experimental conditions of tropical and temperate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcos; Scheffczyk, Adam; Garcia, Terezinha; Roembke, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Plant Protection Products can affect soil organisms and thus might have negative impacts on soil functions. Little research has been performed on their impact on tropical soils. Therefore, the effects of the insecticide lambda-Cyhalothrin on earthworms were evaluated in acute and chronic laboratory tests modified for tropical conditions, i.e. at selected temperatures (20 and 28 o C) and with two strains (temperate and tropical) of the compost worm Eisenia fetida. The insecticide was spiked in two natural soils, in OECD artificial soil and a newly developed tropical artificial soil. The effects of lambda-Cyhalothrin did rarely vary in the same soil at tropical (LC50: 68.5-229 mg a.i./kg dry weight (DW); EC50: 54.2-60.2 mg a.i./kg DW) and temperate (LC50: 99.8-140 mg a.i./kg DW; EC50: 37.4-44.5 mg a.i./kg DW) temperatures. In tests with tropical soils and high temperature, effect values differed by up to a factor of ten. - Research highlights: → In one soil, effects of lambda-Cyhalothrin did not vary much at two temperatures. → In tropical soils at high temperature, effects differed by up to a factor of ten. → In the tropics, effects of pesticides can be higher or lower as in temperate regions. - The effects of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on earthworms did not differ considerably when performed in the same soil under different temperatures, but LC/EC 50 values varied by a factor of ten between OECD and tropical artificial soil.

  16. The effects of the insecticide lambda-Cyhalothrin on the earthworm Eisenia fetida under experimental conditions of tropical and temperate regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcos [Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Scheffczyk, Adam [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany); Garcia, Terezinha [Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, Rod. AM-10, Km 28, 69.011-970 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Roembke, Joerg, E-mail: j-roembke@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, D-65439 Floersheim (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Plant Protection Products can affect soil organisms and thus might have negative impacts on soil functions. Little research has been performed on their impact on tropical soils. Therefore, the effects of the insecticide lambda-Cyhalothrin on earthworms were evaluated in acute and chronic laboratory tests modified for tropical conditions, i.e. at selected temperatures (20 and 28 {sup o}C) and with two strains (temperate and tropical) of the compost worm Eisenia fetida. The insecticide was spiked in two natural soils, in OECD artificial soil and a newly developed tropical artificial soil. The effects of lambda-Cyhalothrin did rarely vary in the same soil at tropical (LC50: 68.5-229 mg a.i./kg dry weight (DW); EC50: 54.2-60.2 mg a.i./kg DW) and temperate (LC50: 99.8-140 mg a.i./kg DW; EC50: 37.4-44.5 mg a.i./kg DW) temperatures. In tests with tropical soils and high temperature, effect values differed by up to a factor of ten. - Research highlights: In one soil, effects of lambda-Cyhalothrin did not vary much at two temperatures. In tropical soils at high temperature, effects differed by up to a factor of ten. In the tropics, effects of pesticides can be higher or lower as in temperate regions. - The effects of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on earthworms did not differ considerably when performed in the same soil under different temperatures, but LC/EC{sub 50} values varied by a factor of ten between OECD and tropical artificial soil.

  17. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of bismuth citrate to earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to natural sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omouri, Zohra; Hawari, Jalal; Fournier, Michel; Robidoux, Pierre Yves

    2018-01-01

    The present study describes bioavailability and chronic effects of bismuth to earthworms Eisenia andrei using OECD reproduction test. Adult earthworms were exposed to natural sandy soil contaminated artificially by bismuth citrate. Average total concentrations of bismuth in soil recovered by HNO 3 digestion ranged from 75 to 289mg/kg. Results indicate that bismuth decreased significantly all reproduction parameters of Eisenia andrei at concentrations ≥ 116mg/kg. However, number of hatched cocoons and number of juveniles seem to be more sensitive than total number of cocoons, as determined by IC 50 ; i.e., 182, 123 and > 289mg/kg, respectively. Bismuth did not affect Eisenia andrei growth and survival, and had little effect on phagocytic efficiency of coelomocytes. The low immunotoxicity effect might be explained by the involvement of other mechanisms i.e. bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased with increasing bismuth concentrations in soil reaching a stationary state of 21.37mg/kg dry tissue for 243mg Bi/kg dry soil total content. Data indicate also that after 56 days of incubation the average fractions of bismuth available extracted by KNO 3 aqueous solution in soil without earthworms varied from 0.0051 to 0.0229mg/kg, while in soil with earthworms bismuth concentration ranged between 0.310-1.347mg/kg dry soil. We presume that mucus and chelating agents produced by earthworms and by soil or/and earthworm gut microorganisms could explain this enhancement, as well as the role of dermal and ingestion routes of earthworms uptake to soil contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

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    Bader Albogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of soil lead (Pb with different isotope compositions at a range of Pb concentrations. Earthworms (Eiseniafetida were exposed to different lead concentrations through the addition of 500 mg/kg lead oxide (Pb3O4 to soil and 500 mg/kg lead nitrate to food (manure, with distinctly different isotopic compositions. Earthworms were also exposed to combinations of soil only and soil plus food in order to quantify the proportions of Pb taken up from each component. After acid digestion of the earthworm tissues, the Pb isotope composition of the accumulated lead in the earthworms was measured using a Thermo-fisher, iCAPQ, ICP-MS for 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured relative to NIST SRM 981, allowing us to determine the pathway of lead uptake. Mixing calculations have been used to deconvolute the lead isotope signatures and identify the amount of lead taken up by the earthworms from the different soil pools. Differences in bioaccumulation factors and the relative amounts of lead accumulated from different pools changes as a function of concentration in the different pools. Earthworms were shown to uptake lead from bothsoil and food sources through ingestion route. Our findings suggest that a major pathway of lead uptake in earthworm species is heavily influenced by their ecology.

  19. RESPUESTAS BIOQUÍMICAS EN LA LOMBRIZ DE TIERRA Eisenia andrei EXPUESTA A CADMIO | BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES IN THE EARTHWORM Eisenia andrei EXPOSED TO CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanny Hernández

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd bioaccumulation on metallothioneins (MT, total proteins (TP, sulfhydryl groups (-SH and tiobarbituric acid reaction substances (TBARS levels were determined in medium-anterior (MA and medium-posterior (MP corporal regions of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. The organisms were exposed to concentrations of 0; 2.50 and 10.30 mg Cd/kg of substrate, during 7, 15 and 21 days. Cd levels increased in the exposed organisms proportionally to the concentrations and duration of exposure; this metal was mostly accumulated to the MP region. Cd-treatment caused increases in the MT, -SH and TP levels in both corporal regions, with the highest values in MA. TBARS concentrations increased in doses-days relationship, showed the highest levels in MA; this increment is probably associated to the Cd-bioacumulation that can affect the mechanisms of defenses against reactive oxygen species. MT concentrations in exposed organisms suggest their relevance as effective response of molecular defense against Cd toxicity. These corporal biochemical responses associated to Cd-uptake form part of the molecular defense system that avoids interferences on the reproductive tissue (clitellum, allowing to accumulate the highest quantity of Cd in the MP region. Eisenia andrei has a differential capacity along its body to modulate adjustments of molecular responses, which could allow the tolerance and effectiveness of survival in Cd-polluted soils.

  20. Herbicide Glyphosate Impact to Earthworm (E. fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Dajoraitė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a broad spectrum weed resistant herbicide. Glyphosate may pose negative impact on land ecosystems because of wide broad usage and hydrofilic characteristic. The aim of this study was to investigate negative effects of glyphosate on soil invertebrate organisms (earthworm Eisenia fetida. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. The range of the test concentrations of glyphosate were: 0,1, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg. To investigate the glyphosate impact on earthworm Eisenia fetida the following endpoints were measured: survival, reproduction and weight. The exposure to 20 mg/kg glyphosate has led to the 100% mortality of earthworms. Glyphosate has led to decreased E. fetida reproduction, the cocoons were observed only in the lowest concentration (0,1 mg/kg. In general: long-term glyphosate toxicity to earthworms (E. fetida may be significant.

  1. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95% confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64% in the sandy and 78% clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer.

  2. Influence of Cadmium(II Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida – Bio- transforming of Toxic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular andcysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentrationof a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for theanalysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge.Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetryBrdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By meansthis very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrationsbelow 1 μmol.l-1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MTlevel in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l-1. When weanalysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT contentincreased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, weattempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using ofearthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly.Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. Themetallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applieddose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesisis insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h.

  3. Toxic responses of Sox2 gene in the regeneration of the earthworm Eisenia foetida exposed to Retnoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Rong, Wei; Diao, Xiaoping; Zhou, Hailong

    2018-01-01

    Exogenous retinoic acid delays and disturbs the regeneration of Eisenia foetida. The stem cell pluripotency factor, Sox2, can play a crucial role in cell reprogramming and dedifferentiation. In this study, we compared the regeneration of Eisenia foetida in different segments after amputation and the effects of retinoic acid on the regeneration of different segments. The results showed that the regeneration speed of the head and tail was slightly faster than the middle part, and retinoic acid disrupted and delayed the regeneration of the earthworm. The qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of the Sox2 gene and Sox2 protein was highest on the seventh day in different segments (pregeneration of earthworms and the formation of blastema are related to the expression of the Sox2 gene and protein. Retinoic acid delays and interferes with the regeneration of the earthworm by affecting the expression levels of the Sox2 gene and protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and Eisenia nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic Eisenia nordenskioldi ssp. is appended. PMID:23798894

  5. Toxicokinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to metal-contaminated soils under different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; Loureiro, Susana; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated how different combinations of air temperature (20 °C and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), reflecting realistic climate change scenarios, affect the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Earthworms were exposed for 21 d to two metal-contaminated soils (uptake phase), followed by 21 d incubation in non-contaminated soil (elimination phase). Body Zn and Cd concentrations were checked in time and metal uptake (k 1 ) and elimination (k 2 ) rate constants determined; metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated as k 1 /k 2 . Earthworms showed extremely fast uptake and elimination of Zn, regardless of the exposure level. Climate conditions had no major impacts on the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn, although a tendency towards lower k 1 and k 2 values was observed at 25 °C + 30% WHC. Earthworm Cd concentrations gradually increased with time upon exposure to metal-contaminated soils, especially at 50% WHC, and remained constant or slowly decreased following transfer to non-contaminated soil. Different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content changed the bioaccumulation kinetics of Cd, leading to higher k 1 and k 2 values for earthworms incubated at 25 °C + 50% WHC and slower Cd kinetics at 25 °C + 30% WHC. This resulted in greater BAFs for Cd at warmer and drier environments which could imply higher toxicity risks but also of transfer of Cd within the food chain under the current global warming perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic Matter Reduces Copper Toxicity for the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Soils from Mining Areas in Central Chile Materia Orgánica Reduce la Toxicidad del Cobre para la Lombriz Eiseniafetida en Suelos de Áreas Mineras en Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ávila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aconcagua River basin (Central Chile is one of the most important agricultural areas in the country. However, several copper (Cu mining operations are located in the basin. The objective of the study was to determine Cu toxicity for the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826 in the agricultural soils of the basin. We determined the production of cocoons and juveniles of earthworms in the studied soils. The soils differed in the concentrations of organic matter (OM, range 2-6%, pH (range 7.3-8.3, texture (from loamy sand to clay loam, and total Cu concentrations (range 230-960 mg kg-1. Concentrations of Cu and OM in the soils were the variables that determined the earthworms’ biological response. In contrast, pH and texture did not affect this response. Cocoon and juvenile production decreased considerably in soils with elevated Cu concentrations (>500 mg kg-1, regardless of OM concentrations. Cocoon production decreased in the soils with Cu concentrations below 500 mg kg-1 when OM concentrations were below 3.5%. In contrast, cocoon production did not vary when OM concentrations were above 3.5%. The same effect of OM was observed on juvenile production. In this case, the threshold for OM concentration was 2.5%. It was concluded that it is important to consider OM concentrations in order to predict the biological response of earthworms in these soils.La cuenca del Río Aconcagua (Chile Central es una de las más importantes áreas agrícolas en el país. Por otro lado, varias industrias de la minería de cobre (Cu se encuentran ubicadas en esta cuenca. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la toxicidad de Cu para la lombriz Eiseniafetida (Savigny 1826 en los suelos agrícolas de la cuenca. Se determinó la producción de capullos y juveniles de la lombriz en suelos estudiados. Los suelos se diferenciaron por las concentraciones de materia orgánica (MO, rango 2-6%, pH (rango 7,3-8,3, textura (entre arenoso franca y franco arcillosa y

  7. Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Seana K.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common b...

  8. earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of temperature on the reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia foetida ... feeding supplements for poultry, fish and other livestock ... of earthworm reproduction. ..... invertebrate populations in artificial soil made of sewage sludge and.

  9. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetida—Its Histological Perspicuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan Gobi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg kg−1, 0.5150 mg kg−1, and 2.5750 mg kg−1 of butachlor based on the LC50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated.

  10. Earthworms newly from Mongolia (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, Eisenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blakemore

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879 species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and E. nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the E. fetida (Savigny, 1826 sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826 along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic E. nordenskioldi ssp. is appended.

  11. Microbial Environment Affects Innate Immunity in Two Closely Related Earthworm Species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Šilerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION * CELOMIC FLUID * TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNITY Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EC - Immunology (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  12. Accumulation and Sublethal Effects of Triclosan and its Transformation Product Methyl-triclosan in the Earthworm Eisenia andrei Exposed to Environmental Concentrations in an Artificial Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillot, Fanny; Guyot, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Cadoret, Nicole; Veilleux, Éloïse; Cabana, Hubert; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-18

    Municipal biosolids are increasingly used as a low-cost fertilizer in agricultural soil. Biosolids are contaminated by low concentrations (ng g -1 dw range) of a large variety of organic contaminants, such as triclosan (TCS). The effect of exposure to low concentrations of organic contaminants on soil biota remains largely undocumented. We evaluated the sublethal effects of TCS on the earthworm Eisenia andrei using an artificial soil amended with a nominal concentration of TCS of 50 ng g -1 dry weight soil. Using a 56-d reproduction test, we monitored the effect of TCS exposure on adult earthworm survival, growth, and reproduction. The bioaccumulation of TCS in earthworm tissue (adults and juveniles) and degradation of TCS were monitored. The genotoxicity of TCS was evaluated using a comet assay (DNA damage) on adult earthworm coelomocytes. Exposure to a low concentration of TCS had no significant effects on adult earthworm survival and DNA damage, but significantly stimulated growth (P increase in the number of cocoons and juveniles, and a decrease in the mean dry weight of juveniles. The bioaccumulation of TCS in earthworms was moderate (bioaccumulation factor ∼ 2). In biosolid-borne trials, the bioaccumulation of methyl-triclosan in earthworm tissues was higher than the parent compound TCS. We conclude that exposure to low concentrations of TCS in artificial soil can significantly affect the growth and reproductive performance of earthworms (i.e., E. andrei). More research is required with natural soils to assess TCS bioavailability for earthworms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within the host egg capsules using type IV pili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEANA Kelyn DAVIDSON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer (HGT through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation. However, studies of the significance of natural transformation have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by natural transformation in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system.

  14. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  15. Efectos subletales de la lambda-cialotrina sobre Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) Sublethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Ricardo; Maria Inés Maitre; Alba Rut Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    El uso intensivo de agroquímicos provoca efectos dañinos sobre la fauna no blanco. Dentro de la misma, los oligoquetos contribuyen a mantener la estructura y fertilidad del suelo. La lambda-cialotrina es uno de los insecticidas piretroides más utilizados en la Argentina, pero son escasos los datos existentes acerca de su toxicidad sobre oligoquetos. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar mediante bioensayos de toxicidad crónica los efectos de lambda-cialotrina (producto comercial al 5%)...

  16. Influence of soil properties on the bioaccumulation and effects of arsenic in the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero Freire, A.; Martin Peinado, F.J.; Diez Ortiz, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of soil properties on the uptake and toxicity effects of arsenic in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed for 4 weeks to seven natural soils spiked with different arsenic concentrations. Water-soluble soil concentrations (AsW) and internal As concentrations

  17. Effect of cation competition on cadmium uptake from solution by the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.-Z.; Zhou, D.-M.; Wang, P.; Jin, S.-Y.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Reinecke, A.J.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Metal speciation alone is insufficient to predict metal accumulation in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, because competition between cations can play an important role. In the present study, the effects of competing cations (Ca

  18. Eisenia fetida Protease-III-1 Functions in Both Fibrinolysis and Fibrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fibrinolytic function of earthworm protease-III-1 (EfP-III-1 has been studied in recent years. Here, we found that EfP-III-1 acted not only in fibrinogenolysis, but also in fibrogenesis. We have used EfP-III-1 to hydrolyze fibrinogen, and to activate plasminogen and prothrombin. Based on the N-terminal sequences of the hydrolytic fragments, EfP-III-1 was showed to specifically recognize the carboxylic sites of arginine and lysine. Analyses by fibrinogenolysis mapping and amino acid sequencing revealed that the isozyme could cleave the alpha, beta, and gamma chains of fibrinogen, showing a high α-fibrinogenase, moderate β-fibrinogenase, and low γ-fibrinogenase activities. Interestingly, EfP-III-1 activated plasminogen and released active plasmin, suggesting a tPA-like function. Furthermore, EfP-III-1 showed a factor Xa-like function on prothrombin, producing alpha-thrombin. The function in both activating prothrombin and catalyzing fibrinogenolysis suggests that EfP-III-1 may play a role in the balance between procoagulation and anticoagulation.

  19. Time-course profiling of molecular stress responses to silver nanoparticles in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Simonsen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    ) with reference to dissolved silver salt (AgNO3). Principal component analysis of selected gene and enzyme response profiles revealed dissimilar patterns between AgNO3 and AgNP treatments and also over time. Despite the observed difference in molecular profiles, the body burdens of total Ag were within the same...... range (10–40 mg/kg dry weight worm) for both treatments with apparent correlation to the induction pattern of metallothionein. AgNO3 induced the genes and enzymes related to oxidative stress at day 1, after which markers of energy metabolism were all suppressed at day 2. Exposure to AgNPs likewise led...... to induction of oxidative stress genes at day 2, but with a temporal pattern shift to immune genes at day 14 following metabolic upregulation at day 7. The involvement of oxidative stress and subsequent alterations in immune gene regulation were as predicted by our in vitro study reported previously...

  20. Oxidative stress and gene expression of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Xiuguo; You, Xiangwei; Chen, Dan; Li, Yiqiang; Wang, Fenglong

    2017-08-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have become the most widely used pesticides in the world. Clothianidin is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide with a thiazolyl ring that exhibits excellent biological efficacy against a variety of pests. In the present study, the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of clothianidin on earthworms were evaluated. Moreover, the effective concentrations of clothianidin in artificial soil were monitored during the whole exposure period. The results showed that clothianidin was stable in artificial soil and that the residue concentrations were 0.094, 0.476, and 0.941mg/kg after 28 d of exposure, which represented changes no more than 10% compared to the concentrations on the 0th day. Additionally, both the concentration of and exposure time to clothianidin had a substantial influence on biomarkers in earthworms. At 0.5mg/kg and 1.0mg/kg, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were greatly enhanced, causing changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, damage to biological macromolecules and abnormal expression of functional genes. Additionally, the present results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), DNA damage and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) may be good indicators for environmental risk assessment of clothianidin to earthworms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Characterization, molecular cloning and localization of calreticulin in Eisenia fetida earthworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilerová, Marcela; Kauschke, E.; Kohlerová, Petra; Josková, Radka; Tučková, Ludmila; Bilej, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 397, - (2007), s. 169-177 ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD310/03/H147; GA AV ČR IAA5020208; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworms * annelids * invertebrates Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.871, year: 2007

  2. Toxicities of TNT and RDX to the Earthworm Eisenia fetida in Five Soils with Contrasting Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    to prevent photolysis of the EM. Each soil treatment sample was then transferred into a fluorocarbon-coated, high-density polyethylene container and...and abiotic processes under anaerobic and aerobic conditions (Sunahara et al., 2001). A number of soil-borne bacteria and fungi are known to transform

  3. Efectos subletales de la lambda-cialotrina sobre eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo, Tamara; Maitre, Maria Ines; Rodriguez, Alba Rut

    2017-01-01

    El uso intensivo de agroquímicos provoca efectos indeseables sobre la fauna no blanco. Dentro de la misma, los oligoquetos contribuyen a mantener la estructura y fertilidad del suelo. La lambda-cialotrina es uno de los insecticidas piretroides más utilizados en Argentina, pero son escasos los datos existentes acerca de su toxicidad sobre oligoquetos. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar mediante bioensayos de toxicidad crónica los efectos de lambda-cialotrina (producto comercial al 5%...

  4. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of metalaxy-M on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Han, Yingnan; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yan

    2014-10-01

    As the main optical isomer of metalaxyl, metalaxyl-M has been widely used worldwide in recent years because of its notable effect on the prevention and control of crop diseases. Together with the toxicity and degradation of metalaxyl-M, the chemical has attracted the attention of researchers. The present study examined the toxic effects of metalaxyl-M on earthworms at 0 mg kg(-1) , 0.1 mg kg(-1) , 1 mg kg(-1) , and 3 mg kg(-1) on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after exposure. The results showed that metalaxyl-M could cause an obvious increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when the concentration was higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) , which led to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. Metalaxyl-M can induce DNA damage in earthworms, and the level of DNA damage markedly increased with increasing the concentration of metalaxyl-M. Metalaxyl-M also has a serious influence on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which results in irreversible oxidative damage in cells. The changes of these indicators all indicated that metalaxyl-M may cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on earthworms. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  6. The potential acute and chronic toxicity of cyfluthrin on the soil model organism, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Yang, Da; Song, Yufang; Shi, Yi; Huang, Bin; Bitsch, Annette; Yan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the acute (72h and 14 d) and chronic (28 d and 8 weeks) effects of cyfluthrin on earthworms were evaluated across different endpoints, which are mortality, growth, reproduction and enzyme activities. Cyfluthrin was rated as moderately toxic in 72-h filter paper test and low toxic in 14-day soil test. The exposure of earthworms to cyfluthrin-polluted soil for 8 weeks showed that growth of earthworms was inhibited by cyfluthrin, cocoon production and hatching were inhibited by 20-60mg/kg cyfluthrin. Moreover, 28-day soil test on the responses of enzymes associated with antioxidation and detoxification showed that the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) were initially increased by cyfluthrin at 5-20mg/kg, but reduced at 30-60mg/kg, peroxidase (POD) was increased by 26-102% by cyfluthrin in the early period, except 5mg/kg on day 7, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) was increased by 29-335% by cyfluthrin after 3 days. Cyfluthrin degraded with a half-life of 24.8-34.8 d, showing the inconsistency between the continuous toxic responses of earthworms and degradation of cyfluthrin in soil. The variable responses of these indexes indicated that different level endpoints should be jointly considered for better evaluation of the environmental risk of contaminants in soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    of a polar group. I have worked with two test organisms that utilize this degradation pathway, the earthworm Eisenia Fetida and the terrestrial fungus Cunninghamella elegans. E. fetida was exposed to the two PAHs, phenanthrene and pyrene, in a hydroponic culture. E. fetida was extensively able to transform...

  8. De novo transcriptome assembly, functional annotation and differential gene expression analysis of juvenile and adult E. fetida, a model oligochaete used in ecotoxicological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Thunders

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earthworms are sensitive to toxic chemicals present in the soil and so are useful indicator organisms for soil health. Eisenia fetida are commonly used in ecotoxicological studies; therefore the assembly of a baseline transcriptome is important for subsequent analyses exploring the impact of toxin exposure on genome wide gene expression. Results This paper reports on the de novo transcriptome assembly of E. fetida using Trinity, a freely available software tool. Trinotate was used to carry out functional annotation of the Trinity generated transcriptome file and the transdecoder generated peptide sequence file along with BLASTX, BLASTP and HMMER searches and were loaded into a Sqlite3 database. To identify differentially expressed transcripts; each of the original sequence files were aligned to the de novo assembled transcriptome using Bowtie and then RSEM was used to estimate expression values based on the alignment. EdgeR was used to calculate differential expression between the two conditions, with an FDR corrected P value cut off of 0.001, this returned six significantly differentially expressed genes. Initial BLASTX hits of these putative genes included hits with annelid ferritin and lysozyme proteins, as well as fungal NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and senescence associated proteins. At a cut off of P = 0.01 there were a further 26 differentially expressed genes. Conclusion These data have been made publicly available, and to our knowledge represent the most comprehensive available transcriptome for E. fetida assembled from RNA sequencing data. This provides important groundwork for subsequent ecotoxicogenomic studies exploring the impact of the environment on global gene expression in E. fetida and other earthworm species.

  9. Avoidance behaviour testing of Eisenia andrei in biodegradable plastic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tichá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance behaviour test with the earthworms (ISO 17512-1:2008 is a rapid screening test for the evaluation of soil and the influence of pollutants and chemicals on the behaviour of earthworms. The purpose of the testing is to determine the avoidance behaviour of earthworm (in this case Eisenia andrei was used which can be used as an organism for the composting and occur naturally in soil environment. The methodology was modified according to the needs of the avoidance behaviour testing of earthworms in biodegradable plastic environment. It is a biodegradable thermoplastic material Mater-Bi, which is produced from corn starch. Californian earthworm (Eisenia andrei was chosen as a test organism. The two-chamber test was used in testing. 10 earthworms were used, which were exposed to a number of concentrations of the test substance, which was mixed into the compost environment. It was recorded both a positive result, avoidance reaction, as well as a negative result, non-avoidance reaction and also there was a case, where individuals prefer both substrates equally. Organisms showed no escape reaction and were fairly evenly distributed in both halves of the test vessel, it can be assessed that organisms prefer both substrates equally. In testing, the mortality was zero, none of the individuals died, at the conclusion of the test there were not found any dead individuals. Avoidance higher than 80 % didn’t occur; it cannot be said that the substrate is toxic or degraded.

  10. Glycosaminoglycans from earthworms (Eisenia andrei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A-Rang; Park, Youmie; Sim, Joon-Soo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Liu, Zhenling; Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2010-02-01

    The whole tissue of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) was lyophilized and extracted to purify glycosaminoglycans. Fractions, eluting from an anion-exchange column at 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl, showed the presence of acidic polysaccharides on agarose gel electrophoresis. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that galactose and glucose were most abundant monosaccharides in both fractions. Depolymerization of the polysaccharide mixture with glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes confirmed the presence of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction. The content of GAGs (uronic acid containing polysaccharide) in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction determined by carbazole assay was 2%. Disaccharide compositional analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis after chondroitinase digestion (ABC and ACII), showed that the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate contained a 4-O-sulfo (76%), 2,4-di-O-sulfo (15%), 6-O-sulfo (6%), and unsulfated (4%) uronic acid linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. LC-ESI-MS analysis of heparin lyase I/II/III digests demonstrated the presence of N-sulfo (69%), N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (25%) and 2-O-sulfo-N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (5%) uronic acid linked N-acetylglucosamine residues.

  11. INMUNOTOXICIDAD DE MALATIÓN Y CLORPIRIFOS EN LA LOMBRIZ DE TIERRA Eisenia sp. (ANNELIDA: OLIGOCHAETA | IMMUNOTOXICITY OF MALATHION AND CHLORPYRIFOS IN THE EARTHWORM Eisenia sp. (ANNELIDA: OLIGOCHAETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cortesia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of malathion and chlorpyrifos on immune responses of Eisenia sp. were assessed using standard toxicity assays. In plastic containers with natural soils as substrate, mature sexually earthworms were exposed to malathion (300 mg kg-1of soil and chlorpyrifos (300 mg kg-1of soil during 7 and 21 days. After exposure periods, cellular viability, total number of coelomocytes (NTC, percentage of phagocytic cells (PCF, lysozyme activity and hemolytic percentage were determined. Malathion and chlorpyrifos exposures caused a significant decrease in NTC, lysozyme and hemolytic activities, but these variables were not affected by time of exposure. PCF declined in earthworms exposed to both pesticides; this decline was dependent of the time-exposure. The results suggest an immunotoxic action of both agrochemicals on humoral and cellular immune responses of Eisenia sp., which could intensify the detrimental effects caused by biotic stressors, such as pathogens microrganisms that live in the soil. The immune responses mediated by the coelocmocytes of Eisenia sp. evaluated in this study were negatively affected by malathion and chlorpyrifos, demonstrating their sensitivity as potential biomarkers useful in early detection of environmental impact by organophosphate pesticides.

  12. Ontwikkeling van een toets ter bepaling van sublethale effecten van chemische stoffen op regenwormen. II. Reproduktie door de regenwormen Eisenia fetida en Eisenia andrei in een kunstgrond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestel CAM van; Dis WA van; Breemen EM van

    1988-01-01

    Nagegaan werd of coconproduktie-experimenten uitgevoerd kunnen worden met de voor acuut toxiciteitsonderzoek met regenwormen aanbevolen kunstgrond en regenwormsoorten. Uiteindelijke doel van het onderzoek is te komen tot een toets waarmee het effect van chemische stoffen op de reproduktie van

  13. Analysis of chromium status in the revegetated flora of a tannery waste site and microcosm studies using earthworm E. fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Subramanian, Avudainayagam; Thavamani, Palanisami; Ramadass, Kavitha; Aryal, Rupak; Saint, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Chromium from tannery waste dump site causes significant environmental pollution affecting surrounding flora and fauna. The primary aims of this study were to survey vegetation, investigate the degree of soil pollution occurring near tannery waste dump site and make a systematic evaluation of soil contamination based on the chromium levels found in plants and earthworms from the impacted areas. This paper presents the pollution load of toxic heavy metals, and especially chromium, in 10 soil samples and 12 species of plants. Soil samples were analysed for heavy metals by using ICP-MS/ICP-OES method. Results indicated that Cr in soils exceeded soil quality guideline limits (SQGL). The total chromium present in the above ground parts of plants ranged from 1.7 mg kg -1 in Casuarina sp. to 1007 mg kg -1 in Sonchus asper. The Cr bioaccumulation in Eisenia fetida from tannery waste soil ranged from 5 to 194 mg kg -1 . The high enrichment factor of Cr in S. asper and bioaccumulation factor in earthworms indicate that there is a steady increase of toxic chromium risk in this area, which could be correlated with the past dumping activity. Emphasis needs to be put on control measures of pollution and remediation techniques in such areas to achieve an ecologically sustainable industrialisation.

  14. The response of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and soil microbes to the crumb rubber material used in artificial turf fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon T; Fiorenza, Andrew; Sperl, Cassandra; Ledda, Brianne; Lawrence Patterson, Charles; Tucker, Clara C; Tucker, Wade; Ho, Yuwan Lisa; Panico, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Municipalities have been replacing grass fields with artificial turf, which uses crumb rubber infill made from recycled tires. Crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals. Water runoff from crumb rubber fields contains heavy metals. These components can damage the environment. We contaminated topsoil with new crumb rubber and measured its impact on earthworms and soil microbes. Specifically, we compared soil microbe activity and earthworm health, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress under two soil regimes: clean topsoil and clean topsoil contaminated with crumb rubber. We then characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published New York soil background levels and to levels set by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) as remediation goals. We found that: 1) contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates, 2) earthworm survivorship was not impacted by exposure to contaminated soil, 3) earthworms' ability to cope with heat and light stress remained unchanged after living in contaminated soil, but 4) earthworms living in contaminated soil gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil. We also found that, with the exception of zinc, heavy metals in our contaminated soil did not exceed the background levels found throughout New York State or the remediation targets set by the DEC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Evaluación de la toxicidad de cobre en suelos a través de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en eisenia foetida Assessment of copper toxicity in soils using biomarkers of oxidative stress in eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Gaete

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper toxicity in soil was evaluated using biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Agricultural topsoils from mining areas of the Aconcagua river basin were collected. Total copper concentrations were in the range of 94-959 mg kg-1, while the exchangeable copper concentrations were in the range of 46-2225 µg kg-1. Earthworms exposed to soil with exchangeable copper concentrations above 32 µg kg-1 showed an increase in catalase activity. Parameters of antioxidant activity were more sensitive than the weight change and thus can be used as appropriate biomarkers in Eisenia foetida.

  16. Effects of Cry1Ab Transgenic Maize on Lifecycle and Biomarker Responses of the Earthworm, Eisenia Andrei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Maboeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 28-day study was conducted to determine the effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Previously, investigations have been limited to life-cycle level effects of this protein on earthworms, and mostly on E. fetida. In this study several endpoints were compared which included biomass changes, cocoon production, hatching success, a cellular metal-stress biomarker (Neutral Red Retention Time; NRRT and potential genotoxic effects in terms of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPDs. NRRT results indicated no differences between treatments (p > 0.36, and NRRT remained the same for both treatments at different times during the experiment (p = 0.18. Likewise, no significant differences were found for cocoon production (p = 0.32 or hatching success (p = 0.29. Conversely, biomass data indicated a significant difference between the control treatment and the Bt treatment from the second week onwards (p < 0.001, with the Bt treatment losing significantly more weight than the isoline treatment. Possible confounding factors were identified that might have affected the differences in weight loss between groups. From the RAPD profiles no conclusive data were obtained that could link observed genetic variation to exposure of E. andrei to Cry1Ab proteins produced by Bt maize.

  17. {sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Feeding activity of the earthworm Eisenia andrei in artificial soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Fleuren, R.H.L.J.; Roelofs, W.; de Groot, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative information on the feeding activity of earthworms is scarce but this information is valuable in many eco(toxico)logical studies. In this study, the feeding activity of the compost worm Eisenia andrei is examined in artificial soil (OECD medium), with and without a high-quality food

  19. LBP/BPI homologue in Eisenia andrei earthworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Bilej, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-6 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Earthworm * Eisenia * LBP/BPI Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.218, year: 2016

  20. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P earthworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    161. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta). J.M. Venter* and A.J. Reinecke. Department of Zoology, Potchefstroom University for CHE, Potchefstroom, 2520 Republic of South Africa. Received 29 January, 1987; accepted 29 January 1988. To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia ...

  2. Control of Pathogenicity Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica by Earthworm Eisenia Feoetida-Based Products in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biocontrol of nematode agents in order to decrease the hazardous impacts of chemical pesticide application including problems of public health and environmental pollution is apriority. In this study, solid (Vermicompost and liquid products (Liquid Vermicompost, Vermiwash and Coelomic fluidof the earthworm species Eisenia fetida were tested against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in greenhouse conditions. Materials and Methods: In this study, Solid (Vermicompost and Liquid products(Wormtea, Vermiwash, Coelomic fluid erthworms (Eisenia foetida were tested against Meloidogyne javanica and also the effect of Vermicompost was evaluated on Pathogenicity of various nematode initial inoculum in two stage greenhouse conditions. Earthworm-based products (Vermicompost, Wormtea, Vermiwash and Coelomic fluid were added to tomato pots. Various treatments of liquid as well as solid products and their combination were used in the greenhouse trial. The first Stage greenhouse experiment- Tomato seeds grown in 2 kg sterilized soil. In the treatments having Vermicompost, pots incorporated with 200 gr of this compost homogeneously mixed with soil. After plants reached at two leaf stage, to study the effects of liquid products (Wormtea, Vermiwash, and Coelomic fluid they added to the pots (500cc along with the irrigation water every week and after of 4 leaf stage, 5000 nematode eggs and larva inoculated to the tomato host plants. 90 days after nematode inoculation, plant and nematode growth indices separately measured and compared. The experiment conducted based on completely randomized design having four replicates. The second stage greenhouse experiment- Tomato seeds grown in 2 kg sterilized soil. In the treatments, pots incorporated with 200 gr of this compost homogeneously mixed with soil. After of 4 leaf stage, 0,1000,2000,4000 and 10000 nematode eggs and larva inoculated to the tomato host plants. 90 days after nematode inoculation, plant

  3. Toxicity of RDX, HMX, TNB, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT to the Earthworm, Eisenia Fetida, in a Sandy Loam Soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simini, Michael; Checkai, Ronald T; Kuperman, Roman G; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Kurnas, Carl W; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2006-01-01

    ...), and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) to fill the data gaps. Tests were conducted in freshly amended and in amended soils subjected to a weathering/aging process to better reflect exposure conditions in field soils...

  4. EFFICIENCY OF THE EARTHWORM Eisenia fetida UNDER THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATTER FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Mostafaii

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of earthworms to bioremediate soil results in decreasing the pollutant concentration through a bioaccumulation mechanism of the contaminants in the earthworm's body. The present work is an empirical study that was carried out on soils contaminated with chromium and cadmium. Organic matter in the amount of 5% and 9% of soil weight was added. Chromium and cadmium concentrations in soil and in the body of worms were measured at two time periods of 21 and 42 days. According to the results, increasing from 5% to 9% the organic material of the soil contaminated with chromium at the initial concentration of 0.06 mg/g, the removal efficiency decreased by 5%. In 0.1 mg/g concentration the bioremediation efficiency decreased by 20%, showing that the earthworms probably have more tendency to consume the organic material and low tendency for consuming the soil contaminated by metal. Results showed that, considering the increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, using this method is not recommended. For cadmium we require more study, though we can say that the organic material had no influence on the bioremediation of the soil.

  5. Toxicity Assessments of Antimony, Barium, Beryllium, and Manganese for Development of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (ECO-SSL) Using Earthworm (Eisenia Fetida) Benchmark Values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simini, Michael

    2002-01-01

    ... soil that supports relatively high bioavailability of barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb). For the metals tested, cocoon production was a more sensitive endpoint than was survival...

  6. Toxische effecten van zink op de worm Eisenia andrei; resultaten proefveldexperimenten Amsterdam 1995 en 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; Posthuma L; Baerselman R; ECO/EEB

    1997-01-01

    De toxische effecten van zink voor de compostworm Eisenia andrei werden bestudeerd in twee proefveldexperimenten, om de veldrelevantie van laboratorium-toxiciteitsgegevens te onderzoeken indien blootstellingscondities op natuurlijke wijze fluctueren. Coconproductie werd hierbij gebruikt als

  7. Species composition of a soil invertebrate multi-species test system determines the level of ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sechi, Valentina; D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    A soil multi-species, SMS, experimental test system consisting of the natural microbial community, five collembolan species and a predatory mite along with either Enchytraeus crypticus or the earthworm Eisenia fetida were exposed to α-cypermethrin. A comparison of the performance of these two typ...

  8. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue

  9. Biodegradation of paper waste using Eisenia foetida by vermicomposting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivanan, Mahalakshmi; Aravind Vishnu Saravanan, G.; Baji, Aravindh; Manoj kumar, J.

    2017-07-01

    The paper wastes are being a big concern over past decades. The process of reuse of the paper wastes is employed by ‘eisenia foetida’ in Vermiculture. The paper waste in SASTRA is collected around 50kg and organic wastes like vegetable wastes and cow dung wastes are also collected. In the adjacent area of Nirman Vihar, SASTRA, the experimental setup is done in a Geosynthetic polymer bag. The area is divided into three segments and in each segment appropriate amount of paper waste and organic waste were added along with 25 numbers of earthworms. The setup is watered daily and monitored periodically and it is kindled for proper aeration. The soil samples were collected on 20 days, 45 days and 60 days from the day the earthworms were added. After 60 days of the experiment, the paper wastes, compost and earthworms are separated. The quantity of the wastes was compared to the initial amount and the composts are collected. The elemental analysis of the soil used as Vermi-bed is analyzed for improvement of soil nutrients. The vermiwashed water of the setup is analyzed for total protein. The number of earthworm is also compared to initial quantity. Out of all, the loss percentage of the organic waste and paper waste shows the degradation of the paper wastes.

  10. In vitro effects of PCDDs/Fs on NK-like cell activity of Eisenia andrei earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Belmeskine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed in vitro the effects of PCDD/Fs on the NK-like cell activity in Eisenia andrei earthworms using flow cytometry for analysis. NK-like coelomocytes isolated from E. andrei and used as effectors were exposed to various concentrations of PCDDs/Fs mixture, C1 (6.25x10-3 ng 2378- TCDD/mL, C2 (12.5x10-3 ng 2378-TCDD/mL and C3 (25x10-3 ng 2378-TCDD/mL, before adding them to human tumoral cells (K562 used as targets. We evaluated the percentage of targets lysed by Nk-like cells. The results showed a significant stimulation of the NKlike activity at C3 when PCDD/Fs were not removed from effectors before contact with targets, while no effects were noted when the effectors were washed (PCDD/Fs removed or fixed. Assessment of the viability of the targets (K562, exposed alone and separately from effectors, to the three concentrations of PCDD/Fs, C1, C2 and C3, showed that all these concentrations were cytotoxic for K562. Results suggest that PCDD/Fs concentrations tested in this assay may be considered too low to induce suppressive effects on the immune function such as the NK-like activity in E. andrei earthworms.

  11. Interactions between microfungi and Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta) during cattle manure vermicomposting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Nováková, Alena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2003), s. 895-899 ISSN 0031-4056 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6066001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Eisenia andrei * earthworms * microscopic fungi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.711, year: 2003

  12. Variation in blade morphology of the kelp Eisenia arborea : incipient speciation due to local water motion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberson, L.M.; Coyer, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The southern sea palm kelp Eisenia arborea produces wide, bullate (bumpy) blades in low-flow areas, whereas in adjacent high-flow areas blades are flat and narrow. Here we determine if morphological differences in these 2 closely associated populations are correlated with physical factors in the

  13. Effects of a natural toxin on life history and gene expression of Eisenia andrei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A.E.E.; Gong, Ping; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms perform key functions for a healthy soil ecosystem, such as bioturbation. The soil ecosystem can be challenged by natural toxins such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), produced by many commercial crops. Therefore, the effects of 2-phenylethyl ITC were investigated on the earthworm Eisenia andrei

  14. Assessing the effects of FBC ash treatments of metal-contaminated soils using life history traits and metal bioaccumulation analysis of the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumiaux, F.; Demuynck, S.; Schikorski, D.; Lemiere, S.; Lepretre, A. [Universite Lille Nord de France, Villeneuve Dascq (France)

    2010-03-15

    Earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed, in controlled conditions, to metal-contaminated soils previously treated in situ with two types of fluidized bed combustion ashes. Effects on this species were determined by life history traits analysis. Metal immobilizing efficiency of ashes was indicated by metal bioaccumulation. Ashes-treated soils reduced worm mortality compared to the untreated soil. However, these ashes reduced both cocoon hatching success and hatchlings numbers compared to the untreated soil. In addition, sulfo-calcical ashes reduced or delayed worm maturity and lowered cocoon production compared to silico-alumineous ones. Metal immobilizing efficiency of ashes was demonstrated for Zn, Cu and to a lesser extent Pb. Only silico-alumineous ashes reduced Cd bioaccumulation, although Cd was still bioconcentrated. Thus, although ash additions to metal-contaminated soils may help in immobilizing metals, their use might result, depending on the chemical nature of ashes, to severe detrimental effects on earthworm reproduction with possible long term consequences to populations.

  15. Could humic acid relieve the biochemical toxicities and DNA damage caused by nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms (Eisenia foetida)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Chao; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wan, Ming-Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether humic acid (HA) prevented gene and biochemical toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) exposed to nickel and deltamethrin (at 100 and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil. Cellular- and molecular-level toxic effects of nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms were evaluated by measuring damage to lipid membranes and DNA and the production of protein carbonyls over 42 days of exposure. Nickel and deltamethrin induced significant levels of oxidative stress in earthworms, increasing the production of peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls) and increasing the comet assay tail DNA% (determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis). DNA damage was the most sensitive of the three indices because it gave a higher sample/control ratio than did the other indices. The presence of HA alleviated (in decreasing order of effectiveness) damage to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes caused by nickel and deltamethrin. A low HA dose (0.5-1% HA in soil) prevented a great deal of lipid membrane damage, but the highest HA dose (3% HA in soil) prevented still more DNA damage. However, the malondialdehyde concentrations in earthworms were higher at the highest HA dose than at the lower HA doses. The amounts of protein carbonyls produced at different HA doses were not significantly different. The toxic effects to earthworms caused by increased oxidizable nickel concentrations could be relieved by adding HA.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of TLR in the Eisenia andrei earthworm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škanta, František; Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2013), s. 694-702 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Eisenia andrei * Innate immunity * Toll-like receptor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.705, year: 2013

  17. Lethal and sub-lethal evaluation of Indigo Carmine dye and byproducts after TiO2 photocatalysis in the immune system of Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genázio Pereira, Patrícia Christina; Reimão, Roberta Valoura; Pavesi, Thelma; Saggioro, Enrico Mendes; Moreira, Josino Costa; Veríssimo Correia, Fábio

    2017-09-01

    The Indigo carmine (IC) dye has been widely used in textile industries, even though it has been considered toxic for rats, pigs and humans. Owing to its toxicity, wastes containing this compound should be treated to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the biota. As an alternative to wastewater treatment, advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) have been highlighted due to their high capacity to destruct organic molecules. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate Indigo Carmine toxicity to soil organisms using the earthworm Eisenia andrei as a model-organism and also verify the efficiency of AOP in reducing its toxicity to these organisms. To this end, lethal (mortality) and sub-lethal (loss or gain of biomass, reproduction, behavior, morphological changes and immune system cells) effects caused by this substance and its degradation products in these annelids were evaluated. Morphological changes were observed even in organisms exposed to low concentrations, while mortality was the major effect observed in individuals exposed to high levels of indigo carmine dye. The organisms exposed to the IC during the contact test showed mortality after 72h of exposure (LC 50 = 75.79mgcm - 2 ), while those exposed to photoproducts showed mortality after 48h (LC 50 = 243min). In the chronic study, the organisms displayed a mortality rate of 14%, while those exposed to the photoproduct reached up to 32.7%. A negative influence of the dye on the reproduction rate was observed, while by-products affected juvenile survival. A loss of viability and alterations in the cellular proportion was verified during the chronic test. However, the compounds did not alter the behavior of the annelids in the leak test (RL ranged from 20% to 30%). Although photocatalysis has been presented as an alternative technology for the treatment of waste containing the indigo carmine dye, this process produced byproducts even more toxic than the original compounds to E. andrei. Copyright © 2017

  18. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp.) in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys; Mamani-Pati Francisco; Sainz-Mendoza Humberto; Villca-Huanaco René

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp.) in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered) and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW) in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis). The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greate...

  19. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovački Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 μT, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 μT, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 μT-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  20. Effect of time and mode of depuration on tissue copper concentrations of the earthworms Eisenia andrei, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.E.; Hodson, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Eisenia andrei, Lumbricus rubellus and Lumbricus terrestris were exposed to 250, 250 and 350 mg kg -1 Cu respectively in Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq) amended soil for 28 d. Earthworms were then depurated for 24 to 72 h, digested and analysed for Cu and Ti or, subsequent to depuration were dissected to remove any remaining soil particles from the alimentary canal and then digested and analysed. This latter treatment proved impossible for E. andrei due to its small size. Regardless of depuration time, soil particles were retained in the alimentary canal of L. rubellus and L. terrestris. Tissue concentration determinations indicate that E. andrei should be depurated for 24 h, L. rubellus for 48 h and L. terrestris should be dissected. Ti was bioaccumulated and therefore could not be used as an inert tracer to determine mass of retained soil. Calculations indicate that after 28 d earthworms were still absorbing Cu from soil. - Even after 72 h depuration earthworms retain soil particles in their alimentary canal that can bias tissue concentration determinations

  1. Eficiencia de acumulación de Fe, Cu, Zn y Se en lombriz de tierra (Eisenia fetida como base para la elaboración de un suplemento nutricional con oligoelementos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lué-Merú Marcó P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined the bioaccumulation of Cu, Fe, Zn and Se, in the tissue of earthworms to evaluate the possibility of use as a nutritional supplement. Was analyzed a vermicompost enriched substrate (control and three doses of each element. We studied the effect on growth, mortality and tissue concentrations. Significant differences were found for copper control, However, tissue concentrations for all groups are high compared to some foods from the diet is an alternative to replace and compensate for the deficiency of these trace elements.

  2. Short-term soil bioassays may not reveal the full toxicity potential for nanomaterials; bioavailability and toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles to earthworm Eisenia fetida in long-term aged soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lahive, Elma; George, Suzanne; Ter Schure, Anneke; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if standard risk assessment hazard tests are long enough to adequately provide the worst case exposure for nanomaterials. This study therefore determined the comparative effects of the aging on the bioavailability and toxicity to earthworms of soils dosed with silver ions and silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) for 1, 9, 30 & 52 weeks, and related this to the total Ag in the soil, Ag in soil pore water and earthworm tissue Ag concentrations. For ionic Ag, a classical pattern of reduced bioavailability and toxicity with time aged in the soil was observed. For the Ag NP, toxicity increased with time apparently driven by Ag ion dissolution from the added Ag NPs. Internal Ag in the earthworms did not always explain toxicity and suggested the presence of an internalised, low-toxicity Ag fraction (as intact or transformed NPs) after shorter aging times. Our results indicate that short-term exposures, without long-term soil aging, are not able to properly assess the environmental risk of Ag NPs and that ultimately, with aging time, Ag ion and Ag NP effect will merge to a common value. - Highlights: • Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in soils increased with time. • Standard tests do not adequately assess toxicity of silver NPs to earthworms. • Internal Ag in earthworms did not always explain toxicity after shorter aging times. • With aging time, Ag ion and Ag NP effect in soils will merge to a common value. - Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in soils increased with time with the result that commonly applied tests of 28 days exposure with freshly spiked soils do not adequately assess the environmental hazard of silver nanoparticles

  3. Short-term soil bioassays may not reveal the full toxicity potential for nanomaterials; bioavailability and toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles to earthworm Eisenia fetida in long-term aged soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diez-Ortiz, M.; Lahive, E.; George, S.; Ter Schure, A.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Jurkschat, K.; Svendsen, C.; Spurgeon, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if standard risk assessment hazard tests are long enough to adequately provide the worst case exposure for nanomaterials. This study therefore determined the comparative effects of the aging on the bioavailability and toxicity to earthworms of soils dosed with silver ions and

  4. Short-term soil bioassays may not reveal the full toxicity potential for nanomaterials; bioavailability and toxicity of silver ions (AgNO₃) and silver nanoparticles to earthworm Eisenia fetida in long-term aged soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lahive, Elma; George, Suzanne; Ter Schure, Anneke; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated if standard risk assessment hazard tests are long enough to adequately provide the worst case exposure for nanomaterials. This study therefore determined the comparative effects of the aging on the bioavailability and toxicity to earthworms of soils dosed with silver ions and silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) for 1, 9, 30 & 52 weeks, and related this to the total Ag in the soil, Ag in soil pore water and earthworm tissue Ag concentrations. For ionic Ag, a classical pattern of reduced bioavailability and toxicity with time aged in the soil was observed. For the Ag NP, toxicity increased with time apparently driven by Ag ion dissolution from the added Ag NPs. Internal Ag in the earthworms did not always explain toxicity and suggested the presence of an internalised, low-toxicity Ag fraction (as intact or transformed NPs) after shorter aging times. Our results indicate that short-term exposures, without long-term soil aging, are not able to properly assess the environmental risk of Ag NPs and that ultimately, with aging time, Ag ion and Ag NP effect will merge to a common value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The life-cycle of the compost worm (Oligochaeta) | Venter | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia fetida as waste processor and as source of protein, the life-cycle of this species had to be studied thoroughly. The development, growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida were studied on cattle manure under favourable conditions of moisture, temperature and ...

  6. Effect of new soil metal immobilizing agents on metal toxicity to terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R

    2003-01-01

    Organisms with different exposure routes should be used to simultaneously assess risks of metals in soils. - Application of 5% (w:w) novel metal immobilizing agent reduced the water soluble, the calcium chloride extracted as well as the pore water concentration of zinc in soils from Maatheide, a metal contaminated site in the northeast of Belgium. Addition of the metal immobilizing agents also eliminated acute toxicity to the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the earthworm Eisenia fetida and chronic toxicity to the springtail Folsomia candida. Cocoon production by E. fetida, however, was still adversely affected. These differences may be explained by the species dependent routes of metal uptake: F. candida is probably mainly exposed via pore water while in E. fetida dietary exposure is probably also important. From these results it is clear that organisms with different exposure routes should be used simultaneously to assess the environmental risk of metal contaminated soils.

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction

  8. Possibilities of using Eisenia Andrei earthworms as bioindicators of radioactive soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.; Strisovska, J.; Lacenova, A.

    2017-01-01

    Eisenia Andrei is known under various generic names such as Californian daisy, red daisy, tiger worm etc. It is a species of earthworm that is physiologically adapted to life in a medium containing organic matter. Staining (vermiremedia technology) of soils contaminated with heavy metals belongs among innovative and efficient techniques. According to published works, this technology is easy to apply. Dandelions are used for soil rehabilitation, rejuvenation and mineral enrichment in the soil. In the soil environment, the effect of the sunsets is known as the drilosphere of the system, that is, the soil is under their direct influence. The aim of the present paper was to verify the possibility of application and subsequent use of Eisenia Andrei sunflowers as bioindicators in soil contaminated by radionuclides "2"3"9Pu and "2"4"1Am, which are significant anthropogenic radionuclides emitting alpha particles. Another circle of radionuclides were anthropogenic radionuclides "6"0Co and "1"3"7Cs emitting gamma rays. Based on the radionuclides used, two groups of target-contaminated samples were subjected to experimentation and spectrometric analysis alone. The first group of experimental subjects was made up of earthworms living in alpha radionuclide-enriched soils, and in the second group of gamma-radionuclides. Radiochemical analysis of alpha radionuclides was performed by a separation method of extraction chromatography using commercial sorbents from Triskem-TEVA Resin and DGA Resin. The preparation of specimens for the spectroscopic analysis of the emitted alpha configuration was performed by co-precipitation with NdCl_3. The measurement itself was performed with the ORTEC 576A Alpha Spectrometer with the GammaVision software. The activity of gamma radionuclides in a sample of animals devoid of possible surface contamination from the nutrient medium of the contaminated soil was measured using the Ortec gamma spectrometer. (authors)

  9. Correlation between the activity of digestive enzymes and nonself recognition in the gut of Eisenia andrei earthworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Petra; Šustr, Vladimír; Dvořák, Jiří; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Pižl, Václav; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 3 (2013), s. 217-221 ISSN 0022-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA ČR GA206/07/0378 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Digestive enzyme * Earthworm * Eisenia andrei Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.601, year: 2013

  10. Analysis of Waste in the Production of Flour California Red Worm (eisenia foet) in Manabí Technical Universitypilot Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbio Alcívar-Cedeño; Alex Dueñas-Rivadeneira; Eli Sacon-Vera; Gretel Villanueva-Ramos; Luis Bravo-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    The necessity for have efficient tools in the environmental assessment of production processesis treated in this paper. This work is related to a previous work made in the Technical University of Manabi, forprotein supplements production from unconventional raw materials, specifically Earthworm (Eisenia foetida)flour, using various ecotoxicological methods to evaluategeneratedwaste in pilot production, in order to contribute to compliance the environmental regulations.Liquid wastes generated ...

  11. The effect of dibenzo-p-dioxin- and dibenzofuran-contaminated soil on the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Procházková, Petra; Elhottová, Dana; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 193, OCT 2014 (2014), s. 22-28 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eisenia and rei * PCDD/Fs * Calreticulin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.143, year: 2014

  12. Analysis of Waste in the Production of Flour California Red Worm (eisenia foet in Manabí Technical Universitypilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbio Alcívar-Cedeño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for have efficient tools in the environmental assessment of production processesis treated in this paper. This work is related to a previous work made in the Technical University of Manabi, forprotein supplements production from unconventional raw materials, specifically Earthworm (Eisenia foetidaflour, using various ecotoxicological methods to evaluategeneratedwaste in pilot production, in order to contribute to compliance the environmental regulations.Liquid wastes generated in the production of earthworm flour were determined and evaluated under the following biological indicators: inhibition of seed germination, root growth in Lactuca sativa, acute toxicity in Eisenia foetida to determine the environmental toxicity of the production process. As result, the major environmental contamination that occurs during the process of obtaining meal worm (Eisenia foetida is given in the cleaning process, sacrifice, washing and milling. The waste characterization allowed determining that they are domestic water and process water. The use of ecotoxicological bioassays described, that the sacrificialwater inhibit germination and root elongation, and they are classified as slightly toxic thewash waters cause sublethal effects.

  13. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  14. Reproducción de Eisenia foetida en suelos agrícolas de áreas mineras contaminadas por cobre y arsénico Reproduction of Eisenia foetida in agricultural soils from mining areas contaminated with copper and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ávila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la toxicidad del cobre y arsénico en suelos agrícolas, mediante bioensayos estandarizados de toxicidad aguda y crónica sobre Eisenia foetida y relacionar la respuesta de ésta con las concentraciones de cobre y arsénico en los suelos. Los suelos agrícolas fueram muestreados en las inmediaciones de áreas mineras en la cuenca del río Aconcagua, Chile. E. foetida expuesta a los suelos estudiados mostró una baja mortalidad, indicando la ausencia de toxicidad aguda. Además, se observó una disminución en la producción de capullos y desarrollo de juveniles, indicando la existencia de toxicidad crónica. Dicha disminución fue relacionada con las concentraciones de cobre y arsénico en los suelos. El cobre y arsénico en conjunto disminuyeron la producción de capullos, mientras que sólo el arsénico disminuyó el desarrollo de juveniles. Suelos agrícolas provenientes de áreas mineras de la cuenca poseen potenciales características tóxicas para el desarrollo de la macrofauna edáfica.The objective of this work was to evaluate copper and arsenic toxicity in agricultural soils, by means of standardized bioassays of chronic and acute toxicity on Eisenia foetida, and to relate E. foetida response to copper and arsenic concentrations in soils. The agricultural soils were sampled in the proximity of copper mining industries, in the Aconcagua river basin, Chile. E. foetida exposed to the studied soils exhibited a low mortality, indicating the absence of acute toxicity. Besides, a decrease in the cocoon production and juvenile development was observed, indicating the existence of chronic toxicity. Reduction in the cocoon production and juvenile development was related to soil concentrations of copper and arsenic. Both copper and arsenic reduced the cocoon production, while only arsenic diminished the juvenile development. Agricultural soils from mining areas of the basin have potentially toxic characteristics

  15. DYEING COTTON WITH EISENIA BICYCLIS AS NATURAL DYE USING DIFFERENT BIOMORDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Mª Ángeles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are known for their use in coloring of food substrate, leather as well as natural protein fibers like wool, silk and cotton as major areas of application since pre-historic times. Nowadays, there has been revival of the growing interest on the application of natural dyes on natural fibers due to worldwide environmental consciousness. Some researchers focus their studies on the improvement of these dyes using mordants. Most works use metallic mordants like aluminum or iron are used, but some of them are hazardous. In this work we used a biomordant to solve environmental problems caused by metallic mordants. The effects of chitosan weight molecular in mordanting on the dyeing characteristics and the UV protection property were examined in this study. Chitosan mordanted Eisenia Bicyclis dyed cotton showed better dyeing characteristic and higher UV protection property compared with undyed cotton fabric. To analyze the differences of the dyeing, reflection spectrophotometer was used, evaluating the results of CIELAB color difference values and the strength color (in terms of K/S value. We conclude that the type of chitosan used affect the dyeing efficiency and the UV protection, showing different behavior between dye sample using chitosan with low or medium molecular weight.

  16. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  17. Toxicity of azodrin on the morphology and acetylcholinesterase activity of the earthworm Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J.V.; Kavitha, P.

    2004-01-01

    The acute toxicity of azodrin (monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide) was determined on a soil organism, Eisenia foetida. The median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) were derived from a 48-h paper contact test and from artificial soil tests. The LC 50 of azodrin in the paper contact test was 0.46±0.1 μg cm -2 (23±6 mg L -1 ) and those in the 7- and 14-day artificial soil tests were 171±21 and 132±20 mg kg -1 , respectively. The neurotoxic potentiality of azodrin was assessed by using a marker enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The progressive signs of morphological destruction are correlated with percentage inhibition of AChE in the in vivo experiments. The kinetics of AChE activity in the presence and absence of azodrin indicated that the toxicant is competitive in nature. This study demonstrated that azodrin causes concentration-dependent changes in the morphology and AChE activity of the earthworm E. foetida

  18. Characterization and transcription studies of a phytochelatin synthase gene from the solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Nicola; Piccinni, Ester; Ferro, Diana; Basso, Giuseppe; Spolaore, Barbara; Santovito, Gianfranco; Ballarin, Loriano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ciona intestinalis have a functional phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene (cipcs). • CiPCS amino acid sequence is phylogentically related to other metazoan PCSs. • CiPCS catalyze the synthesis of PC2. • cipcs are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes, in both tunic and blood lacunae. • Cadmium exposure results in a significant increase of cipcs and cipcna transcription. - Abstract: The major thiol-containing molecules involved in controlling the level of intracellular ROS in eukaryotes, acting as a nonenzymatic detoxification system, are metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). Both MTs and GSH are well-known in the animal kingdom. PC was considered a prerogative of the plant kingdom but, in 2001, a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene was described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; additional genes encoding this enzyme were later described in the earthworm Eisenia fetida and in the parasitic nematode Schistosoma mansoni but scanty data are available, up to now, for Deuterostomes. Here, we describe the molecular characteristics and transcription pattern, in the presence of Cd, of a PCS gene from the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis, a ubiquitous solitary tunicate and demonstrate the presence of PCs in tissue extracts. We also studied mRNA localization by in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed the behavior of hemocytes and tunic cells consequent to Cd exposure as well as the transcription pattern of the Ciona orthologous for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), usually considered a proliferation marker, and observed that cell proliferation occurs after 96 h of Cd treatment. This matches the hypothesis of Cd-induced cell proliferation, as already suggested by previous data on the expression of a metallothionein gene in the same animal

  19. Characterization and transcription studies of a phytochelatin synthase gene from the solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi, Nicola [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Piccinni, Ester [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Ferro, Diana [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster (Germany); Basso, Giuseppe [Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Spolaore, Barbara [CRIBI Biotechnology Centre, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Santovito, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.santovito@unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Ballarin, Loriano [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Ciona intestinalis have a functional phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene (cipcs). • CiPCS amino acid sequence is phylogentically related to other metazoan PCSs. • CiPCS catalyze the synthesis of PC2. • cipcs are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes, in both tunic and blood lacunae. • Cadmium exposure results in a significant increase of cipcs and cipcna transcription. - Abstract: The major thiol-containing molecules involved in controlling the level of intracellular ROS in eukaryotes, acting as a nonenzymatic detoxification system, are metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). Both MTs and GSH are well-known in the animal kingdom. PC was considered a prerogative of the plant kingdom but, in 2001, a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene was described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; additional genes encoding this enzyme were later described in the earthworm Eisenia fetida and in the parasitic nematode Schistosoma mansoni but scanty data are available, up to now, for Deuterostomes. Here, we describe the molecular characteristics and transcription pattern, in the presence of Cd, of a PCS gene from the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis, a ubiquitous solitary tunicate and demonstrate the presence of PCs in tissue extracts. We also studied mRNA localization by in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed the behavior of hemocytes and tunic cells consequent to Cd exposure as well as the transcription pattern of the Ciona orthologous for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), usually considered a proliferation marker, and observed that cell proliferation occurs after 96 h of Cd treatment. This matches the hypothesis of Cd-induced cell proliferation, as already suggested by previous data on the expression of a metallothionein gene in the same animal.

  20. Involvement of the iron regulatory protein from Eisenia andrei earthworms in the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Procházková

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis in cells is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that exist in different organisms. IRPs are cytosolic proteins that bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs of the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions (UTR of mRNAs that encode many proteins involved in iron metabolism. In this study, we have cloned and described a new regulatory protein belonging to the family of IRPs from the earthworm Eisenia andrei (EaIRP. The earthworm IRE site in 5'-UTR of ferritin mRNA most likely folds into a secondary structure that differs from the conventional IRE structures of ferritin due to the absence of a typically unpaired cytosine that participates in protein binding. Prepared recombinant EaIRP and proteins from mammalian liver extracts are able to bind both mammalian and Eisenia IRE structures of ferritin mRNA, although the affinity of the rEaIRP/Eisenia IRE structure is rather low. This result suggests the possible contribution of a conventional IRE structure. When IRP is supplemented with a Fe-S cluster, it can function as a cytosolic aconitase. Cellular cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, as well as recombinant EaIRP, exhibit aconitase activity that can be abolished by the action of oxygen radicals. The highest expression of EaIRP was detected in parts of the digestive tract. We can assume that earthworms may possess an IRE/IRP regulatory network as a potential mechanism for maintaining cellular iron homeostasis, although the aconitase function of EaIRP is most likely more relevant.

  1. Involvement of the Iron Regulatory Protein from Eisenia andrei Earthworms in the Regulation of Cellular Iron Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházková, Petra; Škanta, František; Roubalová, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Dvořák, Jiří; Bilej, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Iron homeostasis in cells is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that exist in different organisms. IRPs are cytosolic proteins that bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) of the 5′- or 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) of mRNAs that encode many proteins involved in iron metabolism. In this study, we have cloned and described a new regulatory protein belonging to the family of IRPs from the earthworm Eisenia andrei (EaIRP). The earthworm IRE site in 5′-UTR of ferritin mRNA most likely folds into a secondary structure that differs from the conventional IRE structures of ferritin due to the absence of a typically unpaired cytosine that participates in protein binding. Prepared recombinant EaIRP and proteins from mammalian liver extracts are able to bind both mammalian and Eisenia IRE structures of ferritin mRNA, although the affinity of the rEaIRP/Eisenia IRE structure is rather low. This result suggests the possible contribution of a conventional IRE structure. When IRP is supplemented with a Fe-S cluster, it can function as a cytosolic aconitase. Cellular cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, as well as recombinant EaIRP, exhibit aconitase activity that can be abolished by the action of oxygen radicals. The highest expression of EaIRP was detected in parts of the digestive tract. We can assume that earthworms may possess an IRE/IRP regulatory network as a potential mechanism for maintaining cellular iron homeostasis, although the aconitase function of EaIRP is most likely more relevant. PMID:25279857

  2. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  3. Relating environmental availability to bioavailability: soil-type-dependent metal accumulation in the oligochaete Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peijnenburg, W J; Baerselman, R; de Groot, A C; Jager, T; Posthuma, L; Van Veen, R P

    1999-11-01

    Body residues are often better estimates of the amount of a chemical at the sites of toxic action in an organism than ambient soil concentrations, because bioavailability differences among soils are explicitly taken into account in considerations of body residues. Often, however, insufficient attention is paid to the rate and extent at which tissue concentrations respond to soil concentrations and soil characteristics. In this contribution the impact of soil characteristics on the environmental bioavailability of heavy metals for the oligochaete worm Eisenia andrei is reported. Uptake of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 20 Dutch field soils and in OECD artificial soil was quantified as a function of time. Internal metal concentrations varied less than the corresponding external levels. Metal uptake and elimination were both metal- and species-dependent. Worms typically attained steady-state concentrations rapidly for Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Internal concentrations similar to those in the cultivation medium, linearly increasing body concentrations, or steady-state internal concentrations well above those in the cultivation medium were found for As, Cd, and Pb. Multivariate expressions were derived to describe uptake rate constants, steady-state concentrations, and bioaccumulation factors as a function of soil characteristics. Soil acidity is the most important solid-phase characteristic modulating the availability of As, Cd, and Pb. Although additional semimechanistic calculations yielded evidence of pore-water-related uptake of Cd and Pb modulated by competition between H(+) and metal ions at the active sites of the membranes, the findings for Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn point to additional influences, among which is probably regulation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  5. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  6. Use of the reference organism Eisenia foetida to investigate bioaccumulation and biological effects following contamination of soil by uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanetti, A.; Cozzella, M.L.; Basso, E.; Ninova, P.; Fesenko, S.; Sansone, U.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The use of reference organisms for radiological assessments on non -human species is an integral part of the current systemic approach for the management of radiation effects in the environment. The reference organisms approach allows the evaluation of radiological impact on the environment taking into account relationships among ambient radionuclide activity concentrations, dose and expected adverse biological effects. Four broad categories of biological damages are included: mortality, morbidity, DNA damage and reproductive failure. Earthworms are one of the most important biotic components in the soil, they are commonly used in studies of toxicity and they are included in the list of the reference organisms suggested by International (ICRP) and national organisations. However, up to now, no adequate results have been obtained for earthworms allowing the identification of the dose-response relationship, essentially for the contamination scenarios where radionuclide can provide both radiation and chemical impact. Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring heavy metal. Recently there has been public concern on the presence in the environment of depleted uranium (DU), a by-product of the process used to enrich natural uranium ore for use in nuclear reactors and in nuclear weapons. The presence of uranium in soil could lead to both toxic and radiation impact and it is difficult to distinguish the different impacts and their contribution to possible biological effects. European Union, OECD and FAO have selected the earthworms Eisenia for testing soil toxicity because it is an organism that can be easily cultured in the laboratory, an extensive database is available, and it feeds at the soil surface level. The prime objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible use of Eisenia foetida as a bio-marker of U environmental impact. Four groups of six sexually mature Eisenia foetida were maintained in the dark at 21 deg. C in Petri

  7. Reconfirmation of antimicrobial activity in the coelomic fluid of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    723. Keywords. Antimicrobial activity; column chromatography; earthworm; Eisenia fetida andrei; Tetrazolium salt ... fair resistance against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Arthrobacter sp., respectively. [Pan W, Liu X, Ge F ... 2.2 Test bacteria species.

  8. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas; Lund, Marie Braad

    The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full geno...

  9. Determination of multi-walled carbon nanotube bioaccumulation in earthworms measured by a microwave-based detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable quantification techniques for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are limited. In this study, a new procedure was developed for quantifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) based on freeze drying and microwave-induced heating. Specifically, earthw...

  10. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); An, Kwang Guk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  11. DNA Repair Inhibition by Mercuric Chloride in Earthworms after Exposure to Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu; Nili, Mohammad; An, Kwang Guk

    2011-01-01

    All organisms are being exposed to harmful factors present in the environment. Ionizing radiation can damage DNA through a series of molecular events depending on the radiation energy. The biological effects due to the combined action of ionizing radiation with the other factor are hard to estimate and predict in advance. Recently International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) requires the effect data of ionizing radiation on non-human biota for the radiological protection of the environment. Earthworms have been identified by the ICRP as one of the reference animals and plants to be used in environmental radiation protection. Particularly, the earthworm Eisenia fetida can be used as a bio-indicator of pollution in soil. This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of radiation and the synergistic effects between radiation and mercury in earthworm, E. fetida

  12. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  13. Inadequate taxonomy and highly divergent COI haplotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These focal groups, including two laboratory cultures and one field population, have been referred to as Eisenia fetida in the literature. A previous molecular study had already helped to establish that one of the two laboratory groups was a population of E. fetida's sister species E. andrei. In the present contribution, analyses ...

  14. Impact of heavy metal contamination on oxidative stress of Eisenia andrei and bacterial community structure in Tunisian mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Iteb; Hattab, Sabrine; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohamed; Navarro, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this work were firstly to study the effect of heavy metal-polluted soils from Tunisian mine on earthworm biochemical biomarkers and on bacterial communities and therefore to analyze the interaction between earth worms and bacterial communities in these contaminated soils. For this purpose, we had introduced earthworm Eisenia andrei in six soils: one from mine spoils and five from agricultural soils, establishing a gradient of contamination. The response of worms to the presence of heavy metal was analyzed at the biochemical and transcriptional levels. In a second time, the impact of worm on bacterial community structure was investigated using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting. An impact of heavy metal-contaminated soils on the oxidative status of E. andrei was observed, but this effect was dependent of the level of heavy metal contamination. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the introduction of earthworms E. andrei has an impact on bacterial community; however, the major change was observed in the less contaminated site. Furthermore, a significant correlation between earthworm oxidative status biomarkers and bacterial community structure was observed, mainly in the mine spoils. Therefore, we contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between epigenic earthworms and bacterial communities in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  15. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to earthworms (Eisenia andrei, Oligochaeta) in field-polluted soils and soil-sediment mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Baerselman, Rob; Dijkman, Ellen; de Groot, Arthur C; Hogendoorn, Elbert A; de Jong, Ad; Kruitbosch, Jantien A W; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2003-04-01

    The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for earthworms (Eisenia andrei) was experimentally determined in seven field-polluted soils and 15 soil-sediment mixtures. The pore-water concentration of most PAHs was higher than predicted. However, most of the compound was associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and not directly available for uptake by earthworms. The apparent sorption could be reasonably predicted on the basis of interactions with DOC; however, the biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for earthworms were up to two orders of magnitude lower than predicted by equilibrium partitioning. The large variability between sites was not fully explained by differences in sorption. Experimental results indicate that the pool of freely dissolved PAHs in the pore water became partially depleted because of uptake by the earthworms and that bioaccumulation is thus also influenced by the kinetics of PAH desorption and mass transport. A pilot study with Lumbricus rubellus showed that steady-state body residues were well correlated to E. andrei. Current results show that depositing dredge spoil on land may lead to increased bioavailability of the lower-molecular-weight PAHs. However, risk assessment can conservatively rely on equilibrium partitioning, but accurate prediction requires quantification of the kinetics of bioavailability.

  16. Mortality of the earthworms, Eisenia foetida, after gamma-irradiation at different stages of their life history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun; Egami, Nobuo

    1983-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, were investigated by means of mortality, growth inhibition and hatchability of the eggs. Adult earthworms were resistant to 137 Cs γ-irradiation, LD 50 (30 days) value being about 65 kR. Young earthworms were less resistant than adult ones. Their growth was completely inhibited by 10 kR of γ-irradiation, but 2 kR did not affect them at all. Embryos at early developmental stages showed high mortality by γ-irradiation and as development proceeded their resistance to irradiation increased. Mature earthworms were irradiated and the hatchability of the cocoons laid by them after irradiation was examined. Hatchability of the cocoons laid within 5 days after irradiation with 2 kR was scarcely affected. Then the hatchability decreased with the interval between irradiation and laying, and reached lowest level 20 days after irradiation. From 20 days after irradiation, it started to recover and reached the control level 30 days after irradiation. (author)

  17. Reproducción de Eisenia foetida en suelos agrícolas de áreas mineras contaminadas por cobre y arsênico.

    OpenAIRE

    ÁVILA, G.; GAETE, H.; MORALES, M.; NEAMAN, A.

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la toxicidad del cobre y arsénico en suelos agrícolas, mediante bioensayos estandarizados de toxicidad aguda y crónica sobre Eisenia foetida y relacionar la respuesta de ésta con las concentraciones de cobre y arsénico en los suelos. Los suelos agrícolas fueram muestreados en las inmediaciones de áreas mineras en la cuenca del río Aconcagua, Chile. E. foetida expuesta a los suelos estudiados mostró una baja mortalidad, indicando la ausencia de toxicidad agu...

  18. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Castillo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively. A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, relación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente. En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de

  19. Indução de ivermectina na hormese sobre Eisenia foetida durante a vermicompostagem de esterco bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro M. Tuerlinckx

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Os medicamentos veterinários são, em sua maioria, excretados nas fezes de animais tratados demonstrando que os fármacos da classe das avermectinas podem ter efeitos nocivos sobre os organismos não alvo, caso se utilizem das fezes. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos subletais da ivermectina sobre as minhocas Eisenia foetida expostas às concentrações de ivermectina a 0, 1, 5, 10, 50 e 100 mg kg-1; amostras foram tomadas nos dias 7, 14 e 28 de exposição para determinação da sobrevivência, crescimento, produção de casulos e atividades enzimáticas, além de estudadas as alterações químicas e a atividade microbiana do vermicomposto não se observando, no entanto, efeitos negativos da ivermectina quanto à mortalidade de minhocas; da mesma forma, as características químicas e a atividade microbiana do vermicomposto não foram afetadas porém os resultados demonstraram que a ivermectina induz, quando em baixas concentrações, a um aumento na atividade da fosfatase alcalina e no crescimento de E. foetida mas altas concentrações inibiram esses parâmetros, o que foi refletido numa curva em forma de U invertido, uma representação gráfica do efeito hormético.

  20. The effect of the glycolipoprotein extract (G-90) from earthworm Eisenia foetida on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Golnaz; Qujeq, Durdi; Elmi, Maryam M; Feizi, Farideh; Fathai, Sadegh

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is now regarded as a major public health problem. The number of patients is estimated to increase to over 439 million cases by 2030. One of the major health clinical problems in patients with diabetes patients is impaired wound healing. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus in 12 to 25% of patients, which increases the risk of damage in the limbs or amputation. The earthworm Eisenia foetida glycolipoprotein (as known G-90) is a blend of macromolecules with some biological properties including mitogenicity, anticoagulation, fibrinolysis, bacteriostatic and antioxidatiaon. Given the biological properties of G-90, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of extract obtained from the homogenate of Eisenia foetida (G-90) on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment by using G-90 can speed up the wound healing process, which is exactly similar to the effect of D-panthenol treatment in rats. These findings also demonstrated that G-90 treatment decreases the risk of infection in the wound site compared with D-panthenol treatment. In addition, histological analysis indicated that a better extracellular matrix formation with increased fibroblast proliferation, neovascularization, collagen synthesis and early epithelial layer formation was observed in G-90 treated group. Therefore, the G-90 could be considered as a new wound healing agent introducing promising therapeutic approaches in both human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  2. Fucofuroeckol-A from Eisenia bicyclis Inhibits Inflammation in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Macrophages via Downregulation of the MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucofuroeckol-A (FF isolated from an edible perennial brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was shown to be potent anti-inflammatory agents. FF suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 dose dependently in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytometric bead array assay demonstrated that FF significantly reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and that of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Moreover, FF reduced the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. These results strongly suggest that the inhibitory effects of fucofuroeckol-A from E. bicyclis on LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production might be due to the suppression of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway.

  3. Genotoxicity in earthworm after combined treatment of ionising radiation and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu; An, Kwang-Guk

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of mercury and radiation on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The levels of DNA damage and the repair kinetics in the coelomocytes of E. fetida treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) and ionising radiation (gamma rays) were analysed by means of the comet assay. For detection of DNA damage and repair, E. fetida was exposed to HgCl 2 (0-160 mg kg -1 ) and irradiated with gamma rays (0-50 Gy) in vivo. The increase in DNA damage depended on the concentration of mercury or dose of radiation. The results showed that the more the oxidative stress induced by mercury and radiation the longer the repair time that was required. When a combination of HgCl 2 and gamma rays was applied, the cell damage was much higher than those treated with HgCl 2 or radiation alone, which indicated that the genotoxic effects were increased after the combined treatment of mercury and radiation. (authors)

  4. Species composition of a soil invertebrate multi-species test system determines the level of ecotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechi, Valentina; D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Johansen, Anders; Bossi, Rossana; Jensen, John; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2014-01-01

    A soil multi-species, SMS, experimental test system consisting of the natural microbial community, five collembolan species and a predatory mite along with either Enchytraeus crypticus or the earthworm Eisenia fetida were exposed to α-cypermethrin. A comparison of the performance of these two types of SMSs is given to aid the development of a standard test system. E. fetida had a positive effect on the majority of the species, reducing the negative insecticide effect. E. fetida affected the species sensitivity and decreased the degradation of the insecticide due to the organic matter incorporation of earthworm food. After 8 weeks, the EC50 was 0.76 mg kg −1 for enchytraeids and ranged between 2.7 and 18.9 mg kg −1 for collembolans, more sensitive than previously observed with single species. Changes observed in the community structure and function illustrates the strength of a multi-species test system as an ecotoxicological tool compared to single species tests. -- Highlights: • Degradation of alpha-cypermethrin was faster with enchytraeids than with earthworms. • Lumbricid castings and bioturbation explains bioavailability of α-cypermethrin. • Pesticide effects on soil arthropods alter with the community composition. • Multispecies test systems are feasible with either an enchytraeid or a lumbricid. • Collembolans are more sensitive to cypermethrin with enchytraeids than with earthworms. -- Soil ecotoxicological fate and effects in multispecies test systems are affected by earthworm activity

  5. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  6. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  7. EFECTOS DE LA LOMBRIZ ROJA CALIFORNIANA (Eisenia foetida, SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE MICROORGANISMOS EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON MERCURIO DE SEGOVIA, ANTIOQUIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Zapata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las actividades que alteran la composición del suelo está la minería, que causa el aumento de daños visibles al suelo mediante la creación de minas a cielo abierto, escombreras, estanques de residuos y otras instalaciones de minas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la lombriz roja californiana sobre el crecimiento de microorganismos en suelos contaminados con mercurio en el municipio de Segovia, Antioquia. Estos suelos representan una problemática importante debido a la acumulación de mercurio en exceso que ocasiona la pérdida de la calidad del suelo. Para este estudio se tomaron cuatro tratamientos en diferentes concentraciones de mercurio y un tratamiento más como blanco con lombrices rojas californianas (Eisenia foetida. Para esto, se evaluó el crecimiento de microorganismos a través de diferentes cultivos en el laboratorio, encontrando un crecimiento satisfactorio de los mismos luego de 25 y 90 días de tratamiento. De acuerdo al comportamiento observado, se evidencia una inmovilización del mercurio y una adaptación de los microorganismos al suelo contaminado, mostrando un aumento significativo de estos con el transcurso del tiempo.

  8. Growth and reproductive potential of Eisenia foetida (Sav) on various zoo animal dungs after two methods of pre-composting followed by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Godínez, Edmundo Arturo; Lagunes-Zarate, Jorge; Corona-Hernández, Juan; Barajas-Aceves, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Disposal of animal manure without treatment can be harmful to the environment. In this study, samples of four zoo animal dungs and one horse dung were pre-composted in two ways: (a) traditional composting and (b) bokashi pre-composting for 1month, followed by vermicomposting for 3months. The permanence (PEf) and reproductive potential (RP) of Eisenia foetida as well as the quality of vermicompost were evaluated. The PEf values and RP index of E. foetida were higher for samples pre-composted using the traditional composting method (98.7-88% and 31.85-16.27%, respectively) followed by vermicomposting (92.7-72.7% and 22.96-13.51%, respectively), when compared with those for bokashi pre-composted samples followed by vermicomposting, except for the horse dung sample (100% for both the parameters). The values of electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, total N, available P, C/N ratio, and pH showed that both treatments achieved the norms of vermicompost (bokashi pre-composting followed by vermicomposting produced the highest values (98.7-70.7%, 97.67-96.65%, and 2.7-1.97%, respectively), when compared with the other method adapted in this study. Nevertheless, further studies with plants for plant growth evaluation are needed to assess the benefits and limitations of these two pre-composting methods prior to vermicomposting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V.; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Husnjak, Ivana; Merkas, Martina; Traven, Luka; Cvetkovic, Zelimira

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: → Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. → The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. → A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  10. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-04-15

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  11. Análisis de los residuos en la producción de harina de Lombriz Roja californiana (eisenia foetida) en la planta piloto de la Universidad Técnica de Manabí. Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Alcívar-Cedeño, Ulbio; Dueñas-Rivadeneira, Alex; Sacon-Vera, Eli; Villanueva-Ramos, Gretel; Bravo-Sánchez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo se fundamenta en la necesidad de contar con herramientas eficientes en la evaluación ambiental de procesos productivos, relacionado con trabajos anteriores realizados en la Universidad Técnica de Manabí, hacia la producción de complementos proteicos de materias primas no convencionales, específicamente en la producción de harina de lombriz (Eisenia Foetida), los cuales conformaron el interés de evaluar bajo diversos métodos ecotoxicológicos los desechos generados en esta producci...

  12. Early-phase immunodetection of metallothionein and heat shock proteins in extruded earthworm coelomocytes after dermal exposure to metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Joanna; Olchawa, Ewa; Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R.; John Morgan, A.; Plytycz, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytes

  13. Early-phase immunodetection of metallothionein and heat shock proteins in extruded earthworm coelomocytes after dermal exposure to metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Joanna [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Olchawa, Ewa [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff Wales CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); John Morgan, A. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff Wales CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); Plytycz, Barbara [Department of Evolutionary Immunobiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, R. Ingardena 6, PL 30-060 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: plyt@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl

    2005-05-01

    This paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP72) expression. Indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. Coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of Eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) or to distilled water (controls) via filter papers. The number of coelomocytes was significantly decreased after Cu, Pb, or Cd treatment. Cytospin preparations of coelomocytes were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against human heat shock proteins (HSP70 or HSP72), or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against metallothionein 2 (w-MT2) of Lumbricus rubellus. Applied antibodies detected the respective proteins of E. fetida and revealed that the expression of HSP70, HSP72 and w-MT2 proteins was either induced or significantly enhanced in coelomocytes from metal-exposed animals. In conclusion, stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes may be used as sensitive biomarkers of metal contaminations. Further experimentation is needed for quantitative analysis of kinetics of metal-induced stress protein expression in earthworm coelomocytes. - Metals upregulate stress response proteins in earthworm coelomocytes.

  14. Efecto del proceso de secado de la lombriz de tierra (Eisenia andrei sobre el perfil aminoacídico de la harina determinado por cromatografía (CLAE | Effect of drying process of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei on amino acidic profile of the meal determined by chromatography (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ovalles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The possible effect of the drying temperature of the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, biomass on the amino acid profile of the resulting flour was evaluated. A tray dryer with air recirculation was used as a drying technique. The tested drying temperature were relatively low, T1 = 30, T2 = 40, T3 = 45 (°C, until obtaining a relative humidity below 10%. The differences in protein content of meal among treatments were not significant and resulted in average 63 ± 2% on a dry basis, and practically did not affect the proximate analysis in terms of total fat (7.2 ± 0.7% and ash content (5.3 ± 0.6%. Differences in the amino acid profile of the earthworm meal were not significant (p = 0.05 among treatments, except for asparagine (as Asp and glutamine (as Glu. Although, under the experimental conditions of the proposed approach, the results in terms of nutritional values were expected and satisfactory, they were not convenient in terms of microbiological quality. The results allow to infer that the use of low temperature drying is not a recommended approach to obtain earthworm meal, unless experimental conditions also ensure the microbiological quality without compromising the cost-benefit of the proposed drying process.

  15. Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency

  16. Efeitos Tóxicos de Arsênio em Eisenia Andrei em Exposição a Solos do Entorno de Minerações de Ouro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Henrique Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos das atividades de mineração têm grande relevância econômica no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. No entanto, seus inúmeros danos à biota, incluindo a fauna edáfica, resultam na necessidade de recuperação e biomonitoramento dessas áreas e do seu entorno. Considerando a importância ecológica e o potencial bioindicador das minhocas, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicidade de arsênio presente em solos do entorno de minerações de ouro, nas bacias dos rios Doce e São Francisco, a oligoquetas da espécie Eisenia andrei Bouché. Amostras de solos dessas áreas foram caracterizadas em relação às suas propriedades físicas e químicas, incluindo os metais Fe, Al, Cu, Ni, Zn e Mn e do metaloide As; com elas, foram conduzidos bioensaios, que avaliaram a sobrevivência, reprodução e variação da biomassa dos organismos. Também foram realizados testes de sensibilidade dessa espécie ao As adicionado a solo artificial tropical e em solo natural. Houve evidente efeito tóxico sobre a reprodução dessa espécie, que esteve altamente correlacionado com as concentrações de As nas amostras (r = -0,80. Amostras de solos naturais de locais avaliados nas duas áreas apresentaram concentrações de As acima do limite estipulado pela Resolução Conama nº 420 de 2009, chegando a 2.388,2 mg kg-1. A CL50 do As em solo artificial tropical (207,4 mg kg-1 foi seis vezes menor que a do solo natural (1.248,1 mg kg-1. A menor biodisponibilidade do As nos solos naturais foi atribuída a sua associação com o minério de Fe presente nas amostras. Concluiu-se que os solos do entorno de áreas de mineração causaram toxicidade crônica a E. andrei, em termos de sua reprodução, o que demonstrou o potencial de danos dessas atividades sobre a fauna edáfica dessas áreas. O estudo também forneceu informações ecotoxicológicas que podem ser úteis em avaliações de risco ambiental em solos tropicais.

  17. SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE FROM THE EARTHWORM (EISENIA FOETIDA)%蚯蚓体内超氧化物歧化酶分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘堰; 张平波

    1999-01-01

    蚯蚓体内SOD含量甚高,35℃饲养的蚯蚓其SOD比活最高,因此,纯化前将蚯蚓在35℃养殖4周以上.采用硫酸铵分级沉淀和柱层析的方法,从蚯蚓体内分离得到纯的铜锌超氧化物歧化酶.每100g组织得到SOD制品总活力为17,190 U,比活7995 U/mg,回收率为35%.该酶呈淡蓝绿色,最大紫外吸收波长为270nm.该酶分子量为33,000,亚基分子量为16,500.该酶亚基含156个氨基酸残基,不含酪氨酸.N-末端为丙氨酸,等电聚焦为三条谱带,等电点分别为5.30 、5.59和6.22.%The superoxide dismutase activity (units/mg protein) was determined for earthworm (Eisenia foetida) acclimated from 10℃to 35℃at 5 degree intervals. Worms acclimated at 35℃gave a value of SOD units significantly higher than those acclimated at other temperatures . So the worms were acclimated for four weeks at 35℃prior to purification. Cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase extracted from the cell of earthworm had been purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and special column chromatography . The purified enzyme obtained from 100 grams of tissue possessed a total activity of 17 190 units with specific activity of 7 995 units per mg protein .The yield was 35%. The enzyme isolated by this procedure showed pale blue-green color . It exhibited one absorption maximum in the ultraviolet at 270 nm .The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 33 000 daltons as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 , and that of the enzyme subunits was 16 500 daltons as estimated with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis .The enzyme subunits consisted of 156 amino acid residues , in which tyrosine was absent . The N-terminal of the enzyme was alanine as assayed by dansyl chloride . Three bands of the enzyme were seen in isoelectrofocusing. They focused at pH5.30, 5.59 and 6.22 , respectively .

  18. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-En Zhang; Jiayu Yu; Ying Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period....

  19. Regulatory ecotoxicity testing of nanomaterials – proposed modifications of OECD test guidelines based on laboratory experience with silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Baun, Anders; Cupi, Denisa

    2016-01-01

    of the sediment-living worm Lumbriculus variegatus (TG 225), activity of soil microflora (TGs 216, 217), and reproduction of the invertebrates (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida, TGs 220, 222). Additionally, test descriptions for two further test systems (root elongation of plants in hydroponic culture; test...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    n with chickpea as green manure had higher N, P and K in. 43.75 g per pot. The micro ..... conservation which is utilized for better root penetration and crop growth. .... Vermicomposting of coffee pulp using the earthworm. Eisenia fetida: effects ...

  1. Comparison of landfarming amendments to improve bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in Niger Delta soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, David M; Okoro, Samson; van Gils, Juami; van Spanning, Rob; Bonte, Matthijs; Hutchings, Tony; Linden, Olof; Egbuche, Uzoamaka; Bruun, Kim Bye; Smith, Jonathan W N

    2017-01-01

    Large scale landfarming experiments, using an extensive range of treatments, were conducted in the Niger-Delta, Nigeria to study the degradation of oil in contaminated soils. In this work the effect of nutrient addition, biosurfactant, Eisenia fetida (earthworm) enzyme extract, bulking and sorption

  2. Onderzoek naar de geschiktheid van de potwormsoorten Enchytraeus albidus en E. crypticus (Oligochaeta, Annelida) in bodemecotoxicologisch onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven van Breemen EM; Baerselman R; Notenboom J; ECO

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a research on the use of enchytraeids in soil ecotoxicology. Actually many soil ecotoxicological research is restricted to the earthworm Eisenia andrei/fetida limiting possibilities for generalisation and ecologically relevant test results. This study on enchytraeids consits of

  3. Onderzoek naar de geschiktheid van de potwormsoorten Enchytraeus albidus en E. crypticus (Oligochaeta, Annelida) in bodemecotoxicologisch onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven-van Breemen EM; Baerselman R; Notenboom J; ECO

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a research on the use of enchytraeids in soil ecotoxicology. Actually many soil ecotoxicological research is restricted to the earthworm Eisenia andrei/fetida limiting possibilities for generalisation and ecologically relevant test results. This study on enchytraeids consits

  4. 1608-IJBCS-Article-André T Kabré

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta) and Oreo- chromis mossambicus (Cichlidae) in. South Africa. Acta Tropica, 63: 1-14. Chiayvareejja S, Rittibhonbhum N, Hong- promyart M,Wiriyachitra P. 1997. Toxic- ity of the Thai piscicidal plant, Maesa ramentacea, to freshwater fishes in ponds. Aquaculture, 158: 229-234. Davies W. 1983.

  5. Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, H.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Vijver, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida

  6. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Allen, Herbert E.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods

  7. Vermiremediation of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, vermiremediation, a biological technique was utilized in order to clean-up soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil using an earthworm - Eisenia fetida. The contaminated soils were analyzed for the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) level every 24 hours over a period of 120 hours using ...

  8. Functional and community-level soil microbial responses to zinc addition may depend on test system biocomplexity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sverdrup, L.E.; Linjordet, R.; Stomman, G.; Hagen, S.B.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Frostegard, A.; Sorheim, R.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of zinc on soil nitrification and composition of the microbial community in soil was investigated using a full factorial experiment with five zinc concentrations and four levels of biological complexity (microbes only, microbes and earthworms (Eisenia fetida), microbes and Italian

  9. Irradiation studies of non-human biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, N.J.; Chaubey, R.C.; Harini, B.P.; Jha, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effect of gamma radiation on the Drosophila melanogaster, Eisenia fetida, Apis mellifera and Aedes aegypti were studied for its effect on factors like fecundity, hatchability, adult emergence, sex ratio, longevity, dose response curve and estimation of heat shock protein

  10. Nanosilver pathophysiology in earthworms: Transcriptional profiling of secretory proteins and the implication for the protein corona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Engelmann, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Previously we have identified lysenin as a key protein constituent of the secretome from Eisenia fetida coelomocytes and revealed its critical importance in priming interactions between the cells and the protein corona around nanosilver. As alterations of the protein environment can directly affe...

  11. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  12. Diastereomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation, depuration, bioisomerization, and metabolism of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two ecologically different species of earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Yao, Tianqi; Sun, Hongwen; Zhang, Yanwei; Yang, Jirui

    2016-01-15

    In this study, two ecological types of earthworms were exposed to soil samples that were artificially contaminated with individual hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs) to investigate the bioaccumulation, depuration, enantiomer selectivity and isomerization of HBCDs in earthworms. The uptake rate constant (ku), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), biota soil accumulation factor (BSAF), and half-life (t1/2) for the α-HBCD were the highest among the three diastereomers. The bioaccumulation parameters of the three diastereoisomers differed between the two ecologically different species of earthworms. The BSAF values of α- and γ-HBCDs were substantially higher in Eisenia fetida than those in Metaphire guillelmi, with the higher lipid and protein contents in E. fetida as the primary reason for this difference. The other processes, such as uptake, depuration, metabolism and isomerization, also differed between the two species and led to a difference in the bioaccumulation of β-HBCD. The β- and γ-HBCDs were bioisomerized to α-HBCD in the earthworms, but to a greater extent in E. fetida. The highest BSAF, t1/2 of α-HBCD and the bioisomerization of β- and γ-HBCDs to α-HBCD might explain in part why α-HBCD was the dominant isomer in biota samples. Most of the enantiomer fractions (EFs) for the three HBCD diastereoisomers in the earthworms were different from those in standard samples (p<0.05), indicating that enantiomer selectivity occurred. Moreover, the trends and extent of the enantioselectivity were different between the two species. Additionally, the EFs of α-HBCD that was bioisomerized from β- or γ-isomers were also different from those in the standards (p<0.05), which likely reflect the integration of several processes, such as enantioselective isomerization and the subsequent selective metabolism of the produced α-HBCD or selective excretion of the enantiomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  14. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  16. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  17. The properties degradation of exposed GFRP roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohammad; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Setyanto, Djoko

    2018-02-01

    There is much consideration of roof selection as a protector of a building against the outside weather, such as lightweight, strong stiff, corrosion resistant and guarantee for the availability of products. Based on these considerations, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) roof is a roof which can fulfill the requirement. The objective of this research is to investigate the degradation of physical and mechanical properties of GFRP roof exposed in outside weather. This GFRP roof composite was produced using a sheet molding compound (SMC) supplied by PT Intec Persada, Tangerang, Indonesia. There are two kinds GFRP roofs evaluated in this research that are GFRP roof exposed within 7 years and new GFRP roof that has not been exposed. The GFRP roofs were cut manually for preparing the specimens for hardness test, tensile test, SEM and FTIR test. The results show that the GFRP roof exposed within 7 years had the degradation of properties compared to the new GFRP roof. The exposed GFRP roof had lower strength and hardness compared to the new GFRP roof. The SEM observation indicates that exposed GFRP roof had the debonding of fiber on the surface, and in contrast, there are no debonding of fiber in the new GFRP roof surface. It can be recommended that the exposed GFRP roof may be repaired to enhance its performance and can re-increase its properties using the coating.

  18. Diseño de un sistema alternativo para el tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas por medio de la técnica de lombrifiltros utilizando la especie Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacipt Alexander Ramón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo diseñar y construir un sistema sobre tratamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de Pamplona utilizando como base teórica el sistema de tratamiento Tohá creado por el Dr. Jose Tohá de la Universidad de Chile, proponiendo una serie de procesos que permiten el saneamiento de las aguas servidas después de su uso con fines domésticos, industriales o comerciales, para poder ser vertidas finalmente a cuerpos de agua naturales. Este proceso incluye un tratamiento con lombrifiltros (aserrín y Eisenia foetida, por donde las aguas residuales pasan seguidamente de una cama de carbón activado filtrando y una cama de grava de piedra, permitiendo oxigenar el agua a partir del goteo que existe entre las camas. Finalmente, el efluente sigue a una cama de piedra de rio de gran tamaño y a un decantador para realizar la toma de muestras. De esta manera se obtiene agua tratada con baja carga orgánica dentro de los parámetros que establece la Comisión de Regulación de Agua Potable y Saneamiento Básico CRA en Colombia.

  19. Immunocytochemical electron microscopic study and western blot analysis of paramyosin in different invertebrate muscle cell types of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and the snail Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuela, M; García-Anchuelo, R; Arenas, M I; Cervera, M; Fraile, B; Paniagua, R

    1996-04-01

    The presence and distribution pattern of paramyosin have been examined in different invertebrate muscle cell types by means of Western blot analysis and electron microscopy immunogold labelling. The muscles studied were: transversely striated muscle with continuous Z lines (flight muscle from Drosophila melanogaster), transversely striated muscle with discontinuous Z lines (heart muscle from the snail Helix aspersa), obliquely striated body wall muscle from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and smooth muscles (retractor muscle from the snail and pseudoheart outer muscular layer from the earthworm). Paramyosin-like immunoreactivity was localized in thick filaments of all muscles studied. Immunogold particle density was similar along the whole thick filament length in insect flight muscle but it predominated in filament tips of fusiform thick filaments in both snail heart and earthworm body wall musculature when these filaments were observed in longitudinal sections. In obliquely sectioned thick filaments, immunolabelling was more abundant at the sites where filaments disappeared from the section. These results agree with the notion that paramyosin extended along the whole filament length, but that it can only be immunolabelled when it is not covered by myosin. In all muscles examined, immunolabelling density was lower in cross-sectioned myofilaments than in longitudinally sectioned myofilaments. This suggests that paramyosin does not form a continuous filament. The results of a semiquantitative analysis of paramyosin-like immunoreactivity indicated that it was more abundant in striated than in smooth muscles, and that, within striated muscles, transversely striated muscles contain more paramyosin than obliquely striated muscles.

  20. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  1. Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    1.73 $.") http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/ SKOS /reference/20081001/ Spiteri, L.F. (2007) "The structure and form of folksonomy tags: The road to the...Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning January 14, 2010 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD...DATES COVERED (From - To! 4/14/2009-12/23/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning Sa. CONTRACT

  2. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    : Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17-76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected...... and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal......, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education...

  3. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  4. Avaliação do Potencial Tóxico de Latossolos e Chernossolos Acrescidos de Lodo de Esgoto Utilizando Bioensaios com Oligoquetas da Espécie Eisenia andrei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves Cesar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sewage Sludge (SEL has been used in agricultural activities to improve physical and chemical properties of soils. However, thiscompound also contains very high levels of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms, which can cause serious negative effects onbiota and human health. This paper aims to assess potential toxicity of latosols and chernosols amended with SEL, using Eisenia andreiearthworms. Acute toxicity and behavioral tests were performed according to ASMT (2004 and ISO (2002 procedures, respectively.Heavy metals determination was made by Atomic Absorption, and mineralogical characterization by Ray-X Difratometry. Biomass losswas evaluated considering average individual weight. Mercury, lead, zinc and cooper determination in SEL in natura and soils amendedwith SEL revealed values higher than that recommended by Brazilian legislation. SEL addition to the soils caused no mortality to theorganisms, while SEL in natura provoked lethal effects on 100% of the earthworms. Latosol in natura demonstrated higher mortalityin comparison to chernosol in natura Behavioral tests indicated that 98,3% and 96,43% of the organisms avoided SEL in natura andlatosol with SEL, respectively. However, only 31% of the organisms avoided chernosol with SEL, suggesting a lower level of toxicity incomparison to latosol. Possibly the natural properties of the studied soils (fertility, organic matter content, clay mineralogy, etc. playedan important role in the avoidance behavior of the organisms. Probably expansive clays presence in chernosol stimulates ions adsorptionand their concentrations decreasing in soil solution; consequently contaminants bioavailability also tends to decrease. Biomass loss resultsrevealed that the SEL addition decreased the weight loss of the tested organisms, and biomass losses were higher for latosol than forchernosol. In conclusion, it is expected that these results can be used in human health and ecological risk assessment, as well as

  5. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  6. Exposing Library Services with AngularJS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.

  7. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  8. Stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, M.; Kuhr, H.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes in reactor buildings. The trolley and the crane bridge are fitted with the stabilizer consisting of a bipartite safety catch which is connected with a joint and able to take up the vertical loads during an earthquake. This stabilizer is suitable for all kinds of bridge cranes operated in seismically active regions

  9. Dose coefficients for individual occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', aiming its application to the dose calculation, with purposes of conformity verification with limits and restrictions of doses and level of reference for individual occupationally exposed, according to the express in its section 5

  10. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M.; Khaliullin, Timur O.; Vasil'yeva, Olga L.; Zalyalov, Ramil R.; Mustafin, Ilshat G.; Kisin, Elena R.; Birch, M. Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  11. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M., E-mail: liliya.fatkhutdinova@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Khaliullin, Timur O., E-mail: Khaliullin.40k@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States); Vasil' yeva, Olga L., E-mail: volgaleon@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Zalyalov, Ramil R., E-mail: zalyalov.ramil@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Mustafin, Ilshat G., E-mail: ilshat64@mail.ru [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Kisin, Elena R., E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  12. Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Homa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp., while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.

  13. Stability of people exposed to water flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Gomariz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our cities are formed by several elements which are exposed to floods of a magnitude according to the importance of the rainfall event and the design of the urban drainage system. The most important components in the cities are the pedestrians who develop various activities during rain events. Focusing on pedestrians, the research on their stability when they are exposed to water flows provides the necessary knowledge to understand and manage the associated hazard for them. In this research, several experiments with humans were carried out in order to determine the stability limits to pedestrians crossing through a water flow in a real scale platform. The results obtained and by comparing those with human stability criteria proposed by other authors and guidelines provide a more restrictive criterion.

  14. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  15. Studies on persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males

  16. Pollutants impact bioassay from waters and soils in Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Laura Mosneang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of water and soil samples by chemical methods identified the quantities of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates by comparison with the maximum limits of law. Acute toxicity tests on zebra fish embryos is an alternative test of water samples around swine farms in Banat region, because embryos are not subject to animal protection legislation during experiments. The use of Eisenia fetida earthworms as pollution indicators allowed assessment of avoidance behavior of potentially polluting soils collected from different distances from farms.

  17. Contributions to Earhworm (Clitellata; Annelida Fauna of Turkish Thrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Mete Mısırlıoğlu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, earthworm specimens gathered from 2 different localities which are located in Kırklareli-Babaeski were identified. At the end of the study, 3 species belonging to 2 genus were found: Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826, Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828, Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826. It is the first record of Aporrectodea rosea in Turkish Thrace.

  18. Comparative study of the CCF-like pattern recognition protein in different Lumbricid species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilerová, Marcela; Kohlerová, Petra; Josková, Radka; Josens, G.; Beschin, A.; De Baetselier, P.; Bilej, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2006), s. 765-771 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/04/0806; GA ČR GD310/03/H147; GA AV ČR IAA5020208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : lubricid * eisenia fetida * ccf Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2006

  19. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  20. Towards harmonized qualifications for radiation exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso, Hugo A.

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized

  1. Lymphocytic subsets in occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Wottawa, A.

    1989-04-01

    The percentage of CD2, CD4, CD8 and NK cells of peripheral blood was investigated in persons occupationally exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. Investigations were carried out by monoclonal antibodies and flow-cytometry. While significant effects of age and smoking habits on the relative number of CD8 cells and CD4/CD8 ratios could be established, no influence of the very low radiation exposure on the profile of lymphocytic cells in blood was found, except a very slight effect on the relative number of total T cells (= CD2 cells). 7tabs., 2figs., 16refs. (Author)

  2. Renographic curve of persons exposed to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Petrovicova, J.; Bilicky, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the group of 72 workers which were exposed to fumes of metallic mercury we evaluated possible nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 . We also used nuclear renography for evaluation of kidney. Nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 was proved by increased proteinuria and relatively frequent findings of pathological renogram. In the group with pathological renogram, elimination of Hg 0 in urine (1822.8 nmol.dm -3 ) was increased. In the group with normal finding the value was 883.7 nmol.dm -3 . These findings pointed at toxic effect of Hg 0 on kidney and suitability of radionuclide examination for disclosing of subclinical pathological changes. (authors)

  3. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  4. Uniform Protection for Multi-exposed Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    the Quality Calculus that computes the combinations of data required to reach a program point and relates them to a notion of cost. In this way, we can compare the security deployed on different paths that expose the same resource. The analysis is formalised in terms of flow logic, and is implemented......Ensuring that information is protected proportionately to its value is a major challenge in the development of robust distributed systems, where code complexity and technological constraints might allow reaching a key functionality along various paths. We propose a protection analysis over...

  5. Backfilling of trenches exposed to waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper treats the numerical prediction of initial and long-term morphology of small pipeline trenches. For this purpose a refined flow and sediment transport description is applied such that the entire mathematical problem is formulated and solved on a curvilinear grid using a k - ε turbulence......-closure. The backfilling process of trenches exposed to either waves or a steady current is of importance in relation to the implementation of pipelines in the marine environment. With respect to the sedimentation of trenches, the non-dimensional Trench-Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC = a/L, where a is the excursion length...

  6. Analyses of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    The text book contains the data and methods necessary for fire safety design of concrete constructions. The methods relate to standard fire as well as to any time of any other fire course.Material data are presented for concretes exposed to fire, and calculation methods are given for the ultimate...... bending capacity of beams and slabs, the ultimate shear capacity of beams, for the instability of columns and walls and for the deflection of prestressed and non-prestressed beams, slabs, walls and columns.All methods have been derived and compared to tests by Kristian Hertz....

  7. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  8. Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.L. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Scroggins, R. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Method Development and Application Section

    1995-12-31

    Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

  9. Effects of silver nanoparticles on survival, biomass change and avoidance behaviour of the endogeic earthworm Allolobophora chlorotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brami, C; Glover, A R; Butt, K R; Lowe, C N

    2017-07-01

    Increasing commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) and subsequent presence in wastewater and sewage sludge has raised concerns regarding their effects in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Several studies have employed standardised acute and chronic earthworm-based tests to establish the toxicological effects of Ag NP within soil. These studies have relied heavily on the use of epigiec earthworm species which may have limited ecological relevance in mineral soil. This study assessed the influence of Ag NP (uncoated 80nm powder) and AgNO 3 on survival, change in biomass and avoidance behaviour in a soil dwelling (endogiec) species, Allolobophora chlorotica. Earthworms were exposed for 14 days to soils spiked with Ag NP or AgNO 3 at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mgkg -1 either separately for survival and biomass measurement, or combined within a linear gradient to assess avoidance. Avoidance behaviour was shown to provide the most sensitive endpoint with an observable effect at an Ag NP/AgNO 3 concentration of 12.5mgkg -1 compared with 50mgkg -1 for biomass change and 100mgkg -1 for survival. Greater mortality was observed in AgNO 3 (66.7%) compared with Ag NP-spiked soils (12.5%) at 100mgkg -1 , attributed to increased presence of silver ions. Although comparison of results with studies employing Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei suggest that the A. chlorotica response to Ag NP is more sensitive, further research employing both epigeic and endogeic earthworms under similar experimental conditions is required to confirm this observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational health care of radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah

    1995-01-01

    The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)

  11. Protection of man: the exposed individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U. [Programme Nuclear Safety Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Breustedt, B. [Institute for Radiation Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Present methods for quantifying radiation exposure rely on a standardized reference man (75 kg) with defined average anatomical and physiological data. But individual person actually exposed differs from this idealized standard man. Therefore the focus of investigations at the Institute for Radiation Research (Institut fuer Strahlenforschung, ISF) which was founded at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, KIT) in 2009 is based on the vision to place the exposed individual with its anatomical and physiological particularities, under consideration of age, gender, body height, body shape and environment, in the centre of an individual-related quantification of the external and internal radiation exposure. Research work at the ISF is aiming at quantifying radiation exposure by improved determination of doses essentially caused by external radiation fields and the intake of radionuclides into the body. The three main topics of the institute are - external dosimetry (e.g. using a (voxel) model of the hand to simulate skin dose distribution); - internal dosimetry (e.g. body size related efficiency calibration of in-vivo counting equipment); - numerical methods/modeling (e.g. development of a mathematical/voxel-hybrid model of the human body). (authors)

  12. Zirconium ignition in exposed fuel channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, E., E-mail: merezra@technion.ac.il; Hasan, D.; Nekhamkin, Y.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the idea of runaway zirconium–steam reactions in severe accidents in today's LWRs. • We predict the thermal-hydraulics conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core. • The Semenov theory of metal combustion is extended to define a criterion for runaway oxidation reaction in fuel cladding. - Abstract: A theoretical model based on simultaneous solution of the heat and mass transfer equations is developed for predicting the rate of thermo-chemical reaction between zirconium cladding and a hot steam environment. Ignition conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core are predicted based on the theory of metal combustion. A range of decay power, convective heat transfer coefficients, and initial temperatures leading to uncontrolled runaway cladding oxidation is identified. The model could be readily integrated as part of a fuel channel analysis code for predicting possible outcomes of different accident mitigation procedures in light water nuclear reactors under LOCA conditions.

  13. To be a worker (exposed?) or not to be a worker (exposed?) that is the question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of personnel is detailed in this article in order to know exactly what personnel is considered as exposed and what radiation doses are under this term. The regulatory texts are studied in different articles of the French law and show that different kind of exposed personnel are considered. The definitions are varying with the notion of risk, of radiation doses and the work itself. This article asks for a better and more precise definition that will help the actors of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  14. Brain damage among the prenatally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Significant effects on the developing brain of exposure to ionizing radiation are seen among those individuals exposed in the 8th through the 25th week after fertilization. These effects, particularly in the most sensitive period, 8-15 weeks after fertilization, manifest themselves as an increased frequency of severe mental retardation (SMR), a diminution in IQ score and in school performance, and an increase in the occurrence of seizures. Of 30 SMR cases, 18 (60%) had small heads. About 10% of the individuals with small head sizes observed among the in utero clinical sample were mentally retarded. When all of the cases of mental retardation are included in the analysis, a linear dose-response model fits the data adequately and no evidence of a threshold emerges; however, if the two probable nonradiation-related cases of Down's syndrome are excluded from the 19 SMR cases exposed 8-15 weeks after fertilization, the evidence of a threshold is stronger. The 95% lower bound of the threshold based on the new dosimetry system appears to be in the range of 0.12-0.23 Gy. In the 16-25 week period, the 95% lower bound of the threshold is 0.21 Gy both with and without inclusion of two probable nonradiation-related retarded cases. In a regression analysis of IQ scores and school performance data, a greater linearity is suggested with the new dosimetry (DS86) than with the old (T65DR), but the mean IQ score and the mean school performance of those exposed in utero to doses under 0.10 Gy are similar, and not statistically different from the means in the control group. The risk ratios for unprovoked seizures, following exposure during the 8th through the 15th week after fertilization, are 4.4 (90% confidence interval: 0.5-40.9) after 0.10-0.49 Gy and 24.9 (4.1-191.6) after 0.50 Gy or more when the mentally retarded are included and 4.4 (0.5-40.9) and 14.5 (0.4-199.6), respectively, when they are excluded. (author)

  15. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  16. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  17. Lifetime assessment of service-exposed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwa, G.; Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    A longtime prognosis on the operation of creep-exposed components requires a lifetime analysis. The basis for such an analysis can be improved by an analysis of microstructure and material properties. Actually the grade of material exhaustion has to be regarded as proper assessment quantity. However, stress and time safety also are valuable assessment quantities which should be taken into consideration, especially when the grade of exhaustion is uncertain because of inaccurate input parameters. A correct assessment of the damage state cannot be made without taking into consideration the failure mechanism which has to be assumed for a specific component. With respect to creep the most critical component of a steamline system is the pipe bend because of the risk of large damage events. For this case component metallography by replicas is suggested as preventive test method. The continuation of service of a creep damage pipe bend cannot be recommended. (orig./MM) [de

  18. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Exposing the Myths, Defining the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.

    2013-01-01

    With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)

  20. Clinical investigation of proximate exposed group, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate effects of the A-bombing on prevalence of diabetes mellitus, follow-up studies were made on 5907 A-bomb survivors who received glucose tolerance test (GTT) during 20 years between 1963 and 1983. The A-bomb survivors were divided into the group A (1899 men and 1165 women exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter) and the group B (1725 men and 1118 women exposed 3.0 km or farther from it). Among non-obese survivors, 21.9% and 21.8% were being treated for diabetes mellitus or were evaluated as having diabetic type on GTT in the group A and the group B, respectively; while this was seen in 52.1% of obese survivors in the group A and 49.9% in the group B. There was no difference between the groups. In non-obese survivors, the annual development rate from the normal type to the diabetic type was 0.89% in the group A and 0.65% in the group B; the annual development rate from the borderline type to the diabetic type was 5.73% in the group A and 5.49% in the group B, showing no differences between the groups. The annual development rate from the normal or borderline type to the diabetic type was two times or higher in obese survivors than in non-obese survivors irrespective of exposure status. Regarding the number of diabetic survivors who became non-diabetic type in spite of having no treatment, and prevalence of diabetic complications, no difference was seen between the groups. These results suggest that the A-bombing has scarcely influenced the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and clinical course. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized slaughtering...

  2. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  3. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Rodriguez, Alison C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  4. Exposing the “One China” Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-yuan Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, when the governments from both sides across the Taiwan Strait began having contacts, both of them, at the People’s Republic of China (PRC’s request, expressed verbally, and in relation to functional issues, that they advocated the “one China” principle, though what “one China” actually meant was open to different interpretations, and the shift that elevated the 1992 “one China” interpretations from the functional level to the political level did not occur until April 2005. Since President Tsai Ing-wen was sworn in and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP became the ruling party of the Republic of China (ROC on Taiwan in early 2016, the PRC has used Tsai’s rejection of this so-called “1992 consensus” as a pretext to discontinue all intergovernmental communication channels with the ROC on Taiwan, while also cutting down on cross-strait civil exchanges in travel and education. This thinkpiece article aims to scrutinise this “one China” principle, how it has developed over the years, and expose its underlying realities.

  5. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Sarah A.E.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2010-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolomics was used to monitor earthworm responses to sub-lethal (50-1500 mg/kg) phenanthrene exposure in soil. Total phenanthrene was analyzed via soxhlet extraction, bioavailable phenanthrene was estimated by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 1-butanol extractions and sorption to soil was assessed by batch equilibration. Bioavailable phenanthrene (HPCD-extracted) comprised ∼65-97% of total phenanthrene added to the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed differences in responses between exposed earthworms and controls after 48 h exposure. The metabolites that varied with exposure included amino acids (isoleucine, alanine and glutamine) and maltose. PLS models indicated that earthworm response is positively correlated to both total phenanthrene concentration and bioavailable (HPCD-extracted) phenanthrene in a freshly spiked, unaged soil. These results show that metabolomics is a powerful, direct technique that may be used to monitor contaminant bioavailability and toxicity of sub-lethal concentrations of contaminants in the environment. These initial findings warrant further metabolomic studies with aged contaminated soils. - 1 H NMR metabolomics is used to directly monitor metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after 48 h of exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil.

  6. Effect of volatile hydrocarbon fractions on mobility and earthworm uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils and soil/lampblack mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Bill W; Beardsley, Kate E; Sullivan, Wendy R; Hayes, Thomas D; Soni, Bhupendra K

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the mobility and bioavailability to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) of priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a suite of 11 soils and soil/lampblack mixtures obtained from former manufactured-gas plant sites. Contaminant mobility was assessed using XAD4 resins encapsulated in dialysis tubing, which were exposed to slurried soils for 15 d. These experiments showed that mobility of PAH in the different soils strongly correlated to the levels of volatile hydrocarbons (namely, gasoline- and diesel-range organics [GRO and DRO]) that existed in the soils as co-contaminants. Actual PAH bioavailability (as measured by earthworm PAH concentrations) also appeared to depend on GRO + DRO levels, although this was most evident at high levels of these contaminants. These findings are discussed in view of the effects of dieselrange organics on oil viscosity, assuming that the hydrocarbon contaminants in these soils exist in the form of distinct adsorbed oil phases. This study, therefore, extends correlations between carrier-oil viscosity and dissolved solute bioavailability, previously observed in a number of other in vitro and whole-organism tests (and in bacterial mutagenicity studies in soil), to multicellular organisms inhabiting contaminated-soil systems.

  7. Impact of chronic, low-level ionising radiation exposure on terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hingston, J.; Wood, M.D.; Copplestone, D.; Zinger, I. [Liverpool Univ., School of Biological Sciences, Merseyside (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    There is a need to confirm that the environment is being adequately protected from the mixture of contaminants released into it. In the field of environmental radioactivity, tools have been developed to assess the impacts of ionising radiation on wildlife. The scientific data upon which these assessments are based is, however, lacking. New documentation has been produced by the UK Environment Agency to provide guidelines on structuring experiments (using environmentally relevant doses) and select suitable non-human species and endpoints for study. It is anticipated that this documentation will be used to direct future experiments in this field. This paper presents the results of the first of these experiments. Numbers of the earthworm Eisenia fetida and the wood louse Porcellio scaber were segregated and constantly exposed to one of six radiation doses (background, 0.1, 0.4, 1.5, 4.0 and 8.0 mGyh{sup -1}) for a total of 16 and 14 weeks respectively. The endpoints of mortality, number of viable offspring and average weight of an individual were recorded and the results of this study will be discussed here. (author)

  8. Modelling the propagation of effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation from individuals to populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, F. [Laboratory of Environmental Modelling, DEI/SECRE/LME, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache, Building 159, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr; Hertel-Aas, T. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Gilek, M. [School of Life Sciences, Soedertoern University College, 14189 Huddinge (Sweden); Gilbin, R. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Oughton, D.H. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing gamma dose rate (up to 0.6 generation times at 11 mGy h{sup -1}). Population extinction was predicted at 43 mGy h{sup -1}. In the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing alpha dose rate (up to 0.8 generation times at 15.0 mGy h{sup -1}), only after two successive generations were exposed. The study examined population effects of changes in different individual endpoints (including survival, number of offspring produced and time to first reproduction). Models showed that the two species did not respond equally to equivalent levels of change, the fast growing daphnids being more susceptible to reduction in fecundity or delay in reproduction than the slow growing earthworms. This suggested that susceptibility of a population to ionising radiation cannot be considered independent of the species' life history.

  9. {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics of earthworm exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sarah A.E.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.c [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to monitor earthworm responses to sub-lethal (50-1500 mg/kg) phenanthrene exposure in soil. Total phenanthrene was analyzed via soxhlet extraction, bioavailable phenanthrene was estimated by hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 1-butanol extractions and sorption to soil was assessed by batch equilibration. Bioavailable phenanthrene (HPCD-extracted) comprised approx65-97% of total phenanthrene added to the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed differences in responses between exposed earthworms and controls after 48 h exposure. The metabolites that varied with exposure included amino acids (isoleucine, alanine and glutamine) and maltose. PLS models indicated that earthworm response is positively correlated to both total phenanthrene concentration and bioavailable (HPCD-extracted) phenanthrene in a freshly spiked, unaged soil. These results show that metabolomics is a powerful, direct technique that may be used to monitor contaminant bioavailability and toxicity of sub-lethal concentrations of contaminants in the environment. These initial findings warrant further metabolomic studies with aged contaminated soils. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics is used to directly monitor metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after 48 h of exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil.

  10. Stereoselective bioaccumulation of chiral PCB 91 in earthworm and its metabolomic and lipidomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Wang, Yuehua; Zhang, Yanwei; Cheng, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaowei

    2018-07-01

    Stereoselective bioaccumulation, elimination, metabolomic and lipidomic responses of earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 91 in an earthworm-soil system were investigated. Preferential bioaccumulation of (-)-PCB 91 and elimination of (+)-PCB 91 were observed following 50 and 500 μg/kg dwt exposures. Enantiomer fraction (EF) values decreased over time during the uptake and elimination periods. Metabolomics and lipidomics techniques based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) revealed significant changes in 108 metabolites after earthworms exposure to (+)-, (-)-, and (±)-PCB 91, compared to control groups. Forty two of these metabolites were identified as amino acids, nucleosides, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, vitamins or others. Lysophospholipids including six lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), six lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), eight lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and five lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) were also differentially expressed between exposure and control groups. Alterations in the levels of metabolites and lipids indicated stereoselective effects of chiral PCB 91 on earthworm amino acid, energy, and nucleotide metabolism, neurodevelopment and gene expression. Overall, the effects of (+)-PCB 91 were more pronounced than that of (-)- and (±)-PCB 91. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3μm particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater

  12. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  13. Educator Sexual Misconduct: Exposing or Causing Learners to Be Exposed to Child Pornography or Pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coetzee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he law recognises that non-contact sexual offences can cause harm and several offences were created to regulate non-contact sexual child abuse offences. Several of these offences deal with the exposure or causing exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Sexual grooming of children and the “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” are criminalised in sections 18(2 and 19 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007. And offences in relation to exposing children to disturbing, harmful and age-inappropriate materials are criminalised in sections 24A(2 and (4 of the Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996. In this article the author considered the content of the offences of “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” in relation to the other offences dealing with exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Benchmarked against these criminal offences the author then conceptualised exposing learners, or causing the exposure of learners to child pornography or pornography as forms of educator misconduct. The seriousness that should be attached to these forms of misconduct was considered in light of the various criminal offences. The review of the criminal offences and the forms of educator misconduct brought the ineffectiveness of current forms of serious educator misconduct to the fore. There is no form of serious misconduct that covers the transgression of educators who expose learners to child pornography or pornography that can be classified as “XX”. In conclusion a suggestion is made with regard to how a new form of serious misconduct could be worded so as to cover this gap, eg An educator must be dismissed if he or she is found guilty of – (g exposing a learner to or causing exposure of a learner to material classified as “Refused” or

  14. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P polyether manufacturer.

  15. Going beyond the most exposed people in a dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerpe, Thomas; Broed, Robert [Facilia AB, Gustavslundsvaegen 151C, SE-167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment, EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, FI-28 100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The dose assessment in a long-term radiation safety assessment often focus on assessing dose of a representative person to be used for determining compliance with a radiation dose constraint. This representative person is often assumed to receive a dose that is representative of the most exposed people, i.e., the more highly exposed individuals in the population. This is not always sufficient, the Finnish regulations for disposal of nuclear waste has radiation dose constraint to the most exposed people as well as for larger groups of exposed people. This work presents the methodology to assessing dose of a representative person for a larger group of exposed people as applied by Posiva in the TURVA-2012 safety case for the spent nuclear fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. In addition, annual doses from the set of biosphere calculation cases analysed in TURVA-2012 are presented and discussed. Special focus is given on explaining the differences in exposure levels and exposure routes between the estimated annual doses to representative persons for most exposed people and a larger exposed group. The results show that the annual doses to a larger group of people ranges from one to three orders of magnitude below the annual doses to the most exposed people. Furthermore, the exposure route related to food ingestion is less significant for the larger group of people compared to the most exposed people and that the exposure route related to water ingestion shows the opposite behaviour. (authors)

  16. Response of exposed bark and exposed lichen to an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, A.M.J. [Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Oliveira do Hospital (Portugal). Oliveira do Hospital College of Technology and Management; Freitas, M.C.; Canha, N. [URSN, Sacavem (Portugal). Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN); Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. of Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to understand emission sources of chemical elements using biomonitoring as a tool. The selected lichen and bark were respectively Parmotrema bangii and Criptomeria japonica, sampled in the pollution-free atmosphere of Azores (Sao Miguel island), Portugal, and were exposed in the courtyards of 22 basic schools of Lisbon. The exposure was from January to May 2008 and from June to October 2008 (designated through the text as winter and summer respectively). The chemical element concentrations were determined by INAA. Conductivity of the lichen samples was measured. Factor analysis (MCTTFA) was applied to winter/summer bark/lichen exposed datasets. Arsenic emission sources, soil with anthropogenic contamination, a Se source, traffic, industry, and a sea contribution, were identified. In lichens, a physiological source based on the conductivity values was found. The spatial study showed contribution of sources to specific school positioning. Conductivity values were high in summer in locations as international Lisbon airport and downtown. Lisbon is spatially influenced by marine air mass transportation. It is concluded that one air sampler in Lisbon might be enough to define the emission sources under which they are influenced. (orig.)

  17. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)], E-mail: mkb@ci.uc.pt; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal); Prasad, M.N.V. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Freitas, Helena [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)

    2009-01-18

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 {mu}M) to the highest (100 {mu}M), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r{sup 2} = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r{sup 2} = 0.999 and r{sup 2} = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 {mu}M) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 {mu}M-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 {mu}M-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 {mu}M-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 {mu

  18. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina; Prasad, M.N.V.; Freitas, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 μM) to the highest (100 μM), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r 2 = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r 2 = 0.999 and r 2 = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 μM) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 μM-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 μM-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 μM-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 μM-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity

  19. Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Unusual presentation of necrotizing fasciitis in an HIV exposed infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... presentation of NF, in this instance, it presented on the scalp, in an HIV exposed neonate. It also stressed the importance prompt diagnosis of all skin lesions in HIV exposed neonates, and the role of early diagnosis and aggressive multi disciplinary team management in salvaging NF which is a potentially fatal condition.

  1. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  2. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  3. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  4. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  5. The differences in phenolic content in rivers exposed and non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Bukowska, Bozena; Duda, Wirgiliusz

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine the differences in a kind, number and concentrations of phenol, chlorophenols, chlorocatechols chlorinated methoxyphenols (chloroguaiacols, chlorosyringols) and 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole in the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, the flow non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination and in the Ner river, the flow exposed to anthropogenic pollution. The samples of water were collected in the Dzierzazna river in the Swoboda locality, the inflow of the Dzierzazna river - the Ciosenka river and, also, in the spring situated in Ciosny Sady locality. Water of the Ner river was collected in points near Łódź, Konstantynów, Poddebice and Dabie towns. The compounds were condensed (adsorbed) and eluted with methylene chloride on octadecyl C18 layer in a Baker Separex system. The obtained eluent was separated using the method of gas chromatography and analysed using mass spectrometry technique. In samples collected from the drainage of the Dzierzazna river phenol, chlorophenols, guaiacol, trichloroguaiacol, tetrachloroguaiacol, trichlorosyringol and 3,4,5-trichloroveratole were determined. As no anthropogenic sources are situated within the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, we may suppose that most of the determined compounds are mainly of natural origin. No or trace concentrations of chlorinated methoxyphenols were noted in the water of the Ner river, but a higher number, and concentrations of chlorophenols and additionally chlorocatechols were determined in this flow. It is also apparent that changes in a number and concentrations of phenols in the water of the Ner river did not prove a seasonal character, which was typical of the Dzierzazna drainage waters.

  6. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ferri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs. This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2 and aflatoxicol (AFOH A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7% revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432; the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs. 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437. Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations.

  7. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  8. UDS in lymphocytes of occupationally radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a possible effect of low dose radiation on DNA repair processes, peripheral lymphocytes of mine workers exposed to 222 Rn in the thermal gallery of Badgastein (Austria) and employees of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, exposed to varying doses of gamma radiation, were investigated. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by in vitro UV irradiation was measured by autoradiography of isolated lymphocytes of exposed persons and unexposed controls. In all 222 Rn-exposed mine workers a significant increase of UDS above control values could be observed. Gamma irradiation 31 mrad had a significant effect on UDS, indicating a stimulation of DNA repair capability by chronic low dose exposure. (Author)

  9. Pulmonary function evaluations of dogs exposed to uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Palmer, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1980-01-01

    Pulmonary function evaluations were conducted on dogs exposed to carnotite uranium ore dust. Significant changes were detected in the slope of the single-breath N 2 washout curve, suggesting an uneven distribution of ventilation

  10. Administrative norms on radiofrequency radiation for occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxeboel, G.

    1982-01-01

    The report presents a proposal for administrative norms on radiofrequency (RF) radiation for occupationally exposed persons. The norms establish maximum allowable field exposure in a frequency range from 1 MHz too 300 GHz. (RF)

  11. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring has been traditionally used for the surveillance of populations exposed to genotoxic agents. In recent years sensitivity problems emerged in surveys of populations exposed to low levels of mutagens, and therefore alternative approaches have been explored. Biomonitoring....... The limited number of published papers indicates that the conduct of properly designed studies on the effect of environmental pollutants in children may be difficult. This review confirmed the usefulness of MN assay in biomonitoring studies conducted in children, revealing that in many circumstances...

  12. Epidemiological studies of some populations exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    During 1984 September 19 and 20, a meeting was held at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba to discuss current epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Twelve representatives from three countries attended the meeting and eleven papers were extensively discussed. The majority of these papers described studies of populations occupationally exposed to radiation. The report contains summaries of the papers presented and of the discussions that took place

  13. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  14. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  15. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  16. Hearing Loss in Persons Exposed and not Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalova, Martina; Mrazkova, Eva; Sachova, Petra; Vojkovska, Kristyna; Tomaskova, Hana; Janoutova, Jana; Janout, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare hearing loss in individuals at risk and those not at risk for occupational noise and to compare working loss by gender. The analysis used data from a current Czech Ministry of Health grant project called Epidemiological and Genetic Study of the Frequency of Hearing Loss (2011 to 2015; NT12246-5/2011). The analyzed sample comprised 4988 participants. Hearing was tested using pure-tone threshold audiometry, tympanometry, and measurement of the stapedius reflex. Females at risk and those not at risk for occupational noise who were younger than 44 years and older than 75 years were found to have no statistically significant differences at any pure-tone threshold audiometry frequency. In females aged 45 to 74 years, statistically significant differences were found. In males, hearing loss was observed as early as 18 years of age. When comparing males and females at no risk for occupational noise, there were no statistically significant differences at any of the frequencies in those younger than 29 years. In females aged 30 years or older, statistically significant differences were observed at various frequencies in all age groups. When comparing males and females at risk for occupational noise, statistically significant differences were more frequent than in employees not exposed to noise. Hearing loss in females does not significantly vary depending on occupational exposure. The opposite is true for males. However, the maximum differences in mean levels did not exceed 10 dB. It is therefore clear that noise is a preventable factor, and the use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  17. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  18. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  19. Analysis of the mortality of the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the values, time course, and structure of mortality of the progeny of exposed residents of villages on the banks of the Techa river in the Urals. The exposure was caused by discharge of radioactive waste of Mayak radiochemical plant for the manufacture of bomb plutonium into the river. A total of 76x10 6 m 3 liquid waste with a total activity of 2,75x10 6 Ci was discharged into the river from 1949 to 1956. The population of villages on the banks of the river, 26554 subjects was exposed to external and internal radiation. The doses per gonads caused by external exposure and incorporation of evenly distributed radionuclides (mainly 137 Cs) ranged 20 to 1270 mSv. A total of 23869 children were born to exposed subjects since the beginning of exposure; 3160 of these were exposed in utero. The mortality rates int he studied cohort was nothigher than in controls. However, deaths from the so-called endogenous causes were more frequent for the descendants of exposed subjects: neonatal diseases, congenital developmental defects, and states that could not be accurately defined. Correlation of the number of deaths from congenital developmental defects to the collective gonadal dose permitted us to assess the risk as 0.004 perSv, this being in agreement with the estimates of the International Committee for Radiation Protection. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 6 tabs

  20. Serum-thyroxine levels in microwave-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Michaelson, S.M.; Pettit, S.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the response of the thyroid gland in animals exposed to microwave irradiation is controversial. Animal experimentation has contributed to the controversy because both increased and decreased thyroid functions have been reported. The thyroxine concentration in rats as representative of thyroid function in animals exposed to 2.45-GHz, 120-Hz amplitude-modulated microwaves has been studied. These studies covered a long time span; rats from two commercial sources (BS and CR) were used and subjected to different numbers of exposures, and therefore these data were evaluated for their stability. Two factors could influence in the result significantly, i.e., source of animal and number of sham exposures. Rats used in the 2-hr exposures were from two different commercial sources; rats from CR had a higher (but normal) thyroxine concentration than did rats from BS. Therefore the data of these animals were separated by commercial source for reevaluation. Instead of increased thyroxine concentration in rats exposed at 25, 30, and 40 mW/cm 2 , changes were not noted in any microwave-exposed rats. The influence of sham exposure revealed that appropriate concurrent control and specification of animal source are needed in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, statistical procedures used can greatly influence the conclusions. Thus the specificity of changes in thyroxine concentration in rats exposed to microwaves because of its sporadic occurrence and because of inconsistencies among experiments was doubted

  1. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  2. Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Annemarie; Van Gorp, Urbain; Verschaeve, Luc

    2006-03-01

    Nowadays, virtually everybody is exposed to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phone base station antennas or other sources. At least according to some scientists, this exposure can have detrimental health effects. We investigated cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes from subjects who were professionally exposed to mobile phone electromagnetic fields in an attempt to demonstrate possible RFR-induced genetic effects. These subjects can be considered well suited for this purpose as their RFR exposure is 'normal' though rather high, and definitely higher than that of the 'general population'. The alkaline comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration tests revealed no evidence of RFR-induced genetic effects. Blood cells were also exposed to the well known chemical mutagen mitomycin C in order to investigate possible combined effects of RFR and the chemical. No cooperative action was found between the electromagnetic field exposure and the mutagen using either the comet assay or SCE test.

  3. Histomorphological patterns in osseous rests exposed at fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Oliva, A.I.; Quintana, P.

    2005-01-01

    Histomorphology as part of morphological research studies bony structure on the tissue level. Its methods are applied in this investigation to evaluate histomorphological impact patterns in heat-exposed bony material, particularly color changes, fissure patterns, volumetric reduction, and changes in the size of Haversian canals. These variables were evaluated in exposed thin sections of porcine long bones, obtained during two experimental series. The first one was conducted under stable thermal conditions in a furnace by measuring heat impact in stepped time (I to S hours) and temperature intervals (200 to 800 C). During a second experimental phase, bony samples were exposed to direct fire in defined time and heat intervals. The treated specimens were then sectioned and microscopically scrutinized. The results presented here were designed to offer new analytical, measurable standards in the investigation of forms of heat exposition of the human body, applicable in forensics and the study of ancient Maya posthumous body treatments. (Author)

  4. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  5. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  6. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  7. Intrapulmonary reactions of workers exposed to dust and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, T; Nakadate, T; Sakurai, M; Sakurai, Y

    1984-01-01

    Forty-one dust-and-ozone-exposed and 37 nonexposed workers, belonging to the Research and Development Division of a photo-copier manufacturing industry, were examined to assess the effect of the exposure to carbon, iron and resin dust and ozone in the air of the work environment by means of questionnaires on their physical condition, smoking habits and exposure history by interview, chest X-rays, testing of ventilatory functions, transcutaneous PO2 (tcPO2) test and H2O2-induced hemolysis test. The following results were obtained. Respirable dust concentrations in the air of the work place were 0.1-1.0 mg/m3, total dust concentrations 0.2-2.0 mg/m3, and ozone concentrations 0.004-0.06 ppm (0.008-0.12 mg/m3). According to the Japanese Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, the exposed workers showed a higher rate of profusion 0/1 and over, and category 1 and over (1/0 and over) than the nonexposed workers. Ventilatory function testing revealed no difference between exposed workers and nonexposed workers, but small airway narrowing was suspected in smoking workers in comparison with nonsmoking workers. Transcutaneous PO2 showed no difference between exposed and nonexposed workers, between smoking and nonsmoking workers, and between any of the paired six combinations out of the four groups of workers, i.e., nonsmoking and nonexposed, nonsmoking and exposed, smoking and nonexposed, and smoking and exposed. It was estimated by H2O2-induced hemolysis test that smoking and/or dust exposure, especially long-term exposure, gave rise to aggravation of fragility of the erythrocyte membrane by lipid peroxidation with ozone or active oxygen produced by the reaction of dust and alveolar macrophages.

  8. [Hepatotoxicity in healthy infants exposed to nevirapine during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveli, Pablo; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Rovira-Girabal, Núria; Fortuny-Guasch, Clàudia; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    The use of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women is discouraged due to its potential to cause hepatotoxicity. There is limited information available on the toxicity in non-HIV infected newborn exposed to this drug during pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of hepatotoxicity in the newborn exposed to nevirapine and HIV during pregnancy. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted on a cohort of healthy infants born to HIV-infected mothers, in whom the first determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), before 6weeks of age, was collected. Patients were allocated to 2groups according to exposure to nevirapine during pregnancy. Hepatotoxicity was rated according to the AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS). This study included 160newborns from 159pregnancies (88exposed to nevirapine-based regimens and 71 exposed to protease inhibitors-based therapies). No cases of hepatotoxicity were observed according to the DAIDS Table for Grading. Two cases of ALT above normal values (2.8%; 95%CI: 0.3-9.8%) were observed in patients not exposed to nevirapine, and one case (1.1%; 95%CI: 0.0-6.1%) in the group exposed to nevirapine (P=.585). The lack of differences between groups suggests that highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens including nevirapine administered during pregnancy do not involve a higher risk of liver disease compared to other treatment combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  10. Analysis of early mortality rates of survivors exposed within Japanese wooden houses in Hiroshima by exposed distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    Mortality for 3,215 A-bomb survivors who were exposed in Japanese wooden houses at ≤ 1,300 m from the hypocenter on August 6, 1945 was examined. An overall mortality was 51 % (1,640/3,215 survivors) within 61 days after the exposure. According to the distance from the hypocenter, it was 100 % in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m, and 20 % in those exposed between 1,201 m and 1,300 m. The mortality decreased with increasing the distance from the hypocenter. In conjunction with the duration after the exposure and the distance from the hypocenter, the mortality was 100 % 12 days after the exposure in survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m. In survivors exposed at > 800 m, the mortality tended to be higher two weeks after the exposure than immediately after that. The distance from the hypocenter causing 50 per cent mortality was estimated to be 1,026 m from August 6 to October 5; 1,002 m from August 6 to September 10; 887 m from August 7 to September 10; and 867 m from August 20 to September 16. However, these figures were probably lower than the real mortality rates, since no information was available when whole family died. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  12. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  13. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  14. 3. cotrimoxazole prophylaxis compliance among hiv exposed infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    reported that their spouses knew about their HIV status and 65.7% said that they felt free to give their child cotrimoxazole in public.61.8% of the respondents did not know that there was a social support group for mothers/caretakers of HIV exposed infants in their community and 74.5% stated that there were misconceptions ...

  15. Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into the neural mechanism...provides critical evidence of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into...From - To) ;run.- ~01~ Final!Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual

  16. Erosion of marker coatings exposed to Pilot-PSI plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, P.; Hakola, A.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.; Aints, M.; I. Jõgi,; Kiisk, M.; Kozlova, J.; Laan, M.; Likonen, J.; Lissovski, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study plasma-induced erosion processes. Samples with ITER-relevant coatings were exposed to controlled plasma fluxes whose parameters were characteristic to those occurring in the reactor walls. After the experiments,

  17. Identification of Surface Exposed Elementary Body Antigens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to identify the surface exposed antigenic components of Cowdria ruminantium elementary body (EB) by biotin labeling, determine effect of reducing and non-reducing conditions and heat on the mobility of these antigens and their reactivity to antibodies from immunized animals by Western blotting.

  18. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus in People Exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in people who had been exposed to traditional surgical practices in Edo State, Nigeria. Sera from the subjects were tested for HCV antibodies using Clinotech Diagnostic test device supplied by Clinotech Diagnostic and ...

  19. Computed temperature profile in materials exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Tso Chin; Choong, Yap Siew; Seon, Chan Kam

    1987-06-01

    Computed temperature profiles are presented for the materials of lead, steel, concrete and water in curved shells, when they are exposed to gamma radiation. The results are based on the usual simplified theory of thermal conduction with an exponential heat source.

  20. Histopathology of the organs of Broiler Chickens exposed to flames ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology of the organs of broiler chickens exposed to the flame and fumes of refined petroleum product kerosene at varying distances over a period of 16hrs daily for 56 days in a poultry house were evaluated. Kerosene burning was simulated in a designed burner. Kerosene flame in a designed burner was placed 4, ...

  1. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only histopathologically but also ...

  2. Management of Patients with Post- Traumatic Exposed Bones at Moi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global frequency for open long bone fracture is at least 11.5 cases per 100,000 persons per year. Precise published research information regarding the characteristics and the management of patients with post- traumatic exposed bones for Africa, Kenya and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital- Eldoret is ...

  3. Rapid Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts of Exposed Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a rapid assessment methodology to estimate the degree of human impact of exposed sandy beaches in Ghana using ghost crabs as ecological indicators. The use of size ranges of ghost crab burrows and their population density as ecological indicators to assess extent of anthropogenic impacts on beaches ...

  4. Methane formation in tritium gas exposed to stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were performed to determine the effect cleanliness of a surface exposed to tritium gas had on methane formation. These tests performed on 304 stainless steel vessels, cleaned in various ways, showed that the methane formation was reduced by the use of various cleaning procedures

  5. 'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoental, R

    1983-05-01

    A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain.

  6. Predictors of incident tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the predictors of tuberculosis infection in HIV-exposed children. Design: A longitudinal cohort study nested within a randomised controlled trial. Setting: Antenatal clinics in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Children born to 875 HIV-infected women in Tanzania. Results: A total of 82 children ...

  7. Equilibrium disorders in workers exposed to mixed solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Tanzariello, Mariagiuseppina; De Pasquale, Domenico; Brecciaroli, Renato; Spatari, Giovanna

    2018-02-06

    Organic solvents cause diseases of the vestibular system. However, little is known regarding the correlation between vestibular damage and exposure to organic solvents below threshold limit values. The best measure by which to evaluate vestibular disorders is static and dynamic posturography. The aim of this study was to evaluate equilibrium disorders via static and dynamic posturography in workers without clear symptoms and exposed to low doses of mixed solvents. 200 subjects were selected. Using an Otometrics device (Madsen, Denmark), all subjects endured static and dynamic posturography testing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Results were compared with a control group of unexposed individuals. Based on the obtained data, the following results can be drawn: (a) subjects exposed to mixtures of solvents show highly significant differences regarding all static and dynamic posturography parameters in comparison to the control group; (b) posturography testing has proven to be a valid means by which to detect subliminal equilibrium disorders in subjects exposed to solvents. We can confirm that refinery workers exposed to mixtures of solvents can present subliminal equilibrium disorders. Early diagnosis of the latter is made possible by static and dynamic posturography.

  8. Uranium in the tissue of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.E.; McInroy, J.F.; Schulte, H.F.

    1975-04-01

    Data are presented on the content of uranium in tissue samples from deceased occupationally exposed uranium workers. Data on the distribution in lungs, lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, and bone tissues are correlated with available data on the urinary excretion of U during the period of occupational exposure. (CH)

  9. Clinical findings on in utero exposed microcephalic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, Akira; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeru; Shimada, Katsunobu; Fujito, Junro

    1966-12-24

    Since animal experiments have shown that microcephaly is induced by fetal exposure to radiation and microcephaly has been found in children of mothers exposed to x-ray therapy during pregnancy (Murphy et al), the main cause of microcephaly in children exposed in utero to the A-bomb is considered to be ionizing radiation. Wood et al reported the increased incidence of microcephaly and mental retardation in children exposed in utero at proximal distances which they felt could not be attributed to any other known variable. ABCC has recently concluded that the effect of in utero exposure is primarily due to the immediate effect of radiation upon the fetuses although in A-bomb exposure the physical injury to the mother due to the A-bomb cannot be completely ignored. Our survey likewise revealed an increase of microcephaly in children exposed early in pregnancy at less than 15 weeks at closer distances than 1500 m. Thus, we presume that A-bomb radiation increases the incidence of microcephaly. 16 references, 8 tables.

  10. Protecting exposed tissues with external ultrasonic super-hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Barry Neil

    2006-01-01

    The author contends that a technique preventing dehydration of exposed tissues, such as external ultrasonic super-hydration, will result in a lower morbidity rate, decreasing deep tissue pain, susceptibility to infection, fat necrosis, wound dehiscence, and improving recovery times. He discusses how he uses this technique in his aesthetic surgery practice.

  11. 46 CFR 108.223 - Guards on exposed equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... have hand covers, guards, or rails installed on all belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards on exposed equipment. 108.223 Section 108.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN...

  12. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only.

  13. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  14. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gisladottir

    Full Text Available There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence.We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR. Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068. For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126 matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women. Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88, antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07 and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34. Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21, except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93. Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates.Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  15. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A

    2016-01-01

    There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  16. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  17. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.; Grossman, L.

    1996-01-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m 2 UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m 2 and 350 J/m 2 were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneesh, D.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh -1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h -1 '). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  19. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daligcon, B.C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The role of gluconeogenesis on the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G (radial acceleration) stress was determined. Overnight-fasted, male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were injected i.p. with uniformly labeled 14 C lactate, alanine, or glycerol (5 μCi/rat) and immediately exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. 14 C incorporation of the labeled substrates into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured and compared to noncentrifuged control rats injected in a similar manner. Significant increases in 14 C incorporation of all three labeled substrates into plasma glucose were observed in centrifuged rats at all exposure periods; 14 C incorporation into liver glycogen was significantly increased only at 0.50 and 1.0 hr. The i.p. administration (5 mg/100-g body wt) of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a potent gluconeogenesis inhibitor, prior to centrifugation blocked the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen during the first hour of centrifugation. The increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen was also abolished in adrenodemedullated rats exposed to centrifugation for 1.0 hr. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, suppressed the increase in plasma glucose of rats exposed to centrifugation for 0.25 hr. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the initial, rapid rise in plasma glucose as well as the increase in liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress can be attributed to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine plays a dominant role during the early stages of exposure to centrifugation. 11 references, 3 tables

  20. Biological behaviour of buccal cells exposed to blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Ponsonnet, Laurence; Schembri, Catherine; Farge, Pierre; Pourreyron, Laurence; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Blue light is used in dental practise to cure resin-based materials, but the path of the light often includes oral tissues such as gingival tissues. While adverse effects of blue light exposure on cells - such as retina cells - are well known, few studies have investigated the impact of blue light exposure on oral cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the biological effects of blue light emitted by two dental curing devices (a plasma-arc and a light-emitting diode curing unit) on human gingival fibroblasts. Light intensities and light-induced temperature rise were respectively measured with a radiometer and a thermocouple. Cellular response to blue light exposure was assessed by the observation of cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and the estimation of cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Light intensities measured at the clinical distance were 488 ± 42 mW/cm 2 for the plasma-arc unit and ranged from 61 ± 5 to 140 ± 16 mW/cm 2 for the light-emitting diodes unit, according to the curing program used. The highest temperature rise was 0.5 and 3.5 deg. C for exposure to the plasma-arc light and to the light-emitting diodes light, respectively. Results showed no differences between exposed- and non-exposed cells in regards to cell morphology. However, cells exposed to blue light presented an increased mitochondrial activity compared to control cells (non-exposed), and mostly those exposed to plasma-arc light

  1. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  2. Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohsnitter, W C; Noller, K L; Hoover, R N; Robboy, S J; Palmer, J R; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Kaufman, R H; Adam, E; Herbst, A L; Hatch, E E

    2001-04-04

    An association between prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure and cancer in men, especially testicular cancer, has been suspected, but findings from case-control studies have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer risk in men via prospective follow-up. A total of 3613 men whose prenatal DES exposure status was known were followed from 1978 through 1994. The overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates among the DES-exposed men were compared with those of the unexposed men in the study and with population-based rates. The relative rate (RR) was used to assess the strength of the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer development. All statistical tests were two-sided. Overall cancer rates among DES-exposed men were similar to those among unexposed men (RR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 1.96) and to national rates (RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.44). Testicular cancer may be elevated among DES-exposed men, since the RRs for testicular cancer were 3.05 (95% CI = 0.65 to 22.0) times those of unexposed men in the study and 2.04 (95% CI = 0.82 to 4.20) times those of males in the population-based rates. The higher rate of testicular cancer in the DES-exposed men is, however, also compatible with a chance observation. To date, men exposed to DES in utero do not appear to have an increased risk of most cancers. It remains uncertain, however, whether prenatal DES exposure is associated with testicular cancer.

  3. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  4. Bioavailability of barium to plants and invertebrates in soils contaminated by barite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Dane T; Matanitobua, Vitukawalu P; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-05-07

    Barium (Ba) is a nonessential element to terrestrial organisms and is known to be toxic at elevated concentrations. In this study, the bioavailability and toxicity of Ba in barite (BaSO4) contaminated soils was studied using standard test organisms (Lactuca sativa L. "Great Lakes", Eisenia fetida). Contamination resulted from barite mining activities. Barium concentrations in contaminated soils determined by X-ray fluorescence were in the range 0.13-29.2%. Barite contaminated soils were shown to negatively impact both E. fetida and L. sativa relative to control soil. For E. fetida, pore-water concentrations and acid extractable Ba were linearly related to % body weight loss. In L. sativa, pore-water Ba and exchangeable Ba were both strongly related to shoot Ba and shoot biomass production. A negative linear relationship was observed between shoot Ba content and shoot weight (P Barium concentrations in pore-water were lower than predicted from barite solubility estimates but strongly related to exchangeable Ba, indicating an influence of ion exchange on Ba solubility and toxicity to E. fetida and L. sativa.

  5. Earthworms in Short-term Contact with a Low Dose of Neonicotinoid Actara 25WG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Garczyńska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment, carried out for five months, was designed to assess effects produced by the neonicotinoid Actara 25 WG, used at a dose recommended by the manufacturer, in the dynamics of populations of epigeic earthworms Eisenia fetida (Sav. and Dendrobena veneta (Rosa. The study was conducted in a climatic chamber and involved balanced biomass of mature specimens representing both species, in 3 replications of soil medium with the insecticide, in addition to controls. The growing populations were inspected five times, by means of manual segregation of the substrate. The insecticide led to an increase in both the number of specimens and biomass of E. fetida population (overall as well as mature and immature worms, yet it reduced their reproduction (decreased number of cocoons (p<0.05. In the case of D.veneta, the neonicotinoid insecticide produced positive effects only in mature specimens (p<0.05.

  6. Species Differences Take Shape at Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Scavenius, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Cells recognize the biomolecular corona around a nanoparticle, but the biological identity of the complex may be considerably different among various species. This study explores the importance of protein corona composition for nanoparticle recognition by coelomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia...... fetida using E. fetida coelomic proteins (EfCP) as a native repertoire and fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a non-native reference. We have profiled proteins forming the long-lived corona around silver nanoparticles (75 nm OECD reference materials) and compared the responses of coelomocytes to protein coronas...... pre-formed of EfCP or FBS. We find that over time silver nanoparticles can competitively acquire a biological identity native to the cells in situ even in non-native media, and significantly greater cellular accumulation of the nanoparticles was observed with corona complexes pre-formed of EfCP (p

  7. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  8. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Karim, Mohammad; Ahmad, Sk Akhtar

    2014-12-01

    To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method. The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49%) in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%). Stunting (p < 0.01), wasting (p < 0.05) and underweight (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children. In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  9. Chest X ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indovina, P.L.; Reggiani, A.; Calicchia, A.; Nicolosi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Chest X-ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk: critical analysis of legal and radiation protection aspects. Chest X-ray examination is one of the most common radiological examinations practised in Italy. According to Presidential Decree 1124/65, workers exposed to risk of asbestosis and silicosis must undergo a chest radiography once a year, on occasion of the periodic medical examination. Basic requirements aimed at the radiation protection of the patient must therefore be complied with, and optimization of the chest radiography execution procedures is required. This paper illustrates the results obtained with the implementation of the NEXT programme in Italy for this kind of X-ray examination. The main objective of the NEXT programme is the optimization of radiological techniques. On the basis of the most recent publications in the field of radiation protection, a critical analysis is made of the laws in force in Italy

  10. Mental health interventions for children exposed to disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.

  11. Structural analysis of osseous rests exposed to heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Quintana, P.; Oliva, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heat exposed human remains present physical and chemical changes that, when analysed, may provide important indications about the type of heating they were exposed. This information, jointly with that of the archaeological context, allows us to know about the cultural practices of the past from a methodological perspective that actually, has not been explored sufficiently. The present investigation applies a series of structural parameters of bone in the evaluation of skeletal sample from the archaeological site of Calakmul, which exhibits signs of thermal exposure. Results on the Pre hispanic specimens are compared to those obtained from an experimental series of animal bone, which was submitted to different types of heat with the objective to contribute with new data on the forms of heating and their role in ancient Maya society. (Author)

  12. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, our knowledge of the mechanisms by which children respond to exposures to physical and chemical agents present in the environment, has significantly increased. Results of recent projects and programmes focused on children's health underline a specific vulnerability of chil...... and efficient preventive measures, by means of a better knowledge of the early and delayed health effects in children resulting from radiation exposure....... of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...... after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986. The present review presents and discusses data collected from papers analyzing genome damage in children environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation. Overall, the evidence from the studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, nuclear tests...

  13. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding...

  14. Granulocytes enzymes as a biomarker of radiotoxicity in exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, S.; Jovicic, D.; Tanaskovic, I.; Marinkovic, O.; Milacic, S.)

    2007-01-01

    When radionuclide reaches the organism it causes internal irradiation and the lesions may be long lasting in various tissues. Enzymes in leukocytes will be used as a biomarkers of contamination with radio-nuclide in nuclear medicine workers. The analysed group had been consisted of 74 workers, exposed to radioactive isotopes J 131 and mTc 99 in nuclear medicine. Duration of occupational exposure (DOE) varied, so the groups with DOE of 1-5, 6-15, and 16-30 years, were compared to one another. The control group consisted of 52 subjects exposed to radionuclides (Cs 137 ) from environmental. Alkaline phosphatases and myeloperoxidase activity were inhibited in the granulocytes. The neutrophilic granulocytes count was lower while the number of eosinophils was higher

  15. Cytogenetic study of in utero exposed individuals, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masahiro; Honda, Takeo

    1986-11-01

    In 20 persons exposed in uterus to atomic radiation, chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes were examined using G-band differential staining and conventional Giemsa staining techniques. The subjects were divided into Group A of the mothers receiving 17 - 535 rad and Group B of the mothers receiving 0 rad. Chromosome aberrations were observed in 72 (5%) of 1,463 cells in Group A and in 19 (1%) of 1503 cells in Group B. Most of the chromosome aberrations were stable type involving translocation, inversion, and deletion. In one person whose mother was exposed to 453 rad, structural chromosome aberrations were observed in 53 (38%) of 141 cells. Furthermore, 11 cells had two kinds of clones. This finding may provide clues for elucidating the promotion of cloning of cells with stable type structural chromosome aberrations due to in uterus exposure to high doses of atomic radiation. (Namekawa, K.).

  16. Cytogenetic study of in utero exposed individuals, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Masahiro; Honda, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    In 20 persons exposed in uterus to atomic radiation, chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes were examined using G-band differential staining and conventional Giemsa staining techniques. The subjects were divided into Group A of the mothers receiving 17 - 535 rad and Group B of the mothers receiving 0 rad. Chromosome aberrations were observed in 72 (5 %) of 1,463 cells in Group A and in 19 (1 %) of 1503 cells in Group B. Most of the chromosome aberrations were stable type involving translocation, inversion, and deletion. In one person whose mother was exposed to 453 rad, structural chromosome aberrations were observed in 53 (38 %) of 141 cells. Furthermore, 11 cells had two kinds of clones. This finding may provide clues for elucidating the promotion of cloning of cells with stable type structural chromosome aberrations due to in uterus exposure to high doses of atomic radiation. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. English exposed common mistakes made by Chinese speakers

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Having analysed the most common English errors made in over 600 academic papers written by Chinese undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers, Steve Hart has written an essential, practical guide specifically for the native Chinese speaker on how to write good academic English. English Exposed: Common Mistakes Made by Chinese Speakers is divided into three main sections. The first section examines errors made with verbs, nouns, prepositions, and other grammatical classes of words. The second section focuses on problems of word choice. In addition to helping the reader find the right word, it provides instruction for selecting the right style too. The third section covers a variety of other areas essential for the academic writer, such as using punctuation, adding appropriate references, referring to tables and figures, and selecting among various English date and time phrases. Using English Exposed will allow a writer to produce material where content and ideas-not language mistakes-speak the loudest.

  18. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  19. Corrosion of beryllium exposed to celotex and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Celotex is a commercial rigid cellulose fiberboard product primarily used in the building construction industry. Currently celotex is being used as a packing material in AL-R8 containers. Ion chromatography of celotex packing material at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has indicated that this material contains aggressive anions, including chloride, which may accelerate corrosion. It is well known that beryllium is susceptible to pitting corrosion when exposed to chloride containing environments. Levy noted pitting in beryllium at the open circuit potential when exposed to 0.1 M NaCl solution. This investigation attempts to evaluate the potential risk of accelerated beryllium corrosion from celotex and water which may occur naturally when celotex dust comes into contact with moisture from the atmosphere

  20. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis “Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes” evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  1. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis "Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes" evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  2. Warfarin binding to plasma of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, K.; Shapiro, R.; Forney, R.B. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The extent of (14)C-warfarin binding to plasma proteins was evaluated in a group of normal, healthy volunteers and in two groups of individuals occupationally exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Plasma binding was assessed by ultrafiltration after the addition of racemic (14)C-warfarin to a final concentration of 0.8 microgram/ml. Chronic occupational exposure to TDI did not affect the extent of warfarin binding since warfarin free fractions (normalized to an albumin concentration of 4.5 g/dl) were 1.09 +/- 0.23 (mean +/- SD), 0.98 +/- 0.19, and 0.97 +/- 0.15 for controls and the two groups of TDI-exposed individuals, respectively.

  3. Immunotoxic effects of iodine-131 in prenatally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.A.; Stevens, R.H.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Present results suggest that offspring exposed in utero to radioactive iodine-131 develop a measureable cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Regnant Fischer F344 inbred rats were exposed to 370 kBg to 3.7 MBg (10 to 100 μCi) Na 131I on 16 to 18 days of gestation and evaluated for CMI responsiveness 2 to 3 months post exposure using an 125I radiolabeled membrane release assay. Current data suggest that not only the F1, but also the F2 pups develop a measureable CMI response. In order to determine whether other immune functions are altered studies have been initiated to evaluate the immunotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to 131I. These studies include the evaluation of the delayed hypersensitivity response and the blastogenic responses to phytoheemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide

  4. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted

  5. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted.

  6. Earthworm ecology affects the population structure of their Verminephrobacter symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo Viana, Flavia Daniela; Jensen, Christopher Erik; Macey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    from two contrasting ecological types of earthworm hosts: the high population density, fast reproducing compost worms, Eisenia andrei and E. fetida, and the low-density, slow reproducing Aporrectodea tuberculata, commonly found in garden soils; for both types, three distinct populations were...... across host individuals from the same population. Thus, host ecology shapes the population structure of the Verminephrobacter symbionts. The homogeneous symbiont populations in the compost worms indicate that Verminephrobacter can be transferred bi-parentally or via leaky horizontal transmission in high...

  7. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Jasminum mesnyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhuti Dullu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum mesnyi. Methods: Anthelmintic activity was carried out on adult Indian earthworm Eisenia fetida. In this study, 20 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL concentrations of plant extract were tested which involved the time of paralysis and time of death of worm. Albendazole (10 mg/mL was taken as reference standard drug whereas distilled water was used as control. Results: The extract exhibited significant anthelmintic acitivity which was more in higher concentration extract. Conclusions: It was concluded from the present study that the plant exhibited significant anthelmintic activity.

  9. Earthworm avoidance of silver nanomaterials over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Amorim, Mónica J B; Jensen, John

    2018-01-01

    Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four si...... exposure durations and showed a continuous higher avoidance with time (based on EC50 values). The AgNMs avoidance was in the order NM300Ksoil solution fraction that correlated with EC50 across materials....

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST FROM KITCHEN WASTE ON THE YIELD-ENHANCING CHARACTERISTICS OF PEAS PISUM SATIVUM L. VAR. SACCHARATUM SER. BAJKA VARIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Pączka; Joanna Kostecka

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the possibility of using the vermicompost produced from kitchen waste (by Eisenia fetida earthworms) to grow sugar peas. Its influence on the dynamics of sprouting of peas and their growth to 21st day was investigated in a pot experiment. Four combinations were realised (control – standard garden soil; (50W) – its mixture with 50% of vermicompost; (25W) and (10W) – with 25% and 10% of vermicompost addition respectively (n=5)). Vermicompost from kitchen waste turned out t...

  11. O uso de minhocas como bioindicadores de contaminaçao de solos

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉA, Mara Mercedes de

    2010-01-01

    O nicho ecológico das minhocas as caracteriza como organismos muito importantes no solo e como bioindicadores ambientais. Suas características, especialmente das espécies Eisenia fétida (Savigny, 1826) e E. andrei Bouché, 1972, as qualificaram para testes de toxicidade para fins de registro de agrotóxicos, junto aos órgãos regulamentadores de diversos países. Além da relativa facilidade de criação de E. fetida e E. andrei, as condições desses testes são internacionalmente aceitas e permitem p...

  12. Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

    2013-10-01

    Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

  13. Examination of respiratory tract in workers occupationally exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Swiatkowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a group (30) occupationally exposed to beryllium below the Maximum Allowed Concentration, deviations from the norm were found in 13% of chest x rays and impairments of lung ventilatory reserves in 46%. The low intensity and non-specific character of the changes did not allow confirmation of connection with occupational exposure. Radiological examination of the lungs, expanded functional testing of the respiratory system and measurements of blood gases are recommended to identify workers with respiratory changes at an early stage. (UK)

  14. Haemogram of adult Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 850 ± 60 g) mean length, 38.75 ± 6.7 cm) were exposed individually to four concentrations of Roundup, containing 360g/l glyphosate in the form of 480g/l isopropylamine salt (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg/l) and a control (0 mg/l), five replicates per concentration for 70 days in static renewal ...

  15. Limit State of Trapezoidal Metal Sheets Exposed to Concentrated Load

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Jurdová

    2013-01-01

    In most industrial compounds are used trapezoidal metal sheets like a roof decks. These trapezoidal metal sheets are exposed by concentrated loads, usually by service loads arise from installation of air distribution, sanitary distribution, sprinkler system or wiring installation. In objects of public facilities (like shopping centre, tennis hall, etc.) they can be used for hanging advertising posters etc, too. These systems work as “building kit”. These anchoring systems are represented by c...

  16. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats.

  17. Under-exposed. And if radiations were good for you?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This book is in fact a synthesis of an American publication (Under-Exposed). The author, with its characteristic style, aims at giving a positive perception of nuclear energy, at denying catastrophist speeches on nuclear energy, and more particularly on radioactivity: low doses are not dangerous, and even can be useful for our health and well-being, notably in many spa resorts. Thus, he also aims at struggling against what he considers as an ecological obscurantism

  18. Environmental Monitoring Of Microbiological Laboratory: Expose Plate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Asmah Mohibat; Muhamad Syazwan Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of microorganism is important and conducted regularly on environment of microbiological laboratory at Medical Technology Division. Its objective is to ensure the quality of working environment is maintained according to microbial contamination, consequently to assure the quality of microbiological tests. This paper presents report of environmental monitoring since year 2007. The test involved was bacterial colony counts after the growth media was exposed to air at identified location. (author)

  19. End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica

    OpenAIRE

    Rapiti, E.; Sperati, A.; Miceli, M.; Forastiere, F.; Di, L; Cavariani, F.; Goldsmith, D. F.; Perucci, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease. METHODS: On the basis of a health surveillance programme, a cohort of 2980 male ceramic workers has been enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data, and x ray film readings were available. The vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio...

  20. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Electronic components and devices are exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, therefore the protection of electronic devices from humidity is becoming a critical factor in the system design. The ingress of moisture into typical electronic enclosures has been studied with defined paramet....... The moisture buildup inside the enclosure has been simulated using an equivalent RC circuit consisting of variables like controlled resistors and capacitors to describe the diffusivity, permeability, and storage in polymers....

  1. Analysis of uranium in urine of persons occupationaly exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    A technique of uranium analysis in urine of persons occupationaly exposed, using the fluorimetric method is proposed. Two procedures for the determination are presented: the first employs platinum dishes, obtaining a detection limit of 1 ppb and the second one, using aluminium dishes, shows a detection limit of 100 ppb. Uranium and urine physico-chemical characteristics are described, as well as norms for the exposition of workers to uranium. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Urine mutagenicity of steel workers exposed to coke oven emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.P.; Dumenil, G.; Botta, A.H.; Laget, M.; Zabaloueff, V.; Mathias, A.

    1987-03-01

    Urine mutagenicity of 19 individuals was investigated at a steel mill. All the subjects worked on the coal processing unit. Urine samples were collected at the end of a working day. Urine samples of two exposed workers were collected at the end of two periods of rest and two periods of working. Mutagens were extracted on XAD-2 resin and tested by the Salmonella microsomal assay and the SOS spot test. Mutagenic potencies of exposed smokers and exposed non-smokers were 8.62 +/- 6.56 and 1.1 +/- 0.48 revertants/mg creatinine respectively with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 + S9. Both values were significantly higher than those of unexposed smokers and non-smokers (5.07 +/- 3.33 and 0.47 +/- 0.72 revertants/mg creatinine respectively). The urinary mutagenic potency of the two exposed individuals increased at the end of periods of working (15.97 +/- 2.57 revertants/mg creatinine) and decreased at the end of periods of rest (12.31 +/- 2.45 revertants/mg creatinine). Urinary mutagens were detected with S. typhimurium strain TA100 + S9 to a lesser extent. No direct-acting mutagens were detected by the SOS spot test. Atmospheric benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also measured by h.p.l.c. on the coke battery. BaP concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 0.6 microgram/m3 air at the different working sites. Biological monitoring with short-term tests is discussed.

  3. Children exposed to domestic violences assessment and psychopathology /

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya Guzmán, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 17-06-2010 Exposure to domestic violence is a current, complex concern with negative aftermath on the child's mental health. Aim: to answer the following questions about the effects that this exposure has on children's mental health: a) what should be assessed; b) what kind of psychopathology do outpatient exposed children have; c) which characteristics of the situation are more influential; and d) what is the role of parenting styles. Method: A retrospective cohort ...

  4. Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...

  5. Behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C, comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S, comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02. A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02 and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.

  6. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (Pantioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  7. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  8. Preventive medical programmes to personnel exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada F, E.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiation in the medical field as well as in industry and research grants has special importance to the security aspects related to the individual as well as his surroundings, reason for which the implementation of effective Occupational Radiation Protection Programmes constitutes a priority. Presently, in Guatemala, an Occupational Medicine Programme, directed to the Radiosanitary watch over of occupationally exposed personnel does not exist. It is the goal in this project to organize and establish such programme, based on protective and training actions focused toward the employee as the main entity, his specific activities and his work surroundings. Medical watch over together with Radiation Protection will permit the reduction of the occurrence probability of accidents or incidents, as well as the limitation of stochastic effects to the undermost values. The application scope of the present project is, in the first place, directed to the occupationally exposed personnel of the Direcci[n General de Energ[a Nuclear, as regulatory entity of these activities, and afterwards, its application in the different institutions which work with ionizing radiations. All the previously exposed is based on the Nuclear Legislation prevailing in Guatemala as well as the recommendations of international organizations. (author)

  9. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Carsten [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: cnowak@senckenberg.de; Vogt, Christian [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: vogt@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Pfenninger, Markus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: pfenninger@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwenk, Klaus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: k.schwenk@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oehlmann, Joerg [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Streit, Bruno [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: streit@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oetken, Matthias [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oetken@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-03-15

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius.

  10. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Vogt, Christian; Pfenninger, Markus; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg; Streit, Bruno; Oetken, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius

  11. Studies of workers exposed to low doses of external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    Currently, several epidemiologic studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to low levels of radiation are being conducted, and include studies of workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. This paper focuses on studies that evaluate the possible adverse effects resulting from external exposure to radiation. The radiation risk estimates that have been used to establish radiation protection standards for workers and others have been obtained mainly from studies of persons exposed at high doses and dose rates. However, questions remain with regard to the extrapolation process that has been necessary for estimating low-level radiation risks. Occupational studies provide a direct assessment of risk based on data on persons exposed at the actual levels of interest. If current risk estimates are correct, these studies have very little chance of detecting risk, but can still be used to provide useful upper limits on risks. The studies are also adequate to detect serious underestimation of risks. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Assessing color vision loss among solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, D; Blain, L

    1987-01-01

    Acquired color vision loss has been associated with exposure to organic solvents in the workplace. However, not all tests of chromatic discrimination loss are designed to detect acquired, as opposed to congenital, loss. The Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15-d), a simple 15 cap color arrangement test, designed to identify mild acquired dyschromatopsia, can be administered rapidly in the field, under standard conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the D-15-d among 23 solvent-exposed workers of a paint manufacturing plant, by comparing the results obtained with the D-15-d to those obtained with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM-100), a highly sensitive measure of color vision loss. The D-15-d revealed a significantly higher prevalence of dyschromatopsia among the ten highly exposed workers (80%) as compared to the 13 moderately exposed workers (30.8%); FM-100 results revealed one false positive. All dyschromatopic workers presented blue-yellow loss; the FM-100 detected eight complex patterns, while the D-15-d identified 5. Comparison of D-15-d and FM-100 scores were highly correlated (corr. coeff. 0.87; p less than 0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed both scores to be significantly related to age and exposure level. The findings of this study indicate that the D-15-d is an adequate instrument for field study batteries. However, the FM-100 should be used for more detailed assessment.

  13. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  14. Immunomodulatory effects in workers exposed to naturally occurring asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Costa, Chiara; Matera, Serena; Puglisi, Beatrice; Costanzo, Valentina; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Natural asbestiform fibers are defined 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) and refer to the mineral as a natural component of soils or rocks. The release of NOA fibers into the air from rocks or soils by routine human activities or natural weathering processes represents a risk for human beings. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a NOA fiber detected in the benmoreitic lava in the area of Biancavilla, South-west slope of Mt. Etna. The aim of the present study was to investigate FE immunotoxicity pathways in a group of 38 occupationally exposed construction workers, in order to find any biological markers of its effect. Subjects underwent respiratory function tests and HRCT total chest scanning. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured. The presence of PPs was significantly greater in subjects exposed than in the control (25 vs. 2). In subjects exposed to FE, IL-1β and TNF-α values were significantly higher than the controls. The previously observed increase of IL-1β and IL-18 showed a probable involvement of the proteic complex defined inflammosome by FE fibers.

  15. Unmet Health Care Needs among Children Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.

  16. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Biomarkers of genetic damage in human populations exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiassa, Delia; Manas, Fernando; Bosch, Beatriz; Gentile, Natalia; Bernardi, Natali; Gorla, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pesticides on human, animal and environmental health has been cause of concern in the scientific community for a long time. Numerous studies have reported that pesticides are not harmless and that their use can lead to harmful biological effects in the medium and long term, in exposed human and animals, and their offspring. The importance of early detection of genetic damage is that it allows us to take the necessary measures to reduce or eliminate the exposure to the deleterious agent when damage is still reversible, and thus to prevent and to diminish the risk of developing tumors or other alterations. In this paper we reviewed the main concepts in the field, the usefulness of genotoxicity studies and we compiled studies performed during the last twenty years on genetic monitoring of people occupationally exposed to pesticides. we think that genotoxicity tests, including that include chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchanges and comet assays, should be considered as essential tools in the implementation of complete medical supervision for people exposed to potential environmental pollutants, particularly for those living in the same place as others who were others have already developed some type of malignancy. This action is particularly important at early stages to prevent the occurrence of tumors, especially from environmental origins.

  18. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Krstev, S.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  19. Expose : procedure and results of the joint experiment verification tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Baglioni, P.

    The International Space Station will carry the EXPOSE facility accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D located outside the Russian Service Module. The launch will be affected in 2005 and it is planned to stay in space for 1.5 years. The tray like structure will accomodate 2 chemical and 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Response of Organisms to Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. The either vented or sealed experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by the use of individual shutters. To test the compatibility of the different biological systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. The procedure and first results of this joint Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) will be presented. The results will be essential for the success of the EXPOSE mission and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results of the mission will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.

  20. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of