WorldWideScience

Sample records for eile loksa tehase

  1. Kunst elab Kalinini tehases

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Šveitsi ja prantsuse kunstnike Delphine Reisti, Laurent Fauloni ja Sebastien Perroud' installatsioonide näitus "For Songs for Siivi" endises Kalinini tehases Tallinnas. Näitusega kaasnevad viiuldaja Mathieu Werchowski kontserdid. Squat art on kunst, mis tekib ühisolemise produktina ja jääb tegevuskohta näitamiseks

  2. BLRT Grupp ostis Soomes tehase

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    BLRT Grupp ostis Soome laevaremonditehase Turku Repair Yard Ltd. Tehase põhikliendid on Neste, Tallink, Silja ja Viking Line ning Soome riigi jäämurdjad ning aastakäive ligi 300 miljonit Eesti krooni

  3. Rae vald ja Jüri elanikud sõdivad tehnopargi ohtliku tehase vastu / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõte Stainless Surface Technology OÜ soovib rajada Jüri tehnoparki metallide hapetega töötlemise tehase. Rae valla ehitusameti juhataja Enno Harmipaiga hinnangul on probleem tehase ja elumajade ühine kanalisatsioon

  4. Kuusalu valla ja Loksa linna projektidele saab toetust LEADER-programmi 24 miljonist kroonist / Ülle Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Ülle, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Kuusalu, Tapa, Vihula, Kadrina, Ambla vald ja Loksa linn teevad koostööd MTÜ Arenduskoda liikmetena, kelle tegevuspiirkonnale antakse 2009. ja 2010. aastal jagamiseks kokku 24 miljonit krooni. Vt. samas: Arenduskoja strateegia

  5. Future English Teachers' Attitudes towards EIL Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    English has become the world's international language, used for international communication mostly among non-native speakers of other languages and 80 percent of all the English teachers around the world are nonnative English-speaking (NNES) teachers (Canagarajah, 1999). Therefore, there is a growing need to investigate the EIL (English as an…

  6. Reclaiming the Local in Teaching EIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubdy, Rani

    2009-01-01

    This article examines three critical issues relating to the role of culture in teaching English as an international language (EIL): Firstly, the way in which top-down processes of globalisation, accompanied by the widespread desire for English in many former colonial countries, have in general fostered the negative effects of dominance,…

  7. Weroli rajajad süüdistavad Biodieselit tehase enda kätte mängimises / Martin Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2005-01-01

    Weroli endised rajajad ja suuraktsionärid arvavad, et Weroli pankrotimenetluse alustamisega üritab Biodiesel tehase hinda alla lüüa, et see siis odavamalt osta. Vt. samas: Weroli advokaat: leping on õigustühine

  8. Kalev ja Rae vald tülitsevad tehase reovee pärast / Garel Püüa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Püüa, Garel

    2006-01-01

    Kalevi kommivabriku heitvee reostustase ületab kohati kümme korda tehase ehitamisel taotletud taset, Rae valla veepuhasti ei suuda nii suurt koormust taluda. Kalevi õigusteeninduse juhi Allan Viirma sõnul ei ole vald väljastanud Kalevile reovee eelpuhastite rajamiseks projekteerimistingimusi. Kommenteerib Rae vallavanem Raivo Uukkivi

  9. The Presentation of EIL in Kuwait: Students' Expectations and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqi, Hanan A.; Akbar, Rahima S.

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of native-like accents has been the aim of many EFL educationists long ago; however, this concept is heading towards a major change. Hence, the idea of this paper is based on Jenkins' (2000 & 2002) theory of English as an International Language (EIL). Jenkins' theory analyses the use of English by non-natives speakers (NNS) where…

  10. Integrating EIL Pedagogy in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Nugrahenny T.

    2014-01-01

    Among the existing pedagogies to teach English, many scholars have claimed that English as International Language (EIL) pedagogy is the most suitable pedagogy to the changing sociolinguistic landscape of English and English users. Despite such strong claims, little is actually known on how EIL pedagogy is experienced by teachers. The present…

  11. INTEGRATING EIL PEDAGOGY IN A PRE-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM

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    NUGRAHENNY T. ZACHARIAS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the existing pedagogies to teach English, many scholars have claimed that English as International Language (EIL pedagogy is the most suitable pedagogy to the changing sociolinguistic landscape of English and English users. Despite such strong claims, little is actually known on how EIL pedagogy is experienced by teachers. The present article documented the experience of ten bilingual English student-teachers (BESTs on practicing EIL pedagogy in a Microteaching course and during the teaching practice. Data were collected primarily from a focus group discussion and three individual interviews. The findings of the study indicated the complexity of practicing EIL pedagogy in the classroom. BESTs were enthusiastic about EIL pedagogy that they voluntarily decided to continue practicing the pedagogy during the teaching practice. Despite the enthusiasm in practicing EIL, the study points to the limited understanding BESTs have of EIL pedagogy when it relates to setting pedagogic models. Although some BESTs did attempt to bring local Englishes into the classroom, it seems they continue to perceive Native English Speakers (NES/standard English as the desirable pedagogical models. The paper ends with specific suggestions for pre-service teacher education program to better prepare BESTs to teach English in the era of World English particularly in Expanding circle countries.

  12. A natural frameshift mutation in Campanula EIL2 correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Line; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Olsen, Andreas; Lütken, Henrik; Müller, Renate

    2016-05-23

    The phytohormone ethylene plays a central role in development and senescence of climacteric flowers. In ornamental plant production, ethylene sensitive plants are usually protected against negative effects of ethylene by application of chemical inhibitors. In Campanula, flowers are sensitive to even minute concentrations of ethylene. Monitoring flower longevity in three Campanula species revealed C. portenschlagiana (Cp) as ethylene sensitive, C. formanekiana (Cf) with intermediate sensitivity and C. medium (Cm) as ethylene insensitive. We identified key elements in ethylene signal transduction, specifically in Ethylene Response Sensor 2 (ERS2), Constitutive Triple Response 1 (CTR1) and Ethylene Insensitive 3- Like 1 and 2 (EIL1 and EIL2) homologous. Transcripts of ERS2, CTR1 and EIL1 were constitutively expressed in all species both throughout flower development and in response to ethylene. In contrast, EIL2 was found only in Cf and Cm. We identified a natural mutation in Cmeil2 causing a frameshift which resulted in difference in expression levels of EIL2, with more than 100-fold change between Cf and Cm in young flowers. This study shows that the naturally occurring 7 bp frameshift discovered in Cmeil2, a key gene in the ethylene signaling pathway, correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers. We suggest that transfer of the eil2 mutation to other plant species will provide a novel tool to engineer ethylene insensitive flowers.

  13. English as an International Language (EIL), World Englishes within an International Context, and the Tower of Babel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the similarities between the Bible record of the Tower of Babel and the resulting confusion of languages and how it relates to modern times and the trend we see of English as an International Language (EIL). This paper then briefly examines the trend of being culturally sensitive in EIL by accepting cultural or "world…

  14. A natural frameshift mutation in Campanula EIL2 correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Olsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phytohormone ethylene plays a central role in development and senescence of climacteric flowers. In ornamental plant production, ethylene sensitive plants are usually protected against negative effects of ethylene by application of chemical inhibitors. In Campanula, flowers...... are sensitive to even minute concentrations of ethylene. RESULTS: Monitoring flower longevity in three Campanula species revealed C. portenschlagiana (Cp) as ethylene sensitive, C. formanekiana (Cf) with intermediate sensitivity and C. medium (Cm) as ethylene insensitive. We identified key elements in ethylene...... signal transduction, specifically in Ethylene Response Sensor 2 (ERS2), Constitutive Triple Response 1 (CTR1) and Ethylene Insensitive 3- Like 1 and 2 (EIL1 and EIL2) homologous. Transcripts of ERS2, CTR1 and EIL1 were constitutively expressed in all species both throughout flower development...

  15. Ajakirjanduse vabadus ja vastutus : eile, täna, homme / Triin Käpp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käpp, Triin

    2010-01-01

    19. novembril 2010 leidis Estonia talveaias aset VI konverents Tartu Ülikooli eetikakeskuse sarjast "Ühiseid väärtusi otsides ja hoides". Eessõna konverentsi erilehele "Ajakirjanduse vabadus ja vastutus: eile, täna homme"

  16. An Analysis of English Pronunciation of Japanese Learners: From the Viewpoint of EIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to detect effective factors in English pronunciation teaching from the viewpoint of EIL (English as an International Language). This research is based on the data of the Successful Pronunciation Learners (SPL) selected by the raters, Japanese and native speakers of English (NSE), in Tominaga (2005). On the grounds…

  17. EIL IN PRACTICE: INDONESIAN AND CHINESE INTERNATIONAL POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS NEGOTIATE MEANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Abdullah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Interaction in English as an International Language (EIL setting provides myriad opportunities for negotiation of meaning, arguably beneficial for language acquisition. The present study aims at finding out how meaning is negotiated in EIL interaction among two groups of postgraduate TESOL international students from two Asian countries, Indonesia and People’s Republic of China (PR China. The findings reveal that the students indeed utilized various strategies such as clarification requests, confirmation checks, comprehension checks, word-coinage, and use of approximation, self-repetition, other repetition, self-correction, and non-verbal expression of non-understanding. The relative frequency of strategies used appears to have been influenced by the interaction tasks. The variation of strategies across the three pairs is relatively similar. Some EIL features corresponding to pronunciation and grammatical structures also emerge in the present study. Finally, the study suggests that negotiation strategies need to be included in the English teaching syllabus. Moreover, current foreign or second language teaching methodology needs to pay serious attention to EIL features and to develop learners’ intelligibility and communication strategies by making them aware of standard varieties of English.

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of EIL gene family in woody plant representative poplar (Populus trichocarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz, Ertugrul; Vatansever, Recep; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Uras, Mehmet Emin; Sen, Ugur; Anjum, Naser A; Pereira, Eduarda

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to improve current understanding on ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL) members, least explored in woody plants such as poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Grey). Herein, seven putative EIL members were identified in P. trichocarpa genome and were roughly annotated either as EIN3-like sequence associated with ethylene pathway or EIL3-like sequences related with sulfur (S)-pathway. Motif-distribution pattern of proteins also corroborated this annotation. They were distributed on six chromosomes (chr1, 3, 4 and 8-10), and were revealed to encode a protein of 509-662 residues with nuclear localization. The presence of ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3; PF04873) domain (covering first 80-280 residues from N-terminus) was confirmed by Hidden Markov Model-based search. The first half of EIL proteins (∼80-280 residues including EIN3 domain) was substantially conserved. The second half (∼300-600 residues) was considerably diverged. Additionally, first half of proteins harbored acidic, proline-rich and glutamine-rich sites, and supported the essentiality of these regions in the transcriptional-activation and protein-function. Moreover, identified six segmental and one-tandem duplications demonstrated the negative or purifying selective nature of mutations. Furthermore, expression profile analysis indicated the possibility of a crosstalk between EIN3- and EIL3-like genes, and co-expression networks implicated their interactions with very diverse panels of biological molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Oligo-Miocene of Eil (NE Somalia): a prograding coral- Lepidocyclina system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosellini, A.; Russo, A.; Arush, M. A.; Cabdulqadir, M. M.

    The Oligo-Miocene succession of Eil is the product of a depositional regression and constitutes a 120-150 m thick depositional sequence that prograded seaward for at least 20-25 km. Its time-transgressive stratigraphy is documented physically by well exposed tangential clinoforms (previously considered as evidence of a tectonic coastal flexure) and biostratigraphically by the occurrence of calcareous nannoplankton, planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, and a rich coral fauna. The upper boundary of the sequence is indicated by a reefal toplap, which constitutes the flat surface of the Nogal Plateau. Age (Chattian to Burdigalian) and toplap relationships of the sequence indicate clearly that progradation took place after the Late Oligocene flooding which followed the strong fall of sea-level during the Chattian. Because of the horizontal geometry of the entire sedimentary system, it has been possible to make a clear environmental reconstruction and a facies model with original water depths. A worldwide Tertiary facies—the Lepidocyclina beds— was confined to the front of the reef, at depths ranging from 35-40 to 120-130 m.

  20. To control and to be controlled – understanding the Arabidopsis SLIM1 function in sulfur deficiency through comprehensive investigation of the EIL protein family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eWawrzyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available SSLIM1, a member of the EIN3-like (EIL family of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, is the regulator of many sulfur-deficiency responsive genes. Among the five other proteins of the family, three regulate ethylene responses and two have unassigned functions. Contrary to the well-defined ethylene signaling, the pathway leading from sensing sulfate status to the activation of its acquisition via SLIM1 is completely unknown. SLIM1 binds to the 20 nt-long specific UPE-box sequence; however, it also recognizes the shorter TEIL sequence, unique for the whole EIL family. SLIM1 takes part in the upregulation and downregulation of various sulfur metabolism genes, but also it controls the degradation of glucosinolates under sulfur deficient conditions. Besides facilitating the increased flux through the sulfate assimilation pathway, SLIM1 induces microRNA395, specifically targeting ATP sulfurylases and a low-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR2;1, thus affecting sulfate translocation to the shoot. Here, we briefly review the identification, structural characteristics and molecular function of SLIM1 from the perspective of the whole EIL protein family.

  1. Excavating Ireland’s Contemporary Heritage in Eilís Ní Dhuibhne’s The Bray House

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    Constanza del Río-Álvaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eilís Ní Dhuibhne’s first novel, The Bray House (1990, is a futuristic, dystopian fantasy that envisions Ireland, Great Britain and most of Western Europe  —  except for the northern territories  —  as already laid waste by nuclear disaster in an unspecified near future. In this paper, my intention is to consider how the narrative, like other futuristic and science-fiction stories, displaces the present onto an apocalyptic future so as to bring out and criticise present-day social, cultural and political trends, particularly, the institutional tendency in Ireland to package and market History as Heritage. Some of the issues raised by the novel which will be addressed here are: For what purposes and from what perspective and attitude is the past interpreted and translated? What happens when it is precisely our treasured lifestyles that we see dissected, interpreted and analysed as if they already formed part of an arcane past? How can we feel the sense of nostalgia that heritage-based analyses imply if we are asked to mourn what we have not yet lost?

  2. Pronunciation Issues and Varieties of English from an EIL Perspective: A Survey of Outer and Expanding Circle Learners’ Beliefs

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    Abbas Monfared

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized era where English keeps the position of an international language, learnt and spoken by lots of people from diverse linguistic, cultural and national backgrounds, there is a need for a new perspective towards English as an international language which can bridge notions and cultures. The appearance of varieties of English is the consequence of the global dissemination of English. Based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative data using a semi-structured questionnaire (see Appendix A administered to 60 Iranian learners from expanding circle and 60 Indian learners from outer circle, this study surveyed the developing picture of EIL pronunciation and evaluation of different varieties of English from the perspective of learners from two circles which include the most users of English in the globalized world. The results of the questionnaires supplemented by interviews with leaners from expanding and outer circles revealed that expanding-circle learners like more to have a native-like identity with their preference towards nativism. The implications on the findings on the spread of native speaker norms and the status of ELF and its reflections in learning and teaching in expanding and outer circle countries are discussed.

  3. Non-climacteric fruit ripening in pepper: increased transcription of EIL-like genes normally regulated by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyeob; Chung, Eun-Joo; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil

    2010-03-01

    Only limited information has been published to date on the similarities and differences between climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening on transcriptional level. To address this issue, we performed a direct comparative transcriptome analysis between tomato and pepper fruits using heterologous microarray hybridization. Given the significant differences in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of pepper and tomato fruits, the existence of extensive common regulons is surprising. This finding suggests the conservation of ripening mechanisms in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, disparate expression profiles were also observed in both fruits. This study revealed that a gene that encodes an enzyme that converts lycopene to downstream carotenoids is induced in pepper but not in tomato. Most of the genes that encode ribosomal proteins are only induced in early fruit-stage pepper fruit and show rapidly diminishing expression in the later developmental stages. The genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis were not induced in pepper fruit. However, the EIL-like genes, ethylene-mediated signaling components, were induced in pepper fruit. Divergent types of transcription factors were expressed in ripening tomato and pepper fruits, suggesting they may be key factors that differentiate these distinct ripening processes.

  4. Eile avati Rotermanni soolalaos...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    IV Põhja- ja Baltimaade arhitektuuritriennaal "Vaba kulg", mis on keskendunud looja vabadusele ja loenguprogramm 16.-18. sept. Rahvusvaheliselt tuntud arhitektuuriteoreetikuid triennaalil ئ Frei Otto Saksamaalt ja Hani Rashid USAst

  5. The activation of OsEIL1 on YUC8 transcription and auxin biosynthesis is required for ethylene-inhibited root elongation in rice early seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Zhang, Zhijin; Wang, Juan; Chen, Xinbing; Wei, Pengcheng; Huang, Rongfeng

    2017-08-01

    Rice is an important monocotyledonous crop worldwide; it differs from the dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis in many aspects. In Arabidopsis, ethylene and auxin act synergistically to regulate root growth and development. However, their interaction in rice is still unclear. Here, we report that the transcriptional activation of OsEIL1 on the expression of YUC8/REIN7 and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA)-dependent auxin biosynthesis is required for ethylene-inhibited root elongation. Using an inhibitor of YUC activity, which regulates auxin biosynthesis via the conversion of IPA to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), we showed that ethylene-inhibited primary root elongation is dependent on YUC-based auxin biosynthesis. By screening phenotypes of seedling primary root from mutagenesis libraries following ethylene treatment, we identified a rice ethylene-insensitive mutant, rein7-1, in which YUC8/REIN7 is truncated at its C-terminus. Mutation in YUC8/REIN7 reduced auxin biosynthesis in rice, while YUC8/REIN7 overexpression enhanced ethylene sensitivity in the roots. Moreover, YUC8/REIN7 catalyzed the conversion of IPA to IAA, truncated version at C-terminal end of the YUC8/REIN7 resulted in significant reduction of enzymatic activity, indicating that YUC8/REIN7 is required for IPA-dependent auxin biosynthesis and ethylene-inhibited root elongation in rice early seedlings. Further investigations indicated that ethylene induced YUC8/REIN7 expression and promoted auxin accumulation in roots. Addition of low concentrations of IAA rescued the ethylene response in the rein7-1, strongly demonstrating that ethylene-inhibited root elongation depends on IPA-dependent auxin biosynthesis. Genetic studies revealed that YUC8/REIN7-mediated auxin biosynthesis functioned downstream of OsEIL1, which directly activated the expression of YUC8/REIN7. Thus, our findings reveal a model of interaction between ethylene and auxin in rice seedling primary root elongation, enhancing our understanding of

  6. Prantsuse kunstnikud asustasid vana tehase / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2002-01-01

    Prantsuse kunstnike (Delphine Reist, Laurent Faulon, Sebastien Perroud) ja viiuldaja Mathieu Werchowsky Tallinnas valminud installatsiooninäitus "Neli laulu Siivile" vanas Kalinini tehasehoones 7.-12. juunini

  7. Kunda tehase asutajast tehakse seitse kuju / Andres Pulver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pulver, Andres, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Betoonipäevadel Kundas modelleeritakse Kunda mõisa omanikku ja tsemenditehase rajajat John Girard de Soucantoni (1826-1896). Skulptorid Simson von Seakyll, Ekke Väli, Edvins Krumins, Marju Vaher, Eneken Maripuu, Art Allmägi, Bruno Kadak

  8. Tehases Polymer valmistatakse kummilelude asemel kultuuri / Mari Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Kristiine linnaosas tegutsevast loovinimeste koondumispaigast kultuuritehasest Polymer. Kultuuritehases töötavad maalikunstnik Alice Kask, skulptor Neeme Külm, teatrikunstnik Mae Kivilo, filmikunstnik Mare Raidma. Vaata ka www.kultuuritehas.ee

  9. Aktsiate hinnad languses, tehased kinni, elektrit napib / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    Jaapani keskpank paiskas rahaturgudele 140 mld. eurot lootuses, et pangad jätkavad laenamist. Esialgsed hinnangud maavärina ja tsunami tekitatud kahju kohta ulatuvad enam kui 100 mld. dollarist 200 mld. dollarini, millele lisanduvad veel ettevõtete kahjumid. Nissan, Toyota ja Honda on peatanud tootmise

  10. HIV-ravim võis saastuda tehases / Agnes Kuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuus, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    Keemiliselt saastunud HIV-ravimi Viracept sattumine Eestisse on vähetõenäoline, kuid ohutuse huvides korjatakse kõik ravimid patsientide käest tagasi ning asendatakse ravimifirma kulul. Lisa: HIVi ravi

  11. Kosmosesse lendas eile esimene naisturist / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 19. sept., lk. 10. Vene rakett Sojuz viis ilmaruumi esimese naissoost kosmoseturisti, Iraani päritolu ameeriklanna Anoushen Ansari. Kümnepäevase reisi jooksul viib ta läbi mitu teaduskatset. Lisaks nimekiri: Kosmoseturistid

  12. Linguistic Imperialism, Cultural Integrity, and EIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Argues that while linguistic imperialism is real and needs to be addressed, one way for the language instructor to come to terms with the cultural imposition of English language teaching is to define English as an international language. Suggests promoting "prestige varieties" positions the practitioner as purveyor of Anglo-American hegemony and…

  13. Meλetai versificatoriae generosorum iuvenum Andrea et Alexandri Chodcievitiorum – exemplum scholasticae poeseos christianae Europeae. Kilmingųjų jaunuolių Andriaus ir Aleksandro Chodkevičių eilėdarinės Meλetai – Europos krikščioniškos mokyklinės poezijos pavyzdys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Veteikis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje, kuris parengtas pagal pranešimą, skaitytą 2008 m. lapkričio 12–15 d. Vilniaus universitete vykusioje konferencijoje Colloquium Balticum VIII Vilnense, pristatomas Lietuvoje mažai žinomas lei­dinys, parengtas vokiečių poeto ir filologo Johano Milijaus, išleistas 1568 m. Leipcige su sudėtine antrašte: Iohannis Mylii Libenrodensis, Poetae lau­reati, Cato Graecolatinus. Praecipua Christianae pietatis Capita. Mel#tai D. Andreae & D. Alexandri Chodcieuitiorum, illustrium magni Lithuaniae Duca­tus Equitum. Omnia in gratiam studiosae iuuentutis publicata. Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Caesareo. M. D. LXVIII. Gilinamasi į nedidelę leidinio dalį, apimančią LDK didiko, Trakų ir Vilniaus pilininko, Lietuvos ir Lenkijos didžiojo etmono Grigo Chodkevičiaus sūnų Andriaus ir Aleksandro, kuriuos tėvo dvare mokė ir į mokslus lydėjo tas pats J. Milijus, lotyniškus eilėraš­čius, aptariama jų tematika, santykis su kitais leidinio tekstais, stilistinės ypatybės, pateikiama pastebėjimų dėl imitacijos ir originalumo. Aptariamieji jaunųjų Chodkevičių tekstai iliustruoja lotynų kalbos, tikėjimo pagrindų ir krikščioniškos etikos įsisavinimo litera­tūrinėmis priemonėmis mechanizmą, būdingą XVI a. Europos švietimui. Kalbos mokymasis neatsiejamas nuo tikybos ir kasdieninio elgesio taisyklių; šios temos vyrauja Chodkevičių eilėse. Vis dėlto vienas kitas kūrinėlis nutolsta nuo religijos ir liturgijos, paliečia universalius gyvenimo dėsnius, minėtus Antikos iš­minčių, filosofų ir poetų. Straipsnyje pateikiama viena kita įžvalga dėl lietuviškos tematikos. Antai Andriaus Chodkevičiaus eilėraštyje Anacharsis Hannoni, su­kurtame kaip Cicerono Tuskulo disputų epizodo (Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 90 parafrazė, galima regėti tuometinių lietuvių ir totorių papročių analizės, reikštos XVI a. publicistiniuose Mykolo Lietuvio, Augustino Rotundo ir kt. veikaluose, atgarsių. Straipsnyje atkreipiamas

  14. Pushkini näitemäng hüljatud tehases

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    12. ja 13. juunil etendab MTÜ Arena A. Pushkini näitemängu "Kivist külaline". Osades esinevad Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi ja Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli režii õppetooli teatriüliõpilastest diplomandid, lavastaja R. Annus

  15. Stora Enso Timber rajab Imaverre uue tehase Jaapani turu tarvis / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2004-01-01

    Metsatööstuskontsern Stora Enso Timber ehitab Imaverre liimpuidutehase, mis hakkab tootma liimpuittalasid peamiselt Jaapani turu jaoks. Diagramm. Lisa: Pankurid peavad Stora Enso sammu Eestile kasulikuks

  16. Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion for Heavy Vehicles: Combining the Simulation and Engine-In-the-Loop Techniques to Maximize the Fuel Economy and Emission Benefits Propulsion hybride hydraulique des poids lourds : une approche alliant les techniques de simulation et d’« Engine-In-the-loop » (EIL afin de maximiser les économies de carburant et les avantages en termes d’émissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipi Z.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for a rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator. This places particular emphasis on development of the supervisory controller. The conventional wisdom is to operate the engine at the “sweet spot”, but the aggressive pursuit of engine efficiency as the sole objective can lead to frequent and rapid diesel engine transients, thus causing an adverse affect on the soot emissions and driver feel. Therefore, we propose a comprehensive methodology for considering a combined hybrid system fuel-economy and emissions objective. The fuel economy is addressed with the simulation-based approach, while investigating the impact of engine transients on particulate emission relies on the Engine-In-the-loop (EIL capability. The EIL study confirms advantages of a modulated state-of-charge control over the thermostatic approach, and demonstrates the ability of the Series Hydraulic Hybrid to improve the fuel economy of the medium truck by 72%, while reducing the particulate emission by 74% compared to the conventional baseline over the city driving schedule. La situation énergétique mondiale, la dépendance du secteur des transports vis-à-vis des combustibles d’origine fossile et la nécessité d’une réponse rapide face au défi présenté par le r

  17. Rahvusvaheline kunstipidu võttis eile tuurid sisse / Elina Kononenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kononenko, Elina, 1981-

    2001-01-01

    25. juulil Rakveres alanud rahvusvahelisest kunstisündmusest KanaNahk (korraldajad Teet Veispak, Paul Rodgers, Jaan Toomik), kus teiste hulgas astuvad üles Steina Vasulka, Francisco Felipe, Jaan Toomik, Maija Hirvanen, Markus Häberlin, Alan Holligan, Olegs Tilbergs, Egle Rakauskaite

  18. Juubeli-Pöff alustas eile laulvast revolutsioonist / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Vene Teatris avati 10. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival esilinastusega James Tusty ja Maureen Castle Tusty dokumentaalfilmist Eestist "Laulev revolutsioon" ("Singing Revolution"). Lühiülevaade festivali filmiprogrammidest, üritustest ja toimumispaikadest (peale Tallinna veel Tartu, Narva, Viljandi, Jõhvi ja Kärdla)

  19. Tallinna loomaaed näitas eile pegasust / Aivi Lindsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindsalu, Aivi

    2004-01-01

    IV Läänemeremaade animalistliku skulptuuri festivali võitjad. Osavõtjate ja nende tööde loetelu. Võidutöö oli Vitali Novikovi karu, II koha sai Aleksander Litvinov kotkaga ning kolmandat kohta jagasid Margarita Kamardina kameeleoniga ja Rafael Danieljants jaaguariga

  20. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  1. USA dollar langes eile alla 12 krooni / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Odavast dollarist kaotavad Eesti ettevõtjatest dollaritsooni eksportijad, võidavad importijad. Skeem: Dollari kurss tagasi 90ndate aastate keskpaiga tasemel. Vt. samas: Tõnis Oja. Ameerikale nõrk dollar meeldib

  2. IBM eile, täna ja homme / Kalle Kose

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kose, Kalle

    2007-01-01

    Infotehnoloogiafirma IBM arengust. Lisatud joonised: PC tootjate turuosad (1984-2004); IBM-i käive segmentide lõikes (2000-2005); IBM-i käive kvartaalselt. Vt. ka lk.13: IBM püstitas patentide rekordi

  3. Maailma kõrgeim pilvelõhkuja sai eile nurgakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    4. VII pandi New Yorgis nurgakivi pilvelõhkuja ehitusele, mis peab asendama hävinud Maailma Kaubanduskeskust. 541 meetri kõrgune (1776 jalga) Vabadustorn peaks valmima 2009. aastaks. Projekti kavandas Daniel Libeskind

  4. Intelligibility and Individual Learner Differences in the EIL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroko

    2007-01-01

    According to Smith and Nelson [Smith, L.E., Nelson, C.E., 1985. "International intelligibility of English: directions and resources." "World Englishes" 3, 333-342.], "intelligibility" refers to word/utterance recognition, whereas "comprehensibility" is the understanding of word/utterance meaning. This study…

  5. United Motors avas eile 100miljonilise BMW keskuse / Hille Tressum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tressum, Hille

    2008-01-01

    United Motors avas Tallinna läheduses uue, 100 miljonit krooni maksma läinud BMW autokeskuse, lisaks salongile asub keskuses ka remonditöökoda, milles ettevõtte juht Ants Kanter näeb peamist sissetulekuallikat. Lisa: Taust

  6. Animated Dreamsi festivali parimad said eile auhinnad / Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2010-01-01

    12. animafilmide festivali Animated Dreams grand prix' pälvis Kei Oyama film "Käeseep" (Jaapan, 2008). Parima disaini preemia sai Jonas Odelli "Tussilago" (Rootsi, 2010). Parima loo jutustas Olga ja Priit Pärna "Tuukrid vihmas" (Eesti, 2009). Teistest preemiatest

  7. Võistluskavade parimad said eile pärjatud / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2011-01-01

    15. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali võitjatest. Parim Euraasia film "Lihtne elu" (režissöör Ann Hui, Hiina), parim režissöör Lynne Ramsay ("Me peame Kevinist rääkima", Suurbritannia). Balti filmide konkursil parim Eesti film "Surnuaiavahi tütar", parim operaator Mart Taniel ("Idioot", Eesti). Auhindade võitjad loetletud

  8. Kuusalu, Kolga ja Loksa Noortel Kotkastel läks Mini-Ernal hästi / Ülle Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Ülle, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Loksal 7.-8. maini 2004 toimunud Harju Noorte Kotkaste ja Kodutütarde Mini-Eel-Erna luureretkest, kus esikoha saavutasid Kose (vanem vanuserühm), Kuusalu (noorem vanuserühm) ja Kallavere (Kodutütred) võistkonnad

  9. Vahur Kraft kraamis eile oma sahtlid Eesti Pangas tühjaks / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    6. juunil oli Vahur Krafti viimane tööpäev Eesti Panga presidendina. Lisad: CV; Keskpanga ekspresident Vahur Kraft juhtis 10 aastat Eesti pangandust. Kommenteerivad Eesti Panga endine asepresident Heldur Meerits ja endine Hansapanga juht Indrek Neivelt

  10. Raudtee erastamine jõudis eile juba eelläbirääkimisteni / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2000-01-01

    Baltic Rail Service, Rail Estonia ning Raudtee Erastamise Rahva AS koos Rootsi riigiraudtee SJ ja Suurbritannia infrastruktuuriettevõtte Sercoga esitasid erastamisagentuurile detailse ärikava koos hinna, investeeringute ning tehnilise ja finantsplaaniga

  11. Anne kanali ja Emajõe vahel leegitsesid eile tuleskulptuurid / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2004-01-01

    Tartu Kõrgema Kunstikooli, Tartu Kunstigümnaasiumi, Tartu Ülikooli maaliosakonna õppurite ja Eesti Põllumajandusülikooli maastikuarhitektide koostöös ja skulptor Kirke Kangro juhendamisel. Tartu Raekoja platsil Kirke Kangro ja hollandi arhitekti Martijn Smitsi valgusinstallatsioon "Valgus kuubis"

  12. Energeetika eile, täna, homme... / Andres Annuk, Jaan Lepa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annuk, Andres, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Autorite hinnangul on kaasaegse maailma energeetika kui majandusharu arengus 3 põhisuunda: energiahinna pöördumatu kasv, püüd energiasüsteeme lokaliseerida ja keskkonna mõjude väärtustamine. Tabelid

  13. Eile avati Harku vallas Raja tööstuskeskuse uus juurdepääsutee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Kahe Harku valla ettevõtte algatusel ja riigi toel sai Raja tööstuskeskus Tabasalus kaasaegse juurdepääsutee, rahastasid Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus ning eraettevõtted Greiner Packaging ja Palmatin

  14. Birma kindralid andsid eile lõpuks abipakkujatele järele / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 20. mai 2008, lk. 9. Birma juhtkond lubas Kagu-Aasia riikide assotsiatsiooni ASEAN erakorralisel nõupidamisel Singapuris, et ühenduse liikmesmaade meditsiinirühmad võivad Birmasse minna. Kaart: ASEANi riigid. Vt. samas: Lapsi varitsevad inimkaubitsejad

  15. Riigikogu pikendas eile Iraagi ja Kosovo missiooni veel aastaks / Maria-Elisa Rannajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rannajõe, Maria-Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Iraagi ja Kosovo missiooni pikendamisest Riigikogus, roheliste erakonna juhi Marek Strandbergi arvamus Iraagi missiooni pikendamise kohta. ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogu pikendas liitlasvägede mandaati Iraagis aasta võrra, Iraak palus missiooni pikendamist viimast korda

  16. Page 1 Nige rian Journal of Physics, 18(2), (2006) F. Eilſº ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-01

    Aug 1, 2006 ... Soil sampling is the only direct method for measuring soil water content, which is the most accurate method of calibration of other techniques. This method is therefore used ... comprising the in-situ moist soil surrounding the access tube. The probe consists of two electrodes that measure the capacitance of ...

  17. Nokia aktsia kasvatas eile Eesti investorite vara miljonite võrra / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Nokia aktsia hinnatõusu põhjustas teade ettevõtte otsusest tõsta III kvartali käibe- ja kasumiprognoose. Diagrammid: Nokia kasumiprognoos jääb mullusele ikka alla; Nokia aktsia hind tõusis prognooside tõttu

  18. A natural frameshift mutation in Campanula EIL2 correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Line; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Olsen, Andreas; L?tken, Henrik; M?ller, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Background The phytohormone ethylene plays a central role in development and senescence of climacteric flowers. In ornamental plant production, ethylene sensitive plants are usually protected against negative effects of ethylene by application of chemical inhibitors. In Campanula, flowers are sensitive to even minute concentrations of ethylene. Results Monitoring flower longevity in three Campanula species revealed C. portenschlagiana (Cp) as ethylene sensitive, C. formanekiana (Cf) with inte...

  19. Strateegiline planeerimine Eestis eile ja täna / Keit Kasemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasemets, Keit

    2006-01-01

    Konkurentsivõime tagamiseks ning jätkusuutlikuks ja ressursisäästlikuks arenguks on põhjalikule analüüsile tuginevate pikaajaliste strateegiliste plaanide paikapanek ja õigete valikute tegemine määrava tähtsusega. Strateegilise planeerimise süsteemi toimimisest ja strateegilise arengu suunamisest Eestis. Skeem: Riigieelarve strateegia koostamine

  20. Meelis Lao kuulutas eile sõja McDonald'sile / Peeter Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidla, Peeter, 1955-

    2004-01-01

    Ärimees Meelis Lao lasi rendivaidlusele viidates sulgeda Viru tänava kiirtoitlustusasutuse McDonald's. Vt. samas: McDonald'si rendivaidlus küünib aastate taha; McDonald's andis asja politseisse; Meelis Lao kannab probleemide lahendaja tiitlit

  1. Soomlaste Finnair sulges eile oma Eesti lennufirma / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Finnairi Eesti tütarfirma Aero Airlines lõpetas oma lennud nii Tallinna-Helsingi vahel kui ka Soome siseliinidel, Eesti ja Soome vahelised lennud võtab üle Soome firma Finncomm Airlines. Lisa: Aero Airlines

  2. Edgar Savisaar murdus eile õhtul / Kadri Jakobson, Aivar Hundimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Moskvast saabunud Deniss Boroditšit, rahastamisskandaali ühte võtmetegelast, võtsid Tallinna lennujaamas vastu Keskerakonna esimees Edgar Savisaar ja Kalle Klandorf, kes viisid abilinnapea tõenäoliselt selgitusi andma

  3. Soomlased ajendasid Uruguay ja Argentina vahelise tselluloositüli / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Argentiinlased protestivad Uruguay jõe Uruguay-poolsel kaldal ehitavate tselluloositehaste vastu, ehitustööd mõistis hukka ka president Nestor Kirchner. Tehased rajab Soome kontsern Metsä-Botnia. Lisa: Argentinal endal keskkonnale ohtlikud tehased

  4. Süüme sundis vabrikujuhti palgatööliseks jääma / Richard Mutso ; interv. Jüri Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Richard, 1933-

    2003-01-01

    Intervjuu Võru mööblitehase Wermo peadirektorina töötanud, praeguse tehase nõukogu liikme Richard Mutsoga tehase juhtimisest, euroreferendumist, eraelust. Kommenteerivad: Silva Mutso, Veljo Ipits

  5. Weroli pankrotiprotsessi oleks saanud vältida / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Aktsiaseltside Werol Tehased ja Biodiesel vahel sõlmitud lepingutest, mis on viinud Jõgeva maakohtu poolt AS-i Werol Tehased vastu algatatud pankrotimenetluseni. Vt. samas: Werol ei ole ajutise pankrotihalduriga rahul

  6. Muusikamaailm : 15. ooperifestival Wexfordis. Tshellopidu algas Frankfurdis. Vilniuse "Gaida" lõppes eile. Konkursilt Besanqonis. Ernest Bour lahkunud / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    15. ooperifestivalist Wexfordis. Frankfurdis toimunud Kronbergi tshellofestivali pidulikust avakontserdist. Vilniuse uue muusika festivalist "Gaida". Konkursilt Besanqonis. Suri nimekas prantsuse dirigent Ernest Bour

  7. Eile ja täna / Hanneleele Kaldmaa, Mikk Jürjens, Liisabet Valdoja jt. ; intervjueerinud Kätlin Karik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldmaa, Hanneleele

    2015-01-01

    Just Filmi sünnipäeva puhul räägivad oma osalemisest laste- või noortefilmide žüriis ja oma praegustest tegemistest H. Kaldmaa, M. Jürjens, L. Valdoja, M. Belkin, R. Laos, M. Reimund, H. Urva, V. Kirs

  8. Learning Strategies Model to Enhance Thai Undergraduate Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in EIL Textual Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakew, Jiraporn; Damnet, Anamai

    2017-01-01

    This classroom based research of a learning strategies model was designed to investigate its application in a mixed-ability classroom. The study built on Oxford's language learning strategies model (1990, 2001) and fulfilled it with rhetorical strategies to accommodate challenges encountered in the paradigm of English as an international language…

  9. Kuritöö ja karistuse nelikvõit : eile Draamateatris peetud teatripäevapeol triumfeeris Linnateatri lavastus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Sisust : Kriitikupreemia. Mihkel Mutt - jooksva kriitika eest ajalehtedes Sirp ja Eesti Ekspress; Aleksander Kurtna nimeline preemia. Mati Unt - viimase aja oluliseima teatriraamatu Eugenio Barba "Paberlaevuke" ja klassikaliste näidendite isikupäraste tõlgete eest (Becketti "Lõppmäng", Shakespeare'i "Hamlet", Corneille "Illusioon", Grillparzeri "Esiema needus")

  10. Analysis of English language textbooks in the light of English as an International Language (EIL): A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Naji Meidani, Elham; Pishghadam, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The global spread of the English language has not only resulted in more non-native speakers than native speakers (Crystal, 1997), but it has even put into question the ownership of the language (Widdowson, 1994; Brumfit, 1995). Therefore, English is recognized as an international language that does not belong to any particular country and is used for global, political, cultural and financial exchange. The following study aimed to find out to what extent English language textbooks demonstrate ...

  11. Idea Sharing: Introducing English as an International Language (EIL) to Pre-Service Teachers in a "World Englishes" Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Flora Debora

    2014-01-01

    Today, English is truly regarded as an international language. It is the most widely-learned and spoken second or foreign language in many countries. In recent years, the number of second and foreign language speakers has far exceeded the number of first language speakers of English. This dramatic change, many have argued, should be taken into…

  12. Liibanonist pingsalt oodatud uudised jäid eile kahjuks napiks / Ilmar Kahro, Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kahro, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    Liibanonis vahistati neljas inimene, keda kahtlustatakse seotuses Eesti jalgrattamatkajate rööviga. Ühe suurriigi diplomaat peab kõige tõenäolisemaks röövi põhjuseks seda, et eestlasi kahtlustati Iisraeli kasuks spioneerimises. Liibanoni valitsuse nõuniku Omar Nashabe arvates peaks Eesti president võtma ühendust oma Süüria kolleegiga. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Millest siis tohib?

  13. Evelin Ilves eile KG-s : noored on täiesti terve mõistusega! / Raul Vinni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vinni, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves käis Kuressaare gümnaasiumis vaatamas teatritükki "Evelini lugu" ja kohtus pärast etendust noorte näitlejatega. Juuresoleval fotol proua E. Ilves koos noorima osatäitja Emma Lotta Rannaga. Vabariigi President Saaremaal 3.12.2008

  14. Erakonnad jagasid Anija ja Raasiku valda ning Loksale kokku 4,7 miljonit krooni / Ülle Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Ülle, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu esindatud viis parteid jagasid 2007. a. riigieelarvest 202 miljonit krooni omavalitsustele, millest Anija vald saab kokku 1,55 milj. krooni, Loksa linn 2,5 milj. kr. ja Raasiku vald 650 000 krooni

  15. Saurix Petroleum valitseb Loksat / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Kütusefirma Saurix Petroleumiga seotud ettevõtted teenivad Loksa linna soojamajanduselt ning elektrimüügilt suuri kasumeid ning on sundinud linnavalitsust enda eest ka pangavõlga maksma. Kommenteerib Mihkel Tiks

  16. Orm Valtsonit ei kinnitatud Harju maavanemaks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansip põhjendas otsust konsensuse puudumisega. Arvamust avaldavad: Anija vallavolikogu esimees Tõnis Väli, Raasiku vallavanem Andre Sepp, Loksa vallavanem Madis Praks ja Kuusalu vallavanem Herko Sunts

  17. Loksaskaja sudverf na puti peremen / Flemming Seestrand Sörensen ; interv. Lidia Tolmatshova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sörensen, Flemming Seestrand

    2008-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd müüb firma efektiivsuse tõstmise programmi raames Eestis asuva Loksa Laevatehase AS-i. Laevatehase tegevdirektor Flemming Seestrand Sörensen selgitab müümisega seotud asjaolusid

  18. Ka Kuusalust ja Loksalt käidi Soomes õppimas euroraha jagamist-küsimist / Ülle Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Ülle, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Kuut omavalitsust, ka Kuusalu valda ja Loksa linna ühendav MTÜ Arenduskoda viis LEADER-programmi raames 22 inimest Soome Pirkanmaale 2-päevasele õppereisile. Vt. samas: Mida LEADER-programmi raames tehakse MTÜs Arenduskoda?

  19. Made in Narva ili nashi v Seule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Hiigelsuure titaanskulptuuri "Post-Mapping" valmistamisest saksa firma Trinon Titanium Narva tehases ja selle paigaldamisest tehnoloogiainstituudi hoone fuajeesse Soulis. Skulptuuri autor on arhitekt Lawrence Wallen

  20. V Paldiski postrojat novõi zavod

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    AS Biodiesel sõlmis 1. augustil lepingu rahvusvahelise kontserniga Desmet Ballestra biodiisli tehase tehnoloogia tarnimiseks. Ligi 300 miljonit krooni maksma minev tehas rajatakse Paldiski Lõunasadmasse

  1. Eestis alustatakse biodiisli tootmist / Toomas Reinpõld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinpõld, Toomas, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Biodiesel omanikud otsustasid biodiislikütust tootva tehase ehitada Harjumaale Paldiskisse. Omanikud loodavad peaministrilt positiivset vastust aktsiisimaksu vabastuse kohta biodiisli turustamisel

  2. Environment Is Life (EIL): a new local structure to study the influence of abiotic factors on agro-systems functional behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdoz, Bernard; Leemans, Vincent; Heinesch, Bernard; Delaplace, Pierre; Dumont, Benjamin; Jacques, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The TERRA Unit of the Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech faculty is building a new research and educational structure with the aim of understanding how the agro-system services (production, GHG mitigation, eco-diversity, soil fertility maintenance,…) will evolved in the future under the influence of climatic change, new technical management mode or land use change. This structure will based first on data collected in an Ecotron able to host 12 closed chambers, each of them containing 2 m2 of vegetation growing on a lysimeter (1,5m deep). The solar radiation, air temperature and humidity, precipitations and CO2 concentration could be regulated individually in each chamber to propose different climatic scenarios. Different anthropic technical actions could also be programmed with different timing (fertilization, deep/shallow ploughing,…). The equipment of the chamber will allow monitoring of net fluxes (CO2, sensible heat, evapotranspiration exchanges and ozone), soil temperature and humidity and chemical composition (DOC, DIC, NO3-/NH4+) of the soil water and leaching flux. In parallel, biomass production and composition could be evaluated all along the growing season by manual works and chemical analysis. The chambers will be able to be used in different modes (present vs future conditions, one variable gradient, cross-effect of disturbances) to test and isolate the impact of each future perturbation on the biogeochemical cycles of the agro-system. The Ecotron is candidate for integration in the ANAEE network (candidate to be a European Research Infrastructure Consortium) and will be available for development of scientific project coming from outside of the Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech faculty. For the spatio-temporal extrapolation of the results obtained during the Ecotron experimentations, TERRA Unit will develop a model able, on one hand, to reproduce the outputs of these experimentations (taking into account some particularities of the chamber set up) and on the other hand, to simulate the biogeochemical cycles of an outdoor agro-system plots. The objectives of the model runs will be to translate for natural conditions (real agro-system), the impact of the studied perturbation, with possibilities of divergences in terms of intensity and timing compared to the Ecotron situations Finally, the structure is completed with an eddy covariance tower site named Lonzée installed in a traditional European temperate agro-system plot and presently part of the ICOS labeling process. The Lonzee site is a cropland (cultivated for more than 75 years) with a 4-year rotation: sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), winter wheat. The experimental device collect some data similar to those obtained in the Ecotron chambers and will give the opportunity to (i) quantify the actual and real the influence of abiotic factors on ecosystemic services and (ii) validate the model used for the spatio-temporal extrapolation of the Ecotron results.

  3. Rasskaz o pervõh hudozhnikah Krengolma / Jelena Sohrannova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sohrannova, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Narva Kreenholmi Manufaktuuri kunstnike tööst. Kunstitöökoda avati tehases 1963. a. Esimesed professionaalsed kunstnikud olid Svetlana Gromova ja Irina Shevtshuk, 1965. a. asus tööle Nikolai Malinovski ja 1966 Shamil Alijev. Praegu töötavad tehases kunstnikud Veniamin Tshutshin ja Nadezhda Shtsherbakova

  4. Astelpajufirma plaanib marjatöötlemistehast / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Astelpaju tooteid teenustööna valmistav OÜ Berry Farming kavandab Elva tee äärde rajada astelpajumarja töötlemise tehase, tehase hoone ehitus koos sisseseadega läheb maksma 50-60 miljonit krooni. Kaart: Astelpajumarja töötlemise tehas

  5. Leedu trumpab Eesti rapsitehase üle / Heino Laiapea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laiapea, Heino, 1951-

    2005-01-01

    Leedu ettevõte Linas ir Viza ehitab Klaipedasse Baltimaade suurima õlikultuuride seemnetöötlemise tehase, mis ületab neli korda Jõgevamaal Painkülas asuva Eesti suurima rapsitöötleja AS-i Werol Tehased senise võimsuse

  6. Transpordiärimehed hakkavad biokütust tootma / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2005-01-01

    Nii bussifirma Taisto omanik Taisto-Taimo Kängsepp kui ka Arvo Sarapuu kavatsevad rajada oma biodiislikütuse tehase. Firma Biodiesel suuromanik Heino Harak kavatseb biodiislikütuse tehase käivitada 2006. aasta lõpus. Lisa: Biodiislikütus

  7. Just nagu teine viljasalv / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Erki Aaviku juhtimise ajal maksis AS Werol Tehased Peterburi firmale Tetra Invest ettemaksuna 5,2 miljonit krooni, tänaseks päevaks on nii raha kui Peterburi firma kadunud. Erki Aavik tehingut ei kommenteeri, tehase endise juhi poolt sõlmitud rapsiostu lepingute uurimiseks on algatatud kriminaalasi. Lisa: Mis on Werol?

  8. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  9. Dicty_cDB: SLC455 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available INKVAELLVSKLTAL*eil*illtttttttllhyfvlrsiihfsp*kshffffmfkissn kikll*lsl Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames)...INKVAELLVSKLTAL*eil*illtttttttllhyfvlrsiihfsp*kshffffmfkissn kikll*lsl Frame B: ---ivln*itminy*nsvmllklpvsml

  10. Preparing Culturally and Linguistically Competent Teachers for English as an International Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofang

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent scholarly advancements in teaching English as an international language (EIL), its implementation in TESOL classrooms has been challenging and limited. Because English teachers play a significant role in EIL implementation in their daily lessons, preparing EIL-oriented teachers becomes critical. This article outlines major…

  11. Report on the Validation of the Emotionally Intelligent Leadership for Students Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Rosanna F.; Allen, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the measurement of the Emotionally Intelligent Leadership (EIL) construct and to provide evidence of validation for the multidimensional Emotionally Intelligence Leadership for Students: Inventory 2.0 (EILS:I 2.0). The EILS:I 2.0 is a self-report assessment of emotionally intelligent leadership in the…

  12. Lazer dlja sitsev / Jevgeni Ashihmin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ashihmin, Jevgeni

    2006-01-01

    Narva tekstiilitööstuse Kreeniholm omanik Boras Wäfveri AB sulges Rootsi tehased ja toob sealsed seadmed Narva. Maailmaturu konkurents tekstiilitööstustes, Kreenholmi Valduse AS omanikud ja juhid

  13. Robert Närska : erakonda tuleb vahetada vastavalt seisukohtade muutumisele / Robert Närska ; interv. Mari-Liis Hüvato

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Närska, Robert, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Tartu linnavolikogusse kandideeriv AS-i Werol Tehased juhatuse liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema kandideerimist linnavolikogusse Rahvaliidu nimekirjas, kohaliku võimu politiseeritust Eestis, Tartu arengut ning lahendamist vajavaid probleeme linnas

  14. Ot porolona k iskusstvu / Kristiina Verbitskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verbitskaja, Kristiina

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna endise tehase "Polümeer" ruumides tegutsevad juba kaks aastat muusikud, kunstnikud ja teised kultuuriinimesed. 10. -20. augustini toimuvad kultuuritehase Polymer avamisüritused: teatrietendused, kunstinäitused, kontserdid, filmiseansid. Korraldab Madis Mikkor

  15. Uudised : Rock-paraad Dvigatelis. Kaljuste asemele Layton. "Little Louie" Vega tuleb Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    1. mail Dvigateli tehase ruumides toimuvast alternatiivrocki peost. S.Layton saab jaanuaris 2002 uueks Madalmaade Kammerkoori dirigendiks T.Kaljuste asemel. 17. juunil mängib Tallinnas plaate "Little Louie" Vega

  16. Pärdi lavastamine Noblessneri valukojas / Evi Arujärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arujärv, Evi, 1953-

    2010-01-01

    Tõnu Kaljuste ja Peeter Jalaka lavastusest "Alguses oli", lavastuse aluseks Arvo Pärdi teosed "In Principio" ja "Miserere", 17. augustil Noblessneri tehase valukojas toimunud etendusest, muusikaline juht Tõnu Kaljuste

  17. Iskusstvo võbrasõvat musor / Dmitri Babitshenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Babitshenko, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    Endise tehase "Polümeer" hoones asuvas galeriis Art Container avati grafiti-kunstnike Tõnise ja Jukku poolt maalitud klaastaara-konteinerite fotode näitus "Märka konteinerit". Samanimelisest kunstiprojektist

  18. Ekspansioon / Alina Kurvitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurvitz, Alina

    2002-01-01

    Prantsuse kunstnike Delphine Reisti, Laurent Fauloni ja Sebastien Perroud' installatsioonide näitus "Four songs for Siivi" Tallinnas mahajäetud Kalinini tehases. Näitusega kaasnevad viiuldaja Mathieu Werchowsky kontserdid

  19. Ahtme tehas ehitas töötajatele elamu / Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gamzejev, Erik, 1967-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 31. juuli 2004, lk. 1, 3; Postimees, 2. aug. 2004, lk. 9, lüh. Ahtme vagunikoostetehas UVZ & AVR juhid usuvad, et korter motiveerib spetsialiste tehases pikemalt töötama

  20. Ahtme tehas lasi välja 50 tsisterni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 26. sept. lk. 4. Eesti-Vene koostöös Ahtmele loodud vagunitehas UVZ&AVR valmistas esimese partii tsisternvaguneid. Kommentaarid tehase tegevuse ja toodangu kohta tegevdirektor Vadim Gvozdevilt

  1. Italjanskaja tehnologija, estonskoje katshestvo / Aleksei Zhigulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhigulin, Aleksei

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna Vineeri- ja Mööblikombinaadi omanik OÜ Grove Invest rajab Kohilasse uut tehast, mille võimsuseks saab 50 000 kuupmeetrit vineeri aastas. Ettevõtte investeerib tehase ehitusse kokku 420 miljonit krooni. Lisa

  2. Võrus valmistatakse ameeriklastele erilist delikatessjuustu / Siiri Erala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erala, Siiri

    2010-01-01

    Valiole kuuluvas Võru tehases valmistatakse Lacey Swiss juustu, mida eksporditakse Ameerika Ühendriikidesse ja mida peetakse seal konkureerivatest toodetest paremaks. Valio loodab ka Hiina turule pääseda

  3. Narva linnas valmistati abstraktne skulptuur / Ago Gashkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gashkov, Ago

    2007-01-01

    Zürichi kunstiülikooli lavakujunduse professori Lawrence Walleni loodud titaanplaatidest skulptuur pannakse kokku Triton Titanium GmbH meditsiiniseadmete tehases Narvas. Skulptuur avatakse 6. oktoobril 2007 Soulis tehnoloogiainstituudis

  4. Visionäärid ning disaini hälli kiigutajad Charles ja Ray Eames / Katrin Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika disainiklassikute Charles (1907-1978) ja Ray Eamesi (1912-1988) disainitud toolidest. Nende oma majast Californias, mis koosneb tehases valmistatud teras-, vineer- ja klaasdetailidest. Filmidest "Ülevaade Metropolitanist" ja "Powers of Ten"

  5. Paldiski biodiislitehas valmib 300 mln eest / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 16. aug. lk. 7. 2007. aasta sügiseks Paldiskis valmiva biodiislitehase ehitamisesse on AS Biodiesel planeerinud investeerida 300 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Tehase käive 1,2 miljardit krooni

  6. Kundas hakatakse vanadest rehvidest õli tootma / Raivo Raigna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raigna, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    Hansa Biodiesel rajab Kundasse vanade rehvide termilise töötlemise tehase. Selgitusi jagab õlitehase keskkonnamõju hindaja, Tallinna Ülikooli Ökoloogia Instituudi Kirde-Eesti osakonna juhataja ja juhtekspert Valdo Liblik

  7. Eesti taotleb Euroopa Liidult biodiislikütuse maksuvabastust / Erki Freiberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Freiberg, Erki

    2005-01-01

    Rahandusministeerium taotleb Euroopa Komisjonilt Eestis müüdava autotranspordis kasutatava biokütuse vabastamist aktsiisimaksust. Lisa: Biodiislikütust tehakse taimeõlist ja alkoholist. Vt. samas: AS Biodiesel ehitab Paldiskisse tehase

  8. AS-i Steri tehas alustab tööd juba lähipäevil / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Keskkonnaminister Jaanus Tamkivi andis AS-ile Steri kiirgustegevusloa. Samas otsustas minister edasi kaevata AS Steri omanike kasuks tehtud Tallinna halduskohtu otsuse. Lisa: Steriliseerimine AS-i Steri tehases

  9. Ekskavaator sai kauni naisenime

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    1. jalaväebrigaadi Tapa linnakus asuva pioneeripataljoni kaitseväelased ristisid Jaapani tehases toodetud 19-tonnise roomikekskavaatori Komatsu PC 190LC-8, mis sai endale uue nime pioneeripataljoni referendi järgi

  10. IPA kavandab endale uut tehast / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Ettevõte Interconnect Product Assembly (IPA) alustas juhtmeköidiste valmistajana, kuid püüab keskenduda aina keerulisemate seadmete tootmisele. Tabel: Interconnect Product Assembly. Lisa: Tootmisjuhid lõid oma tehase

  11. V Narve sozdali skulpturu dlja Seula / Sergei Stepanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stepanov, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    Saksa firma Trinon Titaniumi Narva tehases valmis titaanskulptuur, mis hakkab kaunistama Saksa-Korea tehnoloogiainstituudi uut hoonet Soulis. Skulptuuri autor on Melbournis sündinud arhitekt ja meediakunstnik, Zürichi Kunstiülikooli professor Lawrence Wallen

  12. Moltshanije jagnenka / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Erki Aaviku hiigelvõlgu põhjustanud tehingutest Peterburi firmaga Tetra Invest AS-i Werol Tehased juhatajana ja seostest Rahvaliidu ja põllumajandusministeeriumiga. Weroli erastamisprotsess

  13. Kas kooliraamatukogus on hea raamatuvalik? / Inga Paaskivi, Anna Elise Rohtmets, Piia Selge ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid: Muhu põhikooli raamatukoguhoidja Inga Paaskivi, Mustamäe gümnaasiumi abiturient Anna Elise Rohtmets, Tallinna Arte gümnaasiumi raamatukoguhoidja Piia Selge, Saue gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Piret Uulma, Mõisaküla kooli raamatukoguhoidja Airi Allikivi, Loksa gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Urve Toompuu, lapsevanem Heli Kilter

  14. Hea linn : linnakeskuste visioonide otsingud Eestis = Good City : Search for the Vision of Urban Centres in Estonia / Tõnu Laigu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laigu, Tõnu

    2003-01-01

    Linnaplaneerimisest Eesti linnades peale taasiseseisvumist, linna keskosa kavandamisest. Üksnes visiooni tekitamisega on piirdunud Tõrva, Räpina, Tallinn, Jõgeva, Põlva, Võru, Loksa, Valga, Narva. Rakveres saab arhitektuurivõistlus linna keskosa väljaehitamise aluseks. 1997-2003 tehtud linna keskosade planeeringute loetelu ja seis. 6 ill

  15. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na+ uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. PMID:25995326

  16. Encuentros esteticos deweyanos con la cultura popular anglofona en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE). Working Paper (Deweyan Aesthetic Encounters with Anglophone Popular Culture in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses how the introduction of Anglophone popular culture in the English-as-a-foreign-language class can serve to foster critical aesthetic experiences. It is argued that the popular culture of the hegemonic Anglophone countries is already part of students' lives and for that reason should be included in any critical Anglophone…

  17. English as an International Language: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Enrique García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article critically reviews and discusses English as an International Language (EIL as an alternative to the traditional models of English as a Foreign Language (EFL and English as a Second Language (ESL. The author suggests that the model of EIL is an alternative worthdiscussing in the Colombian context. The article is divided into four different sections: a EIL, ownership of English and native-speakerism, b attitudes towards EIL, c EIL described: What does it look like? and d EIL and English teaching. The review of the literature evidences that there are still many heated debates on the sociocultural aspect of EIL, that one of the greatest challenges of EIL is the attitudes of English teachers and speakers towards the use and legitimization of non-standard varieties, that there is still much to be done in terms of the description of EIL and that adopting an EIL perspective would imply transforming the ways English is taught. The article concludes with an invitation to the ELT community to initiate the discussion of the potential application of EIL in the Colombian context.

  18. Redefinition of the millipede subgenus Megaphyllum sensu stricto Verhoeff, 1894 and neotype designation for Megaphyllum austriacum (Latzel, 1884) (Myriapoda: Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazányi, Eszter; Vagalinski, Boyan

    2013-11-26

    Megaphyllum sensu stricto, i.e. the nominotypical subgenus of the very complicated genus Megaphyllum Verhoeff, 1894, is redefined on the basis of examination of type and non-type material and literature data. Four species-groups including twenty species in all are listed, and the identity of M. austriacum (C. L. Koch, 1838) is clarified with a proposal of neotype designation under ICZN Article 75.6. in order to stabilize the current usage of the name. Prevailing usage of M. silvaticum (Verhoeff, 1898) syn. nov. (nomen protectum) over the senior synonym M. nigrescens (Latzel, 1884) (nomen oblitum) is maintained under ICZN Article 23.9. M. banaticum (Verhoeff, 1899) is syn. nov. of M. erythronotum (Latzel, 1884) comb. nov., M. bosniense cotinophilum (Loksa, 1962) syn. nov. of M. bosniense bosniense (Verhoeff, 1897) and M. transsylvanicum transdanubicum (Loksa, 1962) syn. nov. of M. transsylvanicum transsylvanicum (Verhoeff, 1897). M. unilineatum (C. L. Koch, 1838) is new to the fauna of Turkey.

  19. Laevaehitajad seilavad edu harjal / Gaili Eding, Viljar Rääsk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eding, Gaili

    2008-01-01

    Eestis tegutsevate laevaehitus- ja laevaosasid tootvate firmade käive on kasvanud, ainukeseks mureks on kvalifitseeritud tööjõu leidmine. AS BLTR Grupi, Saaremaal tegutseva AS Baltic Workboatsi ja Loksa Laevatehase AS toodang ja majandusnäitajad. Tabelid. Lisa: Valmimas on Baltikumi kalleim laev WindLift 1; Tallinki uusim laev Baltic Princess; Oodata on leevendust tööjõu probleemile; Saaremaa Laevakompanii toob liinile kolm uut laeva. Vt. samas: Laevanduskontserni Tallink laevastik

  20. Re-Imagining Cultural Identity: Transcultural and Translingual Communication in Virtual Third-Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Arranz, Jose Igor; Juan-Garau, Maria; Jacob, Karen Lesley

    2013-01-01

    The rise of English as an international language (EIL) has brought to light the needs of those who speak it as an additional language. This has in turn radically reshaped the role of culture in the EIL classroom, which may now aim at developing critical transcultural awareness. By reporting on a joint initiative undertaken by three schools in two…

  1. Preparing teachers to teach English as an international language

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Aya

    2017-01-01

    This book explores ways to prepare teachers to teach English as an International Language, and provides theoretically-grounded models for EIL-informed teacher education. It includes two chapters that present a theoretical approach to EIL teacher education, followed by descriptions of field-tested teacher education programs, courses and activities.

  2. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K(+) TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na(+) uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Exploring the Generic Nature of International English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan James

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the nature of English as an International Language (EIL from a sociolinguistic and sociocultural point via the notion of ‘genre’. Genre, it is claimed, plays a central role in an understanding of the internal hybridity of EIL in that it represents the ‘using’ as opposed to ‘use’ (register or ‘user’ (dialect dimension of language realization. While all three dimensions as linguistic resources for different subjectivities can shape an ensuing EIL discourse (such mixes constituting the ‘interdiscursivity’ of (a text, it is genre that expresses the actional (inter- and transactional properties of EIL. Drawing also on other linguistic models of genre, the article concludes by interpreting EIL within the discourses of postmodernity, poststructuralism and postcolonialism and pointing to the possibility of developing a new ‘postlinguistics’ for the new millenium.

  4. Polümeerne kultuuritegemine = Polymeric Culture-making / Karin Laansoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laansoo, Karin, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Endises "Polümeeri" tehases Tallinnas 2002. aastast tegutsevast kultuuritehasest "Polymer". Hoones on töökojad, kunstistuudiod (Mare Raidma, Neeme Külm, Raul Keller), kultuuritrükikoda, tegutsevad klubid, toimuvad peod jm. 2005. a. juulist peab kultuuritehas pinnad vabastama, sest kinnisvarafirma Brem lõpetas 21. IV ühepoolselt rendilepingu

  5. Benzin iz rapsa : utopija ili realnaja perspektiva? / Oleg Samorodni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Samorodni, Oleg, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Suurärimees Rein Kilgi eesmärgiks on viia Lõuna Toiduainetööstus Lõuna-Eesti juhtivaks ettevõtteks, seepärast käib ka võitlus rapsitööstuse Werol Tehased ostmise ümber ärimeeste Oliver Kruuda ja Urmas Sõõrumaaga

  6. Tallinna kerkib laserplaaditehas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Laserplaatide tootja Baltic Disc AS alustas Tallinnas CD- ja DVD-tehase ehitustöid. ASist Helisalv välja kasvanud Baltic Disc AS asutati möödunud aastal, tuleval aastal planeeritakse Tallinnas toota kuni 8 miljonit CDd ja DVDd

  7. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  8. Sillamäele võib tekkida väike tsemenditehas / Erik Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Hispaania grupi Essentium ettevõte Essentium Cement Eesti OÜ tahab rajada Sillamäe sadama territooriumile terminali ja tehase. AS-i Kunda Nordic Tsement tegevdirektor arvab, et Eesti turul ei ole ruumi uutele tsemenditootjatele. Vt. samas: Investeering võib ulatuda kolme miljardini

  9. Ufo on taas maandunud! / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    1970. aastatel soome arhitekti Matti Suuroneni projekteeritud lendavat taldrikut meenutavast plastikust tulevikumajast Futoro, millest üks toodi 1995. a. Halinga keskuse juurde Pärnumaal ja praegu asub Tallinna lähedal. Maja valmistati Soome plasttoodete tehases Polykem. Soomlaste ufomajade ehitamise teostamata plaanist. 8 ill

  10. Vene turu langus kärbib Norma müüki ja kasumit / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2002-01-01

    Venemaa autonõudluse vähenemine ja suurima ekspordipartneri AvtoVaz-i tehase sulgemine võib sundida Norma tööle osalise tööajaga ning kärbib ettevõtte müügiootusi ja langetab kasumlikkust. Diagramm

  11. Lasnamäel on võimalusi ja jõudu / Tõnu Laigu ; interv. Urve Eslas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laigu, Tõnu

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud Lasnamäe-teemalisest konverentsist, kus kaaluti linnaosa tulevikuperspektiive. Lasnamäe elukeskkonnast ja selle muutmisest. Mustakivi tee äärde kavandatavast Tallink City meelelahutus- ja kaubanduskeskusest. Endise Dvigateli tehase territooriumile kavandatavast Ülemiste Cityst. Kalle Klandorfi, Karin Bachmanni ja Veronika Valgu kommentaarid

  12. Juhan Parts : "Panus tuleks teha tipptehnoloogiale ja koostööle teadlastega" / Juhan Parts ; interv. Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Juhan, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Jõgevamaal visiidil viibinud majandusminister Juhan Parts ettevõtete Valmeco ja Werol Tehased külastusest ja seal nähtust, Venemaa puidutarnetest, Eesti metsanduspoliitikast, Tallinn-Tartu maantee ehitusest, reisirongiliiklusest, ettevõtluse arengu võimalustest regioonis

  13. Järvamaa tehas peatab tootmise / Kaarel Aluoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aluoja, Kaarel

    2008-01-01

    Kuigi Järvamaal Paide vallas Mündis trenazhööre tootval firmal Jalaccell on läinud seni hästi, on tehase juhtkond sunnitud tegevuse peatama ja 51 töötajat koondama, kuna üks osanikest, ACCell Fitness Division, otsustas tootmise Eestist Hiinasse kolida

  14. Jalax valmistab Eestis Tunturile trenazhööre / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Metalliettevõte Jalax ning jalgrataste ja trenazhööride tootja Accell Group loovad ühisettevõtte, mille rajatavas tehases Paide lähedal hakatakse kokku panema trenazhööre. Lisa: Toodab ka Stiga kelke

  15. Estonia will have broadband Internet coverage by 2015 / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Lairiba Arenduse Sihtasutuse projektist EstWin, mille ülesandeks on 2015. aasta lõpuks välja arendada Eesti maapiirkondades uue põlvkonna lairibavõrgu baasinfrastruktuur. Augusti lõpus avas Ericsson Eesti Tallinnas tehase, mis hakkab tootma kõrgtehnoloogilisi seadmeid, sh lairibavõrkude seadmeid mobiilside võrkudele. Diagrammid

  16. Tekstiilitööstus Mivar-Viva vahetas tegevjuhi välja / Toomas Värva ; interv. Hans Väre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värva, Toomas, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Endine Mivar-Viva juhatuse esimees Aleksander Sepp lahkus omal soovil, uueks tegevjuhiks sai endine müügijuht Toomas Värva. Lisa: Mivar-Viva. Arvamust avaldab endine tegevjuht Aleksander Sepp. Vt. samas: Omanikud pole uue tehase mõtet maha matnud

  17. Tallinna Sadam peab plaani tööstuspargi rajamiseks / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Sadam peab läbirääkimisi tööstuspargi rajamiseks India investeerimisettevõttega Platinum Corporations, kes on huvitatud vanametalli töötlemise tehase rajamisest Eestisse ja kellele pakutakse maad Paldiski Lõunasadama tööstuspargis. Firma esindajatega on kohtunud ka majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts

  18. Vitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Sveitsi mööblifirma "Vitra" (peakorter Birsfeldenis) ajaloost, tegevusest (büroomööbel, toolid jm.) ning disainimuuseumist (Saksamaal, Weil am Rheinis). Tehased ja muuseumi on projekteerinud nimekad arhitektid (F. Gehry, Z. Hadid, T. Ando jt.). Firma disaineritest

  19. Eesti Energia lubab võlgades paberivabriku elektrita jätta / Eiris Teeveere, Päären Mardiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teeveere, Eiris

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia lülitab välja elektri Kehras asuvas Horizon Tselluloosi ja Paberivabrikus, kui võlgu tähtajaks ei maksta. Tehase sulgemine tooks kaasa 500 inimese töötuks jäämise ning reovee puhastuse lõppemise

  20. Hetked puhast naudingut...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eestis Rosenthali salongides pakutakse Rosenthali (pannakse kokku Eestis) ja Pool Spa kaubamärgiga vanne, saunu ja kabiine, Portugali ja Itaalia sanitaarkeraamikat (kaubamärgid Valadares, Althea, Porta), Rosenthali ja Itaalia tehase Cristina segisteid, Hispaania ettevõtte Royo vannitoamööblit

  1. Soomlaste imerelv Nokia / Tarmo Virki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virki, Tarmo

    2001-01-01

    Lühiülevaade Nokia kontserni ajaloost, toetudes hiljuti ilmunud Martti Häikiö raamatule "Nokia inside story". Diagrammid ja skeem: Nokia aktsia hind börsil 1992-2000; Nokia enda investeeringud ning Soome riigi osa %-des 1981-2000; Nokia tehased ning ettevõtted Soomes aastal 1975

  2. Riik nõuab Weroli endiselt juhilt 54 miljonit krooni / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Advokaadibüroo Laus & Partnerid koostatud õiguslikust analüüsist, milles käsitletakse Erki Aaviku tegevust AS-i Werol Tehased juhatuse liikmena. Riik on esitanud avalduse tsiviilhagi algatamise kohta E. Aavikult kahju väljanõudmiseks 54 miljoni krooni ulatuses, AS Biodiesel nõuab kohtu kaudu Werolilt 140 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Weroli kohal taas pankrotioht

  3. Valitsus Weroliga eksiteel / Heino Laiapea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laiapea, Heino, 1951-

    2005-01-01

    Valitsus otsustas vähendada rapsi töötleva AS-i Werol Tehased aktsiakapitali 45 miljoni kroonini ja müüa oma osaluse ettevõttes. AS Biodiesel ähvardab Werolit 70 miljoni kroonise trahvinõudega

  4. Estonia no longer a cheap labor stop - Parts / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Neli välismaalastest ettevõtte omanikku on sulgenud tehased Eestis, kuna ei leia tööjõudu. Peaminister Juhan Parts tõdes Eesti-Suurbritannia kaubanduskoja konverentsil, et Eestis pole enam odavat tööjõudu. J. Parts on pidanud vajalikuks, et Eesti ostaks tagasi Hansapanga

  5. Nestle pärast tülli läinud linn / Michelle Conlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Conlin, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Ameerikas Põhja-Californias asuva väikelinna McCloudi elanikud on vastu Nestle Watters North America plaanile rajada sinna USA suurim allikaveevillimistehase tootmiskompleks. Linnarahvas on jagunenud kahte leeri - ühed pooldavad uusi töökohti andva tehase rajamist, teised kardavad halba mõju keskkonnale ning linnale. Vt. samas: Kas meid tuleks pudelist võõrutada?

  6. Meie igapäevast rämpsu anna meile, tänapäev! / Ylle Rajasaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaar, Ylle

    2010-01-01

    Jõelähtme jäätmekütuseliini võimsust kavatsetakse suurendada 100 000 tonnini. Eesti Energia Iru elektrijaama juurde rajatakse jäätmepõletusjaam, jäätmekäitlusfirma Ragn-Sells rajab Tallinna mehhaanilis-bioloogilise töötlemise tehase. Olmeprahist võib saada meie majanduse juhtiv impordiartikkel, arvab autor

  7. Miks ta nii teeb? / Kristiina Voolaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voolaid, Kristiina

    1999-01-01

    Kuidas mõtleb ruumikujundaja, kui ta valib vorme, värve, materjale ja esemeid? Sisearhitekt Kristiina Voolaid seletab oma mõtteid Kawe Plaza hoones asuvate Hüvitusfondi ja Werol Tehased kontorite ning noorele perekonnale sisustatud vanalinnakorteri näitel

  8. Propagation and Source Parameters from Long-Period High-Gain Seismographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Ellat Israel F8K Fairbanks Alaska TLO Toledo Spain KON Kongsberg Norway ALQ AlbuQuerque New Mexico Location Elevetion Meters Ul’WoON...Rodriguez-Portugal, C. and A. Udfas. 1972. Estudio del me- canismo y determinaci6n de los parametros dinimicos del foco del terremoto de Azores...290S-6890E EIL TLO F. mode Indian Ocean 16-Sep-72 09-14-34 1592^-9692W TLO EIL F. mode Mexico 23-Dec-72 06-29-42 1294N-8691W TLO EIL F, mode

  9. Experiencias interculturales y la pedagogia de la anglofonia en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE) desde una perspectiva deweyana. Working Paper (A Deweyan Perspective on Cross-Cultural Experiences and Anglophone Pedagogy in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses a framework for teaching English as a foreign language that incorporates significant cultural content and fosters critical encounters with Anglophone culture. It reviews relevant contemporary perspectives for understanding cross-cultural processes within the foreign language teaching environment with emphasis on the issue of…

  10. Aids röövib miljoneid elusid / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    ÜRO Aidsiprogrammi (UN-AIDS) ja Maailma Tervishoiuorganisatsiooni eile avaldatud aastaaruandest selgub, et aasta jooksul on maailmas registreeritud umbes viis miljonit uut nakatunut ehk iga päev saab viiruse 14 000 inimest

  11. Putin ja Alijev vestlesid Kaspia naftast / Kadri Liik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liik, Kadri, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    Venemaa president V. Putin tegi eile ametliku visiidi Aserbaidžaani, et siluda kahe riigi suhteid ja arutada president Heidar Alijeviga nii Kaspia naftavarude jagamist kui Mägi-Karabahhiasse rahu toomist

  12. Euroliidu Galileo süsteem astub kandadele USA GPS-ile / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu uue navigatsioonisüsteemi Galileo esimene satelliit saadeti eile kosmosesse. Satelliit GIOVE-A kujutab endast esimest ülekandemajakat, millega saab hakata looma kuni 30 satelliidist koosnevat globaalset navigatsioonivõrgustikku

  13. Euroopa asub rajama konkurenti GPSile / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu uue navigatsioonisüsteemi Galileo esimene satelliit saadeti eile kosmosesse. Satelliit GIOVE-A kujutab endast esimest ülekandemajakat, millega saab hakata looma kuni 30 satelliidist koosnevat globaalset navigatsioonivõrgustikku

  14. Titan - Saturni ümber tiirlev muinasmaa / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Kosmosesondi Hyugens andmete analüüsimisel üritasid Euroopa Kosmoseagentuuri teadlased eile avalikkusele näitlikustada Pilti Titanist. Samas ka lühiintervjuu Tartu Observatooriumi direktori Laurits Leedjärvega

  15. Osa raudteest jääb riigile / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2000-01-01

    Eesti Raudtee erastamisnõustaja GIBB Ltd. sai eile teede- ja sideminister Toivo Jürgensonilt ülesande valmistada ette 51-66 % Eesti Raudtee aktsiate erastamine. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 2. veebr. lk. 6

  16. Uudised : Mozart, Pärt, Tormis. Estoonlased taas tööl. Debüteeris uus orkester / Vesta Uuetoa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uuetoa, Vesta

    2000-01-01

    EFK alustab hooaega kontserdiga Äksi kirikus, koori tegevuskavast hooajal 2000/2001. 23. aug. alustati Estonia teatris 95. hooaega, tegevuskavast hooajal 2000/2001. Eile andis Tallinnas oma esimese kontserdi ENSO, orkestri loomisest, tulevikuplaanidest

  17. Hea on avastada uusi ilmu / Mathura

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mathura, pseud., 1973-

    2008-01-01

    4.-13. aprillini Tallinnas Sõpruse kinos toimunud II Jaapani anime filmide festivalist JAFF. Pikemalt filmidest: "Minu naaber Totoro" - rezh. Hayao Miyazaki, "Appleseed" - rezh. Shinji Aramaki, "Alles eile" - rezh. Isao Takahata

  18. Allveelaev Kursk kerkis taas veepinnale / Kadri Liik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liik, Kadri, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    Rosljakovo asula juures dokis asuva tuumaallveelaeva Kursk katus tõusis eile veepinnale. Esimese inimestena pärast laevahukku tegid laevalael ringkäigu peaprokurör Vladimir Ustinov ja Vene mereväejuhid

  19. Riikide ähvardamine trahviga sai europarlamendilt rohelise tule / Laura Raus ; kommenteerinud Wolf Klinz, Ivo Strejcek, Nikolaos Chountis, Ville Itälä

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raus, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Europarlament kiitis eile heaks kuue õigusakti paketi, mis annab võimaluse hakata alates 2014. aastast trahvima euroala riike, kelle majandus on tasakaalust väljas ja kes selle vastu vajalikke meetmeid ette ei võta

  20. Berliini filmifestivalil näeb ka Peeter Simmi filmi "Head käed" / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2002-01-01

    Berliini 52. filmifestival algas eile sakslase Tom Tykweri mängufilmiga "Taevas". Esmakordselt on festivali "Panorama" kavas eesti mängufilm, milleks on Peeter Simmi "Head käed". Eesti filmid on esil ka festivali suurel filmiturul

  1. Jutta Rabe : suurriigid kasutasid Eestit ära / Jutta Rabe ; interv. Peeter Ernits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rabe, Jutta

    2003-01-01

    Saksa poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku, esilinastus eile Eestis Coca-Cola Plazas. Saksa ajakirjanik, selle filmi stsenarist, produtsent ja peategelase prototüüp filmi kontseptsioonist

  2. Õpetajad õpivad filmi tegema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eile alustas Kinobuss kooliõpetajatele mõeldud kursusega "Teaching with animation. Õpetamine animatsiooniga", kus tutvustatakse filmitegemise tehnikat ja õppetöös animatsiooni kasutamise võimalusi

  3. Nokia shokeeris aktsiaturge ootamatu käibehoiatusega / Romet Kreek, Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Nokia prognoosis esimeseks kvartaliks varasematest ootustest väiksemat käivet, mis langetas nii Nokia kui ka teiste tehnoloogiafirmade aktsiate hindasid. Diagramm: Käibehoiatus viis eile Nokia aktsia vabalangusse

  4. Parlament podderzhal predlozhenije Tedera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Riigikogu kiitis eile suure häälteenamusega heaks ettepaneku asuda muutma Tallinna valimissüsteemi, mida õiguskantsler Indrek Teder peab põhiseadusega vastuoluks olevaks. Lisatud: uus aeg tulekul

  5. Jutta Rabe teeb Estonia hukust uue filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alustas Saksa ajakirjanik Jutta Rabe oma filmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Peale Rabe on stsenaristid veel saksa advokaat Henning Witte ja rootslane Kaj Holmberg

  6. Eesti filmi "Jade Warrior" esilinastus Torontos / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendav fantaasiafilm "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" (Soome, Hiina ja Eesti ühistöö) esilinastus eile Toronto filmifestivalil. Andmed filmi tootmise ja levitamise kohta

  7. Britid võitlevad dotatsiooni eest / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    1999-01-01

    Eile alustas Edelaraudtee erastamiskonkursil parima pakkumise teinud Suurbritannia raudtee-ettevõte GB Railways Group Plc erastamisagentuuriga läbirääkimisi reisijateveo riigipoolse dotatsiooni suuruse üle

  8. Environmental risk management for: insurance requirements, mergers and acquisitions and plant closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzi, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Industry cannot rely on external sources such as EIL Insurance as the primary vehicle for minimizing or reducing environmental liabilities. We must develop strong internal risk management programs and procedures to eliminate or minimize the risks from operations.

  9. Harry Potter jõudis ekraanile / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    Eile oli Londonis Joanne Rowling'u lasteraamatu "Harry Potter ja Tarkade kivi" ekraniseeringu esilinastus. Selle 125 miljonit dollarit maksnud USA filmi režissöör on Chris Columbus ja peaosas 12-aastane Daniel Radcliff

  10. Inglise-Eesti digitaalfilmiprojekt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eile kuulutati välja uus rahvusvaheline filmifestival "Põhjavalgus" ("Nordic Lights"), mille raames Marko Raat, Andri Luup ja Hendrik Toompere jun. lähevad Inglismaale sealse meeskonnaga filmi tegema

  11. Vimkameister Lennart / Tarmo Michelson, Jaan Väljaots, Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Humoorikaid seiku president Lennart Meri elust. Vt. samas: Lennart Meri: "Ma ei ole karsklane ja kannan tublisti."; Endel Lippmaa: eile algas talv; Hans Trass: "President jäi poisikeseks elu lõpuni."

  12. Vahistatud Sposatot rahastavad SRÜ riikide tulevased presidendikandidaadid / Giovanni Sposato ; interv. Allar Tankler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sposato, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    Raudtee erastamisest huvitatud Giovanni Sposato arreteeriti eile vahetult pärast seda, kui ta oli Olümüpia hotellis pressikonverentsi andnud ja SL Õhtulehele oma saladuslikke investoreid paljastanud

  13. Advanced Ionic Liquid Monopropellant for Payload Ascent Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a monopropellant replacement for hydrazine using eutectic mixtures of ionic liquids (EILs). These liquids offer us the ability to tailor fluid...

  14. Ethylene-Induced Stabilization of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 and EIN3-LIKE1 Is Mediated by Proteasomal Degradation of EIN3 Binding F-Box 1 and 2 That Requires EIN2 in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengying; Zhao, Qiong; Ji, Yusi; Li, Wenyang; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiangchun; Zhang, Chen; Han, Ying; He, Wenrong; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun; Ecker, Joseph R.; Guo, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Plant responses to ethylene are mediated by regulation of EBF1/2-dependent degradation of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor. Here, we report that the level of EIL1 protein is upregulated by ethylene through an EBF1/2-dependent pathway. Genetic analysis revealed that EIL1 and EIN3 cooperatively but differentially regulate a wide array of ethylene responses, with EIL1 mainly inhibiting leaf expansion and stem elongation in adult plants and EIN3 largely regulating a multitude of ethylene responses in seedlings. When EBF1 and EBF2 are disrupted, EIL1 and EIN3 constitutively accumulate in the nucleus and remain unresponsive to exogenous ethylene application. Further study revealed that the levels of EBF1 and EBF2 proteins are downregulated by ethylene and upregulated by silver ion and MG132, suggesting that ethylene stabilizes EIN3/EIL1 by promoting EBF1 and EBF2 proteasomal degradation. Also, we found that EIN2 is indispensable for mediating ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 accumulation and EBF1/2 degradation, whereas MKK9 is not required for ethylene signal transduction, contrary to a previous report. Together, our studies demonstrate that ethylene similarly regulates EIN3 and EIL1, the two master transcription factors coordinating myriad ethylene responses, and clarify that EIN2 but not MKK9 is required for ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 stabilization. Our results also reveal that EBF1 and EBF2 act as essential ethylene signal transducers that by themselves are subject to proteasomal degradation. PMID:20647342

  15. Allakukkunud kopter oli kuu aja eest läbinud tehnilise kontrolli / Berit Nuka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nuka, Berit

    2005-01-01

    Copterline'i hoolduskeskuse juhi Jorma Kalhola sõnul oli 10. augustil Tallinna lahel alla kukkunud helikopter läbinud vähem kui kuu aega tagasi põhjaliku tehnilise kontrolli. Vt. samas: Eile õhtuks oli välja toodud 3 hukkunut. Vt. ka lk. 2: Berit Nuka. Pooltühi Copterline'i lend eile kell 12.30 Helsingisse

  16. Töötervisekontrolli vajavad nii mürgiste kemikaalidega kui ka kuvariga töötajad / Anu Martinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martinson, Anu

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Karjera i obutshenije 17. aug. lk. 6-7. Töötajate tervisekontrollist Eestis. Töötervisekontrollist ja selle maksumusest töötervishoiuteenust osutavates ettevõtetes OÜ Mediserv ja OÜ Loksa Ravikeskus. Tabel: Tervisekontrolli hind sõltub palju töökoha spetsiifikast. Kommenteerivad: ASi Tallinna Masinatehas töötervishoiuõde Marju Peärnberg, ASi Eesti Energia personaliosakonna arendusgrupi juht Sirje Tamberg, Tervishoiuameti töötervishoiu osakonna peaspetsialistid Ive Vikström-Kruusala ja Kadri Ress

  17. Investigation of organic light-emitting diodes with novel organic electron injection layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sunae; Sethuraman, Kunjithapatham; An, Jongdeok; Im, Chan [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Boseon [Jinwoong Industrial Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    1-(diphenyl-phosphinoyl)-4-(2,2-diphenyl-vinyl)-benzene (DpDvB) and 4-(diphenyl-phosphinoyl)-4'-(2,2-diphenyl-vinyl)-biphenyl (DpDvBp) have been prepared and used as efficient electron injection layers (EILs) between aluminum cathode and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum organic light emitting diodes (OLED). The performances of devices with different thicknesses of DpDvB and DpDvBp were investigated. Experimental results show that the turn-on voltage of the devices was decreased and the luminance of the devices was enhanced with increasing thickness of the EILs. Power efficiencies of 1.07 lm/W and 0.97 lm/W were obtained by inserting a 3-nm-thick EIL of DpDvB and a 5 nm thick EIL of DpDvBp, respectively. These efficiencies are comparable to that of the device using LiF as an EIL. The results prove that DpDvB and DpDvBp layers are also suitable for efficient EILs in OLEDs.

  18. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. © 2014 CIRAD New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  20. Stochastic modeling of economic injury levels with respect to yearly trends in price commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The economic injury level (EIL) concept integrates economics and biology and uses chemical applications in crop protection only when economic loss by pests is anticipated. The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic. The above variables are related according to the formula EIL = C/VIDK. The observable dynamic alteration of the EIL due to its different parameters is a major characteristic of its concept. In this study, the yearly effect of the economic variables is assessed, and in particular the influence of the parameter commodity value on the shape of the EIL function. In addition, to predict the effects of the economic variables on the EIL level, yearly commodity values were incorporated in the EIL formula and the generated outcomes were further modelled with stochastic linear autoregressive models having different orders. According to the AR(1) model, forecasts for the five-year period of 2010-2015 ranged from 2.33 to 2.41 specimens per sampling unit. These values represent a threshold that is in reasonable limits to justify future control actions. Management actions as related to productivity and price commodity significantly affect costs of crop production and thus define the adoption of IPM and sustainable crop production systems at local and international levels. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  1. Meediakunsti mainet saab tõsta ainult järjekindla tööga / Jane Suviste, Piibe Piirma ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suviste, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu 2006. a. jaanuaris loodud Eesti Meediakunstnike Ühingu asutajaliikmetega. Ühingu eesmärgist, MediaLabist Polümeeri tehases, koostööst EKA e-meedia keskusega, plaanitavast koostööst Tartu Kõrgema Kunstikooli ja Mooste külalisateljeega, austria kunstniku Barbara Musili videote näitusest MediaLabis 7. IV, mai algul toimunud üritusest "Switch", laste ja noorte kaasamisest jm.

  2. Galerii - 10 projekti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1986-01-01

    Lihula tuletõrjedepoo (Tiina Kaljundi, 1983), Kehtna staadionimaja (Marika Lõoke, 1980), ETKVL Kaubandusliku Inventari Tehase katlamaja rekonstruktsioon (Tiit Kaljundi, 1982), õlletehas Hiiumaal (Vilen Künnapu, 1980), ENSV Teaduste Akadeemia hotell-ühiselamu (Miia Masso, 1981), Tallinna kesklinn (Irina Raud, Tiina Nigul, Ene Aurik, Rein Hansberg ja Ignar Fjuk, 1982-1983), Nõmme linnaosa planeerimisprojekt (Hugo Sepp ja Irina Raud, 1982), Pöide klubi (Boris Mirov, 1982), Eisma puhkebaas (Andres Alver, 1981) ja Päri kaubanduskeskus (Valve Pormeister, 1981)

  3. Noort moodi / Kätlin Karik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karik, Kätlin

    2011-01-01

    ERKI Moeshow Volta tehases 4. juunil 2011. Loetletud lavale pääsenud kollektsioonid. Pikemalt kollektsioonidest "All that money" (Madis Luik, Karen Milistver, Nele Aunap), "Satellite orchids" (Olga Jazepova), "Vaktsiin" (Triinu Jõhve, Diana Tombak, Katrina Kaubi, Maarja Siim, Piret Mägi, Elina Peippo), "I love you...me neither" (Olga Rattik), "Haute sport couture" (Kristina Tatarinova). Kollektsioonide autorid vastavad kolmele küsimusele

  4. Heino Harak : biodiislikütus paisataks Eesti tanklatesse 2006. aasta lõpuks / Heino Harak ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Harak, Heino, 1941-

    2005-01-01

    Firma Biodiesel suuromanik vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad biodiislikütuse tehase rajamist, kütuse müüki, tavalise diislikütuse ja biodiislikütuse hinna vahet, Werol Tehaste kava müüa oma osalus Biodieselis, biodiislikütuse võimalikku vabastamist aktsiisimaksust. Diagrammid: Biodiislikütus on aktsiisiga liiga kallis. Lisad: Biodiislikütusest on puudu kogu Euroopas; Kes ta on?

  5. Miks 80% neist, kes tulemuspalka kasutavad, rahul ei ole

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Palgasüsteemide konsultant, Gowri päevasärkide tehase direktor Mart Kirsipuu ja palgamaksja Aavo Kokku arutlevad teemal tulemuspalk ning palgasüsteemid ettevõttes. Lisad: Motivaatorid, mis panevad inimesed tublisti tööle. Mis on Hay palgasüsteem. Vt. samas: Indrek Orro. Mis on äririski palk?; Kaspars Kaulinsh. Kui firmal läheb halvasti, peavad kannatama ka töötajad

  6. Radioiodinated D-(+)-N1-ethyl-2-iodolysergic acid diethylamide: A ligand for in vitro and in vivo studies of serotonin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.R.; Scheffel, U.A.; Musachio, J.L.; Stathis, M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Radioiodinated D-(+)-N1-ethyl-2-iodolysergic acid diethylamide ((125I)-EIL) has been evaluated as a ligand for in vitro and in vivo studies of cerebral serotonin 5-HT{sub 2} receptors. (125I)-EIL exhibited high affinity for 5-HT{sub 2} receptors with a high degree of specific binding in membranes from rat prefrontal cortex. The regional distribution of (125I)-EIL binding in vivo to seven areas of mouse brain correlated significantly with known densities of 5-HT{sub 2} receptors. In vivo specificity, defined by tissue to cerebellum radioactivity ratios, reached a maximum for frontal cortex at 6 hr (21.2) and persisted through 16 hr (8.8). Ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist, fully inhibited binding in a dose dependent fashion in all brain regions except cerebellum. By contrast, blockers for dopamine D{sub 2}, {alpha}- or {beta}-adrenergic receptors did not significantly inhibit radioligand binding in any region. (125I)-EIL selectively labels 5-HT{sub 2} receptors in vivo with the highest specificity of any serotonergic ligand reported to date, indicating that (123I)-EIL should prove applicable to single photon emission computed tomography studies in living brain.

  7. Where the difference lies: Teachers’ perceptions toward cultural content of ELT books in three circles of world Englishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monfared

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the literature on culture and intercultural communication, current discussions surrounding English as an international language (EIL, and cultural appropriation of ELT books in local communities, this article reports the findings of a qualitative and qualitative research study with English language teachers from Inner (40 American, 36 British, Outer (44 Indian, 40 Malaysian, and Expanding (44 Iranian and 40 Turkish circles based on Kachru’s model (1992 to explore their attitudes toward cultural content of ELT books within the framework of EIL and how they see themselves in relation to the language and culture. The findings demonstrate that most teachers are in favor of implementation of EIL and culture and understanding their perceptions plays a key role in this matter. The findings also highlight the “glocal” aspect of English that the ELT materials should include a blending of cultures, both local and international, so that learners can naturally merge their local experiences and cultures with those that are offered in the ELT materials. This article argues that together with valuing intercultural communication and awareness, it is important to promote ways for the development of EIL and culture in the classroom. Issues like cultural representation, cultural priority of teachers and students, cultural presence within the EIL framework in ELT books and pluralistic and dynamic feature of English language with cultural diversity in the globalized world must be heard and not assumed in order to develop cultural awareness.

  8. Theoretical Study of the Saturated Stage of a Relativistic Magnetron

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-30

    Volterra -type integral equation £t(x,A.) = 1+i / dyeiXM>-x)q(y)!=±(y.k)e J±oo 0Jbc-y) (15) where£±U, A) = \\//±(x,k)eajx represents another set of... Volterra -type integral equations : J_((;x) = l+\\ eilJi(y-x)Q{y)J.(C;y)eilA(x-y)dy, (16) •/+(£*) = 1 - J eiiM>-x>Q(y)J_(C\\y)eilMx-v)dy. (17) These...subscript in P refers to which half-plane the functions are analytic in. From the Volterra integral equations for P+, we see that P+{x,0^1 as C GC+^X

  9. Hypersensitive ethylene signaling and ZMdPG1 expression lead to fruit softening and dehiscence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available 'Taishanzaoxia' fruit rapid softening and dehiscence during ripening stage and this process is very sensitive to endogenous ethylene. In this study, we cloned five ethylene signal transcription factors (ZMdEIL1, ZMdEIL2, ZMdEIL3, ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 and one functional gene, ZMdPG1, encoding polygalacturonase that could loose the cell connection which associated with fruit firmness decrease and fruit dehiscence to illustrate the reasons for this specific fruit phenotypic and physiological changes. Expression analysis showed that ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 transcription were more abundant in 'Taishanzaoxia' softening fruit and dehiscent fruit and their expression was inhibited by an ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. Therefore, ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 expression were responses to endogenous ethylene and associated with fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdPG1 expression was induced when fruit softening and dehiscence but this induction can be blocked by 1-MCP, indicating that ZMdPG1 was essential for fruit softening and dehiscence and its expression was mediated by the endogenously occurred ethylene. ZMdPG1 overexpression in Arabidopsis led to silique early dehiscence while suppressing ZMdPG1 expression by antisense ZMdPG1 prevented silique naturally opening. The result also suggested that ZMdPG1 related with the connection between cells that contributed to fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdERF1 was more closely related with ethylene signaling but it was not directly regulated the ZMdPG1, which might be regulated by the synergic pattern of ethylene transcription factors because of both the ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 could interact with ZMdEIL2.

  10. Baruto jõudis ennaktempos eesmärgini / Tõnu Kees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kees, Tõnu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 18. mai, lk. 12. Kaido Höövelson täitis Natsu-basho sumoturniiril Tokyos ennaktempos jõuproovi eel seatud eesmärgid, saades eile kahe kaotuse kõrvale kaheksanda võidu

  11. Michael Parki lühikest elu saadavad ülistussõnad / Tõnu Kees, Katre Kees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kees, Tõnu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. juuni, lk. 2. Markko Märtini kaardilugeja mälestusmonumendi avamine tõi eile Tallinna viis autoralli maailmameistrit samuti Parki lese ja lapsed, oodatust vähemaks jäi aga hukkunud võidusõitjale austust avaldama tulnud fännide armee

  12. Mälestati kindral Johan Laidoneri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Eile möödus 60 aastat Eesti Vabadussõja üldjuhi kindral Johan Laidoneri surmast. Selle märkmiseks peeti kaitseväe vanemkaplani major Gustav Kutsari ja Kaitseliidu peakaplani major Aivar Sarapiku teenimisel Tallinnas Siselinna kalmistul mälestustalitus

  13. Kuperjanovi ajateenijaid tabas haiguspuhang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Eile hommikul pöördus ligi 40 Võrus paikneva Kuperjanovi jalaväepataljoni ajateenijat meedikute poole, kaevates oksendamist ja kõhulahtisust.Kõik haiged pandi eraldi kasarmusse karantiini. Lõuna kaitseringkonna meditsiinikeskuse arsti-ülema major Hanno Möldri sõnul saadeti proovid haiguse tuvastamiseks Tartusse ekspertiisi

  14. Jänkid vallutasid Rooma / Triin Teramäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teramäe, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Teiselt Rooma filmifestivalilt, kus Marcus Aureliuse parima filmi auhinna sai USA "Juno" (režissöör Jason Reitman). Huvitavaid filme : Francis Ford Coppola "Noorus ilma nooruseta" ("Jouth without Youth"), Robert Redfordi "Kes liigutavad ettureid" ("Lions for Lambs"), Sean Penni "Metsikusse loodusesse" ("Into the Wild"), dokfilm Sophie Lorenist "Sophia: eile, täna, homme" jt. Lisatud auhindade nimekiri

  15. Effect of Cryphonectria parasitica toxin on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... The initial conductivity was determined using a conductivity meter. (model kent EIL 5007). The test tubes were then placed in boiling water for 15 min and cooled to room temperature. After heating, the conductivity of the solution was measured again (as 100% leakage). The electrolyte leakage was ...

  16. JAFF jätkub Sõpruses kahe erikavaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Kolmas Jaapani animafilmifestival (JAFF) jätkub edukalt Tallinna kinos Sõprus ja algas eile ka Tartus Athena keskuses. Tallinnas stardivad animasüžeede järgi valminud mängufilmide programm ning animaklassika. Filmidest nendes programmides

  17. Nellis AFB, Nevada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    uL3BAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENLE OF cEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY USAFETAC FROM HOUPLY O.SERVATIONS AIR wATHER SERVICE/MAC...FREAUENCY OF 0CCUN9LNJE OF CEILING VERSUS VISIBILI3Y USAFLTAC FROM HOUPLY OoSLRVAOIONS AIR WATHER SER9ICE/MAC STATION NUM8EV: 723865 STATION NAME: NELLIS

  18. Legendaarse Georg Otsa elust valmib film / Tuuli Koch, Priit Rajalo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Filmi Sihtasutus eraldas eile tootmistoetuse režissöör Peeter Simmi mängufilmile "Georg". Eesti, Venemaa ja Soome ühisprojekt on eluloofilm lauljast (stsenaristid Mati Põldre, Aleksandr Borodjanski), nähtuna tema teise naise Asta Otsa silme läbi

  19. Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2013-06-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations.

  20. Exploring the Hidden Agenda in the Representation of Culture in International and Localised ELT Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, Zia; Teimournezhad, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    The rise of English as an international language (EIL) has challenged the focus on native-speaker culture in second language teaching and learning. Exposing learners to a single culture is no longer considered sufficient as intercultural language teaching and understanding gains momentum. The aim of this study was to investigate the representation…

  1. 300 noormeest asub aega teenima

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Eile asus kaitseressursside ameti kutsel ajateenistusse enam kui 300 noormeest. Tegemist on algava aasta esimese kutsega. Noormehed asuvad ajateenistuskohustust täitma pioneeripataljonis, suurtükiväepataljonis, Viru jalaväepataljonis, õhutõrjepataljonis, vahipataljonis ja mereväebaasis. Lõviosa teenistusse asuvatest noormeestest on keskharidusega

  2. Väike naine Swalloẁ tänavalt : [luuletused] / W. S. Merwin ; tõlk. Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merwin, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Väike naine Swalloẁ tänavalt ; Õhk ; Mõned viimased küsimused ; On märts ; Kui sõda on möödas ; Asiaadid suremas ; Uks ; Eile ; Poeg. Elu- ja loomeloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 521

  3. Gadkije metshtõ sobaki Pavlova / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2006-01-01

    10. PÖFFil esinesid eile pressikonverentsil vene režissöör Katja Shagalova, kes on festivalil oma filmiga "Pavlovi koer", filmi "Unistus" režissöör Sergei Snezhkin ja filmi "Inetud luiged" produtsent Mila Kudrjashova

  4. Antonio Machado y Ruiz (1875-1939) / koost. ja tlk. Andres Ehin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Hispaania luuletajast Antonio Machadost. Sisaldab ka autori luuletusi "Vanasõnad ja laulud XXIX", "Kas mu süda on uinunud?", "Kõrgmaa laulud", "Tuul, toreda päeva tuul", "Eile öösel nägin und", "Neli luuletust"

  5. Interculturalidad y anglofonia en la ensenanza del ingles como lengua extranjera (Interculturalism and Anglophone Studies in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Revilla, Teresa Flores

    This article, written in Spanish, proposes to incorporate the subject "Anglophonism" into the curriculum of English as a Foreign Language (EILE) with a view to providing universities with an intercultural division. It provides a brief summary of John Dewey's philosophy with regard to anthropology, politics, and education. It explains the term…

  6. Where the Difference Lies: Teachers' Perceptions toward Cultural Content of ELT Books in Three Circles of World Englishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Abbas; Mozaheb, Mohammad Amin; Shahiditabar, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the literature on culture and intercultural communication, current discussions surrounding English as an international language (EIL), and cultural appropriation of ELT books in local communities, this article reports the findings of a qualitative and qualitative research study with English language teachers from Inner (40 American, 36…

  7. Omanikud kutsusid Rüütlit üles seadust välja kuulutama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Õigusjärgsete Omanike Liit saatis eile Arnold Rüütlile märgukirja, milles kutsus presidenti üles kuulutama välja üüri piirmäära kaotavat seadust. Ilmunud ka Virumaa Teataja, 2004/Jul/27, lk. 1

  8. Telesõud lähevad streigi tõttu sundpuhkusele / Mari Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari

    2007-01-01

    Eile algas oma loomingu internetis ja DVD-del levitamise eest tasu nõudvate ameerika stsenaristide streik, mis ähvardab meelelahutustööstust kaosega. Saadetest, mis esmalt võivad löögi alla minna

  9. Aigars Grauba : filmi "Riia kaitsjad" polnud kerge teha / Aigars Grauba ; interv. Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grauba, Aigars

    2007-01-01

    Läti režissöör oma mängufilmist "Riia kaitsjad", mis käsitleb lätlaste 1919.a. novembrikuu lahingut Riia pärast Saksa ja Vene väe vastu (produtsent Andrejs Ekis). Filmi näidati eile Balti filmiturul Baltic Event Tallinnas

  10. Euroopa kosmosekaubik suudab end ise parkida / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Kosmoseagentuuri automatiseeritud varustusalus, mis hakkab toimetama regulaarselt tagavaraosi, toitu, õhku ja vett jms. rahvusvahelisse kosmosejaama (ISS) püsimeeskonnale, jõudis eile orbiidile. Ameerika kosmosesüstik Endeavour meeskond aga peaks jõudma ISS-is ära käia juba enne eurooplaste kosmosekaubikut

  11. Terrasest võib saada uus kaitseväe juhataja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Brigaadikindral Urmas Roosimägi sõnul on kaitseministeeriumi kantsleri Riho Terrase peastaabi ülema ametisse panek ettevalmistus tema nimetamiseks järgmisel sügisel kaitseväe juhatajaks. Kaitseministeerium teatas eile, et Terras naaseb kaitseväe tegevteenistusse peastaabi ülema ametikohale

  12. Kas Kiiev alistubki Gazpromile? / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Hiljuti pikendas Ukraina Vene mereväebaasi viibimist Sevastopolis, eile arutas Venemaa president Dmitri Medvedev Ukraina maagaasigigandi Naftogaz liitmist Gazpromiga. Venemaa pakub investeeringuid Ukraina majandusse, kuid samas on esitanud nimekirja Ukraina territooriumil asuvatest ehitistest ja objektidest, mida peab endale kuuluvaks. Ekspeaminister Julia Tõmošenko hinnangul lammutab Ukraina valitsus Ukraina riiki

  13. Algasid Henno "Mina olin siin" järgi tehtava filmi võtted

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eile algasid noortefilmi "Mina olin siin" võtted. Filmi aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag, lavastab Rene Vilbre, operaator on Mait Mäekivi, peaosas Rasmus Kaljujärv, produtsendiks Riina Sildos

  14. Laste väärkohtlemist tuleb ennetada / Bianca Mikovitsh ; interv. Helmut Bachmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikovitsh, Bianca

    2006-01-01

    Eile algas Paides Kesk-Eesti noortekeskuses sotsiaaltöötajate kolmepäevane koolitus, mille eesmärk on tõkestada ja leevendada laste väärkohtlemist ja kuritarvitust Järvamaal. Kommenteerib Helmut Bachman, Kesk-Eesti noortekeskuse erinoorsootöö spetsialist

  15. Freudi koondteos ilmus Eestis / Pille Runnel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Runnel, Pille, 1974-

    1999-01-01

    Eile esitleti Tartus Avatud Eesti Raamatu sarja järjekordset köidet koondpealkirjaga "Inimhinge anatoomiast", milles on kolm Freudi teksti ja teist poolt raamatust hõlmav Jüri Alliku kommentaar. Vestlusest tõlkija, Tartu Ülikooli klassikalise filoloogia professori Anne Lillega. Kommenteerinud Vaino Vahing

  16. The non-acidogenic potential of two Ghanaian meals | Addai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH of baseline saliva given by volunteers prior to eating a meal, and at specific intervals after the meal (effect saliva) was measured using a Kent EIL 7020 pH meter. As control, volunteers were given a “glucose challenge” in which they rinsed their mouths with a 5% glucose solution for exactly 60 seconds. Changes in ...

  17. Eestit külastab 17 USA kindralit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Kaitseväe juhataja kindralleitnant Riho Terras tutvustas eile mereväebaasis 17 Eestis viibivale Ameerika Ühendriikide kõrgemale ohvitserile meie riigikaitsesüsteemi. Enne Eestit käisid õppereisil viibivad ohvitserid Ukrainas ja Moldovas

  18. Torm uputas Mustal ja Aasovi merel laevu / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Tormisel Mustal merel uppus eile õhtuks vähemalt kuus laeva. Üks tanker läks pooleks ja sellest voolas merre üle tuhande tonni masuuti, lisaks sattus vette vähemalt kahe aluse väävlilast. Lisaks kaart: Musta mere torm

  19. Black Hawkid harjutasid Pakri poolsaarel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    USA 173. õhudessantbrigaadi Eestis viibiv kompanii ja Scoutspataljoni C-kompanii jalaväerühma kaitseväelased alustasid eile ühisõppust, mille käigus harjutatakse kahe Black Hawk UH-60 helikopteriga nelja Pakri poolsaarel asuva õppeobjekti ründamist

  20. English as an International Language: International Student and Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the literature on Asian international students, current debates surrounding English as an international language (EIL), and the conceptual tools of appropriation, this article reports the findings of a qualitative research study with eight Asian international students studying at a university in Thailand to explore their taking…

  1. English as an International Language: A Curriculum Blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Aya; Friedrich, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The use of English as an international language (EIL) and its implications for teaching have attracted much scholarly attention. However, much of the discussion has remained at an abstract level and not provided pedagogical ideas that are theoretically sound, informed by research, and at the same time specific enough to be useful in the classroom.…

  2. Principles and Practices of Teaching English as an International Language. New Perspectives on Language and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Aya, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book critically examines current ELT practices vis-a-vis the use of English as an international lingua franca. It bridges the gap between theoretical discussion and the practical concerns of teaching English as an international language (EIL), and presents diverse approaches for preparing competent users of English in international contexts.…

  3. Transforming Passive Listeners into Active Speakers: A Study with Portuguese Undergraduates in "English for the Social Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rita M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present context of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) or English as International Language (EIL), it has become extremely relevant to maximize speaking opportunities in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom which aim at developing fluency and real-life communication skills. University students in Portugal need to practice…

  4. Presentation of Local and International Culture in Current International English-Language Teaching Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeeyoung; Eslami, Zohreh R.; Chen, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The place of culture in teaching English as an international language (EIL) is a complex issue, given the diversity of contexts in which English is currently being used globally. Building on a sociocultural perspective that language use is open to negotiation and is context-dependent, this paper argues that the design and content of…

  5. Cultural Diversity in English Language Teaching: Learners' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinh, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-01

    The focus of culture in English language teaching (ELT) has traditionally been on the target culture of English speaking countries. However, the new status of English as international language (EIL) has led to significant changes in the practice of teaching and learning culture in ELT. Rather than relying on the paradigm of native speaker…

  6. World Englishes, English as an International Language and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses World Englishes (WEs) in relation to English as an International Language (EIL) and Applied Linguistics. Taking into account Kachru's interesting but at the same time controversial debate about the status of English in its varieties, which are commonly called WEs and the opposing ideas presented by Quirk, it is aimed to present…

  7. Paldiski-film Venezia festivalil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alanud Veneetsia 59. filmifestivali võistlusprogrammi avafilm on eluloofilm mehhiko kunstnikust Frida Kahlost "Frida", mille režissööriks on Julie Taymor. Programmis "Vastuvoolu" näidatakse suures osas Paldiskis vändatud rootsi mängufilmi "Lilja 4-Ever", kus kõrvalosas ka Tõnu Kark

  8. Imavere Sawmill is Stora Ensos Jewel in the Region / Seppo Vainio ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainio, Seppo

    2004-01-01

    Skandinaavia metsanduskontserni Stora Enso Timberi tegevuse juht Baltikumis vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti suurima metsatööstuse Sylvesteri ostu 2003. aastal, Baltikumi üksuste osa Stora Enso tegevuses, Imavere saeveski valimist aasta välisinvestoriks. Vt. samas: Imavere saeveski eile ja täna. Tabel: "Välisinvestor 2004" nominendid

  9. Mismatch: Globalization and Native Speaker Models of Linguistic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Kevin Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although the paradigm shift towards English as an International Language (EIL) has been generally accepted within the academic community, a valorization of native speaker norms continues to be prevalent among many non-native speakers (NNSs). Through data drawn from a qualitative questionnaire and proficiency assessment results (TOEIC), this mixed…

  10. Vittorio De Sica viis meistritööd / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013

    2008-01-01

    DVD-st "Vittorio De Sica Masterpiece Collection", kus on peal itaalia filmirežissööri Vittorio De Sica viis teost: "Jalgratavargad" ("Ladri di biciclette", 1948), "Ime Milanos" ("Miraclo a milano", 1951), "Umberto D." (1952), "Eile täna, homme" ("Ieri, oggi, domani", 1963), "Ajatu filmikunst" ("Cinema senza tempo: Cosi e la vita", 2001)

  11. "Mul ei ole aega paksuks minna, ma ei tunne hirmu ka vanaduse ees!" / Janika Mölder ; interv. Kaja Roomets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mölder, Janika, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Janika Mölder tõestas eile rahvusvahelisel iluvõimlemisvõistlusel Tartus, et pärast kümneaastast vaheaega on tema sportlik vorm suurepärane. Vestlus iluvõimlejaga. Lisa: "Miss Valentine 2003" tulemused

  12. Teaching English as an International Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, A. F.; Yazan, B.

    2013-01-01

    English has unquestionably become a global phenomenon, generating a fundamental discussion of EIL pedagogy for English language teaching practitioners around the world. Teaching English as an International Language captures this important moment in the history of English language teaching. Readers will find an accessible introduction to the past,…

  13. Emotionally Intelligent Leadership: An Integrative, Process-Oriented Theory of Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott J.; Shankman, Marcy Levy; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally intelligent leadership (EIL) theory combines relevant models, theories, and research in the areas of emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership. With an intentional focus on context, self and others, emotionally intelligent leaders facilitate the attainment of desired outcomes. The 21 capacities described by the theory equip…

  14. Poliitikud tegid Viasatile ja Schibstedile tohutu kingituse / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Eile võttis Riigikoguvastu ringhäälinguseaduse muutmise seaduse, mis peab kiirendama ETV digitaaltelevisioonile üleminekut, kuid samas vabastab kommertskanalid loamaksust. Villu Reiljan, Peeter Kreitzberg, Helmer Jõgi, Hans H. Luik avaldavad arvamust loamaksu kaotamise kohta. Lisa: Herkel: ministeeriumi tööõnnetus

  15. Learning to Hear by Learning to Speak: The Effect of Articulatory Training on Arab Learners' English Phonemic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebaugh, Gary; Roche, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore English pronunciation teaching within an English as an International Language (EIL) framework, arguing that teaching learners how to produce English phonemes can lead to an improvement in their aural ability. English as an Additional Language (EAL) learners often have difficulty discriminating between and producing…

  16. Thursday Programme of CineGlobe Festival 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Cugini, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The CineGlobe Programme on Thursday 26th March 2015 counted with two short-films inspired by science sessions, two workshops on the 360 degree dome, and a special evening show in collaboration with the Mapping Festival, to celebrate the UNESCO Year of Light. The evening open with Diego Blas, CERN theorist, talking about Light, Einstein and the LHC to celebrate the UNESCO International Year of Light. Followed by a performance by the artist YRO_EILE_18. The artist Yro presents Eile, a live installation performance where light, sound, and cinema converge to tell a timeless story. EILE is a live cinema performance, in which yro makes live sound and images with a camera, some microphones and small objects like stones, balls, bits of paper and string.These materials allow him to create videos and sound, which aesthetics are close to abstract cinema and object theater assembled, sampled and grinded . The process is part of the staging itself as well as the film that results. Indescribable Eile is lived as an experie...

  17. Nokia kahvatu kvartaliaruanne paiskas aktsia langusesse / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2004-01-01

    Nokia kvartaliaruande kohaselt on vähenenud nii ettevõtte käive kui ka mobiiltelefonimüügi turuosa. Graafik: Nokia aktsia hind langes eile pärast tulemuste avaldamist. Vt. samas: Sony Ericsson tõusuteel

  18. A Series of Lithium Pyridyl Phenolate Complexes with a Pendant Pyridyl Group for Electron-Injection Layers in Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohisa, Satoru; Karasawa, Taichiro; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Ohsawa, Tatsuya; Pu, Yong-Jin; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Kido, Junji

    2017-11-22

    We report a new series of lithium pyridyl phenolate complexes with a pendant pyridyl group, Li2BPP, Li3BPP, and Li4BPP, in which the pendant pyridines are substituted at the 2-, 3-, and 4-positions, respectively. The most important difference between these complexes is their molecular planarity; Li3BPP and Li4BPP adopt twisted bipyridine structures, whereas Li2BPP adopts a planar structure owing to the steric hindrance and chelating effect of bipyridine on the Li core. The planar structure leads to crystallization through π-π stacking interactions, and the small differences in the molecular structures of the pendant pyridine rings cause drastic differences in the physical properties of thin solid films of these complexes. We applied these complexes as electron-injection layers (EILs) in Ir(ppy)3-based organic light-emitting devices. When thin EILs were used, Li3BPP and Li4BPP afforded lower driving voltages than Li2BPP; the order of the driving voltages followed the order of their electron affinity values. Moreover, the dependence of driving voltage on the EIL thickness was investigated for each complex. Among the three LiBPP derivatives, Li2BPP-based devices showed almost negligible EIL thickness dependence, which may be attributable to the high crystallinity of Li2BPP. All LiBPP-based devices also showed higher stability than conventional 8-quinolinolato lithium-based devices.

  19. Noormees sai Eesti Päevalehe abiga magistrikraadi / Piia Puuraid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puuraid, Piia

    2013-01-01

    Eile sai magistrikraadi Marek Süld, kelle isa Mati Süld Eesti Päevalehest tasuta õpingud võitis. Eesti Päevaleht loosis 2010. aastal välja 13 tasuta Estonian Business Schooli bakalaureuse- või magistriprogrammi

  20. Löök ajalehega ja seejärel kallistus / Tea Raidsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidsalu, Tea

    2008-01-01

    Viljandis kogunes eile kamp noori, kes nüpeldasid üksteist rullikeeratud ajalehega ning hetke pärast embasid. Tallinna ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste tudeng Erki Kaikkonen selgitas, et aktsioon kannab nimetust flash mob ning eesmärk oli katsetada, kuidas niisugune omalaadne sotsiaalse suhtlemise vorm töötaks Viljandis

  1. Ethylene signal transduction elements involved in chilling injury in non-climacteric loquat fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Yin, Xueren; Shan, Lanlan; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2010-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit, with some cultivars such as 'Luoyangqing' (LYQ) susceptible to chilling injury (CI), while others such as 'Baisha' (BS) are resistant. Although loquats are non-climacteric, modulation of ethylene has an effect on ripening-related post-harvest CI. Therefore the role of ethylene signalling in the development of CI was investigated in fruit of both the LYQ and BS cultivars. Three ethylene receptor genes, one CTR1-like gene, and one EIN3-like gene were isolated and characterized in ripening fruit. All of these genes were expressed differentially within and between fruit of the two cultivars. Transcripts either declined over fruit development (EjERS1a in both cultivars and EjEIL1 in LYQ) or showed an increase in the middle stages of fruit development before declining (EjETR1, EjERS1b, and EjCTR1 in both cultivars and EjEIL1 in BS). The main cultivar differences were in levels rather than in patterns of expression during post-harvest storage. EjETR1, EjCTR1, and EjEIL1 genes showed increased expression in response to low temperature and this was particularly notable for EjETR1, and EjEIL1 during CI development in LYQ fruit. The genes were also differentially responsive to ethylene treatment, 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) and low temperature conditioning, confirming a role for ethylene in regulation of CI in loquat fruit.

  2. Põhja-Korea raketirahe ajas maailma vihale / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 6. juuli lk. 10. Põhja-Korea katsetas eile seitsmendat korda rakette, sundides ÜRO julgeolekunõukogu erakorralisele koosolekule. Analüütikute hinnangul soovib Põhja-Korea sel viisil tõmmata endale USA tähelepanu kahepoolsete kõneluste alustamiseks. Lisa: Kommunistliku riigi relvakatsetused

  3. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changying Liu

    Full Text Available Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L. fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF, while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and

  4. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening.

  5. Meenutusi õpetajast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õpetaja Aleksander Meost meenutavad professor, Venemaa teeneline teadus- ja tehnikategelane L. Wolf, Peterburi Riikliku Elektrotehnikaülikooli dotsent V. Meos, Peterburi Riikliku Tehnoloogia ja Disaini Ülikooli professor K. Perepjolkin, Usbekistanist H. Alimova ja K. Jergašev, Mogiljovi Tehnoloogiainstituudi professor B. Geller, Bulgaaria Keemiatööstuse Ministeeriumist A. Filipova, Leningradi keemiliste kiudude tehase peainsener 1964-1989 L. Slinko, Peterburi Riikliku Tehnoloogia ja Disaini Ülikooli professor, orienteeritud polümeeride mehaanika laboratooriumi juhataja A. Stalevitš, keemiadoktor (Itaalia firma "Finimpianti") J. Kirilenko, Mogiljovi kunstkiutehase direktor V. Petrov ning professor S. Papkov

  6. Involvement of EIN3 homologues in basic PR gene expression and flower development in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibi, Tadaharu; Kosugi, Shunichi; Iwai, Takayoshi; Kawata, Motoshige; Seo, Shigemi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Ohashi, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    The TEIL (Tobacco EIN3-Like) gene is a tobacco homologue of arabidopsis Ethylene Insensitive 3 (EIN3), and the gene product binds an 8 bp sequence in the tobacco PR1a promoter in a sequence specific manner. It was found here that accumulation of TEIL transcript was induced by wounding and preceded basic PR gene expression. To study the downstream signalling pathway of TEIL, TEIL was overexpressed under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter in tobacco plants. In 35S::TEIL lines, basic PR genes, which are wound-, jasmonate-, and ethylene-inducible, were expressed constitutively. Next, the conserved 781 bp sequence among tobacco EIN3-like (EIL) protein genes was introduced as an inverted-repeat (IR) into tobacco to suppress expression of these genes. In two independent IRTEIL lines, the TEIL transcript was not found and transcripts of other tobacco EILs, NtEIL3, and NtEIL5, were reduced. In IRTEIL plants, wound-, jasmonate-, and ACC-induced accumulation of basic PR gene transcripts was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that TEIL functions upstream of tobacco basic PR genes in wound signalling via not only ethylene but also jasmonate. In 35S::TEIL plants, the pistil length of the flower was longer with a slight protrusion of the stigma compared with the control. In IRTEIL plants, the length of the stamens was shorter than the control with significant protrusion of the stigma in the flower. These observations indicate the involvement of tobacco EILs in flower development.

  7. To establish whether McKenzie lumbar flexion and extension mobility exercises performed in lying affect central as well as systemic hemodynamics: a crossover experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Saud M; Asbeutah, Akram; Al-Sayegh, Nowall; Dean, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    Examine systemic and central hemodynamic responses following McKenzie lumbar flexion and extension mobility exercises performed in lying (FIL and EIL). Crossover experimental study. Clinical laboratory. Healthy male volunteers (n=25) (mean(SD) age: 28(3)years; range 21 to 34). Based on alternating assignment of either FIL or EIL to participants, three sets of the first exercise (10, 15, 20 repetitions) were performed with 5-minute rest between sets; after 15-minute rest, the protocol was repeated for the other exercise. Systemic hemodynamic parameters included heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP). Central hemodynamic parameters included abdominal aortic diameter (AD), peak systolic velocity (PSV/AD), end diastolic velocity (EDV/AD) and resistive index (RI). Measures recorded after each exercise set. FIL RPP at baseline was 9.1 (1.4), after 20 repetitions 18.3 (2.5), mean difference 8.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.9 to 9.8) compared to EIL at baseline 9.1 (1.5), after 20 repetitions 13.0 (3.1), mean difference 4.1 (95% CI 3.3 to 5.0). FIL RI at baseline was 0.78 (0.03), after 20 repetitions 0.87 (0.03), mean difference 0.08 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.10) compared to EIL at baseline 0.78 (0.03), after 20 repetitions 0.83 (0.03), mean difference 0.05 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.07). Although 10 repetitions of FIL and EIL may be regarded as safe, our findings support screening patients with lifestyle risk factors, and cautioning about adhering to recommended repetition number given associated increased work of the heart. The extent of AD mechanical perturbation remains unclear. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of acute adult and early-in-life bladder inflammation on bladder neuropeptides in adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ness Timothy J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to determine how acute adult and/or prior early-in life (EIL; P14-P16 exposure to bladder inflammation affects bladder content of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP. Estrous cycle influences were also studied in the adult-treatment conditions. Methods In Experiment 1, intravesical zymosan or isoflurane anesthesia alone was administered to adult female rats. Bladders and serum were collected 24 hours later during each phase of the estrous cycle. In Experiment 2, zymosan or anesthesia alone was administered EIL and as adults, with bladder tissue collection 24 h later. Results In general, Experiment 1 showed that bladder content of both CGRP and SP was increased by inflammation. This effect was significant when data were collapsed across all phases of the estrous cycle, but was only significant during proestrus when individual comparisons were made during each phase of estrous. Also, adult bladder inflammation significantly reduced estradiol levels. In Experiment 2, bladder content of CGRP and SP was significantly increased in rats receiving EIL and/or adult inflammation. Bladder weights were also significantly increased by inflammation. Conclusions These data indicate that bladder CGRP and SP are maximally increased during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle in inflamed adult female rats. EIL exposure to bladder inflammation alone can also produce an increase in CGRP and SP lasting into adulthood. Therefore, EIL experience with bladder inflammation may predispose an organism to experience a painful bladder disorder as an adult by increasing primary afferent content of CGRP and/or SP.

  9. Development of a native Escherichia coli induction system for ionic liquid tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Frederix

    Full Text Available The ability to solubilize lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its saccharification for biofuel fermentation. However, residual IL in the aqueous sugar solution can inhibit the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially overcome by the heterologous expression of an IL efflux pump encoded by eilA from Enterobacter lignolyticus. In the present work, we used microarray analysis to identify native E. coli IL-inducible promoters and develop control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR', PydfO', and PydfA', were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eilA. The PydfA' and PmarR' based systems are as effective as PlacUV5 in their ability to rescue E. coli from typically toxic levels of IL, thereby eliminating the need to use an IPTG-based system for such tolerance engineering. We present a mechanistic model indicating that inducible control systems reduce target gene expression when IL levels are low. Selected-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at high IL concentrations EilA protein levels were significantly elevated under the control of PydfA' and PmarR' in comparison to the other promoters. Further, in a pooled culture competition designed to determine fitness, the strain containing pPmarR'-eilA outcompeted strains with other promoter constructs, most significantly at IL concentrations above 150 mM. These results indicate that native promoters such as PmarR' can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in host engineering and simplify the development of industrially useful strains.

  10. Commentary on "integrative genomic analyses reveal an androgen-driven somatic alteration landscape in early-onset prostate cancer." Weischenfeldt J, Simon R, Feuerbach L, Schlangen K, Weichenhan D, Minner S, Wuttig D, Warnatz HJ, Stehr H, Rausch T, Jäger N, Gu L, Bogatyrova O, Stütz AM, Claus R, Eils J, Eils R, Gerhäuser C, Huang PH, Hutter B, Kabbe R, Lawerenz C, Radomski S, Bartholomae CC, Fälth M, Gade S, Schmidt M, Amschler N, Haß T, Galal R, Gjoni J, Kuner R, Baer C, Masser S, von Kalle C, Zichner T, Benes V, Raeder B, Mader M, Amstislavskiy V, Avci M, Lehrach H, Parkhomchuk D, Sultan M, Burkhardt L, Graefen M, Huland H, Kluth M, Krohn A, Sirma H, Stumm L, Steurer S, Grupp K, Sültmann H, Sauter G, Plass C, Brors B, Yaspo ML, Korbel JO, Schlomm T, Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(2):159-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Early-onset prostate cancer (EO-PCA) represents the earliest clinical manifestation of prostate cancer. To compare the genomic alteration landscapes of EO-PCA with "classical" (elderly-onset) PCA, we performed deep sequencing-based genomics analyses in 11 tumors diagnosed at young age, and pursued comparative assessments with seven elderly-onset PCA genomes. Remarkable age-related differences in structural rearrangement (SR) formation became evident, suggesting distinct disease pathomechanisms. Whereas EO-PCAs harbored a prevalence of balanced SRs, with a specific abundance of androgen-regulated ETS gene fusions including TMPRSS2:ERG, elderly-onset PCAs displayed primarily non-androgen-associated SRs. Data from a validation cohort of>10,000 patients showed age-dependent androgen receptor levels and a prevalence of SRs affecting androgen-regulated genes, further substantiating the activity of a characteristic "androgen-type" pathomechanism in EO-PCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Naval Research Reviews. Volume XXXIV. Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    polyethoxy- Packard Co., USA ethanol 20 NR Reviews Examining the eve of a hammerhead shark respiration permit substances to be introduced via sodium dodecyl...UNCLASSIFIEO EEHESI~MIEi-- E!!EIlE8 i laval R wscarcf Office of Naval Research~Two/1982 viewsVol XXXIV ɜ SE 1982 A Bioassay of Surfactants as Shark ...18 Bioassay of Surfactants DEPARTM ENTS Y as Shark Repellents 17 Profiles in Science, by Samuel H. Gruber by Allen Newell and Efiahu Zlotkin b

  12. Hinnasõda Soome mobiiliturul kukutas TeliaSonera aktsiat / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Telekomifirma TeliaSonera aktsia hind langes 26. apr. Stockholmi börsil 6,4%, mis on kahe viimase aasta suurim langus. Vt. samas: ING soovitas eile Eesti Telekomi müüa; TeliaSonera Soome tegevdirektor lahkub ametist ilma hüvitiseta. Lisa: Välja käidud kehv prognoos langetas aktsiat päevaga 6,4%

  13. Parim tudengifilm tuli nimekast Poola koolist / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali tudengi- ja lühifilmide alafestival Sleepwalkers, mis toimus 15.-18. novembrini, jagas eile auhindu. Parimaks tunnistati Poola tudengi Jan Wagneri lühimängufilm "Porno". Eesti võistluse võitis Madli Lääne dokfilm "Tähelepanu, start!", 2. koha sai Mihkel Ulgi mängufilm "Südameasjad" ja 3. koha Julia Sokolova mängufilm "Ballast"

  14. Observational constraints on entrainment and the entrainment interface layer in stratocumulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Carman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft sampling of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL during the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST experiment was primarily achieved using sawtooth flight patterns, during which the atmospheric layer 100 m above and below cloud top was sampled at a frequency of once every 2 min. The large data set that resulted from each of the 16 flights document the complex structure and variability of this interfacial region in a variety of conditions. In this study, we first describe some properties of the entrainment interface layer (EIL, where strong gradients in turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, potential temperature and moisture can be found. We find that defining the EIL by the first two properties tends to yield similar results, but that moisture can be a misleading tracer of the EIL. These results are consistent with studies using large-eddy simulations. We next utilize the POST data to shed light on and constrain processes relevant to entrainment, a key process in the evolution of the STBL that to-date is not well-represented even by high resolution models. We define "entrainment efficiency" as the ratio of the TKE consumed by entrainment to that generated within the STBL (primarily by cloud-top cooling. We find values for the entrainment efficiency that vary by 1.5 orders of magnitude, which is even greater than the one order magnitude that previous modeling results have suggested. Our analysis also demonstrates that the entrainment efficiency depends on the strength of the stratification of the EIL, but not on the TKE in the cloud top region. The relationships between entrainment efficiency and other STBL parameters serve as novel observational contraints for simulations of entrainment in such systems.

  15. Igor Schvede võttis üle peastaabi juhtimise

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Kaitseväe juhataja kindralma­jor Riho Terras andis eile kait­seväe peastaabi ees korralda­tud pidulikul rivistusel mere­väekapten Igor Schvedele (pil­dil) üle peastaabi juhtimise ja lipu. Peastaabi senine ülem brigaadikindral Peeter Hoppe asub kaitseväe sõjali­seks esindajaks NATO operatsioonide väejuhatusse

  16. Intelligibility Redefinition and Students’ Confidence in English Speaking in Thai ELT

    OpenAIRE

    Supatranut Singhanuwananon

    2016-01-01

    One of the key aspects of speech is intelligible pronunciation (Derwing and Munro, 2009). As the use of English among non-native English speakers (NNSs) in international communication has grown rapidly, the British Received Pronunciation (RP) and the General American (GA) pronunciation models are doubted by non-native English teachers. The need of changes in pronunciation pedagogy and the definition of intelligibility in English as an International Language (EIL) which focuses on some, but no...

  17. Eesti saadab Mali missioonile kaks staabiohvitseri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paet ütles eile, et valitsus andis oma toetuse missioonile Malis, kus on viimastel nädalatel ägenenud islamistlike mässuliste rünnakud. Missioon pole sõjaline, vaid selle eesmärgiks on treening ja õpetus Mali enda sõjaväele. Eesti saadab missioonile ilmselt ühe või kaks staabiohvitseri

  18. Priit Pärn ohjab Turus festivali / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    Turu Kunstiakadeemia animatsiooniosakonda juhatav Priit Pärn lükkas eile käima I Turu animafestivali Tough Eye, kus võistleb ka kolm eesti filmi. Toimub ka Eesti päev, kus näidatakse uute tööde kõrval ka Elbert Tuganovi jt. klassikaks saanud animafilme, kaasaarvatud säilinud lõik esimesest eesti joonisfilmist "Kutsu-Juku seiklused" (1931)

  19. International English teachers' perceptions of English as an international language

    OpenAIRE

    Altun-Evci, Hatice

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 117-126. English as an International Language (EIL) and its implications for ELT have been keenly debated throughout the last two decades. Many researchers have in some depth elaborated on the issues of identity and voice, linguistic imperialism, and the importance of non-native speakers and the...

  20. Economic Injury Levels for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the Soybean Aphid Tolerant KS4202 Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi-Werle, Lia; Baldin, Edson L L; Fischer, Hillary D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Hunt, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an invasive species from Asia that has been the major economic insect pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, since 2000. While use of soybeans expressing antibiosis and antixenosis is a well-studied strategy to manage this pest, aphid-tolerant soybeans remain underexplored. This study examined the relationship between cumulative aphid-days (CAD) and yield loss in the tolerant soybean KS4202 during two growing seasons to determine the economic injury levels (EILs) for soybean aphids on KS4202. Soybean aphid infestations were initiated during the soybean reproductive stages. A range of CAD treatments (3,000-45,000 CADs) were applied during the growing seasons. Aphid populations reached 45,000 CAD in 2011 and 38,000 CAD in 2013 in plots that were not treated with insecticides. It was estimated that the population doubling time was 9.4 d. In infested plots, soybean yield was reduced by 1.4-13.3%, equivalent to a 3.1% yield loss for every 10,000 CAD. Overall, most CAD treatments did not affect yield parameters, although CAD > 39,000 caused a significant reduction in most yield parameters. The EILs calculated for KS4202 ranged from 526 to 2,050 aphids/plant, which were approximately 2.5-fold higher when compared to EILs previously calculated for susceptible soybean. The adoption of soybean aphid tolerant soybean with higher EILs may help mitigate treatment delay problems by lengthening the treatment lead-time and possibly reduce the number of insecticide applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Berlinale lõpusirgel / Karlo Funk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Funk, Karlo, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    Berliini 52. filmifestivalist, mis algas sakslase Tom Tykweri sisuka mängufilmiga "Taevas". Festivali uue direktori Dieter Kosslicki uuenduseks on saksa filmi endisest tunduvalt suurem osakaal. Eile linastus ametlikult festivali Panorama programmis Peeter Simmi "Head käed". Eesti filmid on esil ka festivali suurel filmiturul, kus Arvo Iho "Karu süda" äratas tähelepanu ja valiti Moskva festivali võistlusprogrammi

  2. Use of post-exercise laryngoscopy to evaluate exercise induced dyspnea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty.

  3. Korean Adults' Attitudes towards Varieties of English

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Soo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates 43 Korean adults’ attitudes towards native and non-native varieties of English in relation to the perspective of EIL (English as an international language). This study addresses three research questions: 1) do Korean adults prefer certain varieties of English? 2) do Korean adults at least accept non-native varieties of English?, and 3) are Korean adults aware of different varieties of English? In order to examine participants’ language attitudes, this study employed bo...

  4. Economic Injury Level and Demography-Based Control Timing Projection of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Different Growth Stages of Arachis hypogaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Lee, Chung-Chieh; Tang, Li-Chen; Saska, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.), one of the most devastating pests in many Asian countries, is normally controlled by relying on chemical insecticides. To encourage an integrated pest management approach, we determined the economic injury level (EIL) for S. litura on peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., by larval infestation with late instars at different crop growth stages. The cumulative consumption rate of the fifth- and sixth-instars was used as the relative unit for the "Spodoptera injury equivalent" (SIE). The yield of marketable pods significantly decreased from 6.19 to 1.63 g.plant-1 as larval infestation intensity increased throughout the entire cropping season. When supplemented with timely applications of the insecticide, indoxacarb, an oxadiazine insecticide, the EIL values obtained in the larval infestation trial ranged from 3.26 to 13.47 SIE per 20 plants depending on the timing of initial infestation. The economic threshold (ET) for late instars, i.e., multiplying the EIL by 0.75, could not be utilized as a control timing index for the outbreak of injurious larvae population because of the time-lag. When the occurrence of natural mortality in the egg to pupal stage was considered, the ETs were adjusted to reflect the average survivorship. ETs of 27.3, 55.9, 51.3, and 112.6 eggs.m-2 were recommended at the early vegetative growth, blooming/pegging, pod-setting, and pod-filling stages, respectively, for initiating control measures. By simulating the pest population with the program, Timing-MSChart, we integrated the stage-specific EILs and ETs with the life-table data of S. litura on peanut and then proposed a demography-based control timing. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Imaging of Edge Inactive Layer in Micro Patterned Graphene Monolayer (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0374 IMAGING OF EDGE INACTIVE LAYER IN MICRO- PATTERNED GRAPHENE MONOLAYER (POSTPRINT) K. Brockdorf, Z.Jia, N...MICRO- PATTERNED GRAPHENE MONOLAYER (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-11-D-5801-0013 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F...electrically inactive layer (EIL) near the edge of micro-patterned graphene lines was investigated using both scanning microwave microscopy (SMM

  6. Hotel bõ tsvetotshnoi vjazju : [luuletused] / Juhan Liiv ; lühibiograafia: S. S. [Svetlan Semenenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Juhan, 1864-1913

    1999-01-01

    Sisu: Hotel bõ tsvetotshnoi vjazju ; Za sine morje ; Sosna ; Ona ishtshet ulei ; Putnik ; Pesnja o prohhodjashtshem / tlk. Boriss Shtein ; Potolok v nashem dome tsheren ; Veresk / tlk. Valentin Rushkis ; Vtshera ja videl Estoniju! ; Kak ona nevzratshna / tlk. Svetlan Semenenko. Orig.: Ma lillesideme võtaks ; Üle vee ; Mänd ; Ta lendab meispuu poole ; Rändaja ; Laul sellest kaduvast ; Must lagi on meie toal ; Oh kanarbik, oh lilleke! ; Eile nägin ma Eestimaad ; Ilus ta ei ole

  7. Acousto-Optical Tomography Investigation of Ultrasonic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    have also calculated the u-field for a circular piston to test an inversion algorithm to estimate the pressure p (x,y, z) from measured values of v(x... nipt . Soi . ton. 88, 11.Ill- It in rinse). P, I. I’llw :ml- lll’l t, I II/\\ li’-ki . ’ I \\|i i iinciil.il mil ’I liomotl- e:il

  8. Fostering Inter-Cultural Communication Skills among Learners through Teaching English as an International Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Inter-Cultural Competence (ICC is a topic of hot debate in the educational circles since 1960s. The traditional models of Communicative Competence which focus on native speaker models fall short of making learners adjustable in the international settings. Fostering ICC through English Language Teaching (ELT is a norm in the current scenario of globalization rather than exception, which the teachers and researchers in Applied Linguistics are trying to establish since quite some decades. This case study is the part of an empirical research taken with the objectives to explore the implications of developing ICC in the learners through teaching EIL. This paper draws on the need of EIL for the Saudi learners for which interviews with the selected teachers from English Language Centre of Jazan University (KSA provided data. The results show a wide array of concerns for the learners and teachers, and the policy makers. Teachers are the most important factor in developing modalities of ICC in the learners. A locally modified curriculum is needed to implement EIL in the class room.

  9. Enhanced brightness of organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode using alkali metal chlorides as an electron injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Ye [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Deng Zhenbo, E-mail: zbdeng@bjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xu Denghui [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100037 (China); Lue Zhaoyue; Yin Yuehong; Du Hailiang; Chen Zheng; Wang Yongsheng [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Different thicknesses of cesium chloride (CsCl) and various alkali metal chlorides were inserted into organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as electron injection layers (EILs). The basic structure of OLED is indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N Prime -diphenyl-N,N Prime -bis(1-napthyl-phenyl)-1.1 Prime -biphenyl-4.4 Prime -diamine (NPB)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3})/Mg:Ag/Ag. The electroluminescent (EL) performance curves show that both the brightness and efficiency of the OLEDs can be obviously enhanced by using a thin alkali metal chloride layer as an EIL. The electron injection barrier height between the Alq{sub 3} layer and Mg:Ag cathode is reduced by inserting a thin alkali metal chloride as an EIL, which results in enhanced electron injection and electron current. Therefore, a better balance of hole and electron currents at the emissive interface is achieved and consequently the brightness and efficiency of OLEDs are improved. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline metal chlorides were used as electron injection layers in organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brightness and efficiency of OLEDs with alkaline metal chlorides as electron injection layers were all greatly enhanced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Improved OLED performance was attributed to the possible interfacial chemical reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-only devices are fabricated to demonstrate the electron injection enhancement.

  10. Establishing geochemical background variation and threshold values for 59 elements in Australian surface soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2017-02-01

    During the National Geochemical Survey of Australia over 1300 top (0-10cm depth) and bottom (~60-80cm depth) sediment samples (including ~10% field duplicates) were collected from the outlet of 1186 catchments covering 81% of the continent at an average sample density of 1 site/5200km 2 . The PTEs), in Australian surface soil. Different methods of obtaining geochemical threshold values, which differentiate between background and those samples with unusually high element concentrations and requiring attention, are presented and compared to Western Australia's 'ecological investigation levels' (EILs) established for 14 PTEs. For Mn and V these EILs are so low that an unrealistically large proportion (~24%) of the sampled sites would need investigation in Australia. For the 12 remaining elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn) few sample sites require investigation and as most of these are located far from human activity centres, they potentially suggest either minor local contamination or mineral exploration potential rather than pollution. No major diffuse source of contamination by PTEs affects Australian soil at the continental scale. Of the statistical methods used to establish geochemical threshold values, the most pertinent results come from identifying breaks in cumulative probability distributions, the Tukey inner fence and the 98th percentile. Geochemical threshold values for 59 elements, including emerging 'high-tech' critical elements such as lanthanides, Be, Ga or Ge, for which no EILs currently exist, are presented. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY OF MALAY- AND SWEDISH-ACCENTED ENGLISH: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeseung Jeong Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In using English as an international language (EIL, one important issue is mutual intelligibility among EIL speakers from different language backgrounds. The present study investigates the cross-linguistic intelligibility of Malay-accented English and Swedish-accented English, regarding the three phonetic features – word stress pattern, consonant clusters, and long vowel in particular. We prepared 15 English statements that are evidently true or false if understood, and examined to what extent the three phonetic features are related to 30 Swedish and 38 Malaysian listeners’ understandings of the statements read by a speaker from the other language group. We compared the Malaysian and Swedish listeners’ answers given with understanding as well as processing time to respond. The listeners’ own accounts of their struggles in understanding the speakers’ pronunciations were also analyzed. Results show that Malaysian listeners easily understood Swedish-accented English, while Swedish listeners struggled to understand Malay-accented English. The difference between the two groups of listeners seems to be closely related to the degree of the realization of the three phonetic features by the speakers as well as to the degree of the use of these features as perceptual cues by the listeners. Based on the findings, we discuss potential phonetic core features of EIL for intelligibility and some pedagogical implications for teaching English pronunciation to the learners of the language.

  12. Mutational activation of niche-specific genes provides insight into regulatory networks and bacterial function in a complex environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Stephen R; Jackson, Robert W; Moon, Christina D; Jacobs, Michael A; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Gehrig, Stefanie M; Rainey, Paul B

    2007-11-13

    The genome of the plant-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 harbors a subset of genes that are expressed specifically on plant surfaces. The function of these genes is central to the ecological success of SBW25, but their study poses significant challenges because no phenotype is discernable in vitro. Here, we describe a genetic strategy with general utility that combines suppressor analysis with IVET (SPyVET) and provides a means of identifying regulators of niche-specific genes. Central to this strategy are strains carrying operon fusions between plant environment-induced loci (EIL) and promoterless 'dapB. These strains are prototrophic in the plant environment but auxotrophic on laboratory minimal medium. Regulatory elements were identified by transposon mutagenesis and selection for prototrophs on minimal medium. Approximately 10(6) mutants were screened for each of 27 strains carrying 'dapB fusions to plant EIL and the insertion point for the transposon determined in approximately 2,000 putative regulator mutants. Regulators were functionally characterized and used to provide insight into EIL phenotypes. For one strain carrying a fusion to the cellulose-encoding wss operon, five different regulators were identified including a diguanylate cyclase, the flagella activator, FleQ, and alginate activator, AmrZ (AlgZ). Further rounds of suppressor analysis, possible by virtue of the SPyVET strategy, revealed an additional two regulators including the activator AlgR, and allowed the regulatory connections to be determined.

  13. Growth inhibition and ultrastructural alterations induced by Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors in Candida spp. isolates, including non-albicans organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Celso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI, 20-piperidin-2-yl-5α-pregnan-3β-20(R-diol (AZA, and 24(R,S,25-epiminolanosterol (EIL, against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. Results AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 μg.ml-1 for AZA and 2 μg.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 μg.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including

  14. Incorporating natural hazard assessments into municipal master-plans; case-studies from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded

    2010-05-01

    The active Dead Sea Rift (DSR) runs along the length of Israel, making the entire state susceptible to earthquake-related hazards. Current building codes generally acknowledge seismic hazards and direct engineers towards earthquake-resistant structures. However, hazard mapping on a scale fit for municipal/governmental planning is subject to local initiative and is currently not mandatory as seems necessary. In the following, a few cases of seismic-hazard evaluation made by the Geological Survey of Israel are presented, emphasizing the reasons for their initiation and the way results were incorporated (or not). The first case is a seismic hazard qualitative micro-zonation invited by the municipality of Jerusalem as part of a new master plan. This work resulted in maps (1:50,000; GIS format) identifying areas prone to (1) amplification of seismic shaking due to site characteristics (outcrops of soft rocks or steep topography) and (2) sites with earthquake induced landslide (EILS) hazard. Results were validated using reports from the 1927, M=6.2 earthquake that originated along the DSR about 30km east of Jerusalem. Although the hazard maps were accepted by municipal authorities, practical use by geotechnical engineers working within the frame of the new master-plan was not significant. The main reason for that is apparently a difference of opinion between the city-engineers responsible for implementing the new master-plan and the geologists responsible of the hazard evaluation. The second case involves evaluation of EILS hazard for two towns located further north along the DSR, Zefat and Tiberias. Both were heavily damaged more than once by strong earthquakes in past centuries. Work was carried out as part of a governmental seismic-hazard reduction program. The results include maps (1:10,000 scales) of sites with high EILS hazard identified within city limits. Maps (in GIS format) were sent to city engineers with reports explaining the methods and results. As far as

  15. Muusika : Eesti muusika 11 riiki. Välisajakirjad Kaljustest. Duo Veski-Kalluste Moskvas. Raimo Kangro mälestuskontsert Riias. Tiit Kuusiku mälestusõhtu Pärnus. Laulusild rahvusraamatukogus. Jazzihooaeg alanud. Heliplaadid puhtaks! / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Raadio vahendab ERSO kontserdi "NYYD '01" raames 11 välisriiki. Ajakirjas Fono Forum tutvustatakse Tõnu Kaljustet ja Madalmaade kammerkoori. Duo Veski-Kalluste esines Moskvas Eesti Suursaatkonnas. 4.X toimus Riias uue muusika festivali "Arsenal" raames Raimo Kangro mälestuskontsert. 7.X toimus Pärnus Tiit Kuusiku 90. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud mälestusõhtu. Rahvusraamatukogus toimus Saksamaa linnu tutvustavate seminaride raames üritus "Laulusild Hannover-Tallinn". 16.X toimub "Jazzkaare" hõimupäevade koostööna Laszlo Süle Soome-Ugri kvinteti kontsert Sossi klubis. Alanud kuust hakkavad fonogrammitootjad koos autoritega välja andma luba nendele, kes mingil põhjusel soovivad tehases toodetud helikandjat kopeerida muul eesmärgil kui isiklikuks otstarbeks

  16. ORA59 and EIN3 interaction couples jasmonate-ethylene synergistic action to antagonistic salicylic acid regulation of PDF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Jiang, Jishan; Wang, Chang-Quan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2017-04-01

    Hormonal crosstalk is central for tailoring plant responses to the nature of challenges encountered. The role of antagonism between the two major defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and modulation of this interplay by ethylene (ET) in favor of JA signaling pathway in plant stress responses is well recognized, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show the opposing function of two transcription factors, ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) and EIN3-Like1 (EIL1), in SA-mediated suppression and JA-mediated activation of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2). This functional duality is mediated via their effect on protein, not transcript levels of the PDF1.2 transcriptional activator octadecanoid-responsive Arabidopsis59 (ORA59). Specifically, JA induces ORA59 protein levels independently of EIN3/EIL1, whereas SA reduces the protein levels dependently of EIN3/EIL1. Co-infiltration assays revealed nuclear co-localization of ORA59 and EIN3, and split-luciferase together with yeast-two-hybrid assays established their physical interaction. The functional ramification of the physical interaction is EIN3-dependent degradation of ORA59 by the 26S proteasome. These findings allude to SA-responsive reduction of ORA59 levels mediated by EIN3 binding to and targeting of ORA59 for degradation, thus nominating ORA59 pool as a coordination node for the antagonistic function of ET/JA and SA. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Highly efficient tandem OLED based on C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} as charge generation layer and LiF/Al as electron injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); College of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wu, Xiaoming, E-mail: wxm@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xiao, Zhihui; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Juan; Rui, Hongsong; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Yulin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yin, Shougen, E-mail: sgyin@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs are fabricated. • The optimal tandem OLED consists of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} as a CGL and LiF/Al as an EIL. • Current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem OLED is markedly enhanced. • The turn-on and driving voltages of optimal tandem OLED is obviously reduced. - Abstract: Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have received much attention in solid-state lighting due to their high current efficiency, long lifetime and excellent stability. The highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs based on the charge generation layer (CGL) of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} and the electron injection layer (EIL) of LiF/Al were fabricated. The ultra-thin Al layer in EIL was introduced to further increase electron injection from CGL to the emission unit. We found that the maximal current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem device can reach to 43.1 cd/A and 15.1 lm/W, respectively, which are approximately 2.8 and 1.9 times compared with those of single-emissive-unit device. Moreover, compared with the traditional tandem device, the driving voltage of the optimal device is reduced by 6 V, and the turn-on voltage is reduced by 2.4 V. We analyzed the mechanism and characterization of these tandem devices. The effective charge separation and transport of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3}, and excellent electron injection ability of ultra-thin Al layer are the main factors for the remarkable enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency of tandem OLEDs.

  18. A Comparative Study of Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics in Eudicots and Monocots Reveals a Role for Gibberellin in Growth Inhibition and Recovery1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyup; Wilson, Rebecca L.; Case, J. Brett; Binder, Brad M.

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging of dark-grown Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls has revealed new aspects about ethylene signaling. This study expands upon these results by examining ethylene growth response kinetics of seedlings of several plant species. Although the response kinetics varied between the eudicots studied, all had prolonged growth inhibition for as long as ethylene was present. In contrast, with continued application of ethylene, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedlings had a rapid and transient growth inhibition response, rice (Oryza sativa ‘Nipponbare’) seedlings had a slow onset of growth stimulation, and barley (Hordeum vulgare) had a transient growth inhibition response followed, after a delay, by a prolonged inhibition response. Growth stimulation in rice correlated with a decrease in the levels of rice ETHYLENE INSENSTIVE3-LIKE2 (OsEIL2) and an increase in rice F-BOX DOMAIN AND LRR CONTAINING PROTEIN7 transcripts. The gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol caused millet seedlings to have a prolonged growth inhibition response when ethylene was applied. A transient ethylene growth inhibition response has previously been reported for Arabidopsis ethylene insensitive3-1 (ein3-1) eil1-1 double mutants. Paclobutrazol caused these mutants to have a prolonged response to ethylene, whereas constitutive GA signaling in this background eliminated ethylene responses. Sensitivity to paclobutrazol inversely correlated with the levels of EIN3 in Arabidopsis. Wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings treated with paclobutrazol and mutants deficient in GA levels or signaling had a delayed growth recovery after ethylene removal. It is interesting to note that ethylene caused alterations in gene expression that are predicted to increase GA levels in the ein3-1 eil1-1 seedlings. These results indicate that ethylene affects GA levels leading to modulation of ethylene growth inhibition kinetics. PMID:22977279

  19. Education and Computers: An AI (Artificial Intelligence) Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    business contexts. e- .7-. • :. ’_. _ ’’-’- -’-’" - -’" ’ " II S’liank and Slade 28 EilIcafioti arid (Colputers 4.1.5 Don’t violate expectations There...common way to request input is through a highlighted menu for which the space bar cycles through each item, and the return key selects the current item...computer to the Sti(1,-Ilt. Vttll 1" to pilt tII, utachine in thte cafeteria so that, the students- could instantly find out the * uttu~wtrit tetual %:flue

  20. Recent Developments in the Field of Energetic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    indicators used to determine and characterise the potency of a propellant are detonation pressure (Pdet),and detonation velocity ( det). Despite the...Only two compounds fall within the ILs characterisation (5a, 6c) with 6c being the most promising; 75 1.719 g cm-3, Tm 85 °C, Td 184 °C, Hcom-cal 2171...Rogers and co-workers developed an original approach to include boron nanoparticles suspended in an EIL, using its solvent properties (Fig. 16).28 This

  1. Identification and Characterization of uvrA, a DNA Repair Gene of Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    heavenly beings and crowned him with glory and honor. You made him ruler over the works of your hands; you pul everything under his feet all nocks and...the more common lysine or pimelic acid (Works. 1964; Works and Griffiths, 1968). The holes or " fenestrations " in this layer are about 10 om in diameter...MraI BstEIl* Drol NO NO endonucleases PvuI* Droll XhoI* Drt,rn Fenestrated peptidoglycan + + Natural plasmids pSI6 (RI) pUE30 pUEI pUE20 pUEI5 pUEIO

  2. An Investigation of the High Rate Volumetric Properties of Snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    v: IV$ LIEA < VISCOELAS TIC LIEA MA TERIA L TIME t () CREEP TEST EI>L LINEA R V/SC QELASTIcI MA 7CR/A L U (b) DEFORMATION - RATE TEST i iqur,. 1...GRAIN and NECK GEOMETRY 7 2 I~~~~~~r b.IELZE RI GOER I ~ ~ ~ 1 z~g~ P9 . A~peetto fgan~dbodgoer o ekgot tuc ~ ~ ~ ~ReIO ofIo efrain ITT I 34 during the...Spontaneous Fracture Invitation in Mountain Snowpacks. J. of Glaciology, Vol. 19, No. 81. Salm, B. (1974) A Constitutive Equation for Creeping Snow

  3. Computer technology and software failure registration system's analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grinkevičiūtė, Almanė; Tylūnas, Rytis

    2007-01-01

    ITIL tai eilė dokumentų, kurie naudojami siekiant padėti įdiegti IT paslaugų valdymo struktūrą. Ši individualiai pagal įmonės poreikius pritaikoma struktūra nustato, kaip paslaugų valdymas vykdomas konkrečioje įmonėje arba verslo teorija, orientuota į darbo optimizavimą bei kokybės užtikrinimą IT kompanijose. Mūsų darbo tyrimo sritis buvo modifikuoto incidentų eskalavimo algoritmas, jo modifikacija ir pritaikymas sistemoje. Bei rezultatų palyginimas su ITIL metodologija paremtu algoritmu....

  4. THIRTEEN FALLACIES ABOUT THE USERS AND USES OF ENGLISH AS AN INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Some applied linguists have provided a definition of English as an international language (EIL) in order to distinguish it from other concepts such as English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). Whereas EFL and ESL have usually been related to non-native speakers of English communicating with native speakers of English, English as an international language can be defined as “that English in all its linguistic and sociolinguistic aspects which is used as a vehicl...

  5. What do English language teachers need to know about English as an International Language?

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, L.

    2012-01-01

    Some applied linguists have provided a definition of English as an international language (EIL) in order to distinguish it from other concepts such as English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). Whereas EFL and ESL have usually been related to non-native speakers of English communicating with native speakers of English, English as an international language can be defined as “that English in all its linguistic and sociolinguistic aspects which is used as a vehicl...

  6. High Frequency Modulation Method for Measuring of Birefringence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulc M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of optical birefringence measurement is presented. It uses an el ectro-optic modulator for the high frequency modulation of polarization of the laser beam. The developed optical apparatus exhibits high sensitivity. It is able to measure very small birefringence of samples down to 10-3 rad. The accuracy and sensitivity of the method was checked by measurement of calibrated Sol eil – Babi net compensator. Method can be also used for online and accurate measurement of an optical components birefringence. This application was developed with the aim to measure Cotton-Mouton effect in air and nitrogen.

  7. PCM Thermal Control of Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    vessel DOD depth of discharge EOL end of life ESLI Energy Science Laboratories, Inc. Na-S sodium sulfur Ni-H2 nickel hydrogen Ni-Cd nickel cadmium NiMH...high temperature sodium - sulfur batteries forFigure 1 PCC conductivity structure design stli adeeti eil plctos options. satellite and electric vehicle...Table I Phase change material candidates for storing 10 kWh heat within AT = 30’C at 350’C. Material Weight (kg) Volume (Liter) Sodium - sulfur cells

  8. Estcoy-17 mehed saabuvad eeldatavalt täna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Afganistanis teeniv jalaväekompanii Estcoy-17 jõuab praeguste plaanide järgi Tallinna täna hilisõhtul. Kaitsevägi toob koostöös Ühendkuningriigi liitlastega Estcoy-17 kaitseväelased koju lennukiga Tristar, mis väljus Camp Bastioni sõjaväebaasist eile hilisõhtul ja jõuab täna Brize Nortoni sõjaväebaasi. Ühendkuningriigist toob kaitsevägi Estcoy-17 koju tšarterlennuga

  9. Overlap relation between free-space Laguerre Gaussian modes and step-index fiber modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bruning, R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available -equation. Considering a cylindrically symmetric fiber with core radius a, the solution is given by [4] LPlp(r, ϕ) = Nlp { Jl( νlpr a )/Jl(νlp) for reilϕ, (1) where Nlp is a normalization constant, Jl denotes the lth order Bessel... to evaluate the overlap relation between the LG and LP modes we need also a analytical expression for the normaliza- tion constant Nlp in Eq. (1). For that we use the normalization Research Article Journal of the Optical Society of America A 5 condition 1...

  10. Chewable Paracetamol tablets for children technology

    OpenAIRE

    Elijošius, Evaldas

    2011-01-01

    Šiuo metu Lietuvoje pramoniniu būdu gaminamų farmacinių formų vaikams kiekis yra ribotas (2009/2010m. Lietuvos Respublikos Vaistinių preparatų registro duomenimis). Atlikus eilę studijų, buvo nutarta sukurti kramtomųjų paracetamolio tablečių vaikams gamybos technologiją. Surinkome ir susisteminome duomenis apie galimus technologinius tablečių gamybos variantus. Ištyrėme paracetamolio ir pasirinktų pagalbinių medžiagų technologines savybes. Išanalizavome mokslinius duomenis apie granuliacijos ...

  11. A review of the species in the genus Cryptops Leach, 1815 from the Old World and the Australasian region related to Cryptops (Cryptops) doriae Pocock, 1891 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G E

    2013-01-01

    The 25 putative species and two subspecies of the doriae group of the genus Cryptops (subgenus Cryptops) from the Old World and the Australasian region are here reviewed. The following are regarded as valid: C. audax Attems, 1928, C. australis Newport, 1845, C. dentipes Lawrence, 1960, C. dilagus Archey, 1921, C. doriae Pocock, 1891, C. japonicus Takakuwa, 1934, C. lamprethus Chamberlin, 1920, C. milloti Lawrence, 1960, C. modiglianii Silvestri, 1895, C. nanus Attems, 1938, C. navis Chamberlin, 1930, C. nepalensis Lewis, 1999, C. niuensis Chamberlin, 1920, C. pauliani Law- rence, 1960, C. philammus Attems, 1928, C. polyodontus Attems, 1903, C. setosior Chamberlin, 1959, C. stupendus Attems, 1928, C. tahitianus Chamberlin, 1920, C. typhloporus Lawrence, 1955. South African material assigned to C. australis by Attems (1928) is described as a new species C. capensis, and C. (C.) australis africanus Lawrence, 1955 is raised to full specific status as C. africanus. C. sinesicus Chamberlin, 1940 is a new junior subjective synonym of C. navis. C. afghanus Loksa, 1971, C. gracilimus Machado, 1951 and C. pauperatus Attems, 1937 are nomina dubia. Of the species here regarded as valid, further material from Australia and New Zealand is required to clarify the characteristics of C. australis. There has been confusion over the identities of the New Zealand species C. dilagus, C. lamprethus and C. polyodontus; their relationship should be further examined. The South African C. philammus and C. stupendus are also very similar and it is possible that further work may show them to be conspecific. The widely distributed C. doriae populations would, likewise, merit further investigation as would the relationship of the species to C. nepalensis and C. niuensis. It is possible that the inadequately described C. afghanus is identical to C. doriae. A provisional key to these species is provided.

  12. Kombinasi Firefly Algorithm-Tabu Search untuk Penyelesaian Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyan Naufal Hay's

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP adalah masalah optimasi kombinatorial klasik dan memiliki peran dalam perencanaan, penjadwalan, dan pencarian pada bidang rekayasa dan pengetahuan (Dong, 2012. TSP juga merupakan objek yang baik untuk menguji kinerja metode optimasi, beberapa metode seperti Cooperative Genetic Ant System (CGAS (Dong, 2012, Parallelized Genetic Ant Colony System (PGAS Particle Swarm Optimization and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms (PSO–ACO (Elloumi, 2014, dan Ant Colony Hyper-Heuristics (ACO HH (Aziz, 2015 telah dikembangkan untuk memecahkan TSP. Sehingga, pada penelitian ini diimplementasikan kombinasi metode baru untuk meningkatkan akurasi penyelesaian TSP. Firefly Algorithm (FA merupakan salah satu algoritma yang dapat digunakan untuk memecahkan masalah optimasi kombinatorial (Layeb, 2014. FA merupakan algoritma yang berpotensi kuat dalam memecahkan kasus optimasi dibanding algoritma yang ada termasuk Particle Swarm Optimization (Yang, 2010. Namun, FA memiliki kekurangan dalam memecahkan masalah optimasi dengan skala besar (Baykasoğlu dan Ozsoy, 2014. Tabu Search (TS merupakan metode optimasi yang terbukti efektif untuk memecahkan masalah optimasi dengan skala besar (Pedro, 2013. Pada penelitian ini, TS akan diterapkan pada FA (FATS untuk memecahkan kasus TSP. Hasil FATS akan dibandingkan terhadap penelitian sebelumnya yaitu ACOHH. Perbandingan hasil menunjukan peningkatan akurasi sebesar 0.89% pada dataset Oliver30, 0.14% dataset Eil51, 3.81% dataset Eil76 dan 1.27% dataset KroA100.

  13. Highly efficient tandem OLED based on C60/rubrene: MoO3 as charge generation layer and LiF/Al as electron injection layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zhihui; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Juan; Rui, Hongsong; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Yulin; Yin, Shougen

    2017-08-01

    Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have received much attention in solid-state lighting due to their high current efficiency, long lifetime and excellent stability. The highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs based on the charge generation layer (CGL) of C60/rubrene: MoO3 and the electron injection layer (EIL) of LiF/Al were fabricated. The ultra-thin Al layer in EIL was introduced to further increase electron injection from CGL to the emission unit. We found that the maximal current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem device can reach to 43.1 cd/A and 15.1 lm/W, respectively, which are approximately 2.8 and 1.9 times compared with those of single-emissive-unit device. Moreover, compared with the traditional tandem device, the driving voltage of the optimal device is reduced by 6 V, and the turn-on voltage is reduced by 2.4 V. We analyzed the mechanism and characterization of these tandem devices. The effective charge separation and transport of C60/rubrene: MoO3, and excellent electron injection ability of ultra-thin Al layer are the main factors for the remarkable enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency of tandem OLEDs.

  14. History and contemporary perspectives of the integrated pest management of soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, A R

    2013-04-01

    The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time.

  15. Activation of ethylene signaling pathways enhances disease resistance by regulating ROS and phytoalexin production in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Wen; Cao, Jidong; Meng, Fanwei; Yu, Yongqi; Huang, Junkai; Jiang, Lan; Liu, Muxing; Zhang, Zhengguang; Chen, Xuewei; Miyamoto, Koji; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhang, Jinsong; Chen, Shouyi; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene plays diverse roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the roles of ethylene signaling in immune responses remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae infection activated ethylene biosynthesis in rice. Resistant rice cultivars accumulated higher levels of ethylene than susceptible ones. Ethylene signaling components OsEIN2 and the downstream transcription factor OsEIL1 positively regulated disease resistance. Mutation of OsEIN2 led to enhanced disease susceptibility. Whole-genome transcription analysis revealed that responsive genes of ethylene, jasmonates (JAs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling as well as phytoalexin biosynthesis genes were remarkably induced. Transcription of OsrbohA/B, which encode NADPH oxidases, and OsOPRs, the JA biosynthesis genes, were induced by M. oryzae infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that OsEIL1 binds to the promoters of OsrbohA/OsrbohB and OsOPR4 to activate their expression. These data suggest that OsEIN2-mediated OsrbohA/OsrbohB and OsOPR transcription may play essential roles in ROS generation, JA biosynthesis and the subsequent phytoalexin accumulation. Therefore, the involvement of ethylene signaling in disease resistance is probably by activation of ROS and phytoalexin production in rice during M. oryzae infection. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A combined use of acoustic and optical devices to investigate suspended sediment in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Massimo; Rüther, Nils; Haun, Stefan; Baranya, Sandor

    2017-04-01

    The use of acoustic and optic devices has become more and more common for estimating suspended sediment loads in rivers. The echo intensity levels (EIL) recorded by means of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) have been applied in different methods, which provided relationships between scattering particles features derived from samples (i.e., concentration and grain size) and corresponding backscattering strength and sound attenuation. At the same time, the laser diffraction was applied by an in-stream sampler (LISST-SL) to measure suspended sediment concentration and the corresponding particle size distribution (PSD). These two techniques exhibited different limitations in terms of the measured range of concentration, sensitivity to a certain spectrum of particle sizes, and instruments deploy feasibility especially in large rivers, in a way that the use of sampled PSD by LISST-SL to validate ADCP methods may not be trivial. The aim of this study was to combine the vertical profiling of EIL by an ADCP with results from LISST-SL, eventually demonstrating the possibility of using moving ADCP measurements to detect different suspended matters along a Danube River section characterized by a small tributary junction. At the same time, this work elucidates optical to acoustic method deviations that hinders an actual validation of ADCP methods based on LISST-SL rather than with physical samplings.

  17. Controlling ion motion in polymer light-emitting diodes containing conjugated polyelectrolyte electron injection layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andres; Bakus, Ronald C; Zalar, Peter; Hoven, Corey V; Brzezinski, Jacek Z; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2011-03-02

    The properties and function of an anionic conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)-containing ion-conducting polyethylene oxide pendant (PF(PEO)CO(2)Na) as electron injection layers (EILs) in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are investigated. A primary goal was to design a CPE structure that would enable acceleration of the device temporal response through facilitation of ion motion. Pristine PLEDs containing PF(PEO)CO(2)Na exhibit luminance response times on the order of tenths of seconds. This delay is attributed to the formation of ordered structures within the CPE film, as observed by atomic force microscopy. Complementary evidence is provided by electron transport measurements. The ordered structures are believed to slow ion migration within the CPE EIL and hence result in a longer temporal response time. It is possible to accelerate the response by a combination of thermal and voltage treatments that "lock" ions within the interfaces adjacent to PF(PEO)CO(2)Na. PLED devices with luminance response times of microseconds, a 10(5) fold enhancement, can therefore be achieved. Faster luminance response time opens up the application of PLEDs with CPE layers in display technologies.

  18. О традициях русской любовной лирики XIX века (Н. Некрасов и Ф. Тютчев | Apie XIX amžiaus meilės lyrikos tradiciją (N. Nekrasovas ir F. Tiutčevas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дагне Бержайте

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intymiąją N. Nekrasovo ir F. Tiutčevo lyriką suartina dialogiškas eilėraščių pobūdis ir kai kurių rusų meilės lyrikos tradicinių motyvų raida (pvz., Puškino „išgyvenimų prisiminimų“ tema. Šie motyvai ir vaizdiniai (pavyduliavimas, kančios, lemtis, laiškai, liepsna neretai įgyja skirtingą plėtotę poetų meilės eilėraščiuose. Straipsnyje pagrindiniu nagrinėjimo objektu yra N. Nekrasovo „Degantys laiškai“ ir F. Tiutčevo „Ji sedėjo ant grindų…“. Šių dviejų tekstų analogija nagrinėjama temos ir vaizdinių lygmenyje. Išanalizuotos personažų (lyrinio subjekto ir herojės lyrinio vyksmo panašybės ir skirtybės. Autorė daro išvadą, kad Nekrasovo meilės lyrika, nepaisant romantinių motyvų pastovumo, artima XIX a. antros pusės rusų psichologinei prozai su jai būdinga griaunančios meilės jėgos tema.

  19. Effect of heat stress on the endogenous intestinal loss of amino acids in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Hernández, L; Buenabad, L; Avelar, E; Bernal, H; Baumgard, L H; Cervantes, M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) increases the death of intestinal cells in pigs, which, in turn, may elevate the endogenous intestinal loss (EIL) of proteins and AA. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of HS on the AA composition of intestinal endogenous proteins and the EIL of AA in pigs. Eight pigs (25.2 ± 1.2 kg initial BW) were surgically implanted with T-type cannulas at the end of the small intestine. After surgery recovery, during the subsequent 7 d, all pigs were adapted to a protein- and AA-free diet and trained to consume the same amount of feed twice a day. All pigs were housed under thermoneutral (TN) conditions (22 ± 2°C) during this time. The following day, all pigs were still under TN conditions and ileal content was collected during 12 consecutive hours, at the end of which and for the following 8 d the pigs were exposed to natural HS conditions (31 to 37°C). Ileal content was collected again on d 2 (HS at d 2 [HSd2]) and 8 (HS at d 8 [HSd8]). Body temperature (BT) was measured in another group of 8 pigs every 15 min during the whole study. The average BT at HSd2 (39.6°C) was higher ( exposure to high ambient temperature.

  20. Efficient Electron Injection by Size- and Shape-Controlled Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yong-Jin; Morishita, Norito; Chiba, Takayuki; Ohisa, Satoru; Igarashi, Masahiro; Masuhara, Akito; Kido, Junji

    2015-11-18

    Three different sized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized as spherical ZnO (S-ZnO), rodlike ZnO (R-ZnO), and intermediate shape and size ZnO (I-ZnO) by controlling the reaction time. The average sizes of the ZnO nanoparticles were 4.2 nm × 3.4 nm for S-ZnO, 9.8 nm × 4.5 nm for I-ZnO, and 20.6 nm × 6.2 nm for R-ZnO. Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with these ZnO nanoparticles as the electron injection layer (EIL) were fabricated. The device with I-ZnO showed lower driving voltage and higher power efficiency than those with S-ZnO and R-ZnO. The superiority of I-ZnO makes it very effective as an EIL for various types of OLEDs regardless of the deposition order or method of fabricating the organic layer, the ZnO layer, and the electrode.

  1. A randomised, independent groups study investigating the sympathetic nervous system responses to two manual therapy treatments in patients with LBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jo; Green, Ann; Singh, Sally; Watson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Manual therapy (MT) and exercise therapy techniques are commonly utilised, guideline recommended treatment strategies in the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). Preliminary evidence on asymptomatic participants indicates that two manual therapy techniques; repeated lumbar extension in lying exercise (EIL); and segmental rotational grade V manipulation (manipulation), have significant effects on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as detectable with skin conductance (SC) responses. However, it is not known if these responses occur in patients with LBP. A randomised, independent group's design was utilised to investigate the immediate SC responses in 50 patients with LBP of less than 12 weeks duration. Patients received either the manipulation technique (n = 25) or the EIL exercise (n = 25) and SC activity was recorded, in a single treatment session, pre-, peri- and post-treatment. Both treatments resulted in a sympatho-excitatory response during the intervention period with the manipulation technique having a 255% increase (p effect (p effect observed and suggest that SC responses may be a feasible, proxy method of detecting dorsal horn sensitisation and neuro-plastic adaptations occurring in the presence of LBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1LDBB-1IE3D [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 29 3.81 GLU CA 5.62 3.75 ARG CA 3.86 VAL CA -map...OM 7817 CA LEU D 143 14.447 -12.642 19.467 1.00 31.99 C -map> LEU...e> LYS CA 5.67 5.61 3.81 ASN CA 5.88 3.82 LYS CA 3.80 LEU CA ... C ATOM 3715 CA LEU B 226 -29.945 -14.926 -9.110 1.00 28.65 C ...e>ILE CA 9.96 12.02 ASP CA 3.77 LEU CA -map> ALA C

  3. Business English in Practical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Čepon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to look at the reality of teaching English for Business Purposes (EBP/ Business English (BE from a practical point of view. It approaches the term BE as if through a funnel with English as an International Language (EIL at the top, English Language Teaching/General English (ELT/GE as its sloping sides, English as a Foreign Language (EFL/English as a Second Language (ESL at the top of the funnel's narrow tube, and English for Specific Purposes (ESP at the very bottom, just above where BE, one of its main arms is placed. Special emphasis is laid on key distinctions between BE and ELT/GE, the function of BE teachers and the variety of roles that they assume in BE, on BE teachers as connoisseurs of specialist business expertise, and the importance of carrying out needs analysis as it brings to light some very important information about learners of BE.

  4. Addition of Lithium 8-Quinolate into Polyethylenimine Electron-Injection Layer in OLEDs: Not Only Reducing Driving Voltage but Also Improving Device Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takayuki; Pu, Yong-Jin; Ide, Takahumi; Ohisa, Satoru; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Hikichi, Tatsuya; Takashima, Dai; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Kawata, So; Kido, Junji

    2017-05-31

    Solution-processed electron injection layers (EILs) comprising lithium 8-quinolate (Liq) and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) are highly effective for enhancing electron injection from ZnO to organic layers and improving device lifetime in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Doping of Liq into PEIE further reduces the work function of zinc oxide (ZnO) by enhancing dipole formation. The intermolecular interaction between Liq and PEIE was elucidated by UV-vis absorption measurement and quantum chemical calculation. The OLEDs with ZnO covered with PEIE:Liq mixture exhibited lower driving voltage than that of the device without Liq. Furthermore, as doping concentration of Liq into PEIE increased, the device lifetime and voltage stability during constant current operation was successively improved.

  5. Tractatus terribiles : artiklikogumik professor Jaan Sootaki 60. juubeliks / koost.: Andres Parmas, Peep Pruks ; eess.: Märt Rask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisu: Õigus(e)rikkumine - ühe mõiste iseseisev elu / Tristan Ploom. Täideviija mõiste laienemine - organisatsiooniline teovalitsemine / Paavo Randma. Kriminaalvastutus juriidilise isiku jagunemisel / Ramon Rask, Marko Kairjak. Inimsusevastased kuriteod eile ja täna / Rait Maruste. Mõistatuslik karistuste liitmine / Priit Pikamäe. Karistusõigus versus kriminaalmenetlusõigus : mõned põgusad väited, näited ja ettepanekud / Eerik Kergandberg. Kas põhiseadus lubab süüdimõistetu kinnipidamist ühiskonna ohutuse tagamiseks? / Sten Lind. Jälitustegevuse seaduslikkuse kontroll / Saale Laos. Kriminaalõiguse muutumisest 1889. a reformi käigus / Toomas Anepaio. Advokaadi kutse-eetika teoreetilised alused / Ain Alvin. Null on number - karistusõiguses / Marju Luts-Sootak. Jaan Sootak : bibliograafia 1968-2008 / koost. Maia Ruttu

  6. Medis Henriko Nagio poezijos peizaže

    OpenAIRE

    Žvirgždas, Manfredas

    2011-01-01

    Egzodo poeto Henriko Nagio (1920–1996) kūryboje medis – vienas paskutinių stabilių orientyrų dinamiškų pokyčių laikais. Straipsnyje mėginama aprėpti šios daugiaprasmės poetinės fi­gūros semantikos lauką, įrodyti, kaip nedaug Nagys nutolo nuo neoromantinės poetikos, prieš kurią maištavo pokarinė žemininkų karta. Medis jo eilėraščiuose pristatomas kaip poeto brolis ir prarastos tėvynės simbolis, tarpininkas tarp fi­zinės ir metafi­zinės sferų, šakomis besiremiantis į bekraštes kosmoso erdves, š...

  7. Inaugural Lectures in Egyptology: T. E. Peet and His Pupil W. B. Emery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Lewis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inaugural lectures (ILs are often overlooked as academic ephemera, but I believe that they can be used as a powerful historiographical tool, locating the public presentation of academic output with its social and institutional setting. My broader research uses them as a lens through which to examine the development and contingencies of British Egyptology, its self-positioning, and its perception and positioning by others, from the subject’s formal inception into British academia (1892 to the present day. In this paper the focus has, however, been narrowed to the Egyptology inaugural lectures (EILs given by T.E. Peet (1882–1934 (Figure 1, the second Brunner Professor of Egyptology at Liverpool University (1920–1933, and the second reader / professor designate of Egyptology at Oxford (1933–1934 and W.B. Emery (1903–1971 (Figure 2, the fourth Edwards Professor of Egyptian Archaeology and Philology at UCL (1951–1970.

  8. Neivelt : olen vaba mees / Indrek Neivelt ; interv. Inno Tähismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neivelt, Indrek, 1967-

    2005-01-01

    Hansapanga kauaaegne juht Indrek Neivelt põhjendab oma ametist lahkumist kui ühe etapi läbisaamist oma karjääris. Lisa: Hansapanga areng Neivelti juhtimisel. Vt. samas: Indrek Neivelt põhjendas eile oma ametist lahkumist uue ajastu algusega Hansapangas; Erkki Raasuke: teisi lahkujaid praegu pole; Peeter Raidla. Hansapank oli Neivelti esimene tõsine töökoht; Kadi Heinsalu. Hansapanga töötajaid tabas uudis Indrek Neivelti lahkumisest ootamatult; Lauri Matsulevitsh. Jüri Mõis: Indrek polnud hea käsutäitja; Annika Matson. Hansapanga väikeaktsionärid veetsid koosoleku mornis meeleolus; Swedbank otsustas Hansapanga dividendid salve jätta. Kommenteerivad: Andrus Ansip, Vahur Kraft, Edgar Savisaar, Meelis Milder, Kuldar Leis, Mihkel Oviir, Valdo Kalm, Joakim Helenius, Mati Jostov, Rein Kilk, Cardo Remmel, Urmas Sõõrumaa, Oliver Kruuda

  9. Creation and analysis of software for modeling Markovian queuing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lazauskas, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Darbe bus nagrinėjama mišraus tipo masinė aptarnavimo sistema, kurią gali sudaryti n paraiškų šaltinių, su atitinkamais paprasčiausių srautų intensyvumais, o paraiškos gali būti paskirstomos į m aptarnavimo įrenginių su fiksuotomis prioritetinėmis paraiškų eilėmis, kur paraiškos aptarnavimo laikas S yra pasiskirstęs pagal apibendrintą tikimybinio skirstinio funkciją G(t). Darbo tikslas – sukurti programinę įrangą, kuri pagal pateiktą sistemos funkcionavimo aprašymą schematine struktūra aps...

  10. From De-Anglicization to Internationalisation: Cultural Representations of the UKand the USA in Global, Adapted and Local ELT Textbooks in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alejandro Basabe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that the culture of English-speaking countries has abandoned its central role in recent ELT materials. However, this study suggests that representations of the Anglo-American culture are still favoured in ELT textbooks but that, in most cases, they have been transformed into “international” attitudes. This idea is tested by the compilation of lists of cultural references for four series of textbooks in use in Argentina, and by the application of the procedures of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA to a selection of reading passages from them. The findings provide an answer as to what representations of English-speaking cultures are in current textbooks and open to debate the apparent fairness of English as an International Language (EIL.Existe un consenso casi generalizado en que la cultura de los países de habla inglesa ha abandonado su papel central en los textos de inglés como lengua extranjera. Sin embargo, se sugiere que las representaciones de la cultura Anglo-americana aun persisten sólo que transformadas en actitudes “internacionales”. Esta idea se pone a prueba mediante la compilación de listas de referencias culturales en cuatros series de libros en uso en Argentina y en el Análisis Crítico del Discurso (ACD de una serie de textos destinados a la lectura en dichos volúmenes. Los resultados determinan qué representaciones culturales subsisten en los textos y abren al debate la aparente neutralidad del inglés como lengua internacional (EIL, por sus siglas en inglés.

  11. Projected economic losses due to vector and vector-borne parasitic diseases in livestock of India and its significance in implementing the concept of integrated practices for vector management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Broadly, species of arthropods infesting livestock are grouped into flies (biting and non-biting, fleas, lice (biting and sucking, ticks (soft and hard, and mites (burrowing, non-burrowing, and follicular. Among which, biting and non-biting flies and ticks are the potent vectors for many bacterial, viral, rickettsial, and protozoan diseases. Vectors of livestock are having economic significance on three points (1 direct losses from their bite and annoyance, worries, and psychological disturbances produced during the act of biting and feeding, (2 diseases they transmit, and (3 expenditure incurred for their control. Flies such as Culicoides spp. and Musca spp. and various species of hard ticks play important role in disease transmission in addition to their direct effects. For control of vectors, recent concept of integrated pest management (IPM provides the best solution and also addresses the problems related to acaricide resistance and environmental protection from hazardous chemicals. However, to successfully implement the concept of IPM, for each vector species, estimation of two monitory benchmarks, i.e., economic injury level (EIL and economic threshold level (ETL is essential prerequisite. For many vector species and under several circumstances, estimation of EIL and ETL appears to be difficult. Under such scenario, although may not be exact, an approximate estimate can be accrued by taking into account several criteria such as percent prevalence of vectors in a geographical area, percent losses produced, total livestock population, and current prices of livestock products such as milk, meat, and wool. Method for approximate estimation is first time described and elaborated in the present review article.

  12. Zur Logik des Preisens in der Dichtung Simon Dachs. Apie šlovinimo logiką Simono Dacho poezijoje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Meržvinskaitė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje aptariamos logikos, retorikos ir poetikos sąsajos XVII a. baroko poeto Simono Dacho progi­niuose eilėraščiuose. Logika suprantama pirmiausia kaip argumentavimo ir mąstymo menas, susidedantis iš sąvokų, sprendinių ir išvadų. Teigiama, kad dėl bū­dingo baroko menui ypatingo dėmesio tradicijai kūry­binė kompetencija sutapo su recepcine kompetencija, tiesa – su metodu. Dacho kūryboje poetas palyginamas su filosofu, siekiančiu visuotinumo, apibendrinimų, ir istoriku, apmąstančiu ir įamžinančiu raštu veiksmus ir įvykius, nusipelniusius šlovės ir amžinumo. Pabrėžia­ma, kad Dachas teikė pirmenybę faktui, o ne išmonei. Jo poezijos autentiškumas ir paprastumas siejami su literatūros pasaulietiškėjimo tendencijomis, moder­nios autorystės sampratos užuomazgomis.Dacho eilėse atsiskleidžianti žmogaus samprata vaizduoja žmogų, priklausantį gamtos, žemiškajam ir dangiškajam pasauliams. Adresatų šlovė neatsie­jama nuo jų gerų darbų, lyginamų su mitologinių ir istorinių personažų žygiais, šlovinimo poetika ir lo­gika, baroko vaizdiniais įrašomų į atminties, tiesos ir teisingumo sąvokų sklaidą.

  13. The Role of Ethylene in Plants Under Salinity Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jian-Jun; Chen, Hao-Wei; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Although the roles of ethylene in plant response to salinity and other stresses have been extensively studied, there are still some obscure points left to be clarified. Generally, in Arabidopsis and many other terrestrial plants, ethylene signaling is indispensable for plant rapid response and tolerance to salinity stress. However, a few studies showed that functional knock-out of some ACSs increased plant salinity-tolerance, while overexpression of them caused more sensitivity. This seems to be contradictory to the known opinion that ethylene plays positive roles in salinity response. Differently, ethylene in rice may play negative roles in regulating seedling tolerance to salinity. The main positive ethylene signaling components MHZ7/OsEIN2, MHZ6/OsEIL1, and OsEIL2 all negatively regulate the salinity-tolerance of rice seedlings. Recently, several different research groups all proposed a negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and ethylene response, in which several ethylene-inducible proteins (including NtTCTP, NEIP2 in tobacco, AtSAUR76/77/78, and AtARGOS) act as inhibitors of ethylene response but activators of plant growth. Therefore, in addition to a summary of the general roles of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, this review mainly focused on discussing (i) the discrepancies between ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, (ii) the divergence between rice and Arabidopsis in regulation of salinity response by ethylene, and (iii) the possible negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and salinity response by ethylene. PMID:26640476

  14. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  15. Некоторые фонетические аспекты балто-славянской флексии

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Mažiulis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available KELETAS BALTŲ-SLAVŲ FONETINIŲ FLEKSIJOS ASPEKTŲReziumėNagrinėjami bendresnieji baltų ir slavų balsių sistemos kilmės klausimai, plačiau su­stojama prie baltų-slavų „prokalbės" ilgųjų balsių: užpakalinės eilės (labializuotų * (vi­dutinio pakilimo bei *ō (žemutinio pakilimo ir priešakinės eilės * (vidutinio pakilimo bei *-ē (žemutinio pakilimo. Prileidžiama išvada, kad baltų-slavų balsiams * : * priebalsinė (uždaras skiemuo ir sonantinė (tautosilabinis diftongas uždarumo pozicija buvo tik žodžio gale. Aptariama baltų-slavų balsių * : * raida diftonguose *-n, *-r, *-n, *-r, pvz., lie. (vilk-ų̃ (gen. pl. = s. sl. (vlьk-ъ < balt.-sl. *-n, lie. (akт-иõ = s. sl. (kam-y < balt.-sl. *-n, lie. (mót-ė = s. sl. (mat-i < balt.-sl. *-r ir kt. Nurodomos priežastys, kodėl praslaviškieji * : * uždarumo pozicijoje virto ne į s. sl. a: ĕ, kodėl yra s. sl. (vlьk-ъ (gen. pl. : (kam-y (abiem atvejais turime balt.-sl. *-n ir kt.

  16. Similarities and differences of alkali metal chlorides applied in organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Zhaoyue [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Deng, Zhenbo [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Hou, Ying [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xu, Haisheng, E-mail: hsxu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kunshan Hisense Electronics, Co., Ltd., Kunshan, Jiangsu 215300 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The similarities and differences of alkali metal chlorides (sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), rubidium chloride (RbCl) and cesium chloride (CsCl)) applied in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are investigated. The behavior is similar for the OLEDs with these four chlorides as electron injection layer (EIL). Their maximum luminance and efficiency at 100 mA/cm{sup 2} are within the ranges of 18 550 {+-} 600 (cd/m{sup 2}) with an error of 3.23% and 4.09 {+-} 0.15 (cd/A) within an error of 3.67%, respectively. The similar performance is due to almost identical electron injection barrier for NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl as EIL. Interestingly, the properties are different for devices with chlorides inserted inside tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum at the position of 20 nm away from aluminum cathode, labeled as NaCl-, KCl-, RbCl- and CsCl- devices. The relation of luminance is CsCl- > RbCl- = KCl- > NaCl-, where '>' and '=' mean 'better than' and 'the same as', respectively. And the device efficiencies are decreased from CsCl to NaCl. That is, the sort order of the efficiencies is CsCl- > RbCl- > KCl- > NaCl-. The mechanism is explained by tunneling model in terms of various energy gaps estimated by optical electronegativity of NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl in organic light-emitting diodes are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The similar performance is due to almost identical electron injection barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The different behavior of chlorides inside Alq{sub 3} is explained by tunneling model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The different behavior is attributed to various energy gaps of different chlorides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficiency of device with chlorides inside Alq{sub 3} is decreased from CsCl to NaCl.

  17. Unveiling clues from Spacecraft Missions to Comets and Asteroids through Impact Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Jensen, Elizabeth; Fane, Michael; Smith, Douglas; Holmes, Jacob; Keller, Lindsay P.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Wooden, Diane H.; Whizin, Akbar; Cintala, Mark J.; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The Deep Impact Spacecraft mission was the first to boldly face the challenge of impacting the surface of a comet, 9P/Tempel 1, to investigate surface and subsurface 'pristine' materials. The Stardust mission to Comet 81P/Wild 2 brought back an exciting surprise: shocked minerals which were likely altered during the comet's lifetime. Signatures of shock in meteorites also suggest that the violent past of the solar system has left our small bodies with signatures of impacts and collisions. These results have led to the question: How have impacts affected the evolutionary path taken by comets and asteroids, and what signatures can be observed?A future planetary mission to a near-Earth asteroid is proposing to take the next steps toward understanding small bodies through impacts. The mission would combine an ESA led AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission) with a JHU/APL led DART (Double Asteroid Redirect Mission) spacecraft to rendezvous with binary near-Earth asteroid 65803 Didymus (1996 G2). DART would impact the smaller asteroid, 'Didymoon' while AIM would characterize the impact and the larger Didymus asteroid.With these missions in mind, a suite of experiments have been conducted at the Experimental Impact Laboratory (EIL) at NASA Johnson Space Center to investigate the effects that collisions may have on comets and asteroids. With the new capability of the vertical gun to cool targets in the chamber through the use of a cold jacket fed by liquid nitrogen, the effects of target temperature have been the focus of recent studies. Mg-rich forsterite and enstatite (orthopyroxene), diopside (monoclinic pyroxene) and magnesite (Mg-rich carbonate) were impacted. Target temperatures ranged from 25°C to -100°C, monitored by connecting thermocouples to the target container. Impacted targets were analyzed with a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Here we present the evidence for impact-induced shock in the minerals through

  18. Demonstration of L-band DP-QPSK transmission over FSO and fiber channels employing InAs/InP quantum-dash laser source

    KAUST Repository

    Shemis, M.A.

    2017-11-23

    The next generation of optical access communication networks that support 100 Gbps and beyond, require advances in modulation schemes, spectrum utilization, new transmission bands, and efficient devices, particularly laser diodes. In this paper, we investigated the viability of new-class of InAs/InP Quantum-dash laser diode (Qdash-LD) exhibiting multiple longitudinal light modes in the L-band to carry high-speed data rate for access network applications. We exploited external and self injection-locking techniques on Qdash-LD to generate large number of stable and tunable locked modes, and compared them. To stem the capability of each locked mode as a potential subcarrier, data transmission is carried out over two mediums; single mode fiber (SMF) and free space optics (FSO) to emulate real deployment scenarios of optical networks. The results showed that with external-injection locking (EIL), an error-free transmission of 100 Gbps dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) signal is demonstrated over 10 km SMF and 4 m indoor FSO channels, with capability of reaching up to 128 Gbps, demonstrated under back-to-back (BTB) configuration. On the other hand, using self-injection locking (SIL) scheme, a successful data transmission of 64 Gbps and 128 Gbps DP-QPSK signal over 20 km SMF and 10 m indoor FSO links, respectively, is achieved.

  19. Worlds meet in Building 180.

    CERN Multimedia

    Raphael Vuillermet

    In the assembly hall of Building 180, several teams of various nationalities and different countries work together for the ATLAS forward muon detector. For nearly two years, Americans, Chinese, Europeans, Israelis, Japanese, Pakistanis and Russians are assembling and testing the so-called "Big Wheels" and the muon EIL4 stations. Each team is independent in its tasks: one team is assembling the mechanical structure, another one is installing services and muon chambers, while a third is testing the electronics and the gas system. A team is in charge of the transport and storage of the sectors and another is assembling the sectors in the ATLAS cavern. A total of nearly 60 people are participating in this project. Some members for the ATLAS Big Wheel team in the assembly hall of building 180. People from different cultures and religions and with different mother tongues are working side by side in harmony. Everyone in building 180, from technicians to professors, has the opportunity to meet and work with...

  20. Influences, Translations, Settings: An Evaluation of the Literary Relations between Ireland and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sciarrino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The text is an attempt to draw conclusions about the literary relations between Italy and Ireland. Taking as its starting point a booklet published by the Italian Cultural Institute Dublin in 1964, the study surveys the influences of Pirandello and Dante in Ireland and analyses in detail translations of Italian poems made by Denis Devlin, Gerald Dawe, Tom Paulin, Derek Mahon, Paul Muldoon, Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin, Harry Clifton and Desmond O’Grady (their authors: Ungaretti, Quasimodo, Montale, Leopardi. Next, it deals with the ways Italian artistic heritage and natural beauties have been re-interpreted by Irish travelers, according special attention to Elizabeth Bowen’s work. The following sections investigate the relationship between Italian visual arts and music and Anglo-Irish Literature, exploring in particular Frank McGuinness’ Caravaggio, Tom Murphys’ The Gigli Concert and Jim Nolan’s The Salvage Shop. The final part of the essay is dedicated to the role Italian migrants play in Irish narrative.  

  1. Evanescent interferometric lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, R J; McNab, S J

    2001-04-01

    Simulation results are presented to illustrate the main features of what we believe is a new photolithographic technique, evanescent interferometric lithography (EIL). The technique exploits interference between resonantly enhanced, evanescently decaying diffracted orders to create a frequency-doubled intensity pattern in the near field of a metallic diffraction grating. It is shown that the intensity in a grating's near field can be enhanced significantly compared with conventional interferometric lithography. Contrast in the interference pattern is also increased, owing to a reduction in the zeroth-order transmission near resonance. The pattern's depth of field reduces as the wavelength is increased beyond cutoff of the first-order diffracted components, and results are presented showing the trade-offs that can be made between depth of field and intensity enhancement. Examples are given for a 270-nm-period grating embedded in material with refractive index n = 1.6 and illuminated with wavelengths near 450 nm. Under these conditions it is predicted that high-intensity, high-contrast patterns with 135-nm period can be formed in photoresists more than 50 nm thick.

  2. Ethylene Signaling Negatively Regulates Freezing Tolerance by Repressing Expression of CBF and Type-A ARR Genes in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yiting; Tian, Shouwei; Hou, Lingyan; Huang, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hongwei; Yang, Shuhua

    2012-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates multiple aspects of plant growth and development and responses to environmental stress. However, the exact role of ethylene in freezing stress remains unclear. Here, we report that ethylene negatively regulates plant responses to freezing stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Freezing tolerance was decreased in ethylene overproducer1 and by the application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid but increased by the addition of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinyl glycine or the perception antagonist Ag+. Furthermore, ethylene-insensitive mutants, including etr1-1, ein4-1, ein2-5, ein3-1, and ein3 eil1, displayed enhanced freezing tolerance. By contrast, the constitutive ethylene response mutant ctr1-1 and EIN3-overexpressing plants exhibited reduced freezing tolerance. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that EIN3 negatively regulates the expression of CBFs and type-A Arabidopsis response regulator5 (ARR5), ARR7, and ARR15 by binding to specific elements in their promoters. Overexpression of these ARR genes enhanced the freezing tolerance of plants. Thus, our study demonstrates that ethylene negatively regulates cold signaling at least partially through the direct transcriptional control of cold-regulated CBFs and type-A ARR genes by EIN3. Our study also provides evidence that type-A ARRs function as key nodes to integrate ethylene and cytokinin signaling in regulation of plant responses to environmental stress. PMID:22706288

  3. Brief chewing of Garcinia manii stick reverses reduced saliva pH after a glucose rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Frederick Kwaku; Nuamah, Isaac Kwasi K; Parkins, Grace E

    2002-11-01

    A popular variety of wood, pieces of which are chewed as an oral hygiene practice in Southern Ghana, was tested for its capacity to reverse experimentally lowered pH of saliva. This was done to determine whether (Garcinia manii) stick-chewing neutralizes acidogenic challenge to teeth, and thereby potentially affords dental caries prevention benefit. Seventy-two volunteer medical students gave (baseline) saliva samples by spitting 3-4 times into a 25 ml conical flask. They then rinsed their mouths with a five-percent aqueous solution of glucose. Subsequent to the glucose rinse, half of the subjects (chewers), pre-selected by drawing lots, chewed a popular chewing stick Garcinia manii for five minutes, while the other half (controls) did not. The pH of saliva samples given by the volunteers at various time intervals was measured using a Kent EIL 7020 pH meter, and the results were analysed by the Analysis of Variance (Anova) method. As expected, saliva pH was reduced in both groups after the glucose rinse, but increased significantly faster in stick chewers compared with controls. It is suggested from this study that brief (Garcina manii) stick-chewing confers a caries prevention/control benefit by reversing acidogenic challenge to teeth.

  4. Sensitivity to Ethephon Degreening Treatment Is Altered by Blue LED Light Irradiation in Mandarin Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lili; Yuan, Ziyi; Xie, Jiao; Yao, Shixiang; Zeng, Kaifang

    2017-08-02

    Although citrus fruits are not climacteric, exogenous ethylene is widely used in the degreening treatment of citrus fruits. Irradiation with blue light-emitting diode (LED) light (450 nm) for 10 h can promote the formation of good coloration of ethephon-degreened fruit. This study evaluated the effect of blue LED light irradiation on the pigments contents of ethephon-degreened fruit and evaluated whether the blue LED light irradiation could influence the sensitivity of mandarin fruit to ethylene. The results indicated that blue light can accelerate the color change of ethephon-degreened fruit, accompanied by changes in plastid ultrastructure and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Ethephon-induced expressions of CitACS1, CitACO, CitETR1, CitEIN2, CitEIL1, and CitERF2 were enhanced by blue LED light irradiation, which increased the sensitivity to ethylene in ethephon-degreened fruits. These results indicate that blue LED light-induced changes in sensitivity to ethylene in mandarin fruit may be responsible for the improved coloration of ethephon-degreened mandarin fruits.

  5. The stochastic resonance for the incidence function model of metapopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Dong, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Ruo-Wei; Li, Yun-Xian; Qian, Zhen-Wei

    2017-06-01

    A stochastic model with endogenous and exogenous periodicities is proposed in this paper on the basis of metapopulation dynamics to model the crop yield losses due to pests and diseases. The rationale is that crop yield losses occur because the physiology of the growing crop is negatively affected by pests and diseases in a dynamic way over time as crop both grows and develops. Metapopulation dynamics can thus be used to model the resultant crop yield losses. The stochastic metapopulation process is described by using the Simplified Incidence Function model (IFM). Compared to the original IFMs, endogenous and exogenous periodicities are considered in the proposed model to handle the cyclical patterns observed in pest infestations, diseases epidemics, and exogenous affecting factors such as temperature and rainfalls. Agricultural loss data in China are used to fit the proposed model. Experimental results demonstrate that: (1) Model with endogenous and exogenous periodicities is a better fit; (2) When the internal system fluctuations and external environmental fluctuations are negatively correlated, EIL or the cost of loss is monotonically increasing; when the internal system fluctuations and external environmental fluctuations are positively correlated, an outbreak of pests and diseases might occur; (3) If the internal system fluctuations and external environmental fluctuations are positively correlated, an optimal patch size can be identified which will greatly weaken the effects of external environmental influence and hence inhibit pest infestations and disease epidemics.

  6. Radiation Patterns of an Antenna Mounted on the Off-Mid Section of an Ellipsoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Three functions can, then, be constructed as follows from Equations (4’)- (6): F(VeVr,y) = recos(Y-a) -rscosy 0(7) D abcos (y-c%)Ec2cos2V e + sin2V e(a...a 2sin 2Vr+b 2cos2 Vr)c 2 SinVeCOsVe [(a2sin 2V r +b~cos2V r)c2cos 2V e+a2b2sin2V eil/2 + abcos (y-a) c 2 Cos 2V +(a 2cos 2 Vr+b 2sin 2V)sinl2 V 1/2 C...2 2 vr +b 2 Cs 2vdc2 Cos 2V e+a 2 h2sin 2 1 l1/2 + abcos (-y-ct) c 2 Cos 2 V+(a2 Cos 2~ V+b 2sin 2vr)si 2 V 11l 2 c~ sine sinV e cOS6 t COO e (a. Cos

  7. A procedure to reduce pollutant gases from Diesel combustion during European MVEG-A cycle by using electrical intake air-heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto Broatch; Jose M. Lujan; Jose R. Serrano; Benjamin Pla [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). CMT - Motores Termicos

    2008-09-15

    While intake air heating is a widespread technology used in heavy duty diesel engines, it rarely appears in the field of HSDI diesel engines. Nevertheless, intake air heating is currently under study as a possible alternative to glow plugs for cold start assistance in HSDI diesel engines. Since the use of intake air heaters involves a cylinder-head simplification, this solution presents both economical and combustion advantages. Despite of the negative impact of the high intake temperatures on NOx emissions, intake air heating reduces significantly HC and CO emissions during warm up due to combustion improvement. While the potential of intake air heating technology to assist cold start is proved, the present paper is devoted to the evaluation of the intake air heating technology potential to reduce pollutant emissions from Diesel combustion. To deal with this objective a deep analysis of both glow plug and intake air heating technology behaviour during the MVEG-A cycle is done. Experimental tests are carried out on a small turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine in an engine-in-the-loop (EIL) approach. Results prove that an optimal intake air heating strategy together with an adapted air loop control calibration can improve HC, CO and NOx emissions with only a slight PM increase. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agustina Mazzella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In darkness, the dicot seedlings produces an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIE 3/EIN3 like 1-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1 pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1 --both required for hook formation in darkness--, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth.

  9. Ethylene signalling and ethylene-targeted transcription factors are required to balance beneficial and nonbeneficial traits in the symbiosis between the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Venus, Yvonne; Bethke, Gerit; Varma, Ajit; Lee, Justin; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2010-03-01

    *The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and promotes its growth and seed production. The fungus can be cultivated in axenic culture without a host, and therefore this is an excellent system to investigate plant-fungus symbiosis. *The growth of etr1, ein2 and ein3/eil1 mutant plants was not promoted or even inhibited by the fungus; the plants produced less seeds and the roots were more colonized compared with the wild-type. This correlates with a mild activation of defence responses. The overexpression of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 constitutively activated defence responses, strongly reduced root colonization and abolished the benefits for the plants. *Piriformospora indica-mediated stimulation of growth and seed yield was not affected by jasmonic acid, and jasmonic acid-responsive promoter beta-glucuronidase gene constructs did not respond to the fungus in Arabidopsis roots. *We propose that ethylene signalling components and ethylene-targeted transcription factors are required to balance beneficial and nonbeneficial traits in the symbiosis. The results show that the restriction of fungal growth by ethylene signalling components is required for the beneficial interaction between the two symbionts.

  10. ‘An rabhas-sa im ní riamh?’ — Coincheap na beithe i saothar an Ríordánaigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ríona Ní Churtáin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ba scríbhneoir bisiúil é Seán Ó Ríordáin (1916–1977, agus is iomaí saothar acadúil atá scríofa faoi ghnéithe éagsúla dá chuid scríbhneoireachta. Is díol suntais é nach bhfuil mórán scríofa faoi thábhacht a shaothair i gcomhthéacs na fealsúnachta Eorpaí. San aiste seo, déantar anailís chomparáideach ar choincheap na beithe i saothar an Ríordánaigh agus i saothar an fhealsaimh cháiliúil Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980 faoi seach. Ba scríbhneoir comhaimseartha é Sartre, a chuir a choincheapa fealsúnachta in iúl trí mheán a shaothair chruthaithigh go minic agus a raibh cuid dá shaothar i seilbh an Ríordánaigh trí mheán an aistriúcháin. Tá cúig shaothar dá chuid ar fáil i mbailiúchán leabhar an Ríordánaigh i gColáiste na hOllscoile, Corcaigh (In Camera (1958, Intimacy (1960, Words (1964, Nausea (1965 agus Room (1969. Tugtar achoimre ghairid ar shainmhínithe Sartre ar an mbeith, agus déantar anailís ar na cosúlachtaí, chomh maith leis na difríochtaí, atá ann idir a choincheapa siúd agus coincheapa an Ríordánaigh. Léirítear go raibh tuairimí difriúla ag an mbeirt acu i dtaobh choincheap na heisinte, ach in ainneoin na ndifríochtaí sin, gurbh iomaí cosúlacht a bhí ann idir a dtuairimí faoi shaoirse an duine agus faoin mbuairt aigne a ghabhann léi. Scríobh an bheirt acu faoin neirbhís a bhíonn ar an duine de dheasca na saoirse ollmhóire atá aige/aici, agus ar na slite éalaithe éagsúla a bhíonn á lorg aige/aici uaithi. Rinne an bheirt acu anailís ar thábhacht an duine eile dár saoirse chomh maith, agus ar an mbagairt dár saoirse a bhíonn ann nó inti. Déantar anailís ar thionchar na gcoincheap seo ar dhearcadh an Ríordánaigh ar an saol, agus ar an gcaidreamh a bhí aige le daoine eile agus leis féin dá bharr. Dearbhaítear, dá réir, gur féidir an scríbhneoir Gaeilge, Seán Ó Ríordáin, a áireamh i measc smaointeoirí na hEorpa a thug faoi mh

  11. Polimerinių implantų, skirtų širdies ir kraujagyslių chirurgijai, formavimas tiesioginio lazerinio rašymo metodu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius DANILEVIČIUS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Per pastaruosius porą dešimtmečių sparčiai tobulėja tiesioginio lazerinio rašymo, paremto selektyviai tūryje lokalizuota fotojautrios medžiagos modifikacija, technologija, skirta trimačių mikro- ir nanostruktūrizuotų polimerinių darinių gamybai. Šiame darbe pristatoma galimybė tiesioginio lazerinio rašymo būdu formuoti didelių matmenų (iki cm3 eilės mikroporėtus kamieninėms ląstelėms auginti skirtus karkasus, kurie gali būti taikomi ir širdies bei kraujagyslių chirurgijoje. Lyginant įvairių impulsų trukmių lazerines spinduliuotes, nustatyta, kad, naudojant femtosekundinius lazerius ir derinant spinduliuotės intensyvumą, galima labiau modifikuoti formavimo skyrą, tačiau audinių inžinerijai reikalingai darinių kokybei pasiekti tinka ir pikosekundiniai lazeriai.Tai sudaro palankesnes sąlygas ateityje diegti pigesnes, praktiniams taikymams skirtas tiesioginio lazerinio rašymo polimeruose sistemas.  Karkasų gamybai naudotos keturios skirtingos medžiagos – hibridiniai organiniai-neorganiniai polimerai SZ2080 ir „Ormoclear“, biologiškai skaidus PEG-DA-258 bei akrilatinis AKRE. In vitro ir in vivo tyrimais nustatyta, kad visi keturi polimerai yra biologiškai sutaikomi, nepasižymi citotoksiškumu, todėl gali būti naudojami audinių inžinerijoje. Adekvačių karkasų gamybos našumui paspartinti buvo pritaikytas replikavimas PDMS minkštąja litografija. Tai leido 2 % tikslumu atkartoti replikuojamo darinio paviršiaus šiurkštumą bei keliomis eilėmis sutrumpinti 15´15 mm2 ploto pavyzdinių dvimačių karkasų gamybos trukmę. Taip pat pateikiama suformuotų trimačių polimerinių karkasų pavyzdžių, kurie yra pakankamai didelių matmenų, kad būtų tinkami praktiškai naudoti chirurgijoje. Jų geometrija ir mikrostruktūrizavimo kokybė įvertinta elektronų skenuojamuoju elektroniniu mikroskopu. Šie tiesioginio lazerinio rašymo būdu gauti dirbtiniai karkasai išsiskiria tiksliai

  12. Short-term treatment of equine wounds with orf virus IL-10 and VEGF-E dampens inflammation and promotes repair processes without accelerating closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaan, Christa J; Wise, Lyn M; Wakelin, Kirsty A; Stuart, Gabriella S; Real, Nicola C; Mercer, Andrew A; Riley, Christopher B; Theoret, Christine

    2016-11-01

    Healing is delayed in limb wounds relative to body wounds of horses, partly because of sustained inflammation and inefficient angiogenesis. In laboratory animals, proteins derived from orf virus modulate these processes and enhance healing. We aimed to compare immune cell trafficking and the inflammatory, vascular, and epidermal responses in body and limb wounds of horses and then to investigate the impact of orf virus interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor-E on these processes. Standardized excisional wounds were created on the body and forelimb of horses and their progression monitored macroscopically until healed. Tissue samples were harvested to measure the expression of genes regulating inflammation and repair (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and to observe epithelialization (histology), innate immune cell infiltration, and angiogenesis (immunofluorescence). Delayed healing of limb wounds was characterized by intensified and extended pro-inflammatory signaling and exacerbated innate immune response, concomitant with the absence of anti-inflammatory eIL-10. Blood vessels were initially more permeable and then matured belatedly, concomitant with retarded production of angiogenic factors. Epithelial coverage was achieved belatedly in limb wounds. Viral proteins were administered to wounds of one body and one limb site/horse at days 1-3, while wounds at matching sites served as controls. Treatment dampened pro-inflammatory gene expression and the innate immune response in all wounds. It also improved angiogenic gene expression, but primarily in body wounds, where it altered blood vessel density and myofibroblast persistence. Moreover, the viral proteins increased epithelialization of all wounds. The short-term viral protein therapy did not, however, improve the healing rate of wounds in either location, likely due to suboptimal dosing. In conclusion, we have further detailed the processes contributing to protracted healing in limb wounds of

  13. Unveiling Clues from Spacecraft Missions to Comets and Asteroids through Impact Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Jensen, Elizabeth; Fane, Michael; Smith, Douglas; Holmes, Jacob; Keller, Lindasy P.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Wooden, Diane H.; Whizin, Akbar; Cintala, Mark J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Impact Spacecraft mission was the first to boldly face the challenge of impacting the surface of a comet, 9P/Tempel 1, to investigate surface and subsurface 'pristine' materials. The Stardust mission to Comet 81P/Wild 2 brought back an exciting surprise: shocked minerals which were likely altered during the comet's lifetime. Signatures of shock in meteorites also suggest that the violent past of the solar system has left our small bodies with signatures of impacts and collisions. These results have led to the question: How have impacts affected the evolutionary path taken by comets and asteroids, and what signatures can be observed? A future planetary mission to a near-Earth asteroid is proposing to take the next steps toward understanding small bodies through impacts. The mission would combine an ESA led AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission) with a JHU/APL led DART (Double Asteroid Redirect Mission) spacecraft to rendezvous with binary near-Earth asteroid 65803 Didymus (1996 G2). DART would impact the smaller asteroid, 'Didymoon' while AIM would characterize the impact and the larger Didymus asteroid. With these missions in mind, a suite of experiments have been conducted at the Experimental Impact Laboratory (EIL) at NASA Johnson Space Center to investigate the effects that collisions may have on comets and asteroids. With the new capability of the vertical gun to cool targets in the chamber through the use of a cold jacket fed by liquid nitrogen, the effects of target temperature have been the focus of recent studies. Mg-rich forsterite and enstatite (orthopyroxene), diopside (monoclinic pyroxene) and magnesite (Mg-rich carbonate) were impacted. Target temperatures ranged from 25 deg to -100 deg, monitored by connecting thermocouples to the target container. Impacted targets were analyzed with a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Here we present the evidence for impact-induced shock in the minerals through

  14. Why Oats Are Safe and Healthy for Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luud J. W. J. Gilissen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water-insoluble storage proteins of cereals (prolamins are called “gluten” in wheat, barley, and rye, and “avenins” in oat. Gluten can provoke celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals (those with human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 serotypes. Avenins are present at a lower concentration (10%–15% of total protein content in oat as compared to gluten in wheat (80%–85%. The avenins in the genus Avena (cultivated oat as well as various wild species of which gene bank accessions were analyzed are free of the known CD immunogenic epitopes from wheat, barley, and rye. T cells that recognize avenin-specific epitopes have been found very rarely in CD patients. CD patients that consume oats daily do not show significantly increased levels of intraepithelial lymphocyte (EIL cells. The safety and the positive health effects of the long-term inclusion of oats in the gluten-free diet have been confirmed in long-term studies. Since 2009 (EC 41/2009 and 2013 (FDA oat products may be sold as gluten-free in several countries provided a gluten contamination level below 20 ppm. Introduction of oats in the gluten-free diet of celiac patients is advised after the recovery of the intestine. Health effects of oat consumption are reflected in European Food Safety Authority (EFSA- and Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved health claims. Oats can form a healthy, nutritious, fiber-rich, and safe complement to the gluten-free diet.

  15. The Sweet Potato NAC-Domain Transcription Factor IbNAC1 Is Dynamically Coordinated by the Activator IbbHLH3 and the Repressor IbbHLH4 to Reprogram the Defense Mechanism against Wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Peng; Kuo, Chih-Hsien; Lu, Hsueh-Han; Lo, Hui-Shan; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-01-01

    IbNAC1 is known to activate the defense system by reprogramming a genetic network against herbivory in sweet potato. This regulatory activity elevates plant defense potential but relatively weakens plants by IbNAC1-mediated JA response. The mechanism controlling IbNAC1 expression to balance plant vitality and survival remains unclear. In this study, a wound-responsive G-box cis-element in the IbNAC1 promoter from -1484 to -1479 bp was identified. From a screen of wound-activated transcriptomic data, one transcriptional activator, IbbHLH3, and one repressor, IbbHLH4, were selected that bind to and activate or repress, respectively, the G-box motif in the IbNAC1 promoter to modulate the IbNAC1-mediated response. In the early wound response, the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH3 protein complex binds to the G-box motif to activate IbNAC1 expression. Thus, an elegant defense network is activated against wounding stress. Until the late stages of wounding, IbbHLH4 interacts with IbbHLH3, and the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH4 heterodimer competes with the IbbHLH3-IbbHLH3 complex to bind the G-box and suppress IbNAC1 expression and timely terminates the defense network. Moreover, the JAZs and IbEIL1 proteins interact with IbbHLH3 to repress the transactivation function of IbbHLH3 in non-wounded condition, but their transcription is immediately inhibited upon early wounding. Our work provides a genetic model that accurately switches the regulatory mechanism of IbNAC1 expression to adjust wounding physiology and represents a delicate defense regulatory network in plants. PMID:27780204

  16. Evidence of Collisional Histories of Asteroids, Comets and Meteorites: Comparisons with Shocked Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Jensen, Elizabeth; Smith, Douglas; Fane, Michael; Whizin, Akbar; Landsman, Zoe A.; Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Cintala, Mark; Keller, Lindsay P.; Zolensky, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Evidence of the collisional history of comets and asteroids has been emerging from analyses of cometary forsterite and enstatite returned from Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission (Keller et al.Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 2008; Tomeoka et al. MAPS 43, 2008; Jacobs et al. MAPS 44, 2009). Likewise, shock metamorphism is observed in many meteoritic forsterites and enstatites (McCausland et al. AGU, 2010), suggesting similar collisional histories for asteroids. Further exploration of the effects of collisions is slated for the upcoming Asteroid Impact Mission/Double Asteroid Redirection Test (AIM/DART) mission, expected for launch in 2020. DART will impact Didymoon, the companion of the larger 65803 Didymos (1996 G2) asteroid, and AIM will use its instrumentation to characterize the impact.A suite of relevant impact experiments have been carried out in the Experimental Impact Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center at velocities ranging from ~2.0 - 2.8 km s-1 and temperatures from 25°C to -100°C. Targets include a suite of minerals typically found in cometary dust and in asteroids and meteorites: Mg-rich forsterite (olivine), enstatite (orthopyroxene), diopside (clinopyroxene), magnesite (Mg-rich carbonate), and serpentine (phyllosilicate). Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) imaging indicates evidence of shock similar to that seen in forsterite and enstatite from Comet Wild 2. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy will also be used for comparisons with meteorite spectra. A quantitative analysis of the shock pressures required to induce planar dislocations and spectral effects with respect to wavelength will also be presented.Funding provided by the NASA PG&G grant 09-PGG09-0115, NSF grant AST-1010012. Special thanks to NASA EIL staff, F. Cardenas and R. Montes.

  17. The settlement of Somali nomads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, A O; Ragsdale, T A; Shirwa, A I

    1991-01-01

    During the April 1973-June 1975 drought in Somalia, the government settled 100,000 nomads over 5 years in 3 agricultural (Dujuma, Sablaale, and Kurtunwary) and 3 fishing settlements (Brava, Adale, and Eil). They had earlier sought relief from the drought at some 20 relief camps. In 1982, the Ministry of National Planning and the Settlement Development Agency conducted a household survey in 4 of the 6 settlements (2059 households). Considerable problems occurred during the survey thus the data must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless this survey provided 1 of the few sources on nomadic settlement conditions. 47.5% of the population in the settlement areas were children 15 years old. Fewer middle aged men than women lived in the settlement areas (9% vs. 22%). Males tended to be more literate and/or in school than females (74% vs. 50% and 64% vs. 43% respectively). Despite the disparity, the researchers found these proportions considerable and encouraging. Women headed many households (47.25%), especially in Adale (61%). Presumedly many of the husbands returned to their pastoral ways. Other adult relatives and older children often lived in women headed households and provided support for farming, fishing, and other economic activities. Most respondents were satisfied with settled life and felt it would be permanent. Further 70-90% of respondents wanted their sons and daughters to be civil servants while 0-8% wanted them to be herders. 78-87% of respondents lost all livestock during the drought while only 2-10% acquired livestock after the drought. Since livestock provided considerable wealth in relation to incomes from agriculture and fishing and since nomads tended to be inexperienced in these new occupants, they underwent an extreme adjustment to settled life. In conclusion, the resettlement program had mixed successes.

  18. ENHANCING CTR1-10 ETHYLENE RESPONSE2 is a novel allele involved in CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE-RESPONSE1-mediated ethylene receptor signaling in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The signal output of ethylene receptor family members is mediated by unknown mechanisms to activate the Raf-like protein CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) in negatively regulating ethylene signaling. The physical interaction between the ethylene receptor histidine kinase (HK) domain and CTR1 N terminus is essential to the CTR1-mediated receptor signal output. To advance our knowledge of the involvement of CTR1-mediated ethylene receptor signaling, we performed a genetic screen for mutations that enhanced the constitutive ethylene response in the weak ctr1-10 allele. Results We isolated a loss-of-function allele of ENHANCING ctr1-10 ETHYLENE RESPONSE2 (ECR2) and found that ecr2-1 ctr1-10 and the strong allele ctr1-1 conferred a similar, typical constitutive ethylene response phenotype. Genetic analyses and transformation studies suggested that ECR2 acts downstream of the ethylene receptors and upstream of the transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and EIN3-LIKE1 (EIL1), which direct the expression of ethylene response genes. Signal output by the N terminus of the ethylene receptor ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (ETR1) can be mediated by a pathway independent of CTR1. Expression of the N terminus of the ethylene-insensitive etr1-1 but not the full-length isoform rescued the ecr2-1 ctr1-10 phenotype, which indicates the involvement of ECR2 in CTR1-mediated but not -independent, ethylene receptor signaling. ECR2 was mapped to the centromere region on chromosome 2. With incomplete sequence and annotation information and rare chromosome recombination events in this region, the cloning of ECR2 is challenging and still in progress. Conclusions ECR2 is a novel allele involved in the ethylene receptor signaling that is mediated by CTR1. CTR1 activation by ethylene receptors may require ECR2 for suppressing the ethylene response. PMID:24529183

  19. REPETITIVE MCKENZIE SPINAL EXTENSION EXERCISES ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES IN CLASS I OBESE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obese population is dramatically increasing worldwide. There is a strong association between obesity and low back pain. The 1-month prevalence of low back pain ranges from 30% to 40% in the general population. McKenzie method is commonly used in the diagnosis and management of patients with back pain. The objective of the study is to examine the cardiovascular responses of two common exercises namely, extension in lying (EIL and extension in standing (EIS used in the McKenzie system with different repetitions among class I obese subjects. Method: 50 class I obese subjects (25 males and 25 females were randomly selected within the age range of 20-40 years. Baseline measures of resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and rate pressure product (RPP were taken before and after exercises. Multiple comparisons were done to analyze the significance within groups. One-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare the dependent values obtained at rest and after 10, 15 and 20 repetitions. Independent “t” test was used to determine the significance between groups. Results: No significant differences (p>0.05 were found in SBP and DBP after 10 repetitions in group 1 and among HR and SBP after 10 and 15 repetitions in group 2. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in RPP after 15 and 20 repetitions within and between the groups. Conclusion: Increased repetitions of spinal extension exercises in prone lying bring more cardiovascular stress when compared to the same performed in the standing position among class 1 obese subjects.

  20. The Molecular Mechanism of Ethylene-Mediated Root Hair Development Induced by Phosphate Starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced root hair production, which increases the root surface area for nutrient uptake, is a typical adaptive response of plants to phosphate (Pi starvation. Although previous studies have shown that ethylene plays an important role in root hair development induced by Pi starvation, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. In this work, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, hps5, that displays constitutive ethylene responses and increased sensitivity to Pi starvation due to a mutation in the ethylene receptor ERS1. hps5 accumulates high levels of EIN3 protein, a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signaling pathway, under both Pi sufficiency and deficiency. Pi starvation also increases the accumulation of EIN3 protein. Combined molecular, genetic, and genomic analyses identified a group of genes that affect root hair development by regulating cell wall modifications. The expression of these genes is induced by Pi starvation and is enhanced in the EIN3-overexpressing line. In contrast, the induction of these genes by Pi starvation is suppressed in ein3 and ein3eil1 mutants. EIN3 protein can directly bind to the promoter of these genes, some of which are also the immediate targets of RSL4, a key transcription factor that regulates root hair development. Based on these results, we propose that under normal growth conditions, the level of ethylene is low in root cells; a group of key transcription factors, including RSL4 and its homologs, trigger the transcription of their target genes to promote root hair development; Pi starvation increases the levels of the protein EIN3, which directly binds to the promoters of the genes targeted by RSL4 and its homologs and further increase their transcription, resulting in the enhanced production of root hairs. This model not only explains how ethylene mediates root hair responses to Pi starvation, but may provide a general mechanism for how ethylene regulates root hair

  1. Assessment of potentially toxic metal contamination in the soils of a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of toxic metal contamination from legacy mining activities, many of which had operated and were closed prior to the enforcement of robust environmental legislation, is of growing concern to modern society. We have carried out analysis of As and potentially toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soil of a legacy gold mining site in Maldon, Victoria, Australia, to reveal the status of the current metal concentration. The results revealed the median concentrations of metals from highest to lowest, in the order: Mn > Zn > As > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Hg > Cd. The status of site was assessed directly by comparing the metal concentrations in the study area with known Australian and Victorian average top soil levels and the health investigation levels set by the National Environmental Protection Measures (NEPM) and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) of the State of Western Australia. Although, median concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn exceeded the average Australian and Victorian top soil concentrations, only As and Hg exceeded the ecological investigation levels (EIL) set by DEC and thus these metals are considered as risk to the human and aquatic ecosystems health due to their increase in concentration and toxicity. In an environment of climate fluctuation with increased storm events and forest fires may mobilize these toxic metals contaminants, pose a real threat to the environment and the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dependence of surface morphology on molecular structure and its influence on the properties of OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S H; Ryu, G Y; Seo, J H; Park, J H; Youn, S W; Kim, Y K; Shin, D M

    2008-09-01

    Most organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have a multilayer structure composed of organic layers such as a hole injection layer (HIL), a hole transport layer (HTL), an emission layer (EML), an electron transport layer (ETL) and an electron injection layer (EIL) sandwiched between two electrodes. The organic layers are thin solid films with a thickness from a few nano meters to a few tenths nano meter, respectively. Surface morphology of an organic thin solid film in OLEDs depends on the molecular structure of the organic material and has an affect on device performance. To analyze the effect of surface morphology of an organic thin solid film on fluorescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties, thin solid films of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(julolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCM2) and new red fluorophores, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl]bis[2-(2-thienyl)acrylonitrile] (ABCV-Th) and (2Z,2'Z)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl]bis(2-phenylacrylonitrile) (ABCV-P) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The samples for EL and AFM measurement were fabricated by the high-vacuum thermal deposition (8 x 10(-7) Torr) of organic materials onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate, in which the layer structures of samples for AFM measurement and those for EL measurement were ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm) and ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm)/BCP (30 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm), respectively. The analysis based on AFM measurements well supported that the photoluminescence properties and the device performance were very much dependent upon surface morphology of an organic thin layer.

  3. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise. Copyright

  4. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, Zohar E; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-06-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence-drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Ethylene biosynthesis and perception during ripening of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alos, E; Martinez-Fuentes, A; Reig, C; Mesejo, C; Rodrigo, M J; Agustí, M; Zacarías, L

    2017-03-01

    In order to gain insights into the controversial ripening behavior of loquat fruits, in the present study we have analyzed the expression of three genes related to ethylene biosynthesis (ACS1, ACO1 and ACO2), two ethylene receptors (ERS1a and ERS1b), one signal transduction component (CTR1) and one transcription factor (EIL1) in peel and pulp of loquat fruit during natural ripening and also in fruits treated with ethylene (10μLL-1) and 1-MCP (10μLL-1), an ethylene action inhibitor. In fruits attached to or detached from the tree, a slight increase in ethylene production was detected at the yellow stage, but the respiration rate declined progressively during ripening. Accumulation of transcripts of ethylene biosynthetic genes did not correlate with changes in ethylene production, since the maximum accumulation of ACS1 and ACO1 mRNA was detected in fully coloured fruits. Expression of ethylene receptor and signaling genes followed a different pattern in peel and pulp tissues. After fruit detachment and incubation at 20°C for up to 6days, ACS1 mRNA slightly increased, ACO1 experienced a substantial increment and ACO2 declined. In the peel, these changes were advanced by exogenous ethylene and partially inhibited by 1-MCP. In the pulp, 1-MCP repressed most of the changes in the expression of biosynthetic genes, while ethylene had almost no effects. Expression of ethylene perception and signaling genes was barely affected by ethylene or 1-MCP. Collectively, a differential transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthetic genes operates in peel and pulp, and support the notion of non-climacteric ripening in loquat fruits. Ethylene action, however, appears to be required to sustain or maintain the expression of specific genes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Silencing Sl-EBF1 and Sl-EBF2 expression causes constitutive ethylene response phenotype, accelerated plant senescence, and fruit ripening in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingwu; Wu, Yu; Pirrello, Julien; Regad, Farid; Bouzayen, Mondher; Deng, Wei; Li, Zhengguo

    2010-03-01

    The hormone ethylene regulates a wide range of plant developmental processes and EBF (EIN3-binding F-box) proteins were shown to negatively regulate the ethylene signalling pathway via mediating the degradation of EIN3/EIL proteins. The present study reports on the identification of two tomato F-box genes, Sl-EBF1 and Sl-EBF2 from the EBF subfamily. The two genes display contrasting expression patterns in reproductive and vegetative tissues and in response to ethylene and auxin treatment. Sl-EBF1 and Sl-EBF2 genes are actively regulated at crucial stages in the development of the reproductive organs. Their dynamic expression in flowers during bud-to-anthesis and anthesis-to-post-anthesis transitions, and at the onset of fruit ripening, suggests their role in situations where ethylene is required for stimulating flower opening and triggering fruit ripening. VIGS-mediated silencing of a single tomato EBF gene uncovered a compensation mechanism that tends to maintain a threshold level of Sl-EBF expression via enhancing the expression of the second Sl-EBF gene. In line with this compensation, tomato plants silenced for either of the Sl-EBF genes were indistinguishable from control plants, indicating functional redundancy among Sl-EBF genes. By contrast, co-silencing of both Sl-EBFs resulted in ethylene-associated phenotypes. While reports on EBF genes to date have focused on their role in modulating ethylene responses in Arabidopsis, the present study uncovered their role in regulating crucial stages of flower and fruit development in tomato. The data support the hypothesis that protein degradation via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway is a control point of fruit ripening and open new leads for engineering fruit quality.

  7. Noor-Eestile : [luuletused] / Juhan Liiv ; [Impressioonid]: Viiu Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Juhan, 1864-1913

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Noor-Eestile ; Vask oli taevas mu üle ; Andke vaesel' eksijale varju ; Palju on must üle käinud ; Ma kõndisin metsa poole ; Minu saatus ; Tule, öö pimedus ; Helin ; Mets kohas ; Minu luule ; Ma pimeduses olen laulnud ; Naised kangast seadvad ; Öösse ära kadus ; Mure II ; Masinlikult liigub mõte ; Tuelvik ; Kui tume veel kauaks ka sinu maa ; Mitte igaühele ; Mis meil kaunis, mis meil kallis ; Meri ; Ta lendab mesipuu poole ; Ma lille sideme võtaks ; Kõik kohad täis ; Sa oled püha ja ilus ; Kadumatu ; Isamaale ; Must lagi on meie toal ; Laul sellest kaduvast ; Eile nägin ma Eestimaad! ; Kas ma Eestit unes nägin? ; Siin väsimatu olgu julgus ; Mina ei tea, kust ma rõõmu võtan? ; Minu erakond ; Üks suu ; Noorusaeg ; Naerata! ; Ei sinu ilust ; Oleksin ma luuletaja! ; Neiule ; Üle vee ; Sügise päikene ; Ei sinu iludus ; Sa tulid ; Sina ja mina ; Mai hommik ; Mu viimane laul ; Arm tuli ; Mis on kui vaikne valu hääl? ; Tuuled, te juurde ma tulen ; Ei valust me enam räägi ; Tulen, tulen! ; Üks märtsihommik udune ; Kevade lähenemine ; Noor kevade ; Tuli kevade ; Meelespea ; Järv ; Suine tuul ; Üks suve päev ; Sügisene kodu ; Tühja pesa ees ; Sööt ; Oh kanarbik, oh lilleke! ; Vanaema sügise ; Sügise ; Sügise päike ; Nõmm ; Üksik tee ; Tuul rabistab lehti maha ; Pilved sõudvad ; Sügise tuul ; Mets ; Sügisene rand ; Lume helbeke ; Tali ; Talve õhtul ; Ma vaatan aknast välja ; Lauliku talve üksindus ; Rukkivihud rehe all ; Talvine tihane ; Tuisk ; Lained, kuhu te tõttate? ; Ema ja tütar ; Rändaja ; Muusika ; Meeled ; Aeg ; Vali on ; Mis isad ütlevad ; Koer ; Kes meeldida tahab ; Mul kannatlik, hää süda on ; Me igapäev paremat loodame ; Üks mälestus ; Sa oled hää ja puhas ; Hõlpsam on mägesid tõsta ; Omakasu ; Laulikutele ; Killud ; Viimane võimalus

  8. The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

  9. Deciphering Mineral Homeostasis in Barley Seed Transfer Cells at Transcriptional Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    Full Text Available In addition to the micronutrient inadequacy of staple crops for optimal human nutrition, a global downtrend in crop-quality has emerged from intensive breeding for yield. This trend will be aggravated by elevated levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Therefore, crop biofortification is inevitable to ensure a sustainable supply of minerals to the large part of human population who is dietary dependent on staple crops. This requires a thorough understanding of plant-mineral interactions due to the complexity of mineral homeostasis. Employing RNA sequencing, we here communicate transfer cell specific effects of excess iron and zinc during grain filling in our model crop plant barley. Responding to alterations in mineral contents, we found a long range of different genes and transcripts. Among them, it is worth to highlight the auxin and ethylene signaling factors Arfs, Abcbs, Cand1, Hps4, Hac1, Ecr1, and Ctr1, diurnal fluctuation components Sdg2, Imb1, Lip1, and PhyC, retroelements, sulfur homeostasis components Amp1, Hmt3, Eil3, and Vip1, mineral trafficking components Med16, Cnnm4, Aha2, Clpc1, and Pcbps, and vacuole organization factors Ymr155W, RabG3F, Vps4, and Cbl3. Our analysis introduces new interactors and signifies a broad spectrum of regulatory levels from chromatin remodeling to intracellular protein sorting mechanisms active in the plant mineral homeostasis. The results highlight the importance of storage proteins in metal ion toxicity-resistance and chelation. Interestingly, the protein sorting and recycling factors Exoc7, Cdc1, Sec23A, and Rab11A contributed to the response as well as the polar distributors of metal-transporters ensuring the directional flow of minerals. Alternative isoform switching was found important for plant adaptation and occurred among transcripts coding for identical proteins as well as transcripts coding for protein isoforms. We also identified differences in the alternative-isoform preference between

  10. The relationship between the expression of ethylene-related genes and papaya fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya.

  11. EIN3 and ORE1 Accelerate Degreening during Ethylene-Mediated Leaf Senescence by Directly Activating Chlorophyll Catabolic Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Degreening, caused by chlorophyll degradation, is the most obvious symptom of senescing leaves. Chlorophyll degradation can be triggered by endogenous and environmental cues, and ethylene is one of the major inducers. ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3 is a key transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway. It was previously reported that EIN3, miR164, and a NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC transcription factor ORE1/NAC2 constitute a regulatory network mediating leaf senescence. However, how this network regulates chlorophyll degradation at molecular level is not yet elucidated. Here we report a feed-forward regulation of chlorophyll degradation that involves EIN3, ORE1, and chlorophyll catabolic genes (CCGs. Gene expression analysis showed that the induction of three major CCGs, NYE1, NYC1 and PAO, by ethylene was largely repressed in ein3 eil1 double mutant. Dual-luciferase assay revealed that EIN3 significantly enhanced the promoter activity of NYE1, NYC1 and PAO in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Furthermore, Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA indicated that EIN3 could directly bind to NYE1, NYC1 and PAO promoters. These results reveal that EIN3 functions as a positive regulator of CCG expression during ethylene-mediated chlorophyll degradation. Interestingly, ORE1, a senescence regulator which is a downstream target of EIN3, could also activate the expression of NYE1, NYC1 and PAO by directly binding to their promoters in EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. In addition, EIN3 and ORE1 promoted NYE1 and NYC1 transcriptions in an additive manner. These results suggest that ORE1 is also involved in the direct regulation of CCG transcription. Moreover, ORE1 activated the expression of ACS2, a major ethylene biosynthesis gene, and subsequently promoted ethylene production. Collectively, our work reveals that EIN3, ORE1 and CCGs constitute a coherent feed-forward loop involving in the robust regulation of ethylene-mediated chlorophyll

  12. EIN3 and ORE1 Accelerate Degreening during Ethylene-Mediated Leaf Senescence by Directly Activating Chlorophyll Catabolic Genes in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kai; Li, Zhongpeng; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Junyi; Wu, Shouxin; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Shan; Gao, Jiong; Ren, Guodong; Kuai, Benke; Zhou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Degreening, caused by chlorophyll degradation, is the most obvious symptom of senescing leaves. Chlorophyll degradation can be triggered by endogenous and environmental cues, and ethylene is one of the major inducers. ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway. It was previously reported that EIN3, miR164, and a NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor ORE1/NAC2 constitute a regulatory network mediating leaf senescence. However, how this network regulates chlorophyll degradation at molecular level is not yet elucidated. Here we report a feed-forward regulation of chlorophyll degradation that involves EIN3, ORE1, and chlorophyll catabolic genes (CCGs). Gene expression analysis showed that the induction of three major CCGs, NYE1, NYC1 and PAO, by ethylene was largely repressed in ein3 eil1 double mutant. Dual-luciferase assay revealed that EIN3 significantly enhanced the promoter activity of NYE1, NYC1 and PAO in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Furthermore, Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that EIN3 could directly bind to NYE1, NYC1 and PAO promoters. These results reveal that EIN3 functions as a positive regulator of CCG expression during ethylene-mediated chlorophyll degradation. Interestingly, ORE1, a senescence regulator which is a downstream target of EIN3, could also activate the expression of NYE1, NYC1 and PAO by directly binding to their promoters in EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In addition, EIN3 and ORE1 promoted NYE1 and NYC1 transcriptions in an additive manner. These results suggest that ORE1 is also involved in the direct regulation of CCG transcription. Moreover, ORE1 activated the expression of ACS2, a major ethylene biosynthesis gene, and subsequently promoted ethylene production. Collectively, our work reveals that EIN3, ORE1 and CCGs constitute a coherent feed-forward loop involving in the robust regulation of ethylene-mediated chlorophyll degradation

  13. Silica in invasive wetland plant species of lagoons, Côte d'Ivoire: Spatio-temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Schoelynck, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    Tropical wetlands are known to accumulate a large quantity of Biogenic Silica (BSi) produced by wetland plant species (Struyf et al., 2015), and approximately 70-80% of the total supply of Dissolved Si (DSi) to the coastal zone occurs in (sub) tropical river systems (Jennerjahn et al. 2006). However, the data at these latitudes are limited. Here, we present the BSi concentration from eleven invasive macrophyte species randomly collected in three small ( 800ha) lagoons of Côte d'Ivoire during 12 months. Our data showed a large spatio-temporal variability of BSi in the three lagoons with no consistent trends. In general, the BSi concentrations obtained were high and values ranged from 0 to 54 mg g-1 through the entire sampling period, with the highest values found in Acroceras zizaniodes (emergent species of Poaceae). In general, free floating species had significantly less BSi than emergent species (Pyoung stage were similar to those found in the emergent species. Based on yearly averages, highest BSi values were observed in Kodjoboué lagoon, and the lowest in the Ono lagoon that is 80% covered by macrophytes. Moreover, the dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations were systematically higher in Ono Lagoon than in Kodjoboué Lagoon. We conclude that in an eutrophic system Si accumulating in aquatic macrophytes is not related to Si availability but to other environmental factors. Jennerjahn, T.C., Knoppers, B.A., de Souze, W.F.L., Brunskill, G.J., Silva, E.I.L., Adi, S. et al., 2006. Factors controlling dissolved silica in tropical rivers. In: Ittekot, V. (ed) The silicon cycle. Island Press, Washington, D. C, pp 29-51 Schoelynck J and Struyf E, 2016. Silicon in aquatic vegetation. Functional Ecology. 30: 1323-1330. Struyf, E., Mosimane, K., Van Pelt, D., Murray-Hudson, M., Meire, P., Frings, P., Wolski, P., Schaller, J., Gondwe, M.J., Schoelynck, J. and Conley, D.J., 2015. The role of vegetation in the Okavango Delta silica sink. Wetlands, 5: 171-181.

  14. Apport maternel chez la balane tropicale : Plasticite de l'allocation de la ressource trophique pour la production larvaire en conditions de limitation nutritionnelle et de stress environnemental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuchet, Florian

    compensee par les meres qui adoptent un modele AME qui se traduit par l'anticipation du milieu par les meres afin de produire des larves au phenotype approprie. A l'ajout d'un stress thermique, on observe des diminutions de 47% de la production de larves et celles-ci etaient 18 microm plus petites. Les meres semblent utiliser un modele SME caracterise par une diminution de la performance des larves. Suite a ces resultats, nous emettons l'hypothese qu'en zone subtropicale, comme sur les cotes de l'etat de Sao Paulo, l'elevation de la temperature subie par les balanes n'est, a priori, pas dommageable pour leur organisme si eIle est combinee a un apport nutritif suffisant.

  15. 高エネルギー物質を用いたイオン液体推進剤の研究

    OpenAIRE

    松永, 浩貴; 羽生, 宏人; 三宅, 淳巳; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Habu, Hiroto; Miyake, Atsumi

    2015-01-01

    高エネルギー物質を溶剤なしで液体化することができれば,液体推進剤のさらなる高性能化が期待される.火薬学会高エネルギー物質研究会ではエネルギーイオン液体(EILs)に着目し,次世代高性能液体推進剤としての適用可能性を検討することとした.本研究では高エネルギー酸化剤アンモニウムジニトラミド (ADN) の液化手法について探索し,モノメチルアミン硝酸塩 (MMAN),尿素との共融により,室温で安定なADN 系エネルギーイオン液体推進剤 (EILPs) を得ることができた.化学平衡計算による性能計算によれば,現行のヒドラジンを上回る性能が期待される.熱分解挙動の検討の結果,ADN 系EILPs は加熱によりほぼすべてがガス化し,N2O,NO2,N2,NH3,HNCO,CO2,H2O を生成することがわかった.現在は実用化に向け,物性,性能を実験的に把握し,必要に応じてそれらの改善を進めている.また,構成する物質の特性がEILPs の物性 (融点,密度,粘度など) に与える影響を把握し,EILPs のデザインを可能にすることおよび蒸気圧の低いイオン液体への着火方法が課題である....

  16. Dependence of surface morphology on molecular structure and its influence on the properties of OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, G.Y. [Department of Electric Information and Control Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, J.H.; Park, J.H. [Center for Organic Materials and Information Devices (COMID), Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, S.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Center for Organic Materials and Information Devices (COMID), Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shindm@wow.hongik.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Most organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have a multilayer structure composed of organic layers such as a hole injection layer (HIL), a hole transport layer (HTL), an emission layer (EML), an electron transport layer (ETL) and an electron injection layer (EIL) sandwiched between two electrodes. The organic layers are thin solid films with a thickness from a few nano meters to a few tenths nano meter, respectively. Surface morphology of an organic thin solid film in OLEDs depends on the molecular structure of the organic material and has an affect on device performance. To analyze the effect of surface morphology of an organic thin solid film on fluorescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties, thin solid films of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(julolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCM2) and new red fluorophores, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl] bis[2= -(2-thienyl)acrylonitrile] (ABCV-Th) and (2Z,2'Z)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl] bis(2-phenylacrylonitrile) (ABCV-P) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The samples for EL and AFM measurement were fabricated by the high-vacuum thermal deposition (8x10{sup -7} Torr) of organic materials onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate, in which the layer structures of samples for AFM measurement and those for EL measurement were ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm) and ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm)/BCP (30 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm), respectively. The analysis based on AFM measurements well supported that the photoluminescence properties and the device performance were very much dependent upon surface morphology of an organic thin layer.

  17. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  18. ANALISIS DE PRIMER y SEGUNDO-ORDEN Y ESTABILIDAD DE PÓRTICOS CON CONEXIONES SEMIRRÍGIDAS: MÉTODO DE HARDY CROSS (I-TEORIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DARIO ARISTIZABAL-OCHOA

    2011-01-01

    ía con rigidez a cortante GAs del mismo orden de magnitud que la rigidez a fl exión EI/L2 (situación que ocurre en columnas cortas hechas de materiales laminados compuestos con un modulo a cortante G mucho menor que el de elasticidad E. Estos efectos llegan a ser incluso más importantes cuando los apoyos externos no son perfectamente empotrados. Tres ejemplos son incluidos en un artículo adjunto, los cuales muestran la efectividad del método propuesto.

  19. Notizen zu altpr. mosla, moska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Gliwa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastabos dėl pr. mosla, moskaSantraukaŽodžių pr. mosla – v.v.a. leimat (GrG73, moska – leimet (GrA85, Moska – Leimet, Viscus (GrF86, išskyrus lo. viscus, reikšmės nėra aiškios, o pastarasis yra daugiareikšmis. Svarstoma keletas prūsų kalbos rūpimo žodžio kilmės variantų, manant, kad lo. viscus „amalas, klijai iš amalo, spąstai paukš­čiams su klijais“ teisingai perteikia pr. mosla.1. Jei žodis įvardytų masalą, ypač su klijais smulkiems paukščiams gaudyti (plg. v.v.a. lîm–ruote, tada pr. mosla lygintinas su lie. mãsalas, mãsinti, kur pr. šaknyje būtų kaip Noye (Gr. = nage (E 145, pig. lie. nagà. Darybiškai pr. mosla gretintinas su lie. mãsalas kaip lie. dẽglas – su dẽgalas, plerplà – su pler̃palas. Beje, nerasta jokių duomenų, kad baltai būtų taip medžioję.2. Kadangi vok. Mistel „amalas“ galbūt yra vedinys iš Mist „mėšlas“, ieškota mosla sąsajos su lie. mė́šlas, mė́žti. Galima pastarojo žodžio giminystė su lie. mỹžti rodytų šaknies apofonijos i eilę, kur laipsnis ō nelauktinas. Variantas atmetamas.3. Amalas yra krūmu ant medžių augantis parazitas. Pavadinimai įvardija jo formą, pvz.: lie. laumės šluota, vok. dial. Kraigennest „varnos lizdas“. Vok. dial. Wispe, Wespe, atrodo, irgi perteikia augalo formą, plg. norv. visp „krūmelis“, šved. visp „virbų maišiklis“ ir vespelten, vispelten „ama­las“. Šiuo atžvilgiu pr. žodį galima lyginti su lie. mastas „mazgas, juosta“ , mãzgas „t.p.“, užsimègzti „pradėti augti (apie tik apvaisintą vaisių“, – tada pr. mosla [masla] būtų *“kas susimazgojęs; kas auga kaip mazgas“.4. Dažnai pr. (Gr šaknyje atitinka lie. u, pvz.: pr. Songos – lie. šunį, šuo. Tad svarstytina pr. mosla sąsaja su lie. mus-: 2mùsti (muñta, mùto „verdant tirštėti...“, mū̃sas „plėvė ant skysčio; vario oksidas; pelėsiai“. Šalia ū esama ir ly

  20. Об одном источнике гоголевской зрелищности: пейзаж Брейгеля во втором томе «Мертвых душ» | Apie Nikolajaus Gogolio prozos vizualumo šaltinius: Breigelio peizažas „Mirusiųjų sielų“ antrame tome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инга Видугирите

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gogolio Mirusiųjų sielų antrasis tomas pradedamas labai įspūdingu gamtovaizdžio aprašymu, kuriame atkuriama Pieterio Bruegelio Vyresniojo peizažų Medžiotojai sniege. Sausis ir Niūri diena. Vasaris er­dvės struktūra, su jai būdingu žemės paviršiaus įgau­bimu. Aprašymo subjekto požiūrio taškas sutampa su Bruegelio peizažų subjekto tašku – yra iškeltas virš pirmojo plano. Gogolio aprašymas pradedamas nuo tolumoje matomos galingos kalnų virtinės, nuo kurios stebėtoją skiria platus upės slėnis su daugy­be malūnų, prieplaukų ir tiltų bei bažnyčių bokštais vainikuotų gyvenviečių. Priartėjęs prie subjekto po­zicijos žvilgsnis apsisuka, ir tuomet pasakojama apie upę, jos pakrantes, miškus, galiausiai, kalnus, kurie visi tarsi nyksta begalinėje tolumoje. Toks žvilgsnio sūpavimas įstrižai erdvės – būdingas Bruegelio pa­ veikslų stebėtojui, įnikusiam studijuoti jų detales ir bendrą vaizdą, kuriame, be Gogolio paminėtų objek­tų, dar yra ir žmonių figūrų. Gogolio du kartus pakar­totas sušukimas „Viešpatie, kaip čia erdvu!“ tiksliai atkuria Bruegelio peizažo įspūdį. Peizažo struktūros analogijas įtvirtina ir visa eilė sutampančių detalių – spalvų gamos, efekto aprašymo, tapybinės technikos perteikiant atmosferą atkūrimo, geografinių konkre­tybių ir pan.Šios analogijos iki šiol nėra tyrinėtos. Bruege­lio vardas apskritai nefigūruoja Gogolio tyrinėjimų kontekste, matyt, ir dėl tos priežasties, kad nei pats rašytojas, nei memuaristai tapytojo niekur nepami­nėjo. Tačiau galima būti tikram, kad Gogolis matė garsiuosius Metų laikų peizažus Vienos Belvedery­je, kur praleido ne mažiau dviejų mėnesių ir kaip tik tuo metu, kai pradėjo rašyti antrąjį savo poemos tomą. Manyčiau, kad jį turėjo patraukti virtuoziška Bruegelio peizažų technika, susijusi su iliuminacijų ir miniatiūrų tradicija, bei italų Renesanso tapytoj