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Sample records for eikyo sayo sokuteiho

  1. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Measurement of ultra-micro chemical substances and measuring methods of hormone effects; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Chobiryo kagaku busshitsu no keisoku horumon eikyo sayo sokuteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the measurement system of ultra-micro hazardous chemical substances in the global environment, the paper examined the present situation of chemical substances such as dioxins, made an experimental study on the method to analyze dioxins in exhaust gas from an aspect of international consistency, and worked out a JIS draft. As to the standard measuring method of hormone effects of chemical substances, the paper developed the competitive bonding experiment system to measure bonding ability of chemical substances to homo sapiens estrogen receptor (ER). By measuring ER bonding ability of 78 kinds of chemical substances, the measuring method was developed. In the development of the assay system for detection of hormone-like compounds, the assay system with transfer activity via estrogen receptor as an index was established using cultured cells and yeast. Further, the development was made of a measuring method of receptor bonding activity of hormone-like substances. 33 refs., 151 figs., 66 tabs.

  2. Effect of heat treatment changes on swelling treatment of coal; Sekitan no bojun shori sayo ni oyobosu netsushori henka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satsuka, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    Discussions were given on effects of heat treatment at relatively low temperatures as a pretreatment for coal liquefaction on coal swelling and hydrogenolysis reaction. Taiheiyo coal was heated to 200{degree}C for one hour as a pretreatment. The attempted heating methods consisted of four steps of rapid heating (6.7{degree}C/min)quenching (20{degree}C/min), rapid heating/natural cooling (0.7{degree}C/min), heating (1.0{degree}C/min)/quenching, and heating/natural cooling. The swelling treatment was composed of adding methanol benzene into heat treated coal, and leaving it at room temperature for 24 hours. The hydrogenolysis was carried out by using a tetralin solvent and at an initial hydrogen pressure of 20 kg/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 350{degree}C and for a time of one hour. Hydrogenolysis conversion in the heat treated coal was found lower than that of the original coal because of generation of liquefaction inactive components due to thermal polymerization. When the heat treated coal is swollen by using the solvent, gas yield from the hydrogenolysis reaction decreased due to gas suppression effect, and the conversion was lower than that of the original coal. Heat treatment suggests densification of the coal structure. Swollen coal shows no conspicuous difference in the heat treatment methods against the hydrogenolysis due to the swelling effect. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Report on the project of drawing energy-saving visions for the Town of Sayo district; Sayomachi chiiki sho energy vision sakutei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The survey/study is conducted to draw the district energy visions for Town of Sayo, Hyogo Pref. The town as a whole consumes energy at 1,269,040GJ/y, or 140,817MJ/y per capita, which is about 1.2 times larger than the nationwide average. By energy source, electric power accounts for 43%, and oil products 53%. The town as a whole emits carbon dioxide at 18,900,403kg-C/y, or 2,097kg-C/y per capita, which is lower than the nationwide average. The short-term (1 year or less), medium-term (3 year or less) and long-term (5 years or less) targets are drawn by employees of the town offices, citizens and entrepreneurs for energy-saving directions (saving of power for air conditioning by adjusting clothes, wider use of bicycles and public trains). Those facilities investigated for promoting energy saving include those for the town office buildings, solar energy system for producing hot water for town-operated swimming pool, and solar energy system and photovoltaic system for Harima Observatory Park. (NEDO)

  4. Effects of lactic acid bacteria in kimoto on sake brewing. Part 2. ; Promotion mechanism of enzymolysis in rice by teichoic acid. Kimotochu no nyusankin no seishu jozo ni oyobosu eikyo. 2. ; Kimotochu no nyusankin ni yuraisuru teikosan no. alpha. kamai yokai sokushin sayo kisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, H.; Tsurumoto, M.; Furukawa, A.; Kawasaki, T. (Kikumasamune Sake Brewing Co. Ltd, Hyogo (Japan))

    1991-07-25

    In order to elucidate promotion mechanism of dissolution of {alpha}-rice (pregelatinized rice) by teichoic acid. adsorption of teichoic acid and {alpha}-amylase onto rice protein oryzenin was investigated by experiments. Teichoic acid was adsorbed well onto oryzenin and reduced adsorption of {alpha}-amylase. Adsorption of {alpha}-amylase onto rice powder was decreased logarithmically in proportion to the teichoic acid added. Both teichoic acid and {alpha}-amylase were adsorbed by histone, abundant in basic amino acids, and by anion-exchange resin. Adsorption of {alpha}-amylase onto them was reduced by coexistence with teichoic acid. As the results of experiments, it was inferred that teichoic acid became dissolvable through autolysis by lactic acid bacteria in kimoto, changed the state of electric charge on oryzenin surfaces through adsorption onto oryzenin by phosphoric group, decreasing adsorption of {alpha}-amylase onto oryzenin and increasing free {alpha}-amylase in the liquid phase, and thus increased the dissolution of {alpha}-rice. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Continuous measurement of electrical characteristics in plants. 3. Shokubutsu seitai no denki tokusei sokuteiho. 3. ; Suikoeki pH chosei heno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, T; Haniyu, H; Saiki, H

    1989-09-01

    Controlling pH of nutrient solution and keeping the other conditions unchanged, measurements of variation in electric potential difference between leaf and hypocotyl of a bush bean plant was performed for about seven days. Silver electrodes 0.3mm in diameter were glued on the surface of the plant using conductive paste prepared by dissolving gelatine in Ringel {prime} s solution. The results obtained are summarized as follws: first, when pH of the solution is suddenly increased or decreased, the potential of leave becomes high or low with respect to that of hypocotyl respectively; second, the variation in potential difference between them is affected by the rate at which pH of the solution is adjusted, although the total variation of pH is controlled to be the same, and in particular by mild adjustment (0.02 - 0.05pH/min) it is reduced to 1/2 - 1/4 of that produced by sudden change; third, abrupt change in pH of the solution cause to the plant the temporary suppression of its water absorption having a duration of 7 - 15 minutes. A short account is given of a non-contact type measurement of bioelectric potential performanced by making use of a Faraday {prime} s cage. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Studies of structure change of iron sulfates and its catalysis; Ryusantetsukei shokubai no kozo henka to sono shokubai sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, E.; Horie, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nishijima, A. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since a huge amount of coal containing inorganic ash is treated for the commercial hydroliquefaction process, cheap catalysts widely distributing on the earth with large reserves are desired rather than expensive catalysts. This paper describes the effects of addition of sulfur on the catalysis of iron sulfates during the hydroconversion of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). Reactions of 1-MN were conducted at the same charging amount of iron in the reaction system. Sulfur was directly added in the reaction system using ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) as precursor. Consequently, it was found that FeSO4 provides lower but similar catalytic activity to the synthetic pyrite catalyst prepared through the complex processes with the precise control. Thus, it was revealed that high performance pyrrhotite (Fe(1-x)S) catalyst can be prepared for the hydrogenation of aromatic-rings by adding solid sulfur into the reaction system using commercial reagent, FeSO4 as a precursor of the catalyst. 9 figs.

  7. Interactions between wall rocks around magma and hot water. Magma shuhen no hekigan/nessui sogo sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes interactions between wall rocks around magma and hot water. The paper discusses effects of hydrothermal environments on dynamic properties of rock minerals with respect to hydrolytic weakening (decrease in dynamic strength of a mineral under presence of water) and reaction enhanced deformation (deformation accelerated by chemical change occurring in a mineral itself). It also explains chemical reactivity of minerals under hydrothermal enviroments with respect to four types of chemical changes in minerals, factors governing mineral dissolution rates, and importance of equilibrium and non-equilibrium in main components in reactions between minerals and waters. These statements quote mainly results of indoor experiments. The paper indicates the following matters as problems to be discussed on interactions between wall rocks around intrusive rocks and hot waters: Deviation from chemical equilibrium in reactions between rocks and waters; change in permeability as a result of reactions between rocks and waters; and possibilities of hydrolytic weakening in rocks around intrusive rock bodies. 52 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Antimicrobial commodities. 7. Biocide for water treatment; Kokin seikatsu yohin. 7. Suraimu control zai no kokin bo kabi sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, T. [Kurita Water Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Outlined in this report are microbe-caused troubles that happen in manufacturing processes particularly in water treatment systems, measures for dealing with such troubles, and the antimicrobial and fungicidal functions presented by slime inhibiting agents. In heat exchangers in production lines in chemical and iron-making industries, and in paper making processes in paper and pulp industry, deposits, called slime and composed mainly of microbes, occur to cause various troubles such as reduction in production efficiency. In general, vermicides and multiplication depressants are used for the prevention and removal of slime deposition. They include chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, chlorinated isocyanuric acid, and dibromohydantoin, which are used for slime control mainly in cooling water systems. Slime inhibitors are needed for paper pulp, antiseptic agents with its effect lasting long are required for industrial production, and, in small cooling towers where chlorine management is demanding, antimicrobial agents of the organic nature are used. In case water treatment is inappropriately performed, troubles may be caused by Legionella microbes, for whose destruction chemical-aided washing is necessary. (NEDO)

  9. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  10. ESR study on the interaction between carbon blacks and oxygen molecules; ESR ho ni yoru carbon black to sanso bunshi tono sogo sayo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, M.; Toriyama, K.; Konishi, Y. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-02-24

    Interaction between carbon blacks and oxygen molecules has been studied by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR spectra of the carbon blacks appears at the g-value of free spin, which are contributed by both isolated electrons and conduction electrons. Upon introducing oxygen to the system the ESR linewidth was broadened in proportion to the partial pressure of oxygen. In case of lampblack (LB 101, Degussa) the interaction was not so strong that it took a tong time at 77K for the linewidth to reach the maxmum value. In case of gassblack (P 140 V, Degussa), on the other hand, the oxygen was easily adsorbed at 298K and the linewidth at 77K became its maximum immediately after cooling. The number of unpaired electrons decreased when the system was kept at 298 K and the decrease was prominent for the local spins. These phenomena have been explained with a simple band model for the electron. (author)

  11. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of a technology to measure biological molecular interactions; 1998 nendo seitai bunshi sogo sayo no keisoku gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    It has been indicated possible in principle in recent years to measure biological molecular interactions with the molecules in the living state by combining the technologies called the co-focussing optical system and the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The FCS method is a method capable of analyzing concentrations, sizes, and inter-molecule interactions through detection of fluorescence fluctuation in single molecules in submicron zones. In spite of the FCS method being a very effective method to measure interactions in biological molecules, the technology has not reached a level that allows easy utilization under the present condition. The present research and development is intended to solve the technological problems in the FCS method in the co-focussing optical system, and perform as many research and development works as possible in a short time to establish a technological foundation that can be provided to bio-industrial and medical sites. Particularly, in order to make the utilization thereof possible in measuring biological molecular interactions in cells, a measuring technology using the bi-photon excited fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was established with an objective to reduce damages to cells and their internal micro organs, and minimize effects of interference signals from the own fluorescence. (NEDO)

  12. Studies on surface structures and mechanism of photocatalytic action of semiconductor oxides; Handotai hikari shokubai no hyomen kozo seigyo to sayo kiko kaimei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H; Sona, S; Koike, H; Hori, H; Negishi, N; Kohara, H; Ibusuki, A [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Vakhtin, A; Borovkov, V [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Studies are made to define the working mechanism of semiconductor photocatalysts such as TiO2 and to establish designing guidelines for improving on their activity and functions. TiO2 in the air actively produces oxygen seeds for the oxidation and removal of NOx, etc. It is desired that a catalyst have a specific surface area large enough to retain the product of its action. To meet the need, a thin-film photocatalyst which is an aggregate of TiO2 crystals is produced by burning a film of a sol/gel system of reaction doped with macromolecules. This product has a larger specific surface area and is higher in pollutant-removing performance, and may be put into practical use. In another experiment, metal-carrying particles TiO2 suspended in water are employed for the reduction of CO2. Though the main product of catalysts carrying Pt or Pd is methane, a photocatalyst carrying RuO2 produces acetic acid mainly and loses less activity with the passage of time. A hybrid photocatalyst is composed of an organic pigment and inorganic semiconductor, synthesized through a covalent bond between a sililated-surface thin TiO2 film and porphyrin. It is confirmed that the newly developed process brings about an increase in electron migration efficiency. 3 figs.

  13. Report of the expert committee on the biological clean technology. No. 1. subcommittee. ; Measurement method of aerofungi and surface pollution fungi. Baiorojikaru kurin gijutsutaikei chosa senmon iinkai hokoku. 1. ; Kuchukin/hyomen osenkin sokuteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    The measurement of the aerofungi and surface pollution fungi is different in the collection, culture, count, evaluation method and so forth, and therefore a method to be able to correspond to all cases is not yet established. At present, it is required for performing a measurement that it is well adapted to a limit and characteristics of the individual measurement instrument. The aerofungi and surface pollution fungi handled in this paper should be the bacteria and true fungi, and moreover a case to measure them as the bacteria particle and true fungi should be an object. In case of measurement, for all of the culture medium adjustment, transportation sampling and culture, the aseptic manipulation is indispensable. In case of to measure them as the particle of the microorganisms, a process of the culture and count of the colony coming into view is passed through. When the various samplers are used, it is required for confirming beforehand that the flow rate complied with the regulations is aspirated. A measurement of a concentration of the aerial floating microorganisms is greatly influenced by the meteorological condition, personnel, its activity state and so forth, and consequently it shows generally a violent fluctuation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fire in Kuwaiti oil and its influence. Kuwait yuden kasai to sono eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, T. (The Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-10

    Fire which was brought about by the Gulf War in Kuwaiti oil fields caused artificial air pollution of the largest scale without precedent. In March, 1991 immediately after the War had come to an end, investigation was started by various organizations of different countries. Japan conducted her investigation from April to May, 1991 on. The present report gave the full particulars of air pollution investigation result together with the result of further investigation conducted on site in Kuwait in December, 1991 after the fire had been put out. It was reported that totally 500 to 850 oil wells were burned up in seven oil fields with a crude oil burning rate of 1 to 6 million barrels per day at its peak. However at most spots in Kuwait, the air pollution during the burning was unexpectedly much less than its environmental standard value though high content was locally detected of floating particulate substances, SO2, etc. Additionally with circumstances of traffic and industrial destructions, the measured data after the fire had been put out gave lower content of SO2 and NO2 than that in the non-polluted regions in Japan. 4 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography; Hiteiko tomography ni okeru konaisui no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Theoretical discussions were given on the effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography. The discussions performed incorporation of earth resistance as a method to consider borehole diameters in an FEM calculation using wire elements. The numerical experiment conducted a simulation on the following two objects: resistivity tomography in a horizontal multi-layer structure consisted of layers with resistivity ranging from 10 to 10000 ohm-m, and a model with a slanted low resistivity band existing in a background of 5000 ohm-m. As a result of the discussions, it was made clear that the effect of the boreholes can be corrected by giving earth resistance between the wire elements and natural ground. An improved potential calculating program indicated that the effect of the fluid-filled boreholes in the resistivity tomography generates false images with high resistivity along the bores if the resistivity has high contrast. Incorporating the wire elements into an inverse analysis model reduces the false images and improves the accuracy. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  16. Effects of organophosphoric acid triesters on human health; Yuki rinsan toriester rui no kenko eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A. [National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-10

    This paper describes the effects of organophosphoric acid triesters (OPEs) on human health. Tri-o-cresyle phosphate is metabolized in vivo, and forms neurotoxic esterase hindrance substance. More neurotoxic substance is formed by introduction of hydroxyl group into methyl group and cyclization. The toxicity is largely dependent on kinds of animals and individuals. Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, trimethyl phosphate and tris-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate give a carcinogenesis to experimental animals. In order to evaluate the effect of detected OPE concentrations in actual environment on human health, the genotoxicity of OPEs should be determined. In the case of no genotoxicity, the allowable intake of OPEs is determined by multiplying a safety factor by NOEL obtained from animal experiment. In the case of clear genotoxicity, the allowable intake is determined by model calculation. Although the toxicity of simple OPE is weak, the synergistic effect of multiple exposure is yet unidentified. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Effect of water pollution on marine organisms; Sekiyu osen no kaiyo seibutsu eno eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Fujisawa, K. [Okayama Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Toxicity of petroleum component to aquatic organisms appears as a result of its deposition onto living organisms followed by its migration into bodies of the organisms, and emergence of toxicity from the migrated component. Effect evaluation processes standing on this viewpoint may include the exposure monitoring or migration monitoring, in which the petroleum component migrated into marine organisms is analyzed and the state of the component concentrated in these organisms is measured, or effect monitoring, in which actions of the petroleum component in the organisms are investigated. The effects of petroleum on aquatic organisms would include the following occurrence: direct fatal toxicity acting on cells and membranes, quasi-fatal toxicity causing death indirectly through feeding actions and abnormal actions, direct coating of oil on surface of organisms, which prevents movability and feeding actions of the organisms and reduces hydrophilicity of plumes and hairs, pollution of living organisms due to migration of carcinogenic aromatic compounds into bodies of the living organisms, and change in species compositions and geographic distribution of living organisms due to change in physico-chemical environment. This paper explains cases of detection and identification of organic sulfur compounds, aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds, paraffins, olefins and heavy metals in parametric compounds of petroleum. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Influence of life line stoppage on building equipments; Lifeline tozetsu no kenchiku setsubi eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadohara, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-06-05

    Our daily life is being supported by electricity in various ways. This paper, explains the influence of the stoppage of the electricity, affecting infrastructures, buildings and people`s daily life based on the survey result of a long term electricity stoppage in Hiroshima City in September 1991. This paper also introduces the survey result of emergency generators operation in Japan and in the U.S. Last, the ways and ideas to make lifeline reliability higher in the future are summarized. 1 ref., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Effect of groupware introduction on office works; Groupware donyu no white color gyomu e ataeru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Investments for information systems in Japanese firms have been shifting from those for main frame systems to PC, LAN and groupware systems. Described herein are effects of groupware introduction on office works, and efficient introduction and practical application of these systems. The groupware functions are divided into information sharing, analyzing, integrating and coordinating functions, and changed information transmission as a result of practical application of each function has been followed by literature and questionnaire surveys on experiences at advanced enterprises. The results indicate that the changes are represented by 6 patterns, from replacement of information media to changes in working styles. The major productivity-related effects brought by introduction of these systems are decreased document volumes and improved skills of employees. The notable effects on office works are improved efficiency resulting from allotting one personal computer to each employee and from introduction of E-mail systems which solve problems involved in telephone communication. 15 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. FY1995 studies on surface structures and mechanism of photocatalytic action of semiconductor oxides; 1995 nendo handotai hikari shokubai no hyomen kozo seigyo to sayo kiko kaimei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of the semiconductor photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide is important for photo-energy conversion and purification of the environment. We make clear that the mechanism of the photocatalysis using a spectroscopic or physico-chemical methods, and we developed the new photocatalyst with the control of the surface area, porosity, infinitesimal content, and surface modification of the catalyst surface. Titanium dioxide thin film photocatalysts were prepared by the dip coating method. Surface structure of the thin film was formed by the aggregated TiO{sub 2} anatase particle, its size was around 5 nm. This thin films effectively oxidazed NO, its photocatalytic activity is higher than that of commercial photocatalyst. Metal oxide anchored TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts (RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}) were prepared by the co-precipitation method. Effective charge separation of the RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} were confirmed by the measurement of ESR. The RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst successfully reduced CO{sub 2} and preserved its activity for much longer period than metal loaded catalyst. Hybrid photofunctionalized material was prepared by anchoring porphyrin moieties on the titanium dioxide surface. The relative quantum yield of electron transfer from porphyrin to the titanium dioxide conduction band has been markedly increased by water treatment of quanternized porphyrin-titanium dioxide covalently linked systems owing to removal of adsorbed porphyrin domains. (NEDO)

  1. Hydrothermal alteration of deep sea sediments from the Izu-Bonin fore arc basin, leg 126, ODp. Izuter dot Ogasawara ko no shinkaitei taisekibutsu ni okeru netsusui henshitsu sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazaki, K. (Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-08-25

    The deep sea drilling according to ODP has been performed in the Izu-Bonin arc during a period of April 22 to June 19 in 1989, and the drilling across the forearc, island arc and backarc was successful in the Leg 126 of it. The drill length of 1682 m at Site 793 was achieved and it is the deepest world record including the drilling of basement. In this report, the various measurements and observations were performed focussing the hydrothermal effects accompanied with the volcanic activities, on the Site 793 achieved the longest drilling in the forearc basin and the Site 792 in the same forearc. As a result, there are many dehydration veins, clastic dikes and small faults in the volcanic sediments, and the gypsum, smectite, zeolite and prehnite etc. are filled in these parts as a zonal distribution, suggesting the thermal gradient and thermal history at that time. The volcanic glass and feldspar etc. are changed partly to the smectite and zeolite etc. by the hydrothermal alteration. The effective keys as mentioned above were obtained about the temperature condition of hydrothermal alteration and the paleo-environment. 31 refs., 15figs.

  2. Rectangular section shield driving method applying percussion action. Construction of passage to disabled person elevator in Ichigaya Station; Pakasshon sayo wo riyoshita kukei danmen shirudo seko. Ichigaya Eki shinshoshayo erebeta renraku tsuro secchiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T. [Teito Rapid Transit Authority, Tokyo (Japan); Endo, M. [Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-02-25

    Section forms of the shield driving method are mostly circular. This paper reports the work of a rectangular section shield driving method applying percussion action. Percussion type shield machines are outlined first showing figures and a specification table. Then the outline and method of the work now done is described. The work report is stated under the following 5 headings: Driving time by means of percussion, Assembling time of rectangular segments, Effect of movable head slide jacks, Propelling while driving, and Condition of surfaces driven. From the result now worked, the initial intention of driving a free section short passage at a low cost is considered achieved. Lastly, 6 items are discussed for further improvements. The advantages of the method are stated to be a simple mechanism, an availability to various soil conditions, a low production cost, and etc. 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Estimation of water-coal surface interaction during heat treatment of coal by use of FTir and DSC; FTir to DSC wo mochiita sekitan-mizu kan sogo sayo no teiryoteki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Mae, K.; Morozumi, F.; Kusakawa, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-10-30

    The authors have recently presented a method to estimate the strength distribution of hydrogen bondings in coal using FTir and DSC. The method was applied to estimate the strength of coal-water interaction in two different coals and to estimate the enthalpy change deriving from the change in hydrogen bondings during the desorption of water. The estimated enthalpy change was compared with the total enthalpy change estimated by DSC measurement to examine the importance of hydrogen bondings during the desertion of water. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Effects of diesel fuel additives on engine performance and reliability. Part 2. Effects of lubricity additives; Keiyu tenkazai ga engine seino oyobi shinraisei ni ataeru eikyo. 2. Junkatsusei kojo ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, J; Okada, M; Naruse, H [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Many studies about the effects of lublicity additives for diesel fuel have been carried out and reported. These additives have already been used in Europe, north-America for couple of years and it has just started in Japanese market this July. This paper mainly describes the effects of lublicity additives on engine performance and reliability. At first, the effects on engine reliability were investigated during 30 thousand kms chasis dynamometer test. Secondary, the effects on piston ring corrosion, injection nozzle fouling and water separation were investigated. Furthermore, 70 thousand kms engine reliability test was conducted, and investigated some component parts. 2 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Study about the effect of microgravity on biofunctions; Seitai kino eno bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A study is made for the elucidation of the effect of microgravity on biofunctions. The protoplast of shiitake is exposed to microgravity and then cultured, and a significant difference occurs. The rate of colony formation by cell fusion in the test sector is found to be two times higher than that in the control sector. When swimming ciliates which are unicellular are suddenly exposed to microgravity, their swimming speeds changed differently according to the direction of swimming. When a mouse subjected to acupuncture for three days is exposed to microgravity, its water metabolism and excretory function are enhanced. A mouse treated with Chinese medicine reacts in the similar way. The change due to microgravity in the amount of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus is found characteristically time dependent. Mice infected with lethal herpes viruses just after exposure to microgravity die at a rate in proportion to the number of exposures and to the amount of viruses given. The migration speed of chemical stripes in case of a gel-base BZ (Belousov-Zhabotinsky) reaction under microgravity is equal to that on the ground. The trigger wave migration speed in case of a water solution-base BZ reaction under microgravity is reduced to approximately 80% of the speed on the ground. 12 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Influence of spectral solar radiation to the generating power of photovoltaic module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku eno taiyoko supekutoru eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaki, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, T.; Nakamura, H. [Japan quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As to the influence of spectral solar radiation to generating power of solar cells, a study was conducted from the aspects of season, time zone, intensity of solar radiation, etc. In the study, spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were introduced as evaluation values expressing the influence of spectral solar radiation. For the spectral distribution, an all sky spectral pyranometer by wavelength was used, and data were used which were obtained in the measurement in experimental facilities of the solar techno center. Concerning solar cell relative spectral sensitivity values, used were relative spectral sensitivity values of monocrystal and amorphous standard solar cells to the short-circuit current. Spectral response variation correction coefficients are coefficients correcting variations in conversion efficiency of solar cells due to changes in the spectral distribution. The changes of spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were studied using data obtained during April 1994 and March 1996. As a result, it was found that the coefficients showed large changes in summer and small ones in winter and that amorphous solar cells indicate this trend conspicuously. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S; Sakamoto, K; Hanamoto, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Loading test of pile affected by soil layer deformation; Jiban henkei no eikyo wo ukeru kui no saika jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakurai, M.; Tsuchiya, T. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Large soil tank developed for shearing experiments is used to study the horizontal movement of piles in earthquakes. The system comprises a soil filled (8m deep) tank, pile head loading jig, and 6 actuators. The soil tank is fabricated of 40 layers of 20cm-high iron frames of inner dimensions 2.5mtimes2.5m, and it is filled with soil that is to simulate the ground. The frames are divided into 4 groups each containing 10 frames, and the frames in each group are coupled with each other, so that all the frames in one group will move horizontally when the topmost frame in the group is moved horizontally. An actuator, which travels horizontally ganging with a computer, is mounted on the top frame in each group, and this setup enables the arbitrary simulation of ground deformation in the horizontal direction in an earthquake. The pile head loading jig, driven by 2 actuators, can keep restraining the pile head from rotation while applying load or deforming force to the pile head as desired in the vertical and horizontal direction. Experiments conducted using this system involve the force imposed on a pile in the soil tank by ground deformation and the resultant pile behavior including breakdown. 9 figs.

  9. Evaluation on the effect of tsunami and seaquake on the floating structure; Tsunami kaishin no futai ni taisuru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K; Suzuki, H; Hosomi, I [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nahata, H [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The effects of tsunami and seaquake on large floating structures are theoretically studied, where these effects are followed in terms of local strength using the equation proposed by Sells to predict surface shapes changed by seaquake-caused uplift of the seabottom. The equation is combined with the one for tsunami propagation, to better predict the tsunami motion. The simulation results indicate the necessity of considering the effects of tsunami for the design of a large floating structure. The authors discuss that the effect of tsunami is minimized when a floating structure is set at a depth of at least 40 to 50m, chain length should be determined by equalizing the breaking weight with the load at which the structure starts to move, and a structure should be set at a position where it is not attacked by transverse waves. They also discuss that seaquake intensity should be predicted by the equation of motion of compressible fluid, and, noting local strength of a floating structure, it will not be damaged when it is at least 16mm thick under the conditions of 2m as seabottom uplift and 0.5m as draft depth. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Influence of oil starvation on piston ring oil film thickness; Junkatsuyu kyokyuryo fusoku ga ring yumaku ni ataeru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiruma, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Hydrogen Energy Research Center; Takiguchi, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An analytical behavior of the piston ring oil film has been carried out theoretically under the condition where sufficient lubrication oil dose not exist. Phenomena have been studied on the oil film when plural rings slide together on the surface of cylinder with a new concept in addition to the well-known assumptions. In particular, a comparison has been made on the friction force with the data obtained by the floating liner method. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Effect of ambient gas density for diesel spray; Diesel funmu ni taisuru fun`iki mitsudo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokohashi, M; Suzuki, T; Oshima, R [Tohokugakuin University, Sendai (Japan); Ono, A [Shinryo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effect of ambient gas density for fuel spray are measured to investigate the Diesel spray behavior. The change of ambient gas density has been given by pressuring N2 gas and using a high density atmospheric pressure SF6 gas. The measurement are performed for the spray penetration and angle. As a result, the spray penetration is confirmed same tendency at the change of density by pressuring N2 and using SF6. Though spray angle is required modification with viscosity. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Evaluation on the effect of tsunami and seaquake on the floating structure; Tsunami kaishin no futai ni taisuru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H.; Hosomi, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nahata, H. [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effects of tsunami and seaquake on large floating structures are theoretically studied, where these effects are followed in terms of local strength using the equation proposed by Sells to predict surface shapes changed by seaquake-caused uplift of the seabottom. The equation is combined with the one for tsunami propagation, to better predict the tsunami motion. The simulation results indicate the necessity of considering the effects of tsunami for the design of a large floating structure. The authors discuss that the effect of tsunami is minimized when a floating structure is set at a depth of at least 40 to 50m, chain length should be determined by equalizing the breaking weight with the load at which the structure starts to move, and a structure should be set at a position where it is not attacked by transverse waves. They also discuss that seaquake intensity should be predicted by the equation of motion of compressible fluid, and, noting local strength of a floating structure, it will not be damaged when it is at least 16mm thick under the conditions of 2m as seabottom uplift and 0.5m as draft depth. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Influence of traffic situation on a driver`s visual behavior; Kotsu jokyo ga shinin kodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisumi, E; Hara, t [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    When a driver performs an in-car visual task, that task must be time-shared with the driving task. Therefore, his/her glances would be divided between the forward view and the in-car visual display in accordance with traffic situation. In order to investigate the influence of traffic situation on glance duration distribution, an experiment for in-car visual task was conducted using Mitsubishi`s flat-belt driving simulator. As a result, a glance duration tends to shorten as driving task demands increase, such as driving at high speed, being overtaken, etc., and a glance cycle tends to shorten under the same situation. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ecological processes for Environmental Impact Assessment in Coastal Waters; Engan no kankyo eikyo hyoka (EIA) eno seitaigakuteki apurochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Kimitoshi. [Environmental Assessment Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-25

    This paper focuses on a method for estimating adverse effects on natural environment by economic development in coastal waters in Japan. In particular, the most critical relations concerning the impact on marine organisms is pointed out and discussed according to an environmental impact assessment. Relations between environmental impact assessment and marine organisms needs a quantitative ecological approach in order to succeed in sustainable development of coastal waters management. Recently, the Environment Agency of Japan pointed out the unreliability and the theme on accuracy and the staff for biology and ecology in the environmental impact study. Ecological response to environmental impact occurs in a wide spectrum of physiological and biological and biological functions. Therefore biological monitoring measures must correspond to the given time-space scale of natural mechanisms. For the evaluation of environmental impact, it is desire able to develop of experimental technics and collect biological and ecological basic data for the object. I Reconstructing the following: 1. Reconstructing a clearlistic EIA process by EIA agencies and practitioners, 2. Scorping the biological and ecological issues by EIA professionals, 3. Using the current computer technology, 4. Considering monitoring systems over scales of time and space for the ecological target and 5. Making available to public all monitoring data and reports of EIA. (author)

  15. Detection of strain behavior during phase-transformation in welds by the laser speckle method. Report 3. Application of the laser speckle method to strain masurement in the welding process; Reza supekkuru ho ni yoru yosetsubu no sohentai tojo no hizumi kenshutsu. 3. Reza supekkuru ni yoru hizumi sokuteiho no yosetsu eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Kuroda, S. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gross, H-G. [Rostock Univ., Rostock (Germany)

    1996-11-05

    It corresponds to an information relating to defect formation due to residual stress and its accompanying defect formation to find out the period of phase-transformation and expansion volume on the transformation forming at welding. In order to estimate texture of the heat affected zone, there is an SH-CCT diagram, which is important on weld metallurgy. However, this is formed by giving a thermal recycling to a small size specimen under stress-free, which has some problems to estimate the transformation starting period in actual welding. And, the expansion volume containing the transformation cannot be found out directly by this. In this study, as the first step adaptable to this problem with laser speckle method measurable with non-contact and high precision, a linear heating with TIG to a SUS304 stainless steel thin plate without transformation was executed at first, the strain behavior accompanied with it was confirmed. Secondly, using a thin plate of 9% Ni steel showing any transformation at comparatively low temperature, probability of a phase transformation detection was investigated on a way of cooling by executing resemble linear heating. As a result, the laser speckle method was confirmed to be adaptable to this problem. 14 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Method for laboratory tests on noise emission from appliances used in water supply installations. Part 2:mounting and operating conditions for draw off taps and mixing valves; Kyusui kigu hasseion no jikkenshitsu sokuteiho dai2bu,. Kyusui oyobi kongo suisen no toritsuke houho narabini sado joken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This standard prescribes the laboratory of the water utensil occurrence sound prescribed with JIS A 1424-1 about the installation method of a water stopper to measure water utensil occurrence sound, and the mixed water stopper and the operation condition by the way of examining it, the test device in the way of measuring it. Or, the water stopper made the target, and a mixed water stopper were decided to be designed by the water pressure of the range of 0.1 - 0.5 MPa so that the building (sink, wash and bathtub) might do the use of the cold water in the neighborhood of the building and the warm water. The valve, which has an automatic temperature adjustment, mixed water stopper; a direct exit to the inside is excluded from the object. Moreover, an electric operation dialect is a combination device and this is excluded from the object. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of effect of energy efficiency improvement on global environment; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Analyses are conducted into consideration given to global warming measures in the 3rd assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and into technology transfer from developed nations to developing nations in the Asia-Pacific region etc. to contribute to their energy efficiency improvement. The aim is to present data for deliberation as to how future energy efficiency improvement measures should be in the Asia-Pacific region. The chapters (Chapter 0 through Chapter 10) of the report to be worked out by Working Group III deeply involved in energy problems are 0) Introduction, 1) Scope of the report; 2) Socio-economic and emissions scenarios; 3) Technical and economic potential of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction; 4) Technical and economic potential of biological CO2 mitigation options; 5) Barriers, opportunities and market potential of technologies and practices; 6) Policies, measures and instruments; 7) Costing methodologies; 8) Global, regional and national costs and ancillary benefits of mitigation; 9) Sector costs and ancillary benefits of mitigation; and 10) Decision making frameworks. As the result of the survey, some actual technology transfer implementations are introduced covering branches closely related to energy efficiency improvement, which are branches of construction, traffic, industry, energy supply, and wastes. (NEDO)

  18. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Survey on environmental effects from photovoltaic power generation systems; 1998 nendo daikibo taiyoko hatsuden system no kankyo eikyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Different environmental effects may be assumed when large-size photovoltaic power generation systems are installed in vast unutilized lands including deserts. Knowledge having been acquired to date has been put into order on the following subjects as the pre-survey thereon: (1) environmental characteristics of desert areas, (2) discussions on environmental effects from (a) environmental assessment viewpoints, (b) contents of the environmental assessment, and (c) environmental assessment institutions, and (3) the survey policy. In discussing the environmental characteristics, it is revealed that desert areas are neither sterile nor unused, but pasturage and agriculture have been carried out in historical and traditional ways. In discussing the environmental effects, it was recognized that surveys on primary and secondary effects on the environmental are indispensable. With regard to the institutions, there are countries who have and have not the institutions even among the OECD member states. In addition, it was known that environments in the desert areas vary greatly according to the particular areas, whereas there are possibilities of installing the facilities because the effects of the facility locations on the environment are various. Therefore, it was decided to start from the case studies in locations of different types. (NEDO)

  19. Ecological effects assessment of anionic surfactant on aquatic ecosystem using microcosm system; Microcosm wo mochiita in ion kaimen kasseizai no suiken seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurihara, Y. [Ou Univ., Fukushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumura, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Applied Biochemical

    1997-11-10

    Microcosm system was applied to assess effect of anionic surfactant (LAS) on aquatic ecosystem. Anionic surfactant such as LAS was added to an flask microcosm consisting of four species of bacteria as decomposer, one species of ciliate protozoa (Cyclidium glaucoma), two rotifers (Philodina sp. and Lepadella sp.) and one aquatic oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as predator, and a green alga (Chlorella sp.) and a filamentous blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer, comparing with that of an natural lake model ecosystem derived from natural lake water. In the flask microcosm system and the natural lake model ecosystem, biodegradation rates of LAS were almost same and NOECs (no observed effect concentration) of LAS were also below 1.5 mg{center_dot} l{sup -1}. It was found that flask microcosm test could provide precise ecological effect assessment of LAS on number of microorganisms because the system showed higher reproducibility and stability than natural take model ecosystem. It was suggested that flask microcosm test was useful ecological effect assessment method which can reflect natural aquatic ecosystem. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Study on the effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions; Seitai kino eno bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions and vital reaction was studied using the facility of Underground Gravity-free Experiment Center Co. On the effect on osteoblast shape and gene expression, although fluorochrome reacting with Ca was well taken into cells, no significant difference in Ca content in cells was observed before/after falling. Expression of genes related to cell propagation was controlled under micro-gravity. Protoplast fusion of Lentinus was unaffected by micro-gravity. The mRNA fragments of gravity sensitive mutant of rice plant were affected by micro-gravity. Paramecium was set swimming in solutions with different specific gravities. The reaction behavior of Paramecium was affected by the difference in specific gravity between cell bodies and solutions. The water content metabolism functions of a mouse with needle stimulus, in particular excretory, were slightly promoted by micro- gravity. The cortisol level in blood of a falling mouse group rose showing strong stress. As the preliminary study on the geotaxis of insects, motion of bagworm was observed. 12 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Engine performances and exhaust gas characteristics of methanol-fueled two-cycle engines. Kogata ni cycle ter dot methanol kikan no seino ni oyobosu shoinshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, N.; Kajitani, S. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineerineering); Hayashi, S.; Kubota, Y. (Muroran Inst. of Technology, Muroran (Japan))

    1990-10-25

    Regarding crank case compressed two cycle engine, feasibility of methanol-fueled engine was investigated by studying effective factors on properties of power, combustion, and exhaust gas. For the experiment, air-cooling single cylinder engine was used of which specification was shown by table. As for the experiment, quantities of in-taken air, fuel consumption, torque, and composition of exhaust gas were measured under various conditions. As the consideration of experimental results, those were obtained that less exhaust gas with high performance operation of tow-cycle engie was achieved, too, by using diluted mixture gas of methanol, and that problems were found to be studied for the realization of high compression ratio. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of low oxygen partial pressure to the bumblebee respiration; Naruhanabachi ni okeru taikichu sanso bun'atsu henka no kokyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komai, Y. [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-25

    Insects augment oxygen supply using convective transport during flight in two ways: with deforming tracheae by surrounding muscles movement (muscle pumping) and with contracting air sacs by exoskeleton movement (abdominal or thoracic pumping). However, because induced flow inside tracheae is difficult to measure, it is not known how the convective transport actually contributes. By comparison between direct measurement of oxygen partial pressure in a flight muscle based on electrochemical method and flight/ventilation activities in a bumblebee, Bumbus hypocrita hypocruta, a method was developed for estimating gas transport efficiency. Oxygen partial pressure, P{sub 02}, in the bee periodically fluctuated with discontinuous abdominal movement in normal air. While the P{sub 02} strongly varied among individuals in normal air, the P{sub 02} took a unique value in oxygen poor air ({<=}8%). By enhancing ventilation, the bee could respire in an oxygen poor atmosphere up to 2%. Furthermore, the bee could fly in an atmosphere of 6%, in which the P{sub 02} decreased to 0.7%. Estimated efficiency of the gas transport increases with atmospheric oxygen concentration decreases. (author)

  3. Method for estimation of the spectral distribution that influence electric power of PV module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku ni eikyo wo ataeru bunko nissha bunpu no suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A method was proposed for estimating the spectral distribution using air mass, precipitable water, and clear indexes which are generally obtainable, and a comparative study was made between the spectral distribution obtained by this method and the measured data using output power of PV modules, etc. as indexes. When solar light comes into the atmosphere, it dissipates receiving scattering/absorption by various gases and aerosols. Direct light component and scattered light component which arrive at the earth surface become functions of air mass and precipitable water. The wavelength distribution of scattered light in cloudy sky is not dependent upon air mass, but affected strongly by absorption band by steam of clouds. By relational equations considered of these, output power and short-circuit current of PV modules are obtained to make a comparison with the measured data. As a result, it was found that this method estimated the spectral distribution with accuracy. Further, seasonal changes in the spectral distribution were well reproduced. The simulation of the module output in Sapporo and Okinawa brought a result that the output in Okinawa is 1.93% larger than in Okinawa. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Economical effect of introducing a photovoltaic system on future electric power system; Shorai no denryoku keito eno taiyoko hatsuden system donyu ni yoru keizaiteki eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, N.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Economic impact of introduction in the future of photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems into the commercial power system is discussed from the electric utilities` point of view. In the discussion, future demand for power is predicted from the demand for power in the base year, and the optimum power source configuration corresponding to the future demand and power generation curve are worked out by use of linear programming. Then, the fixed cost and variable cost are calculated for each of the power source components, and then the expected reduction in cost per unit of power generated is calculated. As the power sources, the hydroelectric, pumped storage, oil-fired, coal-fired, LNG-fired, combined cycle, and atomic technologies are considered. The conclusion is stated below. Upon introduction of PV power equivalent to 10% of the maximum demand power, the maximum power in the service area of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., will be reduced by 1.23GW in 2025, and the yearly demand power by 5472GWh. Since PV lowers the peak, an increased number of power sources low in variable cost will be used although such will be low in tracking capability. An increase in power demand will enhance the cost reducing effect of the PV system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Influence of flow force on the flapper of a water hydraulic servovalve; Suiatsu servo ben no flapper ni sayosuru ryutairyoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, E. [Kanagawa University, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamashina, C. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-06-25

    In this paper flow force due to nozzle flow and its influence on the flapper-nozzle system for water hydraulic servovalves are discussed. The flow force acting on the flapper is estimated using the momentum theory, and expressed as a function of the nozzle pressure and flapper-nozzle gap. Analysis shows that the double nozzle flapper gives a quasilinear characteristic to the relationship between the force on the flapper, the flapper gap and the spool velocity. The numerical result based on the theory is used to estimate accuracy of the classical linear approximation. The flow force reduces the magnitude of the change of the nozzle back pressures which drive the spool of the water hydraulic valve, because the input moment acting on the armature is resisted by the moment due to the flow force. Experimental verification of the theory is also given. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of ferrous ions on the metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria; Ryusan`en kangenkin no taisha ni oyobosu tetsu ion no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, F.; Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Technology and Engineering Lab.]: Seo, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School

    1995-11-15

    The grave damages due to microorganisms occur occasionally to the ironic piping and the like when river water is used as industrial water. In the present researches, the effects of Fe{sup 2+} on the amount and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the culture medium with the concentration of Fe{sup 2+} changed by stages from 3.6{times}10{sup -4} M to 0.7M are examined. Further, the relations between the activity of the bacteria and the amount of FeS generated in the medium are investigated as an in-site means to observe the activity of the bacteria in the medium wherein the produced S{sup 2-} is converted into FeS once it is generated. The following conclusions are drawn therefrom. In the initial medium with the Fe{sup 2+} concentration from 3.6{times}10{sup -4} M to 0.7M, the growth of the bacteria is maximum at the concentration of 1.0{times}10{sup -2}. Over this concentration the growth is weakened due to the osmotic pressure, lowering of nutriment and the deposit of waste, and the bacteria are extirpated due to the direct effect of osmotic press when the concentration is 0.7M. The total amount of FeS produced due to the bacteria is in conformity with the tendency of growth of bacteria till 30 hours of culture. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Influence of catalytic activity and reaction conditions on the product distribution in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekikayu no seiseibutsu bunpu ni taisuru shokubai kassei oyobi hanno joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, H.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    The NiMo sulfide supported on Ketjen Black (KB) was more effective and yielded lighter oil products containing light fractions with their boiling point below 300{degree}C during the two stage liquefaction combining low temperature and high temperature hydrogenation the conventional NiMo/alumina catalyst and FeS2 catalyst. Although the NiMo/alumina yielded increased oil products during the two stage liquefaction, the lighter oil fractions did not increase and the heavier fractions increased mainly. This suggests that the hydrogenation of aromatic rings and successive cleavage of the rings are necessary for producing the light oil, which is derived from the sufficient hydrogenation of aromatic rings using catalysts. For the two stage reaction with NiMo/KB catalyst, it was considered that sufficient hydrogen was directly transferred to coal molecules at the first stage of the low temperature reaction, which promoted the solubilization of coal and the successive hydrogenation at the high temperature reaction. Thus, high activity of the catalyst must be obtained. It is expected that further high quality distillates can be produced through the optimization of catalysts and solvents at the two stage reaction. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Influence of molybdenum on hardenability of destabilized high chromium cast irons. Ko kuromu chutetsu no netsushori tokusei ni oyobosu moribuden no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, M. (Ube, Collete of Technology, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Ogi, K. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sawamoto, A. (Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan))

    1991-07-25

    Alloy elements are added to compensate for reduction in hardenability of high chromium cast iron as a result of destabilization heat treatment. With the purpose of investigating the influence of the added elements, this paper describes investigations made on effects of Mo and destabilization heat treatment conditions on martensite transformation , eutectoid transformation and base hardness, using Fe-Cr-C-based alloy containing C at 1.6-3.6%, and Cr at 6.6-26%. The main results obtained are as follows: Mo and Cr had the distribution coefficient for initial crystal austenite is smaller than one and were microscopically segregated in the dendrite base; the solute element distribution in the base is homogenized as a result of the long-time destabilization heat treatment while the Cr and C concentrations reduce largely, and the Mo concentration increases slightly; Mo has little influence on the Ms point, and reduces with the smaller the Cr/C ratio and the higher the retention temperature; and the base hardness corresponds well to a CCT diagram. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Survey on method of environmental-impact assessment in wind power development; 1998 nendo furyoku kaihatsu ni okeru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With the purpose of preparing the main points of 'environmental-impact assessment guidelines for wind power developments (draft)', examples of environmental-impact assessments, related laws and regulations in Japan and abroad were collected, and rearranged in respect to requirements in environmental-assessments, concrete procedures, survey/projection/assessment method, summarisation of results, etc. It was clarified, for example; in a large-scale wind power development, it can be dealt with by choosing items and contents on the assumption that a land area is developed; in a small-scale development, there is basically no need of considering the possible effect of the construction work; and, as far as noise, vibration and the ecosystem (plants/animals) are concerned, however, the characteristics of the site be taken into consideration. Objects for general assessment are noise, low-frequency air vibration, radio wave interference, the ecosystem (plants and animals) and the landscape. The guideline draft is constituted of (1) basic items, (2) overview of the area, (3) determination of items for environmental-impact assessment and (4) research, prediction, assessment, conservation measures and follow-up research; in the basic items, importance of preliminary consideration was emphasized, as were priority/simplification, implementation of environmental conservation measures, and implementation of follow-up research. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of energy supply/demand structure sophistication and global environmental impact; 1994 nendo energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Outlines of various energy supply/demand analytical models are surveyed. With environmental problems gathering importance, a number of models are being introduced in which energy supply/demand structures, long-term climate changes, and impacts of policy options on social economy are linked to each other. Some socioeconomic impact models cover a single country and others the whole world. They are various in type, ranging from dynamic optimization models to static balance models. Twenty-four models are chosen, and grouped into two types respectively covering Japan and the whole world from a geographical viewpoint and into three groups in view of their structures. Under an optimization model, such optimization is accomplished as economic growth maximization and energy cost minimization and so forth under given energy supply restrictions. Under a general balance type econometric model, an adjustment process in which capital and labor and production are coordinated across multiple departments is expressly stated. Under a partial balance type econometric model, a demand function for goods is given and optimum behavior such as consumption maximization is indirectly described. (NEDO)

  12. International symposium on environmental impacts of advanced alternative to CFC; CFC shinki daitai busshitsu no kankyo eikyo ni kansuru kokusai symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-07

    The international symposium on environmental effects of new CFC substitutes was held in Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Pref. on February 7-9, 1996, and 19 papers were made public. In Session 1 (Plenary lecture), reports were made on Global warming and climate change: a review of recent studies; Stratospheric ozone, CFCs, and CFC-substitutes: an update, etc. In Session 2, Measurements of OH rate constants for advanced refrigerants as well as HCFCs and HFCs; The reaction rate of CFC alternatives with OH radical; Experimental and estimated rate constants: reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several halocarbons, etc. In Session 3, Measurement of uptake coefficients of some acetyl halides and fluorinated ethers into water; Mass transfer at the air/water interface: removal processes of halocarbonyl compounds; Heterogeneous reactions of fluorinated ethers on allophane or titanium dioxide, etc. In Session 4, papers were reported on model calculations relating to the global warming.

  13. Fiscal 1999 survey report on introducing technique for predicting impact on hot spring; 1999 nendo onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    For the application of fruits of the geothermal development promotion project to survey phase C and for the study of technical means for appropriate development to employ after phase C, some cases of impacts imposed on hot springs by geothermal development were taken up and the causes of the impacts were investigated. Activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) the survey of actualities of impacts imposed on hot springs, (2) the survey of the causes of such impacts, and (3) a comprehensive survey. Keyword searches were conducted into the data system and geothermal energy related magazines, and 13 cases were found in which hot springs were affected by geothermal development, which included the Palinpinon district (Philippines), the Koso district (America), and the Wairakei district (New Zealand). Concerning the 13 cases, data on geology, geological structures, and geothermal fluids were collected and studies were conducted about relations of geothermal development with geological structures and geothermal fluids, as in the case of hot springs, and the two were integrated for the clarification of the causes of impacts. In concluding the report, the difference in mechanism is deliberated between cases with impacts on hot springs and cases without impacts on hot springs. (NEDO)

  14. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Temperature effect on corrosion fatigue strength of coated ship structural steel; Zosen`yoko tosozai no fushoku hiro kyodo ni okeru ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M.; Fuji, A.; Kojima, M.; Kitagawa, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kumakura, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The corrosion fatigue life was obtained using uncoated and tar epoxy resin specimens to clarify the temperature effect. The life curve for corrosion fatigue of machined and uncoated steel in the air and sea was obtained. The fatigue strength of uncoated steel largely decreases in the sea and breaks even in the nominal stress range of less than 1/2 of the fatigue limit in the air. The effect of temperature on the coated steel is represented by a corrosion coefficient. The steel coated at 25{degree}C is 1/1.03 to 1/1.13 at 40 to 60{degree}C. This showed that the fatigue strength decreases when the temperature exceeds 25{degree}C. However, it has not such tendency and significance that are represented quantitatively. There is a slight difference in the short-life area between the crack generation life and breaking life. However, the long-life area has no significance that influences the whole evaluation. In the long-life corrosion fatigue, the crack occurs from the corrosion pit due to the exposure below the coated film and progresses in the base material before the coated film is destroyed. The effect of the corrosion pit remarkably appears at a low-stress level. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Economic development in India and the effect on the energy market in Asia; Indo no keizai hatten to Asia no energy shijo eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    As for the real GDP growth rate in India, the real GDP per capita during 1980-1993 increased 2.9% on annual average, but that in China did 8.0%. India has largely been behind China in the economic growth, but since the liberalization of economy in 1991, the Indian economy has remarkably been developed. It is predicted that the real GDP during 1993-2010 will be 5-6% on annual average. The difference in GDP increase between India and China is caused by differences in energy conservation, speed of conversion from non-commercial energy to commercial energy, serviceability of the industrial structure, etc. It is predicted that the primary energy consumption will grow on the level of China. The oil demand will grow 4-6% in China and 5-6% in India in 1993-2010, showing more increase in India. For oil import to India to exceed 1 million B/D in 2000, it is necessary to clear the ceiling of the international balance. For India to become a big country corresponding to its population size, a lot of difficulties should be overcome. 49 refs., 104 figs., 62 tabs.

  17. Remote sensing data analysis for assessment of sea level change in Asia; Asia ni okeru kaisuijun hendo eikyo hyoka no tame no remote sensing gazo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Y; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kaku, M [Bishimetal Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Remote sensing images include information of coastal land division, sea level change such as sedimentary environment and vegetation, and distribution of artificial structures. Past sea level changes and their causes can be regionally obtained by analyzing these data and by integrating them with information obtained from geological survey. In this study, causes and history of past sea level changes, formation mechanism of coastal topography, and past sea level change survey in Thailand have been reviewed. This paper describes an extraction method of the sea level change information in coastal districts by analyzing several actual remote sensing images. For understanding the current sea level rise, it is required to clarify the causes quantitatively among three causes of sea level changes, i.e., volumetric change of total ocean water on the earth, relative sea level change due to the crustal deformation, and change of irregularity of sea surface with ocean current. It is also required to compile maps in Asian or global scales. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Convenient methods for appreciating effects of acid rain on stone building materials; Sekizai ni taisuru sanseiu no eikyo hyokaho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katami, T.; Takahara, Y.; Nishikawa, H.; Kato, K. [Gifu Prefectural Health and Environmental Research Center, Gifu (Japan)

    1996-05-10

    A method to evaluate effects of acid rain has been investigated by exposing building marble plates at both outdoor and indoor sites and measuring lightness and roughness on the surface of plates. The lower pH of rain water fell, the more remarkable loss of lightness appeared in a short period on the surface of outdoor samples in one to three months exposure tests. As an appropriate negative correlation was shown between the lightness and the pH value, it was found that physical change of the plate surface can be estimated by using the lightness, optically measured value. For three to nine months indoor-exposure tests, difference of the lightness were quantitatively observed, but little differences of the roughness height were recognized among the different exposure sites. From the reduction of lightness on the marble plate surface exposed at outdoor and indoor sites, it was also found that damage levels of the marble plates were four to eleven times higher at outdoor sites by rain water than those at indoor sites by air pollutants, such as acid gases, in the ambient air. Thus, the optical method may be useful to evaluate damage levels of marble building materials caused by acid-rain water after exposing them for a relatively short period. 10 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. FY 2000 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 2000 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for effective measures for enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region, survey was made of the state of study of measures against global warming in the 3rd IPCC report and the state of study of the incidental convenience. The survey was made in the following two fields: 1) research analysis in study of the 3rd IPCC report; 2) research analysis of the convenience incidental to measures against global warming. 1) is composed of IPCC activities and the 3rd assessment report, and the developmental state of global warming prevention technology and potential of greenhouse effect gas reduction. Subjects on the prevention technology are the technology for enhancement of energy consumption and development of non-fossil fuels. Physical/chemical CO2 fixation is also studied. 2) is composed of the introduction, economic/social/environmental effects, international flow, reasons for different conclusion in every study, and fields of further study. Considered were global warming prevention measures, for example, economic/social/environmental effects of creation of the carbon tax, reduction in subsidy in energy sector, etc. (NEDO)

  20. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M; Kagemoto, H; Hamada, T [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S; Morihisa, H; Tamanouchi, M; Araki, H; Yamada, S [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R; Usui, K; Moriya, A; Sato, M; Nomura, T; Sue, H [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Influence of frequency spectra to annoyance caused by road traffic noise; Doro kotsu soon no urusasa ni oyobosu shuhasu supekutoru no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Hashimoto, T [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes a study of annoyance to road traffic noise in laboratories. To measure the annoyance to road traffic noise, subjective evaluation test was carried out using 48 road traffic noise recorded at various points in the city. Among the frequency spectra of these noise, the differences on the SPL of high frequency component were significant. As a result, we found that: (1) annoyance was different while A-weighted SPLs were the same, (2) fluctuation strength had the highest correlation with annoyance, (3) besides A-weighted SPL, roughness and sharpness contributed to annoyance -simultaneously, (4) contribution of high frequency noise was significant to annoyance. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effect of oil around the pin boss bearing on bearing friction force; Piston pin jikuukebu kinbo no junkatsuyu ga masatsuryoku ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, M; Suhara, T; Ato, S; Someya, T [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Piston pin bearings are engine parts placed under severe lubricating condition because of the high unit load and temperature and the low sliding speeds. Therefore, they are vulnerable to many lubrication problems such as abnormal wear, scuffs and seizures. In our recent study, the bearing friction were measured using a original measuring device and it was found out that the lubricating conditions of piston pin boss bearings are non-fluid lubrication due to the oil starvation. In this study, we have also measured the lubricating oil behavior around the pin boss bearing using a special cylinder with glass window, and analyzed the relationship between the friction force and the oil behavior at the pin boss bearings in a actual operating gasoline engine. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S; Yokota, H; Kakegawa, T [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Tatani, T; Yoshida, H; Takizawa, H; Miyoshi, K; Ikebe, H [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer; Reito joshitsuki ni okeru gyoshukusui bunri/haishutsu noryoku no joshitsu seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H.; Ichinose, T. [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y.; Hashizume, T. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering Research Lab.

    1995-11-15

    The representative refrigerated dryer as the compressed air dryers is one in which air was cooled at rather low temperature by working medium of refrigerators, and the dew point was decreased with increase of pressure, and air with low relative humility called as the dried air was obtained again by heating. In this paper, for clarifying effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer in relation to shape of a main cooler and a precool-reheater and air temperature of each part, calculation and experimental investigation were conducted. In a refrigerated dryer, condensate happened in the precool part of a precool-reheater and a main cooler, and this would give rise to reduce of separation and drainage of condensate and increase of thermal loads of each heat exchange, and would made dehumidification low. For a fact that decrease of separation and drainage of condensate in a main cooler would bring out heat conduction with phase change in the reheating part of a precool-reheater, it has a profitable side, but it is not desirable for ability of dryers. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Influence of smectites on resistivity of rocks and soils; Smectite nendo kobutsu ga ganseki dojo no hi teiko ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S; Nishizawa, O; Aoki, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kozake, K [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper illustrates the measurement results of resistivity for specimens including smectite clay minerals artificially synthesized, and also discusses the influence of smectites on resistivity. Three kinds of bentonites, i.e., KN-1, Kawasaki ore, and Kawasaki Sanhaku, were used for preparing smectites. The KN-1 is Na type smectite, the Kawasaki ore is Ca type smectite, and the Kawasaki Sanhaku is acid clay. It is well known that smectites lower the resistivity of rocks. However, the experimental results suggested that the degree of decreasing the resistivity depends on the kind of smectites. The effect of decreasing the resistivity by the KN-1 was much superior to the other smectites. For the KN-1, a thick electrical double layer was formed by Na ions in the interlayers, which resulted in the larger effect of decreasing the resistivity. Swelling capacity and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the KN-1 were large, which agreed with the above mentioned consideration. Reversely, it was considered that smectites having larger effect of decreasing the resistivity exhibited larger swelling capacity and CEC. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Investigation of local-dimensional galvanic distortion on MT data in the central part of Northeastern Japan; Tohoku chiho no MT data ni mirareru kyokushoteki sanjigensei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N; Takasugi, S [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Groom-Bailey decomposition analysis was carried out to investigate regional 3-D galvanic distortion on MT data in the central part of Northeastern Japan. Measuring sites were located nearly along the east-west line crossing Northeastern Japan. Three measuring lines (A, B, C) from the north to the south were prepared, and only data on the C line were analyzed in this paper. As a result, twist and shear were estimated to be not zero depending on local distortion in most of the sites. It was thus clarified that this method is not always perfect. This method was effective for regional 2-D structures, however, its application was doubtful to complicated 3-D underground structures in Japan. In order to obtain more accurate results, 2-D analysis using the impedance including no local distortion effect was necessary after the preliminary Groom-Bailey decomposition analysis. The direction of the wide area geological structure of Northeastern Japan was estimated to be N-S direction near NNW-SSE one. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Development of Assessment Technology of Life Cycle Environment Impacts of Products; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Seihinnado lilfecycle kankyo eikyo hyoka gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An inventory data collecting format is formulated, data collecting activities are launched through 23 industry associations and several investigatory agencies, and almost all the primary data are collected. All the inventory items are being rearranged into a convenient order, and efforts are under way to designate the association to be in charge and the method to be used for data collecting (the accumulation method, process model method). Problems about techniques in the veinous department are extracted. The flow of matters relating to various metals and glass after their use and the magnitude of their environmental impacts at the ultimate sites of treatment are understood though roughly. Investigations are conducted into typical formats overseas, a data arranging format is constructed, specifications are defined for a data inputting software program, and a request is placed with a dedicated dealer for the compilation of the said program. The architecture and specifications of an LCA (life cycle assessment) database system are determined, and its functions are undergoing an intermediate check by a research team for improvement. Endeavors are exerted at quantifying global warming, ozone layer depletion, biotoxicity, and photochemical oxidants for use as the basic data for damage evaluation. (NEDO)

  12. Report for fiscal 2000 investigations on effects imposed by introducing emission trading system; 2000 nendo haishutsuryo torihiki system donyu ni yoru eikyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With regard to effectiveness of the emission trading targeted to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emission, evaluation has been given from the three viewpoints: economies, environment, and household economy. In the research, simulations were implemented by using the GEC calculation model modified for introduction of domestic emission trading, and utilization of international emission trading. In evaluating the effects on industries and foreign trades, notice was given on the large energy consuming industries to discuss the effects of introducing the emission trading on the quantity of production and export. Regarding the effects on environment, calculations and discussions were given on greenhouse effect gas leakage rates to assess the greenhouse effect gas emission reducing effects from the domestic and international viewpoints. As a result of the discussions, it was found that the economies, environment and household economy are all benefited in regard with the domestic emission trading. Utilization of the international emission trading was also found to have sufficient positive benefit exist for the economies and household economy. (NEDO)

  13. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Hamada, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effect of synthetic detergent and soap on the waste-water treatment. Gosei senzai oyobi sekken no haisui shori ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamori, Y. (national Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)); Takamatsu, Y. (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of surfactants on purification capability and living life phases in the living life membrane method and the activated sludge method as biological waste water treatment methods. As a result of treating artificial waste water in an immersion hearth process of the living life membrane method, it was found that LAS added concentration at 50 mg/l or higher would not affect noticeably the quality of water treated under a steady-state operation, but that at 100 mg/l has aggravated the treated water quality by increasing COD. In the case of soaps, the COD in the treated water has aggravated when the added concentration is 70 mg/l or higher. The result of discussing the activated sludge process using urban sewage water indicated that COD in the treated water shows higher value for synthetic detergents than for soaps at the detergent added concentration of 140 mg/l or higher, having affected adversely the treated water quality. An activated sludge treatment process was operated to identify the effects of synthetic detergents and soaps on living life phases in the activated sludge and living life membranes. The result suggests that either the LAS added system or the soap added system presents no problems in a long-time aeration, while activated sludge aerated for the standard period of time has a possibility of abnormally proliferating filamentous microorganisms that can cause bulking in the soap system. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Study on the performance improvement of multiblade fans. Effects of suction cones; Tayoku fan no seino kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. Suction cone no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuratani, F.; Ogawa, T. [Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan); Yamamoto, S.

    1999-07-25

    In order to improve the performance of a multiblade fan, the effects of three types of suction cones of the fan casing on the fan efficiency and noise are investigated experimentally. The first type of the suction cone is the insertion type, which is inserted into the inside of the fan impeller. The second type is the extrusion type, which extrudes outside from the casing surface. The third type is the combination type of two types. The results of those three types are compared with those of the commonly used suction cone. The followings are made clear: (1) The insertion type and the extrusion type are effective in improving the efficiency and reducing noise. (2) The optimal lengths of the insertion and the extrusion exist. (3) The combination type is more effective in improving the efficiency. (4) The combination type with the skewed cutoff of the fan casing shows the best effect. (author)

  17. Changes in soil organisms by the application of sludge composits, and their effects. Odei taihirui no shiyo ni tomonau dojo seibutsu no henka to sono eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niijima, K.; Fujita, K.; Ogawa, M. (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-08-31

    With an objective to utilize sewage sludge more effectively, composted sewage sludge has been applied to seed beds to investigate its effect on soil macrofauna and higher fungi, and its relativity with change in soil organisms, growth of young trees, and soil science. Forty-eight seedling sections, each 5 m [times] 5 m, were made on a seed bed which was applied with Tenryu sludge composts (polymer-based coagulant), several other kinds of sludge composts, fallen leaf composts, and cattle excrement composts at predetermined rates from zero to 20 kg. Each section was planted with 25 three-year-old nursery trees of a kind of oak, black pine, and cypress. As a result, the following findings were obtained: wet weight of larvae of Japanese gold beetles that attack tree roots has increased during the first and second years in the Tenryu sludge applied section, but no longer increased in the third year; the relationship between the other composts and soil macrofauna was not made clear; Scleroderma Cepa PERS, a mycorrhiza bacteria, has been generated in the oak planted section in the second, third and fourth years, with the second year particularly having generated it in a greater amount in proportion with the fertilizer application amount, but the fertilizer effect thereafter is not clear. 24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Emission characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation; Nidan nensho diesel kikan no haishutsubutsu tokusei. EGR no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    For an aim to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines, it has become possible to realize it with smoke emission maintained at low levels by taking the following steps: initial combustion is carried out as lean pre-mixed combustion by adopting early fuel injection; the fuel is injected again after completion of this combustion; and EGR is combined with two-stage combustion which performs diffusion combustion under high temperature atmosphere. When a large quantity of EGR is used, cylinder temperature drops to have ignition timing delayed in the first stage, serving for improving fuel consumption. The problem of increase in smoke generation is solved by optimizing the injection timing at the second stage to suppress smoke generation increase, resulting in realization of lower NOx emission. By completing the second-stage fuel injection before ignition of the first-stage injection, it was possible to realize further lower NOx emission. Smoke increase due to higher EGR ratio was suppressed by pre-mixing both fuels injected in the first and second stages, although this is a high load operation. In addition, oxygen concentration and cylinder temperature were reduced, the gas pre-mixture was homogenized, and combustion velocity was suppressed by delaying the angle of ignition timing. This made low smoke combustion at {lambda} = 1 possible even in compressed ignition combustion. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effect of oxygenated fuel on premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel nensho ni oyobosu gansanso nenryo kongo keiyu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Because injection timing in diesel engines is early in a premixed lean diesel combustion system using early fuel injection, ignition timing is determined by ignitability of the fuel used. The conventional diesel fuel, which has good ignitability, causes excessively early ignition, thus aggravating fuel consumption. In order to reduce cylinder temperature with an aim of delaying ignition timing to improve the fuel consumption, attempts are being made on using low cetane fuels to reduce CO2 gas supply or compression ratio, and to vary ignitability of the fuels. The present study investigated ignition timing control and properties of exhausts by mixing different types of oxygenated fuels into light oil. Mixing the oxygenated fuels into light oil proved that the ignition timing can be controlled, and mixing such low cetane fuels as ethanol and MTBE achieved improvement in fuel consumption. Trial use of the oxygenated fuels aggravated CO concentration, which is caused because the cylinder temperature was reduced. Numerical calculations suggest that use of fuels with faster evaporation speed and lower cetane number is effective in improving the fuel consumption and the exhausts. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effects space velocity and gas velocity on DeNOx catalyst with HC reductant; HC tenka NOx kangen shokubai no kukan sokudo oyobi gas ryusoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, K.; Tsujimura, K.

    1995-04-20

    Discussions were given on the hydrocarbon added reduction catalyst method to reduce NOx in diesel engine exhaust gas. An experiment was carried out with actual exhaust gas from a diesel engine by using a copper ion exchanged zeolite catalyst that has been coated on a honeycomb type substrate, and using propylene as a reductant. When the catalyst volume was changed with the exhaust gas space velocity kept constant, the NOx conversion ratio decreased as the catalyst length is decreased, and the activity shifted to the lower temperature side. The NOx reduction efficiency increased if the faster the gas flow velocity. On the other hand, if the gas flow velocity is slow, the NOx reduction can be carried out with relatively small amount of the reductant. When the catalyst volume was changed with the passing gas amount kept constant, the NOx conversion ratio decreased largely if the catalyst length is decreased. Further, the NOx reduction characteristics shift to the higher temperature side. In the catalyst length direction, the NOx reduction activity shows a relatively uniform action. However, a detailed observation reveals that the reaction heat in the catalyst is transmitted to the wake improving the activity, hence the further down the flow, the NOx conversion ratio gets higher in efficiency. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Influence of strain hardening and thickness changes occurring in press forming process; Seikeiji no kako koka/itaatsu henka no buzai akkai tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, M; Hirota, K [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Nakazawa, Y [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Most components of the body structure are produced by press forming. This process make a uniform metal sheet into a component that have various material characteristics and thickness. This paper describes the estimation method of material characteristics and thickness changes based on the measured Vickers hardness, and the influence of these changes on the crush performance by using FE analysis. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Survey on method of environmental-impact assessment in wind power development; 1998 nendo furyoku kaihatsu ni okeru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With the purpose of preparing the main points of 'environmental-impact assessment guidelines for wind power developments (draft)', examples of environmental-impact assessments, related laws and regulations in Japan and abroad were collected, and rearranged in respect to requirements in environmental-assessments, concrete procedures, survey/projection/assessment method, summarisation of results, etc. It was clarified, for example; in a large-scale wind power development, it can be dealt with by choosing items and contents on the assumption that a land area is developed; in a small-scale development, there is basically no need of considering the possible effect of the construction work; and, as far as noise, vibration and the ecosystem (plants/animals) are concerned, however, the characteristics of the site be taken into consideration. Objects for general assessment are noise, low-frequency air vibration, radio wave interference, the ecosystem (plants and animals) and the landscape. The guideline draft is constituted of (1) basic items, (2) overview of the area, (3) determination of items for environmental-impact assessment and (4) research, prediction, assessment, conservation measures and follow-up research; in the basic items, importance of preliminary consideration was emphasized, as were priority/simplification, implementation of environmental conservation measures, and implementation of follow-up research. (NEDO)

  3. Effect of grain size on amplitude-dependent internal friction in polycrystalline copper. Do takessho no naibu masatsu no shinpuku izon sei ni oyobosu kessho ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. (Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-08-20

    In this research, amplitude-dependency of internal friction was measured on various polycrystalline copper of varying grain size. Furthermore, the measurement data of amplitude-dependency of internal friction were analyzed from the phenomenological standpoint and microplastic strain was calculated as a function of stress. The obtained correlation between microplastic strain and stress corresponded to the stress-strain curve obtainable from normal tensile tests. Hence, comparing with the Hall-Petch relation, the relationship between flow stress and grain size in the microplastiic zone was discussed. The obtained results are summarized as follows: When grains were refined, amplitude dependency of internal friction was inhibited. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it was found that the flow stress in the microplastic zone increased following refining of grains. This agreed qualitatively with the macro deformation obtained from normal tensile tests. The grain size dependency of flow stress in the microplastic zone did not follow the normal Hall-Pitch relation, but the plastic strain increased, the dependency moved towards it. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Global environment assessment survey by advancing the energy demand and supply structure. 4; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the energy demand and supply structure in Japan, the international trend of approaches to global warming problems and the mitigation options to global warming in the energy related sectors have been surveyed. For the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an Ad-hoc Group has discussed relevant topics after the 1st conference of the Parties. Meetings of the Group primarily focused on what objectives to set for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in and in and after 2000. IPCC completed their Technical Paper in November 1996 in which technologies and measures to reduce GHG emissions and to enhance GHG sinks were analyzed and evaluated in various aspects. This Paper discusses about each sector of institutional buildings sector, transport sector, industrial sector, and energy supply sector. Especially, in the energy supply sector, promising approaches to reduce future emission include more efficient conversion of fossil fuels, switching to low-carbon fossil fuels, decarbonization of flue gas and fuels, CO2 storage, switching to nuclear energy, and switching to renewable sources of energy. 5 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Effect of PV module output power on module temperature; Taiyo denchi no shutsuryoku henka ga module hyomen ondo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Kitamura, A [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Igaki, K; Mizumoto, T [Kanden Kako Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Effect of the photovoltaic (PV) module output power variation on the module surface temperature has been investigated by field measurements. PV modules with capacity of 54 W were used for the temperature measurements. Three 2 kW-class PV systems were operated. T-type thermocouples were used for measuring temperatures. Measurement time intervals were 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Measurement period was between May 25, 1995 and June 25, 1996. The surface temperature increased during non-loaded PV output, and decreased during load-carrying PV output. Difference of the surface temperature between non-loaded PV output and load-carrying PV output was 3.5{degree}C at maximum through a year. The surface temperature was saturated within 30 minutes. When PV output was changed in 30 or 60 minutes interval, the variation of surface temperature was distinctly observed. When PV output was changed in 15 minutes interval, it was not observed distinctly. There was no difference of the surface temperatures during the time zones with less solar radiation, such as in the morning and evening, and at night. Except these time zones, difference of the surface temperatures was 3.5{degree}C at maximum. 4 figs.

  7. Influence of hydrogen-ion concentration exponent on undrained shear behaviour of bentonites; Bentonaito no hihaisui sendan kyodo ni oyobosu suiso ion nodo shisu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, T [Kiso Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tokida, M [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano (Japan)

    1994-12-21

    Because there is a report example that the yield stress of a landslide clay increases along with a decrease of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent, it is thought that a shear strength of the landslide clay depends on the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent. Furthermore, when the soil stabilization method by lime is applied to the soft ground and high organic earth, it is pointed out that the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent will become one of the harmful factors. Accordingly, it is understood that revealing an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affects on the characteristics of an earth is one of the important factors, to evaluate a strength, deformation and so forth of the viscous ground. In this study, in order to examine an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affecting on an undrained shear behavior of the bentonites, for the artificially adjusted bentonite specimens with 5 kinds of different pH, the isotropic consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests were performed, and consequently an influence of pH affecting on the engineering characteristics of the bentonites was made clear quantitatively. 28 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on the global environmental assessment for efficient energy consumption; 1998 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published the 1st assessment report in 1990 and the 2nd report in 1995 since its establishment in 1988, and is promoting the 3rd research and analysis. Among them, this report describes the study on technology transfer for efficient energy consumption. For stabilizing greenhouse effect gas concentrations in the air, strong control of such gas emission is indispensable, and a role of technology is important for the control. For overcoming some weak points for climate change, practical use of applicable technologies is necessary over a certain period of time, and technology transfer is essential in each country and all over the world. For promotion of such approach, the analysis and evaluation for technology transfer and diffusion are useful in addition to reports on technology itself. Based on such understanding, IPCC has promoted preparation of the special report on methodological and technological issues of technology transfer since 1997. Its approval at the IPCC general meeting is expected in late 1999 or early 2000. Some chapters related to efficient energy consumption are presented. (NEDO)

  9. Effect of Water Environment on Subcritical Crack Growth of Machinable Ceramics; Kaisakusei seramikkusu no kiretsu shinten tokusei ni oyobosu mizu kankyo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kaizu, K.; Inotani, T. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan); Yoshikawa, A.; Adachi, K.; Igaki, H. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-06-15

    The fatigue behavior of ceramics has been discussed on the basis of the relation between stress intensity facter (KI) and crack velocity (V). In this paper, the effect of environment on the relation between KI and V was studied on machinable ceramics (mica glass ceramics) and two kinds of glass ceramics with different grain sizes. The double torsion (DT) technique was used for the determination of the KI-V characteristics under different environments of air and ion-exchanged water. The characteristics of acoustic emission (AE) during stress corrosion cracking of mica glass ceramics was also examined. In water environment, the region II in the KI-V curve, in which crack velocity varies slowly with KI, disappeared. From this experimental fact, it was considered that at high KI, the crack velocity is encouraged by diffusion of the corrosive species to the crack and thus depended on the amount of water. SEM farc tography revealed that mica single crystals in the material caused crack arrest and deflection to occur. It is also found that AE event rate is quantitatively related to the crack velocity. AE measurement can be used in studying the crack propagation behavior of mica glass ceramics. 11 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Effects of electrical stimulation on fruit of lentinus edodes; Shiitake jinko kindoko ni taisuru denki shigeki ga kojittai hassei kosu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitobe, K.; Sato, T.; Yoshimura, N. [Akita Univ. (Japan)] Suzuki, T. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-30

    So far, the cultivation of Lentinus edodes is cultivated from material wood mainly, however, recently, artificial bed-blocks method has been used widely. The advantage of bed-block cultivation is to a short growing period and be possible to cultivate by a large scale facilities. Hereafter, it is thought that this growing method is used mainly. Before now, based on the experimental fact that abnormal fruiting of Lentinus edodes occurs due to lightening, the study on the effects of electrical stimulation was reported, however, the investigation on the effects of electrical stimulation on the artificial bed-bocks which is thought to come into wide use in future does not carry out until now. The purpose of this study is to investigate an increased yield of the Lentinus fruit-bodies grown on artificial bed-blocks that electrical stimuli were applied. Nineteen artificial bed-blocks were provided for each applied voltage condition; Control, 200V, 400V, 600V, for the AC. As a result of experiment, in the 600V condition, the total number of fruiting of Lentinus edodes was significantly increased as compared with other conditions. Especially, in the artificial bed-blocks that peak current was over 300 mA, the total number of fruiting was increased. 6 refs., 6figs.

  11. Effect of laser heat treatment on intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steel; Austenite kei stainless ko no ryukai fushoku kanjusei ni oyobosu laser netsushori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, M.; Yoneyama, T. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Isshiki, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-15

    The laser heat treatment of SUS304 steel was studied to lower the intergranular corrosion sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel. By the short-time heating around 923K, the SUS304 steel is sensitized to the intergranular corrosion with the deposition of Cr carbide into the granular field of crystals. To recover it, it is necessary to solidly dissolve, and simultaneously, quickly cool the Cr carbide above 1273K. For such solution heat treatment, CO2 laser beams were used with the treatment condition that the power and beam diameter were 800 to 1200W and 0.3 to 0.64cm, respectively. Regardless of both power density and beam diameter, the desensitization was observed at heating temperatures above 1323K. As a result of calculation by simulation, the solid dissolution of Cr carbide and recovery of Cr`s depletion zone in the granular field of crystals took place in a very short time at heating temperatures above 1323K. It agreed well with the experimental result. The laser beams are effective in the solution heat treatment of stainless steel. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Survey of effects of enhancement of the energy supply/demand structure on the global environment. 3; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of studying how the energy supply/demand structure in Japan should be, a report on the secondary IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) evaluation was analyzed. Possibilities of reducing the world CO2 emissions in association with the energy consumption were studied in the five assumed cases. Every case says that CO2 can be reduced to 1/3 of the 1990 level by 2100. In a case of the use of biomass as main fuel (1), the use of primary energy is suppressed to two times the 1990 level, and photovoltaic/wind/biomass power generation is introduced in a large quantity. Synthetic methanol and hydrogen are used for transportation and commercial/residential use fuels. There are four more assumed cases: the use of nuclear power as a substitute for renewable energy in the power generation in (1), the use of natural gas of 1.5 times that used in (1), the substitution of coal for biomass used in (1), and the assumption that the demand for primary energy in 2100 will be twice that used in (1). In Japan it is assumed that basically the nuclear power generation will be expanded, that the photovoltaic and waste power generation will be introduced in a large quantity, and that synthetic methanol and hydrogen are mainly used as transportation and commercial/residential use fuels. It is necessary, therefore, to analyze conditions under which the quantity introduction of such non-fossil energy is made possible. 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Study of effects of engine oil additives on the properties of fluorelastomers; Fusso gomu ni oyobosu engine yu tenkazai no eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurono, K; Owaki, M; Suzuki, Y; Akiyama, K; Shionoya, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids and have become major material for crankcase oil sealers. On the other hand new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil sealer products indicates that dithiocarbamates friction modifier have hardening effects on fluoroelastomers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is presumed by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Psychological influences for the driver by the changes of running circumstance; Jidosha no soko kankyo henka no driver eno shinriteki eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, S; Yokomori, M; Yamaguchi, S [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A driver is influenced psychologically by the cars proceeding on the street and the cars parked on the shoulder which come into the front view. The traffic accidents are caused when these influences put a lot of stress on a driver. In this report, we study the relations between the road traffic condition on the streets and the highway and the driver`s psychological and psysiological responses by using the driver`s front view, sweating and pulse rate. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Advancing aging society and its effect on the residential use energy demand; Shintensuru koreika shakai to kateiyo energy juyo eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The paper analyzed various factors regulating the energy demand in aged households and viewed the future residential use energy demand in the aging society. In Part 1, based on the family budget survey annual report, a study was made of the energy consumption situation of aged people and the trend of the future residential energy consumption. In Part 2, a study was conducted based on survey data on the U.K., France, Sweden and Denmark. In Western countries which are the developed countries of aging, the energy conservation policy effectively worked for the space heating demand which is highest of all, and factors of the energy consumption increase by aging were absorbed. However, since in Japan, aging is rapidly advancing and further there are relatively more factors which connect to an increase in energy consumption in aged households as compared with Western countries, it is thought that Japan is in a situation where the energy consumption increases more often, influenced by aged households. 91 refs., 130 figs., 41 tabs.

  16. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T; Hayashi, S [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1997-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Effect of fish on water quality and nutrients cycle from an outdoor pond experiment; Sakana no suishitsu, busshitsu junkan ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, T.; Matsushige, K.; Aizaki, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Park, J.; Goma, R. [Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan); Kong, D. [Korea National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-11-10

    The influences of fish (goldfish) on water quality and nutrients cycle (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) were investigated during 39 days in the summer of 1993, using six outdoor experimental ponds (36 m{sup 3}) with the same water residence times and nutrient inputs. Blue-been algae dominated the ponds with fish. Compared with ponds without fish, the ponds with high densities of fish had standing stocks of zooplankton and macrozoobenthos nearly one order of magnitude lower, about twice the concentrations of chlorophyll a and twice the rate of primary production. Settling rates of particulate substances in the high density ponds were nearly half those observed in ponds with no fish. The processes of sedimentation and exchange with air played important roles in the nutrient budgets as well as the in- and outflows and the changes in nutrient standing stocks. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a in the fish ponds were attributed in part to the lower zooplankton grazing pressure and in part to the higher nutrient concentrations due to lower settling rates and rapid nutrient recycling between biomass and dissolved components. 28 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  19. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Development of simplified analysis system by using bio-markers of internal secretion disturbing substances - environmental hormone acting substances); 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu (kankyo hormone sayo busshitsu) no bio marker ni yoru kanben bunseki system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Using the vitellogenin levels in male fishes as a parameter of pollution caused by internal secretion disturbing substances would allow collective measurement of compounding action of pollutants, acquisition of time averaged values, and large reduction in analysis cost. The present research and development works are intended to put such technological seeds into practical use, and promote its proliferation. The following subjects were implemented: (1) fabrication of effective anti-bodies, (2) their application to fresh water fishes, salmon, and trout, (3) their application to sea water fishes, (4) effects on mummichog and medaka, (5) correlation between spawning actions and vitellogenin manifestation in male fish, (6) discussions on chemical analysis methods and the correlativity therewith, and (7) establishment of methods for field investigation and evaluation. In Item (1), an ELISA system using vitellogenin anti-bodies of different fishes was established. A universal anti-body reacting commonly to all of fish vitellogenins was developed. In Items (2), (3) and (4), an evaluation system was established on actions of internal secretion disturbing substances on sea water fish and fresh water fish by using fish vitellogenins. In Item (5), effects on spawning of medaka, and effects on procreation activities (sterility) were evaluated by using vitellogenin. (NEDO)

  20. Structure and coke preventing characteristics of Ca-Ni-Mo/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst for hydrogenation of brown coal liquid bottoms. Kattan ekikaabura suisokayo Ca-Ni-Mo/Al sub 2 O sub 3 shokubai no kozo to tansoshitsu seisei yokusei sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T. (Cosmo Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kaneko, T.; Kageyama, Y. (Mitsubishi Kasei Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research Center); Kawai, S. (Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    Operating a 50 t/d fixed bed pilot plant, hydroprocessing of de-ashed coal liquid bottoms (DAO) derived from Victorial Brown coal liquefaction has been carried out in Australia using a newly developed Ca-Ni-Mo/Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} catalyst. This catalyst has a great advantage compared with conventional molybdenum catalysts in that there is less coke formation using this catalyst as indicated by 5,000 h runs in a 0.1 t/d bench scale plant. In this paper, the catalyst active center and the role of Ca in the Ca-Ni-Mo/Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} catalyst were analyzed using Raman, TPS-XPS, EXAFS and AES methods. Molybdenum is loaded as CaMoO {sub 4} and X-ray diffraction data. But the oxide is changed to MoS {sub 2} after sulfiding treatment. Data of the Mo-S bond obtained from EXAFS analysis indicated that MoS {sub 2} has a tendency to pile up on the Ca-Ni-Mo/Al {sub 2} O {sub 3} catalyst. 20 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Report on the survey made under the research contract with NEDO, `The International Work Division/Energy Demand Effect Survey.`. Influence of the economic growth in Asia on the energy demand; 1996 nendo `kokusai suihei bungyo energy juyo eikyo chosa` itaku chosa kekka hokokusho. Asia no keizai hatten ga energy juyo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report includes surveys on the following: (1) the progress situation of the Asian information society, (2) changes of corporate network, business flow, material flow and money flow in association with the information society, (3) the present situation of the industry-accumulated region in Asia and inter-region network, (4) impacts of the above-mentioned changes on the trade and investment structure in Japan, (5) how to tackle the energy issue in Asia in the future. First, effects of the advance of the information society on energy supply/demand were studied. Next, an analysis was made of effects of the progress of the high-grade information society in Asia on economy, industry and corporate action. The degree of the progress of the information society in Asian countries was made clear from the infrastructure arrangement and the developmental status of application. Contribution of the financial network to the economic growth in Asia and the development were clarified. The organization of corporate networks in Asia where paradigms are converting was made clear to consider industrial clusters in Asia. Last, in the light of the economic relationship between Japan and Asia, a study was made on the future policy of Japan for Asia. 238 refs., 77 figs., 89 tabs.

  2. Effect of mixture formation process of premixed lean diesel combustion. Study of the effect of mixture homogeneity on premixed lean diesel combustion in aid of numerical simulation; Yokongo diesel nensho ni okeru kongoki keisei katei no eikyo. Kongoki no kin`itsusei no eikyo to suchi simulation ni yoru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, N; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    NOx emission was extremely decreased by PREDIC (PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion) in which fuel was injected at very early stage of compression stroke and the combustion started at near the TDC by self ignition. We have considered that NOx reduction is caused the decrease of a region of stoichiometric mixture ratio by means of extremely early injection. Therefore the homogeneity is very important to decrease of NOx. In this study to investigate the effect of mixture homogeneity in the PREDIC, gaseous fuels (DME, CH4) were charged into the intake, by the combination of direct fuel injection, the mixture heterogeneity was positively changed. In addition the mixture formation process is shown in aid of numerical simulation, it is observed that the homogeneous has the advantage of low NOx emission in PREDIC region. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. FY 2000 report on the survey for introduction of the hot spring effect prediction method in the geothermal development promotion survey. Improvement of the hot spring effect prediction method in the geothermal development promotion survey; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa - Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa ni okeru onsen eikyo yosoku shuho no kairyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Supposing the case where the geothermal development promotion survey was carried out in promising geothermal areas in Japan, investigational study was conducted on possibilities of introducing the hot spring effect prediction method, improvement of the method, etc. In the survey, adjustment/classification of formation mechanisms of hot spring were made. For each of the formation mechanisms, the mechanisms in case of the geothermal development having effects were studied/summarized. As to how effects are brought about, presumed were the lowering of water level and decrease in discharge amount in accordance with the decreasing pressure and the dilution by increase in mixture of the ground water around the area. Also cited were the vaporization of hot spring aquifers by the increasing rate of vapor inflow, etc. For the introduction of the hot spring effect prediction method to the geothermal development promotion survey, the problem is short supply of various data, and the examination for it was made. Based on the results of the survey, items to be studied in case of introducing the hot spring effect prediction method were selected. Further, the hot spring effect prediction flow in case of introducing surface survey and well survey was made out. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1998 report on the results of the R and D for acceleration of biological resource information basement preparation (bioinformatics). Third revision. Development of measurement technology of interaction among biological molecules (Development of high-precise automatic analysis technology for a trace amount of cellular protein); 1998 nendo seibutsu shigen joho kiban seibi kasokuka kenkyu kaihatsu (bioinformatics) seika hokokusho. Seitai bunshikan sogo sayo no keisoku gijutsu no kaihatsu (saibonai chobiryo tanpakushitsu no koseido jido kaiseki gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted with the aim of developing the technology to acquire/analyze in high sensitivity manifestation proteins existing in a trace amount and in various kinds, concretely, signal transfer molecules, transcription factors, etc. which exist in one cell. After extracting a trace amount of functional proteins for analysis from the specified functional cell, the study was made on the following: precise separation and detection technique for cellular proteins, efficient digestion technique and contaminant elimination technique of stained protein, precise separation of peptides by micro-LC technique, precise peptide molecular mass detection of each separated peptide with high sensitivity, reconstruction of protein structure by computer algorithm. As a result, as to the analysis level, an analysis technology with high sensitivity of a 50 fmol level was established as against the existing level of several pmol. Moreover, after the separation/digestion of proteins by the 2D electrophoresis, a series of the process automation system was completed which is high-precise separation using protein columns - molecular analysis - structure prediction by computer. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on environmental impact survey - 5 (Musadake area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the environmental impact to result from the digging of borehole N11-MD-3 in Shibetsu-gun, Hokkaido, a survey was conducted of changes in (1) hot spring water quality, (2) noise/vibration pollution, and (3) air pollution due to hydrogen sulfide, before and after the digging period. Under item (1), measurements were made at four hot springs, which involved weather, air temperature, water temperature, amount of welled-up water, pH, electric conductivity, etc. Although minor changes were observed during the measuring period, none was found related to the digging process. Under item (2), noise levels were measured during the drilling period along the site boundary, at a point 500m from N11-MD-3, the Kawakita hot spring, and the entrance of Sekiyunosawa. Along the site boundary, they were 55-60 dB during the drilling period, and there was an increase of 30dB attributable to the drilling. At the 500m point, there was a 15-20dB increase attributable to the same. Vibration levels during the drilling period were 40dB along the site boundary and less than the observable minimum at the other points. Under item (3), at four points along the site boundary (50m), hydrogen sulfide concentration in the air fluctuated by 0.01-0.21ppm when the steam discharge rate was 4.47-7.20t/h. (NEDO)

  6. Report on fiscal 2000 geothermal development promotion survey. No. C-5 Appi district environmental impact survey (1st phase); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho - No.C-5. 1. Appi chiiki kankyo eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    For the survey of weather in the Appi district, Iwate Prefecture, observation data covering the last decade were collected at weather stations and the like, and characteristics of weather, climate, and natural earthquakes were learned. In the survey of fluctuation in the spa water level, studies were made about fluctuation in water temperature, spring water, and river water, and basic data were collected for the examination of the impact to be generated by geothermal exploration well boring and short-term discharge tests. In the survey of animal and vegetables, the habitation and distribution of animals and vegetables at sites planned for geothermal well boring were investigated, and data were collected for the evaluation of the impact to be imposed on them by well boring or the like. In the survey dealing with nature conservation and landscape, laws and regulations governing nature conservation were collected and put in an easy-to-use order, and seasonal changes in the natural landscape were photographed and recorded. In the survey of noise/vibration and ground fluctuation, the background values were measured prior to the implementation of geothermal well boring, discharge tests, and so forth. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of environmental effect pertaining to survey for geothermal development and promotion (Hakusuigoe area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa no uchi kankyo eikyo chosa (Hakusuigoe chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey of environmental effect was intended to grasp actual state concerning some environmental factors that should agree with survey/development and also to assess its effect on the surrounding environment, particularly as a part of the 'stage C' in the 'survey for geothermal development and promotion', which was implemented by the Government for the purpose of guiding geothermal development by enterprises. This report compiles the plan details of the environmental effect survey to be conducted in the Hakusuigoe district, and presents proposals. The survey area is in the north of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, in Kagoshima prefecture and situated about 3 km west of Onaminoike in Karakunidake, one of the peaks in the Kirishima mountain range. The Ogiri geothermal power plant is in the west of the site, a tourist spot Ebino Heights about 4 km northeast, and the Kirishima hot-spring about 4 km southeast. The location is in the national park, with a part designated as No. 2 and 3 class special areas. The environmental effect survey was divided broadly into such categories as fauna/flora, hot-spring water alteration and inland water, landscape, noise/vibration/subsoil, and air/water, and was further subdivided in accordance with the actual operations. (NEDO)

  8. Robust estimation of space influence model. Part 2. ; Synthesis of urban lattice data analysis for practical use. Kukan eikyo model no antei suiteiho. 2. ; Jikkenteki mesh data kaiseki system kochiku no tameno kukan sokan bunsekiho no taikeika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y.; Osaragi, T. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-07-30

    In this study, a method for robust estimation of parameters of the space influence function model, which was possible to become unstable, was investigated by applying a principal component method. In order to carry out the robust estimation of parameters without the effect of multicollinearity, regression coefficients of principal components with small eigenvalue and with small single-correlation with dependent variables were required to forced to be zero in the estimation method by principal component. Through the case study using the real urban lattice data, the conventional method was compared with the principal component method. As a result, the latter method realized the excellent sabilization of spatial distribution patterns of estimation parameters and the simple interpretation of parameters. It also improved reliability since 95% confidence interval of the estimated value became smaller. This method was found to be effective as a basic measure to acheve the stability of parameters. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Effects of air pollution on the health of regional inhabitants. Part I. Survey of disease state by Enquete. Taiki osen ga chiiki jumin no kenko ni oyobosu eikyo ni tsuite-dai ippo; anketo ni yoru shojo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    From May to July 1972, the disease states of 2096 inhabitants (710 men and 1386 women) in the Fukushima Ward of Osaka City, where the concentration of sulfur trioxide in the air was (yearly average) 1.81 mg/day/100 sq cm and that of carbon monoxide was 5.3 ppM, and that of nitrogen dioxide was 5.3 ppM, were surveyed. The number of persons surveyed was 2.9% of all the inhabitants of the Ward. Twenty-two point one percent were in their thirties, 20.1% in their forties, 16.5% in their sixties, and 15.3% in their fifties. Those who experienced chest diseases were 2.9% of the total, and those with heart diseases were 1.5%. Non-smoking men were 31.7% of the total. The percentage of long-term complaints of cough and sputum was 11.8% in the eastern section, 11.2% in the northern section, 10.0% in the southern section, 6.8% in the western section of the Ward. The frequency of complaints was highest in the sixties (12.7%), followed by 11.5% in the fifties, 11.3% in the thirties, and 8.6% in the forties. The frequency of complaints from men was 11.1% and that from women was 6%. The frequency of complaints was 19.8% in smokers, 8.5% in those who smoked less, and 6.8% in non-smokers. The frequency of complaints classified by residential area showed 12.6% in industrial areas, and 7.8% in residential and commercial areas. The frequency of complaints of inhabitants who live along National Road No. 2 was relatively high, ranging from 15.0 to 18.8%, and the frequency of complaints of inhabitants was apparently higher than those of people who only work in the Ward.

  10. Effect of aluminum on the growth and nutrient uptake in cryptomeria japonica D.Don and Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Sugi oyobi hinoki no ikusei to yobun kyushu ni oyobosu aluminium no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y; Matsumura, H; Kobayashi, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Two-year-old seedlings of Sugi (Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki (Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) were grown for 4 months in 1/5 Hoagland`s No.2 nutrient culture solution containing aluminum chloride in the concentration range of 0.5 to 20 mM within the pH range of 3.5 to 4.0. Aluminium supplied at or below 1 mM of Al had no effect on the mortality of these species. However, the increase Al concentration higher than 2 mM increased the mortality. While they showed significant growth reduction at or higher Al concentration of 5 mM, there were no difference in growth response to Al between the two species in this experiment. While Al contents in leaf and root significantly increased with increasing Al concentration in the solution, contents of Ca, Mg and P in leaf decreased. Roof p content in Sugi increased with the increase of Al concentration in the solution, while no such change was observed in Hinoki root. This result suggests that Al might make phosphate immobile or inviolable form in Sugi root and this might lead to the reduced translocation of P into the leaf. In contrast, Al did not interfere with the uptake of phosphate in the root, however, it might interrupt phosphate transport into leaf from root system in Hinoki. The Al concentration such as 5 mM in the root sphere induced growth reductions in Sugi and Hinoki, with no significant difference in the response between the two species. This concentration was much higher than those reported in the field crops, vegetables and/or herbs. Thus, if soil acidification will be induced by acidic deposition in future, these herbaceous plants will be influenced faster than the conifer trees. This also means that ground vegetation change will be observed earlier than the conifer decline by the soil acidification stress. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Assessment of a Mega-Float on water quality and ecosystem in Tokyo bay; Choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ga Tokyowan no suishitsu to seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y.; Hu, C.; Hasemi, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hikai, A.

    1997-08-01

    The effect on the marine environment in the bay when a Mega-Float is installed in a bay was investigated. The physical process such as a residual flow (including tidal currents, water temperature, salt, density, and density currents), and the ecosystem model for which floating organic matter and plankton are handled were incorporated to develop a program for water quality calculation in a bay. The program was used for Tokyo Bay and compared with the conventional calculation result and the oceanograhpic observation result. Simultaneously, the effect on the Mega-Float was considered. On the flow in Tokyo Bay in summer, the calculation result that comparatively coincided with the observation value in a residual flow level was obtained. The horizontal distribution of COD comparatively coincides with the existing observation result. The influence that the Mega-Float exerts on the flow, water temperature, water quality, and ecosystem in the ambient sea area was little and local in the calculation scale (L {times} B {times} d = 6 km {times} 3 km {times} 2 m) of this time. However, the difference occurring due to the design position must also be investigated in future. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  15. Influences of species of metals and supports on the hydrogenation activity of carbon-supported metal sulfides catalysts; Tanso biryushi tanji shokubai no suisoka kassei ni taisuru kassei kinzoku oyobi tantaishu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanishi, K.; Hasuo, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Nagamatsu, T.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    In order to design catalysts suitable for primary liquefaction stage and secondary upgrading stage respectively in the multi-stage liquefaction process, various carbon-supported catalysts were prepared. Catalytic activities of them were investigated for the hydrogenation of 1-methylnaphthalene, to discuss the influences of metals and carbon species on the catalytic activity. Various water soluble and oil soluble Mo and Ni salts were used for NiMo supported catalysts. Among various carbon supports, Ketjen Black (KB) was effective for preparing the catalyst showing the most excellent hydrogenation activity. The KB and Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000) showing high hydrogenation activity were fine particles having high specific surface area more than 1000 m{sup 2}/g and primary particle diameter around 30 nm. This was inferred to contribute to the high dispersion support of active metals. Since such fine particles of carbon exhibited hydrophobic surface, they were suitable for preparing catalysts from the methanol-soluble metals. Although Ni and Mo added iron-based catalysts provided lower aromatic hydrogenation activity, they exhibited liquefaction activity competing with the NiMo/KB catalyst. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  17. Effect of Al content on critical CTOD properties in heat affected zone of C-Mn microalloyed steel. Teitanso teigokin koyosetsu netsu eikyobu no genkai CTOD tokusei ni oyobosu Al ganyuryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Y.; Komizo, Y. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-05

    Two types of molten alloys specimen with a base of 0.10%C-0.20%Si-1.40%Mn-0.01%Ti system and varied Al content, were studied. The critical crack tip opening displacement(CTOD) properties in heat effected zone(HAZ) of extreme low Al content steel was stable at. extremely low temperature and there was no formation of M-A. Fine ferrite has a texture of [alpha] main body and it has been thought that the the change in the CTOD properties with the variation in Al content has been due to the difference in the texture. In case of Al content steel plate, the interfacial energy has been decreased due to excessive carbon concentration at [gamma] /[alpha] interface, M-A formation has been easier by the suppression of [alpha] transformation. In case of extremely low Al content steel plate, [alpha] transformation has been promoted and cementite deposition has been estimated from a small amount. of left [gamma] of extremely high carbon concentration. As for SH-CCT diagram of extremely low Al content steel plate, compare to Al content steel plate, [alpha] noze has shifted toward shorter time and formation of [alpha] has been easier within the normal welding cooling rate, and microstructures of [alpha] texture have formed in HAZ. 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effect of temperature on degradation of musty odour compound producing by cyanobacteria, Phormidium tenue by microflagellate, Monas guttula; Benmochu Monas guttula ni yoru kabishu sansei sorui Phormidium tenue no bunkai ni oyobosu ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.; Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sugiura, N. [Ibaraki Prefectural Waterworks, Ibaraki (Japan); Inamori, Y.; Nishimura, O. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Higashi, T. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Applied Biochemical

    1998-04-10

    Biodegradation characteristics of cyanobacteria, Phormidium tenue and its metabolites, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by protozoan microflagellate, Monas guttula, and the effect of temperature on them were examined in batch culture experiment. The flagellate was found to predate on P. tenue favorably as a food source within a wide temperature range from 10degC to 30degC. Specific growth rate ({mu}) and generation time (t{sub d}) of the flagellate were 4.6 day{sup -1} and 3.5 h{sup -1}, respectively at 20degC and 30degC, whereas in the case of 10degC the lag values of {mu} and t{sub d} were obtained by 1.9 fold in comparison with the removal ratio of 61% at the first cultivation day and that of 99% at the 2nd day at 30degC, while at 20degC the removal was only about 30% in the first day, but P. tenue could be perfectly reduced at the 2nd day. Although the reduction rate of the P. tenue was slow at the lower temperature of 10degC, the removal reached 98% in the 7th day. Removal rate of P. tenue by the flagellate increased with the increase in temperature and reached the maximal value with 4.0 h{sup -1} at 30degC. The flagellate could contribute to the degradation of MIB, although the degradation was lower than that of P. tenue. It was found that the microflagellate could favorably predate on P. tenue and degrade its metabolite, MIB emitting musty odor in a wide range of temperature. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Wall effect in deactivation of excited molecular oxygen {sup 1}{delta}g; Reiki sanso bunshi {sup 1}{delta}g no shikkatsu ni oyobosu hyomen hanno no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-10-25

    This paper discusses effects of surface reaction on deactivation of excited molecular oxygen in {sup 1}{Delta}g condition. Gaseous oxygen containing excited oxygen generated by microwave discharge at a concentration of less than 1% is flown into several kinds of tubes to be measured such as quartz tubes (with an inner diameter of about 10 mm), and the light emitting intensity of the excited oxygen was measured upstream and downstream of the tubes to be measured (with in-tube pressure of 1 Torr or 2 Torr) to derive its concentration change. The surface reaction on the tube wall was regarded as a primary reaction, and the concentration change of the excited oxygen in flows in the round tube (attributable to the surface reaction) was analyzed. With respect to effects of tube wall materials on deactivation of the excited molecular oxygen, the surface deactivation probability in the case of using low-activity materials has decreased in the order of Pyrex, PVC, quartz, PFA and PTFE. The surface deactivation probability in the case of using a metallic material, SUS316L, was about 1000 times larger than that in the quartz. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Study on the performances of handling and stability influenced by the differential terms in the state variables; Soansei ni okeru jotai hensunai no bibun yoso ga seino ni oyobosu eikyo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugasawa, F [Tamagawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The analysis method using the system matrix for state variables can not be applied to the analysis for the system has Complex Cornering Stiffness. The reason is there are differential terms in the state variables. It is found that the differential terms m the state variables can be changed to the constant terms in another state variables. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  1. New concept of combustion technology in small DI diesel engines. 4th Report. Effects of fuel injection rates on MK combustion; Kogata chokufun diesel kikan no shinnensho concept. 4. Funsharitsu no MK nensho eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, S; Matsui, Y; Kamihara, T [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A previous paper showed that EGR cooling and a low compression ratio which prolongs the ignition delay can expand the area of the new combustion concept. Experimental investigations were conducted in this research to examine the effects of the fuel injection rates, the injection pressure and the injection duration, on the exhaust emissions of an engine incorporating the MK concept The results showed that a higher injection pressure was effective in reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) under MK combustion conditions. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Study on turning performance of four-track steering vehicles. Effect of traction force and track speed distribution control; Sodashiki sokisha no senkai seino ni kansuru kenkyu. Kudoryoku haibun to sokudo haibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, M; Watanabe, K; Kitano, M [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The four-track steering vehicles (4TS) is a new type of off-road vehicle which can replace four wheels with track units to improve the mobility on soft terrains. In this paper, the numerical simulations, under the various types of differential and track velocity control systems, are conducted to predict the turning performance and steer ability of the 4TS vehicles. The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate that the differential systems with realistic combined distribution control systems of the track speed is efficient at a small turning radius. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Thermal boundary condition effects on forced convection heat transfer. Application of a numerical solution of an adjoint problem; Kyosei tairyu netsudentatsu mondai ni okeru netsuteki kyokai joken no eikyo. Zuihan mondai no suchi kai wo mochiita kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, K.; Saso, K.; Kimoto, H. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1997-11-25

    We propose a numerical solution for the adjoint operator of a forced convection heat transfer problem to evaluate mean heat transfer characteristics under arbitrary thermal conditions. Using the numerical solutions of the adjoint problems under Dirichlet and Neumann conditions, both of which can be computed using a conventional CFD code, the influence function of the local surface temperature on the total heat transfer and that of the local surface heat flux on the mean surface temperature are obtained. As a result, the total heat fluxes for arbitrary surface temperature distributions and the mean surface temperatures for arbitrary surface heat flux distributions can be calculated using these influence functions. The influence functions for a circular cylinder and for an in-line square rod array are presented. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effect of release sheet on the preparation of CF paper/aluminium phosphate composite; Tanso sen`i paper/rinsan aluminium fukugo zairyo choseiji ni okeru hakurizai no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshii, S.; Kojima, A. [Gunma National College of Technology, Gunma (Japan); Otani, S. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). School of High-Technology for Human Walfare

    1995-12-27

    A composite material was prepared with carbon fiber (CF) and a matrix of phosphate (as named ACP) mainly consisting of aluminum phosphate. CF was used in the form of felt cloth. Prepreg was made with CF and ACP, which was laminated and formed under pressure in a hot press into a composite. The prepreg was pretreated by drying at 80{degree}C to form a compact matrix and to increase the adhesion between laminated prepregs. At the hot press treatment thorough removal of water was tried by using absorbent sheet and release sheet to form a compact structure. Consequently, porosity of CF/ACP composite decreased, and its bulk density and bending strength increased. SEM observation showed the formation of vitreous and compact matrix. Besides, adhesion between prepregs and shear fracture resistance were improved. 24 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 2000 report of investigation. Project for promoting international cooperation for global environment/Project for assessment on effect of climate change; 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo / kiko hendo eikyo hyoka nado jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Assessment and examination were conducted on the scientific/technological aspect, environmental aspect and economic/social aspect concerning measures for mitigating climate change, as a part of international cooperation in global warming issues. In the development of assessment methods for cost analysis, it revealed that, in the activities for mitigating emission of greenhouse effect gases (GHG) or for increasing carbon sequestration, benefits of the mitigation sometimes surpassed their cost, allowing the society to benefit from the mitigation. In the examination of problems in technology transfer and their solutions, it was found that, in order to attain successful transfer, partnership among the parties interested was essential and that each government was capable of promoting such partnership. In the assessment of various policy options, the situation in the U.S. is such that the market aspect of GHG emission permit and credit trading is rather weak because of immaturity in a legal framework on GHG emission trading and because of undefinedness in the systems of the Kyoto Protocol and in the possibility of its validation. However, the reason enterprises are actively participating in the early market is that they plan a risk-hedge for example in anticipation of tighter regulations in the future. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Project of promoting international cooperation on global environments/Project of assessing climate change impacts; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kiko hendo eikyo hyoka nado jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As part of international cooperation concerning global warming, an assessment is conducted of climate change mitigating measures, from the viewpoints of technology, environment, economy, and community, in coordination with the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 3rd working group responsible for energy policy and technological development. It aims to contribute to the preparation of a 3rd assessment report, and covers (1) the development of an assessment technique relating to cost analysis, (2) problems in the transfer of technology and solutions for them, and (3) the assessment of various policy options. Under item (1), studies are made about modelling techniques, common parameters and their values, potentials for effect, control of warming, etc. Under item (2), factors impeding the transfer and diffusion of technology are extracted and solutions therefor and the establishment of new incentives are deliberated, with analysis and investigation focused on tasks and solutions for furthering global transfer of technology with attention paid to various specific cases. Under item (3), concrete and feasible policy options are discussed on the basis of the outcome of the above-named endeavors, in view of characteristics of each of the regions, departments, and techniques. (NEDO)

  7. Experimental and numerical studies on aerodynamical noise in a high-speed elevator. ; Effect of apron on flow around elevator car. Kosoku elevator no kuriki soon ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Kagomawari no nagare ni oyobosu apron bu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, H.; Fukuyama, Y.; Miyasako, K.; Endo, M. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Yokono, Y. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Precision Machinery and Electronics)

    1993-08-25

    For the purpose of reducing aerodynamic noise of a high-speed elevator, the flow around the elevator car was subjected to a flow visualization experiment and numerical simulation using a model simulating an elevator. The state of the flow in front of the door was observed by visualizing the field of flow around the model submerged in a water bath using a poster color tracer. Further, a wind tunnel experiment was carried out to observe the effects of flow at the side wall of the car. An oily agent using TiO2 as pigment was used for observing the pattern of oil film on the surface of the model and the observed results were recorded on a video tape. Since the oil solution is white, the place where the oil film is peeled by a strong shearing force exhibits a pattern of black color which is the color of the model substrate. Flow in front of the door is different depending on whether the car is in the upward motion or in the downward motion and affected by the presence of apron. During the downward motion of the car, the vertical vortices accompanying the flow detouring from the rear surface to the front surface of the apron are generated at both ends of the apron and thereby the streamlines are concentrated to generate accelerated flow in front of the door. Suppression of vertical voltices is important for reducing noise during downward motion. Peeled flow and vortex interference appear at the side and back of the car and forms a field of complex flow. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Biochemical and toxicological impacts of persistent organochlorines on aquatic ecosystem. With particular attention to dioxins and their related compounds; Zanryusei yuki enso kagobutsu no suiken seitaikei eno eikyo. Toku ni dioxin rui ni chakumokushite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-07-10

    PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs are organochlorine compounds which induce toxicological impacts on test animals, such as reduced weight, thymic gland dwarf, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental toxicity, carcinogenecity, teratogenicity and endocrine disturbance. They are generally referred to as dioxins. They are difficult to be decomposed in vivo, and tend to be more concentrated in higher organisms, placed at higher positions in the food chain. In aquatic ecosystems, they are observed to accumulate at high concentrations in fishes, fish-eating birds, claspers and whales. Therefore, there are growing concerns over their possible adverse effects on wild animals in aquatic ecosystems. This paper describes the effects of persistent organochlorine compounds on fishes, birds and aquatic mammals; and induction of cytochrome P450 of each organic species, caused by exposure to dioxins, and the induction examples in aquatic ecosystems. It also discusses whether or not the cytochrome P450 induction capacity of each organism species can be used as an index which explains difference between organism species in toxicological impacts of dioxins. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. FY 1998 international cooperation project for global environment/project to evaluate influence of climate change; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo/kiko hendo eikyo hyokanado jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the international cooperation for the global warming problem, evaluation/study were conducted on policy to lessen climate changes from viewpoints of scientific technology, environment, and economy/society. In the development of evaluation methods on cost analysis, the following were pointed out: Changes in resource utilization brought about as a result of the policy are all needed to be numerated; In resource, clean air and water, and also abolition of price barrier and prices now in force are included. As subjects on the technology transfer, cited are barriers in aspects of organization/system and barriers in aspects of economy/finance and society. Especially, it was pointed out that it is necessary to exchange the persons concerned in the industrial sector. Of various optional policies toward the prevention of global warming, the Kyoto mechanism not only has an economical merit of the use of low cost option but can be fairly promising from an environmental viewpoint of internationally controlling the greenhouse effect gas emission, if the characteristic of practically using the market can be so designed that it fulfills its function. (NEDO)

  11. FY 2000 report on the investigation of environmental effects in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho - No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, survey was conducted to grasp effects of drilling for structural boring in the geothermal survey on the peripheral environment. In the survey of animals, there were 5 orders/10 families/19 species of mammals and 10 orders/25 families/73 species of birds. Three kinds of precious animals were confirmed. There were 132 families/6,670 species in the flora. Three kinds of precious plants and three kinds of precious floras were confirmed. During the survey, drilling for structural boring was conducted. At three spas for survey, there were recognized some survey items of which there were great fluctuations. However, those are seasonal valuations or valuations related to the situation of the inside of hot springs. It is not recognized that the fluctuations were caused by the drilling work and pumping-up of geothermal water. The noise made during the well drilling was reduced around the well as theoretical values indicated. At a spot 200m away from the well, the noise was reduced from the environmental standard, and accordingly, it seems that there are few effects on the peripheral environment. The vibration was reduced around the well more than theoretical values indicated. That was below the control level at a spot 25m away from the well, and it seems that there are few effects on the peripheral environment. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 research report on the basic study on the effect of microgravity on living individuals; Bisho juryoku no seibutsu kotai ni taisuru eikyo no kiso kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to clarify the effect of microgravity on vital functions and organisms at a cell level, this research studies the molecular biological response function of higher animals, the gravity acceptable mechanism of single-cell organisms, the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects, measurement of monoamine system neurotransmitters of rat hippocampus by dialysis in a brain and the effect of microgravity on it, the effect of microgravity on water and bone metabolism functions and immunity function, and the analysis of BZ reaction as a simple model of vital reaction. The themes of the research are as follows: the effect of microgravity environment on cell fusion, the analysis of gravity acceptable mechanisms of single-cell organisms, the effect of oriental medical treatment on bone metabolism anomaly of mouses under microgravity environment, the effect of oriental medical treatment on change in physiological function under microgravity environment, the effect of microgravity environment on immunity systems, the effect of gravity on cell activities, the effect of a gravity field on chemical oscillation reaction, and the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects. (NEDO)

  13. Effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system applied to grey water treatment. kenkiter dot koki roshoho no shori seino ni oyobosu ryuryo hendo oyobi kendaku busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, T; Sagehashi, M; Otsuka, N; Okada, M; Murakami, A [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-10

    In this study, effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids (SS) on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system were investigated through the laboratory test using synthetic wastewater and the field test using grey water. Effects of flow variation scarcely appeared on the time change of effluent quality in both cases where daily average hydraulic retention time (HRT) in anaerobic filter was 20h and that of aerobic filter was 6.7h. In the field test, however, removal rate of organic substances was lower (20-30%) than that of the laboratory test (90%), since SS content in grey water accumulated in the anaerobic filter which led dissolution of organic substances from accumulated SS, blocking, and short-circuit flow. Moreover, it was confirmed by the batch test that constituent of grey water has lower resolution for microorganisms and is more difficult to nitrate than synthetic waste water. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Effects of sand compaction pile (SCP) driving on the strength of clay outside the improved area; Sand compaction pile no dasetsu ga jiban kairyo ikigai no nendo jiban no kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, H. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan); Takahashi, S. [Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, K. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitayama, N. [Fukken Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-06-21

    This paper describes effects of the disturbance by the sand compaction pile (SCP) driving operations on the shear strength of clay outside the improved area and the border of region affected by the SCP driving. About 1,400 soil specimens were taken before and after the SCP driving inside and outside the improved area during the foundation improvement at Tokuyama-Shimomatsu Port in Yamaguchi Prefecture. Soil test data of the specimens and strength characteristics of disturbed clay specimens were investigated through the laboratory experiments. The results obtained are as follows. According to the multi-directional simple shear test results, the shear strength immediately after the cyclic shear decreased in 10 to 30% compared with that before the cyclic shear. When recompaction was conducted before the cyclic shear, however, it increased in 50% compared with that before the cyclic shear. The strength of clay decreased by the SCP driving even outside the improved area. When the internal frictional angle of clay, friction coefficient of the improved boundary and driving depth of SCP were determined, it was possible to estimate an area affected by the SCP driving using a combined sliding plane. 21 refs., 18 figs.

  15. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  16. Effects of short fiber reinforcement and mean stress on tensile fatigue strength characteristics of polyethersulfone; Tansen`i kyoka porieterusaruhon no hippari hiro tokusei ni oyobosu heikin oryoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furue, H.; Nonaka, K. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-01-15

    Thermoplastics are often reinforced with short fibers with aims of improvement of their strengths, rigidities and hardness or maintenance of their dimensional stabilities. Such short fiber reinforced plastic materials have more expectation for high performance plastics. Authors already examined of some effects of reinforced fiber and of orientation in injection molding on flexural fatigue characteristics of the injection-molded high performance thermoplastic materials. However, the examination of short fiber reinforced effects on fatigue strength characteristics was not always sufficient. In this study, in order to obtain a guiding principle for fatigue resistant design of the short fiber reinforced injection molding materials, polyethersulfones (PES) was examined on its tensile fatigue strength and an effect of short fiber reinforcement for improvement of its fundamental dynamic properties on its fatigue characteristics. Especially, its fatigue life characteristics was elucidated mainly on relationship of mean stress, stress amplitude and number of repeating fracture in tensile fatigue behavior. 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area and hydraulic loading on the treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter. Sesshoku bakkiho no shori koritsu ni taisuru kishitsu nodo, hihyo menseki oyobi suiryo fuka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyo, T; Ono, S; Yoshino, T [Kitasato University, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Science

    1991-06-10

    Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading, which are major factors influencing treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter, were analyzed through the test with a special apparatus. In the test, the wall of the submerged biological filter was regarded as the contact material, and the specific surface area was changed by adjusting the sectional form of the filter. Using specimens from actual plant reservoirs, treatment efficiency for each case of three kinds of substrate concentration and hydraulic loading was measured. BOD removal rate was lower with smaller specific surface area. It was conspicuous particularly with higher BOD concentration in influent water. After the multiple regression analysis of the test results, the multiple regression equation to estimate BOD residual rate from three variates such as BOD concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading was obtained. When 200mg l as BOD concentration and 50m{sup 2} m{sup {minus}3} as specific surface area were applied in this equation, the result almost agreed with the tendency obtained from data of actual plants. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Survey on acceleration of geothermal development in fiscal 1998. Report on survey for influence on environment (No. B-7, Kuwanosawa district); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa.Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    A survey was performed on the current situation in the Kuwanosawa district in Akita Prefecture to identify influence on the surrounding environment due to drilling of geothermal structure testing wells. The survey on animals covered mammals of five divisions, 10 families and 19 species, Aves of ten divisions, 25 families and 73 species, reptiles of one division, 3 families and 6 species, Amphibia of two divisions, 6 families, 9 species, and Insects of 17 divisions, 179 families and 719 species. Precious animals of a several species including black salamander were identified. In the plant survey, 132 families and 670 species were identified, with several species listed as the precious plants. In the survey of hot springs, those at three locations were all high-temperature hot springs at as high as 53.8 to 96.9 degrees C. Amount of discharge, pH and electrical conductivity differ largely by the hot springs. The hot spring in Takamatsu did not show large variation throughout the survey period. The Ogura Inn at Doroyu Spa has small variation in pH and hot spring temperature, but large variation in the amount of discharge and Al{sup 3+} concentration. Correlation was recognized between hot spring temperature and amount of discharge, between hot spring temperature and anion, between amount of discharge and electric conductivity, and between amount of discharge and anion. (NEDO)

  20. Numerical simulation of growth of flames formed in two-dimensional mixing layer. 2nd Report. Effect of dilution of fuel; Nijigen kongo sonai ni keiseisareta kaen no seicho ni kansuru suchi simulation. 2. Nenryo no kishaku ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, S [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Hashimoto, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, T [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-07-25

    The effect of fuel dilution on growth of flames formed in 2-D mixing layers was studied by numerical simulation. The methane mass fraction of fuel was adjusted to 1.0, 0.3 and 0.2 through dilution by nitrogen, while the oxygen mass fraction of an oxidizer was fixed at 0.27. Flame structure was complicated due to the flows separated by flame at the leading edge of flames, and three peaks of the second Damkohler number were observed. Fuel dilution by nitrogen caused blow-off of flames, and the mixing ratio of the fuel and oxidizer at the leading edge of flames was essential to blow-off of diffused flames. In the case where vortices were observed in a flow field, the first Damkohler number was important which was determined by the hydrodynamic characteristic time of coherent vortices and the chemical characteristic time of flame propagation based on the mixing ratio of the fuel and oxidizer at the leading edge of flames. The diffused flames were elongated by shearing force, and an exothermic reaction was suppressed and a flame stabilization decreased with a decrease in second Damkohler number. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Stability of diffusion flame formed in a laminar flat plate boundary layer. Effect of fuel dilution; Soryu heiban kyokai sonai ni keiseisareru kakusan kaen no anteisei. Nenryo kishaku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Ueda, T; Mizumoto, M [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Amari, T [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-25

    A stability limit of the diffusion flame with fuel injection from a porous wall in a laminar flat plate boundary layer is measured as functions of fuel (CH4) concentration of CH4/N2 injectant mixture ({chi}) and its injection velocity (v). The free stream velocity (U{infinity}) is set as 0.6 m/s. The thermal condition at the wall is controlled by setting temperature at the upstream end of the porous wall as a reference temperature. When v >20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the separation of leading flame edge with decreasing {chi}. The value of {chi} at the stability limit is constant without regard to v as long as the wall temperature is kept constant. As the wall temperature is decreased the value of {chi} increases. The separation is supposed to take place as a result of the limit of the reaction rate. When v <20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the oscillation. The value of {chi} at the stability limit increases drastically with decreasing v. The oscillation takes place mainly due to the repeat of the extinction due to heat loss to the wall and the flame propagation in the combustible layer. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Analysis of transient thermal behaviors during the charging process in stratified heat storage tanks. 2nd Report. Effects of characteristic parameters; Seiso chikunetsu sonai deno juten katei no kato netsuteki kyodo ni kansuru kaiseki. 2. Tokusei inshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H; Hong, H; Pak, E

    1997-11-25

    The mixing effect deteriorates performance in a stratified heat storage tank. In the present study, the effect of characteristic factors during the charging process was analyzed, based on the analytical solution in the previous study in which a strict boundary condition was applied and a mixing effect was included. Also, the usefulness of the solution was verified and the method of application to a real system was examined by comparing it to other experimental results. It was concluded that the depth of the perfectly mixed region is dominant unless the Peclet number is very small. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Effect of volume change of coal during plastic and resolidifying phase on the internal gas pressure in coke ovens; Sekitan nanka saikoka katei ni okeru taiseki henka ga cokes ro no nanka yoyu sonai gas atsu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S; Arima, T [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    The coking pressure in coke oven, which is caused by the internal gas pressure in the coal plastic layer, is determined by the gas permeability of the layer. The gas permeability of the plastic layer depends on its density as well as the physical property of the plastic coal itself The plastic layer is between the coke layer and the coal layer and the effect of the volume change of these outer layers, i.e. contraction and compression, on the density and the internal gas pressure of the plastic layer was studied. Sandwich carbonization test, where different coals were charged in the test coke oven, showed that the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer depends not only on the one kind of coal in plastic phase but also on the other kind of coal in resolidifying phase near the oven walls. The relative volume of coke transformed from the unit volume of coal was measured using X-ray CT scanner and it varied greatly across the coke oven width depending on the kinds of coals. The volume change of coal during plastic and resolidifying phase affects the density and the internal gas pressure of the plastic layer The relative volume of semicoke and coke transformed from the unit volume of coal near the oven walls is higher for a high coking pressure coal than that for a low coking pressure coal. This leads to the high density of the plastic layer and the generation of dangerously high internal gas pressure in the oven centre. (author)

  4. Effect of pore water pressure on P-wave velocity in water-filled sands with partial air saturation; Fukanzen howa jotai no suna shiryo wo denpasuru P ha sokudo ni oyobosu kangeki suiatsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanema, T [Chishitsu-Keisoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to elucidate change in velocity of elastic waves in association with water pressure increase in a sand bed below the groundwater level in a shallow portion of the ground, a measurement experiment was carried out on P-wave velocity in sand samples with partial air saturation. The experiment has used fine sand having an equivalent coefficient of 2.40, a soil particle density of 2.68 g/cm {sup 3} or 60%, and a grain size of 0.36 mm. Inside the water-filled sand sample, two accelerometers were embedded 20 cm apart from each other as vibration receivers. An electromagnetic hammer for P-wave was used as the vibration source. In the experiment, measurement was carried out on the P-wave velocity in association with increase in pore water pressure by applying water pressure afresh to the water-filled sample. As a result of the experiment, the following matters were disclosed: the P-wave velocity increases as the pore water pressure was increased, and a phenomenon was recognized that the dominant frequency changes into high frequency; the degree of increase in the P-wave velocity varies depending on initial saturation of the sample; and bubbles in the pore fluid have their volume decreased due to compression resulted from increased pore water pressure and dissolution of air into the pore water. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  5. CFD prediction of heat island formation on growing Asian cities. Effect of urbanization in Shanghai; Kyodaikasuru Asia no toshi ni okeru heat island keisei ni kansuru CFD yosoku. Shanghai no toshika ga oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, T.; Murakami, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Mitsumoto, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Study is conducted of the effect of change in land use and increase in artificial exhaust heat on heat island formation in Shanghai. Concerning the land use distribution in Shanghai, a point sampling survey was conducted in the 1930s using topographic charts, when the area was broken down into building-occupied region, paddy field, bare ground, and waters. In the 1990s, thanks to data from satellites, high-density and low-density urban regions have added. Calculation for Shanghai is performed, based on the rate of increase in Tokyo`s population and data predicted for Shanghai`s population, on the assumption that Shanghai`s population in the 2050s will grow 2.3 times larger than it is in the 1990s. The prediction thus produced indicates that the urban area in Shanghai in the 2050s will be as large as that of the present-day Tokyo that covers a 50km zone. Heat island formation prediction for Shanghai is worked out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-aided simulation. According to the prediction, while the maximum temperature in the 1930s was 29.6degC or 4degC higher than in the suburbs, it is 33.2degC or 7.6deg higher in the 1990s, and will be 34.4degC or 8.6degC higher in the 2050s. 16 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Few studies of the effect of diluents on extraction of cobalt with D2EHPA. D2EHPA ni yoru Co no chushutsu ni ataeru kishakuzai no eikyo ni kansuru jakkan no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranae, M.; Nakataka, Y.; Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Saito, I.; Sakamoto, H. (Environment Research Inst. Resources Technical Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-12-27

    Study was made on extraction of cobalt from weak acid solution with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) using various polar diluents such as benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, n-heptane, cyclohexane and n-hepatne-benzene mixtures. Extraction efficiency of cobalt has decreased in the order, n-heptane > cyclohexane > m-xylene > o-xylene > toluene > benzene and this order has been in good agreement with the decreasing order of solubility parameters of diluents,and has shown the possibility of application of regular solution theory. When n-heptane and cyclohexane as diluents, in low loading ratio(L),were used Co-D2EHPA polymer were formed compared to other diluents. On the other hand when mixture of n-heptane/benzene was used as diluent, the efficiency of extraction, salting-out effect and formation of Co-D2EHPA polymer has changed with the texture of mixture.This change may be due to the effect of L and it has been thought for the necessity of investigation of extraction of cobalt in low polar diluents. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998. Survey on the researchers and research institutes for the effects of global warming and its countermeasures; 1998 nendo onshitsu koka gas ni yoru kankyo eikyo nado ni kansuru kenkyusha kenkyu kikan chosa chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researchers and research institutes across the world (except those in Japan), engaged in the study of global warming and measures to deal with the phenomenon, are extracted in compliance with certain specified standards, and the latest information on them is appropriately arranged and listed. It is further developed into an electronic database for the convenience of users. The collected information includes more than 230 research institutes and more than 1,000 researchers. The endeavor is exerted by extracting essays and institutes mainly out of the on-line databases. More than 1,000 essays and 130 institutes are covered. Visits are made to five institutes in the U.S. and four in Europe who are most actively engaged in the study of global warming, and detailed researches are conducted and information is exchanged. The Argonne National Institute copes with all energy problems related to global warming. Descriptions are given about environmental impact surveys and CO2 isolation in the ocean at the Center for Global Science of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the visitors heard explanations of technologies related to renewable energies and so forth. Researches are made into ecosystems at the University of California, and into natural energies at the University of Hawaii. Also visited are research institutes in Australia, Germany, Netherlands, and Britain. (NEDO)

  8. Investigations in fiscal 1983 on promotion of geothermal development. Part 1. Report on investigation of fumarolic environmental effects in Oku-Aizu area; 1983 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. 1. Okuaizu chiiki funkichu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    As part of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development, surveys have been carried out in the Oku-Aizu area to identify the existence and/or extent of effects of collecting geothermal fluids above the ground imposed on the environment, such as the natural ecological system. The investigated area is an area of 60 km{sup 2} covering Kawanuma County and Onuma County in Fukushima Prefecture, a mountainous area with undulations. The investigation result may be summarized as follows: the area shows the inland climate and has snow fall as much as 2 m in winter; according to the H2S diffusion prediction, the concentration thereof on the land in seasonal average is 0.7 ppm at maximum, which is a value presenting no problems. No fumarolic effects of SO2 were identified, and floating dust and Hg showed values that present no problems. With regard to water quality during and after the blowout test, no effects of blowout return were identified. The noise level was 41 to 45 phones at a place 100 m distant, and the vibration level has become the lower detection limit at a place 50 m distant. Leveling has discovered no ground movement. No variation in major constituents in thermal spring water was verified before and after the blowout test. (NEDO)

  9. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structures. 2nd Report. Effect of the water depth and the drift forces; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu chosei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Senkai eikyo to hyoryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, H; Miyajima, S [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K; Ikoma, T [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1997-12-31

    Steady-state drift force in regular waves is theoretically analyzed. It is also studied under combined external force experimentally using a two-dimensional water tank. The fluid forces are analyzed by the pressure distribution method based on the potential theory, in which the effects of water depth are taken into account to discuss the effects of elastic deformation of the floating structure on the drift characteristics of steady-state waves. The tests were carried out using a wave-making circulating water tank equipped with a wind duct to create wind, waves and tidal flow. Drift force under a combined external force by wind, wave and/or tidal flow cannot be accurately predicted by arithmetically adding these components. For predicting drift force by tidal flow, it is necessary to take into account drag force in current at the floating structure bottom as well as that in wind at the front face. Drift force by tidal flow is affected by shallowness of water, which should be taken into account for drag forces. The floating structure will be deformed along the wave face as its stiffness decreases, basically decreasing steady-state drift force. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Study of the oil flow and the bearing temperature in engine. Part 3. Influence of the bearing designs; Engine ni okeru jikuuke yuryo oyobi jikuuke ondo ni kansuru ichikosatsu. 3. Jikuuke sekkei yoso no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K; Kawai, K; Sasaki, S [Taiho Kogyo Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    It is necessary to find the bearing design so that the bearing temperature drops most efficiently by making the proper oil flow. We measured the oil flow and the bearing temperature using the narrow width bearing the bearing with small oil relief , the bearing with shallow circumferential microgrooves (the microgrooved bearing), the narrow width bearing with microgrooves. And further, we measured the variation of the oil flow every 5-15deg crank angle and searched for the efficient oil flow. As the result the bearing temperature using the microgrooved bearing dropped most efficiently. 3 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Emission characteristics of premixed lean diesel combustion. Effects of injection nozzle and combustion chamber shape on combustion and emission characteristics; Kihaku yokongo diesel nensho no haishutsubutsu tokusei. Funmu keijo oyobi nenshoshitsu keijo ga haishutsu gas tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, A; Sasaki, S; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Many articles about low NOx emission combustion are reported. A mixture formation is necessary to success low NOx emission combustion. But, there is few reports about the effect of nozzle and combustion shape on emissions which give influence on mixture. In this paper, the effects on characteristic of combustion and emissions of some land of injection nozzle and combustion chamber shape were investigated. As a result, it was cleared that the influence of combustion chamber shape on characteristic of combustion and emissions was varied by spray shape, and pintle type injection nozzle was suitable for PREDIC. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in total knee arthroplasty; Jinko kansetsu okikaeji no one cement no hatsunetsu ga seitai soshiki ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M.; Uchida, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Iwatsubo, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurosawa, M.; Hashimoto, Y. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Fukushima, H.

    1998-01-25

    Bone cement is often applied to fix the components in a surgical operation, such as TKA (total knee arthroplasty). In this paper, we consider the effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in TKA by using numerical simulation. First, we applied an axisymmetric model of tibia to finite element method and analyzed heat generation of bone cement. To confirm the results of analysis by experiment, we measured the temperature determined by 6 points i.e., 2 points each in component-cement interface, cement and bone-cement interface. As a result, the temperature determined by analysis agrees with that determined by experiment. Next, we proposed the evaluation formula of the bone necrosis. We constructed a bone necrosis map from the simulation. From the map, we found that the bone necrosis region was about 2 mm from the bone-cement interface. In addition, the bone necrosis is severe at the base of the tibial component. 7 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Effect of heat transfer in cylinder on air quantity of 4-stroke cycle gasoline engine; 4 Stroke gasoline engine no kyunyu shinkiryo ni oyobosu cylinder nai dennetsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M.; Oguri, Y.; Suzuki, T. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-01-25

    Many papers concerning air quantity of 4-stroke cycle gasoline engine have been published. It has been reported in these papers that heat transfer in surface of cylinder and inlet port gives big influence to the air quantity. But it has not been clear which influence of heat transfer in cylinder and inlet port is strong. So the authors derived a function of the air quantity thermodynamically considering heat transfer, and examined which of influence of heat transfer was strong. The results show ; (1) The influence of heat transfer in cylinder is small (about 1%) at full load, and is also small (about 5%) at light load. (2) Heat transfer in cylinder almost increases the air quantity. (3) The influence of heat transfer in inlet port decreases the air quantity with around 30% greatly. (author)

  14. Influence of fragmentation of substrate on synergistic effect in hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose with cellulases; Seruraze niyoru kessho serurosu bunkaikatei deno sojokoka ni oyobosu kishitsu no danpenka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Morita, M.; Mitsui, R. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2000-05-10

    The expression mechanism of synergistic effect is investigated by using two cellulase components obtained from Meicelase CEP-6000 by purification. Purified cellulose components are classified into two types. One, tentatively named CMCase-type (FIE and FIIIE), has relatively low values of the ratio of MCC hydrolysis to CMC hydrolysis, and considerably high values of the ratio of K{sub m} for MCC and CMC. The other, tentatively named MCCase-type (FIIE and FIVE), has largely different values about those properties. In the case of MCC hydrolysis with FIVE alone, the particle diameter of MCC decreases (fragmentation) and the particle number of MCC increased rapidly in the early stage of reaction, and both decrease gradually in the late stage of reaction. In the case of a mixture of the above two components is for an increase in amounts of reaction site in the substrate for FIIIE, dependent on fragmentation of MCC by FIVE, and the activity of FIVE is stimulated by FIIIE. In the case of the mixture of FIE and FIIIE, the synergistic effect is not expressed. This finding suggests that these two components do not have the activity of fragmentation of MCC. (author)

  15. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T; Makino, M; Morijiri, R; Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  16. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on survey of introduction of techniques for predicting impact on hot springs; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    In an effort to find guidelines on how to proceed with geothermal energy development so that it may coexist with hot springs, investigations are conducted into cases of impacts on hot springs imposed by geothermal energy development activities. An impact is judged to exist when geothermal development results in a decrease or depletion of pumped or spontaneously welling hot spring water, change in the concentration of dissolved chemical ingredients, fall in water temperature, or in an increase in the amount of discharged steam. Keyword-aided retrieval of data from databases is performed, and geothermal magazines are referred to for information. There are articles reporting impacts imposed by geothermal development on hot springs in the Palinpinon area (Philippines) and 12 others and in the Corwin Springs area (U.S.) and 13 others. These articles carrying outlines and impacts of geothermal development are collected, put in order, and analyzed. Cases in which such impacts are found to exist are categorized into four groups and, in each group, episodes are differentiated from each other by the type of mechanism linking the aquifer and the reservoir which is the object of development. (NEDO)

  17. Local approach to brittle fracture under residual stress field. Assessment of pre-loading effect; Local approach no tekiyo ni yoru zanryu oryoku wo motsu buzai no zeisei hakai kyodo hyoka. Yokaju no eikyo no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Sakano, K.; Onozuka, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Minami, F. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on brittle fracture was investigated on the basis of the Local Approach. Compressive residual stress was introduced by pre-loading and the subsequent fracture test conducted with a 780 MPa class steel. Preloading apparently increased the critical load and critical CTOD at the onset of brittle fracture initiation. The Weibull stress criterion was used to evaluate the brittle fracture resistance of the pre-loaded specimen. The critical Weibull stress is a material property independent of test conditions with and without pre-loading. Using the Weibull stress criterion, the critical CTOD of the pre-loaded specimen can be predicted from test results of the specimen without pre-loading. (author)

  18. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structures. 2nd Report. Effect of the water depth and the drift forces; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu chosei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Senkai eikyo to hyoryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, H.; Miyajima, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K.; Ikoma, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    Steady-state drift force in regular waves is theoretically analyzed. It is also studied under combined external force experimentally using a two-dimensional water tank. The fluid forces are analyzed by the pressure distribution method based on the potential theory, in which the effects of water depth are taken into account to discuss the effects of elastic deformation of the floating structure on the drift characteristics of steady-state waves. The tests were carried out using a wave-making circulating water tank equipped with a wind duct to create wind, waves and tidal flow. Drift force under a combined external force by wind, wave and/or tidal flow cannot be accurately predicted by arithmetically adding these components. For predicting drift force by tidal flow, it is necessary to take into account drag force in current at the floating structure bottom as well as that in wind at the front face. Drift force by tidal flow is affected by shallowness of water, which should be taken into account for drag forces. The floating structure will be deformed along the wave face as its stiffness decreases, basically decreasing steady-state drift force. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Assessment of effects of maturity of Japan`s economy and society and improvement in automotive fuel consumption on demand for automotive fuels; Nippon keizai shakai no seijukuka to nenpi kaizen ga jidoshayo nenryo juyo ni ataeru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper evaluates impacts of the maturity of Japan`s economy and society and the improvement in automotive fuel efficiency on the demand for automotive fuels by FY 2010. Standard case and lower order case were examined. When the traffic volume of passenger cars in FY 1995 is assumed to be 100, it become 121 and 119 in standard and lower order cases, respectively. The traffic volume of lorries become 106 and 102 in standard and lower order cases, respectively, which showed a rather small growth. Deterioration rate of the fuel consumption was estimated by considering the difference in fuel consumption of new cars and existing cars. Although the fuel consumption will be lowered by FY 2000 when the cassation rate of ordinary passenger cars will rapidly increase, the impact will be lowered after that. For lorries for commercial use, the running fuel consumption will be gradually lowered due to the increased carrying capacity and vehicle weight a lorry with improving the transportation efficiency. Decreased running speed by traffic jam is also a cause of the deterioration of fuel consumption. When a policy of improvement in the fuel consumption is promoted in a background of CO2 issues, the fuel consumption of each vehicle will be gradually improved. The peak of fuel demand will be in FY 2005 by considering the changes in economical and social structures and the improvement in fuel consumption for the environmental protection. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Improvement of the material with the hard pressure for high fireplace. Koroyo koshitsu atsunyuzai no kaizen. (2) Ataunyuzai no bussei ni ataeru kotsuzai [center dot] ekitai bainda no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R. (Harima Ceramics Corp., Hyogo (Japan))

    1999-02-01

    It had already been reported, and the damage factor of the material with the pressure was investigated from the core boring sample with an opportunity this time, and improvement was done about the kind of the bone material, the liquid binder as for the material with the pressure of the phenol plastic base and that system. The reduction of the amount of binder became possible by using a thick bone material, and the ones for the volatilization decreased by adding the plastic of the high concentration again, and the appearance pore rates of the material with the pressure decreased and worked for high strength performance as a result. This high strength performance is thought to be effective against the decrease of the mechanical abrasion to the thing with high fireplace, which is the damage cause of the material with the pressure. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Improvement of the material with the hard pressure for high fireplace; Koroyo koshitsu atsunyuzai no kaizen. (2) Ataunyuzai no bussei ni ataeru kotsuzai {center_dot} ekitai bainda no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R. [Harima Ceramics Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    It had already been reported, and the damage factor of the material with the pressure was investigated from the core boring sample with an opportunity this time, and improvement was done about the kind of the bone material, the liquid binder as for the material with the pressure of the phenol plastic base and that system. The reduction of the amount of binder became possible by using a thick bone material, and the ones for the volatilization decreased by adding the plastic of the high concentration again, and the appearance pore rates of the material with the pressure decreased and worked for high strength performance as a result. This high strength performance is thought to be effective against the decrease of the mechanical abrasion to the thing with high fireplace, which is the damage cause of the material with the pressure. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Study on initial stage of diesel spray formation. Effects of the condition inside the nozzle sac; Diesel funmu no shoki keisei katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sac nai nenryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, N.; Tsujimura, K. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Komori, M.

    1996-06-25

    To realize clean diesel exhaust, it is very important to clarify the atomization phenomena of the fuel spray. In this study, the initial stage of the atomization process of a diesel injection fuel spray was analyzed with a high-speed image converter camera under the conditions of atmospheric gas pressure and room temperature. As a result, it was found that the initial spray formation was greatly affected lay the condition inside the nozzle sac. In the case in which fuel existed in the sac, pin-like structure spray formation was observed at the initial injection stage. This phenomenon was not observed in the case in which no fuel was present in the sac, and a widely spread fuel spray formation was observed at the initial injection stage. The relatively low-speed fuel spray injected in the initial low-sac-pressure condition was pushed away by the subsequent fuel spray injected in the high-sac-pressure condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Surface flaw detection by means of infrared radiometer. Part 3. ; Detection limit influenced by an environment temperature. Sekigai hoshakei ni yoru hyomen kekkan no kenshutsu. 3. ; Shuhen ondo ni yoru kenshutsu genkai no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, U; Kaminaga, F [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ishii, T [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan); Eto, M; Ooka, N; Kanaya, K; Eto, Y [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Kurokawa, T [Nippon Denki Sanei Ltd. Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-12-20

    Measuring a radiation energy distribution around surface flaw by means of a infrared rediometer can detect fine flaw on the surface. The characteristics were examined using a light quantum type radiation thermometer consisted of Hg-Cd-Te as a sensor. A surrounding wall consisted of a black body wall was installed between the sensor and test piece, and by thus maintaining the surrounding wall temperature constant, reflection energy from the test piece surface was maintained constant for stabilized measurement. The measurement values are the sum of energies from emission and reflection, or the so-called radiosity values. To avoid effects from the reflection to reduce variance in the emissivity, it is necessary to keep the surrounding wall temperatures lower by more than 20 {degree}C than the test piece radiation temperatures. Emissivity can be calculated from the rediositivity (sum of the radiation and the reflection), the surrounding wall temperatures, and the test piece radiation temperatures. If the surface is rough, variance in the measurements increases. The larger the difference in the test piece and surrounding wall temperatures, the thermo image of the defects on the test piece surface becomes more distinctive, thus the detection limit can be enhanced. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the state of studying the measures against global warming in the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and made analyses of the trends of preventive measures for global warming in other countries, aiming at presenting data for studying the future enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region. In the U.S., a report was taken up from Executive Office of the President which is entitled `the federal government R and D of energy for solution to problems in the 21st century.` The report made analyses of the federal government R and D of energy and at the same time recommended an increase in R and D budget and reinforcement of the organization of the Department of Energy. In Europe, the carbon tax, CO2 tax, energy tax, etc. are introduced or studied for reduction of CO2 emissions. OECD made public a report approved in May 1997 which is entitled `the environmental tax and green tax reform.` Also studied were the introduction and effects of the carbon tax aiming at reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries. More attention is being paid to economic effects predicted in case developed countries reinforce various kinds of measures for targeted reduction of greenhouse gases. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Effect of insolation forecasting error on reduction of electricity charges for solar hot water system; Taiyonetsu kyuto system no denki ryokin sakugen koka ni oyobosu nissharyo yosoku gosa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A solar hot water system can be economically operated if inexpensive midnight power is purchased to cover the shortage of solar energy predicted for the following day. Investigations were conducted because error in insolation prediction affects the system operation and electric charge reduction effect. The target temperature of the heat accumulation tank at every predetermined time point is calculated on the previous evening in consideration of predicted insolation so that the water will be as hot as prescribed at the feeding time on the following day. Midnight power is used for uniform heating to attain the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning. The uniform heating continues from 8 o`clock to the feeding time, this time using solar energy and daytime power to attain the target temperature. Accordingly, the division between the midnight power and daytime power is determined in view of the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning, which target temperature is so set that the charge will be the minimum by optimizing the allocation of the above-said two. When the insolation prediction error rate is beyond 30%, the electric charge grows higher as the rate rises. But, when the rate is not higher than 30%, the charge is little affected by a rise in the rate. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. FY 1990 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of environmental effects before jetting (No.34 - Kaminoyu/Santai area); 1990 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. No.34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki - Funki zen kankyo eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    For the evaluation of effects of geothermal development on the peripheral environment in the Kaminoyu/Santai area in the southwest part of Hokkaido, survey of the present situation of the environment was made. As a result of the survey, as to the climate of this area, the mean temperature, precipitation, etc. were almost the same as those of the nearest meteorological office of Hakodate, and the wind velocity was lower. Concerning the air, the mean concentration of H{sub 2}S was 0.8-3.6 ppb, SO2 was less than the detectable limiting value, Hg was 0.018-0.12 {mu}g/m{sup 3}N in average, and suspended particulate was 0.014-0.028 mg/m{sup 3}. Each of them satisfied the environmental criteria and the control level. The water quality satisfied the AA type criteria at every point of the river surveyed. The noise/vibration at the time of well drilling were 47-50dB at 10m measuring point and less than the lower limit of measuring at measuring points farther than 50m measuring point/100m measuring point. Every hot spring was drilled and spontaneously welling, and variations in spring temperature/welling amount were comparatively small. Micro earthquakes of 495 were observed in 47 days in total. Besides, survey was made of animals, plants, soils, scenery, etc. (NEDO)

  7. Effect of metal ion species on mechanical relaxation of ethylene-co-methacrylic acid based ionomers; Ethylene-metakuriru san ionomer no rikigaku kanwa ni oyobosu kinzoku ion shu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, X; Araki, O; Takigawa, T; Masuda, T [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Takahashi, M [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-12-15

    Dynamic viscoelasticity of ethylene-co-methacrylic acid (EMAA) based ionomers containing Zn or Na as well as EMAA was investigated. The film samples used for viscoelasticity measurements were molded at 195{degree}C. Two kinds of specimens, quenched and slowly cooled samples after molding, were prepared for each polymer specimen. For the quenched samples, the effect of aging on dynamic viscoelasticity was also examined. The temperature dispersion curves of dynamic storage modulus (E{prime}) of the ionomers obtained by quenching showed a large decrease around 35{degree}C due to the glass transition of EMAA ionomers. The ionomers prepared by slow cooling showed a high value of E{prime} in the high temperature region, compared with the quenched samples. This may be due to the difference in the degree of ionic cluster formation in the ionomers. The values of E{prime} at low temperatures increased with aging time for the quenched samples, which originates from the equilibration of the glassy state by aging. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effect of sail on augmenting attitude stability of hovering VTOL vehicle supported by one-ducted-fan. Ductedter dot fan shiji VTOL ki no hover shisei anteisei eno ho no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S.; Kato, M. (Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-07-05

    An analytical investigation was given on augmenting attitude stability of a VTOL airplane supported by one-ducted-fan, at hovering, by means of installing a sail having air resistance on a place higher than the vehicle center-of-gravity. Since the problem becomes nonlinear, the time-marching technique was used. The sail on which the emphasis was placed had an area of as less than several times as much of the duct sectional area, and a height of as less than several times as much of the duct diameter. The stabilization effect is expressed as {Delta}h = center of gravity height region providing the stability/duct diameter. Without a sail, {Delta}h was several percent, but with a sail, the value increased to about ten times as much. This increase in {Delta}h was remarkable in the direction that elevate the position of the center of gravity. More stability is obtained by increasing the sail height than by increasing the area. Substitutes to a sail, working on the same principle, could be a gas-bag and wind mill. A gas-bag, which can change its volume readily, will be able to vary the sail area easily. A wind mill could make the weight lighter than a sail, and has a possibility of varying the resistance through changing its blade pitch angle. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Influence on driver fatigue of vertical vibrations over long distances. Assessment in terms of stress hormones; Driver no unten hiro ni okeru joge shindo no eikyo. Stress hormone wo shiyo to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, T.; Inagaki, H. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Driving tests are conducted to obtain some indexes that describe the cumulative effect of the sense of tiredness. The heart rate, Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol in saliva are tested. Adrenaline and Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia are ultimately named in view of their correlation with tiredness. It is believed that tiredness is attributable to two factors, which are increase in mental stress and decrease in vigilance. An excitation test is then conducted using a motion simulator. Upon application of 4Hz vibrations (equivalent to the chest section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases sharply, and then decreases sharply upon termination of excitation. Upon application of 1.6Hz vibrations (equivalent to the head section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases but not sharply, and the elevated level is sustained for some time after excitation. Driving tests are next conducted using a vehicle with its suspension fixed and another with 1-2Hz vibrations reduced. Rise in the adrenaline level is found inhibited aboard the latter. No difference is detected in terms of Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia between the two vehicles. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Effects of types of work and visual environemnt on human pschology and behavior in an office space. Shikankyo ga shitsumusha no shinriter dot kodo ni oyobosu eikyo sagyo naiyo no chigai ni yoruhyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M [The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Inui, M., Nakamura, Y. (Tokyo Institute of technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-30

    In this paper, was investigared an effect of work and visual environment types on the psychology and behavior of workers in office spaces in terms of subjective appraisal, work performance, behavior pattern, etc. In order to make a such effect of visual environment clear, a series of factorial experiments were conducted. Window and interior decoration of pot plants and paintings were adopted as factors of the visual environment. A Krepelin addition, a Krepelin addition-subtraction and multiplication, a Krepelin machiene, a hand-written manoscript, a word-processed manuscript, and a mirror tracing were adopted as work types. The number of sobjects was five for each work type. Consequently, a significance of the effect of the window and interior decoration on workers was verified. It was also found that the presence of the window and interior decoration improved the work performance for the major types of perfomance test. Furthermore, it was revealed that the presence of the window ans interior decoration the behavior of subjects active. 11 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1998 research report on promotion of geothermal development. Environment impact research report (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-Dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    For extracting the areas to be conserved from the viewpoint of environment for the research on geothermal well drilling, the environment impact research was made on the protection and regulation states of animals and plants in Kunbetsu-Dake area. 46 species in 12 families of mammals were confirmed in/around the area by document survey, and among them 19 species in 10 families of mammals were important academically. 340 species in 55 families of birds were confirmed, and among them 79 species in 29 families of birds were important academically. 3 species in 3 families of amphibians, and 6 species in 4 families of reptiles were confirmed, and among them 1 species of amphibian was important. 873 species in 135 families of land insects were confirmed, and among them 20 species in 11 families were important. 1055 species in 115 families of plants were confirmed, and among them 126 species in 46 families were important. Most of vegetation was 9 or more in degree of naturalness. The peripheral area of Kaibetsu-Dake is the plant colony area specified by the 2nd basic survey on natural environmental conservation (Environment Agency). (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 survey for geothermal energy development promotion. Environmental impact survey report (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa region); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This survey aims to learn the current states of environmental factors required for the comprehension of the impacts on surroundings of a structural boring for geothermal energy exploration. The target site is an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area located among the mountains 20km south-south-east of Yuzawa City, Akita Prefecture. It is found that numerous animals and vegetables inhabit the Kuwanosawa region and its vicinity. They are 19 species of mammals in 10 families under 5 orders; 73 species of birds in 25 families under 10 orders; 6 species of reptiles in 13 families; 9 species of amphibians in 6 families under 2 orders; and 719 species of insects in 179 families under 17 orders. Valuable animals include flying squirrels, mandarin ducks, black salamanders, and small Gifu butterflies. There are 670 species of vegetables in 132 families. Valuable vegetables are Iinuma bulblets, wild rhubarb roots, and Amur adonises. Floras found in existence are a natural flora in the beech class area, compensatory flora in the beech class area, afforested area, and a flora in the crop land. No remarkable fluctuation was observed in the Takamatsu spa throughout the survey period. Fluctuations were observed in all the survey items at the Doroyu-Okuyama inn. (NEDO)

  13. A quasiclassical trajectory study for the N(4S)+O2(X3Σg-)->NO(X2Π)+O(3P) atmospheric reaction based on a new ground potential energy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianfeng; Liu Shixing; Liu Xueshen; Ding Peizhu

    2005-01-01

    A quasiclassical trajectory study with the fourth-order explicit symplectic algorithm for the N( 4 S)+O 2 (X 3 Σ g - )->NO(X 2 Π)+O( 3 P) atmospheric reaction has been performed by employing a new analytical fit of ab initio electronic structure calculations for the ground potential energy surface reported by Sayos et al. The effect of the relative translational energy, the vibrational energy and rotational energy of O 2 molecule on the reaction probability and the reaction cross-section has been analyzed in details. The microscopic rate constant and the thermal rate constant have also been evaluated at the low translational temperature, and results have been compared with the experimental data and previous theoretical values. It is concluded that the thermal rate constants at the low temperature considered in this work agree well with the recommended experimental data and are very close to the variational transition state theory values carried out by Sayos et al

  14. FY 2000 report on the results of the project on the R and D of the global environmental industry technology. R and D of the technology for predicting environmental effects associated with the CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point and survey for supporting study); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    To obtain the technical outlook for CO2 ocean sequestration by CO2 discharge into the intermediate layer, the R and D was conducted of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the elucidation study of the behavior at the time of discharging liquid CO2, the melting process of CO2 droplets discharged/dispersed into the seawater of the intermediate layer was observed, and the specific phenomenon of hydrate formation in the process of CO2 droplet formation was grasped. As to the technology for sending CO2 into the ocean and diluting it, experimental study was made of CO2 transportation technology from on the sea to the intermediate layer, technology for rapid dilution immediately after discharge, etc. About the indoor experiment on the CO2 influence on marine organisms, experiment on the CO2 influence was carried out using shells, sea urchin, red sea bream, etc. In the developmental study of models for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, the 3D two-phase flow LES model was developed as a model for predicting the CO2 behavior, and the simulation of the liquid CO2 discharge was made at the planned experimental site. The model for evaluation of the biological influence was also made which can consider the interaction between two kinds of organisms. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge and the research support survey); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of studying viability of CO2 ocean sequestration by discharging it at the intermediate depth of ocean, the R and D were conducted of 'prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge,' and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the study of elucidation of behavior of liquid CO2 at the time of discharge, melting speed of CO2 in water and seawater, 2D CO2 concentration distribution, etc. were measured using the circulation type deep-sea simulation experimental equipment. In the study of technology to send CO2 into the sea and dilute it, the process test using mock liquid was conducted. In the indoor experiment on CO2 effects on marine organisms, conducted were the detailed experiment on long-term effects of low concentration CO2 on sea urchins and shellfish, experiment on CO2 acute effects on eggs/fry and experiment on CO2 effects on adult fish. In the developmental study of the model to predict environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge, carried out were the improvement of the model for prediction of effects on marine organisms, study of the CO2 diffusion in topographic features supposed to be Hawaii, etc. In the international joint study, measurement/observation technology, facilities, etc. were studied in preparation for the experiment actually conducted in the sea. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge and the research support survey); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of studying viability of CO2 ocean sequestration by discharging it at the intermediate depth of ocean, the R and D were conducted of 'prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge,' and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the study of elucidation of behavior of liquid CO2 at the time of discharge, melting speed of CO2 in water and seawater, 2D CO2 concentration distribution, etc. were measured using the circulation type deep-sea simulation experimental equipment. In the study of technology to send CO2 into the sea and dilute it, the process test using mock liquid was conducted. In the indoor experiment on CO2 effects on marine organisms, conducted were the detailed experiment on long-term effects of low concentration CO2 on sea urchins and shellfish, experiment on CO2 acute effects on eggs/fry and experiment on CO2 effects on adult fish. In the developmental study of the model to predict environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge, carried out were the improvement of the model for prediction of effects on marine organisms, study of the CO2 diffusion in topographic features supposed to be Hawaii, etc. In the international joint study, measurement/observation technology, facilities, etc. were studied in preparation for the experiment actually conducted in the sea. (NEDO)

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to forecast environmental effect in association with isolation of carbon dioxide in oceans. (Surveys on development and research support on a technology to forecast environmental effect in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points); 1998 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. CO{sub 2} horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is increasing, and discussions are urged on measures to suppress emission of CO2 into atmosphere. While different CO2 fixing technologies may be conceived, there is a technology to utilize CO2 absorbing capability of ocean by discharging and dissolving CO2 artificially into middle layer of the ocean to separate CO2 from atmosphere. This technology is one of the technologies which are promising in the aspects of technology, economic performance, and possible amount of CO2 reduction. However, it is difficult to say that scientific and technological discussions have been given sufficiently on behavior of CO2 discharged into the ocean, effect of the discharge on environments, and CO2 separation capability of the ocean. Therefore, in the present research and development, a 'technology to forecast environmental effect in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points' is developed to serve for acquiring technological prospect on the feasibility to realize the CO2 ocean separation by discharging CO2 into the middle layer of the ocean. The present fiscal year has performed researches on the following research and development items: elucidation of behavior of liquefied CO2 when discharged into the ocean, CO2 feeding and diluting technologies, indoor experiments on the effects of CO2 on ocean living organisms, and development of a model to forecast environments in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the project on the R and D of the global environmental industry technology. R and D of the technology for predicting environmental effects associated with the CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point and survey for supporting study); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    To obtain the technical outlook for CO2 ocean sequestration by CO2 discharge into the intermediate layer, the R and D was conducted of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the elucidation study of the behavior at the time of discharging liquid CO2, the melting process of CO2 droplets discharged/dispersed into the seawater of the intermediate layer was observed, and the specific phenomenon of hydrate formation in the process of CO2 droplet formation was grasped. As to the technology for sending CO2 into the ocean and diluting it, experimental study was made of CO2 transportation technology from on the sea to the intermediate layer, technology for rapid dilution immediately after discharge, etc. About the indoor experiment on the CO2 influence on marine organisms, experiment on the CO2 influence was carried out using shells, sea urchin, red sea bream, etc. In the developmental study of models for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, the 3D two-phase flow LES model was developed as a model for predicting the CO2 behavior, and the simulation of the liquid CO2 discharge was made at the planned experimental site. The model for evaluation of the biological influence was also made which can consider the interaction between two kinds of organisms. (NEDO)

  19. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1994. 2. Main issue (Part 1 for research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology); 1994 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kekyu kaihatsu. 2. Honronhen (Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This research and development was performed on (1) a composite physiological function measuring technology for stress measurement, (2) a contact-free skin temperature measuring technology, and (3) a stress indexing substance measuring technology. With regard to the subject (1), the target for the current fiscal year is to restructure a small restraint-free skin impedance measuring device into a practical device that can be used easily at working sites. In order to achieve the goal, electric power conservation and size reduction were moved forward by improving the circuit design, and stabilized measurement, in which the measurement algorithm is made more intelligent, was realized. With regard to the subject (2), the contact-free skin temperature measurement device having been structured by the previous fiscal year was given improvements in such parts as the infrared and visible image input, image processing, and data indication and sense volume estimation. With respect to the subject (3), the technology was established to measure such stress indexing substances as CS and CA from saliva. Positioning of CS and CA as the stress indexing substance was nearly completed. The stress indexing substance measuring device was tried of structuring the prototype A and prototype B applying the semi-micro specifications for an attempt of clearing the steps toward practically usable device. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 2000 report on geothermal energy development promotion survey. Phase 1. Report on environmental impact survey in No. C-5 Appi district (Weather); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-5. Appi chiiki - kankyo eikyo chosa (kisho) dai 1 ji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    For grasping the characteristics of weather, climate, and natural earthquakes in and around the geothermal survey area in the Appi district, Iwate Prefecture, observation data of weather stations or the like in the neighborhood were collected and put in an easy-to-use order. Weather and earthquake data of the 1990-1999 decade were collected and subjected to statistical processing. Weather in the Appi District Survey C area is characterized in that it assumes the Japan Sea side pattern with much snow in winter and much rain in the rainy season. In the other seasons, however, it assumes the Pacific side inland pattern. Weather data in the Appi district and its vicinity are deemed to be similar to the values observed at the Hachimantai weather station. The area covered by the survey, however, is higher than the Hachimantai weather station by 400-900m, and therefore is that much colder and has more rain and snow. As for earthquakes, a total of 647 were recorded in the decade 1990-1999. In the Appi District Survey C area, which is approximately 20km times 20km large, suffered 31.1 events/month in 1998, which indicated a great rise in seismic occurrence. The rise is now attributed to the volcanic activity of Mt. Iwate which is deemed to be waning. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1999 research result report on energy and environment technology demonstration research support project (International joint demonstration research project). Improvement of long-distant power transmission efficiency and reliability, and its environmental impact assessment; 1999 nendo chokyori soden hoshiki ni kansuru soden koritsu to soden shinraido no kojo oyobi kankyo eno eikyo hyoka seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Japan-Russia international joint research was made on overhead ultrahigh-voltage DC power transmission lines for transmission loss reduction and reliability improvement, and an optimum international power supply cable system, considering energy saving and environment conservation. Using the European-Russian DC power transmission line of {+-}500kV and 4GW as a model, comparison was made between a model using Russian round strands and glass insulators and a model using Japanese low-loss wires and insulators. As for improvement of the reliability in cold districts, Russian design techniques for tower structure and ice loading were reasonable to counteract galloping oscillation and ice load. In evaluation and selection of optimum underground and marine cables, study was made on cable specifications using the Turkey-Russia power transmission route as a model. The environmental assessment result of these cables showed that XLPE cable under development is optimum. (NEDO)

  2. Change of environmental factors in different site which effect the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic module. Comparison of the environmental factors in Shinjuku Tokyo with the one in Chino Nagano; Kotonaru chiten ni okeru taiyo denchi no henkan koritsu ni eikyo wo ataeru kankyo inshi no henka. Tokyoto Shinjukuku to Naganoken Chinoshi no kankyo inshi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T.; Tani, T.; Hirata, Y.; Inasaka, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Environmental factors affecting conversion efficiency of solar cells were measured in Tokyo and Nagano to comparatively study the difference. In the study, measurement was made of intensity of global solar radiation on an inclined surface (insolation intensity), ambient air temperature, and distribution of spectral solar radiation at the two points. Also measured were output characteristics of polycrystal silicon solar cell modules and amorphous silicon solar cell modules. The result of the comparative analysis was as follows: The annual inclined global solar radiation amount integrated in 1996 is 27% more in Nagano than in Tokyo. The weighted average insolation intensity in Nagano is 0.09 kW/m{sup 2} higher in Tokyo. The weighted average cell temperature in Nagano is 4degC lower than in Tokyo. The effective spectral ratio in Nagano is 1-2% lower both in polycrystal Si and amorphous Si than in Tokyo. Thus, it was inferred from that environmental factors are different that conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic modules were different. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Desolvation of L-histidine and {alpha}-ketoisocaproic acid complex from ethanolate crystals under humidified conditions and influence of crystallinity on its desolvation; Histidine Ketoisocapron san ensan ethanol wamono kessho no koshitsudo jokenka deno datsu ethanol to datsu ethanol sei ni oyobosu kesshosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, S.; Tanabe, T.; Maruyama, S.; Kishishita, A.; Nagashima, N. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    Desolvation of L-histidine and a-ketoisocaproic acid complex from ethanolate crystals was investigated. The ethanolate crystals were obtained from ethanol aqueous solutions of above 60 wt% of ethanol. It was difficult to remove ethanol molecules from the crystals lay vacuum drying. However, it was found that ethanol molecules in the crystal lattice could be released under humidified conditions, for example, 313 K and 60% relative humidity, accompanied by transformation to non-solvated crystals. When the peak of 2{theta}=9.0{degree}(CuK{alpha} radiation) in powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the ethanolate crystals was weak, ethanol molecules (about 1wt.%) remained in the crystals at the end of transformations and then the residual ethanol decreased slowly. A controlled moderate cooling process, where the supersaturation is released slowly, is the key point to obtain ethanolate crystals having high `crystallinity` (defined as peak height of 2{theta}=9.0{degree}) which shows quick desolation rather than adding ethanol for a rapid increase of supersaturation in crystallization. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Influence of ([alpha]+[beta]) STA and surface finishing on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Ti-6Al-4V gokin no kikaiteki seishitsu ni oyobosu taikichu ([alpha]+[beta])STA shori oyobi hyomen shiage no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, K [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Hironaga, M [Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate Student

    1992-10-15

    Ti-6Al-4V allow was solution treated and aged (STA) in air, and the effect of degraded layer on static tensile properties and fatigue behavior was studied. Also, influence of surface finishing on fatigue strength was studied. Degraded layer formed with 0.75mm thick hardened layer has been formed below extremely thin TiO2 scale. Static tensile properties and fatigue behavior are not influenced by the hardened layer. The hardened layer formed below embrittle layer has smaller hadenening scale, and has shown no structural change with the core. Even for an embrittle layer of about 10[mu]m thickness, the ductility and fatigue strength have reduced significantly. The static strength has been improved about 20% with the complete removal of embrittle layer. The fatigue strength of the receiving material has been greater in the case of mechanical polished finishing using NO.1500 emery paper and diamond taste of 1[mu]m compared to electrical polishing. However, the fatigue strength has been lower in the case of mechanical polished STA material compared to electropolished material. 8 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Combustion-driven oscillation in a furnace with multispud-type gas burners. 4th Report. Effects of position of secondary air guide sleeve and openness of secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation condition; Multispud gata gas turner ni okeru nensho shindo. 4. Nijigen kuki sleeve ichi oyobi nijigen kuki vane kaido no shindo reiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, I.; Okiura, K.; Baba, A.; Orimoto, M. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    Effects of the position of a secondary air guide sleeve and the openness of a secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation conditions were studied experimentally for multispud-type gas burners. Pressure fluctuation in furnaces was analyzed with the previously reported resonance factor which was proposed as an index to represent the degree of combustion oscillation. As a result, the combustion oscillation region was largely affected by both position of a guide sleeve and openness of a guide vane. As the openness having large effect on the ratio of primary and secondary air/tertiary air and the position hardly having effect on the ratio were adjusted skillfully, the burner with no combustion oscillation region was achieved in its normal operation range. In addition, as the effect of preheating combustion air was arranged with a standard flow rate or mass flow flux of air, it was suggested the combustion oscillation region due to preheating can be described with the same manner as that due to no preheating. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. 2. Research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1992 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the physiological effect measuring technology, extracted from the achievements in the development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. In the composite physiological function measuring technology to measure stresses, improvement was made on the skin impedance measuring device of tri-electrode double-point simultaneous measuring type. A non-contact measuring device using a light sensor was developed as a spontaneous blinking detecting system. A prototype device that can measure blood pressure continuously at the temple was developed, and its usefulness was verified. In non-contact skin temperature measurement, expansion was performed on the image input type visible camera, infrared ray camera and other systems produced to date, and hardware structuring was completed. For the software, person extracting, position recognizing and attitude determining algorithms were developed, whose effectiveness was verified experimentally. A prospect was reached that in measuring stress indexing substances, the measurement can be performed non-invasively using small amount of saliva and urine. The sensitivity was enhanced 20 to 5000 times in catecholamine, and ten times in corticosteroid as much as that in the previous year. It is estimated that on-line measurement may be executed on cortisol by using saliva sample of 100 to 200 {mu} L. (NEDO)

  7. Emission behaviors of nitrous oxide from automobiles. 4th Report. Aging effect of three way catalyst on N2O mass emissions; Jidosha kara haishutsusareru asanka chisso (N2O) no haishutsu kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Sangen shokubai no rekka ga N2O haishutsuryo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, N; Suzuki, H; Odaka, M [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Several kind of three way catalysts with different metal compositions have been developed for trial and their N2O formation behaviors before and after the durability tests have been observed. Then by comparing the N2O formation behavior between new and durability tested catalysts, N2O increase mechanism with aging has been experimentally analyzed. As results, A catalyst temperature at peak N2O formation will sift to higher side by the aging and enters in the range that is the higher percentage in use during test cycle driving. Then this is the main cause of increase in total N2O emission. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Research on variable swirl intake port for high-speed multivalve DI diesel engine. Effects of port configuration on flow characteristics and swirl generation capacity; 4 ben kogata kosoku DI diesel engine no kahen swirl kyuki port ni kansuru kenkyu. Kyuki port haichi ga ryudo tokusei to swirl seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, J; Ogawa, H; Tsuru, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In our previous papers, the variable swirl intake port system which can control a wide swirl ratio range (from 4 to 10) was described. This system consisted of two separate intake ports, one of them has a flow control valve for changing the swirl ratio. In this type of variable swirl system, some variations of port combination, port shape, and position can be designed. In this paper, the intake flow characteristics of various port combinations were analyzed on the basis of a steady-state air flow test and 3-dimensional computations. The results indicate that the total performance of the twin ports can be estimated from that of a single port in any kind of port combination. Some difference in flow patterns were found in a variety of port combinations even if each swirl ratio is similar. The selected port combinations in our previous study are good for a wide swirl control range. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Relationship between concentration of surfactant and pressure for droplet creation, and effect on droplet size in microchannel O/W emulsification; Maikurochaneru ni yoru O/W nyukaho ni okeru kaimen kasseizai nodo to ekiteki seisei atsuryoku no kankei, oyobi koreraga ekitekikei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Komori, H.; Oda, N.; Yonemoto, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    O/W (oil in water) emulsion is produced by micro-channel emulsification method, and the effects of surfactant concentration on the pressures at which droplet generation starts and stops are evaluated in connection with the water phase and oil phase interfacial tension. In addition, the effects of surfactant concentration and operational pressure on the droplet size are investigated by measuring the generated droplet distribution, mean droplet size, standard deviation, geometrical standard deviation, and the possibility of producing mono-dispersion emulsion whose droplet size is large than 10 micron. The breakthrough pressure and the minimum pressure for droplet generation become low with the increase of SDS (sodium lauryl sulfate) concentration. The surfactant concentration, however, is found to have no effect on the breakthrough pressure and the minimum pressure for droplet generation when the SDS concentration exceeds the critical micelle concentration. It is true also for a system added with NaCl. As regards droplet size, uniform 20{mu}m droplet is obtained irrespective of the surfactant concentration and pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effects of sintering and paste-baking conditions on PTCR characteristic of (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} vacuum-sintered compact added with TiO{sub 2}(Ti) powder; TiO{sub 2}(ti) fun tenka (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} shinku shoketsutai no PTCR tokusei ni oyobosu shoketsu oyobi paste yakitsuke joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.; Hayashi, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1999-04-15

    The effects of sintering temperature (T{sub s}; 1,573 {approx} 1,748K) and time (t{sub s}; 0.6 {approx} 14.4ks) and paste-baking-temperature or heating temperature (T{sub b} or T{sub h}; 673 {approx} 1,273K; t{sub b} is 0.3ks) on PTCR characteristic were investigated for (Ba, Sr)TiO{sub 3} vacuum-sintered compact added with 3.9mass% TiO{sub 2}(Ti) powder of 12.5mass% TiO{sub 2}. The results obtained were as follows; (1) PTCR characteristic developed at all T{sub s} (t{sub s}=3.6ks, T{sub b}=853K). The electrical resistivity at room temperature ({rho}{sub rt}) showed a minimum value of 1.8 times 10{sup 2}ohmcenter dotcm and the {rho}{sub max}/{rho}{sub rt} showed a maximum value of about 10{sup 6} at 1,723K. (2)For all t{sub s} (T{sub s}=1,623K, T{sub b}=853K), PTCR characteristic developed. The {rho}{sub rt} showed a minimum value of 2.6 times 10{sup 3}ohmcenter dotcm at 7.2ks. (3) At T{sub b} above 823K (T{sub s}=1,623K, t{sub s}=3.6ks), PTCR characteristic developed. The {rho}{sub rt} showed a minimum value of 1.0 times 10{sup 3}ohmcenter dotcm. (4)The {rho}-T curve of (Ba, Sr)TiO{sub 3}+TiO{sub 2}(Ti) vacuum-sintered compact was affected more largely by T{sub s}, t{sub s} and T{sub b} than that of (Ba, Sr)TiO{sub 3} air-sintered compact. This was considered to be mainly due to the porous and fine gained microstructure in the former compact. (author)

  11. Report on survey on geothermal development promotion in fiscal 1999. Report on survey on environmental effects - noise and vibration (No. B-5, Busadake Area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa (soon shindo) hokokusho (No.B-5 Busadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Identification of noise and vibration levels and evaluation on environmental effects were performed in association with the excavation in the geothermal investigation well drilling point (well N11-MD-3) and the vicinity thereof in the Busadake area in Hokkaido. In the survey, noise and vibration were measured before and during the well excavation at the well drilling point and nearby four points (boundary of the drilling premises, 500-m point, Kawakita Spa and the entrance to the mountain stream of petroleum). In addition, a distance decay survey was carried out at five points in one direction from the well drilling point. The result of the noise measurement showed the value of about 30 to 50 dB before the well excavation at the drilling point and its vicinity, and about 40 to 60 dB during the excavation. The vibration was about 40 dB at the boundary of the premises during the excavation, whereas the places other than them showed the lower limit of measurement. In the distance decay of the noise, 75 dB at the 10-m point decayed to 50 dB or lower in the 200-m point, while the vibration level of 75 dB decayed to 30 dB or lower in the 100-m point. These facts lead to a conception that the noise and vibration in association with the well drilling would not give great influence on the neighboring environment. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1991 report on the results of the contract R and D of the human sense measuring application technology. Volume 2. R and D of the physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1991 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Targets of the total development is to develop technology to non-invasively/simply measure changes in physiological function for physical and mental stimuli and to develop a human sense measuring technology needed to realize 'comfortableness.' As a part of it, the following R and D were conducted in this fiscal year. As to the R and D of skin impedance measuring, measuring methods such as the conducting method and potential method were studied. Further, an experiment with a person to be tested was conducted using the experiment use electrode. And detected were skin impedance changes caused by mental strain stress which were distinguished from changes caused by external environment. As the blink reflection measuring method, the paper took up the eyelid micro-vibration method under consideration and verified effectiveness of the method. The data were acquired using the same person as tested in the above-mentioned experiment when he is not tired, and the extraction of parameters of blink reflection which change according to working loads was studied. As to the continued blood pressure measuring technology, a measuring method which gives no loads on the person tested was studied, and the measuring portion where stable output can be obtained was selected. In addition, small/lightweight continued blood pressure measuring instrument which can be used in daily life was trially manufactured and designed. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey of overseas coal import base arrangement and promotion. Effects of the expansion of coal trade by IPP on the supply/demand of general coal in Asia; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. IPP ni yoru sekitan boeki no kakudai ga Asia no ippantan jukyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In consideration of the coal situation in the Asia/Pacific region, a study was made of effects of the expansion of coal trade by IPP on supply/demand of general coal in Asia. When aggregating increases in demand of general coal for electric power use in ten Asian counties, they will be an increase of 130.75 million tons in 2005 over 1997. Fifty nine percent of it is equivalent to the increase by IPP and exceeds the demand expanded by electric utilities operators. Further, a possibility is predicted of contracts and coal quality being different from until now. However, there will be a lot of cases in which plans of constructing power plants in Asia are not so developed as expected except Japan, Korea and Taiwan, and also the effect of the currency crisis starting in Thailand largely affects. In terms of the coal supply, countries which export general coal are only China and Indonesia. Indonesian coal is expanding its production and export rapidly and remarkably. The environmental control in Asia has been tightening, and the fuel selected by IPP is mainly coal rather than natural gas. 40 refs., 94 figs., 179 tabs.

  14. Effects of Al and Mn, alone and in combination, on growth and nutrient status of red pine seedlings hydroponically grown in nutrient culture solution; Suiko saibaishita akamatsunae no seicho oyobi eiyo jotai ni taisuru Al to Mn no tandoku oyobi fukugo eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Izuta, T.; Aoki, M.; Totsuka, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1997-09-10

    Experiments have made clear the effects of Al and Mn on growth of red pine seedlings hydroponically grown. Analysis was performed on components of plants grown in culture solution into which Al and Mn were added alone or in combination. Photosynthesis velocity and dark respiration velocity of the seedlings were measured when they have fully grown. The following results were obtained: the Al addition reduces dry seedling weight, the T/R ratio (T is dry weight of a seedling above the ground and R is that under the ground) decreases as the addition amount is increased, and the photosynthesis velocity decreases; Al accumulates in roots reducing physiological function of the roots and concentrations of Ca and Mg; the dry weight decreases with increasing Mn addition, but does not affect the T/R ratio; the Mn addition reduces the photosynthesis velocity lowering chlorophyll content in needle leaves; the dark respiration velocity decreases as the Mn amount is increased, but does not affect that for trunks; Ca and Mg concentrations decrease in the trunks and roots; no significant compound effects of Al and Mn are recognized, and the effects are additive; and the concentration at which growth decrease appears is 10 ppm or higher for Al and 60 ppm or higher for Mn. 32 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Solidification of porous medium saturated with aqueous solution in a rectangular cell. ; Discussion on influence of initial concentration of solution and mean diameter of beads. Kukei sonai no suiyoeki de mitasareta takoshitsutai no gyoko. ; Shoki nodo to beads no heikin chokkei no eikyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of engineering; Okada, M [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Murakami, M [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yabushita, Y [Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-11-25

    Studies have been made for the purpose of analyzing solidification phenomenon of ground in relation to freezing construction method used in subway, water supply, and sewage constructions. Experimental studies have been carried out on solidification process of porous medium saturated with aqueous solution to discover influence of initial concentration of the solution and diameter of beads that constitute a porous medium. The experiment was performed by solidifying the porous medium sequentially from a side wall with lower temperature in a rectangular experimental tank with a height and a width of 100 mm filled with NaCl aqueous solution and beads. As a result, it was discovered that, if the initial concentration is low, the temperature difference is little between the upper part and the lower part of the experimental tank, and natural convection in the liquid-phase region is suppressed because of rising solidification temperature; the natural convection is suppressed in the liquid-phase region; and the boundary face between the mushy region and the liquid-phase region moves quickly. Further, the concentration rise in the liquid-phase region has slowed down despite that the solidification region is large enough. The smaller the mean diameter of beads, the faster the growth rate on the boundary face, hence the natural convection in the tank has been suppressed, and the growth rate on the boundary face has increased. In addition, the concentration stratification in the liquid-phase region does not expand, but is formed only on the bottom. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Solid/liquid phase change heat transfer in porous media. Effect of density inversion of water on melting process in a rectangular region; Takoshitsu sonai no ko-ekiso henka. Mizu no mitsudo gyakuten ga kukei ryoiki no yukai katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaguchi, K [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-25

    Solid/liquid phase change in porous media has a wide relation with freezing and melting of ground bed, storage of cold heat in soil, and underground heat exchangers. This paper describes an investigation on the effect of density inversion on melting of ice in porous media by using the previously reported numerical analysis method. The high-temperature side temperature and the Darcy number were varied and investigated systematically on the ice in a porous media sealed in a rectangular container of which right hand side is maintained at elevated temperatures and the other three sides are insulated of heat. As a result, a large number of findings were obtained including the following matters: when the Darcy number is fixed at 4.01 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the high-temperature side temperature, Tw, is varied, the fluid descends along the high-temperature side because of the density inversion at Tw=4{degree}C, and forms one weak circulation that rotates clockwise; however, when the temperature reaches 16{degree}C, the circulation disappears, and a circulation rotating counterclockwise is observed, becoming identical to the case of a fluid where there is no density inversion; and change in the Nusselt number against the melting ratio, R, is the smallest at Tw=8{degree}C, and decreases monotonously with the R. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Properties of P/M forged Al-Si alloys made by premixed powders. 1. Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance; Kongoho ni yotte sakuseishita Al-Si kei shoketsu tanzo gokin no tokusei. 1. Taimamosei ni oyobosu shosho Si no bunsan jotai to ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishijima, Z.; Ichikawa, J.; Sasaki, s.; Shikata, H. [Hitachi Powdered Metals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-15

    Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance of P/M Al-Si alloys using the prealloying method and premixing method have been investigated. As a result, discretely dispersed proeutectic Si showed excellent wear resistance in compassion with uniformly dispersed one. The cause is considered to be the unclosed Si soft phase which has been preferentially worn away, consequently acting on forming oil grooves and burying worn particles. Further more the existence of the optimum size of proeutectic Si on wear resistance was confirmed. In the case of finer particles, only Al-Si alloy (pin) was warned away substantially. On the other handgun the case of larger particles, both the Al-Si alloy (pin) and the mating malarial (steel disc) were excessively warned away. It is assumed therefore that the finer proeutectic Si particles are not effective as hard particles, on the contrary, larger proeutectic Si particles increase the abrasive wear against the mating material, and those buried into the mating material initiate wear of Al-Si alloy at the same time. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Flow and mixing of gas in cylinder of a stratified charge engine with two intake valves. Effects of late closing valve timing and intake port configurations; Kyuki nibenshiki sojo kyuki engine no cylinder nai gas ryudo to kongo. Osotoji valve timing oyobi port keijo ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenphonphanich, C; Niwa, H; Ennoji, H; Iijima, T [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A numerical analysis of the flow and mixing of rich mixture and air inducted into the cylinder through each of the two intake ports of a stratified charge engine have been carried out. Numerical calculations were performed by finite volume method for three types of the intake port configurations: inverse V type, parallel type and V type and two types of valve timing; conventional and late closing (Miller cycle). Velocity field, turbulent kinetic energy and distribution of mixture concentration in the cylinder were examined. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Thermal performance of a passive-designed dwelling unit. Annual thermal performance of two same-plan dwellings and influence of dwelling condition; Passive design sareta shugo jutaku no netsu seino ni kansuru kenkyu. Doitsu plan nijuko no nenkan netsuseino to lifestyle no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, N; Muro, K [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamata, K [Housing and Urban Development Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Measurements and analyses were made on two apartment houses which have attempted direct gain and natural ventilation. The measured houses are the houses A and B with total floor area of 130 m {sup 2}, respectively, in an apartment house of reinforced concrete structure, located in the southern area in Kanto Area. Sunlight is taken in from double glass windows in winter to store the heat in the reinforced concrete of the floor and rooms, while sunlight is shielded with the eaves and blinds in summer. The measurements were carried out on 16 points in every 30 minutes for one year. The result of the measurements may be summarized as follows: the indoor thermal environment in summer had the temperature varied between 24 and 34 degC because the air conditioner is used only infrequently; the house A attempts ventilation more positively than the house A, whereas the room temperature has become lower than 26 degC in about quarter of the whole measurement duration; and regarding the indoor thermal environment in winter, the house B had higher temperature in general, showing large variation with temperature exceeding 25 degC occasionally, which is thought because of difference in power consumption and ways of living in the building. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Study on closed pressure vessel test. Effect of heat rate, sample weight and vessel size on pressure rise due to thermal decomposition; Mippeigata atsuryoku yoki shiken ni kansuru kenkyu. Atsuryoku hassei kyodo ni oyobosu kanetsusokudo, shiryoryo oyobi youki saizu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Kenji.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering

    1999-02-28

    We have attempted to devise a new closed pressure vessel test apparatus in order to evaluate the violence of thermal decomposition of self-reactive materials and have examined some influencing factors, such as heat rate, sample weight, filling factor (sample weight/vessel size) and vessel size on Pmax (maximum pressure rise) and dP/dt (rate of pressure rise) due to their thermal decomposition. As a result, the following decreasing orders of Pmax and dP/dt were shown. Pmax: ADCA>BPZ>AIBN>TCP dP/dt: AIBN>BPZ>ADCA>TCP Moreover, Pmax was not almost influenced by heat rate, while dP/dt increased with an increase in heat rate in the case of BPZ. Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in sample weight and the degree of increase depended on the kinds of materials. In addition, it was shown that Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in vessel size at a constant filling factor. (author)

  1. Image processing analysis of combustion for D. I. diesel engine with high pressure fuel injection. ; Effects of air swirl and injection pressure. Nensho shashin no gazo shori ni yoru koatsu funsha diesel kikan no nensho kaiseki. ; Swirl oyobi funsha atsuryoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, I. (Japan Automobile Research Institute, Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)); Tsujimura, K.

    1994-02-25

    This paper reports an image processing analysis of combustion for a high-pressure direct injection diesel engine on the effects of air swirl and injection pressure upon combustion in the diesel engine. The paper summarizes a method to derive gas flow and turbulence strengths, and turbulent flow mixing velocity. The method derives these parameters by detecting movement of brightness unevenness on two flame photographs through utilizing the mutual correlative coefficients of image concentrations. Five types of combustion systems having different injection pressures, injection devices, and swirl ratios were used for the experiment. The result may be summarized as follows: variation in the average value of the turbulent flow mixing velocities due to difference in the swirl ratio is small in the initial phase of diffusion combustion; the difference is smaller in the case of high swirl ratio than in the case of low swirl ratio after the latter stage of the injection; the average value is larger with the higher the injection pressure during the initial stage of the combustion; after termination of the injection, the value is larger in the low pressure injection; and these trends agree with the trend in the time-based change in heat generation rates measured simultaneously. 6 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. FY 1991 report on the results of the contract R and D of the human sense measuring application technology. Volume 2. R and D of the physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1991 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Targets of the total development is to develop technology to non-invasively/simply measure changes in physiological function for physical and mental stimuli and to develop a human sense measuring technology needed to realize 'comfortableness.' As a part of it, the following R and D were conducted in this fiscal year. As to the R and D of skin impedance measuring, measuring methods such as the conducting method and potential method were studied. Further, an experiment with a person to be tested was conducted using the experiment use electrode. And detected were skin impedance changes caused by mental strain stress which were distinguished from changes caused by external environment. As the blink reflection measuring method, the paper took up the eyelid micro-vibration method under consideration and verified effectiveness of the method. The data were acquired using the same person as tested in the above-mentioned experiment when he is not tired, and the extraction of parameters of blink reflection which change according to working loads was studied. As to the continued blood pressure measuring technology, a measuring method which gives no loads on the person tested was studied, and the measuring portion where stable output can be obtained was selected. In addition, small/lightweight continued blood pressure measuring instrument which can be used in daily life was trially manufactured and designed. (NEDO)

  3. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1993. 2. Research and development of physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1993 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Development in fiscal 1993 of a composite physiological function measurement method to measure stresses included the development of a watch type device using the tri-electrode double-point simultaneous measuring method for skin impedance, and a device placed around a head as a blinking meter using the simplified potential method. Both were reduced largely in size and weight. They were verified to have good performance by the measurement performance experiments. For noncontact skin temperature measurement, a noncontact temperature measuring system will be developed that automatically tracks movement of the head of a human body which moves within a limited area, and continuously measure temperatures of specific positions with measurement resolution of 0.2 degree C. Image processing utilizing sensor fusion of infrared and visible images was used to have extracted successfully persons under the natural background. A technology was developed to recognize specific portions of a face (eyes and eyebrows). Developments were made on an algorithm to measure directions of a head, and an attitude controlling and measuring system using a magnetic sensor. In measuring stress index materials, a prospect was obtained to realize semi-macro measurement by collecting cortisol and catecholamine from saliva. Discussions were also given on detecting catecholamine in urine by using high-speed liquid chromatography. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. System to make comprehensive evaluation of potential health effects of next generation image media; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Jisedai media seitai eikyo sogo hyoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper proposed the international standardization for the use of next generation image media by evaluating health effects of the use of next generation image media such as head mounted display and 3D monitor. A method to comprehensively evaluate health effects was studied with the design friendly to humans and standardization on safety as final targets. Themes were divided into the autonomous nervous system and the measuring system. The development was carried out of a method to evaluate the autonomous nervous function by the dynamic state of blood circulation and pupillary reflex as well as the development of portable sphygmomanometer and pupillometer. Using these developmental instruments and conventional instruments, measurement was made of blood pressure, cardiac output, respiration, pupil size, eyeball movement and focus accommodation. A possibility was suggested of obtaining the uniform elucidation also in case analytical changes of individual parameters cannot be extracted or consistency cannot be seen in the course of changes. The paper determined basic standards for the experimental use stereoscopic image, made measuring use 3D images, and collected realtime data by the overall simultaneous measuring system constructed. 109 refs., 166 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. FY 1991 report on the results of the contract R and D of the human sense measuring application technology. 2. R and D of the physiological effect measuring technology (2); 1991 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In this paper, the following were studied: (1) easy-wearing net-type brain wave sensor and multi-purpose telemeter; (2) multi-point brain wave measurement. In this fiscal year, the fundamental design and evaluation of these were conducted. In (1), conducted were the study of specifications of system and shape as fundamental design of easy-wearing net-type brain wave sensor, and the evaluation using functional works. As fundamental design of multi-purpose telemeter, studied were the detailed specifications of transmitter and receiver and the system design. In (2), as fundamental design of multi-point brain wave sensor (64 electrodes), conducted were the specifications of system and shape of 19 electrode sensors and the evaluation using functional works trially made. As fundamental design of the analyzer interface, a system was studied for taking brain wave signals of 64 channels into the analyzer by analog/digital conversion. As to the interpolation system of topography, the following were carried out: study of the optimum interpolation system for estimating the electric potential at the portion where the electrode is not installed, based on the electric potential at the portion where 64 brain wave electrodes are installed; and evaluation of the interpolation system using topography by 12-21 electrodes as the pre-stage of 64 electrodes. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1998 results of the intellectual basement project using functions of private companies (venture promotion type basement creation R and D project). Development of endocrine disrupter testing method and development of environmental assessment method; 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu ni taisuru shiken hoho kaihatsu oyobi eikyo hyoka shuho kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of assessing the risk in relation to endocrine disrupting chemicals, the following were conducted: development of testing/assessment method for endocrine disrupting chemicals, survey of the actual exposure assessment, development of measuring method for the concentration in the environment. In the development of the testing method, the following were carried out: development of a high-throughput screening method for evaluating endocrine disrupting chemicals; as screening testing method using mammals, uterotrophic assay, Hershberger assay using castrated male rats, thyroid hormone assay in pubertal rats, enhanced OECD 407 test guideline for 28-day toxicity test; study on yeast two-hybrid assay for endocrine disrupter; sex-reversal assay for suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals using S-rR strain medaka. In the development of exposure assessment method, estrogenic potency of individual nonylphenol congeners isolated from technical mixtures; determination of endocrine disrupters and related chemicals from industry and nature origin in river water and sediment; research for the flow of industrial origin chemicals; reconstruction of pollution history of chemicals using sediment cores. (NEDO)

  7. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1993. 2. Research and development of physiological effect measuring technology (Part 2); 1993 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The high-sensitivity brain wave measuring device has been given improvements in the simplified device net type brain wave sensor that has been improved in fiscal 1993, eliminating the steamy feeling in the head, giving better fitting feeling, and having cleared the target. The multiple application telemeter had the stability enhanced, making it possible to measure living organism signals such as electromyogram, electrocardiogram, eyeball movements, and respiration. To measure living organism activity and rhythm, development was made on a method to evaluate these subjects by using substitution characteristics with development of a portable monitor kept in mind. Measurement and evaluation methods were prepared on the living organism activity from the comparison of the autonomic nervous system activity derived from continuous measurement of pulse cycles with the change in spectra in the {alpha} brain wave. An intestinum rectum temperature correction filter using the number of pulses was fabricated to introduce a body temperature rhythm curve excluded of effects of the body activity. The living organism activity was evaluated comprehensively from the contrast between the daily activity variation and the circadian rhythm. Improvement of accuracy of the tympanum temperature sensor was also discussed. In developing the accelerated pulse meter, the size of the transmitter was reduced, a filter was developed to reduce obstruction signals contained in the signals, and development was begun on a personal computer based system. (NEDO)

  9. Effects of melt-temperature on limiting current density in Al electrodeposition and morphology of Al electrodeposits obtained from ambient temperature type molten salt; Joongata yoyuen kara no denki aluminium mekki no genkai denryu mitsudo oyobi denseki keitai ni oyobosu mekki ekion no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Tatano, M.; Uchida, Y. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-31

    Some of more important electrolytic solutions for Al electrodeposition are organic solvents, high-temperature type molten salts and low-temperature type molten salts having a melting point of 30{degree}C or lower, such as ethylmethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC). This study uses a molten salt of AlCl3-EMIC as the low-temperature type solution for high-speed electrodeposition. Discussed herein are the effects of melt temperature on limiting current density in Al electrodeposition and Al electrodeposit morphology. Limiting current density increases as melt temperature increases at any AlCl3 concentration used in this study. The AlCl3 concentration that gives the maximum limiting current density shifts from 64 to 67mol% at a melt temperature of 120{degree}C. A dense, smooth Al electrodeposited film results at a melt temperature of 100{degree}C or lower, but the electrodeposited grains become coarser as melt temperature increases. Melt temperature can be increased to 140{degree}C to secure a smooth electrodeposited film, showing possibility of 2 times faster electrodeposition than the conventional one. 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Study on a constant-tip-speed-ratio operation of wind power generation system. Effect of load control system on dynamic behavior; Furyoku hatsuden system no hensoku seigyo unten ni kansuru kenkyu. Fuka seigyokei ga system no rikigakuteki kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T.; Yamaguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1998-06-01

    The effect that the set data of the load control system in a wind power generation system exerts on the dynamic behavior of a system was investigated. The wind power generation system consists of a hybrid wind turbine with combined Darrieus and Savonius rotors, load with a generator and battery in the center, and a controller. A constant-tip-speed ratio operation that holds the circumferential speed ratio in which the power coefficient is maximized irrespective of the change in wind velocity was used to extract and convert the wind energy more effectively. In a high-wind velocity area, the system is operated at a fixed speed, and the increase in rotation is suppressed to protect the wing strength. In a large system, the response characteristics are only slightly improved by the limited load operation range and influenced rotor inertial. Power cannot be fully extracted even if the control system is changed in setting, and the applicability to the wind situation remains low. During the actual operation, the adjustment value of the control system should be set so that the output operation is satisfactorily possible in the specified load operation range, that is, the change in the instantaneous value of an effective power coefficient indicates almost flat gain characteristics in frequency characteristics. 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1999 survey for promotion of geothermal energy development. Survey report of environmental impact survey - Hot spring fluctuation (No. B-5, Musadake district); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (onsen hendo) (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Research boreholes N11-MD-3 and -4 were drilled in Shibetsu-cho, Shibetsu-gun, Hokkaido, in the period July 1999 through December 1999, and thermal water was examined at the sites in July and November 1999. For the purpose of detecting the impact of the said work on the environment, local hot springs were examined for their status before, during, and after the drilling period. Measurements were conducted in the period August 5, 1998, through December 31, 2000. It was found that no fluctuation in water temperature or yield attributable to the drilling was detected. Hot springs were examined for nine items including water temperature and pH level at four spots which were Kaiyo-dai, River Tenyu, and Otoko-yu and Onna-yu of Kawakita Hot Spring, when 23-31 measurements were performed from each of the four. (NEDO)

  12. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. 2. Research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology (Part 2); 1992 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the physiological effect measuring technology, extracted from the achievements in the development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. Primary prototype fabrication and evaluation were given on an easy-to-mount high-sensitivity brain wave measuring instrument. The multiple application telemeter has come close to completion excepting the integration. For multi-point brain wave measurement, analyzing device interface was completed. In measuring living organism activity and rhythm, development was made on an evaluation method that uses substituting characteristics, with a portable monitor kept in mind. The activity generated by power spectrum change in the {alpha} brain wave was compared with that in the autonomic nervous system to derive the mutual relationship therein, whereas usefulness of the pulse cycle characteristics was verified. Development was made on a method to measure and analyze the tympanum temperature rhythm that corresponds to the intestinum rectum rhythm, and the tympanum temperature was measured discretely by using an infrared sensor. Verification was given on the correlation between the circadian rhythm derived from the intestinum rectum temperature and that derived from the discrete measurement. In developing a nonrestraind accelerated pulse meter, a transmitter of the small accelerated pulse meter that can measure pulses under non-invasive and nonrestraint condition was fabricated on a trial basis, whose easiness of mounting and possibility of signal transmission were demonstrated. (NEDO)

  13. Effects of elasticity on the damping characteristics of viscous shearing damper and estimation curve for modal damping in stay cables with this type of dampers. Cable seishin'yo nensei sendangata damper no gensui fuka tokusei ni oyobosu banegosei no eikyo to sono sekkeiyo gensui hyoka kyokusen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Shimoda, I. (Oiles Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-20

    Oil dampers and viscous shearing dampers have been used to control wind-induced cable vibrations of cable-stayed bridges. The damping addition efficiency in the case where only damping force of the viscous shearing damper is considered was discussed in the previous paper. In this paper, more precise estimation is done by also considering the spring elasticity of the damper. Arranging the results of an indoor excitation test on viscous shearing dampers using SA-P viscous body, an experimental equation to express the spring rigidity is derived. The spring elasticity becomes smaller with increasing temperature of viscous body, decreasing frequency, and increasing amplitude. Then, the damping addition effect is measured by installing the viscous shearing damper on the actual bridge cable, and is compared with the theoretical value resulting from the complex-eigenvalue analysis. Consequently, it is shown that the theoretical value is almost correspondent with the measured result through the analysis using equivalent coefficient of viscosity and equivalent spring constant, which are arranged in the experimental equation. Moreover, application examples of damping estimation curves for designing cables with dampers are given. 15 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. FY 1998 survey report. Survey on reduction in environmental effect of greenhouse effect gas by the transfer of environmental technology in the Asian region; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Asia chiiki ni okeru kankyo gijutsu iten ni yoru onshitsu koka gas no kankyo eikyo keigen ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Effects of the transfer of environmental technology were studied as an important policy for control of greenhouse effect gas in the Asian region. As schemes, those that were drew up by NEDO, JICA, etc. now exist and are used also in Japan. However, for the control of greenhouse effect gas emission which is expected to rapidly increase in future, it is indispensable to construct a new powerful and effective scheme in which technology transfer and fund to be given are organically connected. Especially, in the U.S., etc., the assistance of developing countries of a huge amount of money such as Japan's ODA is not extended. However, they position the environmental technology as an important strategy and is developing the assistance of developing countries by technology transfer and eco-business of private companies. Also in the eco-business field, the environment-related technology of Japanese companies is used in Asian developing countries, with expectations of its being a new business with international competitive strength. This is the subject for the whole global environment, and an important subject also for Japan which requires the creation of a new business field with international competitive strength. (NEDO)

  15. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I; Maenaka, H; Takada, A [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Dance as Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hamrin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The woman who founded Tenho-kötai-jingii-kyö, Kitamura Sayo (1900-1967, publicly announced in July 1945 that the world was coming to an end and that she had been chosen by the absolute deity Tensho Kotai Jingu to be the savior of the world. People began to gather to her banner, a religious organization was formed, and legal incorporation of the group as a religious juridical person took place in January 1947. Teaching that regret, desire, hatred, love and other emotional antipathies were the cause of all misfortune, the founder urged people to free themselves of such restraints by praying earnestly until they attained a state in which the self was completely forgotten. Since the members of the group perform a ritual dance and fall into an ecstatic condition at the group meetings, the movement is called the Dancing Religion.

  17. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Ocean survey and development of evaluation technology for CO2 sequestration ability); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO2 kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Assuming the melting and sequestration of CO2 at the intermediate depth of the sea area around Japan, study of evaluation technology of CO2 sequestration ability in ocean was studied, and the FY 1999 results were summed up. In the ocean survey, survey was conducted by ship (No.2 Hakurei-maru) mainly at typical observation points and traverse lines of long. 147 E and long. 155 E. In the survey, the following data were acquired: data on seawater density and chemical tracer, data on release of intermediate-depth/independent buoys, concentration distribution of carbonic acid base substances/nutrient salts/chlorophyll, data on the existing amount of marine organisms and primary production speed measurement experiment, data on experiment on CO2 on-board exposure to organisms in the intermediate depth of ocean, etc. In the measurement/analysis of the sediment particle flux amount, sediment traps were installed/recovered. Further, for the purpose of measuring the neutralizing effect of calcium carbonate, operation test on CaCO{sub 3} melting experimental equipment was conducted in the actual sea area. In the development of a model for evaluation of CO2 sequestration ability, carried out were the improvement of the model using the inverse method, study of the estimated accuracy using the ocean observation data, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells (alloy-base amorphous materials, PIN layers, strains in the interface, and effects of impurities); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Usumaku taiyo denchi jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka (gokinkei amorphous zairyo pin kakuso kaimen ni okeru yugami fujunbutsu nado no eikyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, A; Oeda, H; Yamasaki, S; Hata, N; Kondo, M; Toshima, Y; Sakata, I; Ganguly, G; Suzuki, A; Kamei, T; Okushi, H; Nonaka, H; Oda, N; Katagiri, H; Ichimura, N; Kokubu, K; Nakamura, K; Sekikawa, T; Yamanaka, M [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for thin film solar cells. The study on quantitative analysis of hydrogen atoms in a plasma determines quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma of monosilane diluted with hydrogen. It is found, contrary to expectation, that quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma decreases as it is more diluted with hydrogen. The study on light-induced degradation of the thin chlorine-base amorphous silicon films confirms that the plasma CVD method with 20% of dichlorosilane gas added to monosilane gas produces the thin amorphous silicon film 3 times faster than the conventional method. The thin film has essentially the same defect density as the one prepared by the conventional method, showing good photoelectric characteristics. The thin film of chlorinated amorphous silicon has a 1 digit lower defect density than the conventional one of amorphous silicon, as revealed by the accelerated degradation test with irradiated laser light and the constant current method to determine saturated defect density. 3 figs.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the research and development to lead to gas hydrate using technology. Research and development on exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, survey and research on a method to evaluate environmental impact, and survey and research on a utilization system; 1997 nendo gas haidoreto shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansanado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The present study is intended to analyze comprehensively geophysical, geological and geochemical data, and establish a technology to estimate distribution of gas hydrate (GH) in sea areas around Japan. It is also intended to develop a high-accuracy resource amount calculating method utilizing the result of excavation of GH planned in the future. In order to achieve these goals, the following activities are performed: (1) study on a method to estimate production environment of GH deposits, (2) development of a method to estimate GH stability areas by using the crust thermal flow measuring method, and (3) study on estimation of GH distribution and wide-area potential. For the study (1), an inorganic element analyzer was introduced, and calibration of devices was performed in fiscal 1997. A survey was carried out on literatures related to distribution of inorganic elements and process of GH deposit production. In the study (2), design and trial fabrication were executed on a high-accuracy crust thermal flow measuring device, capable of long-term continuous observation. In the study (3), re-processing focusing on BSR was implemented by using the latest computer and analysis software on the data in which BSR has been confirmed in the surveys done in the past on sea areas around Japan. (NEDO)

  20. Advanced research and development of gas hydrate resources. R and D of exploration and others - R and D of excavation technologies and others - surveys/researches on methods of evaluating environmental effects - surveys/researches on application systems; Gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu / kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu / kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu / riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Gas hydrate is a clathrate compound in a gaseous molecule as the host, stable under relatively mild environments. It is deposited in the 600m or deeper sea bottoms to form the gas hydrate deposit and massively occurring in the sea areas around Japan. This deposit has been studied viewed from natural gas resources, causes for natural hazards and contribution to the global warming. This project excavates a well in the deposit, to study possibilities of the technologies for decomposing, fluidizing and lifting the hydrate as the gas source, and for establishing the natural gas transporting/mooring systems in which its characteristics are utilized. The R and D activities are directed to the 4 areas, (1) development of the exploration technologies to determine the deposit sea area, quantity and conditions, (2) development of the stable well-excavation technologies, (3) studies on the effects of gas production on the environments, and development of the system for predicting the effects, (4) and studies on the application systems. The item (3) finds out the transportation/storage system possibly more economical than the current freezing/liquefaction technologies. The item (3) has the development themes of evaluating the geohazards caused by excavation and gas production, and their effects on the ecological systems. (NEDO)

  1. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology to use gas hydrate as a resource (Research and development for exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and investigative research on a utilization system); 1999 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The contents of the research and development performed in the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) research and development for exploration, (2) research and development on drilling technologies, (3) investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and (4) investigative research on a utilization system. In Item (1), element analysis data are used to study a method to estimate production environment of hydrate ore beds by using an inorganic ion analyzer and a trace amount element analyzer, the crust thermal flow measuring method is used to discuss a method to analyze the hydrate stability zones together with the data of sea area exploration records, and conceptual design is made on a resource potential evaluation system. In Item (2), experiments and analytical discussions are performed on decomposition control of the gas hydrate solid-liquid interface according to such conditions for the drilling fluid as temperatures and flow rates. Elucidation is given on the initial process of bubble generation for behavior of decomposed gas bubbles. Observation and elucidation are made on two-phase flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluid. In Item (3), conceptual design is carried out on a system to detect elements of shape change in each bed due to fluid movement in a gas hydrate bed and an upper bed. In Item (4), discussions are given on the optimizing conditions for generation and dissociation of gas hydrates. Investigation is made also on a possibility of the transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the prediction technology for environmental effects of CO2 ocean sequestration. Ocean survey and development of the assessment technology for capacity of CO2 sequestration; 2000 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO2 kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Assuming the dissolution/sequestration of CO2 at the medium-depth sea area around Japan (depth: 1,000-2,000m), the development was being proceeded with of the assessment technology for capacity of CO2 ocean sequestration and the prediction technology of environmental effects at the point of CO2 discharge. In FY 2000, conducted were the ocean survey and the development of assessment technology for CO2 sequestration capacity. In the investigational study, the following three were carried out: 1) survey/observation of the flow field on the line of 165 degrees of east longitude, and acquisition of various data such as the distribution of carbonic acid base substances and the speed of carbon transport; 2) study of the amount of existence of organisms and kind/composition of the medium-depth plankton at the typical observation points; 3) test/experiment actually conducted in the sea area for the experimental equipment for CaCO3 dissolution experimental equipment for studying interactions between the CO2 and CaCO3 dissolved into the medium-depth sea. As to the development of the assessment technology, carried out were the heightening of accuracy of medium-depth ocean circulation models using the inverse method already developed and the estimation of the flow field using the observation data. At the same time, the estimation of the flow field, etc. were conducted using large circulation ocean models. (NEDO)

  3. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to forecast environmental effect in association with isolation of carbon dioxide in oceans. Ocean surveys and development of a technology to evaluate CO2 separation capability; 1998 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO{sub 2} kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Assuming that CO2 is dissolved and separated in the middle layer in a sea area around Japan, ocean surveys were carried out to acquire fundamental data required for development of a technology to evaluate CO2 separation capability of ocean, and for development of a technology to forecast environmental effect. In addition, using the western part of the Pacific Ocean as the object, development was performed on a numerical model to forecast behavior of CO2 in ocean in the scale of several ten years to several hundred years, and evaluate capability of CO2 separation from atmosphere. The research and development items for the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) ocean surveys, (2) model development, and (3) surveys and studies required for the ocean surveys and experiments. The survey voyage for item (1) was executed centering on the courses of traverse on 140 degree line of east longitude and 147 degree line of east longitude. The voyage surveyed densities of sea water, such data as chemical tracers, discharged mid-layer neutral buoys, carbonic acid based substances, marine living organisms, and sedimentary particles. For item (2), trial calculations were performed by using an inverse model to estimate structures of ocean flows, and discussions were given to enhance the accuracy. For item (3), design and fabrication were carried out on an equipment to experiment on-site dissolution of calcium carbonate, and a chamber for on-site experiments at deep sea bottom. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1998 annual report on the preliminary research and development of techniques for developing resources from gas-hydrate. Studies on gas-hydrate exploration, excavation techniques, methods for assessing environmental impacts, and gas hydrate handling systems; 1998 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendoken kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansanado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no kenkyu kaihatsu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This R and D project is for the preliminary studies on development of the following 4 types of techniques for developing resources from gas-hydrates (GH): (1) gas-hydrate exploration, (2) excavation techniques, (3) methods for assessing environmental impacts, and (4) gas hydrate handling systems. The FY 1988 R and D results are described. For gas-hydrate exploration, the methods for analyzing inorganic ions and trace quantities of elements, which are necessary for accurately estimating the offshore GH around Japan, are established; and case studies are conducted for methods of predicting GH deposit forming mechanisms, and stability fields of GH, based on terrestrial heat flow and seismic data. For excavation techniques, GH decomposition rate is analyzed using a laboratory system which reproduces conditions of excavation of GH layers. For methods for assessing environmental impacts, a geo-hazard predicting model is established, to study ground displacement and gas leakage sensing systems and data transmission systems to cope with the hazards. For gas hydrate handling systems, an overall system is studied, and storage and transportation systems are outlined. (NEDO)

  5. Effect of an electrolyte flow on electrochemical hydrogen permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Pérez-Ceballos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el efecto de la aplicación de un flujo de elect rolito sobre la superficie de detección de una membrana de hier ro puro en ensayos de permeación electroquímica de hidrógeno. Para la real ización de los ensayos se usó una celda del tipo Devanathan mod ificada, de tal manera que un flujo de electrolito fue inyectado directa mente sobre la superficie de salida de hidrógeno. La generación de hidrógeno se realizó aplicando una corriente catódica de 2,85mA y se usó una solución de NaOH 0,1M + 2mgL-1 As2O3. La celda de detección fue mantenida bajo control potenciostático y se usó u na solución buffer de borato de sodio (pH=8,4. No se observó u na variación significativa de la corriente de permeación en los en sayos realizados aplicando flujo de electrolito.

  6. METODOLOGÍA PARA EL CÁLCULO DE LA INCERTIDUMBRE EN LA DETERMINACIÓN DE COBRE POR ESPECTROSCOPIA DE ABSORCIÓN ATÓMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel de J. Morales-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se enfoca en el desarrollo de una metodología de fácil aplicación para la determinación de la incertidumbre para laboratorios de en sayo que utilicen la técnica de absorción atómica, siguiendo los criterios y recomendaciones de las normas ISO (International Organization for Standarization. La metodología desarrollada se aplicó para la determinación de cobre, y se consideraron las cuatro principales fuentes de incertidumbre: las involucradas en la curva de calibración del equipo, las atribuidas al pesaje de la muestra, las debidas a dos medidas de volumen en la solución final analizada y las atribuidas a las operaciones de dilución. El análisis químico fue de 50.85 ±0.62 (%P de Cu, y del análisis de los coeficientes de sensibilidad se establece que la principal fuente de incertidumbre la representan las mediciones de volumen, por lo que un laboratorio que desee mejorar la confiabilidad en sus mediciones deberá de mejorar este aspecto.

  7. El paisaje como archivo del territorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Isabel Prada Llorente

    2004-09-01

    (1 Este trabajo es una parte seleccionada sobre un aspecto muy concreto, como es la escala territorial, de la tesis doctoral “Sayago, evolución histórica y proyección futura de su estructura territorial” leída en la Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Madrid en octubre de 2002. (2 Sayago: Posible relación con yacimientos mineros de época celta derivando de la palabra céltica Salliacum. Sus formas medievales serían: Saliago, Salago, Salagu y Sayago (cfr. MARTÍN VISO, 1996. De sayo, sayal, capa o “sagum” celtibérico y lusitano de color pardo, buriel o vellorí de las ovejas llamadas negras. Se pagaban como tributos por los vencidos celtíberos a las tribus romanas. Con el “paño sayal” se confeccionaron (hasta finales del s.XIX, principios del XX, todas las prendas externas de la indumentaria sayaguesa (cfr. Del Brío Mateos, 1998. (3 Escuadro: Topónimo de origen romanizador posiblemente referido a algún tipo de parcelación romana (Informante: Juan Vicent, prehistoriador del C.S.I.C. “Ex-cuadro” o “fuera del cuadro”, según la tradición popular este poblamiento hubiera surgido a raíz de los acompañamientos que las tropas romanas necesitaban para su abastecimiento en todos los aspectos, dejando fuera del recinto en otro lugar, al conjunto de herreros, artesanos, prostitutas, etc. que constituían dicho acompañamiento

  8. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman WN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wan Nordiana Rahman,1,2 Stéphanie Corde,3,4 Naoto Yagi,5 Siti Aishah Abdul Aziz,1 Nathan Annabell,2 Moshi Geso21School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Division of Medical Radiation, School of Medical Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Bundoora, VIC, 3Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, High Street, Randwick, 4Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 5Japanese Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy. In this research, synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays in the 30–100 keV range were used to investigate the energy dependence of radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles and also to determine the photon energy that produces optimum effects. This investigation was conducted using cells in culture to measure dose enhancement. Bovine aortic endothelial cells with and without gold nanoparticles were irradiated with X-rays at energies of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 81, and 100 keV. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed after irradiation to determine cell viability. Cell radiosensitivity enhancement was indicated by the dose enhancement factor which was found to be maximum at 40 keV with a value of 3

  9. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,2 Takahiro Hayashi,3 Sayo Hikosaka,1 Yuka Shimabukuro,1 Maho Murase,1 Kazuo Takahashi,2 Hiroki Hayashi,2 Yukio Yuzawa,2 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Shigeki Yamada3 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan Background: Maintenance of low serum urate levels is important for the management of gout. Achieving the recommended serum urate levels of less than 6.0 mg/dL is difficult in elderly (65 years of age or older patients with renal impairment. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat are used for this purpose. Although febuxostat had been shown to be efficacious in elderly patients, its safety and efficacy in elderly female patients with hyper­uricemia remain unclear.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients.Methods: We studied a retrospective cohort study. The study included elderly Japanese patients (65 years of age or older who were treated with febuxostat at Fujita Health University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. The treatment goal was defined as achievement of serum urate levels of 6.0 mg/dL or lower within 16 weeks; this was the primary endpoint in the present study. Adverse events of febuxostat were defined as more than twofold increases in Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events scores from baseline. Results: We evaluated 82 patients treated with febuxostat during the observation period and classified them into male (n=53 and female (n=29 groups. The mean time to achievement of the treatment goal was significantly shorter in the female group (53 days than in the male group (71 days. There were no significant differences in adverse events between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Our

  10. Investigaciones sobre la Fertilidad de los Suelos de Tres Regiones del Norte de Colombia

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    Rodríguez J. Manuel

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo el estudio sobre la fertilidad de los suelos de tres regiones en el norte de Colombia a saber: San Jorge, Bajo Cauca y Ayapel. Se tomaron muestras en los lugares que se consideraron más representativos, para hacer análisis químicos detallados yen, sayos de invernadero. Los ensayos de invernadero se hicieron siguiendo la técnica de Jenny con algunas variaciones que consistieran en lo siguiente: a adicionar dos tratamientos más, uno completo más elementos menores y otro completo más cal; b hacer dos siembras de lechuga en la misma maceta, agregando en la primera todos los elementos, pero en la segunda sólo N y K; c usar el sistema del análisis de variancia para comparar los resultados obtenidos. En los análisis químicos se encontró que los suelos de San Jorge son casi neutros (pH 6,7 mientras que los del Bajo Cauca y Ayapel son frecuentemente ácidos (pH 5.38 y 5.10 respectivamente. El contenido de materia orgánica está entre 1.70 y 2,67%, El P soluble extraído por el método de Olsen es bajo en los tres suelos estudiados, pero especialmente en los del Bajo Cauca y Ayapel (2,8 y 4,2 mg./ kg, respectivamente. Al analizar los resultados por el sistema de la variancia se encontró, para los suelos de San Jorge, que el N y el K disminuyen los rendimientos y que esta disminución es estadísticamente significativa para una de las siembras. Que la aplicación de elementos menores alimenta los rendimientos en las dos siembras y que en una de ellas es estadísticamente significativa. Para el suelo del Bajo Cauca, la aplicación de P o de elementos menores aumenta en las dos siembras los rendimientos y en una de ellas en forma estadísticamente significativa. En los suelos de Ayapel se encontró que la cal o los elementos menores alimentaron los rendimientos en las dos siembras y en una de ellas el aumento fue estadísticamente significativo. En general, se puede observar por el rendimiento del testigo de los tres suelos, que el

  11. Study and modeling of changes in volumetric efficiency of helix conveyors at different rotational speeds and inclination angels by ANFIS and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zareei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spiral conveyors effectively carry solid masses as free or partly free flow of materials. They create good throughput and they are the perfect solution to solve the problems of transport, due to their simple structure, high efficiency and low maintenance costs. This study aims to investigate the performance characteristics of conveyors as function of auger diameter, rotational speed and handling inclination angle. The performance characteristic was investigated according to volumetric efficiency. In another words, the purpose of this study was obtaining a suitable model for volumetric efficiency changes of steep auger to transfer agricultural products. Three different diameters of auger, five levels of rotational speed and three slope angles were used to investigate the effects of changes in these parameters on volumetric efficiency of auger. The used method is novel in this area and the results show that performance by ANFIS models is much better than common statistical models. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted in Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery in Urmia University. In this study, SAYOS cultivar of wheat was used. This cultivar of wheat had hard seeds and the humidity was 12% (based on wet. Before testing, all foreign material was separated from the wheat such as stone, dust, plant residues and green seeds. Bulk density of wheat was 790 kg m-3. The auger shaft of the spiral conveyor was received its rotational force through belt and electric motor and its rotation leading to transfer the product to the output. In this study, three conveyors at diameters of 13, 17.5, and 22.5 cm, five levels of rotational speed at 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 rpm and three handling angles of 10, 20, and 30º were tested. Adaptive Nero-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is the combination of fuzzy systems and artificial neural network, so it has both benefits. This system is useful to solve the complex non