WorldWideScience

Sample records for eight year longitudinal

  1. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

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    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  2. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  3. Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Junior Secondary School Years: Objective Outcome Evaluation Based on Eight Waves of Longitudinal Data

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    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S., a randomized group trial with eight waves of data collected was carried out. At the fifth year of data collection, 19 experimental schools (n=2, 662 students and 24 control schools (n=3, 272 students participated in the study. Analyses based on individual growth curve modeling showed that participants in the experimental schools displayed better positive youth development than did participants in the control schools in terms of different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, including moral competence and behavioral competence and cognitive behavioral competencies. Significant results were also found when examining the trajectories of psychological development among control and experimental participants who perceived the program to be beneficial. Findings based on longitudinal objective outcome evaluation strongly suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in promoting positive development in Hong Kong secondary school students.

  4. Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in the junior secondary school years: objective outcome evaluation based on eight waves of longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S., a randomized group trial with eight waves of data collected was carried out. At the fifth year of data collection, 19 experimental schools (n = 2, 662 students) and 24 control schools (n = 3, 272 students) participated in the study. Analyses based on individual growth curve modeling showed that participants in the experimental schools displayed better positive youth development than did participants in the control schools in terms of different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, including moral competence and behavioral competence and cognitive behavioral competencies. Significant results were also found when examining the trajectories of psychological development among control and experimental participants who perceived the program to be beneficial. Findings based on longitudinal objective outcome evaluation strongly suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in promoting positive development in Hong Kong secondary school students.

  5. Behavior and Attention Problems in Eight-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Opiate and Poly-Substance Exposure: A Longitudinal Study.

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    Egil Nygaard

    Full Text Available Multiple studies have found that children born to mothers with opioid or poly-substance use during pregnancy have more behavior and attention problems and lower cognitive functioning than non-exposed children. The present study aimed to investigate whether behavior and attention problems are more prominent than general cognitive deficits in this risk group and whether the problems wane or increase over time. This prospective longitudinal cross-informant study compared 72 children who were prenatally exposed to heroin and multiple drugs with a group of 58 children without known prenatal risk factors. Group differences in caregivers' and teachers' reports of the children's behavior and attention problems based on the Child Behavior Check List and the ADHD Rating Scale were compared based on group differences in general cognitive functioning at 4 ½ and 8 ½ years of age. Both parent and teacher reports suggest that the exposed group has significantly more problems in several behavioral areas than the comparison group, particularly with regard to attention problems. The preschool teachers had already reported these problems when the children were 4 ½ years old, whereas the caregivers reported these problems mainly when the children were 8 ½ years old. The group differences in behavioral and attentional problems were not significantly greater and some were even significantly smaller than the group differences in general cognitive abilities. These findings suggest that children subject to prenatally drug exposure have increasing problems in multiple areas related to behavior from preschool age to 8 ½ years but that these problems do not seem to be specific; i.e., they are not more severe than the problems with general cognitive abilities found for this group.

  6. NEET adolescents grown up: eight-year longitudinal follow-up of education, employment and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood in Mexico City.

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    Gutiérrez-García, Raúl A; Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez Ríos, Enrique; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2017-12-01

    The purpose is to examine the socio-demographic and mental health outcomes in early adulthood of those who as adolescents were not in education, employment or training, termed NEET, compared to their counterparts who studied, worked, or both. One thousand and seventy-one youth residing in Mexico City participated in a representative, prospective, longitudinal 8-year two-Wave cohort study. At Wave I the participants were aged 12-17 and at Wave II aged 19 and 26. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed psychiatric disorders, substance use and abuse, suicidal behavior, interpersonal relationships, employment and education. The main finding of this study is that being NEET in adolescence was associated with several socio-demographic and mental health outcomes in early adulthood, above and beyond baseline socioeconomic disadvantage and mental health compared to their peers, particularly their peers who studied only or studied and worked. NEET youth were not that different from their peers who worked exclusively highlighting the protective value of keeping youth in school. The strongest differences between NEET youth and all their peer groups were their increased risks of incident suicidal behaviors. Social policies are needed for creating more educational opportunities, greater support for retention of students, and programs to facilitate the transition from school to the labor market considering cultural attitudes towards life trajectory expectations.

  7. Eight-year incidence of psychiatric disorders and service use from adolescence to early adulthood: longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9% experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4% sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health.

  8. Predictors of locating women six to eight years after contact: internet resources at recruitment may help to improve response rates in longitudinal research

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    Gignac Monique AM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to locate those sampled has important implications for response rates and thus the success of survey research. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of locating women requiring tracing using publicly available methods (primarily Internet searches, and to determine the additional benefit of vital statistics linkages. Methods Random samples of women aged 65–89 years residing in two regions of Ontario, Canada were selected from a list of those who completed a questionnaire between 1995 and 1997 (n = 1,500. A random sample of 507 of these women had been searched on the Internet as part of a feasibility pilot in 2001. All 1,500 women sampled were mailed a newsletter and information letter prior to recruitment by telephone in 2003 and 2004. Those with returned mail or incorrect telephone number(s required tracing. Predictors of locating women were examined using logistic regression. Results Tracing was required for 372 (25% of the women sampled, and of these, 181 (49% were located. Predictors of locating women were: younger age, residing in less densely populated areas, having had a web-search completed in 2001, and listed name identified on the Internet prior to recruitment in 2003. Although vital statistics linkages to death records subsequently identified 41 subjects, these data were incomplete. Conclusion Prospective studies may benefit from using Internet resources at recruitment to determine the listed names for telephone numbers thereby facilitating follow-up tracing and improving response rates. Although vital statistics linkages may help to identify deceased individuals, these may be best suited for post hoc response rate adjustment.

  9. An Embedded Librarian Program: Eight Years On.

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    Freiburger, Gary; Martin, Jennifer R; Nuñez, Annabelle V

    2016-01-01

    This article examines an embedded librarian program eight years after implementation in a large academic health center. Librarians were physically moved into the colleges of pharmacy, public health, and nursing. Statistics are reported as well as comments from the participating librarians and faculty members. Strong relationships have been built between librarians, faculty members, and students. Locating the librarians among faculty and students led to a better understanding of client needs and an increased awareness of librarian competencies and services resulting in partnerships and greater utilization of library services.

  10. Eight years' operation of the SGHWR prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience gained of the SGHWR system during the first eight years of operation of the UKAEA's 100 MW(e) prototype at AEE Winfrith is discussed. Modifications and additions have been made to the plant to overcome problems which only operation of a prototype unit can reveal. No problems have arisen which could not be overcome by the application of normal engineering resources, and there is no reason why the commercial successor to the prototype should be other than a fully viable proposition. (author)

  11. Eight to ten years follow-up after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen Rathenborg, Lisbet; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    Follow-up information was obtained on 185 patients who consecutively underwent carotid endarterectomy eight to ten years previously. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed in 59 patients who were still alive and living within 100 miles of the hospital. Using lifetable analysis, the annual r...

  12. A Tale of Ambivalence: Salman Rushdie's "Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights"

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    Tarik Ziyad Gulcu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie’s memoirs, essays and novels contribute to the appreciation of the contradictions in his outlook on life. His experiences in his family enable Rushdie to make efforts for objective and tolerant judgement of British lifestyle and culture. However, his isolation from the society in Britain despite his struggle for adaptation to British cultural values cause contradictions in his cultural identity. While Rushdie expresses his allegiance to India and its culture in The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999, he reflects his alienation from his homeland in this novel as well. Similarly, in his Imaginary Homelands (1981-1991 whereas Rushdie questions the injustice and inequality caused by imperialism in The New Empire within Britain (1982, he justifies the colonialist discourse in Kipling (1990. He elaborates on the contradictions in his outlook on life in terms of his cultural ambivalence in his fictions such as Midnight’s Children (1981 and Shame (1983. However, in his latest novel, Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015, Rushdie reflects his cultural identity conflict in terms of rationalism-mysticism dichotomy. With the use of allegory as well as the lack of linearity in time and space, Rushdie justifies his cultural ambivalence in relation to the dynamism of contemporary world. Thus, Rushdie’s latest novel invites reading for its representation of the oppositions in his approach to life.

  13. Surgical management of an ACM aneurysm eight years after coiling.

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    Pogády, P; Fellner, F; Trenkler, J; Wurm, G

    2007-04-01

    The authors present a case report on rebleeding of a medial cerebral aneurysm (MCA) eight years after complete endovascular coiling. The primarily successfully coiled MCA aneurysm showed a local regrowth which, however, was not the source of the rebleeding. The angiogram demonstrated no evidence of contrast filling of the coiled segment, but according to intraoperative findings (haematoma location, displacement of coils, evident place of rupture) there is no doubt that the coiled segment of the aneurysm was responsible for the haemorrhage.

  14. Intermediate polars observed from Brazil in the last eight years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, F.

    1988-01-01

    The results of observations done, in the last eight years, of the Intermidiate Polars (IP): EX Hya, V1223 Sgr, FO Agr and Ao Psc, are presented. The IP define a subclass of cataclysmic variable stars that present coherent oscillations in their optical and/or X-ray emission. The observations were done from Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica, in Itajuba (Brazil). The stability of oscillations in IP was analysed to study the nature of compact stars. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Eight years' experience with an IVF surrogate gestational pregnancy programme.

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    Raziel, Arieh; Schachter, Morey; Strassburger, Deborah; Komarovsky, Dafna; Ron-El, Raphael; Friedler, Shevach

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively audit eight years' experience of an IVF surrogate gestational programme and to compare the outcome of surrogacy due to absence of the uterus with surrogacy indicated for repeated IVF failure and recurrent abortions. A total of 60 cycles of IVF surrogate pregnancy were initiated in 19 treated couples. Absence of the uterus was the indication for surrogacy in 10 cases: Rokitansky syndrome (eight cases) and post-hysterectomy (two cases) designated as group A. The indications in the remaining nine patients (group B) were: IVF implantation failure (three cases), habitual abortions (four cases) and deteriorating maternal diseases (two cases). IVF performance and subsequent pregnancy outcome of groups A and B were compared. There was no difference in ovarian stimulation parameters and in IVF performance between the groups A and B. The overall pregnancy rate per transfer was 10/60 (17%). The pregnancy rates per patient and per transfer were 7/10 (70%) and 7/35 (20%) in group A compared with 3/9 (33%) and 3/25 (12%) in group B. A median number of three treatment cycles were needed to achieve pregnancy. In conclusion, the existence or absence of the uterus in the commissioning mothers is irrelevant for their IVF performance and conception rates. In patients who conceived after more than three IVF cycles, an additional 'oocyte factor' might be present.

  16. GW LIBRAE: STILL HOT EIGHT YEARS POST-OUTBURST

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    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Gänsicke, Boris T.; Chote, Paul; Toloza, Odette [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nelson, Peter; Myers, Gordon; Waagen, Elizabeth O. [AAVSO, 48 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sion, Edward M. [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Sullivan, Denis J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Townsley, Dean M., E-mail: szkody@astro.washington.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We report continued Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) ultraviolet spectra and ground-based optical photometry and spectroscopy of GW Librae eight years after its largest known dwarf nova outburst in 2007. This represents the longest cooling timescale measured for any dwarf nova. The spectra reveal that the white dwarf still remains about 3000 K hotter than its quiescent value. Both ultraviolet and optical light curves show a short period of 364–373 s, similar to one of the non-radial pulsation periods present for years prior to the outburst, and with a similar large UV/optical amplitude ratio. A large modulation at a period of 2 hr (also similar to that observed prior to outburst) is present in the optical data preceding and during the HST observations, but the satellite observation intervals did not cover the peaks of the optical modulation, and so it is not possible to determine its corresponding UV amplitude. The similarity of the short and long periods to quiescent values implies that the pulsating, fast spinning white dwarf in GW Lib may finally be nearing its quiescent configuration.

  17. Eight year experience in open ended instrumentation laboratory

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    Marques, Manuel B.; Rosa, Carla C.; Marques, Paulo V. S.

    2015-10-01

    When designing laboratory courses in a Physics Major we consider a range of objectives: teaching Physics; developing lab competencies; instrument control and data acquisition; learning about measurement errors and error propagation; an introduction to project management; team work skills and scientific writing. But nowadays we face pressure to decrease laboratory hours due to the cost involved. Many universities are replacing lab classes for simulation activities, hiring PhD. and master students to give first year lab classes, and reducing lab hours. This leads to formatted lab scripts and poor autonomy of the students, and failure to enhance creativity and autonomy. In this paper we present our eight year experience with a laboratory course that is mandatory in the third year of Physics and Physical Engineering degrees. Since the students had previously two standard laboratory courses, we focused on teaching instrumentation and giving students autonomy. The course is divided in two parts: one third is dedicated to learn computer controlled instrumentation and data acquisition (based in LabView); the final 2/3 is dedicated to a group project. In this project, the team (2 or 3 students) must develop a project and present it in a typical conference format at the end of the semester. The project assignments are usually not very detailed (about two or three lines long), giving only general guidelines pointing to a successful project (students often recycle objectives putting forward a very personal project); all of them require assembling some hardware. Due to our background, about one third of the projects are related to Optics.

  18. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

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    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  19. World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production: Eight years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojacek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production was established by DIAMO, state enterprise in 2006 year under the auspices of the World Nuclear University in London in partnership with international nuclear organizations – OECD/NEA and IAEA. Using the expertise and infrastructure of DIAMO State Enterprise, in conjuction with national and international universities, scientific institutions, regulatory authorities and other individual experts, the “school” covers its mission with the aim to provide world-class training on all aspects of uranium production cycle to equip operators, regulators and executives with the knowledge and expertise needed to provide expanded, environmentally-sound uranium mining throughout the world: • to educate students on all aspects of uranium production cycle including exploration, planning, development, operation, remediation and closure of uranium production facilities; • to improve the state of the art of uranium exploration, mining and mine remediation through research and development; • to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the latest uranium mining technologies and experiences – best practices.

  20. Santa Fe Alliance for Science: The First Eight Years

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    Eisenstein, Robert A.

    2013-04-01

    The Santa Fe Alliance for Science (SFAFS) was founded in May, 2005. SFAFS exists to provide assistance in K-14 math and science education in the greater Santa Fe area. It does this via extensive programs (1) in math and science tutoring at Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe Community College and to a lesser degree at other schools, (2) science fair advising and judging, (3) its ``Santa Fe Science Cafe for Young Thinkers'' series, (4) a program of professional enrichment for K-12 math and science teachers, and (5) a fledging math intervention program in middle school math. Well over 150 STEM professionals, working mostly as volunteers, have contributed since our beginning. Participation by students, parents and teachers has increased dramatically over the years, leading to much more positive views of math and science, especially among elementary school students and teachers. Support from the community and from local school districts has been very strong. I will present a brief status report on SFAFS activities, discuss some of the lessons learned along the way and describe briefly some ideas for the future. More information can be found at the SFAFS website, www.sfafs.org.

  1. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  2. Basic Aspects of Infant-Grandparent "Interaction": An Eight-Month Longitudinal and Naturalistic Study

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    Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…

  3. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors.

  4. The energy and identification continua of burnout and work engagement: Developmental profiles over eight years

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    Anne Mäkikangas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the mutual developmental dynamics between burnout and work engagement is limited due to the lack of longitudinal studies with long follow-ups and multi-wave data. This study sought to identify subgroups of employees characterized by long-term exhaustion-vigor (energy continuum and cynicism-dedication (identification continuum. A further important aim was to investigate differences between the identified subgroups in their experiences of progress in their personal work goals. Five-wave, eight-year follow-up data among Finnish white-collar professionals (n = 168 were studied using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA. The analysis yielded three exhaustion-vigor subgroups: 1 “Low stable exhaustion – high stable vigor” (n = 141, 2 “Fluctuating exhaustion and vigor” (n = 19, and 3 “Stable average exhaustion – decreasing vigor” (n = 8. Three subgroups were also found for cynicism-dedication: 1 “Low stable cynicism – high stable dedication” (n = 124, 2 “Increasing cynicism – decreasing dedication” (n = 27, and 3 “Decreasing cynicism – increasing dedication” (n = 17. Exhaustion and vigor were found to be stable and mutually exclusive experiences for the great majority of the participants. However, mean changes were also detected – especially in vigor – but these were rare. A notable finding was that the levels of and changes in cynicism and dedication showed opposite trends in each subgroup: among the majority of the participants (74%, the levels of cynicism and dedication were stable and inversely related, while among one-third their levels simultaneously changed in the reverse direction. The most successful progress in personal work goals was found in the groups described by the identification continuum, i.e., in the groups of “Low stable cynicism – high stable dedication” and “Decreasing cynicism – increasing dedication”.

  5. Perspectives on Peer-Review: Eight Years of Aropä

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    Purchase, Helen; Hamer, John

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on eight years of observation and correspondence from the Aropä project, we report on the issues important to academics who conduct on-line student peer-review activities, and the features they request to support their own instructional designs. The Aropä project is unusually broad, having so far supported over 100 instructors at 20…

  6. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

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    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  7. The persistence of predictors of wellbeing among refugee youth eight years after resettlement in Melbourne, Australia.

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    Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; McMichael, Celia

    2015-10-01

    This short report assesses the predictors of subjective health and happiness among a cohort of refugee youth over their first eight years in Australia. Five waves of data collection were conducted between 2004 (n = 120) and 2012-13 (n = 51) using mixed methods. Previous schooling, self-esteem, moving house in the previous year, a supportive social environment, stronger ethnic identity and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of wellbeing after adjusting for demographic and pre-migration factors. When compared with a previous analysis of this cohort over their first three years of settlement, experiences of social exclusion still have a significant impact on wellbeing eight years after arriving in Australia. This study contributes to mounting evidence in support of policies that discourage discrimination and promote social inclusion and cultural diversity and which underpin the wellbeing of resettled refugee youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Report on a Six-Year versus Eight-Year Textbook Adoption Cycle and Prepaid Freight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This report, submitted to the 71st Texas Legislature in fulfillment of the mandates contained in House Concurrent Resolution 84, summarizes a study of the feasibility of an 8-year cycle for the adoption of certain textbooks and considers the feasibility of contracting with textbook publishers on a freight prepaid basis. First, 6-year versus 8-year…

  9. The Pretenure Years: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Deborah; Sorcinelli, Mary Deane

    1992-01-01

    A 5-year (still ongoing) study of new faculty (originally 54) has found such changes as declining amount of time spent on teaching preparation; teaching increasingly perceived as more satisfying and less stressful than research; increasing time spent on research; increased stress about research productivity; and increased perception of work…

  10. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis relapse after an eight-year delay: an interplay of infection and immune reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, Juri; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Nielsen, Kirsten; Branding, Gordian; Arastéh, Keikawus; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Meintjes, Graeme; Boulware, David R; Stocker, Hartmut

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of a symptomatic relapse of HIV-related cryptococcal meningoencephalitis eight years after the first diagnosis on the background of immune reconstitution. The findings as well as the clinical course suggests a combination of smouldering localised infection and enhanced inflammatory reaction related to immune restoration due to antiretroviral therapy. A combination of antifungal and anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Our case challenges the concept that immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and microbiological relapse are dichotomous entities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Primary radiotherapy of prolactinomas. Eight- to 15-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, A.E.; Reyes, F.I.; Faiman, C.

    1987-07-01

    Eight women with amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and hyperprolactinemia, of whom six had macroadenomas and two had microadenomas, were treated with conventional (cobalt-60) external radiotherapy, and their progress was monitored for eight to 15 years. Normoprolactinemia was established in five of these patients after two to 13 years (median, nine years). A recurrence was treated surgically in one patient, and stable prolactin values and roentgenographic features have been maintained in two patients. Hypopituitarism has developed in only one patient to date, and no other complications of radiotherapy have been observed. These findings, together with the few previous reports on the long-term effects of radiotherapy on macroprolactinomas, have been compared with the long-term results following surgery or dopamine agonist therapy. The normalization of prolactin values is considerably delayed following radiotherapy compared with the other two therapeutic modalities. However, radiotherapy affords permanent normalization without recurrence in a larger percentage of patients than does surgery and avoids the considerable ongoing cost and inconvenience of daily drug ingestion. The long-term development of hypopituitarism appears to be an acceptably small risk of radiotherapy. Thus, conventional radiotherapy is an attractive treatment option, particularly for macroprolactinomas; adjunctive bromocriptine can be used while awaiting the longer-term benefits of radiotherapy.

  12. Primary radiotherapy of prolactinomas. Eight- to 15-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.E.; Reyes, F.I.; Faiman, C.

    1987-01-01

    Eight women with amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and hyperprolactinemia, of whom six had macroadenomas and two had microadenomas, were treated with conventional (cobalt-60) external radiotherapy, and their progress was monitored for eight to 15 years. Normoprolactinemia was established in five of these patients after two to 13 years (median, nine years). A recurrence was treated surgically in one patient, and stable prolactin values and roentgenographic features have been maintained in two patients. Hypopituitarism has developed in only one patient to date, and no other complications of radiotherapy have been observed. These findings, together with the few previous reports on the long-term effects of radiotherapy on macroprolactinomas, have been compared with the long-term results following surgery or dopamine agonist therapy. The normalization of prolactin values is considerably delayed following radiotherapy compared with the other two therapeutic modalities. However, radiotherapy affords permanent normalization without recurrence in a larger percentage of patients than does surgery and avoids the considerable ongoing cost and inconvenience of daily drug ingestion. The long-term development of hypopituitarism appears to be an acceptably small risk of radiotherapy. Thus, conventional radiotherapy is an attractive treatment option, particularly for macroprolactinomas; adjunctive bromocriptine can be used while awaiting the longer-term benefits of radiotherapy

  13. Nutritional quality at eight U.S. fast-food chains: 14-year trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Harnack, Lisa J; Bauer, Katherine W; Earnest, Alicia A; French, Simone A; Michael Oakes, J

    2013-06-01

    Frequent consumption of fast-food menu items that are high in fat, sugar, and sodium contribute to poor dietary quality, increasing individuals' risk for diet-related chronic diseases. To assess 14-year trends in the nutritional quality of menu offerings at eight fast-food restaurant chains in the U.S. Data on menu items and food and nutrient composition were obtained in 2011 from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center Food and Nutrient Database for eight fast-food restaurant chains. In this database, ingredient and nutrition information for all foods sold by the fast-food restaurants were updated biannually between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005 scores were calculated for each restaurant menu as a measure of the extent to which menu offerings were consistent with Dietary Guidelines for Americans and compared over time. Of a possible index total of 100 (healthiest), the HEI-2005 score across all eight fast-food restaurants was 45 in 1997/1998 and 48 in 2009/2010. Individually, restaurant scores in 1997/1998 ranged from 37 to 56 and in 2009/2010 ranged from 38 to 56. The greatest improvements in nutritional quality were seen in the increase of meat/beans, decrease in saturated fat, and decrease in the proportion of calories from solid fats and added sugars. The HEI-2005 score improved in six restaurants and decreased in two. The nutritional quality of menu offerings at fast-food restaurant chains included in this study increased over time, but further improvements are needed. Fast-food restaurants have an opportunity to contribute to a healthy diet for Americans by improving the nutritional quality of their menus. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Foetal growth restriction is associated with poor reading and spelling skills at eight years to 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea; Korkalainen, Noora; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Olsén, Päivi; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2018-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with communication problems, which might lead to poor literacy skills. The reading and spelling skills of eight- to 10-year-old FGR children born at 24-40 gestational weeks were compared with those of their gestational age-matched, appropriately grown (AGA) peers. A prospectively collected cohort of 37 FGR and 31 AGA children was recruited prenatally at a Finnish tertiary care centre during 1998-2001. The children's reading and spelling skills were assessed using standardised tests for Finnish-speaking second and third graders. Significantly more children performed below the 10th percentile normal values for reading and spelling skills in the FGR group than in the AGA group. At nine years of age, the FGR children had significantly poorer performance in word reading skills and reading fluency, reading accuracy and reading comprehension than the AGA controls. No between-group differences were detected at eight years of age. FGR is associated with poor performance in reading and spelling skills. A third of the FGR children performed below the 10th percentile normal values at nine years of age. These results indicate a need to continuously evaluate linguistic and literacy skills as FGR children age to ensure optimal support. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of scholastic backwardness among five to eight year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, J; Kapur, M

    1996-10-01

    The present paper reports the findings of a study of scholastic backwardness among five to eight year old school going children. 1535 children were screened by their class teachers, of which 10.23% were found to have scholastic backwardness. No gender differences were noticed. The rates of specific difficulties such as reading, writing and arithmetic were found to be 4.69%, 5.15% and 15.96% respectively. About 26% of the scholastically backward children were also found to have psychological disturbance. In addition, they most often came from families which could not afford basic amenities, had fathers with alcohol dependence, inconsistent disciplining and poor parental interaction. They also had more frequent school changes, tution attendence and fewer hobbies compared to the scholastically superior children.

  16. CHILDREN´S ANXIETY AND PARENTING STYLES IN FAMILY IN EIGHT-YEAR-OLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Poledňová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a recurrent topic in personality psychology of today. According to Z. Matějček’s (1991 estimation, the issue of anxiety assumes the third place as for the number of clients in children’s counselling service (behind the issue of intellectual capabilities and ADHD in the Czech Republic. In children where it occurs to a higher degree, it can have a negative impact on their socialisation, achievements, development of self-confidence. The most influential factor in developing an anxious personality appears to be family environment. If the family fails to satisfy the child’s basic needs – feeling of security and confidence – the child’s development can be in jeopardy. The current research is concentrated on how the style of parenting in families (the so-called parenting styles is related to anxiety in children at a younger school age. The aim of the research is to find out what relationship there is between the individual components of parenting in families (positive – negative component, component of requirements – freedom and anxiety in eight-year-olds. These relationships were inquired into from mothers’ perspective by means of questionnaire surveys (Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale and Questionnaire for acquiring the parenting style in family. The data from 407 mothers of eight-year-old children have been analysed. An assumption that anxiety in children of younger school age is significantly influenced by parenting styles in family has been confirmed. The most anxious children appear to be children raised in families with a negative parental emotional involvement towards the child and at the same time with discordant control. They were also some differences in the importance of individual components of parenting by fathers and mothers for anxious orientation of the child identified.

  17. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-04-01

    Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). To evaluate journal "Acta Informatica Medica" in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by "Publish or Perish" software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine.

  18. Prevalence of trachoma in the Kayes region of Mali eight years after stopping mass drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Lamine; Dembele, Benoit; Keita, Modibo; Reid, Steven D; Dembéle, Mahamadou; Mariko, Bréhima; Coulibaly, Famolo; Goldman, Whitney; Traoré, Dramane; Coulibaly, Daouda; Guindo, Boubacar; Amon, Joseph J; Knieriemen, Marily; Zhang, Yaobi

    2018-02-01

    In 2009, three years after stopping mass treatment with azithromycin, a trachoma impact survey in four health districts in the Kayes region of Mali found a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) among children aged 1 to 9 years of >5% and a trachomatous trichiasis (TT) prevalence within the general population (≥1-year-old) of <1%. As a result, the government's national trachoma program expanded trichiasis surgery and related activities required to achieve trachoma elimination. In 2015, to assess progress towards elimination, a follow-up impact survey was conducted in the Kayes, Kéniéba, Nioro and Yélimané health districts. The survey used district level two-stage cluster random sampling methodology with 20 clusters of 30 households in each evaluation unit. Subjects were eligible for examination if they were ≥1 year. TF and TT cases were identified and confirmed by experienced ophthalmologists. In total 14,159 people were enumerated and 11,620 (82%) were examined. TF prevalence (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 0.5% (0.3-1%) in Kayes, 0.8% (0.4-1.7%) in Kéniéba, 0.2% (0-0.9%) in Nioro and 0.3% (0.1-1%) in Yélimané. TT prevalence (95% CI) was 0.04% (0-0.25%) in Kayes, 0.29% (0.11-0.6%) in Kéniéba, 0.04% (0-0.25%) in Nioro and 0.07% (0-0.27%) in Yélimané. Eight years after stopping MDA and intensifying trichiasis surgery outreach campaigns, all four districts reached the TF elimination threshold of <5% and three of four districts reached the TT elimination threshold of <0.1%.

  19. Idiopathic eosinophilic parotitis in an eight-year-old boy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A number of medical conditions, some of them recently reported, are associated with an increased production of eosinophils. We report the first case of eosinophilic parotitis in the literature. Case presentation The patient was an eight-year-old Caucasian boy who presented with a two-year history of recurring acute parotitis with no fever. He had had a total of five episodes with no response to antibiotics, but remission had been achieved with oral corticosteroid therapy. We performed allergy tests for inhalant and food allergens and for haptens, but the results were all negative. The results of echography ruled out sialodochitis. Instead, a swab from the parotid duct led to the detection of a high number of eosinophils. Conclusions This report is first in the literature to describe a case of eosinophilic parotitis, and we suggest that a cytological assessment, which is quite simple yet rarely used by physicians, be performed when patients with parotitis of uncertain origin are under evaluation.

  20. A Longitudinal Investigation of Reading Development from Kindergarten to Grade Eight in a Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Ryan P.; Solari, Emily J.; Gerber, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study used latent growth curve modeling to investigate English literacy development in a sample of Spanish-speaking language minority students from third through eighth grade. This study also compared the sample's literacy development to the entire population of California students using state standardized test data. Second, this…

  1. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  2. Managing International Branch Campuses: Lessons Learnt from Eight Years on a Branch Campus in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher; Thabet, Rawy Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: International branch campuses (IBCs) are complex entities and while much has been written about their expansion and development, the literature is largely from an external perspective. There have been few longitudinal studies examining the development of an IBC over time. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of one IBC…

  3. Trends in Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in a Burn Intensive Care Unit: an Eight-Year Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgani, A.; Franka, R.A.; Zaidi, M.M.; Alshweref, U.M.; Elgmati, M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and profile of bloodstream infection (BSI) in a burn intensive care unit (BICU) in Tripoli, Libya, from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2007 and to determine the prevalence of different bacteria involved in such infections and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. During the eight-year study period, 995 patients were admitted to the BICU. Blood cultures were collected from each septicaemic case and reviewed for age, sex, total body surface area burned, isolated micro-organisms, and antibiotic sensitivity. There were 430 episodes of BSI among 830 cases; the annual true positive rate varied between 40.0 and 59.4%, the majority (87.9%) being caused by one species only. However, 22% had two or more episodes with different pathogens during hospitalization. The leading isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (40.4%) (methicillinresistant, 55.7%). Pseudomonas spp ranked second (23.9%). Klebsiella spp were third, responsible for 7.4%; the rate of extended spectrum beta lactamase among Klebsiella isolates was 47%. Candida spp were the fourth most common pathogen (6.7%), the majority (55%) being C. albicans. Staphylococci were generally resistant to trimethoprim (91%) and fusidic acid (80%). Pseudomonas spp proved moderately resistant (38-43%) to tobramicin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and impenem but remained relatively susceptible to cefepime (72%). Klebsiella isolates demonstrated moderate resistance (46-58%) to most agents tested, and relatively low resistance (19-27%) to meropenem, impenem, and cefepime. We suggest that extra infection control measures should be implemented and antibiotic policy and guidelines introduced to reduce the high resistance rate among isolates such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and MRSA. PMID:21991204

  4. Shifts in soil bacterial community after eight years of land-use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Afnan Khalil Ahmad; Manoeli, Lupatini; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; Pereira, Marcos G; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig

    2013-03-01

    The interaction between plants, soil and microorganisms is considered to be the major driver of ecosystem functions and any modification of plant cover and/or soil properties might affect the microbial structure, which, in turn, will influence ecological processes. Assuming that soil properties are the major drivers of soil bacterial diversity and structure within the same soil type, it can be postulated whether plant cover causes significant shifts in soil bacterial community composition. To address this question, this study used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to detect differences in diversity, composition and/or relative abundance of bacterial taxa from an area covered by pristine forest, as well as eight-year-old grassland surrounded by the same forest. It was shown that a total of 69% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were shared between environments. Overall, forest and grassland samples presented the same diversity and the clustering analysis did not show the occurrence of very distinctive bacterial communities between environments. However, 11 OTUs were detected in statistically significant higher abundance in the forest samples but in lower abundance in the grassland samples, whereas 12 OTUs occurred in statistically significant higher abundance in the grassland samples but in lower abundance in the forest samples. The results suggested the prevalence of a resilient core microbial community that did not suffer any change related to land use, soil type or edaphic conditions. The results illustrated that the history of land use might influence present-day community structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Cholera epidemics, war and disasters around Goma and Lake Kivu: an eight-year survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bompangue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the last eight years, North and South Kivu, located in a lake area in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, have been the site of a major volcano eruption and of numerous complex emergencies with population displacements. These conditions have been suspected to favour emergence and spread of cholera epidemics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to assess the influence of these conditions on outbreaks, reports of cholera cases were collected weekly from each health district of North Kivu (4,667,699 inhabitants and South Kivu (4,670,121 inhabitants from 2000 through 2007. A geographic information system was established, and in each health district, the relationships between environmental variables and the number of cholera cases were assessed using regression techniques and time series analysis. We further checked for a link between complex emergencies and cholera outbreaks. Finally, we analysed data collected during an epidemiological survey that was implemented in Goma after Nyiragongo eruption. A total of 73,605 cases and 1,612 deaths of cholera were reported. Time series decomposition showed a greater number of cases during the rainy season in South Kivu but not in North Kivu. Spatial distribution of cholera cases exhibited a higher number of cases in health districts bordering lakes (Odds Ratio 7.0, Confidence Interval range 3.8-12.9. Four epidemic reactivations were observed in the 12-week periods following war events, but simulations indicate that the number of reactivations was not larger than that expected during any random selection of period with no war. Nyiragongo volcanic eruption was followed by a marked decrease of cholera incidence. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study points out the crucial role of some towns located in lakeside areas in the persistence of cholera in Kivu. Even if complex emergencies were not systematically followed by cholera epidemics, some of them enabled cholera spreading.

  6. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  7. The Energy and Identification Continua of Burnout and Work Engagement : Developmental Profiles Over Eight Years

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkikangas, Anne; Hyvönen, Katriina; Feldt, Taru

    2017-01-01

    Understanding of the mutual developmental dynamics between burnout and work engagement is limited due to the lack of longitudinal studies with long follow-ups and multi-wave data. This study sought to identify subgroups of employees characterized by long-term exhaustion-vigor (energy continuum) and cynicism-dedication (identification continuum). A further important aim was to investigate differences between the identified subgroups in their experiences of progress in their personal work goals...

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Persistent Speech Sound Disorder at Eight Years Old: Findings from a Population Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Yvonne; Miller, Laura L.; Peters, Tim J.; Emond, Alan; Roulstone, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of persistent speech sound disorder (SSD) in children aged 8 years after disregarding children presenting solely with common clinical distortions (i.e., residual errors). Method: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (Boyd et al., 2012) were used.…

  9. Five Years of IT Management Improvement Eight Cases from the Master of IT Management

    CERN Document Server

    De Mari, G

    2009-01-01

    Displays the results of a handful of graduates of the postgraduate Master of IT Management at TU Delft. This title presents summaries of eight these written between 2003 and 2008, selected to provide a picture of a range of graduation projects

  10. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  11. Still Not Adult-Like: Lexical Stress Contrastivity in Word Productions of Eight- to Eleven-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2017-01-01

    Lexical stress is the contrast between strong and weak syllables within words. Ballard et al. (2012) examined the amount of stress contrastivity across adjacent syllables in word productions of typically developing three- to seven-year-olds and adults. Here, eight- to eleven-year-olds are compared with the adults from Ballard et al. using acoustic…

  12. Progression of lumbar disc herniations over an eight-year period in a group of adult Danes from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Per; Tunset, Andreas; Boyle, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    people (48 women and 58 men), were included. Over eight years, 65 % of the herniations remained unchanged, 17.5 % decreased, 12.5 % increased, and 5 % had a fluctuating pattern. Increased herniation size was associated with decreased dural sac area (β-0.25[-0.52;0.01]) and increased disc height (β 0...... might give the clinician a better understanding of the natural history and consequences of lumbar disc herniations. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated this process using reliable measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objectives of this study were to examine changes...... with MRI-confirmed disc herniations at 41 or 45 years were included. Cross-sectional areas (mm(2)) of the LDH, dural sac and disc height were calculated from measurements performed on sagittal T2-weighted images using a previously validated method. Changes over time for the three MRI findings were defined...

  13. Wistrand Robinson Lila, Eight Years in the Amazon Headwaters. My Life in Three Peruvian Tribes

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Lila Wistrand de Robinson, ancienne membre du Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) bien connue des spécialistes de l’ethnologie et de la linguistique ouest-amazoniennes, nous livre ici le récit des années qu’elle a passées sur le terrain au Pérou, entre 1956 et 1965, chez les Shapra, les Aguaruna et (surtout) les Cashibo-Cacataibo. L’ouvrage est illustré de nombreuses photos noir et blanc, d’un charme sans doute désuet, mais d’une indéniable valeur documentaire. Eight years… contient une qua...

  14. Locating Longitudinal Respondents After a 50-Year Hiatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Celeste

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many longitudinal and follow-up studies face a common challenge: locating study participants. This study examines the extent to which a geographically dispersed subsample of participants can be relocated after 37 to 51 years of noncontact. Relying mostly on commercially available databases and administrative records, the 2011-12 Project Talent Follow-up Pilot Study (PTPS12 located nearly 85 percent of the original sample members, many of whom had not participated in the study since 1960. This study uses data collected in the base year to examine which subpopulations were the hardest to find after this extended hiatus. The results indicate that females were located at significantly lower rates than males. As expected, sample members with lower cognitive abilities were among the hardest-to-reach subpopulations. We next evaluate the extent to which biases introduced during the tracking phase can be minimized by using the multivariate chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID technique to calculate tracking loss adjustments. Unlike a 1995 study that found that these adjustments reduced statistical biases among its sample of located females, our results suggest that statistical adjustments were not as effective in PTPS12, where many participants had not been contacted in nearly 50 years and the tracking rates varied so greatly across subgroups.

  15. A Study in Critical Listening Using Eight to Ten Year Olds in an Analysis of Commercial Propaganda Emanating from Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jimmie Ellis

    Selected eight to ten year old Maryland children were used in this study measuring the effect of lessons in becoming aware of propaganda employed by commercial advertisers in television programs. Sixteen 45-minute lessons directed to the propaganda techniques of Band Wagon, Card Stacking, Glittering Generalities, Name Calling, Plain Folks,…

  16. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  17. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  18. Longitudinal Impact of the Project PATHS on Adolescent Risk Behavior: What Happened after Five Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the longitudinal impact of the Project PATHS, a large-scale curriculum-based positive youth development program in Hong Kong, on the development of adolescents’ risk behavior over a period of five years. Using a longitudinal randomized controlled design, eight waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools in which students participated in the Project PATHS (=2,850 at Wave 8 and 24 control schools without joining the Project PATHS (=3,640 at Wave 8. At each wave, students responded to measures assessing their current risk behaviors, including delinquency, use of different types of drug, and their intentions of participating in risk behaviors in the future. Results demonstrated that adolescents receiving the program exhibited significantly slower increases in delinquent behaviors and substance use as compared to the control participants. During two years after the completion of the program, differences in youth risk behaviors in the two groups still existed. These results suggest that the Project PATHS has long-term effect in preventing adolescent problem behavior through promoting positive youth development.

  19. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  20. Eight years of the Great Influenza Survey to monitor influenza-like illness in Flanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Vandendijck

    Full Text Available In 2003, an internet-based monitoring system of influenza-like illness (ILI, the Great Influenza Survey (GIS, was initiated in Belgium. For the Flemish part of Belgium, we investigate the representativeness of the GIS population and assess the validity of the survey in terms of ILI incidence during eight influenza seasons (from 2003 through 2011. The validity is investigated by comparing estimated ILI incidences from the GIS with recorded incidences from two other monitoring systems, (i the Belgian Sentinel Network and (ii the Google Flu Trends, and by performing a risk factor analysis to investigate whether the risks on acquiring ILI in the GIS population are comparable with results in the literature. A random walk model of first order is used to estimate ILI incidence trends based on the GIS. Good to excellent correspondence is observed between the estimated ILI trends in the GIS and the recorded trends in the Sentinel Network and the Google Flu Trends. The results of the risk factor analysis are in line with the literature. In conclusion, the GIS is a useful additional surveillance network for ILI monitoring in Flanders. The advantages are the speed at which information is available and the fact that data is gathered directly in the community at an individual level.

  1. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  2. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  3. Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Navarre stabilized in the last eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forga, Luis; Tamayo, Ibai; Chueca, María; Ibáñez, Berta; Sainz de Los Terreros, Amaya; Goñi, María José

    2018-05-01

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus raises a number of controversies. Our study aim was to contribute to answer the following questions: Is incidence of T1DM increasing? Is age at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus decreasing? Which are the sex differences? Which are the characteristics in adults? A cross-sectional descriptive study using data from a primary source and 3 secondary sources from Navarre collected between 01/01/2009 and 12/31/2016. Annual incidence rates and incidence rate expressed as 100,000 person-years were estimated in the study period by age and sex group. The comparison of the sex and age incidence was made estimating the incidence rate using Poisson's regression methods. The completeness of the register was 96.08%. During the 8 years analyzed, 428 new cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus were reported (incidence: 8.4/100,000 person-years, 95% CI: 7.6-9.2). Incidence has remained stable and is higher in the group under 15 years old (21.5) than in adults (5.9). Males aged 10-14 years and females aged 5-9 years were the groups with the highest incidence. Incidence then decreased with increasing age. Type 1 diabetes mellitus predominates in males aged 10-45 years, and no changes were seen in age at onset when analized by four-year periods. Navarre shows a very high incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood and a low incidence in adulthood. Peak incidence is seen earlier in girls, but the disease predominates in males. Neither incidence nor age at onset have changed. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The pathway for adolescent maternity: longitudinal study 10 years after child's birth / Percursos da gravidez na adolescência: estudo longitudinal após uma década da gestação

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Ramacciotti de Oliveira-Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative research about maternity in adolescence in a context of social vulnerability, seeking to check psychosocial indicators along the years of the study. Eight dyads of mothers in adolescence and their firstborns were interviewed when their children were less than five months old; three and a half years old and ten years old. The instruments used in their daily environment were free speech interviews and observation submitted to scales for screening...

  5. Bacterial isolates from burn wound infections and their antibiograms: A eight-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Manjula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is an important cause of mortality in burns. Rapidly emerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic review of isolation patterns and antibiogram in the burn ward. Aim: Keeping this in mind, the present retrospective study from wounds of patients admitted to burns unit was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and the resistance pattern from the burn ward over a period of three years (June 2002 to May 2005 and was compared with the results obtained during the previous five years (June 1997-May 2002, to ascertain any change in the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: Bacterial isolates from 268 wound swabs taken from burn patients were identified by conventional biochemical methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed. Statistical comparison of bacterial isolates and their resistance pattern with previous five years data was done using c2 test. Results and Conclusions: During the period from 2002 to 2005 Pseudomonas species was the commonest pathogen isolated (51.5% followed by Acinetobacter species (14.28%, Staph. aureus (11.15%, Klebsiella species (9.23% and Proteus species (2.3%. When compared with the results of the previous five years i.e., 1997 to 2002, Pseudomonas species was still the commonest pathogen in the burns unit. However, the isolation of this organism and other gram-negative organisms had decreased in comparison to previous years. Newer drugs were found to be effective.

  6. Eight-Year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterobacter Cloacae Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Man; Wang, Ailin; Xu, Jiancheng; Yuan, Ye

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacter cloacae isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 683 strains of Enterobacter cloacae were collected from sputum 410 (60.0%), secretions and pus 105 (15.4%), urine 69 (10.1%) during the past 8 years. No Enterobacter cloacae was resistant to imipenem and meropenem in the First Bethune Hospital. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacter cloacae had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from b eing transmitted.

  7. Management information systems. A case study over the last eight years in the Romanian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian LUPU – DIMA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present interest of this paper consists in the powerful impact that IT&C technologies have upon the development of the last 20 years of the Romanian organizations as well as upon the daily life of each individual in the special condition of the Romanian economy and especially Romanian society as a whole. The motivation of the approach is supported by the fact that IT&C industry has had an explosive development during the last 20 years in Romania. Accordingly, this industry represents 10% of Romania’s gross domestic product, a quite high percent in case one notices that not long ago it represented only 3%.

  8. Neuro-motor deficits in six- to eight-year old learners with ADHD and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the nature of coordination, visual-motor integration and neurological functioning in children diagnosed with ADHD and whether the likelihood of motor impairment will increase with the presence of co-occurring DCD (DAMP). Ninety-five learners (60 boys; 35 girls) with a mean age of 6.9 years ...

  9. Twenty-eight years of wilderness campsite monitoring in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel Boyers; Mark Fincher; Jan van Wagtendonk

    2000-01-01

    The research, resource management and wilderness staffs in Yosemite National Park recently completed the third 10-year cycle of a wilderness campsite impact monitoring program. Initial results indicate an overall improvement in conditions due to a strong restoration program, decreased use and increased visitor education. Lessons learned point to the necessity for ample...

  10. Isotopes, an Eight-Year Summary of U.S. Distribution and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-03-01

    Physiological and Anatomical Study of the Leucocytes. B. S. Simmons and N. B. Everett. Closure of the Ductus Arteriosus in the Dog. Biochim. et...within the past 3 years. Since in- dustrial development usually involves "trade radium. secrets" with patent potentialities and produc- RADIOACTIVE

  11. Candida (Torulopsis glabrata) liver abscesses eight years after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, G M; Blackstone, M; Hart, J; Piper, J; Baker, A L

    1997-04-01

    The authors report the case of a 48-year-old man in whom candida (Torulopsis glabrata) liver abscesses developed 8 years after liver transplantation. After a week of fever, computed tomography and Doppler ultrasonography showed several fluid-filled loculations in the left lobe of the liver and hepatic arterial stenosis. Aspirates from the abscesses contained T. glabrata organisms. This complication probably developed because hepatic arterial stenosis resulted in bile infarcts (bilomas), which were contaminated via the biliary tract with candida from the biliary-enteric anastomosis. Catheter drainage and administration of amphotericin B for 10 weeks permitted successful retransplantation. T. glabrata liver abscesses, a life threatening complication that can occur long after liver transplantation, can be successfully managed by aggressive medical treatment followed by retransplantation.

  12. Vitreous loss-causes, associations, and outcomes: Eight-year analysis in Melaka Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanigasalam Thevi

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Vitreous loss occurred in almost all types of cataract surgeries, especially by junior surgeons, among those aged <40 years and significantly caused poor visual outcome compared to other complications. Pseudoexfoliation had higher occurrence of vitreous loss. Vitreous loss patients had impaired/poor visual outcome due to preexisting comorbidity and astigmatism. Patients at risk and junior surgeons should be closely monitored to improve outcomes. Further studies need to be done to see why and when the vitreous loss occurred.

  13. Chernobyl cesium in the soil of Montenegro, eight years after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, G. I.; Kuzmic, V. V.; Vukotic, P.; Dapcevic, S.; Antovic, N.; Mirkovic, M.; Fustic, B.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive cesium contamination of the territory of Montenegro is measured by in situ method of semiconductor gamma-spectrometry at the end of the end of the year 1994. On basis of geological and pedological characteristics of the region, 42 measurement sites are chosen, which are representative for large area and uniformly distributed over the territory of Republic. It is found that degree of contamination varies strongly from region to region. Surface activities of 137 Cs span 3700 to 74000 Bq/m 2 range. Radioactive cesium is mostly remained in the surface part of uncultivated soil. 14 refs.; 3 figs

  14. Career paths in physicians' postgraduate training - an eight-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Klaghofer, Richard

    2010-10-06

    To date, there are hardly any studies on the choice of career path in medical school graduates. The present study aimed to investigate what career paths can be identified in the course of postgraduate training of physicians; what factors have an influence on the choice of a career path; and in what way the career paths are correlated with career-related factors as well as with work-life balance aspirations. The data reported originates from five questionnaire surveys of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1, last year of medical school). The study sample consisted of 358 physicians (197 females, 55%; 161 males, 45%) participating at each assessment from T2 (2003, first year of residency) to T5 (2009, seventh year of residency), answering the question: What career do you aspire to have? Furthermore, personal characteristics, chosen specialty, career motivation, mentoring experience, work-life balance as well as workload, career success and career satisfaction were assessed. Career paths were analysed with cluster analysis, and differences between clusters analysed with multivariate methods. The cluster analysis revealed four career clusters which discriminated distinctly between each other: (1) career in practice, (2) hospital career, (3) academic career, and (4) changing career goal. From T3 (third year of residency) to T5, respondents in Cluster 1-3 were rather stable in terms of their career path aspirations, while those assigned to Cluster 4 showed a high fluctuation in their career plans. Physicians in Cluster 1 showed high values in extraprofessional concerns and often consider part-time work. Cluster 2 and 3 were characterised by high instrumentality, intrinsic and extrinsic career motivation, career orientation and high career success. No cluster differences were seen in career satisfaction. In Cluster 1 and 4, females were overrepresented. Trainees should be supported to stay on the career path that best suits his/her personal and

  15. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p Morocco. Our study illustrates substantial differences in cancer patterns between areas of Eastern Morocco. These findings are important for cancer control and highlight the need to develop program aiming at controlling and preventing the spread of major cancer sites in Eastern Morocco, particularly in areas with increased cancer prevalence rates.

  16. Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: impact on mammography practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramova-Cholakova, S; Lilkov, G; Kaneva, M; Terziev, K; Nakov, I; Mutkurov, N; Kovacheva, D; Ivanova, M; Vasilev, D

    2015-07-01

    The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the impact of QC introduction on mammography practice in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of practice since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Staff radiation doses during eight years in a nuclear medicine radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Aswegen, A. van; Loetter, M.G.; Herbst, C.P.; Otto, A.C.; Orange Free State Univ., Bloemfontein

    1994-01-01

    Staff working in the radiopharmacy and nursing staff responsible for injecting radionuclides are being monitored constantly in our department. We report here on the effective doses and doses to the hands received by staff at two hospitals during 8 years from January 1985 to December 1992. In addition to the doses determined monthly by the South African Bureau of Standards' Radiation Protection Service (SABS), radiation doses received to the hands and whole body were measured every week using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). The highest total radiation dose received in any one year by any one person at hospital A was 233.53 mSv to the hands, and 10.20 mSv and 8.37 mSv to the whole body depending on the dosemeter used. The corresponding values for hospital B were 54.05 mSv to the hands and 6.94 mSv and 4.43 mSv to the whole body. If only one radiographer should do all the work calculated highest dose received would be 447.06 mSv to the hands and 9.68 mSv SABS effective dose. The radiation doses to staff were well within the limits prescribed. (Author)

  18. Concurrent non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia in an eight year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kruszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first reported case of a patient with both non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia. At 2 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with non-ketotic hyperglycinemia by elevated glycine levels and mutations in the GLDC gene (paternal allele: c.1576_1577insC delT and c.1580delGinsCAA; p.S527Tfs*13, and maternal allele: c.1819G>A; p.G607S. At 8 years of age after having been placed on ketogenic diet, he became lethargic and had severe metabolic acidosis with ketonuria. Urine organic acid analysis and plasma acylcarnitine profile were consistent with propionic acidemia. He was found to have an apparently homozygous mutation in the PCCB gene: c.49C>A; p.Leu17Met. The patient was also treated with natural protein restriction, carnitine, biotin, and thiamine and had subjective and biochemical improvement.

  19. Changes of ecosystem functions in a Mediterranean shrubland exposed for eight years to prolonged summer droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista; de Angelis, Paolo; Cesaraccio, Carla; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Duce, Pierpaolo; Sirca, Costantino; Spano, Donatella; Beier, Claus

    2010-05-01

    Where water is a limiting factor, like in arid and semiarid shrubland ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin, soil moisture, strengthen by high temperatures, is the key limiting factor controlling biogeochemical cycles. During the drought season, the unavailable water reduces plant growth, litter decomposition and microbial soil respiration. In order to assess the impacts of precipitation reduction on Mediterranean shrublands, a natural community has been exposed since 2001 to prolonged summer droughts by means of mobile plastic roofs, covering three experimental plots (20 m2) during rain events, in spring and in autumn. Three additional plots were used as control. The vegetation reaches a maximum height of 1.0 m and the main shrub species are Cistus monspeliensis, Helichrysum italicum and Dorycnium pentaphyllum. Bare soil constitutes about 20% of the plot surface. The aim of this paper is to summarize the impact of the treatment on the plant community structure and on ecosystem functions, after 8 years of experimentation. A general increase of vegetation cover was observed in the whole community during the years, as result of a natural process of recolonisation. This positive temporal pattern was mainly observed in the control plots, whereas in the drought treatment it was less evident and practically null in the year 2003. At species-specific level, a clear negative effect of drought treatment was observed for C. monspeliensis. Moreover, anticipated drought reduced C assimilation and induced an earlier change of leaf morphology in Cistus. These effects produced the reduction of LAI and of whole plant productivity. The seasonal pattern of soil CO2 efflux was characterized by higher rates during the wet vegetative season (autumn-spring) and lower rates during the dry non-vegetative season (summer). Significant negative effects were occasionally recorded during the period with the treatment turned on. The relation of soil respiration with temperature and soil water

  20. Pyogenic granuloma associated with bone loss in an eight year old child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue enlargements of the oral cavity often present a diagnostic challenge because a diverse group of pathologic processes can produce such lesions. An enlargement may represent a variation of normal anatomic structures, inflammation, cysts, developmental anomalies and neoplasm. Within these lesions is a group of reactive hyperplasias, which develop in response to a chronic, recurring tissue injury that stimulates an exuberant or excessive tissue repair response. The pyogenic granuloma is a reactive enlargement that is an inflammatory response to local irritation such as calculus, a fractured tooth, rough dental restoration and foreign materials. This article aims to present a case of pyogenic granuloma in 8 year old child patient associated with resorption of bone in relation to the tooth.

  1. RECALMIN II. Eight years of hospitalisation in Internal Medicine Units (2007-2014). What has changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero-Gaviria, A; Barba-Martín, R; Canora Lebrato, J; Fernández-Pérez, C; Gómez-Huelgas, R; Bernal-Sobrino, J L; Díez-Manglano, J; Marco-Martínez, J; Elola-Somoza, F J

    2017-11-01

    To analyse the evolution of care provided by the internal medicine units (IMU) of the Spanish National Health System from 2007 to 2014. We analysed all discharges from the IMU of the Spanish National Health System in 2007 and 2014, using the Minimum Basic Data Set. We compared the risk factors by episode, mortality and readmissions between the two periods. We prepared specific fits for the risk for mortality and readmissions in heart failure, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as the Charlson index for all activity. Discharges from the IMU between the two periods increased 14%. The average patient age increased by 2.8 years (71.2±17.1 vs. 74±16.2; pde Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  2. Soft Tissue Reconstruction following Hemipelvectomy: Eight-Year Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Mat Saad

    2012-01-01

    Results. Thirteen patients were included with median age of 39 years (range 13–78 of which all had advanced tumour with stage IIb (54% and Stage III (46%. External hemipelvectomy was performed in all cases, and resultant defects were reconstructed with variety type of flaps. These include fillet thigh flaps, regional pedicle flaps of different designs, and free flap. Conclusions. Massive pelvic tumour is rarely encountered in our population but can be seen across all age groups and usually due to late presentation. The defects should be reconstructed using local or regional flaps, incorporating the muscle component to enhance flap perfusion. The tissue should be harvested from the amputated limb, as it can limit the donor site morbidity.

  3. Quality of Life and Hearing Eight Years After Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Kati; Kivekäs, Ilkka; Rautiainen, Markus; Kotti, Voitto; Vasama, Juha-Pekka

    2017-04-01

    To explore long-term hearing results, quality of life (QoL), quality of hearing (QoH), work-related stress, tinnitus, and balance problems after idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Cross-sectional study. We reviewed the audiograms of 680 patients with unilateral ISSNHL on average 8 years after the hearing impairment, and then divided the patients into two study groups based on whether their ISSNHL had recovered to normal (pure tone average [PTA] ≤ 30 dB) or not (PTA > 30 dB). The inclusion criteria were a hearing threshold decrease of 30 dB or more in at least three contiguous frequencies occurring within 72 hours in the affected ear and normal hearing in the contralateral ear. Audiograms of 217 patients fulfilled the criteria. We reviewed their medical records; measured present QoL, QoH, and work-related stress with specific questionnaires; and updated the hearing status. Poor hearing outcome after ISSNHL was correlated with age, severity of hearing loss, and vertigo together with ISSNHL. Quality of life and QoH were statistically significantly better in patients with recovered hearing, and the patients had statistically significantly less tinnitus and balance problems. During the 8-year follow-up, the PTA of the affected ear deteriorated on average 7 dB, and healthy ear deteriorated 6 dB. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss that failed to recover had a negative impact on long-term QoL and QoH. The hearing deteriorated as a function of age similarly both in the affected and the healthy ear, and there were no differences between the groups. The cumulative recurrence rate for ISSNHL was 3.5%. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:927-931, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with percutaneous ethanol injection: Eight years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, F; Caraccio, N; Goletti, O; Casolaro, A; Lippolis, P V; Cavina, E; Miccoli, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to define the long-term efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodule (ATN), and to optimise the clinical usefulness of such a therapy. We treated 132 patients with ATN (30 M and 102 F, aged 47.5+/-12.9 years; mean+/-SD), in case other established treatments were refused or contraindicated. Eighty-five patients were affected by toxic adenoma and 47 suffered from pre-toxic nodules. Ethanol was administered weekly under sonographic control, in 7 sessions (range 2-16). During PEI treatment, 26 toxic elderly patients were treated with methimazole and propranolol. Three possible outcomes were identified for statistical analysis: failure (persistent suppression of extra nodular tissue uptake, along with elevated free thyroid hormone and undetectable TSH levels); partial cure (normal free thyroid hormone and low/undetectable TSH levels); complete cure (normal thyroid hormone and TSH levels; restored extra nodular uptake). The patients were followed for up to 8.5 years (median 76 months). PEI therapy was well tolerated by all patients though a mild to moderate local pain occurred in about 30% of sessions. Complete cure was achieved in all pre-toxic patients and in 60 (70.6%) patients with toxic adenoma, while partial cure was observed in 11 cases (12.9%) and failure in 14 (16.5%). A significant shrinkage of nodule volume was observed in all patients (p = 0.0001), while those with toxic nodules larger than 30 mL showed a significantly lower response rate to PEI (p thyroid adenoma where therapy is least necessary- despite the nodule volume. Though ethanol injection therapy of toxic thyroid nodules may be troublesome for the need of multiple sessions, it appears an effective alternative procedure in patients at poor surgical risk, and in younger patients in whom radioiodine is contraindicated. Since a special technical skill in intervention procedures is required, PEI therapy may be suitable

  5. Eight-Year Experience with Nocturnal, Every-Other-Day, Online Haemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, Francisco; Ojeda, Raquel; Arias-Guillen, Marta; Rossi, Florencia; Fontseré, Néstor; Vera, Manel; Rico, Nayra; Gonzalez, Leonardo Nicolás; Piñeiro, Gastón; Jiménez-Hernández, Mario; Rodas, Lida; Bedini, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    New haemodialysis therapeutic regimens are required to improve patient survival. Longer and more frequent dialysis sessions have produced excellent survival and clinical advantages, while online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) provides the most efficient form of dialysis treatment. In this single-centre observational study, 57 patients on 4-5-hour thrice-weekly OL-HDF were switched to nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF. Inclusion criteria consisted of stable patients with good prospects for improved occupational, psychological and social rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to report our 8-year experience with this schedule and to evaluate analytical and clinical outcomes. Nocturnal, every-other-day OL-HDF was well tolerated and 56% of patients were working. The convective volume increased from 26.7 ± 2 litres at baseline to 46.6 ± 6.5 litres at 24 months (p every-other-day OL-HDF could be an excellent therapeutic alternative since it is well tolerated and leads to clinical and social-occupational rehabilitation with satisfactory morbidity and mortality. These encouraging results strengthen us to continue and invite other clinicians to join this initiative. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Pregnant Adolescents Admitted to an Inpatient Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit: An Eight-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Teresa M; Markley, Laura A; Nelson, Dana; Crane, Stephen S; Fitzgibbon, James J

    2015-12-01

    To assess patient outcomes and describe demographic data of pregnant adolescents admitted to an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit, as well as to determine if it is safe to continue to admit pregnant adolescents to such a unit. A descriptive retrospective chart review conducted at a free-standing pediatric hospital in northeast Ohio of all pregnant adolescents aged 13 to 17 years admitted to the inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit from July 2005 to April 2013. Data collection included details on demographic, pregnancy status, and psychiatric diagnoses. Eighteen pregnant adolescents were admitted to the psychiatric unit during the time frame. Sixteen of those were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy was found to be a contributing factor to the adolescent's suicidal ideation and admission in 11 of the cases. Admission to an inpatient psychiatric facility did not lead to adverse effects in pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents did not have negative pregnancy outcomes related to admission to an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results of this study suggest that it is safe to continue to admit uncomplicated pregnant adolescents in their first trimester to an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit for an acute stay. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eight-year follow-up of patients with myasthenia gravis after thymectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Li, F; Chen, B; Lin, J; Yang, M; Fu, X; Li, J; Bu, B

    2015-02-01

    To depict the long-term outcome of patients with myasthenia gravis after thymectomy in combination with immunotherapy, and the factors that may potentially affect the outcome. The 306 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent extended thymectomy from January 1984 to December 2011 at Tongji Hospital were retrospectively evaluated. The patients consisted of 174 cases with thymoma and 132 cases without thymoma. Pharmaceutical treatment was tailored for each case during follow-up. Nine patients with thymomatous myasthenia gravis died during the perioperative period, and 297 patients were followed for 8.6 years. By their latest visits, 241 patients (81.1%) gained satisfactory efficacy, 24 cases died (8.1%), and 32 cases (10.8%) remained unchanged or deteriorated. Favorable factors for satisfactory efficacy included the presence of ocular myasthenia gravis before operation, no presence of thymoma, and lack of concomitant diseases. It is interesting to mention that, patients with non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis obtained significantly higher rates of complete stable remission and clinical remission than the patients with thymomatous myasthenia gravis. Extended thymectomy combined with immunotherapy is a preferred treatment with a satisfactory long-term remission rate. Patients with non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis have a much more promising prognosis than the patients with thymomatous myasthenia gravis. However, appropriate caution must be taken to discontinue pharmaceutical therapy as relapse remains a major concern after a patient who has already undergone thymectomy becomes symptom-free. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation techniques in Punjab, Pakistan: eight years of reforms in health professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junaid Sarfraz; Biggs, John S G; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan, the most populated country in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region has a population of over 170 million, spread over five provinces and four federally administered areas. It has a growth rate of 1.9%. Punjab is the most populous and developed province with an estimated population in 2010 of 81 million. In 2008, Punjab's development index of 0.60 and a literacy rate of 80% were the highest in the country. In Pakistan, the number of doctors and nurses has risen from 48 to 71 per 100,000 and from 16 to 30 per 100,000, respectively between 1990 and 2003. The major challenge, still, is the imbalance of the population to health-care workers ratio. At the time of creation of Pakistan, King Edward Medical College was the only fully functioning medical college. Over the years, as a result of health reform initiatives, a number of government medical colleges were established in the country. University of Health Sciences, Lahore was established in 2002, having sole jurisdiction over all medical, dental and allied health institutes in the province with the aim of moving medical education towards an outcome-based patient and community-oriented competency-driven system. This paper attempts to clarify how initiatives and reforms in the evaluation process have helped the UHS realise its aims. Evaluation in all branches of higher education has long been taken as a means to an end. The focus of UHS on teacher-training, introduction of behavioural sciences as a compulsory subject and setting up an outcome-based evaluation process, has established a knowledge-acquisition medical education atmosphere. The challenges in the future relate to sustainability through capacity-building and staying abreast with the Best Evidence Medical Education practices worldwide, implementing them to fit our local needs and resources.

  9. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, W.; Hanekamp, M.N.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Nieuwhof, E.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Tibboel, D.; Jongste, J.C. de; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane

  10. Eight years of bioethics

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que significó el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la investigación biomédica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile (2003–2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integración de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comités de ética y programas académicos de ética de investigación. Asimismo, en la elaboración de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluación ética y cientí...

  11. Fourteen-year trends in sodium content of menu offerings at eight leading fast-food restaurants in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudelt, Amanda; French, Simone; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    To examine changes in the Na content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food restaurants in the USA between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Menu offerings and nutrient composition information for the menu items were obtained from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) Food and Nutrient Database. Nutrient composition information for lunch/dinner menu items sold by the fast-food restaurants included in the present study was updated in the database biannually. Menus were analysed for changes in mean Na content of all menu offerings (except beverages) and specific categories of menu items among all restaurants and for each individual restaurant. Lunch/dinner food menu of eight leading US fast-food restaurants. Between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010 the mean Na content of menu offerings across the eight restaurants increased by 23·4 %. Examining specific food categories, mean Na content of entrées by increased 17·2 % and that of condiments increased by 26·1 %. Only side dishes showed a decrease of 6·6 %. None of the restaurants examined had a decrease in Na across the lunch/dinner menu offerings over the 14 years examined. Results suggest that over the time period studied there has been no meaningful reduction in the Na content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at the leading fast-food restaurants examined in the present study.

  12. Level-2 perspectives computed quickly and spontaneously: Evidence from eight- to 9.5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elekes, Fruzsina; Varga, Máté; Király, Ildikó

    2017-11-01

    It has been widely assumed that computing how a scene looks from another perspective (level-2 perspective taking, PT) is an effortful process, as opposed to the automatic capacity of tracking visual access to objects (level-1 PT). Recently, adults have been found to compute both forms of visual perspectives in a quick but context-sensitive way, indicating that the two functions share more features than previously assumed. However, the developmental literature still shows the dissociation between automatic level-1 and effortful level-2 PT. In the current paper, we report an experiment showing that in a minimally social situation, participating in a number verification task with an adult confederate, eight- to 9.5-year-old children demonstrate similar online level-2 PT capacities as adults. Future studies need to address whether online PT shows selectivity in children as well and develop paradigms that are adequate to test preschoolers' online level-2 PT abilities. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Adults can access how objects appear to others (level-2 perspective) spontaneously and online Online level-1, but not level-2 perspective taking (PT) has been documented in school-aged children What the present study adds? Eight- to 9.5-year-olds performed a number verification task with a confederate who had the same task Children showed similar perspective interference as adults, indicating spontaneous level-2 PT Not only agent-object relations but also object appearances are computed online by eight- to 9.5-year-olds. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. The effect of eight half-yearly single-dose treatments with DEC on Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigenaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul E; Magesa, Stephen M; Meyrowitsch, Dan W

    2005-01-01

    The effect of eight half-yearly treatment rounds with diethylcarbamazine (DEC; 6mg/kg bodyweight) on Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA), a marker of adult worm infection, was followed in 79 individuals who were CFA-positive before start of treatment. Half of these we...... values. Repeated DEC therapy thus appears to have a slow but profound and persistent macrofilaricidal effect, which in the long run may be beneficial to populations undergoing DEC-based control interventions by reducing the probability of future morbidity development....

  14. Late-diagnosed phenylketonuria in an eight-year-old boy with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Yılmaz; Dursun, Ali; Tokatlı, Ayşegül; Coşkun, Turgay; Sivri, Hatice Serap

    2016-01-01

    Phenylketonuria, previously a common cause of severe intellectual disability, is a metabolic disorder now promptly diagnosed and effectively treated thanks to newborn screening programs. Here, we report a male patient presenting with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, who was diagnosed with mild phenylketonuria at eight years of age. Earlier recognition and treatment before the establishment of irreversible brain damage would have resulted in better neurobehavioural outcomes. Classical phenylketonuria and milder phenotypes of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cognitive and behavioural problems of unknown cause.

  15. Wegner′s granulomatosis developing for the first time in a patient eight years after starting maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ramadan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wegener′s granulomatosis is a serious autoimmune disorder characterized by necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis. It is a multisystem disease that primarily affects the lung and kidneys. Previous studies indicated few relapses of vasculitis after hemodialysis due to uremic immunosuppression. Our case report describes an end-stage renal failure patient who had developed non-caseating lung granulomata with giant cell formation and fibrinoid necrosis of arterial media that is consistent with Wegner′s granulomatosis for the first time and eight years after initiation of maintenance hemodialysis. We believe that such a phenomenon has rarely been reported.

  16. Understanding Contextual and Social Meaning in Typically Developing Finnish-Speaking Four- To Eight-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukusa Soile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the development of social-pragmatic comprehension in 170 Finnish four- to eight-year-old children. The children were asked to respond to socially and contextually demanding questions targeting their social-pragmatic language processing, and to explain their correct answers in order to elicit their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results showed that the number of correct answers increased especially between the ages of four and seven years. We found that questions demanding contextual processing without mind-reading were the easiest to understand, followed by questions demanding processing of feelings of others and false beliefs. The questions demanding understanding of relevant language use and processing of contextual factors including mental states and intentions were the most challenging for the children. Between four and five years of age there was a remarkable developmental phase in children’s ability to give proper explanations.

  17. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Thompson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives: The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design: The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact: Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%. The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively. Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement, but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001. Conclusion: A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied.

  18. Changes in Mental Health, Bullying Behavior, and Service Use Among Eight-Year-Old Children Over 24 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, André; Lempinen, Lotta; Brunstein Klomek, Anat

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in the mental health problems, bullying, and service use of 8-year-old children at 4 different time points (1989, 1999, 2005, and 2013) using population-based, time-trend data. Information from 4 cross-sectional samples was compared over a 24-year period. The target population was Finnish-speaking children born in 1981 (n = 1,038), 1991 (n = 1,035), 1997 (n = 1,030), and 2004 (n = 1,114) and living in selected school districts in the Turku University Hospital area in southwestern Finland. The participation rates varied from 84% (2005) to 95% (1989). Information about the children's psychiatric symptoms, bullying experience, and service use was obtained from parents and teachers using Rutter questionnaires. Child depression was measured using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parental reports showed that emotional (p bullying behavior between 2005 and 2013 despite the introduction of a nationwide school-based anti-bullying program in 2009. Mental health service use increased constantly during the study period: in 1989, 4.2% of boys and 0.9% of girls were in contact with services, and by 2013 this had risen to 15.1% and 6.1% (p mental health problems were seen between 1989 and 2013. Service use increased constantly, indicating lower thresholds for seeking help. Bullying behavior is strongly related to mental health problems, and that is why school-based bullying interventions, including mental health perspectives, are needed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  20. Longitudinal motor development of "apparently normal" high-risk infants at 18 months, 3 and 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Traci Anne; Lui, Kei

    2002-12-01

    Motor development appears to be more affected by premature birth than other developmental domains, however few studies have specifically investigated the development of gross and fine motor skills in this population. To examine longitudinal motor development in a group of "apparently normal" high-risk infants. Developmental follow-up clinic in a perinatal centre. Longitudinal observational cohort study. Fifty-eight infants born less than 29 weeks gestation and/or 1000 g and without disabilities detected at 12 months. Longitudinal gross and fine motor skills at 18 months, 3 and 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. The HOME scale provided information of the home environment as a stimulus for development. A large proportion (54% at 18 months, 47% at 3 years and 64% at 5 years) of children continued to have fine motor deficits from 18 months to 5 years. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased over this period (14%, 33% and 81%, pmotor development was positively influenced by the quality of the home environment. A large proportion of high-risk infants continued to have fine motor deficits, reflecting an underlying problem with fine motor skills. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased, as test demands became more challenging. In addition, the development of gross and fine motor skills appears to be influenced differently by the home environment.

  1. Vocal fold immobility: a longitudinal analysis of etiology over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Laura H Swibel; Benninger, Michael S; Deeb, Robert H

    2007-10-01

    To determine the current etiology of vocal fold immobility, identify changing trends over the last 20 years, and compare results to historical reports. The present study is a retrospective analysis of all patients seen within a tertiary care institution between 1996 and 2005 with vocal fold immobility. The results were combined with a previous study of patients within the same institution from 1985 through 1995. Results were compared to the literature. The medical records of all patients assigned a primary or additional diagnostic code for vocal cord paralysis were obtained from the electronic database. Eight hundred twenty-seven patients were available for analysis (435 from the most recent cohort), which is substantially larger than any reported series to date. Vocal fold immobility was most commonly associated with a surgical procedure (37%). Nonthyroid surgeries (66%), such as anterior cervical approaches to the spine and carotid endarterectomies, have surpassed thyroid surgery (33%) as the most common iatrogenic causes. These data represent a change from historical figures in which extralaryngeal malignancies were considered the major cause of unilateral immobility. Thyroidectomy continues to cause the majority (80%) of iatrogenic bilateral vocal fold immobility and 30% of all bilateral immobility. This 20-year longitudinal assessment revealed that the etiology of unilateral vocal fold immobility has changed such that there has been a shift from extralaryngeal malignancies to nonthyroid surgical procedures as the major cause. Thyroid surgery remains the most common cause of bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  2. Dental erosion among South Brazilian adolescents: A 2.5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusius, C D; Alves, L S; Susin, C; Maltz, M

    2018-02-01

    This population-based longitudinal study investigated the incidence, progression and risk factors for dental erosion among South Brazilian adolescents. Eight hundred and one schoolchildren attending 42 public and private schools were clinically examined at 12 years of age; clinical examinations were repeated after 2.5 years (SD=0.3). After tooth cleaning and drying, permanent incisors and first molars were classified using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) scoring criteria. Questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits, toothbrushing frequency and general health. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between dental erosion incidence and explanatory variables, with adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) and 95% CI estimated. Among those who did not have dental erosion at baseline, 49 of 680 schoolchildren (7.1%; 95% CI=5.2-9.1) developed erosive lesions over the follow-up period. Among schoolchildren who had dental erosion at baseline, 31 of 121 (25.4%; 95% CI=17.6-33.3) had new or more severe lesions. Boys were more likely to develop dental erosion than girls (IRR=1.88; 95% CI=1.06-3.32). A moderate incidence of dental erosion was observed among South Brazilian adolescents, with boys being at higher risk. The high progression rate of 25% observed here is very concerning, and it should be taken in consideration when designing preventive strategies for dental erosion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Association between earthquake events and cholera outbreaks: a cross-country 15-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Turner, Elizabeth L; Thielman, Nathan M

    2013-12-01

    Large earthquakes can cause population displacement, critical sanitation infrastructure damage, and increased threats to water resources, potentially predisposing populations to waterborne disease epidemics such as cholera. Problem The risk of cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters remains uncertain. A cross-country analysis of World Health Organization (WHO) cholera data that would contribute to this discussion has yet to be published. A cross-country longitudinal analysis was conducted among 63 low- and middle-income countries from 1995-2009. The association between earthquake disasters of various effect sizes and a relative spike in cholera rates for a given country was assessed utilizing fixed-effects logistic regression and adjusting for gross domestic product per capita, water and sanitation level, flooding events, percent urbanization, and under-five child mortality. Also, the association between large earthquakes and cholera rate increases of various degrees was assessed. Forty-eight of the 63 countries had at least one year with reported cholera infections during the 15-year study period. Thirty-six of these 48 countries had at least one earthquake disaster. In adjusted analyses, country-years with ≥10,000 persons affected by an earthquake had 2.26 times increased odds (95 CI, 0.89-5.72, P = .08) of having a greater than average cholera rate that year compared to country-years having earthquake. The association between large earthquake disasters and cholera infections appeared to weaken as higher levels of cholera rate increases were tested. A trend of increased risk of greater than average cholera rates when more people were affected by an earthquake in a country-year was noted. However these findings did not reach statistical significance at traditional levels and may be due to chance. Frequent large-scale cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters appeared to be relatively uncommon.

  4. Self-reported mental health in children ages 6-12 years across eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M; Boyd, Anders; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Chan-Chee, Christine; Goelitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Pez, Ondine; Shojaei, Taraneh; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2018-06-01

    Worldwide, approximately one in eight children or adolescents suffers from a mental disorder. The present study was designed to determine the self-reported prevalence of mental health problems in children aged 6-11 years across eight European countries including Italy, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Data were drawn from 6245 children participating in the School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCHME) study and a large cross-sectional survey in France. Self-reported child mental health was assessed using the Dominique Interactive (DI). Overall, 22.0% of children were identified per their own evaluation as having at least one mental disorder, ranging from 16.4% in the Netherlands to 27.9% in Bulgaria. The prevalence of internalizing disorders was 18.4% across countries and ranged from 11.8% in the Netherlands to 24.3% in Turkey. The prevalence of externalizing disorders was lower with an average of 7.8%, ranging from 3.5% in Turkey to 10.5% in Bulgaria. Combining samples across European countries, 1 in 5 children reported internalizing problems and 1 in 12 children externalizing problems. The net completion rates of 4.1-74.3% preclude conclusions about national differences in prevalence rates.

  5. Medical decision-making capacity in mild cognitive impairment: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, O C; Griffith, H R; Copeland, J N; Belue, K; Lanza, S; Zamrini, E Y; Harrell, L E; Brockington, J C; Clark, D; Raman, R; Marson, D C

    2008-11-04

    To investigate longitudinal change in the medical decision-making capacity (MDC) of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) under different consent standards. Eighty-eight healthy older controls and 116 patients with MCI were administered the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument at baseline and at 1 to 3 (mean = 1.7) annual follow-up visits thereafter. Covariate-adjusted random coefficient regressions were used to examine differences in MDC trajectories across MCI and control participants, as well as to investigate the impact of conversion to Alzheimer disease on MCI patients' MDC trajectories. At baseline, MCI patients performed significantly below controls only on the three clinically relevant standards of appreciation, reasoning, and understanding. Compared with controls, MCI patients experienced significant declines over time on understanding but not on any other consent standard. Conversion affected both the elevation (a decrease in performance) and slope (acceleration in subsequent rate of decline) of MCI patients' MDC trajectories on understanding. A trend emerged for conversion to be associated with a performance decrease on reasoning in the MCI group. Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a relatively slow but detectable process. Over a 3-year period, patients with amnestic MCI show progressive decline in the ability to understand consent information. This decline accelerates after conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD), reflecting increasing vulnerability to decisional impairment. Clinicians and researchers working with MCI patients should give particular attention to the informed consent process when conversion to AD is suspected or confirmed.

  6. Declining financial capacity in patients with mild Alzheimer disease: a one-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roy; Griffith, H Randall; Belue, Katherine; Harrell, Lindy; Zamrini, Edward; Anderson, Britt; Bartolucci, Alfred; Marson, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate change over time in financial abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD). The authors conducted a prospective 1-year longitudinal study at a large southern U.S. metropolitan-area medical school university. Participants included healthy older adults (N=63) and patients with mild AD (N=55). The authors conducted a standardized performance measure of financial capacity. Performance was assessed on 18 financial tasks, nine domains of financial activity, and overall financial capacity. Capacity outcomes classifications (capable, marginally capable, or incapable) for domains and overall performance were made using cut scores referenced to comparison group performance. At baseline, patients with mild AD performed significantly below healthy older adults on 16 of 18 tasks, on all nine domains, and on overall financial capacity. At one-year follow up, comparison group performance was stable on all variables. In contrast, patients with mild AD showed substantial declines in overall financial capacity, on eight of nine domains, and on 12 of 18 tasks. Similarly, the proportion of the mild AD group classified as marginally capable and incapable increased substantially over one year for the two overall scores and for five financial domains. Financial capacity is already substantially impaired in patients with mild AD at baseline and undergoes rapid additional decline over one year. Relative to the comparison group, overall financial capacity performance in the AD group declined 10%, from approximately 80% of the comparison group performance at baseline to 70% at follow up. Financial skills showed differential rates of decline on both simple and complex tasks. Of clinical and public policy interest was the declining judgment of patients with mild AD regarding simple fraud schemes. The study supports the importance of prompt financial supervision and planning for patients newly diagnosed with AD.

  7. Viral Hepatitis A in 108 Adult Patients During an Eight-Year Observation at a Single Center in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Maciej; Michalak, Michał; Chojnicki, Michał K; Kowala-Piaskowska, Arleta; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A is related to significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Based on data from the Polish National Institute of Hygiene, from 2000 to 2013 a mean of 213 hepatitis A cases were reported yearly. The aim of the study was to assess selected data in adults hospitalized for symptomatic hepatitis A during an eight-year period in a single center in the Wielkopolska Region of Poland. All the hepatitis A patients hospitalized in the center from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were extracted from the medical records of these individuals. The disease was confirmed by anti-HAV IgM testing. In total, 108 patients (71 men and 37 women), aged 18-65 years, were identified. All but 1 patient recovered (99.1%) and in 6 cases (5.6%) a relapse occurred. Risk factors for hepatitis A were identified in 56 patients (52%), with travel abroad being the most common one (32 patients); 19 cases were secondary and 5 patients were men who have sex with men. One hepatitis A outbreak was noted in the region during the study period. Acalculous cholecystitis was found in 33.3% of the patients who underwent abdominal ultrasound. This tended to be more common among older individuals (47.8% in patients over 40 vs. 22.6% in patients aged 18-40, p=0.0521). Patients with this finding had significantly higher mean peak ALT in comparison to those with no gallbladder abnormalities. Although hepatitis A in adults is typically a benign, self-limited disease, it can occasionally have a fatal course. In a significant proportion of patients with an evident risk factor for hepatitis A, the possibility of active prophylaxis was not used. Hepatitis A should be regarded as a sexually transmitted infection. Acalculous cholecystitis is a frequent finding among adults with symptomatic hepatitis A.

  8. The Effect of Postpartum Depression and Current Mental Health Problems of the Mother on Child Behaviour at Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, R; Gispert-Llaurado, M; Canals, J; Luque, V; Zaragoza-Jordana, M; Koletzko, B; Grote, V; Weber, M; Gruszfeld, D; Szott, K; Verduci, E; ReDionigi, A; Hoyos, J; Brasselle, G; Escribano Subías, J

    2017-07-01

    Background Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) could affect children's emotional development, increasing later risk of child psychological problems. The aim of our study was to assess the association between child's emotional and behavioural problems and mother's PPD, considering maternal current mental health problems (CMP). Methods This is a secondary analysis from the EU-Childhood Obesity Project (NCT00338689). Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at, 2, 3 and 6 months after delivery and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess CMP once the children reached the age of 8 years. EPDS scores > 10 were defined as PPD and GHQ-12 scores > 2 were defined as CMP. The psychological problems of the children at the age of eight were collected by mothers through the Child's Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results 473, 474 and 459 mothers filled in GHQ-12 and CBCL tests at 8 years and EPDS at 2, 3 and 6 months, respectively. Anxiety and depression was significantly increased by maternal EPDS. Children whose mothers had both PPD and CMP exhibited the highest levels of psychological problems, followed by those whose mothers who had only CMP and only PPD. PPD and CMP had a significant effect on child's total psychological problems (p = 0.033, p mothers had PPD did not differ from children whose mothers did not have any depression. Conclusions Maternal postpartum depression and current mental health problems, separately and synergistically, increase children's psychological problems at 8 years.

  9. Duration of post-vaccination immunity to yellow fever in volunteers eight years after a dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; de Lima, Sheila Maria Barbosa; de Noronha, Tatiana Guimarães; Xavier, Janaina Reis; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; de Albuquerque, Elizabeth Maciel; Farias, Roberto Henrique Guedes; da Matta de Castro, Thalita; Homma, Akira

    2018-06-27

    In 2009, Bio-Manguinhos conducted a dose-response study with the yellow fever vaccine, administering the vaccine in the usual mean dose of 27,476 IU (full dose, reference) and in tapered doses (10,447 IU, 3013 IU, 587 IU, 158 IU, and 31 IU) by the usual subcutaneous route and usual volume (0.5 mL). Tapered doses were obtained by dilution in the manufacturer's laboratory, and the test batches presented industrial quality. Doses down to 587 IU showed similar immunogenicity to the full dose (27,476, reference), while the 158 IU and 31 IU doses displayed lower immunogenicity. Seropositivity was maintained at 10 months, except in the group that received the 31 IU dose. The current study aims to determine whether yellow fever seropositivity was maintained eight years after YF vaccination in non-revaccinated individuals. According to the current study's results, seropositivity was maintained in 85% of 318 participants and was similar across groups. The findings support the use of the yellow fever vaccine in fractional doses during outbreaks, but each fractional dose should have at least 587 IU. This study also supports the minimum dose required by WHO, 1000 IU. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 03338231. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. An eight-year review of blood culture and susceptibility among sepsis cases in an emergency department in Northeastern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashairi, F; Hasan, H; Azlan, K; Deris, Z Z

    2011-12-01

    An understanding of common pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns is critical for proper management of sepsis in Emergency Department (ED). The goal of the study was to identify common organisms isolated from blood cultures of patients attended to ED and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Beginning from 2002, all cases of positive blood culture collected by the ED, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) were recorded and analysed. Over the period of eight years, we documented 995 cases of positive blood cultures. Of these samples, 549 (55.2%) were Gram-negative bacteria; 419 (42.1%) were Gram-positive bacteria; 10 (1.0%) were anaerobic organisms; 10 (1.0%) were fungus; and 7 (0.7%) cases were mixed organisms. Gram-negative bacteria were observed to develop more resistance to antimicrobial agents, especially those commonly used in an outpatient setting with less than 80% sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin. By contrast, there has been no marked change in the sensitivity trends of Gram-positive bacteria over the same period. In conclusion, ED physicians are more equipped to initiate empirical antimicrobial therapy especially when dealing with possibility of Gram-negative sepsis.

  11. Revisiting reproduction and population structure and dynamics of Procambarus clarkii eight years after its introduction into Lake Trasimeno (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr A.J.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding population dynamics and regulation is fundamental for predicting establishment and spread of invasive alien species. In addition, the population biology of invasive alien species offers an opportunity to study basic ecological processes. In this context, we investigated reproductive and growth plasticity in the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii in Lake Trasimeno (central Italy. In total, 3153 crayfish were collected monthly from June 2007 to July 2009. The molt status was assessed by evaluating the exoskeleton hardness. To assess the reproductive cycle, the gonado-somatic and wet hepato-somatic indices were calculated for females. The reproductive status of males was appraised as well. We estimated growth and longevity using the von Bertalanffy growth function, and calculated the total, natural and fishing mortality indices. We then compared our present data with those obtained from the same population eight years before. Our results indicate some changes in population dynamics and in both molting and reproductive periods since the initial invasion of the shallow lake investigated. Long-term differences in the life history of the Trasimeno population may be the result of selective pressures different from those of the native range, but may also result from colonization events and human interference caused by professional fishing activities.

  12. Otitis media in Greenland children: acute, chronic and secretory otitis media in three- to eight-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, C B; Zachau-Christiansen, B

    1986-12-01

    The middle ear status was examined in 142 children aged three to eight years from Sukkertoppen and Kangamiut in Greenland. The investigation is based on social-pediatric and otologic histories and on objective examination using otomicroscopy and tympanometry. Three-fourths of the small children had a previous history of otitis, some with repeated instances. Otomicroscopic findings revealed suppurative, chronic otitis in 6% and sequelae of chronic otitis in 13%. Tympanometry disclosed a reduced middle ear pressure in another 26% of the ears examined. Comparison of children with healthy ears with the groups with affections of the middle ear showed a tendency to an increased risk of otitis in families at a low social stratum, whereas the mode of habitation seemed insignificant. Finally, a large milk intake both in connection with breast-feeding and later in life seemed to reduce the frequency of otitis. The investigation showed that acute otitis and chronic otitis media in particular are more prominent in Greenland than in Denmark. Attention is drawn to the handicap associated with a high incidence of chronic otitis media and the concomitant hearing loss to a population isolated in point of language. The successful achievements of a health information campaign and an active therapeutic program, which has reduced the prevalence of chronic otitis among the Innuit population native to Alaska and Canada, provides the rationale for an increased otologic effort in Greenland.

  13. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity during the College Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of change in ethnic identity during the college years and to explore group-level and individual-level variations. Participants were 175 diverse college students who completed indices of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, self-esteem, and domain-general identity resolution. Multilevel…

  14. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  15. Patterns of Cancer in Kurdistan - Results of Eight Years Cancer Registration in Sulaymaniyah Province-Kurdistan-Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnaw, Najmaddin; Mohammed, Hazha A; Abdullah, Dana A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become a major health problem associated with high mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence rates of different types of cancer in Sulaymaniyah from January-2006 to January-2014. The data were compared with those reported for other middle east countries. This retrospective study depended on data collected from Hiwa hospital cancer registry unit, death records and histopathology reports in all Sulaymaniyah teaching hospitals, using international classification of diseases. A total of 8,031 cases were registered during the eight year period, the annual incidence rate in all age groups rose from 38 to 61.7 cases/100,000 population/year, with averages over 50 in males and 50.7 in females. The male to female ratio in all age groups were 0.98, while in the pediatric age group it was 1.33. The hematological malignancies in all age groups accounted for 20% but in the pediatric group around half of all cancer cases. Pediatric cancers were occluding 7% of total cancers with rates of 10.3 in boys and 8.7 in girls. The commonest malignancies by primary site were leukemia, lymphoma, brain, kidney and bone. In males in all age groups they were lung, leukaemia, lymphoma, colorectal, prostate, bladder, brain, stomach, carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) and skin, while in females they were breast, leukaemia, lymphoma, colorectal, ovary, lung, brain, CUP, and stomach. Most cancers were increased with increasing age except breast cancer where decrease was noted in older ages. High mortality rates were found with leukemia, lung, lymphoma, colorectal, breast and stomach cancers. We here found an increase in annual cancer incidence rates across the period of study, because of increase of cancer with age and higher rates of hematological malignancies. Our study is valuable for Kurdistan and Iraq because it provides more accurate data about the exact patterns of cancer and mortality in our region.

  16. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

    2015-08-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.

  17. Eight years' experience with a Medical Education Journal Club in Mexico: a quasi-experimental one-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Morales-Castillo, Daniel; Torruco-García, Uri; Varela-Ruiz, Margarita

    2015-12-14

    A time-honored strategy for keeping up to date in medicine and improving critical appraisal skills is the Journal Club (JC). There are several reports of its use in medicine and allied health sciences but almost no reports of JC focused on medical education. The purpose of the study is to describe and evaluate an eight years' experience with a medical education Journal Club (MEJC). We started a monthly medical education JC in 2006 at UNAM Faculty of Medicine in Mexico City. Its goal is to provide faculty with continuing professional development in medical education. A discussion guide and a published paper were sent 2 weeks before sessions. We reviewed the themes and publication types of the papers used in the sessions, and in June-July 2014 administered a retrospective post-then-pre evaluation questionnaire to current participants that had been regular attendees to the JC for more than 2 years. The retrospective post-then-pre comparisons were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Effect sizes were calculated for the pre-post comparisons with Cohen's r. There have been 94 MEJC sessions until July 2014. Average attendance is 20 persons, a mix of clinicians, educators, psychologists and a sociologist. The articles were published in 32 different journals, and covered several medical education themes (curriculum, faculty development, educational research methodology, learning methods, assessment, residency education). 22 Attendees answered the evaluation instrument. The MEJC had a positive evaluation from good to excellent, and there was an improvement in self-reported competencies in medical education literature critical appraisal and behaviors related to the use of evidence in educational practice, with a median effect size higher than 0.5. The evaluation instrument had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.96. A periodic Medical Education Journal Club can improve critical appraisal of the literature, and be maintained long-term using evidence-based strategies. This activity

  18. Differential recovery of water quality parameters eight years after severe wildfire and salvage logging in Alberta's southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Stone, M.; Emelko, M. B.; Collins, A.; Boon, S.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Martens, A. M.; Anderson, A.

    2012-12-01

    Broad regions of western North America rely on water supplies that originate from forested regions of the Rocky Mountain cordillera where landuse pressures, and stresses including changing natural disturbance regimes associated with shifting climates has been impacting critical source water supplies from this region. Increases in magnitude and severity of wildfires along with impacts on downstream water supplies has been observed along the length of the North American Rocky Mountain chain, however, the longevity of these impacts (including impacts to important water quality parameters) remain highly uncertain because processes regulating recovery from such disturbances can span a range of timescales from a few years to decades depending on both the hydro-climatic regime, and which water quality parameters are important. Studies document such long-term changes are few. The Southern Rockies Watershed Project (SRWP) was established to document the magnitude and recovery from the severe 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the Crowsnest Pass region of southwest Alberta, Canada. Hydrology, water quality (physical & chemical) have been studies in 9 instrumented catchments (4-14 km2) encompassing burned, burned and salvage logged, prescribed burned, and unburned (reference) conditions since late winter 2004. While most important water quality parameters were strongly elevated in burned and burned-salvage logged catchments after the fire, strongly differential rates of recovery were observed for contaminant concentration, export, and yield across a range of water quality parameters (2004-2011). For example, while various nitrogen (N) species (total nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen, NO3-, NH4+) showed 2-7 fold increases in concentration the first 1-2 years after the wildfire, N recovered back to baseline concentrations 4-5 years after the wildfire. In contrast, eight full years after the wildfire (2011), no recovery of sediment or phosphorus (P) production (soluble reactive, total

  19. Officer Career Development: Longitudinal Sample--Fiscal Year 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    7. Consultant 8. Business /Finance 9. Navy officer 10. Navy enlisted I1. Other military 12. Other I I I RESPONSE SCALE: H-3 I I qOURCE/LOCATION OF...non-due-course officer, the year group is, in general, the same as that of his present precedence comtemporaries who are due-course officers. I NOTES...employed? (Choose best response) (1034 - 1035) ( )1. Full-time homemaker C )7. Consultant )2. Secretary/clerical C )8. Business /Finance ( )3. Teacher

  20. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  1. A 3-year longitudinal analysis of changes in fitness, physical activity, fatness and screen time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aires, L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mendonça, D

    2010-01-01

    in fitness. METHODS: This is a 3-year longitudinal study of 345 high school students aged 11-19 years. Students performed curl-ups, push-ups and 20-m shuttle run tests from Fitnessgram. PA and ST were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Standardized scores of fitness tests were summed. Changes over...

  2. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P.; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M[subscript age] 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed…

  3. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods: Data came from FACHS, 1997–2017, which followed 889 children aged 10–12 years old at Wave 1 (n = 478; 53.8% females and n = 411; 46.2% males for up to 18 years. Data were collected in seven waves. The main predictors of interest were gender, SES (parent education and annual family income, age, and place of residence. Main outcomes of interest were baseline and slope of PRD. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM was used for data analysis. Results: Gender, SES, place, and age were correlated with baseline and change in PRD over time. Male, high family income, and younger Black youth reported lower PRD at baseline but a larger increase in PRD over time. Youth who lived in Iowa (in a predominantly White area reported higher PRD at baseline and also an increase in PRD over time. High parental education was not associated with baseline or change in PRD. Conclusion: In the United States, Black youth who are male, high income, and live in predominantly White areas experience an increase in PRD over time. Future research is needed on the interactions between gender, SES, and place on exposure and vulnerability of Black youth to PRD. Such research may explain the increased risk of depression in high SES Black males.

  4. Binocular versus standard occlusion or blurring treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children aged three to eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Vijay; Bossi, Manuela; Bunce, Catey; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2015-08-11

    Current treatments for amblyopia in children, occlusion and pharmacological blurring, have had limited success, with less than two-thirds of children achieving good visual acuity of at least 0.20 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, limited improvement of stereopsis, and poor compliance. A new treatment approach, based on the dichoptic presentation of movies or computer games (images presented separately to each eye), may yield better results, as it aims to balance the input of visual information from each eye to the brain. Compliance may also improve with these more child-friendly treatment procedures. To determine whether binocular treatments in children aged three to eight years with unilateral amblyopia result in better visual outcomes than conventional occlusion or pharmacological blurring treatment. We searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (last date of searches: 14 April 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to April 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search in order to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria of the review: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled participants between the ages of three and eight years old with unilateral amblyopia, defined as best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 0.200 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, and BCVA 0.200 logMAR or better in the fellow eye, in the presence of an amblyogenic risk factor such as anisometropia, strabismus, or both. Prior

  5. Eight years of IMRT quality assurance with ionization chambers and film dosimetry: experience of the montpellier comprehensive cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois Jean-Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present the results of quality assurance (QA in IMRT of film dosimetry and ionization chambers measurements with an eight year follow-up. Methods All treatment plans were validated under the linear accelerator by absolute and relative measures obtained with ionization chambers (IC and with XomatV and EDR2 films (Kodak. Results The average difference between IC measured and computed dose at isocenter with the gantry angle of 0° was 0.07 ± 1.22% (average ± 1 SD for 2316 prostate, 1.33 ± 3.22% for 808 head and neck (h&n, and 0.37 ± 0.62% for 108 measurements of prostate bed fields. Pelvic treatment showed differences of 0.49 ± 1.86% in 26 fields for prostate cases and 2.07 ± 2.83% in 109 fields of anal canal. Composite measurement at isocenter for each patient showed an average difference with computed dose of 0.05 ± 0.87% for 386 prostate, 1.49 ± 1.86% for 158 h&n, 0.37 ± 0.34% for 23 prostate bed, 0.80 ± 0.28% for 4 pelvis, and 2.31 ± 0.56% for 17 anal canal cases. On the first 250 h&n analyzed by film in absolute dose, the average of the points crossing a gamma index 3% and 3 mm was 93%. This value reached 99% for the prostate fields. Conclusion More than 3500 beams were found to be within the limits defined as validated for treatment between 2001 and 2008.

  6. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  7. Grapevine yellows diseases in Spain: eight year survey of disease spread and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, Ester

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Among grapevine yellows phytoplasma diseases in Europe, flavescence dorée (FD is the most devastating and in the last decade has reached Spanish vineyards, mainly in Catalonia. An eight-year survey was carried out in the areas where the disease has spread (Alt Empordà, Catalonia, Northern Spain and in the remaining vine-growing areas of Catalonia. Sequence analyses of a portion of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA cistron, from selected grapevine samples from Catalonia, showed that the phytoplasmas involved in grapevine yellows belong to 16S ribosomal subgroups V-D (flavescence dorée, FD and XII-A (bois noir, BN. A set of Spanish FD isolates collected during these years were further studied by RFLP analyses of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA fragment, as well as the rpS3 and SecY genes. All the FD phytoplasma strains studied were related to phytoplasmas belonging to ribosomal protein subgroup rp-E.La flavescencia dorada (FD es la enfermedad más agresiva de entre todas las enfermedades de fitoplasmas que causan amarilleos de vid en Europa, y que en la última década ha alcanzado también a los viñedos de España, principalmente en Cataluña. Se ha realizado un seguimiento durante ocho años en las zonas donde la enfermedad se había difundido (Alt Empordà, Cataluña y en el resto de zonas con cultivo de vid de Cataluña. El análisis del fragmento del gen DNA ribosomal 16S-23S, de una selección de muestras de vides de Cataluña, indica que los fitoplasmas que están implicados en los amarilleos de vid pertenecen a los subgrupos ribosomales 16S V-D (flavescencia dorada, FD y XII-A (bois noir, BN. Una selección de aislados españoles de FD obtenidos durante estos años se ha examinado mediante análisis RFLP del fragmento del gen ribosomal 16S-23S, y de los genes rpS3 y SecY. Todos los aislamientos de fitoplasmas FD estudiados están relacionados con fitoplasmas pertenecientes al subgrupo de proteína ribosomal rp-E.

  8. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  9. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  10. Contemporaneous and 1-Year Longitudinal Prediction of Children's Prosocial Behavior from Sympathy and Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Buchmann, Marlis

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the contemporaneous and longitudinal relations of children's (M age = 6.4 years) prosocial behavior to sympathy and moral motivation. Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's prosocial behavior. The authors measured sympathy via self- and adult reports. Moral motivation was assessed by children's attribution of…

  11. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  12. A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; San Miguel, Claudia; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica M

    2012-02-01

    In 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating violence as potential consequences of violent video game exposure using well-validated clinical outcome measures and controlling for other relevant predictors of youth aggression. A sample of 165, mainly Hispanic youth, were tested at 3 intervals, an initial interview, and 1-year and 3-year intervals. Results indicated that exposure to video game violence was not related to any of the negative outcomes. Depression, antisocial personality traits, exposure to family violence and peer influences were the best predictors of aggression-related outcomes. The current study supports a growing body of evidence pointing away from video game violence use as a predictor of youth aggression. Public policy efforts, including funding, would best be served by redirecting them toward other prevention programs for youth violence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glycemic control paradox: Poor glycemic control associated with higher one-year and eight-year risks of all-cause hospitalization but lower one-year risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsai-Chung; Kardia, Sharon L R; Li, Chia-Ing; Chen, Ching-Chu; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Yang, Sing-Yu; Muo, Chin-Shin; Peyser, Patricia A; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between glycemic control and adverse outcomes found in a population with diabetes has seldom been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes. We explored the association between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and hospitalization risks within one-year and eight-year follow-up periods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 57,061 patients with type 2 diabetes from National Diabetes Case Management Program during 2002-2004 in Taiwan. HbA1c at baseline and in-hospital mortality, all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization over one year and eight years were analyzed. After multivariate adjustment, one-year risk was higher for cases with HbA1c level risk of hypoglycemia hospitalization (0.81, 95% CI: 0.74-0.88). For eight-year risk, subjects with HbA1c level risks of all-cause and diabetes-related hospitalization (1.04, 1.03-1.05, and 1.15, 1.14-1.17, respectively). Higher HbA1c level correlated with lower one-year risk due to hypoglycemia hospitalization but increased one-year and eight-year risks due to all-cause and diabetes-specific hospitalization among Chinese people with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. Future study must ascertain how to meet HbA1c targets and improve outcome without risk to this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hok, Pavel [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Palacky University, Department of Neurology, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rueb, Udo [Goethe University, Dr. Senckenberg Chronomedical Institute, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Steinmetz, Helmuth [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Klein, Johannes C. [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Deichmann, Ralf [Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon; Hok, Pavel; Rueb, Udo; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Klein, Johannes C.; Deichmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  16. Development, problem behavior, and quality of life in a population based sample of eight-year-old children with down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Fekkes, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Bruil, J.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children with Down syndrome (DS) have delayed psychomotor development. We investigated levels of development, problem behavior, and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in a population sample of Dutch eight-year-old children with DS. Developmental outcomes were compared with normative

  17. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency and Body Composition Measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Eight-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotte, Sari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Metsämuuronen, Jari; Rintala, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim was to examine the association between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and objectively measured body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: A study of 304 eight-year-old children in Finland. FMS were assessed with the "Test of gross motor development," 2nd ed. Total body fat…

  18. The Effect of Eight Weeks Plyometric Training on Anaerobic Power, Counter Movement Jumping and Isokinetic Strength in 15-18 Years Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Niyazi Sidki; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks plyometric training on anaerobic power, counter movement jumping and isokinetic strength in 15-18 years aged basketball players. This study was including 30 male Basketball players. The subjects were divided into two groups as: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control…

  19. Development, problem behavior, and quality of life in a population based sample of eight-year-old children with Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma B M van Gameren-Oosterom

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Children with Down syndrome (DS have delayed psychomotor development. We investigated levels of development, problem behavior, and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL in a population sample of Dutch eight-year-old children with DS. Developmental outcomes were compared with normative data of eight-year-old children from the general population. METHOD: Over a three-year-period all parents with an eight-year-old child with DS were approached by the national parent organization. Developmental skills were assessed by means of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Ability. To measure emotional and behavioral problems we used the Child Behavior Checklist. HRQoL was assessed with the TNO-AZL Children's Quality of Life questionnaire. Analyses of variance were applied to compare groups. RESULTS: A total of 337 children participated. Mean developmental age was substantially lower than mean calendar age (3.9 years, SD 0.87 and 8.1 years, SD 0.15 respectively. Mean developmental age was significantly lower among boys than girls (3.6 (SD 0.85 and 4.2 years (SD 0.82 respectively; p<0.001. Compared with the general population, children with DS had more emotional and behavioral problems (p<0.001. However on the anxious/depressed scale, they scored significantly more favorably (p<0.001. Significantly lower HRQoL scores for the scales gross motor skills, autonomy, social functioning and cognitive functioning were found (p-values<0.001. Hardly any differences were observed for the scales physical complaints, positive and negative emotions. CONCLUSION: Eight-year-old children with DS have an average developmental delay of four years, more often have emotional and behavioral problems, and have a less favorable HRQoL compared with children from the general population.

  20. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....

  1. Sex steroid hormone levels and reproductive development of eight-year-old children following in utero and environmental exposure to phthalates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen-Hua Su

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted.

  2. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhuis, Ward; Hanekamp, Manon N; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; Nieuwhof, Eveline M; Hop, Wim C J; Tibboel, Dick; de Jongste, Johan C; Merkus, Peter J F M

    2011-03-01

    To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are lacking. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Outpatient clinic of a tertiary level pediatric hospital. The cohort consisted of 64 infants; 33 received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for meconium aspiration syndrome, 14 for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, four for sepsis, six for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate, and seven for respiratory distress syndrome of infancy. Evaluation was at 6 mos and 12 mos; 39 infants were evaluated at both time points . None. Functional residual capacity and forced expiratory flow at functional residual capacity were measured and expressed as z score. Mean (sem) functional residual capacities in z score were 0.0 (0.2) and 0.2 (0.2) at 6 mos and 12 mos, respectively. Mean (sem) forced expiratory flow was significantly below average (z score = 0) (p capacity significantly above normal: mean (sem) z score = 1.2 (0.5). Infants treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have normal lung volumes and stable forced expiratory flows within normal range, although below average, within the first year of life. There is reason to believe, therefore, that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation either ameliorates the harmful effects of mechanical ventilation or somehow preserves lung function in the very ill neonate.

  3. A longitudinal study of factors associated with intentions to leave among newly graduated nurses in eight advanced treatment hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Miki, Akiko

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the factors associated with intentions to leave among newly graduated nurses (NGNs), using a longitudinal design. We distributed self-administered questionnaires (to be returned anonymously) to all the NGNs (n=567) in nine advanced treatment hospitals in Japan on two separate occasions (Time 1 and Time 2, which were approximately 6 months apart). The questionnaire items addressed individual attributes, employment and organizational characteristics, and subjective health, and also included the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire, a scale of intentions to leave, and a novel 21-item job readiness scale. The data from 301 NGNs who had participated in both questionnaire instances was used, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate the factors associated with intentions to leave. The results showed that while psychological distress was a more important predictor of intentions to leave than was cumulative fatigue at Time 1, cumulative fatigue was a more important predictor at Time 2. Among the job stressors, a lack of coworker support consistently led to increased intentions to leave, while a lack of supervisor support had a greater impact on intentions to leave at Time 1. "Being personally suited for nursing work", which was one of the job-readiness subscales, was found to independently and consistently influence intentions to leave. Our study findings revealed the predictors of intentions to leave among NGNs early in their careers in Japan.

  4. Some correlations between eight types of malignant neoplasms: A hint from cancer dynamics of 31 European countries in 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the data of standardised death rates of malignant neoplasms per 100000 inhabitants in 31 European countries during 1994-2013 were used to analyze linear correlations between eight types of cancers in terms of induced death rates. The results showed that most pairs of cancers closely correlate to each other. The malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri (women and the malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung correlate most closely (r=0.5915, followed by the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4832 of colon, rectosigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal and lymphatic/haematopoietic tissue, the malignant neoplasms (r=-0.483 of stomach, and trachea, bronchus and lung, the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4605 of skin and prostate (men, the malignant neoplasms (r=0.4344 of colon, rectosigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal and trachea, bronchus and lung, etc. These correlations are likely caused by common or adverse environmental, social, medical or even genetic / molecular factors.

  5. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the downstream impact on schistosomiasis transmission following closure of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with about 800,000 people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that, long-term, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes.We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages of the three transmission modes below the TGD across four provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei and Anhui to determine whether there was any immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission. Eight sentinel villages were selected to represent both province and transmission mode. The primary end point measured was human incidence. Here we present the results of this five-year longitudinal cohort study. Results showed that the incidence of human S. japonicum infection declined considerably within individual villages and overall mode over the course of the study. This is also reflected in the yearly odds ratios (adjusted for infection risk that showed significant (P<0.01 downward trends in all modes over the follow-up period.The decrease in human S. japonicum incidence observed across all transmission modes in this study can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ chemotherapy. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that there has been virtually no immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission downstream of the dam.

  6. Psoriasis and associated variables in classification and outcome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis - an eight-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Maria; Aalto, Kristiina; Fasth, Anders

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the impact of psoriasis and features associated with psoriasis on classification and outcome in a population-based follow-up cohort of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: In all, 440 children with JIA were followed for a median of 8 years...... in a prospective Nordic population-based cohort study. Data for remission was available for 427 of these children. The presence of psoriasis, psoriasis-like rash, dactylitis, nail pitting, enthesitis, tenosynovitis and heredity was assessed in relation to ILAR classification and remission. RESULTS: Clinical...... findings associated with psoriasis developed consecutively during the 8-year period. Six of 14 children with psoriasis were not classified as juvenile psoriatic arthritis according to the ILAR criteria at 8 year follow-up. Dactylitis was more common in children with early onset of JIA. After 8 years we...

  7. An evaluation of Arctic cloud and radiation processes during the SHEBA year: simulation results from eight Arctic regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyser, K.; Willen, U. [Rossby Centre, SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Jones, C.G.; Du, P.; Girard, E.; Laprise, R. [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics Network, Montreal (Canada); Cassano, J.; Serreze, M.; Shaw, M.J. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); Christensen, J.H. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Curry, J.A. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Research Unit, Potsdam (Germany); Haugen, J.-E.; Koeltzow, M. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Lynch, A. [Monash University, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Melbourne (Australia); Tjernstroem, M.; Zagar, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    Eight atmospheric regional climate models (RCMs) were run for the period September 1997 to October 1998 over the western Arctic Ocean. This period was coincident with the observational campaign of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project. The RCMs shared common domains, centred on the SHEBA observation camp, along with a common model horizontal resolution, but differed in their vertical structure and physical parameterizations. All RCMs used the same lateral and surface boundary conditions. Surface downwelling solar and terrestrial radiation, surface albedo, vertically integrated water vapour, liquid water path and cloud cover from each model are evaluated against the SHEBA observation data. Downwelling surface radiation, vertically integrated water vapour and liquid water path are reasonably well simulated at monthly and daily timescales in the model ensemble mean, but with considerable differences among individual models. Simulated surface albedos are relatively accurate in the winter season, but become increasingly inaccurate and variable in the melt season, thereby compromising the net surface radiation budget. Simulated cloud cover is more or less uncorrelated with observed values at the daily timescale. Even for monthly averages, many models do not reproduce the annual cycle correctly. The inter-model spread of simulated cloud-cover is very large, with no model appearing systematically superior. Analysis of the co-variability of terms controlling the surface radiation budget reveal some of the key processes requiring improved treatment in Arctic RCMs. Improvements in the parameterization of cloud amounts and surface albedo are most urgently needed to improve the overall performance of RCMs in the Arctic. (orig.)

  8. Contemporaneous and 1-year longitudinal prediction of children's prosocial behavior from sympathy and moral motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Buchmann, Marlis

    2007-09-01

    The authors investigated the contemporaneous and longitudinal relations of children's (M age = 6.4 years) prosocial behavior to sympathy and moral motivation. Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's prosocial behavior. The authors measured sympathy via self- and adult reports. Moral motivation was assessed by children's attribution of emotions to hypothetical victimizers and self-as-victimizers and by moral reasoning after rule violations. Mother-rated prosocial behavior was contemporaneously and longitudinally related to sympathy. Moral motivation moderated the relation of sympathy to mother-rated prosocial behavior. Furthermore, boys' level of mother-rated prosocial behavior increased with level of moral motivation, whereas girls were high in mother-rated prosocial behavior, regardless of their level of moral motivation. Sympathy contemporaneously predicted kindergarten teacher-rated prosocial behavior.

  9. [Longitudinal genetic effects on mandibular position of female twins from six to twelve years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-feng; Peng, Jing

    2013-06-01

    To find the longitudinal genetic effects on mandibular position in mixed dentition. The sample used in this study consisted of lateral cephalograms of eighty-nine pairs of female twins in Beijing. With a mixed longitudinal method, the effective twins were 183 pairs(monozygous 110 pairs and dizygous 73 ones). The genetic and environmental effects on mandibular position were analyzed by statistical methods in female twins from six to twelve years old. Statistical comparisons revealed significant (Pchin is the most subjective to environment change, then the mandibular angle, and the condyle is the least. Using N and S as references, the environmental influence on heights showed different order from the most to least changeable: The mandibular angle, the condyle and the chin. In later stage of our observation, the mandibular morphology and growth type might be family inherited. For environmental influences plays important roles on mandibular position, these findings can be used in orthodontic treatment planning.

  10. Acquired Bilateral Longitudinal True Leukonychia in a 35-year-old Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Mozafarpoor, Samaneh; Nouraei, Saeid; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Acquired bilateral longitudinal true leukonychia is a rare disorder. We present a case of a 35-year-old healthy woman presented with this unusual and rare manifestation. She mentioned a history of unprotected exposure to detergents and bleaching chemical agents. Considering her low zinc level, she was prescribed with zinc capsules and recommended to avoid chemical substances for 6 months. During bimonthly follow-up, her zinc level turned normal, and leukonychia subsequently disappeared. Bilateral longitudinal true leukonychia in the nails due to zinc deficiency and exposure to chemical substances has not been reported previously. Direct and indirect effects of chemical substances on matrix and the effect of zinc deficiency on healing process should be considered in these cases. PMID:27857831

  11. The pathway for adolescent maternity: longitudinal study 10 years after child's birth / Percursos da gravidez na adolescência: estudo longitudinal após uma década da gestação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Ramacciotti de Oliveira-Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a longitudinal qualitative research about maternity in adolescence in a context of social vulnerability, seeking to check psychosocial indicators along the years of the study. Eight dyads of mothers in adolescence and their firstborns were interviewed when their children were less than five months old; three and a half years old and ten years old. The instruments used in their daily environment were free speech interviews and observation submitted to scales for screening the competence and psychological conditions of the children. The results are presented in thematic axis, indicating valorization of maternity, distance from violent scenarios and instability in residence associated to school/professional damages and, children who do not present developmental problems. Maternity in adolescence may represent protection for the mothers concerning environmental risks associated to violence and drugs.

  12. Psychological distress of rescue workers eight and one-half years after professional involvement in the Amsterdam air disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Anke B.; Bramsen, Inge; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Huizink, Anja C.; Slottje, Pauline; Smid, Tjabe; van der Ploeg, Henk M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined specific and general psychological distress 8.5 years following the 1992 cargo aircraft crash in Amsterdam. Participants included 334 occupationally exposed fire fighters and 834 occupationally exposed police officers compared with reference groups of 194 fire fighters and 634

  13. Eight-year follow-up of the Clopidogrel After Surgery for Coronary Artery Disease (CASCADE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Ali; Voisine, Pierre; Erthal, Fernanda; Larose, Éric; Glineur, David; Chow, Benjamin; Tremblay, Hugo; Fortier, Jacqueline; Ko, Gifferd; Une, Dai; Farkouh, Michael; Mesana, Thierry G; LeMay, Michel; Kulik, Alexander; Ruel, Marc

    2018-01-01

    In this 8 years' follow-up study, we evaluated the long-term outcomes of the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin during the first year after coronary artery bypass grafting, versus aspirin plus placebo, with respect to survival, major adverse cardiac, or major cerebrovascular events, including revascularization, functional status, graft patency, and native coronary artery disease progression. In the initial Clopidogrel After Surgery for Coronary Artery Disease trial, 113 patients were randomized to receive either daily clopidogrel (n = 56) or placebo (n = 57), in addition to aspirin, in a double-blind fashion for 1 year after coronary artery bypass grafting. All patients were re-evaluated to collect long-term clinical data. Surviving patients with a glomerular filtration rate > 30 mL/min were asked to undergo a coronary computed tomography angiogram to evaluate the late saphenous vein graft patency and native coronary artery disease progression. At a median follow-up of 7.6 years, survival rate was 85.5% ± 3.8% (P = .23 between the 2 groups). A trend toward enhanced freedom from all-cause death or major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, including revascularization, was observed in the aspirin-clopidogrel group (P = .11). No difference in functional status or freedom from angina was observed between the 2 groups (P > .57). The long-term patency of saphenous vein graft was 89.11% in the aspirin-clopidogrel group versus 91.23% in the aspirin-placebo group (P = .79). A lower incidence of moderate to severe native disease progression was observed in the aspirin-clopidogrel group versus the aspirin-placebo group (7 out of 122 vs 13 out of 78 coronary segments that showed progression, respectively [odds ratio, 0.3 ± 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.8; P = .02]). At 8 years' follow-up, the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin during the first year after coronary artery bypass grafting exhibited a lower incidence of moderate to severe

  14. The effects of power plant passage on zooplankton mortalities: Eight years of study at the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.S.; Warren, G.J.; Page, D.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zooplankton mortalities resulting from passage through the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant (southeastern Lake Michigan) were studied over an 8-year (1975-1982) period. The power plant operated at a low ΔT ( 0 C) and discharge water temperatures did not exceed 35 0 C (except September 1978). While zooplankton mortalities were significantly greater in discharge than intake waters, differences were small, averaging <3%. There was no evidence of additional delayed effects on zooplankton mortality following plant passage. There was no relationship between zooplankton mortalities and temperature (ΔT, discharge water temperature). Mechanical stresses appeared to be the major cause of zooplankton mortality. The authors hypothesize that fish predation, rather than power plant operation, probably was the major source of zooplankton mortality in inshore waters during much of the year. (author)

  15. Eight-year follow-up of a child with a GH/prolactin-secreting adenoma: efficacy of pegvisomant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, S; Ronchi, C L; Giavoli, C; Ferrante, E; Verrua, E; Ferrari, D I; Lania, A; Rusconi, R; Spada, A; Beck-Peccoz, P

    2010-01-01

    A 3.4-year-old girl was admitted to the Pediatric Department because of tall stature (116.0 cm, +5.1 SDS) and increased height velocity (16.3 cm/year, +6.1 SDS). Basal hormonal evaluation revealed elevated insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels (938 ng/ml, nv 40-190), prolactin (PRL) (98.0 ng/ml, nv 1.7-24.0) and mean growth hormone (GH) nocturnal concentration (147 ng/ml). Basal adrenal, gonadal and thyroid functions were normal. Hand-wrist bone age was 3.6 years. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a macroadenoma with moderate suprasellar invasion. The adenoma was surgically removed and histological characterization confirmed the diagnosis of GH/PRL-secreting adenoma. The patient was admitted to our Endocrine Unit when 7.9 years old, because of the persistence of elevated GH, IGF-I and PRL levels, although there was a slight height velocity reduction and absence of tumor recurrence. Treatment with cabergoline was initiated, but only PRL levels normalized. Afterwards, octreotide long-acting release (LAR) was added without reaching the normalization of GH and IGF-I levels. Thus, treatment with octreotide LAR was discontinued and pegvisomant was added to cabergoline, leading to the normalization of IGF-I levels and height velocity without side effects. Other anterior pituitary functions were always normal. To conclude, treatment of pituitary gigantism with pegvisomant was effective and well tolerated in a young giant unresponsive to combined cabergoline and octreotide treatment.

  16. Part-time occlusion therapy for anisometropic amblyopia detected in children eight years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Rok; Lee, Ju Youn

    2006-09-01

    To determine the outcome of part-time occlusion therapy in children with anisometropic amblyopia detected after they were 8 years of age. We analyzed 29 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia in children 8 years of age and older. The mean age was 8.79 +/- 0.98 (range 8-12) years old. The subjects whose best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) did not improve by two lines or better within 2 weeks of wearing glasses full-time were prescribed occlusion therapy for 6 hours a day outside of school hours, along with the instruction to wear glasses full-time. Subjects who complied with occlusion for more than 3 hours a day were considered to comply well. The major component of the anisometropia was hyperopia in 51.7% of the subjects, and hyperopia plus astigmatism was found in 24.1%. The mean pretreatment BCVA score was 0.51 0.23 (LogMAR). Compliance was 89.66%. The mean posttreatment BCVA was 0.03 +/- 0.01 (LogMAR), and the success rate, based on a posttreatment BCVA of 0.1 (LogMAR) and better, was 96.43%. It took an average of 4.79 +/- 3.35 months to reach the desired posttreatment BCVA. The mean posttreatment stereopsis was 79.78 +/- 37.61 seconds of arc. The recurrence rate was 8%. The visual improvement was related to the degree of compliance (p = 0.000). The time taken to reach the posttreatment BCVA was shorter in subjects with a better pretreatment BCVA (p = 0.019), but it did not relate to the compliance (p = 0.366). The most common component of anisometropia detected after 8 years of age was hyperopia. The part-time occlusion therapy, which had been carried out after school hours, was successful in most cases.

  17. Clinical profile and outcomes of acute cardiorenal syndrome type-5 in sepsis: An eight-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Sakhuja, Ankit; Geske, Jeffrey B; Kumar, Mukesh; Kashyap, Rahul; Kashani, Kianoush; Jentzer, Jacob C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of acute cardiorenal syndrome type-5 in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Historical cohort study of all adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to the intensive care units (ICU) at Mayo Clinic Rochester from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2014. Patients with prior renal or cardiac dysfunction were excluded. Patients were divided into groups with and without cardiorenal syndrome type-5. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) was defined by both serum creatinine and urine output criteria of the AKI Network and the cardiac injury was determined by troponin-T levels. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay, and one-year survival. Of 602 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 430 (71.4%) met criteria for acute cardiorenal syndrome type-5. Patients with cardiorenal syndrome type-5 had higher severity of illness, greater vasopressor and mechanical ventilation use. Cardiorenal syndrome type-5 was associated higher unadjusted in-hospital mortality, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and lower one-year survival. When adjusted for age, gender, severity of illness and mechanical ventilation, cardiorenal syndrome type-5 was independently associated with 1.7-times greater odds of in-hospital mortality (p = .03), but did not predict one-year survival (p = .06) compared to patients without cardiorenal syndrome. In sepsis, acute cardiorenal syndrome type-5 is associated with worse in-hospital mortality compared to patients without cardiorenal syndrome.

  18. An Eight-Year Experience of HDR Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer: Biopsy and PSA Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachand, Francois; Martin, Andre-Guy; Beaulieu, Luc; Harel, Francois M.Sc.; Vigneault, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), the 2-year biopsy outcome and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with an inversely planned high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 153 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 with external beam pelvic radiation followed by an HDR Ir-192 prostate boost. These patients were given a boost of 18 to 20 Gy using inverse-planning with simulated annealing (IPSA).We reviewed and analyzed all prostate-specific antigen levels and control biopsies. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months (18-95 months). When categorized by risk of progression, 74.5% of patients presented an intermediate risk and 14.4% a high one. Prostate biopsies at 2 years posttreatment were negative in 86 of 94 patients (91.5%), whereas two biopsies were inconclusive. Biochemical control at 60 months was at 96% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Phoenix consensus definitions. A PSA bounce (PSA values of 2 ng/mL or more above nadir) was observed in 15 patients of 123 (9.8%). The median time to bounce was 15.2 months (interquartile range, 11.0-17.7) and the median bounce duration 18.7 months (interquartile range, 12.1-29). The estimate of overall survival at 60 months was 97.1% (95% CI, 91.6-103%). Conclusions: Considering that inverse planned HDR brachytherapy prostate boosts led to an excellent biochemical response, with a 2-year negative biopsy rate, we recommend a conservative approach in face of a PSA bounce even though it was observed in 10% of patients

  19. The Mutual Relationship Between Men's Drinking and Depression: A 4-Year Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Bi; Chung, Sulki; Lee, HaeKook; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2018-03-17

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between depression and drinking among male adults from the general population. This study used a panel dataset from the Korean Welfare Panel (from 2011 to 2014). The subjects were 2511 male adults aged between 20 and 65 years. Based on the Korean Version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-K) scores, 2191 subjects were categorized as the control group (AUDIT-K AUDIT-K ≥ 12). An autoregressive cross-lagged modelling analysis was performed to investigate the mutual relationship between problem drinking and depression measured consecutively over time. The results indicated that alcohol drinking and depression were stable over time. In the control group, there was no significant causal relationship between problem drinking and depression while in the problem drinking group, drinking in the previous year significantly influenced depression in the following second, third and fourth years. This study compared normal versus problem drinkers and showed a 4-year mutual causal relationship between depression and drinking. No longitudinal interaction between drinking and depression occurred in normal drinkers, while drinking intensified depression over time in problem drinkers. This study found that problem drinking was a risk factor for development of depression. Therefore, more attention should be given to problem alcohol use in the general population and evaluation of past alcohol use history in patients with depressive disorders.

  20. induced chromosome aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Eight years follow up of the Goiania radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Santos, S.J.; Darroudi, F.; Hadjidikova, V.; Vermeulen, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Van de Berg, M.; Grigorova, M.; Sakamoto-Hojo, E.T.; Granath, F.; Ramalho, A.T.; Curado, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation accident in focus here occurred in a section of Goiania (Brazil) where more than a hundred individuals were contaminated with on September 1987. In order to estimate the absorbed radiation doses, initial frequencies of dicentrics and rings were determined in 129 victims [A.T. Ramalho, PhD Thesis, Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992]. We have followed some of these victims cytogenetically over the years seeking for parameters that could be used as basis for retrospective radiation dosimetry. Our data on translocation frequencies obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be directly compared to the baseline frequencies of dicentrics available for those same victims. Our results provided valuable information on how precise these estimates are. The frequencies of translocations observed years after the radiation exposure were two to three times lower than the initial dicentrics frequencies, the differences being larger at higher doses (>1 Gy). The accuracy of such dose estimates might be increased by scoring sufficient amount of cells. However, factors such as the persistence of translocation carrying lymphocytes, translocation levels not proportional to chromosome size, and inter-individual variation reduce the precision of these estimates

  1. Induced chromosome aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Eight years follow up of the Goiania radiation accident victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Santos, S.J.; Darroudi, F.; Hadjidikova, V.; Vermeulen, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Van de Berg, M.; Grigorova, M. [Leiden University Medical Centrum LUMC, Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands); Sakamoto-Hojo, E.T. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Granath, F. [Department of Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramalho, A.T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, National Commission of Nuclear Energy, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curado, M.P. [Foundation Leide das Neves Ferreira, Goiania (Brazil)

    1998-05-25

    The radiation accident in focus here occurred in a section of Goiania (Brazil) where more than a hundred individuals were contaminated with on September 1987. In order to estimate the absorbed radiation doses, initial frequencies of dicentrics and rings were determined in 129 victims [A.T. Ramalho, PhD Thesis, Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992]. We have followed some of these victims cytogenetically over the years seeking for parameters that could be used as basis for retrospective radiation dosimetry. Our data on translocation frequencies obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be directly compared to the baseline frequencies of dicentrics available for those same victims. Our results provided valuable information on how precise these estimates are. The frequencies of translocations observed years after the radiation exposure were two to three times lower than the initial dicentrics frequencies, the differences being larger at higher doses (>1 Gy). The accuracy of such dose estimates might be increased by scoring sufficient amount of cells. However, factors such as the persistence of translocation carrying lymphocytes, translocation levels not proportional to chromosome size, and inter-individual variation reduce the precision of these estimates

  2. Gorlin syndrome: Importance of clinical signs and danger of delayed diagnosis - A case report with eight years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Dorigatti de-Avila

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nevoid basal cell carcinoma (NBCCS or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GS is a multidisciplinary problem, the early diagnosis of which allows secondary prophylaxis that follows an appropriate regimen to delay progression of the syndrome. The aim of this study was to present a case of delayed diagnosis of GS in a young patient who received multidisciplinary treatment 5 years after onset. The patient presented for evaluation with painless swelling of the left maxilla. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KOT that was enucleated. On presentation, the patient's symptoms and clinical signs were not related to complications of GS, and the possibility of GS was initially rejected, as he did not have a family history of the syndrome. Four years after the first surgery to remove the lesion, the patient came to our clinic with a brown, pigmented lesion. Computed tomography revealed ectopic lamellar calcification of the falx cerebri, which was the conclusive factor for the diagnosis of GS. It is important that clinicians recognize the clinical signs of GS, which mainly manifests itself as multiple basal cell carcinomas in the skin. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(1.000: 49-53

  3. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Occurrence of cervical invasive root resorption in first and second molar teeth of orthodontic patients eight years after bracket removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thönen, Andrea; Peltomäki, Timo; Patcas, Raphael; Zehnder, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and potential orthodontic causes of cervical invasive root resorption (CIRR) are unknown. We aimed to identify the occurrence of CIRR in molar teeth of orthodontic patients treated with fixed appliances. All patients invited for final orthodontic recall between November 2009 and March 2011 were included. From 175 patients, 108 (46 men/62 women; mean age, 25 ± 5 years; mean time after bracket removal, 8 ± 2 years) were available. The first and second molar teeth (N = 858) of these patients were investigated for clinical and radiographic signs of CIRR. Patients identified with such signs were asked to have limited-volume cone-beam computed tomography scans performed. No clinical signs of CIRR were detected. CIRR could not be ruled out on bite-wing radiographs in 18 patients. CIRR was thus identified in 1 patient in whom a second maxillary molar was affected. All first molars had been extracted in this patient, and the second molars had been moved mesially over a long distance. The 3 other second molars showed surface resorption. CIRR in molar teeth of orthodontic patients have a low mid-term occurrence (0.9%; 95% confidence interval, 0.2%-5.2%). Long movement distances and/or long treatment duration may be related to the development of these lesions. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing......) and ventricular mass (VM) were measured by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Submaximal heart rate decreased from 126+/-5 to 113+/-3 b.p.m. (10%; P...

  6. Redistribution of magnetic iron oxide along soil profile after eight years managing a commercial olive orchard in a Vertisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide has been used as a tracer to monitor top soil movement and to identify source of sediments at the short-term scale, after high intensity rainfall events (Guzmán et al., 2010; Obereder et al., 2016) and periods up to two years (Guzmán et al., 2013). As it can be strongly bound to soil particles, its use allows the tacking of tagged soil all over the years until all this soil is lost or it is totally diluted with blank soil making the signal undetectable. Olive orchards planted on Vertisols are subject not only to tillage operations modifying soil profile but also to expansion-compression cycles and cracks appearance due to soil moisture changes. The aim of communication is to assess the soil movement at the mid-term scale, taking advantage of a tracer trial already performed by Guzmán et al. (2013) and a new sampling after 8 years of soil disturbance. In October 2008 two plots of 330 m2 were delimited and in which the top 5 cm of the inter tree rows were tagged with magnetite. Seventy locations at both plots were sampled so as to measure magnetic susceptibility twice (just after the tagging and March 2010), at three depth intervals (0-1, 1-8 and 8-12 cm) and distinguishing two zones: tree and inter tree rows. A third sampling was carried out at 0-2, 2-10 and 10-20 cm in August 2016 at the same locations and zones. Furthermore, in twenty of the sampling points additional samples from 20-30, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm were taken to check if tagged soil went deeper into the soil profile. Background values of susceptibility and bulk density at each depth, were characterized as well at the three sampling campaigns. Rainfall, soil management during these years and the inherent characteristics of a Vertisol have enhanced the movement of top soil not only superficially but also within the soil profile. First results comparing the evolution of magnetite distribution along soil profile indicate that while in 2008 and 2010 background values were measured

  7. Predictors of Cephalic Vaginal Delivery Following External Cephalic Version: An Eight-Year Single-Centre Study of 447 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Kew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Our study aims to investigate and evaluate (1 rates of success of ECV for breech presentation at term at the Royal Women’s Hospital in comparison to international standards; (2 mode of delivery following ECV; (3 factors influencing success rates of ECV at the Royal Women’s Hospital. Methods. An audit of all women who underwent ECV between the years 2007 and 2014 at the Royal Women’s Hospital as public patients was completed. Data parameters were collected from paper and electronic patient files at the Women’s Hospital. Data was collected to analyse the effect of the following parameters on ECV success and birth outcome: age, parity, gestational age, BMI, AFI, and tocolytic use. These parameters were analysed to determine their effect on ECV outcome and birth outcome. Results. The Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, has an ECV success rate of approximately 37%. Of the patients undergoing ECV, 29% proceeded to normal vaginal delivery. Predictors of successful ECV included low BMI, multiparity, and AFI more than 16 (P<0.05. The only predictor of cephalic vaginal delivery following ECV was multiparity. Negative predictors of cephalic delivery were low AFI and nulliparity. Conclusions. The success rate of ECV at the Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, is in line with global standards.

  8. QEEG-based neural correlates of decision making in a well-trained eight year-old chess player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Abolfazl; Seifzadeh, Sahar; Aligholi, Hadi; Nami, Mohammad

    2017-10-25

    The neurocognitive substrates of decision making (DM) in the context of chess has appealed to researchers' interest for decades. Expert and beginner chess players are hypothesized to employ different brain functional networks when involved in episodes of critical DM upon chess. Cognitive capacities including, but not restricted to pattern recognition, visuospatial search, reasoning, planning and DM are perhaps the key determinants of rewarding and judgmental decisions in chess. Meanwhile, the precise neural correlates of DM in this context has largely remained elusive. The quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is an investigation tool possessing a proper temporal resolution in the study of neural correlates of cognitive tasks at cortical level. Here, we used a 22-channel EEG setup and digital polygraphy in a well-trained 8 year-old boy while engaged in playing chess against the computer. Quantitative analyses were done to map and source-localize the EEG signals. Our analyses indicated a lower power spectral density (PSD) for higher frequency bands in the right hemisphere upon DM-related epochs. Moreover, the information flow upon DM blocks in this particular case was more of posterior towards anterior brain regions.

  9. Lower P300 amplitude in eight-year-old offspring of alcoholic fathers with a delinquent history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Wackermann, Paula C; Furtado, Erikson F; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin H; Laucht, Manfred

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the P300 amplitude as a possible vulnerability marker in children of alcoholic (COA) fathers with and without paternal delinquency. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 122 children aged 8 years (63 boys, 59 girls) were compared depending on father's alcoholism subtype: 30 COAs without paternal delinquency, 10 COAs with paternal delinquency, and 82 children of non-alcoholic and non-delinquent fathers. ERPs were recorded from Fz, Cz, and Pz, using an auditory oddball paradigm. Sinus tones of 60 dB HL were presented binaurally at 1,000 Hz (standard stimulus) and 2,000 Hz (target stimulus), at a relative frequency ratio of 80:20. Two trial blocks of 250 stimuli each were collected. Results indicated that only COAs with paternal delinquency displayed significant differences from the control group, characterized by reduced P300 amplitude at frontal site and in the second trial block. Thus, the combination of fathers' alcoholism and delinquency was more likely to relate to attenuated P300 amplitude in the offspring than paternal alcoholism alone. Our results suggest that both alcoholic and delinquent family history appear to play a role in P300 amplitude reduction in the offspring.

  10. International Observe the Moon Night: Eight Years of Engaging Scientists, Educators, and Citizen Enthusiasts in NASA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Jones, Andrea; Bleacher, Lora; Wasser, Molly; Day, Brian; Bakerman, Maya; Shaner, Andrew; Joseph, Emily; International Observe the Moon Night Coordinating Committee

    2018-01-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide event, held in the fall, that celebrates lunar and planetary science and exploration. InOMN is sponsored by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in collaboration with NASA’s Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), the NASA’s Heliophysics Education Consortium, CosmoQuest, Night Sky Network, and Science Festival Alliance. Other key partners include the NASA Museum Alliance, Night Sky Network, and NASA Solar System Ambassadors.In 2017 InOMN will be held on October 28th, and will engage thousands of people across the globe to observe and learn about the Moon and its connection to planetary science. This year, we have partnered with the NASA Science Mission Directorate total solar eclipse team to highlight InOMN as an opportunity to harness and sustain the interest and momentum in space science and observation following the August 21st eclipse. Since 2010, over 3,800 InOMN events have been registered engaging over 550,000 visitors worldwide. Most InOMN events are held in the United States, with strong representation from many other countries. We will present current results from the 2017 InOMN evaluation.Through InOMN, we annually provide resources such as event-specific Moon maps, presentations, advertising materials, and certificates of participation. Additionally, InOMN highlights partner resources such as online interfaces including Moon Trek (https://moontrek.jpl.nasa.gov) and CosmoQuest (https://cosmoquest.org/x/) to provide further opportunities to engage with NASA science.Learn more about InOMN at http://observethemoonnight.org.

  11. Skin Sparing Mastectomy and Immediate Breast Reconstruction (SSMIR for early breast cancer: Eight years single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Jean

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin Sparing Mastectomy (SSM and immediate breast reconstruction has become increasingly popular as an effective treatment for patients with breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of skin sparing mastectomy in early breast cancer at a single population-based institution. Methods Records of ninety-five consecutive patients with operable breast cancer who had skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstructions between 1995 and 2003 were reviewed. Patient and tumor characteristic, type of reconstruction, postoperative complications, aesthetic results and incidence of recurrence were analyzed. Results Mean age of the patients was 51.6(range 33–72 years. The AJCC pathologic stages were 0 (n = 51, 53.7%, I (n = 20, 21.1%, and II (n = 2, 2.1%. Twenty of the patients had recurrent disease (21.1%. The immediate breast reconstructions were performed with autologus tissue including latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in 63 (66.3% patients and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap in 4 (4.2% patients. Implants were used in 28 (29.4% patients. The average hospital stay was 7.7 days. Flap complication occurred in seven (10.4% patients resulting in four (6% re-operations and there were no delay in accomplishing postoperative adjuvant therapy. At a median follow-up of 69 months (range 48 to 144, local recurrence was seen in one patient (1.1% and systemic recurrence was seen in two patients (2.1%. Conclusion Skin sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction for early breast cancer is associated with low morbidity and low rate of local recurrence.

  12. Acute effects of ambient air pollution on lower respiratory infections in Hanoi children: An eight-year time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Schindler, Christian; Dien, Tran Minh; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino

    2018-01-01

    Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam. We explored the impact of age, gender and season on these associations. Daily ambient air pollution concentrations and hospital admission counts were extracted from electronic databases received from authorities in Hanoi for the years 2007-2014. The associations between outdoor air pollution levels and hospital admissions were estimated for time lags of zero up to seven days using Quasi-Poisson regression models, adjusted for seasonal variations, meteorological variables, holidays, influenza epidemics and day of week. All ambient air pollutants were positively associated with pneumonia hospitalizations. Significant associations were found for most pollutants except for ozone and sulfur dioxide in children aged 0-17. Increments of an interquartile range (21.9μg/m 3 ) in the 7-day-average level of NO 2 were associated with a 6.1% (95%CI 2.5% to 9.8%) increase in pneumonia hospitalizations. These associations remained stable in two-pollutant models. All pollutants other than CO were positively associated with hospitalizations for bronchitis and asthma. Associations were stronger in infants than in children aged 1-5. Strong associations between hospital admissions for lower respiratory infections and daily levels of air pollution confirm the need to adopt sustainable clean air policies in Vietnam to protect children's health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of premature mortality in a city population: An eight-year observational study concerning subjects aged 18–64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Maniecka-Bryła

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature deaths constitute 31.1% of all deaths in Łódź. Analysis of the causes of premature deaths may be helpful in the evaluation of health risk factors. Moreover, findings of this study may enhance prophylactic measures. Material and Methods: In 2001, 1857 randomly selected citizens, aged 18-64, were included in the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI Programme. In 2009, a follow-up study was conducted and information on the subjects of the study was collected concerning their health status and if they continued to live in Łódź. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for evaluation of hazard coefficients. We adjusted our calculations for age and sex. The analysis revealed statistically significant associations between the number of premature deaths of the citizens of Łódź and the following variables: a negative self-evaluation of health - HR = 3.096 (95% CI: 1.729-5.543, poor financial situation - HR = 2.811 (95% CI: 1.183‑6.672, occurring in the year preceding the study: coronary pain - HR = 2.754 (95% CI: 1.167-6.494, depression - HR = 2.001 (95% CI: 1.222-3.277 and insomnia - HR = 1.660 (95% CI: 1.029-2.678. Our research study also found a negative influence of smoking on the health status - HR = 2.782 (95% CI: 1.581-4.891. Moreover, we conducted survival analyses according to sex and age with Kaplan-Meier curves. Conclusions: The risk factors leading to premature deaths were found to be highly significant but possible to reduce by modifying lifestyle-related health behaviours. The confirmed determinants of premature mortality indicate a need to spread and intensify prophylactic activities in Poland, which is a post-communist country, in particular, in the field of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. A longitudinal study of grapheme-colour synaesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSimner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a condition characterised by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colours. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner, Harrold, Creed, Monro and Foulkes (2009 which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 years and 7/8 years. We identified the child synaesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of nonsynaesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synaesthetic associations (e.g. A = red mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synaesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synaesthetes’ inventories of grapheme-colour associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 year and 7/8 years to examine how synaesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-colour synaesthesia emerges with a protracted lineal trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synaesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synaesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synaesthetes.

  15. A one-year longitudinal study of subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars; Povlsen, Thomas Kaalby; Mortensen, Steen Lee

    A one-year longitudinal study of subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients Larsen, L, Povlsen, T.K., Mortensen, S.L. & Christoffersen, M. Background: Old age is not a risk factor per se when it comes to low well-being. In most old people well-being is as high as, or higher than...... indicating stress and risk of depression? Did the overall level of subjective well-being change during a one-year period? How did subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients compare to the national Danish average? Sample: 759 home care recipients 65 years or older in The Municipality of Aarhus...... dwelling elderly people in need of care. Words: 382 Key words: Well-being, home care, elderly people...

  16. Parenting Style and Family Meals: Cross-Sectional and 5-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on family meals in the last decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, which may be associated with family meal patterns. Objective The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and five-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Study Design Data were from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school, high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n = 4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n = 806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Results Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals five years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Conclusions Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency in order to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors

  17. Parenting style and family meals: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Research on family meals in the past decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, that may be associated with family meal patterns. The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Data were from Project Eating Among Teens, a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school and high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n=4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n=806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals 5 years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors of authoritative parents and identify specific behaviors that dietetics

  18. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  19. Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesselman Borg J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Hesselman Borg,1 Maria Westerståhl,2 Sara Lundell,1 Guy Madison,3 Ulrika Aasa1 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 3Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Objectives: To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years. Methods: We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline, when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables. Results: Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP. Conclusion: The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal

  20. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  1. Young adult gay and bisexual men's stigma experiences and mental health: An 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E; Sullivan, Timothy J; Feinstein, Brian A; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-04-05

    This study investigated longitudinal trajectories of stigma (i.e., enacted, anticipated, internalized, concealed); stress-sensitive mental health disorder symptoms (i.e., depression, social anxiety); and their associations across 8 annual assessments in a sample of 128 young gay and bisexual U.S. university students. All forms of stigma significantly decreased over time, while depressive symptoms remained stable and social anxiety symptoms significantly increased. Men from higher socioeconomic backgrounds experienced quicker reductions in anticipated stigma, compared to men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. More self-described feminine men experienced quicker reductions in concealment, compared to more self-described masculine men. Enacted stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with depression and social anxiety across 8 years; and anticipated stigma and internalized stigma demonstrated contemporaneous associations with social anxiety across 8 years. Enacted stigma was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among men who reported greater masculinity compared to those who reported greater femininity. Findings are discussed in terms of common developmental influences across early sexual orientation identity formation, including gay and bisexual young men's resilience to stigma-based stress; the transition from college; and the rapidly changing social climate surrounding sexual minority individuals. Findings suggest the need for future longitudinal examinations of stigma and mental health among sexual minorities that utilize multiple age cohorts to determine the relative contribution of cohort-specific versus common maturational factors influencing the mental health of this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Ecstasy use and depression: a 4-year longitudinal study among an Australian general community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amanda M; Olesen, Sarah; Tait, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal, population-based studies can better assess the relationship of ecstasy use with depression. We examined whether change in ecstasy use was associated with change in depressive symptoms/probable depression over a 4-year period, among a large Australian sample. The Personality and Total Health project is a longitudinal general community study of Australians from Canberra and Queanbeyan. Data from the youngest cohort when aged 24-30 (N = 2, 128) and 4 years later (N = 1, 977) was included. The Goldberg depression scale and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms and probable depression, respectively. Multilevel growth models also considered demographics, psychosocial characteristics, and other drug use. Ecstasy use was not associated with long-term depressive symptoms or greater odds of depression in multivariate analyses. Users had more self-reported depressive symptoms when using ecstasy compared to not using. However, differences between people who had and had not ever used ecstasy largely accounted for this. Other factors were more important in the prediction of depression. It would be premature to conclude that ecstasy use is not related to the development of long-term depressive symptoms, given the relatively low level of ecstasy and other drug use in this community sample. Results showed that other factors need to be considered when investigating ecstasy use and depression.

  3. Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years: Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Machado, Sandra; Gellert, Paul; Goncalves, Sonia; Sniehotta, Falko F; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The longitudinal impact of partner coping in couples following 5 years of unsuccessful fertility treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, B D; Pirritano, M; Christensen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because there is a lack of longitudinal research examining the impact of partner coping in couples experiencing infertility, we know very little about the long-term nature of coping with infertility and how partner coping strategies impact personal, marital and social distress. METHODS...... Participants were Danish men and women about to start a cycle of assisted reproduction treatment who were followed for a 5 year period of unsuccessful treatments. Multilevel modeling using the actor-partner interdependence model was used to examine the couple as the unit of analysis. RESULTS Active and passive...... have a significant impact on the other member of the couple over time in men and women undergoing infertility treatments over a 5 year period. Physicians and mental health professionals can educate men and women regarding the ineffectiveness of avoidance coping strategies as well as the beneficial...

  5. The association between disease activity and NT-proBNP in 238 patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 10-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Sella A; Angel, Kristin; Ødegård, Sigrid; Mowinckel, Petter; Atar, Dan; Kvien, Tore K

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, of which N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a predictor. Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between markers of inflammation, measures of RA disease activity, medication used in the treatment of RA, and NT-proBNP levels (dependent variable). Methods Two hundred thirty-eight patients with RA of less than 4 years in duration were followed longitudinally with three comprehensive assessments of clinical and radiographic data over a 10-year period. Serum samples were frozen and later batch-analyzed for NT-proBNP levels and other biomarkers. Bivariate, multivariate, and repeated analyses were performed. Results C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at baseline were cross-sectionally associated with NT-proBNP levels after adjustment for age and gender (r2 adjusted = 0.23; P < 0.05). At the 10-year follow-up, risk factors for cardiovascular disease were recorded. Duration of RA and CRP levels were independently associated with NT-proBNP in the final model that was adjusted for gender, age, and creatinine levels (r2 adjusted = 0.38; P < 0.001). In the longitudinal analyses, which adjusted for age, gender, and time of follow-up, we found that repeated measures of CRP predicted NT-proBNP levels (P < 0.001). Conclusion CRP levels are linearly associated with levels of NT-proBNP in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of patients with RA. The independent associations of NT-proBNP levels and markers of disease activity with clinical cardiovascular endpoints need to be further investigated. PMID:18573197

  6. Neural correlates of foreign-language learning in childhood: a 3-year longitudinal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Shiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    A foreign language (a language not spoken in one's community) is difficult to master completely. Early introduction of foreign-language (FL) education during childhood is becoming a standard in many countries. However, the neural process of child FL learning still remains largely unknown. We longitudinally followed 322 school-age children with diverse FL proficiency for three consecutive years, and acquired children's ERP responses to FL words that were semantically congruous or incongruous with the preceding picture context. As FL proficiency increased, various ERP components previously reported in mother-tongue (L1) acquisition (such as a broad negativity, an N400, and a late positive component) appeared sequentially, critically in an identical order to L1 acquisition. This finding was supported not only by cross-sectional analyses of children at different proficiency levels but also by longitudinal analyses of the same children over time. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that FL learning in childhood reproduces identical developmental stages in an identical order to L1 acquisition, suggesting that the nature of the child's brain itself may determine the normal course of FL learning. Future research should test the generalizability of the results in other aspects of language such as syntax.

  7. Engagement in Pleasant Leisure Activities and Blood Pressure: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study in Alzheimer Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausbach, Brent T; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Bos, Taylor; von Känel, Roland; Ziegler, Michael G; Allison, Matthew A; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure is a significant public health concern, particularly given its association with cardiovascular disease risk, including stroke. Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease has been associated with physical health morbidity, including higher blood pressure. Engagement in adaptive coping strategies may help prevent blood pressure elevation in this population. This 5-year longitudinal study examined whether greater participation in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced blood pressure in caregivers. Participants were 126 in-home spousal Alzheimer's caregivers (M [SD] age = 74.2 [7.9] years) that completed five yearly assessments. Linear mixed-effects models analysis was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between pleasant leisure activities and caregivers' blood pressure, after adjusting for demographic and health characteristics. Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced mean arterial blood pressure (B = -0.08, SE = 0.04, p = .040). Follow-up analyses indicated that engagement in activities was significantly associated with reduced diastolic (B = -0.07, SE = 0.03, p = .030) but not systolic blood pressure (B = -0.10, SE = 0.06, p = .114). In addition, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly reduced when caregiving duties ended because of placement of care recipients in nursing homes (B = -3.10, SE = 1.11, p = .005) or death of the care recipient (B = -2.64, SE = 1.14, p = .021). Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with lowered caregivers' blood pressure over time. Participation in pleasant leisure activities may have cardiovascular health benefits for Alzheimer's caregivers.

  8. Functional and Structural Network Recovery after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Dall’Acqua

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain connectivity after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has not been investigated longitudinally with respect to both functional and structural networks together within the same patients, crucial to capture the multifaceted neuropathology of the injury and to comprehensively monitor the course of recovery and compensatory reorganizations at macro-level. We performed a prospective study with 49 mTBI patients at an average of 5 days and 1 year post-injury and 49 healthy controls. Neuropsychological assessments as well as resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were obtained. Functional and structural connectome analyses were performed using network-based statistics. They included a cross-sectional group comparison and a longitudinal analysis with the factors group and time. The latter tracked the subnetworks altered at the early phase and, in addition, included a whole-brain group × time interaction analysis. Finally, we explored associations between the evolution of connectivity and changes in cognitive performance. The early phase of mTBI was characterized by a functional hypoconnectivity in a subnetwork with a large overlap of regions involved within the classical default mode network. In addition, structural hyperconnectivity in a subnetwork including central hub areas such as the cingulate cortex was found. The impaired functional and structural subnetworks were strongly correlated and revealed a large anatomical overlap. One year after trauma and compared to healthy controls we observed a partial normalization of both subnetworks along with a considerable compensation of functional and structural connectivity subsequent to the acute phase. Connectivity changes over time were correlated with improvements in working memory, divided attention, and verbal recall. Neuroplasticity-induced recovery or compensatory processes following mTBI differ between brain regions with respect to their time course and are

  9. A Longitudinal Study in Learning Preferences and Academic Performance in First Year Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yenya; Gao, Hong; Wofford, Marcia M; Violato, Claudio

    2017-12-18

    This is a longitudinal study of first year medical students that investigates the relationship between the pattern change of the learning preferences and academic performance. Using the visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic inventory at the beginning of the first and second year for the same class, it was found that within the first year, 36% of the class remained unimodal (single) modality learners (SS), 14% changed from unimodal to multimodality learners (SM), 27% changed from multimodality to unimodal modality learners (MS) and 21% remained as multimodality learners (MM). Among the academic performance through subsequent didactic blocks from Clinical Anatomy, Cell and Subcellular Processes to Medical Neuroscience during first year, the SM group made more significant improvement compared to the SS group. Semi-structured interview results from the SM group showed that students made this transition between the Clinical Anatomy course and the middle of the Medical Neuroscience course, in an effort to improve their performance. This study suggests that the transition from unimodal to multimodality learning among academically struggling students improved their academic performance in the first year of medical school. Therefore, this may be considered as part of academic advising tools for struggling students to improve their academic performances. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=-.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=-.05), extraversion (β=-.03), and agreeableness (β=-.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories.

  11. Emotion knowledge and autobiographical memory across the preschool years: a cross-cultural longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children, Chinese children from first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the U.S., and European American children. Children's developing emotion knowledge and autobiographical memory were assessed three times at home, when children were 3, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. Children's emotion knowledge uniquely predicted their autobiographical memory ability across groups and time points. Emotion knowledge further mediated culture effects on autobiographical memory. The findings provide important insight into early autobiographical memory development, and extend current theoretical understandings of the emotion-memory interplay. They further have implications for the phenomenon of infantile amnesia and cross-cultural differences in childhood recollections.

  12. Longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of children aged 0 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Frederico Cunha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "When" and "how" the dentist intervenes have repercussions on children's physical and emotional patterns. The objective of the present study was to conduct a longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of babies aged 0 to 3 years. A total of 216 patients seen at the Baby Clinic of the School of Dentistry at Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, were selected. The selection criterion was attendance at ten dental care sessions at bimonthly intervals for routine procedures such as clinical examination and oral hygiene. There was a predominance of cooperative behavior compared to uncooperative behavior when each visit was analyzed separately. The behavior of the patients must have been directly influenced by their psychomotor development. Constant attendance and exposure of the baby to non-stressful dental stimuli are factors that favor a cooperative behavior.

  13. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=−.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=−.05), extraversion (β=−.03), and agreeableness (β=−.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories. PMID:29651189

  14. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3 genotype in children receiving HAART: an eight-year retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rocco

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes have shown to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Our objective was to confirm the association between the APOC3 genotype and plasma lipid levels in an HIV-1-infected pediatric cohort exposed to HAART. A total of 130 HIV-1-infected children/adolescents that attended a reference center in Argentina were selected for an 8-year longitudinal study with retrospective data collection. Longitudinal measurements of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed under linear or generalized linear mixed models. The contribution of the APOC3 genotype at sites -482, -455 and 3238 to plasma lipid levels prediction was tested after adjusting for potential confounders. Four major APOC3 haplotypes were observed for sites -482/-455/3238, with estimated frequencies of 0.60 (C/T/C, 0.14 (T/C/C, 0.11 (C/C/C, and 0.11 (T/C/G. The APOC3 genotype showed a significant effect only for the prediction of total cholesterol levels (p<0.0001. However, the magnitude of the differences observed was dependent on the drug combination (p = 0.0007 and the drug exposure duration at the time of the plasma lipid measurement (p = 0.0002. A lower risk of hypercholesterolemia was predicted for double and triple heterozygous individuals, mainly at the first few months after the initiation of Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. We report for the first time a significant contribution of the genotype to total cholesterol levels in a pediatric cohort under HAART. The genetic determination of APOC3 might have an impact on a large portion of HIV-1-infected children at the time of choosing the treatment regimens or on the counter-measures against the adverse effects of drugs.

  15. Does life satisfaction change in old age: results from an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Kamel; Bailly, Nathalie; Saada, Yaël; Joulain, Michèle; Alaphilippe, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The unexpected positive relationship between aging and happiness was called "the paradox of well-being," which is still a matter of debate. This study examined longitudinal change in life satisfaction (LS) in older adults. LS was assessed with the satisfaction with life scale, in a sample of individuals (N = 899; aged 62-95 years, at first occasion; M = 72.73, SD = 5.68) for a period of 8 years (5 waves of data). A multiple indicator (e.g., second order) growth modeling was used to assess change in LS. Findings from both unconditional and conditional model (in which time-invariant, i.e., age, gender, and education, and time-varying, i.e., self-perceived health, covariates were incorporated in the model) indicated a linear increase in LS for the 8-year period. As expected, the results showed significant random variation in both intercept and slope, indicating that participants start at different levels and change at different rates. Our findings contribute to the debate concerning the paradox of well-being, which calls for explanation. There are few theories that provide some explanation (e.g., the socioemotional selectivity theory). However, to enhance researchers' understanding of developmental changes that contribute to the paradox of well-being, a more integrative theoretical model is needed.

  16. Longitudinal cephalometric standards for the neurocranium in Norwegians from 6 to 21 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Stefan; Kjaer, Inger; Bjørnland, Tore; Storhaug, Kari

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish and describe normative cephalometric standards of the neurocranium (theca cranii and cranial base) for Norwegian males and females from 6 to 21 years of age using lateral cephalograms. The subjects included 35 males and 37 females from the Oslo University Growth Archive with lateral cephalograms taken every third year from 6 to 21 years of age. The total number of lateral cephalograms was 194 from males and 200 from females. All subjects were Caucasian, all had normal occlusion and no apparent facial disharmony, and none had undergone orthodontic therapy. Nineteen measurements and three indices of the neurocranium were analysed longitudinally. Comparisons between the various parameters in the neurocranium of males and females in each age group were performed using the Student's t-test. The size of the neurocranium of females was smaller than that of males throughout the observation period and the differences increased with age, particularly the diameter of the neurocranium (n-l), length of the neurocranium (n-opc), anterior cranial base length (n-s), and posterior cranial base length (s-ba). The cephalometric standards of the neurocranium established in this study can be used as a reference material in investigations of individuals with various craniofacial aberrations and syndromes.

  17. Health related quality of life in renal transplantation: 2 years of longitudinal follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Cantarell, M Carmen; Moreso, Francesc; Parramon, Gemma; Seron, Daniel

    2017-08-10

    Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is recognized as an outcome measure in kidney transplantation. In this study was assessed changes on HRQoL and kidney-specific symptoms, also was evaluated the effect of socio-demographic and clinical parameters on patient's perceived HRQoL. A longitudinal study was done, at 5 time-points over 2 years after transplantation. To evaluate HRQoL the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form was administrated, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess psychological distress. At 6-months after transplantation, patients had similar HRQoL scores compared to the general population. The improvement on effects of kidney disease domain could be considered as large (η 2 =0.29), and medium on burden of kidney disease domain (η 2 =0.12), work status domain (η 2 =0.12), and sexual function domain (η 2 =0.13). Psychological distress, depressive symptoms, haemoglobin, and serum creatinine had significant influence on patient's perceived HRQoL over 2 years after transplantation. An improvement of HRQoL was observed on general and specific-targeted symptoms over 2 years after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Bidirectional association between weight status and motor skills in adolescents : A 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, Klaus; Drenowatz, Clemens

    2018-05-01

    Despite considerable efforts the prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth remains high. Poor motor skills have been associated with increased body weight but there is still limited information on the longitudinal association of these health parameters. This study examined the prospective association between motor skills and body weight in 10- to 14-year-old youth. Body weight, height and motor skills, assessed via the German motor test 16-18 (Deutscher Motorik Test, DMT6-18), were measured in 213 middle school students (57% male) every year over a 4‑year period. Club sports participation and migration status were assessed via a questionnaire. Besides an inverse cross-sectional association between body weight and motor skills, excess body weight was associated with impaired development of motor skills (p skills at baseline also reduced the odds of becoming overweight/obese during the observation period. These results were independent of club sports participation. There is a bidirectional, synergistic association between body weight and motor skills. Facilitating the development of motor skills in children and adolescents may therefore be a viable intervention strategy targeting weight management and physical activity in youth.

  19. Long-term life and partnership satisfaction in infertile patients: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Stefan; Reimer, Thorisa; Eichner, Martin; Hautzinger, Martin; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Fierlbeck, Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    To describe the long-term effects of infertility on life and partnership satisfaction. Longitudinal cohort study. A university outpatient andrology and gynecology infertility clinic. 275 men and 272 women treated for infertility between August 2000 and December 2001. None. The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ), the Partnership Questionnaire (PFB), and sociodemographic items at baseline (T1) and 5 years later (T2). Compared with a representative sample, our male and female participants had higher Finance and Partnership scores and lower Health scores on the FLZ at T1. They also had markedly higher PFB scores, with the exception of Conflict Behavior. After 5 years (T2), 101 men and 113 women rated the Partnership and Sexuality FLZ subscales as well as all the PFB subscales statistically significantly lower than at baseline. Only the women rated the Self-esteem FLZ subscale lower than at baseline (T1). Participants who became parents had lower Leisure and Partnership FLZ subscale scores, and fathers had lower Finance FLZ subscale scores. Satisfaction declined over 5 years for both men and women, but only in the partnership-related domains. Women were more affected than men. The success of infertility treatment had only a minor influence on a couple's future satisfaction. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Predictors for Employment Status in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslin, Mia; Fink, Katharina; Hammar, Ulf; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Sverker

    2018-01-31

    To identify predictors for employment status after 10 years in a cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the aim to increase knowledge concerning factors present at an early stage that are important for working life and work-life balance. A 10-year longitudinal observational cohort study. University hospital. A consecutive sample of people with MS (N=154) of working age were included at baseline, of which a total of 116 people participated in the 10-year follow-up; 27 people declined participation and 11 were deceased. Not applicable. Baseline data on personal factors and functioning were used as independent variables. Employment status 10 years after baseline, categorized as full-time work, part-time work, and no work, was used as the dependent variable. A generalized ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive value of the independent variables. Predictors for full- or part-time work after 10 years were young age (P=.002), low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02), fatigue (P=.03), full-time work (P=.001), and high frequency of social/lifestyle activities (P=.001) at baseline. Low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02) at baseline also predicted full-time work after 10 years. This study underlines the complexity of working life for people with MS, and indicates that it may be valuable to give more attention to the balance between working and private life, both in clinical practice and future research, to achieve a sustainable working life over time. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their future labour market participation – an eight-year follow-up study

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    Nanna Trolle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Labour market participation among young adults is essential for their future socioeconomic status and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20–21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences. Methods A cohort of 1640 young adults born in 1983 completed a questionnaire in 2004 in which perceived stress was measured. The cohort was followed in a register of social benefits for 12 months in 2011–2012 and was categorized into active and passive labour market participation. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between perceived stress and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by gender. Results The effects of perceived stress on future labour market participation differed significantly among young women and young men (p = 0.029. For young men, higher levels of perceived stress reduced the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for socioeconomic factors, self-rated health and copings strategies (p = 0.045. For young women, higher levels of perceived stress increased the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for the same potential confounding factors, although unlike the men, this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.335. Conclusion The observed gender difference has important implications from a public health point of view. Healthcare professionals might need to differentiate between the genders in terms of health communication, research and when developing preventive strategies.

  2. Perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their future labour market participation - an eight-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, Nanna; Lund, Thomas; Winding, Trine Nohr; Labriola, Merete

    2017-03-31

    Labour market participation among young adults is essential for their future socioeconomic status and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences. A cohort of 1640 young adults born in 1983 completed a questionnaire in 2004 in which perceived stress was measured. The cohort was followed in a register of social benefits for 12 months in 2011-2012 and was categorized into active and passive labour market participation. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between perceived stress and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by gender. The effects of perceived stress on future labour market participation differed significantly among young women and young men (p = 0.029). For young men, higher levels of perceived stress reduced the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for socioeconomic factors, self-rated health and copings strategies (p = 0.045). For young women, higher levels of perceived stress increased the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for the same potential confounding factors, although unlike the men, this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.335). The observed gender difference has important implications from a public health point of view. Healthcare professionals might need to differentiate between the genders in terms of health communication, research and when developing preventive strategies.

  3. Surveillance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in Singaporean hospitals: a 5-year longitudinal study.

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    Yi-Xin Liew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescription of antibiotics may contribute towards higher levels antimicrobial resistance. A key intervention for improving appropriate antibiotic prescription is surveillance of prescription. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal surveillance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in 5 public-sector hospitals in Singapore from 2006 to 2010. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quarterly antibiotic prescription data were obtained and converted to defined daily doses (DDDs per 1,000 inpatient-days. The presence of significant trends in antibiotic prescription over time for both individual and combined hospitals was tested by regression analysis and corrected for autocorrelation between time-points. Excluding fluoroquinolones, there was a significant increase in prescription of all monitored antibiotics from an average of 233.12 defined daily doses (DDD/1,000 inpatient-days in 2006 to 254.38 DDD/1,000 inpatient-days in 2010 (Coefficient = 1.13, 95%CI: 0.16-2.09, p = 0.025. Increasing utilization of carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam, and Gram-positive agents were seen in the majority of the hospitals, while cephalosporins were less prescribed over time. The combined expenditure for 5 hospitals increased from USD9.9 million in 2006 to USD16.7 million in 2010. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Singaporean hospitals is much higher compared to those of European hospitals. This may be due to high rates of antimicrobial resistance. The increase in expenditure on monitored antibiotics over the past 5 years outstripped the actual increase in DDD/1,000 inpatient-days of antibiotics prescribed. Longitudinal surveillance of antibiotic prescription on a hospital and countrywide level is important for detecting trends for formulating interventions or policies. Further research is needed to understand the causes for the various prescription trends and to act on these where

  4. Children's sleep patterns from 0 to 9 years: Australian population longitudinal study.

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    Price, Anna M H; Brown, Judith E; Bittman, Michael; Wake, Melissa; Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    To provide accurate population normative data documenting cross-sectional, age-specific sleep patterns in Australian children aged 0-9 years. The first three waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two cohorts recruited in 2004 at ages 0-1 years (n=5107) and 4-5 years (n=4983), and assessed biennially. Children with analysable sleep data for at least one wave. At every wave, parents prospectively completed 24-h time-use diaries for a randomly selected week or weekend day. 'Sleeping, napping' was one of the 26 precoded activities recorded in 15-min time intervals. From 0 to 9 years of age, 24-h sleep duration fell from a mean peak of 14 (SD 2.2) h at 4-6 months to 10 (SD 1.9) h at 9 years, mainly due to progressively later mean sleep onset time from 20:00 (SD 75 min) to 21:00 (SD 60 min) and declining length of day sleep from 3.0 (SD 1.7) h to 0.03 (SD 0.2) h. Number and duration of night wakings also fell. By primary school, wake and sleep onset times were markedly later on weekend days. The most striking feature of the centile charts is the huge variation at all ages in sleep duration, sleep onset time and, especially, wake time in this normal population. Parents and professionals can use these new centile charts to judge normalcy of children's sleep. In future research, these population parameters will now be used to empirically determine optimal child sleep patterns for child and parent outcomes like mental and physical health.

  5. Longitudinal retention of anatomical knowledge in second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, Denise E; van Goor, Harry; Kooloos, Jan G M; Ten Broek, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    The Radboud University Medical Center has a problem-based, learner-oriented, horizontally, and vertically integrated medical curriculum. Anatomists and clinicians have noticed students' decreasing anatomical knowledge and the disability to apply knowledge in diagnostic reasoning and problem solving. In a longitudinal cohort, the retention of anatomical knowledge gained during the first year of medical school among second-year medical students was assessed. In May 2011, 346 medical students applied for the second-year gastro-intestinal (GI) tract course. The students were asked to participate in a reexamination of a selection of anatomical questions of an examination from October 2009. The examination consisted of a clinical anatomy case scenario and two computed tomography (CT) images of thorax and abdomen in an extended matching format. A total of 165 students were included for analysis. In 2011, students scored significantly lower for the anatomy examination compared to 2009 with a decline in overall examination score of 14.7% (±11.7%). Decrease in knowledge was higher in the radiological questions, compared to the clinical anatomy cases 17.5% (±13.6%) vs. 7.9% (±10.0%), respectively, d = 5.17. In both years, male students scored slightly better compared to female students, and decline of knowledge seems somewhat lower in male students (13.1% (±11.1%) vs. 15.5% (±12.0%), respectively), d = -0.21. Anatomical knowledge in the problem-oriented horizontal and vertical integrated medical curriculum, declined by approximately 15% 1.5 year after the initial anatomy course. The loss of knowledge in the present study is relative small compared to previous studies. Anat Sci Educ 10: 242-248. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. The Eight and a Half Year Journey of Undiagnosed AD: Gene Sequencing and Funding of Advanced Genetic Testing Has Led to Hope and New Beginnings

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    Illana Gozes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundActivity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP is one of the most prevalent de novo mutated genes in syndromic autism spectrum disorders, driving a general interest in the gene and the syndrome.AimThe aim of this study was to provide a detailed developmental case study of ADNP p.Tyr719* mutation toward improvements in (1 diagnostic procedures, (2 phenotypic scope, and (3 interventions.MethodsLongitudinal clinical and parental reports.ResultsAD (currently 11-year-old had several rare congenital anomalies including imperforate anus that was surgically repaired at 2 days of age. Her findings were craniofacial asymmetries, global developmental delay, autistic behaviors (loss of smile and inability to make eye contact at the age of 15 months, and slow thriving as she gradually matures. Comprehensive diagnostic procedures at 3 years resulted in no definitive diagnosis. With parental persistence, AD began walking at 3.5 years (skipping crawling. At the age of 8.5 years, AD was subjected to whole exome sequencing, compared to the parents and diagnosed as carrying an ADNP p.Tyr719* mutation, a causal recurring mutation in ADNP (currently ~17/80 worldwide. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mild generalized cerebral volume loss with reduced posterior white matter. AD is non-verbal, communicating with signs and word approximations. She continues to make slow but forward developmental progress, and her case teaches newly diagnosed children within the ADNP Kids Research Foundation.ConclusionThis case study emphasizes the importance of diagnosis and describes, for the first time, early motor intervention therapies. Detailed developmental profile of selected cases leads to better treatments.

  7. Longitudinal associations of burnout with heart rate variability in patients following acute coronary syndrome: A one-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Ling; Shi, Yunke; Yang, Yanfei; Yu, Xiaoju; Angerer, Peter; Kristensen, Tage S; Li, Jian

    2018-05-25

    To investigate longitudinal associations of burnout with heart rate variability (HRV) in patients after their first acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Two hundred eight patients participated in this one-year follow-up study. On the day before discharge, their personal burnout level was assessed by the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. HRV signals were collected at four time points: the day before discharge, one month, six month and one year after discharge. HRV was measured by 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography and analyzed in time and frequency domains. Generalized estimating equations were applied to analyze the associations of burnout at baseline with longitudinal tracking of HRV during follow-up. After adjusting for relevant confounding factors, high burnout at baseline was significantly associated with low SDNN, a time domain measure of HRV [regression coefficient = -0.087, 95% CI = (-0.136, -0.038) by an increase per SD in burnout score, p = 0.001]. Also, baseline burnout was inversely associated with five frequency domain measures, i.e., HF [coefficient = -0.179, 95% CI = (-0.352, -0.006), p = 0.043], LF [coefficient = -0.171, 95% CI = (-0.319, -0.023), p = 0.024], VLF [coefficient = -0.367, 95% CI = (-0.483, -0.250), p burnout is longitudinally associated with decreased HRV during one-year period among patients after first ACS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability in symptoms of anxiety and depression as a function of genotype and environment: a longitudinal twin study from ages 3 to 63 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivard, M G; Dolan, C V; Kendler, K S; Kan, K J; Willemsen, G; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Lindauer, R J L; van Beek, J H D A; Geels, L M; Bartels, M; Middeldorp, C M; Boomsma, D I

    2015-04-01

    The influence of genetic factors on major depressive disorder is lower than on other psychiatric disorders. Heritability estimates mainly derive from cross-sectional studies, and knowledge on the longitudinal aetiology of symptoms of anxiety and depression (SxAnxDep) across the lifespan is limited. We aimed to assess phenotypic, genetic and environmental stability in SxAnxDep between ages 3 and 63 years. We used a cohort-sequential design combining data from 49 524 twins followed from birth to age ⩾20 years, and from adolescence into adulthood. SxAnxDep were assessed repeatedly with a maximum of eight assessments over a 25-year period. Data were ordered in 30 age groups and analysed with longitudinal genetic models. Over age, there was a significant increase during adolescence in mean scores with sex differences (women>men) emerging. Heritability was high in childhood and decreased to 30-40% during adulthood. This decrease in heritability was due to an increase in environmental variance. Phenotypic stability was moderate in children (correlations across ages ~0.5) and high in adolescents (r = 0.6), young adults (r = 0.7), and adults (r = 0.8). Longitudinal stability was mostly attributable to genetic factors. During childhood and adolescence there was also significant genetic innovation, which was absent in adults. Environmental effects contributed to short-term stability. The substantial stability in SxAnxDep is mainly due to genetic effects. The importance of environmental effects increases with age and explains the relatively low heritability of depression in adults. The environmental effects are transient, but the contribution to stability increases with age.

  9. Global determinants of mortality in under 5s: 10 year worldwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Nacher, Mathieu; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Chavance, Michel

    2013-11-08

    To assess at country level the association of mortality in under 5s with a large set of determinants. Longitudinal study. 193 United Nations member countries, 2000-09. Yearly data between 2000 and 2009 based on 12 world development indicators were used in a multivariable general additive mixed model allowing for non-linear relations and lag effects. National rate of deaths in under 5s per 1000 live births The model retained the variables: gross domestic product per capita; percentage of the population having access to improved water sources, having access to improved sanitation facilities, and living in urban areas; adolescent fertility rate; public health expenditure per capita; prevalence of HIV; perceived level of corruption and of violence; and mean number of years in school for women of reproductive age. Most of these variables exhibited non-linear behaviours and lag effects. By providing a unified framework for mortality in under 5s, encompassing both high and low income countries this study showed non-linear behaviours and lag effects of known or suspected determinants of mortality in this age group. Although some of the determinants presented a linear action on log mortality indicating that whatever the context, acting on them would be a pertinent strategy to effectively reduce mortality, others had a threshold based relation potentially mediated by lag effects. These findings could help designing efficient strategies to achieve maximum progress towards millennium development goal 4, which aims to reduce mortality in under 5s by two thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  10. Predicting expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-12-01

    This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. This study included 36 children with ID, age 3;00 (years;months) to 6;05, with an average initial expressive vocabulary of 67 words. Expressive vocabulary acquisition was longitudinally followed over a 2-year period based on 4-monthly administrations of the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory/Words and Gestures (I. Zink & M. Lejaegere, 2002). Specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment as well as cognitive skills and vocabulary comprehension were measured at baseline. Individual growth modeling indicated that vocabulary comprehension was the only unique predictor of initial expressive vocabulary. Subsequent vocabulary growth was uniquely predicted by proportion of bimodal gesture + vocalization comments, chronological age, and cognitive skills. The results of this study underscore the great heterogeneity in expressive vocabulary skills in children with ID. The importance of prelinguistic communication, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension for explaining differences in expressive vocabulary skills is discussed.

  11. VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT IN YOUNG CHILDREN - A LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN 4- TO 6-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

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    Katja Koren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschool children are intensively involved in the process of developing fundamental movement skills such as walking, running, jumping, climbing, crawling and other simple movements. We aimed to compare age- and gender- related trends in countermovement vertical jump (CMJ performance (jumping height measured with a means of ground force plate during a longitudinal study of 4- to 6-year old children (N=79; 43% boys. Furthermore, we classified children CMJ arm-leg coordination into poor, average, or excellent on the grounds of high speed video footage. We found that CMJ height progresses significantly with age when arms are used (P<.001, η2=.632 and without the use of arms (P<.001, η2=.620. There were no sex effects. After classification of CMJ arm - leg coordination we found that children with excellent CMJ coordination progress more intensively than those with average coordination, whereas poorly coordinated jumpers do not progress at all. After extrapolating our data with the data of others, we found logarithmic CMJ height trends until the age of 16 in both sexes, athlete boys jumping higher than the non-athletes after the ages of 14 or 15. It seems that the initial movement patterns level, in this case the observed jumping technic, develops and refines in 4- to 6-year old children at that age. We conclude that jumping coordination is a very important factor of CMJ performance in the studied age span.

  12. Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that primary school children were either preoperational or concrete operational in their cognitive development and they could not learn abstract concepts. Our early research, based on Ausubelian theory, suggested otherwise. The paper describes the development and implementation of a Grade 1-2 audio tutorial science instructional sequence, and the subsequent tracing over 12 years, of the children's conceptual understandings in science compared to a matched control group. During the study the concept map was developed as a new tool to trace children's conceptual development. We found that students in the instruction group far outperformed their non-instructed counterparts, and this difference increased as they progressed through middle and high school. The data clearly support the earlier introduction of science instruction on basic science concepts, such as the particulate nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. The data suggest that national curriculum standards for science grossly underestimate the learning capabilities of primary-grade children. The study has helped to lay a foundation for guided instruction using computers and concept mapping that may help both teachers and students become more proficient in understanding science.

  13. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

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    Susanne eKristen-Antonow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness towards social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self recognition (MSR and delayed self recognition (DSR. Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze towards social partners during the still-face task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness towards a social partner in the still-face task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness towards being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness towards the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self.

  14. Family cohesion and posttraumatic intrusion and avoidance among war veterans: a 20-year longitudinal study.

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    Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2013-02-01

    The bi-directional relationships between combat-induced posttraumatic symptoms and family relations are yet to be understood. The present study assesses the longitudinal interrelationship of posttraumatic intrusion and avoidance and family cohesion among 208 Israeli combat veterans from the 1982 Lebanon War. Two groups of veterans were assessed with self-report questionnaires 1, 3 and 20 years after the war: a combat stress reaction (CSR) group and a matched non-CSR control group. Latent Trajectories Modeling showed that veterans of the CSR group reported higher intrusion and avoidance than non-CSR veterans at all three points of time. With time, there was a decline in these symptoms in both groups, but the decline was more salient among the CSR group. The latter also reported lower levels of family cohesion. Furthermore, an incline in family cohesion levels was found in both groups over the years. Most importantly, Autoregressive Cross-Lagged Modeling among CSR and non-CSR veterans revealed that CSR veterans' posttraumatic symptoms in 1983 predicted lower family cohesion in 1985, and lower family cohesion, in turn, predicted posttraumatic symptoms in 2002. The findings suggest that psychological breakdown on the battlefield is a marker for future family cohesion difficulties. Our results lend further support for the bi-directional mutual effects of posttraumatic symptoms and family cohesion over time.

  15. Pathological video game use among youths: a two-year longitudinal study.

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    Gentile, Douglas A; Choo, Hyekyung; Liau, Albert; Sim, Timothy; Li, Dongdong; Fung, Daniel; Khoo, Angeline

    2011-02-01

    We aimed to measure the prevalence and length of the problem of pathological video gaming or Internet use, to identify risk and protective factors, to determine whether pathological gaming is a primary or secondary problem, and to identify outcomes for individuals who become or stop being pathological gamers. A 2-year, longitudinal, panel study was performed with a general elementary and secondary school population in Singapore, including 3034 children in grades 3 (N = 743), 4 (N = 711), 7 (N = 916), and 8 (N = 664). Several hypothesized risk and protective factors for developing or overcoming pathological gaming were measured, including weekly amount of game play, impulsivity, social competence, depression, social phobia, anxiety, and school performance. The prevalence of pathological gaming was similar to that in other countries (∼9%). Greater amounts of gaming, lower social competence, and greater impulsivity seemed to act as risk factors for becoming pathological gamers, whereas depression, anxiety, social phobias, and lower school performance seemed to act as outcomes of pathological gaming. This study adds important information to the discussion about whether video game "addiction" is similar to other addictive behaviors, demonstrating that it can last for years and is not solely a symptom of comorbid disorders.

  16. MRSA Incidence and Antibiotic Trends in Urban Hand Infections: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Justin M; Thoder, Joseph J; Ilyas, Asif M

    2018-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most reported pathogen in hand infections at urban medical centers throughout the country. Antibiotic sensitivity trends are not well known. The purposes of this study were to examine and determine the drug resistance trends for MRSA infections of the hand and to provide recommendations for empiric antibiotic treatment based on sensitivity profiles. A 10-year longitudinal, retrospective chart review was performed on all culture-positive hand infections encountered at a single urban medical center from 2005 to 2014. The proportions of all organisms were calculated for each year and collectively. MRSA infections were additionally subanalyzed for antibiotic sensitivity. A total of 815 culture-positive hand infections were identified. Overall, MRSA grew on culture in 46% of cases. A trend toward decreasing annual MRSA incidence was noted over the 10-year study period. There was a steady increase in polymicrobial infections during the same time. Resistance to clindamycin increased steadily during the 10-year study, starting at 4% in 2008 but growing to 31% by 2014. Similarly, levofloxacin resistance consistently increased throughout the study, reaching its peak at 56% in 2014. The annual incidence of MRSA in hand infections has declined overall but remains the most common pathogen. There has been an alternative increase in the number of polymicrobial infections. MRSA resistance to clindamycin and levofloxacin consistently increased during the study period. Empiric antibiotic therapy for hand infections should not only avoid penicillin and other beta-lactams but should also consider avoiding clindamycin and levofloxacin for empiric treatment.

  17. The Protective Role of Family Meals for Youth Obesity: 10-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Hsueh, Tsun-Fang; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. Study design Data from Project EAT-III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999) adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n=2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19-31 (mean age=25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10-years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. Results All levels of baseline family meal frequency (i.e., 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/week) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity ten years later in young adulthood as compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black versus white young adults. Conclusions Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least one to two family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. PMID:25266343

  18. A 6-year longitudinal study of predictors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelenboom, Merijn; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Smit, Johannes H

    2018-06-13

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), represent a major source of risk for suicidality. However, knowledge about risk factors for future suicide attempts (SAs) within MDD is limited. The present longitudinal study examined a wide range of putative non-clinical risk factors (demographic, social, lifestyle, personality) and clinical risk factors (depressive and suicidal indicators) for future SAs among persons with MDD. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between a number of significant predictors and the incidence of a future SA. Data are from 1713 persons (18-65 years) with a lifetime MDD at the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety who were subsequently followed up 2, 4 and 6 years. SAs were assessed in the face-to-face measurements. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine a wide range of possible non-clinical and clinical predictors for subsequent SAs during 6-year follow-up. Over a period of 6 years, 3.4% of the respondents attempted suicide. Younger age, lower education, unemployment, insomnia, antidepressant use, a previous SA and current suicidal thoughts independently predicted a future SA. The number of significant risk factors (ranging from 0 to 7) linearly predicted the incidence of future SAs: in those with 0 predictors the SA incidence was 0%, which increased to 32% incidence in those with 6+ predictors. Of the non-clinical factors, particularly socio-economic factors predicted a SA independently. Furthermore, preexisting suicidal ideation and insomnia appear to be important clinical risk factors for subsequent SA that are open to preventative intervention.

  19. Breast cancer scenario in a regional cancer centre in Eastern India over eight years--still a major public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Choudhuri, Maitrayee; Guha, Subhas; Biswas, Jaydip

    2012-01-01

    In spite of screening and early diagnostic tests, the upward trend of breast cancer has become a matter of great concern in both developed and developing countries. The data collected by Population Based Cancer Registry in Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, a regional cancer centre in Kolkata, from 1997 to 2004 gives an insight about the scenario of breast cancer in this part of Eastern India. The total no of female breast cancer cases were steadily increasing from 1997 to 2001 and only slightly lower from 2002 to 2004. and majority were in the 40-49 year old age group during this period. The next most commonly affected age group was 50-59 years. Regarding the distribution according to treatment, the main modality was surgery and radiotherapy followed by combined surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and then combined surgery and chemotherapy. The commonest type was ductal followed by lobular cancer. In this eight year study in CNCI, status of patients on last day of the respective year was assessed. Number of patients alive was 43.5% in 1997. The percentage gradually increased up to 2000 and then gradually decreased to 47.4% in 2004. Also with every passing year, percentage mortality gradually decreased from 25.7% in 1997 to 16.8% in 2004. Better pattern of care (diagnosis and treatment) was reflected in this picture. However, lost to follow up, which also implies non compliance to treatment, increased to 30.8% in 1997 to 35.8% in 2004. Due to the small number of male breast cancers, only female cases were considered. In conclusion, breast cancer continues to be a major problem in Kolkata, India.

  20. Percursos da gravidez na adolescência: estudo longitudinal após uma década da gestação The pathway for adolescent maternity: longitudinal study 10 years after child's birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Ramacciotti de Oliveira-Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma pesquisa longitudinal qualitativa sobre maternidade na adolescência em contextos de vulnerabilidade social, com objetivo de verificar indicadores psicossociais no seguir dos anos. Oito díades mães-crianças/primeiros filhos nascidos na adolescência foram investigadas quando as crianças tinham: menos de cinco meses, três anos e meio, e 10 anos. Entrevistas de discurso livre e escala para triagem de competência e condições psicológicas das crianças (CBCL foram instrumentos aplicados nos próprios ambientes de moradia. Resultados são apresentados em eixos temáticos indicando valorização da maternidade, maior distanciamento de cenários violentos, instabilidade de moradia associada a prejuízos escolares/profissionais, crianças não apresentando maiores queixas quanto ao desenvolvimento. A maternidade na adolescência pode representar proteção frente a riscos ambientais associados a violência e drogas.This article presents a longitudinal qualitative research about maternity in adolescence in a context of social vulnerability, seeking to check psychosocial indicators along the years of the study. Eight dyads of mothers in adolescence and their firstborns were interviewed when their children were less than five months old; three and a half years old and ten years old. The instruments used in their daily environment were free speech interviews and observation submitted to scales for screening the competence and psychological conditions of the children. The results are presented in thematic axis, indicating valorization of maternity, distance from violent scenarios and instability in residence associated to school/professional damages and, children who do not present developmental problems. Maternity in adolescence may represent protection for the mothers concerning environmental risks associated to violence and drugs.

  1. How stable is the personal past? Stability of most important autobiographical memories and life narratives across eight years in a life span sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann

    2017-10-01

    Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story. We also explored whether normative age-graded life events form more stable parts of life narratives. In a longitudinal life span study covering up to 3 measurements across 8 years and 6 age groups (N = 164) the stability of important memories and of entire life narratives was measured as the percentage of events and narrative segments which were repeated in later tellings. Stability increased between ages 8 and 24, leveling off in middle adulthood. Beyond age, stability of life narratives was also predicted by proportion of normative age-graded life events and by causal-motivational text coherence in younger participants. Memories of normative developmental and social transitional life events were more stable than other memories. Stability of segments of life narratives exceeded the stability of single most important memories. Findings are discussed in terms of cognitive, personality, and narrative psychology and point to research questions in each of these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Does organized sport participation during youth predict healthy habits in adulthood? A 28-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, S; Hirvensalo, M; Smith, K; Raitakari, O; Männistö, S; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Tammelin, T

    2018-04-26

    Health behaviors in youth can predict the same behaviors later in life, but the role of sport participation in predicting healthy lifestyle habits is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between participation in organized youth sport and adult healthy lifestyle habits. Data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS) with a 28-year follow-up were used. The participation in sport-club training sessions was self-reported by 9-18-year-olds in 1983 and 1986 (n = 1285). During 2011, participants (aged 37-43-year old) reported their smoking status, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Odd ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression, to examine how participation in organized youth sport was associated with having three or four versus fewer (0-2) healthy habits in adulthood. Participants who were active in youth sport in both 1983 and 1986 had almost two times greater odds of having three or four healthy habits in adulthood than those who were not active at both time points (OR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.76). When the analyses were stratified by sex, the findings were statistically significant among women (OR: 2.13, 95%Cl: 1.13-3.99) but not men (OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 0.63-2.58). The results suggest that participation in organized youth sport could promote healthy lifestyle choices. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Non-leisure time physical activity is an independent predictor of longevity for a Taiwanese elderly population: an eight-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jin-Shang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA and non-leisure time physical activity (NLTPA on mortality among the elderly in Taiwan. Methods This is a prospective observational cohort study. We analyzed the mortality data from a cohort of 876 non-institutionalized community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or over, who were recruited by stratified clustering random sampling from Tainan city and participated in the 1996 Elderly Medication Survey. Information about activities and other variables were collected by structured interviews at baseline in the participants' home. The Cox proportional hazards model and crude death rate were applied to estimate mortality risk. Results Among the 876 participants, 312 died during the follow-up period (1996-2004. In the unadjusted Cox regression model, subjects aged over 75, having difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living (ADLs, a BMI less than 18.5, a history of diabetes mellitus or stroke, without LTPA or being inactive in NLTPA, were found to have a higher risk of eight-year mortality. With the adjustment for age, gender, education level, habitual smoking and drinking, living status, BMI and medical history, the mortality was found to be higher among the sedentary subjects, either defined by lack of LTPA or NLTPA, with the hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97-1.66 and 1.45 (95% CI = 1.07-1.97, respectively. Furthermore, when both LTPA and NLTPA were put into the model simultaneously, NLTPA (HR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.03-1.91 but not LTPA (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.92-1.59 significantly predicted mortality during eight-year follow-up. In addition, subjects who were actively engaged in NLTPA had a lower mortality risk especially in subjects without performing LTPA. Conclusions NLTPA is an independent predictor of longevity among older people in Taiwan. A physically active lifestyle, especially engaged in

  4. Non-leisure time physical activity is an independent predictor of longevity for a Taiwanese elderly population: an eight-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pei; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2011-06-03

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and non-leisure time physical activity (NLTPA) on mortality among the elderly in Taiwan. This is a prospective observational cohort study. We analyzed the mortality data from a cohort of 876 non-institutionalized community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or over, who were recruited by stratified clustering random sampling from Tainan city and participated in the 1996 Elderly Medication Survey. Information about activities and other variables were collected by structured interviews at baseline in the participants' home. The Cox proportional hazards model and crude death rate were applied to estimate mortality risk. Among the 876 participants, 312 died during the follow-up period (1996-2004). In the unadjusted Cox regression model, subjects aged over 75, having difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living (ADLs), a BMI less than 18.5, a history of diabetes mellitus or stroke, without LTPA or being inactive in NLTPA, were found to have a higher risk of eight-year mortality. With the adjustment for age, gender, education level, habitual smoking and drinking, living status, BMI and medical history, the mortality was found to be higher among the sedentary subjects, either defined by lack of LTPA or NLTPA, with the hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97-1.66) and 1.45 (95% CI = 1.07-1.97), respectively. Furthermore, when both LTPA and NLTPA were put into the model simultaneously, NLTPA (HR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.03-1.91) but not LTPA (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.92-1.59) significantly predicted mortality during eight-year follow-up. In addition, subjects who were actively engaged in NLTPA had a lower mortality risk especially in subjects without performing LTPA. NLTPA is an independent predictor of longevity among older people in Taiwan. A physically active lifestyle, especially engaged in NLTPA, is associated with lower mortality risk in the elderly

  5. Long-term immigrant adaptation: eight-year follow-up study among immigrants from Russia and Estonia living in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2008-02-01

    This study was a longitudinal investigation of the three different dimensions of long-term immigrant adaptation (i.e., psychological, sociocultural, and socioeconomic adaptation) and the relationships between them in an 8-year follow-up with panel data. The 282 respondents were immigrants in Finland, born between 1961 and 1976, coming from the former Soviet Union. The results suggest that the adaptation of these immigrants has developed favourably. In 8 years, the respondents had improved their Finnish language skills and their position in the labour market. No differences were observed in their levels of psychological well-being between the two assessments. Of the three adaptation dimensions assessed, sociocultural adaptation, measured as proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Finnish, turned out to be the most significant predictor of the two other long-term outcomes of immigrant adaptation (i.e., socioeconomic and psychological). In particular, the better the initial command of the Finnish language, the better were their socioeconomic and psychological adaptation outcomes after 8 years of residence. These results demonstrate the importance of parallel and longitudinal assessments of the different outcomes of immigrant adaptation in order to address which particular dimensions of adaptation are most critical in the beginning of acculturation in terms of determining positive development and long-term immigrant adaptation. This study was supported by City of Helsinki Urban Facts. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Anniina Lahtinen and Riku Perhoniemi in the data collection, and in addition, Riku Perhoniemi for the preliminary data analysis, and advice on the Amos analyses. Cette étude longitudinale a examiné trois différentes dimensions de l'adaptation à long-terme de l'immigré (i.e., adaptation psychologique, socio-culturelle et socio-économique) et de la relation entre elles dans un suivi de 8 ans avec des données de

  6. Estimating search engine index size variability: a 9-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; de Kunder, Maurice

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel method of estimating the size of a Web search engine's index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing's indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006 until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find that much, if not all of this variability can be explained by changes in the indexing and ranking infrastructure of Google and Bing. This casts further doubt on whether Web search engines can be used reliably for cross-sectional webometric studies.

  7. Evolution of Students' Varied Conceptualizations About Socially Responsible Engineering: A Four Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulifson, Greg; Bielefeldt, Angela R

    2018-03-20

    Engineers should learn how to act on their responsibility to society during their education. At present, however, it is unknown what students think about the meaning of socially responsible engineering. This paper synthesizes 4 years of longitudinal interviews with engineering students as they progressed through college. The interviews revolved broadly around how students saw the connections between engineering and social responsibility, and what influenced these ideas. Using the Weidman Input-Environment-Output model as a framework, this research found that influences included required classes such as engineering ethics, capstone design, and some technical courses, pre-college volunteering and familial values, co-curricular groups such as Engineers Without Borders and the Society of Women Engineers, as well as professional experiences through internships. Further, some experiences such as technical courses and engineering internships contributed to confine students' understanding of an engineer's social responsibility. Overall, students who stayed in engineering tended to converge on basic responsibilities such as safety and bettering society as a whole, but tended to become less concerned with improving the lives of the marginalized and disadvantaged. Company loyalty also became important for some students. These results have valuable, transferable contributions, providing guidance to foster students' ideas on socially responsible engineering.

  8. Autonomy, filial piety, and parental authority: a two-year longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year longitudinal study was conducted to test 3 causal models about adolescent autonomy, filial piety, beliefs about parental authority, and obedience in terms of personal, prudential, and multifaceted issues. Four hundred and thirty-six students from 10 junior and senior high schools in Taiwan (boys, n = 223; senior high school, n = 211) participated in the study. Hypothesis I predicted that autonomy (individuating autonomy vs. relating autonomy) would positively correlate with beliefs about authority legitimacy and obligation to obey, but was not supported. Hypothesis 2 predicted that filial piety (authoritarian piety vs. reciprocal piety) would positively associate with authority beliefs, and was partially supported. Authoritarian piety showed the positive relation with authority beliefs. Hypothesis 3 predicted that beliefs about authority legitimacy and obligation to obey would positively associate with obedience, and was supported. Hypothesis 4 predicted that age might moderate the structure models across domains, but the results indicated that age did not moderate the structural model in the prudential and multifaceted domains. The overall findings of this study reveal that adolescent beliefs about authority serve as a mediator between authoritarian piety and obedience, suggesting that traditional piety still has an influence on parent-child interaction in today's society.

  9. Cognitive decline over time in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1: A 9-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Benjamin; Gagnon, Cynthia; Mathieu, Jean; Richer, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited neuromuscular disease with multisystemic involvement including the central nervous system. The evolution of the cognitive profile is a matter of debate, whether an eventual decline could be global or process-specific. Study aims are to describe, compare and document the clinical relevance of the progression of cognitive abilities in DM1 patients with adult and late-onset phenotypes. A total of 115 DM1 patients (90 adult; 25 late-onset) were assessed twice within a 9-year period on cognitive abilities (language, memory, visual attention, processing speed, visuoconstructive abilities and executive functions) and intellectual functioning (WAIS-R 7). A significant worsening over time was observed for verbal memory, visual attention, and processing speed. The progression in cognitive scores correlated with age and disease duration, but not with nCTG, muscular impairment nor education at baseline. Intellectual functioning remained stable. The rate of decline was higher among the late-onset phenotype than in the adult phenotype. Results showed that executive functions, language, and visual memory are impaired earlier in adult life, while verbal memory, visual attention, and processing speed decline later. Globally, results suggest an early and accelerated normal ageing process. This longitudinal study was based on the largest sample and the longest time period studied to date. These findings are highly relevant for clinical practice and genetic counselling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early risk factors for criminal offending in schizophrenia: a 35-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Asa; Romelsjö, Anders; Stenbacka, Marlene; Tengström, Anders

    2011-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that factors predicting offending among individuals with no mental disorder may also predict offending among individuals with schizophrenia. The aims of the study were (1) to explore the prevalence of risk factors for criminal offending reported at age 18 among males later diagnosed with schizophrenia, (2) to explore the associations between risk factors reported at age 18 and lifetime criminal offending, (3) to predict lifetime serious violent offending based on risk factors reported at age 18, and (4) to compare the findings with those in males with no later diagnosis of schizophrenia. The study was a prospective, longitudinal study of a birth cohort followed up through registers after 35 years. The cohort consisted of 49,398 males conscripted into the Swedish Army in 1969-1970, of whom 377 were later diagnosed with schizophrenia. Among the subjects later diagnosed with schizophrenia, strong associations were found between four of the items reported at age 18 and lifetime criminal offending: (1) low marks for conduct in school, (2) contact with the police or child care authorities, (3) crowded living conditions, and (4) arrest for public drinking. Three of these four risk factors were found to double the risk of offending among males with no later diagnosis of schizophrenia. Criminality in individuals with schizophrenia may at least partly be understood as a phenomenon similar to criminality in individuals in the general population.

  11. A Seven-Year Longitudinal Study of the Research Outcomes for the CASPER Physics Circus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Land-Zandstra, Anna; Stark, Gary; Tarman, Lisa; Menefee, Matt; Wang, Li; Cook, Mike; Schmoke, Jimmy; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2014-10-01

    The CASPER Physics Circus was specifically designed to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers where the current generation of scientists and engineers is rapidly approaching retirement age. The Physics Circus followed Waco and LaVega ISD students starting in the sixth grade and ending in the twelfth grade with this cohort group attending the Physics Circus event on the Baylor University campus, interacting with CASPER graduate students and participating in hands-on instructional activities. The event was designed as an informal learning environment intervention and operated under the discovery, project and guided-inquiry base framework wrapped in a learner-center ideology. Participating students were allowed to experiment with hands-on manipulatives while interacting with physicists, science educators and graduate students in both STEM and science education fields. Professional Development was also a part of the Physics Circus for all science teachers within the cohort. This paper presents the results of a seven-year longitudinal study on the Physics Circus and presents future plans to expand the program's effectiveness and impact.

  12. Longitudinal changes in white matter disease and cognition in the first year of the Alzheimer disease neuroimaging initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Owen; Schwarz, Christopher; Drucker, David; Fletcher, Evan; Harvey, Danielle; Beckett, Laurel; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael; Decarli, Charles; Abdi, Herve; Abeliovich, Asa; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Abner, Erin; Acharya, Deepa; Adams, Nicholas; Adler, Daniel; Agrusti, Antonella; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahn, Jae Eun; Aisen, Paul; Aksu, Yaman; Al-Akhras, Mousa; Alarcon, Marcelo; Alberca, Roman; Alexander, Gene; Alexander, Daniel; Almeida, Fabio; Anand, Rishi; Anand, Shyam; Andrew, Marilee; Anjum, Ayesha; Aoyama, Eiji; Ard, Michael Colin; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Armor, Tom; Arnold, Steven; Asatryan, Albert; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Assareh, Arezoo; Aubry, Florent; Avants, Brian; Avinash, Gopal; Awasthi, Sukrati; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Bagci, Ulas; Bai, Shuyang; Baker, John; Banks, Sarah; Bard, Jonathan; Barnes, Josephine; Barret, Olivier; Bartzokis, George; Barua, Neil; Bauer, Corinna; Becker, James; Bednar, Martin; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Bek, Stephan; Bernard, Charlotte; Bertram, Lars; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Biffi, Alessandro; Bilgic, Basar; Bishnoi, Mahesh; Bishop, Courtney; Bittner, Daniel; Black, Ronald; Blennow, Kaj; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Boppana, Madhu; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bowes, Mike; Bowman, Gene; Bowman, DuBois; Braskie, Meredith; Brewer, James; Brickman, Adam; Broadbent, Steve; Brooks, David; Browndyke, Jeffrey; Bruat, Vanessa; Brunton, Simon; Buchert, Ralph; Buchsbaum, Monte; Buckley, Chris; Burger, Cyrill; Burns, Jeffrey; Burton, David; Butman, John; Cabeza, Rafael; Cairns, Nigel; Callhoff, Johanna; Calvini, Piero; Campbell, Aaron; Cantillon, Marc; Capella, Heraldo; Cardona-Sanclemente, Luis Eduardo; Carle, Adam; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carranza-Ath, Fredy; Casanova, Ramon; Cash, David; Cella, Massimo; Celsis, Pierre; Chan, Lung Tat Andrew; Chaney, Megan; Chanu, Pascal; Chao, Linda; Charil, Arnaud; Chemali, Zeina; Chen, Baojiang; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Ting; Chen, Minhua; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Rong; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Chertkow, Howard; Chiang, Gloria; Chiba, Koji; Chisholm, Jane; Cho, Youngsang; Choe, John; Choubey, Suresh; Christensen, Anette Luther; Clark, Chris; Clark, David; Clarkson, Matt; Clayton, David; Clunie, David; Coimbra, Alexandre; Compton, David; Crane, Paul; Crans, Gerald; Croop, Robert; Crowther, Daniel; Crum, William; Cui, Yue; Curry, Charles; Curtis, Steven; Cutter, Gary; Daiello, Lori; Dake, Michael; Dale, Anders; Damato, Vito Domenico; Darby, Eveleen; Darkner, Sune; Davatzikos, Christos; Dave, Jay; David, Renaud; Davidson, Julie; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Meyer, Geert; de Nunzio, Giorgio; de Santi, Susan; Dechairo, Bryan; DeDuck, Kristina; Dejkam, Arsalan; Delfino, Manuel; Delpassand, Ebrahim; Deniz, Oscar; Denney, Douglas; DeOrchis, Vincent; Depy Carron, Delphine; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Devanand, Davangere; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Diaz, Gloria; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Dickerson, Bradford; Dinov, Ivo; Dodge, Hiroko; Donohue, Michael; Dowling, Maritza; Drzezga, Alex; Duan, Xujun; Duchesne, Simon; Duff, Kevin; Dukart, Jurgen; Durazzo, Timothy; Dykstra, Kevin; Earl, Nancy; Edula, Goutham; Ekin, Ahmet; Engelman, Corinne; Epstein, Noam; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Eskildsen, Simon; Falcone, Guido; Fan, Yong; Farnum, Michael; Farrer, Lindsay; Farzan, Ali; Feldman, Howard; Feng, Yan; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fernandes, Michel; Fernandez, Elsa; Ferrarini, Luca; Ferreira, Luiz; Ferrer, Eugene; Figurski, Michal; Filipovych, Roman; Finch, Stephen; Finlay, Daniel; Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Flenniken, Derek; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Flynn Longmire, Crystal; Forman, Mark; Forsythe, Alan; Fox-Bosetti, Sabrina; Francis, Alexander L.; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Franko, Edit; Freeman, Stefanie; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Fujimoto, Yoko; Fujiwara, Ken; Fullerton, Terence; Furney, Simon; Gallins, Paul; Gamst, Anthony; Gan, Ke; Garcia, Maria Teresa; Garcia-Linares, Antonio; Garg, Gaurav; Gaser, Christian; Gastineau, Edward; Gavidia, Giovana; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Ge, Qi; Gemme, Gianluca; German, Dwight; Ghassabi, Zeinab; Gil, Juan E.; Gill, Ryan; Gitelman, Darren; Gleason, Carey; Godbey, Michael; Goghari, Vina; Gold, Michael; Goldberg, Terry; Gomeni, Roberto; Gong, Shangwenyan; Gonzales, Celedon; Gordon, Brian; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Grachev, Igor; Grandey, Emily; Grasela, Thaddeus; Gratt, Jeremy; Gray, Katherine; Greenberg, Barry; Gregg, Keith; Gregory, Erik; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Grill, Joshua; Gross, Alan; Guo, Lianghao; Guo, Hongbin; Guo, Jeffrey; Habeck, Christian; Hai, Yizhen; Haight, Thaddeus; Hakansson, Kristina; Hammarstrom, Per; Hampel, Harald; Han, Tony; Han, Jian; Hanif, Muhammad; Hanna, Yousef; Hardy, Peter; Hasan, Md Kamrul; Hazart, Aurelien; Hazel, James; He, Yong; He, Huiguang; Head, Denise; Heckemann, Rolf; Heidebrink, Judith; Henderson, David; Henrard, Sebastien; Herholz, Karl; Hernandez, Monica; Hess, Christopher; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoffman, John; Holder, Daniel; Honigberg, Lee; Horsfield, Mark; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hsu, Ailing; Hu, Zhenghui; Hu, Zhiwei; Hu, Xiaolan; Hu, William; Huang, Shu-Pang; Huang, Chun-Jung; Huang, Fude; Huang, Yifan; Huang, Juebin; Huang, Chingwen; Hubbard, Rebecca; Huentelman, Matthew; Hui, Shen; Huppertz, Hans-Jurgen; Hurko, Orest; Hurt, Stephen; Huyck, Susan; Hwang, Scott; Hyun, JungMoon; Ifeachor, Emmanuel; Iglesias, Martina; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Immermann, Fred; Inoue, Lurdes; Insel, Philip; Irizarry, Michael; Irungu, Benson mwangi; Ishibashi, Taro; Ishii, Kenji; Ismail, Shahina; Ito, Kaori; Ito, Momoyo; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Iyer, Madhumitha; Jacobson, Mark; Jacobson, Alex; Jafari, Aria; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jaffe, Carl; Jagust, William; Jara, Hernan; Jaros, Mark; Jefferson, Angela; Jiang, Tianzi; Johnson, David K.; Juengling, Freimut; Juh, Rahyeong; Julin, Per; Bhaskar, Uday; Kadish, Bill; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Kallam, Hanimi Reddy; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Karantzoulis, Stella; Karasev, Peter; Kauwe, John; Kawakami, Hirofumi; Kazimipoor, Borhan; Kelleher, Thomas; Kennedy, Richard; Kerr, Douglas; Kerrouche, Nacer; Khalil, Iya; Khalil, Andre; Khatry, Deepak; Kihel, Badra; Killeen, Neil; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Yeonhee; Kim, Jong Hun; Kimberg, Daniel; Kimura, Tokunori; King, Richard; Kirby, Justin; Kita, Hiroshi; Klimas, Michael; Klopfenstein, Erin; Kobayashi, Dione; Koikkalainen, Juha; Kokomoor, Anders; Kolasny, Anthony; Kondo, Yusuke; Koppel, Jeremy; Korolev, Igor; Kotran, Nickolas; Kouassi, Alex; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Kozma, Lynn; Kramer, Joel; Kratzer, Martina; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhn, Felix Pierre; Kulkarni, Mauktik; Kumar, Sreedhar; Kuo, Hsun Ting; Kuo, Julie; Kurosawa, Ken; Kwon, Oh Hun; Laforet, Genevieve; Lai, Song; Lakatos, Anita; Landau, Susan; Landen, Jaren; Lane, Richard; Langbaum, Jessica; Lanius, Vivian; Lavault, Romain; Laxamana, Joel; Le, Trung; Leahy, Richard; Lee, Noah; Lee, Vita; Lee, Joseph H.; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Dongsoo; Lee, Junyoung; Lefkimmiatis, Stamatis; Lemaitre, Herve; Lenz, Robert; Lester, Gayle; Levey, Allan; Li, Rui; Li, Wenjun; Li, Shanshan; Li, Lexin; Li, Shi-jiang; Li, Gang; Li, Lin; Li, Yi; Li, Jinhe; Li, Chin-Shang; Liang, Peipeng; Liang, Lichen; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Lin, Mingkuan; Lin, Lan; Lin, Ling-chih; Liu, Tao; Liu, Meijie; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dazhong; Liu, Pu; Liu, Songling; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Tianming; Lo, Raymond; Logovinsky, Veronika; Lois, Augusto; Long, Xiaojing; Long, Ziyi; Looi, Jeffrey; Lu, Yuan; Lu, Po-Haong; Lukic, Ana; Lull, Juan J.; Lynch, John; Ma, Lei; Mackin, Scott; Magda, Sebastian; Maglio, Silvio; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Malave, Vicente; Mandal, Pravat; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Manohar, Deepak; Mansouri, Chemseddine; Mantri, Ninad; Manzour, Amir; Marambaud, Philippe; Marchewka, Artur; Marek, Kenneth; Markind, Samuel; Marshall, Gad; Martin, Jacob; Mather, Mara; Mathis, Chester; Matoug, Sofia; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Matthews, Dawn; Mayo, Agustin; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McIntyre, John; McQuail, Joseph; Meadowcroft, Mark; Meda, Shashwath; Mehta, Nirav; Mele, Valeria; Mendonca, Brian; Menendez, Manuel; Meredith, Jere; Merrill, David; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Meyer, Carsten; Mez, Jesse; Mickael, Guedj; Miftahof, Roustem; Mikhno, Arthur; Miller, David; Min, Ye; Miri, Roham; Mirza, Mubeena; Mitsis, Effie; Mohan, Ananth; Monno, Laura; Montana, Giovanni; Moore, Dana; Birgani, Parmida Moradi; Moratal, David; Morimoto, Bruce; Mortamet, Benedicte; Motyl, Rafal; Mueller, Notger; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Mulder, Emma; Murphy, Michael; Murray, Brian; Musiek, Erik; Myers, Amanda; Najafi, Shahla; Nazeri, Arash; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Neu, Scott; Neves, Simone; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Danh; Nguyen, Nghi; Nguyen Xuan, Tuong; Nielsen, Casper; Nuneez Benjumea, Francisco; O'Neil, Alison; Obisesan, Thomas; Oh, Dong Hoon; Oh, Joonmi; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Ollesch, Julian; Olmos, Salvador; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Oswald, Annahita; Ott, Brian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Paiva, Renata; Pan, Zhifang; Pande, Yogesh; Pardoe, Heath; Park, Kee Hyung; Park, Hyunjin; Parsey, Ramin; Parveen, Riswana; Paskavitz, James; Patel, Yogen; Patil, Manasi; Paul, Robert; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Peavy, Guerry; Peng, Yahong; Pepin, Jean louis; Perea, Rodrigo; Perneczky, Robert; Petitti, Diana; Petrella, Jeffrey; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Pezoa, Jorge; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Phillips, Nicole; Piovezan, Mauro; Podhorski, Adam; Pollari, Mika; Pontecorvo, Michael; Poppenk, Jordan; Posner, Holly; Potkin, Steven; Poulin, Stephane; Prasad, Gautam; Prenger, Kurt; Prieto, Elena; Prince, Jerry; Puchakayala, Shashidhar Reddy; Qin, Wei; Qiu, Ruolun; Qiu, Wendy; Qiu, Anqi; Qualls, Constance Dean; Rabie, Huwaida; Rajeesh, Rajeesh; Rajeesh, J. Rajeesh; Rallabandi, V. P. Subramanyam; Ramage, Amy; Randolph, Christopher; Raniga, Parnesh; Rao, Divya; Rao, Anil; Raubertas, Richard; Ray, Debashis; Razak, Hana; Redolfi, Alberto; Reid, Andrew; Reilhac, Anthonin; Reinsberger, Claus; Restrepo, Lucas; Retico, Alessandra; Rezaeitabar, Yousef; Richards, John; Richter, Mirco; Riddle, William; Ries, Michele; Rincon, Mariano; Rischall, Matt; Robieson, Weining; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, Elizabeth; Rojas, Ignacio; Romero, Klaus; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosen, Ori; Rosen, Allyson; Rosenberg, Paul; Ross, David; Ross, Joel; Rousseau, Francois; Rowe, Christopher; Rubin, Daniel; Ruiz, Agustin; Rusinek, Henry; Ryan, Laurie; Saad, Ahmed; Sabbagh, Marway; Sabuncu, Mert; Sachs, Michael; Sacuiu, Simona; Sadeghi, Ali; Said, Yasmine; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Sakata, Muneyuki; Salat, David; Salmon, David; Salomi, Sharmila; Salter, Hugh; Samwald, Matthias; Sanchez, Luciano; Sanjo, Nobuo; Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Sato, Shinji; Sato, Hajime; Saumier, Daniel; Savio, Alexandre; Sawada, Ikuhisa; Saykin, Andrew; Schaffer, J. David; Scharre, Douglas; Schlosser, Gretchen; Schmand, Ben; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Mark; Schneider, Lon; Schramm, Hauke; Schuerch, Markus; Schwartz, Eben; Schwartz, Craig; Schwarz, Adam; Seethamraju, Ravi; Seixas, Flavio; Selnes, Per; Senjem, Matthew; Senlin, Wang; Seo, Sang Won; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sevigny, Jeffrey; Sfikas, Giorgos; Shahbaba, Babak; Shams, Soheil; Shankle, William; Shattuck, David; Shaw, Leslie; Sheela, Jaba; Shen, Weijia; Shera, David; Sherman, John; Sherman, Michelle; Sherva, Richard; Shimizu, Keiji; Shuler, Catherine; Shulman, Joshua; Siegel, Rene; Siemers, Eric; Silveira, Margarida; Silver, Michael; Silverman, Daniel; Simmons, Andy; Simpson, Ivor; Singh, Simer Preet; Singh, Nikhil; Siuciak, Judy; Sjogren, Niclas; Skup, Martha; Small, Gary; Smith, Benjamin; Smith, Michael; Smith, Charles; Smyth, Timothy; Snow, Sarah; Soares, Holly; Soldea, Octavian; Solomon, Paul; Solomon, Alan; Song, Mingli; Song, Changhong; Sorensen, Greg; Soudah, Eduardo; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Spenger, Christian; Sperling, Reisa; Spiegel, Rene; Spies, Lothar; Squarcia, Sandro; Squire, Larry; Staff, Roger; Stern, Yaakov; Strittmatter, Stephen; Styren, Scot; Sugishita, Morihiro; Sugishita, Kazuyuki; Sukkar, Rafid; Sun, Jia; Sun, Yu; Sundell, Karen; Suri, Muhammad; Swan, Melanie; Takagi, Toshihisa; Takahasi, Tetsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Tang, Songyuan; Tanner, William; Tao, Wenwen; Tao, Dacheng; Tariot, Pierre; Tarjoman, Mana; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Terlizzi, Rita; Thiele, Frank; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Benjamin; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Wesley; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Thurfjell, Lennart; Titeux, Laurence; Tolli, Tuomas; Toma, Ahmed; Tomita, Naoki; Toro, Roberto; Tosun, Duygu; Toussaint, Paule; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Trittschuh, Emily; Truran, Diana; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Tucker-Drob, Elliot; Tung, Joyce; Uesugi, Humito; Ullrich, Lauren; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Umar, Nisser; Uzunbas, Gokhan; Valdivia, Fernando; van Horn, John; van Leemput, Koen; van Train, Kenneth; van Zeeland, Ashley; Vargas, Gabriel; Vasanawala, Minal; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Verwaerde, Philippe; Videbaek, Charlotte; Vidoni, Eric; Vigneron, Vincent; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Vitolo, Ottavio; Vlassenko, Andrei; Volkau, Ihar; Vounou, Maria; Wade, Sara; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Wallace, Douglas; Wan, Hong; Wang, Angela; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Yongmei Michelle; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Alex; Wang, Lubin; Wang, Yalin; Wang, Tiger; Wang, Yue; Wang, Huanli; Wang, Huali; Ward, Michael; Warfield, Simon; Waring, Stephen; Webb, David; Wei, Lili; Wen, Shu-Hui; Wenjing, Li; Wenzel, Fabian; Westlye, Lars T.; Whitcher, Brandon; Whitwell, Jennifer; WilliamFaltaos, Demiana; Williams, David; Wilmot, Beth; Wingo, Thomas; Winkler, Andreas; Wiste, Heather; Wolfson, Tanya; Wolke, Ira; Wolz, Robin; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Ellen; Woods, Lynn; Worth, Andrew; Worth, Eric; Wouters, Hans; Wu, Liang; Wu, Xiaoling; Wu, Yi Gen; Wu, Teresa; Wyman, Bradley; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Xiao, Liu; Xu, Guofan; Xu, Jun; Yamane, Tomohiko; Yamashita, Fumio; Yamazawa, Maki; Yan, Yunyi; Yan, Pingkun; Yang, Qing X.; Yang, Zhitong; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ye, Jieping; Yee, Laura; Yesavage, Jerome; Yip, WaiKuan; Yoo, Bongin; Yuan, Kai; Yushkevich, Paul; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Zagorski, Michael; Zawadzki, Rezi; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhang, Huixiong; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Kurt; Zhao, Qinying; Zhao, Peng; Zhen, Xiantong; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhijun, Yao; Zhou, Sheng; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Luping; Zhu, Wanlin; Zhu, Hongtu; Zou, Heng

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate relationships between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), measured at baseline and longitudinally, and 1-year cognitive decline using a large convenience sample in a clinical trial design with a relatively mild profile of

  13. Adjustment to cancer in the 8 years following diagnosis : A longitudinal study comparing cancer survivors with healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya; Ranchor, A.V; Sanderman, R.

    This longitudinal study examined the long-term impact of a diagnosis of cancer on physical and psychological functioning, by comparing 8-year cancer survivors (n = 206) to a randomly selected sample of similar-aged references without cancer (n = 120) in the Netherlands. Comparisons were made at

  14. Secondary health conditions in persons with spinal cord injury : A longitudinal study from one to five years post-discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen, Jacinthe J. E.; Post, Marcel W. M.; de Groot, Sonja; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; Tepper, Marga; Lindeman, Eline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the occurrence of secondary health conditions and their potential risk factors in persons with spinal cord injury from 1 to 5 years after discharge from initial inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Multicentre longitudinal study. Subjects: A total of 139 wheelchair-dependent

  15. Emerging behavioral flexibility in loop writing: A longitudinal study in 7-to-9 year-old primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosga-Stork, I.M.; Bosga, J.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    The development of the ability to adapt one's motor performance to the constraints of a movement task was examined in a longitudinal study involving 7-to-9 year-old children who were asked to perform a preparatory handwriting task. The capacity for sensorimotor synchronization was captured by the

  16. Eating Problems and Their Risk Factors: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population Sample of Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansi, Juliska; Wichstrom, Lars; Bergman, Lars R.

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal stability of eating problems and their relationships to risk factors were investigated in a representative population sample of 623 Norwegian girls aged 13-14 followed over 7 years (3 time points). Three eating problem symptoms were measured: Restriction, Bulimia-food preoccupation, and Diet, all taken from the 12-item Eating…

  17. Methotrexate in ocular manifestations of Behcet's disease: a longitudinal study up to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatchi, Fereydoun; Shams, Hormoz; Shahram, Farhad; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda; Sadeghi Abdollahi, Bahar; Faezi, Tahereh; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Ashofteh, Farimah

    2013-10-01

    Ocular manifestations of Behcet's disease (BD) need aggressive treatment to prevent severe loss of vision or blindness. Cytotoxic drugs are the main therapeutic agents and the first line treatment. Methotrexate is the least toxic, used mainly for posterior uveitis. We present here the outcome of eye lesions with methotrexate and prednisolone, in a longitudinal study of up to 15 years, on 682 patients (5447 eye-years of follow-up). Methotrexate was started at 7.5-15 mg/week. Prednisolone was added at 0.5 mg/kg/daily, then adjusted as needed. (i) fulfilling the International Criteria for Behcet's Disease; and (ii) having active posterior uveitis (PU). Visual acuity (VA) was calculated on a scale of 10. Activity indexes were calculated for PU and retinal vasculitis (RV) for each eye. Total Inflammatory Activity Index (TIAI) demonstrating the inflammatory index of both eyes of the patient, and Total Adjusted Disease Activity Index (TADAI) showing both TIAI + VA were also calculated. Overall results: the mean VA improvement was 0.4 (P < 001), PU 1.2 (P < 0.001) and RV 0.6 (P < 0.001). VA improved in 46.5%, PU in 75.4%, and RV in 53.7% of eyes. TIAI improved in 74% of patients and TADAI in 69.4%. VA was aggravated in 37.2%, PU in 11.1%, and RV in 30.3% of eyes. TIAI was aggravated in 17.4% and TADAI in 21.6% of the patients. The remaining kept their baseline values. All parameters improved, PU better than RV. Improvement of VA was the least, mainly due to secondary cataracts. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. A three-year longitudinal study of affective temperaments and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-08-01

    Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Embedding Evidence-based Practice Education into a Post-graduate Physiotherapy Program: Eight Years of pre-Post Course Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, L; Machotka, Z; Grimmer, K; Gibbs, C; Mahar, C; Kennedy, K

    2017-04-01

    Little has been published about the effectiveness of training postgraduate physiotherapy coursework students in research methods and evidence-based practice (EBP) theory. Graduate qualities in most universities include lifelong learning. Inclusion of EBP in post-graduate coursework students' training is one way for students to develop the knowledge and skills needed to implement current best evidence in their clinical practice after graduation, thereby facilitating lifelong learning. This paper reports on change in confidence and anxiety in knowledge of statistical terminology and concepts related to research design and EBP in eight consecutive years of post-graduate physiotherapy students at one Australian university. Pre-survey/post-survey instruments were administered to students in an intensive 3-week post-graduate course, which taught health research methods, biostatistics and EBP. This course was embedded into a post-graduate physiotherapy programme from 2007 to 2014. The organization and delivery of the course was based on best pedagogical evidence for effectively teaching adult physiotherapists. The course was first delivered each year in the programme, and no other course was delivered concurrently. There were significant improvements in confidence, significantly decreased anxiety and improvements in knowledge of statistical terminology and concepts related to research design and EBP, at course completion. Age, gender and country of origin were not confounders on learning outcomes, although there was a (non-significant) trend that years of practice negatively impacted on learning outcomes (p = 0.09). There was a greater improvement in confidence in statistical terminology than in concepts related to research design and EBP. An intensive teaching programme in health research methods and biostatistics and EBP, based on best practice adult physiotherapy learning principles, is effective immediately post-course, in decreasing anxiety and increasing

  20. The long-term longitudinal course of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in ADHD boys: findings from a controlled 10-year prospective longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J; Petty, C R; Dolan, C; Hughes, S; Mick, E; Monuteaux, M C; Faraone, S V

    2008-07-01

    A better understanding of the long-term scope and impact of the co-morbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth has important clinical and public health implications. Subjects were assessed blindly at baseline (mean age=10.7 years), 1-year (mean age=11.9 years), 4-year (mean age=14.7 years) and 10-year follow-up (mean age=21.7 years). The subjects' lifetime diagnostic status of ADHD, ODD and CD by the 4-year follow-up were used to define four groups (Controls, ADHD, ADHD plus ODD, and ADHD plus ODD and CD). Diagnostic outcomes at the 10-year follow-up were considered positive if full criteria were met any time after the 4-year assessment (interval diagnosis). Outcomes were examined using a Kaplan-Meier survival function (persistence of ODD), logistic regression (for binary outcomes) and negative binomial regression (for count outcomes) controlling for age. ODD persisted in a substantial minority of subjects at the 10-year follow-up. Independent of co-morbid CD, ODD was associated with major depression in the interval between the 4-year and the 10-year follow-up. Although ODD significantly increased the risk for CD and antisocial personality disorder, CD conferred a much larger risk for these outcomes. Furthermore, only CD was associated with significantly increased risk for psychoactive substance use disorders, smoking, and bipolar disorder. These longitudinal findings support and extend previously reported findings from this sample at the 4-year follow-up indicating that ODD and CD follow a divergent course. They also support previous findings that ODD heralds a compromised outcome for ADHD youth grown up independently of the co-morbidity with CD.

  1. Characteristics of Professional and Non-Professional Football Players – An Eight-Year Follow-Up of Three Age Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arve Sæther1

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the most talented youth players is regarded as a key part of the talent development process in football. The basis for the criteria is naturally affected by the characteristics of the early-detected talented players. Nonetheless, earlier research has found limited evidenced for different criteria in this process. This study has examined whether professional and non-professional football players showed differences in player and coach characteristics as talented youth-level players eight years earlier. A total of 103 players selected for Norwegian youth national teams (age cohorts 1991–1993 participated in this study. Based on player and coach characteristics, the results showed that non-professional players had the most playing time and felt more successful in comparison to the professional players. The professional players, however, reported higher ambitions and a higher number of weekly-organized training sessions. No differences between the professional and non-professional players showed in terms of their relationship to their coaches were found. The study concludes that we need more research on identification criteria to be able to predict which abilities and skills should be sought in the identification process for youth-level players. As in earlier research, this study also found a poor relationship between youth performance and senior performance.

  2. Gender differences in development of mental well-being from adolescence to young adulthood: an eight-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Sunna; Arnarsson, Arsaell; Magnusson, Kristjan; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn Arni; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2015-05-01

    The transition from adolescence to young adulthood is marked by many changes. Mental well-being plays an important role in how individuals deal with these changes and how they develop their lifestyle. The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the long-term development of self-esteem and other mental well-being variables from the age of 15 to the age of 23. A baseline measurement was performed in a nationwide sample of 385 Icelandic adolescents aged 15, and a follow-up measurement was conducted eight years later, when participants had reached the age of 23. Standardized questionnaires were used to measure self-reports of self-esteem, life satisfaction, body image, anxiety, depression and somatic complaints. Women improved their self-esteem significantly more than men from the age of 15 to 23 (p=0.004). Women were more satisfied with their life than men at the age of 23 (p=0.009). Men had a better body image, less anxiety, less depression and fewer somatic complaints than women, independent of age. Across gender, anxiety declined and somatic complaints became fewer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that gender differences in mental well-being factors, favouring men, found in adolescents, are not as long-lasting as previously thought. Women improve their mental well-being from adolescence to young adulthood while men's mental well-being does not change. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. The retained capacity of Lutzomya longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva to transmit Leishmania chagasi (Cunha & Chagas after eight years (64 generations in a closed laboratory colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de N. A. Gonçalves

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed Lutzomyia longipalpis colony, from Ceará has been used to transmit Leishmania chagasi isolated from a fox in Pará state. The last time this colony was successfully used in similar transmission experiments was eight years (64 generations ago indicating that this colony of Lu. longipalpis has fully maintained its vectorial capacity in spite of such a long period of maintainance in the laboratory.Lutzomyia longipalpis foi alimentado através de membrana com uma suspensão de macerado de fígado e baço em sangue desfibrinado de coelho. Este material foi originário de um hamster infectado com Leishmania chagasi, realimentado em hamsters limpos, transmitindo os parasitos em duas ocasiões. Esta mesma colônia de Lu. longipalpis, do Ceará, foi usada para a primeira transmissão há oito anos e 64 gerações atrás e não teve a capacidade vetorial diminuída.

  4. Pre-employment medical examination of Indonesian domestic helpers in a private clinic in Johor Bahru--an eight year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, C C

    2006-12-01

    On review of 3117 patients' records (all were female Indonesian foreign workers over the span of eight years (1997 to 2004 in a private clinic in Johor Bahru, 223 cases (7.2%) were found to have various medical problems. These 3117 foreigners were to be employed as domestic helpers in Malaysia. They were examined upon arrival in Johor Bahru even though our government did not require this pre-requisite (before 1st August 2005) as they were examined and certified fit in their country of origin before embarking to Malaysia. The proportion of female Indonesian foreign workers who were afflicted with category 1 conditions was 55.6% (which rendered them unfit for employment) and category 2 conditions was 44.4%. The medical problem detected most frequently was hypertension. Sixty-one (80.3%) out of 76 workers had stage 2 hypertension (JNC 7 report). Pulmonary tuberculosis ranked second in this review and is a category 1 condition. This paper supports the recent move by the Malaysian Ministry of Health to implement mandatory medical examinations for all foreign workers arriving in Malaysia within one month of arrival regardless of whether or not they are certified fit in their countries of origin.

  5. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Siblings, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functioning in Children Aged 3-6 Years: New Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Anna R.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children aged 3 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling…

  7. Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational

  8. Impact exercise increases BMC during growth: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine; Baxter-Jones, Adam Dg; Mirwald, Robert L; Almstedt, Hawley; Fuchs, Robyn K; Durski, Shantel; Snow, Christine

    2008-07-01

    Our aim was to assess BMC of the hip over 8 yr in prepubertal children who participated in a 7-mo jumping intervention compared with controls who participated in a stretching program of equal duration. We hypothesized that jumpers would gain more BMC than control subjects. The data reported come from two cohorts of children who participated in separate, but identical, randomized, controlled, school-based impact exercise interventions and reflect those subjects who agreed to long-term follow-up (N = 57; jumpers = 33, controls = 24; 47% of the original participants). BMC was assessed by DXA at baseline, 7 and 19 mo after intervention, and annually thereafter for 5 yr (eight visits over 8 yr). Multilevel random effects models were constructed and used to predict change in BMC from baseline at each measurement occasion. After 7 mo, those children that completed high-impact jumping exercises had 3.6% more BMC at the hip than control subjects whom completed nonimpact stretching activities (p BMC at the hip after nearly 8 yr (BMC adjusted for change in age, height, weight, and physical activity; p BMC from short-term high-impact exercise undertaken in early childhood. If the benefits are sustained into young adulthood, effectively increasing peak bone mass, fracture risk in the later years could be reduced.

  9. Spatiotemporal distribution and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections following an eight-year school-based deworming programme in Burundi, 2007–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Assoum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating the effect of successive annual deworming rounds on the spatiotemporal distribution of infection prevalence and numbers at risk for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs can help identify communities nearing elimination and those needing further interventions. In this study, we aim to quantify the impact of an 8-year mass drug administration (MDA programme (from 2007 to 2014 on the spatiotemporal distribution of prevalence of STH infections and to estimate the number of school-aged children infected with STHs in Burundi. Methods During annual longitudinal school-based surveys in Burundi between 2007 and 2011, STH infection and anthropometric data for a total of 40,656 children were collected; these data were supplemented with data from a national survey conducted in 2014. Bayesian model based geostatistics (MBG were used to generate predictive prevalence maps for each STH species and year. The numbers of children at-risk of infection per district between 2008 and 2014 were estimated as the product of the predictive prevalence maps and population density maps. Results Overall, the degree of spatial clustering of STH infections decreased between 2008 and 2011; in 2014 the geographical clusters of all STH infections reappeared. The reduction in prevalence was small for Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the centre and central north of the country. Our predictive prevalence maps for hookworm indicate a reduction in prevalence along the periphery of the country. The predicted number of children infected with any STH species decreased substantially between 2007 and 2011, but in 2014 there was an increase in the predicted number of children infected with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. In 2014, the districts with the highest predicted number of children infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworms were Kibuye district (n = 128,903, Mabayi district (n = 35,302 and Kiremba (n = 87

  10. The effect of eight weeks of strength training, strength and core stability on the Scoliosis deformity of 9 to 13- year-old female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad shabani

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: It seems that corrective eight-week exercise program with the emphasis on compound exercises (central stability as a non-invasive method can have the desired effect in the treatment of scoliosis in students.

  11. Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the

  12. Lessons Learned From Developing a Sustainable Arsenic-Safe Water Program in West Bengal, India Over a Period of Eight Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Liaw, J.; Hira, A.; Guha, P.; Pal, S. S.; Hore, T.; Smith, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen, and causes many cancers and noncancer diseases. Recent findings have shown that exposure to arsenic in drinking water as a child or before birth can cause illness and death even as an adult. In the West Bengal region of India, more than six million people are drinking crystal clear but arsenic-contaminated water from tubewells. Project Well, a non-profit organization based in California, has provided safe drinking water to villages in West Bengal since 2001 through modern modified dugwells, currently numbering 163. Along the way, Project Well has faced the challenge of persuading people to stop consuming good-tasting, arsenic-laced water and instead drink chlorinated water, which is safe but may have the smell of chlorine. Additionally, West Bengal receives abundant annual rainfall, and hence it is difficult to convince people to pay for treated water. From its inception, the Project Well program was set up with a tracking system to assess the efficacy of the modern dugwells, which has helped identify where technical improvements were needed. Continuous interaction with community-based user groups has also helped overcome many constraints and make the program sustainable. Project Well monitoring records from August 2010 show that out of 163 modern dugwells, 48 percent were being used, providing water for 2948 villagers; 23 percent were closed; 6 percent were dry (11 districts of West Bengal were in a drought); 6 percent required maintenance; and 7 percent were not used. Arsenic concentrations in the modern dugwells were measured every year during peak season when the water table was low and the median arsenic concentration of operational dugwells over the eight years between 2002 and 2010 was 15 ppb (the permissible limit in India is 50 ppb). Each year, about 6 to 10 percent of the dugwells have arsenic levels above 50 ppb during the summer season, when the water level is low. Bacterial counts, i.e., total coliform and fecal coliform, are

  13. Eight new luminous z ≥ 6 quasars discovered via SED model fitting of VISTA, WISE and Dark Energy Survey Year 1 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Martini, P.; Banerji, M.; Auger, M.; Hewett, P. C.; Koposov, S. E.; Gibbons, S. L. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Ostrovski, F.; Tie, S. S.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2017-07-01

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation with the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope (NTT) and Gemini South telescopes of eight new, and the rediscovery of two previously known, 6.0 VISTA Hemisphere Survey (J, H, K) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (W1, W2). The photometric data were fitted with a grid of quasar model SEDs with redshift-dependent Ly α forest absorption and a range of intrinsic reddening as well as a series of low-mass cool star models. Candidates were ranked using an SED-model-based χ2-statistic, which is extendable to other future imaging surveys (e.g. LSST and Euclid). Our spectral confirmation success rate is 100 per cent without the need for follow-up photometric observations as used in other studies of this type. Combined with automatic removal of the main types of non-astrophysical contaminants, the method allows large data sets to be processed without human intervention and without being overrun by spurious false candidates. We also present a robust parametric redshift estimator that gives comparable accuracy to Mg II and CO-based redshift estimators. We find two z ˜ 6.2 quasars with H II near zone sizes ≤3 proper Mpc that could indicate that these quasars may be young with ages ≲ 106-107 years or lie in over dense regions of the IGM. The z = 6.5 quasar VDES J0224-4711 has JAB = 19.75 and is the second most luminous quasar known with z ≥ 6.5.

  14. Towards Excellence in Asthma Management: final report of an eight-year program aimed at reducing care gaps in asthma management in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Dorval, E; Labrecque, M; Turgeon, M; Montague, T; Thivierge, R L

    2008-09-01

    Asthma care in Canada and around the world persistently falls short of optimal treatment. To optimize care, a systematic approach to identifying such shortfalls or 'care gaps', in which all stakeholders of the health care system (including patients) are involved, was proposed. Several projects of a multipartner, multidisciplinary disease management program, developed to optimize asthma care in Quebec, was conducted in a period of eight years. First, two population maps were produced to identify regional variations in asthma-related morbidity and to prioritize interventions for improving treatment. Second, current care was evaluated in a physician-patient cohort, confirming the many care gaps in asthma management. Third, two series of peer-reviewed outcome studies, targeting high-risk populations and specific asthma care gaps, were conducted. Finally, a process to integrate the best interventions into the health care system and an agenda for further research on optimal asthma management were proposed. Key observations from these studies included the identification of specific patterns of noncompliance in using inhaled corticosteroids, the failure of increased access to spirometry in asthma education centres to increase the number of education referrals, the transient improvement in educational abilities of nurses involved with an asthma hotline telephone service, and the beneficial effects of practice tools aimed at facilitating the assessment of asthma control and treatment needs by general practitioners. Disease management programs such as Towards Excellence in Asthma Management can provide valuable information on optimal strategies for improving treatment of asthma and other chronic diseases by identifying care gaps, improving guidelines implementation and optimizing care.

  15. Opinions of health care professionals and the public after eight years of euthanasia legislation in the Netherlands: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; van Delden, Johannes J M; Rietjens, Judith A C; Schermer, Maartje H N; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; Trappenburg, Margo J; van de Vathorst, Suzanne; van der Vegt, Bea J; Vezzoni, Cristiano; Weyers, Heleen; van Tol, Donald G; van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-03-01

    The practice of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) in the Netherlands has been regulated since 2002 by the Euthanasia Act. In the ongoing debate about the interpretation of this Act, comparative information about the opinions of the different stakeholders is needed. To evaluate the opinions of Dutch physicians, nurses and the general public on the legal requirements for euthanasia and PAS. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch physicians and nurses in primary and secondary care and members of the Dutch general public, followed by qualitative interviews among selected respondents. The participants were: 793 physicians, 1243 nurses and 1960 members of the general public who completed the questionnaire; 83 were interviewed. Most respondents agreed with the requirement of a patient request (64-88%) and the absence of a requirement concerning life expectancy (48-71%). PAS was thought acceptable by 24-39% of respondents for patients requesting it because of mental suffering due to loss of control, chronic depression or early dementia. In the case of severe dementia, one third of physicians, 58% of nurses and 77% of the general public agreed with performing euthanasia based on an advance directive. Interviewees illustrated these findings and supported the Act. Health care professionals and the general public mostly support the legal requirements for euthanasia and PAS. The law permits euthanasia or PAS for mental suffering but this possibility is not widely endorsed. The general public is more liberal towards euthanasia for advanced dementia than health care professionals. We conclude that there is ample support for the law after eight years of legal euthanasia.

  16. Eight New Luminous z > 6 Quasars Selected via SED Model Fitting of VISTA, WISE and Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.L.; et al.

    2017-01-17

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation with the ESO NTT and Gemini South telescopes of eight new 6.0 < z < 6.5 quasars with z$_{AB}$ < 21.0. These quasars were photometrically selected without any star-galaxy morphological criteria from 1533 deg$^{2}$ using SED model fitting to photometric data from the Dark Energy Survey (g, r, i, z, Y), the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (J, H, K) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (W1, W2). The photometric data was fitted with a grid of quasar model SEDs with redshift dependent Lyman-{\\alpha} forest absorption and a range of intrinsic reddening as well as a series of low mass cool star models. Candidates were ranked using on a SED-model based $\\chi^{2}$-statistic, which is extendable to other future imaging surveys (e.g. LSST, Euclid). Our spectral confirmation success rate is 100% without the need for follow-up photometric observations as used in other studies of this type. Combined with automatic removal of the main types of non-astrophysical contaminants the method allows large data sets to be processed without human intervention and without being over run by spurious false candidates. We also present a robust parametric redshift estimating technique that gives comparable accuracy to MgII and CO based redshift estimators. We find two z $\\sim$ 6.2 quasars with HII near zone sizes < 3 proper Mpc which could indicate that these quasars may be young with ages < 10$^6$ - 10$^7$ years or lie in over dense regions of the IGM. The z = 6.5 quasar VDESJ0224-4711 has J$_{AB}$ = 19.75 is the second most luminous quasar known with z > 6.5.

  17. Eight new luminous z ≥ 6 quasars discovered via SED model fitting of VISTA, WISE and Dark Energy Survey Year 1 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Martini, P.; Banerji, M.; Auger, M.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation with the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope (NTT) and Gemini South telescopes of eight new, and the rediscovery of two previously known, 6.0 < z < 6.5 quasars with zAB < 21.0. These quasars were photometrically selected without any morphological criteria from 1533 deg2 using spectral energy distribution (SED) model fitting to photometric data from Dark Energy Survey (g, r, i, z, Y), VISTA Hemisphere Survey (J, H, K) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (W1, W2). The photometric data were fitted with a grid of quasar model SEDs with redshift-dependent Ly α forest absorption and a range of intrinsic reddening as well as a series of low-mass cool star models. Candidates were ranked using an SED-model-based χ2-statistic, which is extendable to other future imaging surveys (e.g. LSST and Euclid). Our spectral confirmation success rate is 100 per cent without the need for follow-up photometric observations as used in other studies of this type. Combined with automatic removal of the main types of non-astrophysical contaminants, the method allows large data sets to be processed without human intervention and without being overrun by spurious false candidates. We also present a robust parametric redshift estimator that gives comparable accuracy to Mg ii and CO-based redshift estimators. We find two z ~6.2 quasars with H ii near zone sizes ≤3 proper Mpc that could indicate that these quasars may be young with ages ≲ 10 6 -10 7 years or lie in over dense regions of the IGM. The z = 6.5 quasar VDES J0224–4711 has JAB = 19.75 and is the second most luminous quasar known with z ≥ 6.5.

  18. Factors that enable or limit the sustained use of improved firewood cookstoves: Qualitative findings eight years after an intervention in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Martínez-Briseño, David; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Suárez-González, Laura; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Schilmann, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the factors enabling/limiting the use of improved cookstoves among rural fuel wood users from one mestizo and two indigenous communities eight years after an intervention in the state of Michoacan, in Mexico. A qualitative study with an ethnographic perspective was conducted in 2013/2014 based on 62 interviews with women who had participated in an improved firewood cookstove program in 2005. Thematic qualitative content analysis was performed. Very few women from the indigenous communities were using the improved cookstove at the time of the study; the majority had dismantled or had ceased using it; whereas most of those from the mestizo community were using it for all of their cooking activities. In the indigenous communities, characterized by extended families, uptake of new technology was limited by traditional routine practices, rearrangement of rooms in the house, attachment to the traditional stove, a low- or non-risk perception of woodsmoke; gender relations, insufficient training, non-compliance with program recommendations and design-related aspects. Conversely, in the mestizo community, the uptake of the improved cookstove was favored by routine cooking practices in a nuclear family, a previous use of a raised cookstove and social representations on the health-disease-death effects of woodsmoke vs. the health benefits of cooking with improved stoves. The sociocultural dimension of communities and the cookstove design are aspects that either favor or limit the use of improved cookstoves in indigenous and mestizo populations. Effective cookstove programs must take these elements into account from their early planning stages, and blend them into implementation and follow-up. Project communication, training and differentiated follow-up activities ensuring the operation and maintenance of the cookstove, should be designed according to the specific needs and traditions of each community; they should be based on the

  19. An eight-year epidemiologic study based on baculovirus-expressed type-specific spike proteins for the differentiation of type I and II feline coronavirus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoVs are divided into two serotypes with markedly different infection rates among cat populations around the world. A baculovirus-expressed type-specific domain of the spike proteins of FCoV was used to survey the infection of the two viruses over the past eight years in Taiwan. Results An immunofluorescence assay based on cells infected with the recombinant viruses that was capable of distinguishing between the two types of viral infection was established. A total of 833 cases from a teaching hospital was surveyed for prevalence of different FCoV infections. Infection of the type I FCoV was dominant, with a seropositive rate of 70.4%, whereas 3.5% of cats were infected with the type II FCoV. In most cases, results derived from serotyping and genotyping were highly agreeable. However, 16.7% (4/24) FIP cats and 9.8% (6/61) clinically healthy cats were found to possess antibodies against both viruses. Moreover, most of the cats (84.6%, 22/26) infected with a genotypic untypable virus bearing a type I FCoV antibody. Conclusion A relatively simple serotyping method to distinguish between two types of FCoV infection was developed. Based on this method, two types of FCoV infection in Taiwan was first carried out. Type I FCoV was found to be predominant compared with type II virus. Results derived from serotyping and genotyping support our current understanding of evolution of disease-related FCoV and transmission of FIP. PMID:25123112

  20. Longitudinal trajectories of mental health in Australian children aged 4-5 to 14-15 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Mental health can affect young people's sense of wellbeing and life satisfaction, their ability to participate in employment and education, and their onward opportunities in life. This paper offers a rare opportunity to longitudinally examine mental health in a population-representative study of children aged 4-5 years to 14-15 years. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC, this study examined maternally-reported child mental health over a 10 year period, in order to understand their initial mental health status early in life and its change over time, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Longitudinal models were fitted from ages 4-5 to 14-15 years. Results showed that child sex, maternal mental health, socio-economic status (family income, maternal education, neighbourhood disadvantage, maternal hostility, and child temperament (persistence, sociability, reactivity are all independent contributors to child mental health at age 4. These effects largely persist over time, with the effects of maternal mental health increasing slightly over time. Persistence of these effects suggests the need for early intervention and supports. The independent contribution of these factors to child mental health suggests that multi-faceted approaches to child and maternal mental health are needed.

  1. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ-28): A parsimonious version validated for longitudinal use from 2 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Williams, Kate E; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-05-01

    Prospective studies and intervention evaluations that examine change over time assume that measurement tools measure the same construct at each occasion. In the area of parent-child feeding practices, longitudinal measurement properties of the questionnaires used are rarely verified. To ascertain that measured change in feeding practices reflects true change rather than change in the assessment, structure, or conceptualisation of the constructs over time, this study examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) subscales (9 constructs; 40 items) across 3 time points. Mothers participating in the NOURISH trial reported their feeding practices when children were aged 2, 3.7, and 5 years (N = 404). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) within a structural equation modelling framework was used. Comparisons of initial cross-sectional models followed by longitudinal modelling of subscales, resulted in the removal of 12 items, including two redundant or poorly performing subscales. The resulting 28-item FPSQ-28 comprised 7 multi-item subscales: Reward for Behaviour, Reward for Eating, Persuasive Feeding, Overt Restriction, Covert Restriction, Structured Meal Setting and Structured Meal Timing. All subscales showed good fit over 3 time points and each displayed at least partial scalar (thresholds equal) longitudinal measurement invariance. We recommend the use of a separate single item indicator to assess the family meal setting. This is the first study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance in a feeding practices questionnaire. Invariance was established, indicating that the subscales of the shortened FPSQ-28 can be used with mothers to validly assess change in 7 feeding constructs in samples of children aged 2-5 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ten Years On: A Longitudinal Study of Families of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results of a longitudinal, ethnographic study of the psychosocial adaptation of parents of children with autism. Most parents reported improvements in their psychological well being, the social experiences of their immediate family, and their relations with their extended family. They also reported changes in stressful…

  3. Attachment and Infant Night Waking: A Longitudinal Study From Birth Through the First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Jansen, J.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Night wakings are common in infancy. Although a link between infant night wakings and attachment to the primary caregiver has been previously proposed, empirical support is limited so far. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the early history of night waking in infants who

  4. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  5. Emotion Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory across the Preschool Years: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children,…

  6. Final analysis of a study assessing genital human papillomavirus genoprevalence in young Australian women, following eight years of a national vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Suzanne M; Cornall, Alyssa M; Brotherton, Julia M L; Wark, John D; Malloy, Michael J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2018-05-31

    The VACCINE [Vaccine Against Cervical Cancer Impact and Effectiveness] study evaluated the prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) amongst young women of vaccine-eligible age. Between October 2011 - June 2015, women aged 18-25 years from Victoria, Australia, were recruited through targeted advertising on the social networking website Facebook. Participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected vaginal swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping (Linear Array HPV genotyping assay). Self-reported HPV vaccination details were verified with the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). Of 1223 who agreed to participate, 916 (74.9%) completed the survey and, for 1007 (82.3%) sexually-active participants, 744 (73.9%) returned the self-collected swab, of which 737 contained detectable DNA. 184/737 (25.0%) were positive for HPV. Vaccine-targeted HPV genotypes were detected in only 13 (1.7%) women: 11 HPV 16 (six vaccinated after sexual debut, five unvaccinated) and two HPV 6. Prevalence of any of HPV 31/33/45 collectively was 2.9%, varying significantly by vaccination status (fully 2.0%, unvaccinated 6.8%; p = 0.01). Vaccination rates among the sexually-active cohort were high, with 65.6%, 71.6% and 74.2% of participants having received three, at least two or at least one dose of vaccine, respectively. Of women self-reporting HPV vaccination, the NHVPR confirmed one or more doses were received in 90%. Strong associations were observed between vaccination status, age, language spoken at home and country of birth, as well as between HPV detection and the number of male sexual partners. Surveillance five to eight years' post-initiation of a national HPV vaccination program demonstrated a consistent and very low prevalence of vaccine-related HPV genotypes and some evidence of cross protection against related types amongst vaccine-eligible women from Victoria, Australia

  7. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9-12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Golle

    Full Text Available Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development. Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9-12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values.Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed, the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power, the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility, the star run test (i.e., agility, and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance. Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90 were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen's d.Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40-1.34, whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55, flexibility (d = 0.81, agility (d = 0.44, and endurance (d = 0.32 only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36, flexibility (d = 0.61, and agility (d = 0.27 in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10-11 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs, agility (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-11 yrs, and endurance (boys: 9-10 yrs; girls: 9-10 yrs. Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test indicated that running distances between 1

  8. Meteorological Parameters and the Onset of Chest Pain in Subjects with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: an Eight-Year, Single-Center Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Zhi Jia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of weather on the occurrence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Chinese subjects. Methods: Weather and climate data, as well as the occurrence of STEMI, were monitored at 2 am, 8 am, 2 pm, and 8 pm between 2003 and 2010. Generalized additive Poisson models were utilized to plot the numbers of patients with STEMI within 6 hour intervals against climatological variations, after accounting for the effects of the hour and season. Results: The inclusion of meteorological conditions, including observed atmospheric pressure (hPa, hectopascal variations during the previous three hours and temperature (°C, degrees Celsius, significantly affected the occurrence of STEMI, as measured every six hours. Compared with the 50th percentile of atmospheric pressure variations, the RRs (95% CI for the first percentile, 10th percentile, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, 90th percentile, and 99th percentile of atmospheric pressure variation over lag 0 were 1.66 (1.36∼2.03, 1.47 (1.30∼1.67, 1.22 (1.12∼1.33, 1.16 (1.07∼1.25, 1.27 (1.13∼1.43, and 1.16 (0.92∼1.46, respectively. Compared to the 50th percentile of temperature, the RRs (95% CI for the first percentile, 10th percentile, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, 90th percentile, and 99th percentile of temperature over lag 0 were 0.58 (0.40∼0.83, 0.60 (0.46∼0.78, 0.69 (0.57∼0.83, 1.33 (1.14∼1.56, 1.39 (1.13∼1.71, and 1.17 (0.84∼1.63, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the eight-year, single-center study, significant relationships were observed among the occurrence of STEMI and atmospheric pressure variations during the previous three hours and temperature after account for long-term time trends.

  9. Postseismic relaxation process and lithospheric rheology inferred from eight years of postseismic deformation after the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Burgmann, R.; Rui, X.; Wang, D.; Yu, J.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    Current inferences of postseismic deformation mechanisms and lithospheric rheology in the eastern Tibetan Plateau strongly depend on spatial and temporal observations of postseismic transients following the 2008 Mw=7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. We processed regional continuously operating and survey-mode GPS data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and Sichuan Continuous Operation Reference System. These data cover a broad region and time intervals of up to eight years. The determined amplitude of postseismic displacements show clear contrast between the Sichuan Basin and eastern Tibet. In addition to significant amounts of deformation in the region between the Longmen Shan and Longriba fault, reliable deformation transients are also visible in the far field, such as regions to the west of the Longriba fault and along the left-lateral Xianshuihe fault. In contrast, no more than 10 mm of postseismic transients are observed in the Sichuan Basin. Guided by previous studies, we conducted multiple-mechanism models of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. We first explored a series of forward viscoelastic relaxation models using a heterogeneous rheological earth structure, and then inverted corresponding afterslip distributions on the shallowly dipping detachment to explain the remaining residuals. Our preliminary results indicate the viscoelastic relaxation in the lower crust and upper mantle dominantly contributed to the mid- and far-field observations, whereas afterslip below the coseismic asperities and on small patches near the surface can explain the near-field measurements. Time-dependent slip inversions illustrate that afterslip decays more rapidly on the shallow portions of the fault interface than on the shallowly dipping detachment. Relatively long-lived right-lateral afterslip is revealed in the north segment of the Beichuan fault, suggesting variations of frictional properties along strike of the fault zone. Our results also support previous

  10. Longitudinal changes over 2 years in parotid glands of patients treated with preoperative 30-Gy irradiation for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomitaka, Etsushi; Murakami, Ryuji; Teshima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in parotid volumes and saliva production over 2 years after 30 Gy irradiation. We retrospectively evaluated 15 assessable patients treated for advanced oral cancer. Eligibility criteria were a pathologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, preoperative radiation therapy with a total dose of 30 Gy delivered in 15 fractions, and the availability of longitudinal data of morphological assessments by computed tomography and functional assessments with the Saxon test spanning 2 years after radiation therapy. In the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a folded sterile gauze pad before and after chewing; the low-normal value is 2 g/2 min. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was used to determine the longitudinal changes. The normalized ipsilateral parotid volumes 2 weeks and 6-, 12- and 24 months after radiation therapy were found to be 72.5, 63.7, 66.9 and 78.1%, respectively; the normalized contralateral volumes were 69.8, 64.6, 72.2 and 82.0%, respectively. The bilateral parotid volumes were significantly decreased after radiation therapy (P<0.01). The nadir appeared at 6 months post-radiation therapy and the volumes substantially recuperated 24 months after radiation therapy (P<0.01). Mean saliva production before radiation therapy was 3.7 g; the longitudinal changes after radiation therapy were 31.3, 38.0, 43.3 and 69.6%, respectively. Substantial recuperation of saliva production was observed 24 months after radiation therapy (P=0.01). Although parotid volumes and saliva production were decreased after 30 Gy irradiation, we observed the recuperation of morphological and functional changes in the parotid glands 2 years after radiation therapy. (author)

  11. Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) in children: A twenty-year study from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Roshan; Alfutaisi, Amna M; Mani, Renjith; Abdel Rahim, Rana A; Sankhla, Dilip K; Al Azri, Faisal M

    2017-04-01

    The data on children with diagnosis of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) was searched to find the pattern of myelitis in Oman. A retrospective study was carried out from January1995 to December 2014. Electronic medical records and patient medical files were seen to get the complete data of the children with ITM. This work was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University hospital, Muscat, Oman. The ethical committee of the hospital had approved the study. The diagnosis was based on the established criteria. Other causes of myelopathy were excluded. 19 children with idiopathic transverse myelitis were found. There were 18 out of 19 (94.6%) children with longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Longitudinal transverse extensive myelitis is the most common form of ITM in Oman.

  12. The Development of Narrative Productivity, Syntactic Complexity, Referential Cohesion and Event Content in Four- to Eight-Year-Old Finnish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Leena; Loukusa, Soile; Nieminen, Lea; Leinonen, Eeva; Kunnari, Sari

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of narrative structure and the relationship between narrative productivity and event content. A total of 172 Finnish children aged between four and eight participated. Their picture-elicited narrations were analysed for productivity, syntactic complexity, referential cohesion and event content. Each measure…

  13. Do Overgeneral Autobiographical Memories Predict Increased Psychopathological Symptoms in Community Youth? A 3-Year Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Salmon, Karen; Jose, Paul E

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that an overgeneral autobiographical memory style (i.e., retrieval of general memories when instructed to retrieve a specific episodic memory) represents a vulnerability marker for depression. Although adolescence is a period of high risk for the emergence of depression, little research has investigated the associations among overgeneral memory, psychopathology, and risk factors longitudinally in a community sample in this age group. We, therefore, investigated overgeneral memory, psychopathology (depression and anxiety), and rumination (an established risk factor for psychopathology) longitudinally in 269 typically-developing youth (125 females, 144 males) across 3 annual assessment points. We sought to determine whether 1) overgeneral memory would predict psychopathology across the entire sample, and 2) whether associations would vary as a function of longitudinal rumination growth. Across the entire sample, overgeneral memory did not predict psychopathology. For youth who reported elevated, and increasing, patterns of rumination over time, transient relationships between overgeneral memory and subsequent increases in anxiety were found. We conclude that overgeneral memory may represent a vulnerability marker for adverse psychological outcomes only for youth at risk for psychopathology.

  14. Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10-12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Frøydis N; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Overby, Nina C; Lien, Nanna; Androutsos, Odysseas; Maes, Lea; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2013-05-15

    To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10-12 years across Europe. 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality.

  15. Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10–12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10–12 years across Europe. Methods 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. Results The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. Conclusions The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality. PMID:23675988

  16. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  17. Predictors of long-term recovery in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: Data from a 22-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L; Tabri, Nassim; Keshaviah, Aparna; Murray, Helen B; Herzog, David B; Thomas, Jennifer J; Coniglio, Kathryn; Keel, Pamela K; Eddy, Kamryn T

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate predictors of long-term recovery from eating disorders 22 years after entry into a longitudinal study. One hundred and seventy-six of the 228 surviving participants (77.2%) were re-interviewed 20-25 years after study entry using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation to assess ED recovery. The sample consisted of 100 women diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 76 with bulimia nervosa (BN) at study entry. A comorbid diagnosis of major depression at the start of the study strongly predicted having a diagnosis of AN-Restricting type at the 22-year assessment. A higher body mass index (BMI) at study intake decreased the odds of being diagnosed with AN-Binge Purge type, relative to being recovered, 22 years later. The only predictor that increased the likelihood of having a diagnosis of BN at the 22-year assessment was the length of time during the study when the diagnostic criteria for BN were met. Together, these results indicate that the presence and persistence of binge eating and purging behaviors were poor prognostic indicators and that comorbidity with depression is particularly pernicious in AN. Treatment providers might pay particular attention to these issues in an effort to positively influence recovery over the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experiences of weight teasing in adolescence and weight-related outcomes in adulthood: A 15-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Wall, Melanie M; Chen, Chen; Bryn Austin, S; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-07-01

    Weight-based teasing is common among youth, but little is known about its long-term impact on health outcomes. We aimed to 1) identify whether weight-based teasing in adolescence predicts adverse eating and weight-related outcomes 15years later; and 2) determine whether teasing source (peers or family) affects these outcomes. Data were collected from Project EAT-IV (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) (N=1830), a longitudinal cohort study that followed a diverse sample of adolescents from 1999 (baseline) to 2015 (follow-up). Weight-based teasing at baseline was examined as a predictor of weight status, binge eating, dieting, eating as a coping strategy, unhealthy weight control, and body image at 15-year follow-up. After adjusting for demographic covariates and baseline body mass index (BMI), weight-based teasing in adolescence predicted higher BMI and obesity 15years later. For women, these longitudinal associations occurred across peer and family-based teasing sources, but for men, only peer-based teasing predicted higher BMI. The same pattern emerged for adverse eating outcomes; weight-based teasing from peers and family during adolescence predicted binge eating, unhealthy weight control, eating to cope, poor body image, and recent dieting in women 15years later. For men, teasing had fewer longitudinal associations. Taken together, this study shows that weight-based teasing in adolescence predicts obesity and adverse eating behaviors well into adulthood, with differences across gender and teasing source. Findings underscore the importance of addressing weight-based teasing in educational and health initiatives, and including the family environment as a target of anti-bullying intervention, especially for girls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Findings from the Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship, a Year-Long Longitudinal Psychiatry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Elisa; Hirsh, David; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Griswold, Todd; Wesley Boyd, J

    2018-06-01

    The Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship is a longitudinal integrated clerkship that has provided an alternative clinical model for medical education in psychiatry since its inception in 2004. This study was undertaken in an effort to better understand the student experience of the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship and how it may have impacted students' perceptions of and interest in psychiatry, as well as performance. Qualitative surveys were sent via e-mail to the first 11 student cohorts who had completed the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (from 2004 to 2014) and for whom we had e-mail addresses (N = 100), and the free-text responses were coded thematically. All available standardized scoring data and residency match data for Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates were obtained. From 2006 to 2014, 12 out of 73 Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students who entered the match chose a psychiatry residency (16.4%), four times more than students in traditional clerkships at Harvard Medical School (3.8% of 1355 students) or the national average (4.1% of 146,066 US applicants). Thirty of the 100 surveyed Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates (30%) responded to the qualitative survey with free-text remarks on a number of themes. Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students compared positively to their classmates in terms of standardized test performance. Their fourfold higher match rate into psychiatry compared to other students raises intriguing questions as to what role a longitudinal clerkship might have played in developing interest in psychiatry as a career.

  20. Urinary incontinence persisting after childbirth: extent, delivery history, and effects in a 12-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, C; Wilson, D; Herbison, P; Lancashire, R J; Hagen, S; Toozs-Hobson, P; Dean, N; Glazener, C

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of persistent urinary incontinence (UI) 12 years after birth, and association with delivery-mode history and other factors. Twelve-year longitudinal cohort study. Maternity units in Aberdeen, Birmingham, and Dunedin. Women who returned questionnaires 3 months and 12 years after index birth. Data on all births over a period of 12 months were obtained from the units and then women were contacted by post. Persistent UI reported at 12 years, with one or more previous contact. Of 7879 women recruited at 3 months, 3763 (48%) responded at 12 years, with 2944 also having responded at 6 years; non-responders had similar obstetric characteristics. The prevalence of persistent UI was 37.9% (1429/3763). Among those who had reported UI at 3 months, 76.4% reported it at 12 years. Women with persistent UI had lower SF12 quality of life scores. Compared with having only spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVDs), women who delivered exclusively by caesarean section were less likely to have persistent UI (odds ratio, OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.54). This was not the case in women who had a combination of caesarean section and SVD births (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.30). Older age at first birth, greater parity, and overweight/obesity were associated with persistent UI. Of 54 index primiparae with UI before pregnancy, 46 (85.2%) had persistent UI. This study, demonstrating that UI persists to 12 years in about three-quarters of women, and that risk was only reduced with caesarean section if women had no other delivery mode, has practice implications. A longitudinal study of 3763 women showed a prevalence of persistent UI 12 years after birth of 37.9%. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. The Psychological Effects of Unemployment and Unsatisfactory Employment on Young Adults: Findings from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefield, Anthony H; Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Helen R; Duong, David; Malvaso, Catia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the external validity of an earlier longitudinal study of school leavers by including participants from a representative sample of secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered annually to a sample of South Australian school leavers over a 10-year period. At Time 1 participants were in the last compulsory year of high school aged around 15 years and at Time 10 they were aged around 25 years. Results confirmed those from an earlier longitudinal study showing that the transition from school to satisfactory employment was associated with significant improvements in psychological well-being, whereas transition from school to unemployment or unsatisfactory employment showed no change in psychological well-being. The current findings extended the external validity of the earlier study because whereas participants in the earlier study were sampled from co-educational metropolitan public high schools, the current study included participants from every kind of high school: single sex as well as co-educational, rural as well as metropolitan, and private as well as public.

  2. Albumin, Hemoglobin, and the Trajectory of Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Japanese: A 13-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, H; Shinkai, S; Nishi, M; Taniguchi, Y; Amano, H; Seino, S; Yokoyama, Y; Yoshida, H; Fujiwara, Y; Ito, H

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive function can substantially decline over a long period, and understanding the trajectory of cognitive function is important. However, little is known about the linkage between nutritional biomarkers and long-term cognitive change. We analyzed 13-year longitudinal data for older Japanese to examine the associations of serum albumin and hemoglobin levels with the trajectory of cognitive function. Longitudinal study. Community-based. A total of 1,744 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who participated in annual health examinations in Kusatsu town, Gunma Prefecture, Japan, from 2002-2014. Cognitive function was assessed annually by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Albumin and hemoglobin levels at baseline (the year when a respondent first participated in the health examination) were divided into quartiles. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze intrapersonal and interpersonal differences in cognitive function. Participants' MMSE scores decreased at an accelerated rate over the 13-year period. Participants with the lowest baseline albumin level (below the first quartile line) showed a greater accelerated decline in MMSE scores over time, compared with those with the highest level (above the third quartile line). Moreover, MMSE scores in participants with a lower hemoglobin level and lower MMSE score at baseline tended to decline faster over time at an accelerated rate. These findings yield new insights about the complex and diverse roles of these nutritional biomarkers on the trajectory of cognitive function in old age.

  3. Examining bidirectional relationships between parenting and child maladjustment in youth with autism spectrum disorder: A 9-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Lisa M; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim; Prinzie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Longitudinal bidirectional effects between parents and children are usually studied in samples of typically developing children, but remain understudied in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder. This three-wave longitudinal study examined how parents and children with autism spectrum disorder influence one another, relying on parent reports of parenting behaviors and children's problem behaviors across 9 years, in a sample of 139 youngsters (M age Time 1 = 10.2 years, 83% boys). Cross-lagged analyses indicated that children's externalizing problems at Time 1 predicted negative controlling parenting 6 years later (Time 2) that in turn predicted externalizing problems 3 years later (Time 3). Negative parental control at Time 1 also increased the risk for internalizing problems at Time 2. It was surprising that externalizing problems at Time 2 also predicted positive parental involvement at Time 3. Thus, although results indicate that externalizing problems generally elicit maladaptive reactions in parents, this study also suggests that parents adjust their way of reacting to externalizing child problems as their child reaches adolescence/emerging adulthood. Implications for future research on parenting dynamics in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder are discussed.

  4. Smoking is associated with impaired bone mass development in young adult men: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudäng, Robert; Darelid, Anna; Nilsson, Martin; Nilsson, Staffan; Mellström, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    It has previously been shown that smoking is associated with reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk, but no longitudinal studies have been published investigating altered smoking behavior at the time of bone mass acquisition. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone density and geometry according to alterations in smoking behavior in a 5-year, longitudinal, population-based study of 833 young men, age 18 to 20 years (baseline). Furthermore, we aimed to examine the cross-sectional, associations between current smoking and parameters of trabecular microarchitecture of the radius and tibia, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), in young men aged 23 to 25 years (5-year follow-up). Men who had started to smoke since baseline had considerably smaller increases in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the total body (mean ± SD, 0.020 ± 0.047 mg/cm(2) versus 0.043 ± 0.040 mg/cm(2) , p young adulthood have poorer development of their aBMD at clinically important sites such as the spine and hip than nonsmokers, possibly due to augmented loss of trabecular density and impaired growth of cortical cross-sectional area. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A 4.3-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ha Baek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn association between serum calcium level and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS has been suggested in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline serum calcium level and risk of incident MetS in a longitudinal study.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 12,706 participants without MetS who participated in a health screening program, had normal range serum calcium level at baseline (mean age, 51 years, and were followed up for 4.3 years (18,925 person-years. The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to the baseline serum calcium levels.ResultsA total of 3,448 incident cases (27.1% of MetS developed during the follow-up period. The hazard ratio (HR for incident MetS did not increase with increasing tertile of serum calcium level in an age- and sex-matched model (P for trend=0.915. The HRs (95% confidence interval [CI] for incident MetS comparing the second and the third tertiles to the first tertile of baseline serum calcium level were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99 and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.92 in a fully adjusted model, respectively (P for trend=0.001. A decreased risk of incident MetS in higher tertiles of serum calcium level was observed in subjects with central obesity and/or a metabolically unhealthy state at baseline.ConclusionThere was no positive correlation between baseline serum calcium levels and incident risk of MetS in this longitudinal study. There was an association between higher serum calcium levels and decreased incident MetS in individuals with central obesity or two components of MetS at baseline.

  6. Attachment and infant night waking: a longitudinal study from birth through the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Roseriet; Jansen, Jarno; Riksen-Walraven, Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2011-11-01

    : Night wakings are common in infancy. Although a link between infant night wakings and attachment to the primary caregiver has been previously proposed, empirical support is limited so far. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the early history of night waking in infants who were later classified as securely or insecurely (avoidantly, resistantly, or disorganized) attached. : Participants in the study were 193 infants and their mothers. Information on infant night wakings was collected with the use of daily sleep diaries for the first 6 months of life and again for 2 weeks at 12 months of age. Infant-mother attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al, Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. New York: Hillsdale; 1978) when the infants were 12 months of age. : Longitudinal regression analyses showed that, after controlling for many covariates, infants with an insecure-resistant attachment at 12 months of age awoke more during the night in their first 6 months of life than the other infants. Furthermore, infants with different attachment classifications developed different patterns of night wakings over the first 6 months, with the insecure-avoidant infants waking the least toward the end of the 6 months. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed no associations between attachment and night wakings at 12 months of age. : This study is the first in showing that attachment at 12 months of age is related to infant night waking patterns in the first 6 months of life. Patterns of infant night wakings early in life apparently reflect the emerging attachment relationship.

  7. A 20-Year multi-followup longitudinal study assessing whether antipsychotic medications contribute to work functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Martin; Jobe, Thomas H; Faull, Robert N; Yang, Jie

    2017-10-01

    To assess the long-term effectiveness of antipsychotic medications in facilitating work functioning in patients with schizophrenia we conducted longitudinal multifollowup research on 139 initially psychotic patients. The 70 patients with schizophrenia and 69 initially psychotic mood disordered control patients were followed up 6 times over 20 years. We compared the influence on work functioning of patients with schizophrenia continuously prescribed antipsychotics with patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics, using statistical controls for inter-subject differences. While antipsychotics reduce or eliminate flagrant psychosis for most patients with schizophrenia at acute hospitalizations, four years later and continually until the 20 year followups, patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics had significantly better work functioning. The work performance of the patients who were continuously prescribed antipsychotics was at a low rate and did not improve over time. Multiple other factors also interfere with work functioning. The data suggest that some patients with schizophrenia not prescribed antipsychotics for prolonged periods can function relatively well. Multiple other factors are associated with poor post-hospital work performance. The longitudinal data raise questions about prolonged treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotic medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective longitudinal cohort study on cumulative 5-year delivery and adoption rates among 1338 couples initiating infertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Hougaard, C O; Andersen, A Nyboe

    2009-01-01

    occurred for 5.9% (48/817) of the women. Positive prognostic factors for delivery were male infertility, female age infertility and less than three previous treatment cycles. CONCLUSIONS A crude delivery rate of 69.4% in the total population 5 years after referral to tertiary......BACKGROUND The objective was to assess crude 5-year delivery rates after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, intrauterine inseminations (IUI), spontaneous conceptions (SC) and adoptions in a large infertile cohort. METHODS A prospective longitudinal survey comprised 1338 infertile...... couples starting public infertility programmes offering IUIs and three free ART cycles during 2000-2001. The cohort was cross-linked with the National Medical Birth Register to obtain delivery rates for all 1338 couples. More detailed data were available from 817 women responding to a 5-year follow...

  9. Influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life in the elderly: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Kaori; Matsuda, Ken-Ich; Ikebe, Kazunori; Murai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Thomson, William Murray

    2014-06-01

    Xerostomia and tooth loss are major oral health problems in the elderly. The aim of this longitudinal study was to characterize the influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among elderly Japanese people. A total of 99 community-dwelling, independently living individuals aged 60 years and older were interviewed and underwent dental examination at baseline and at a 5-year follow-up. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 and the Xerostomia Inventory were used to assess OHRQoL and xerostomia severity, respectively. Participants whose xerostomia worsened over the 5-year period had a significantly poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Linear regression models showed that tooth loss and worsening xerostomia were significant predictors of poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Tooth loss and worsening xerostomia result in poorer OHRQoL among older Japanese people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Longitudinal development of cortical thickness, folding, and fiber density networks in the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingxin; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-08-01

    Quantitatively characterizing the development of cortical anatomical networks during the early stage of life plays an important role in revealing the relationship between cortical structural connection and high-level functional development. The development of correlation networks of cortical-thickness, cortical folding, and fiber-density is systematically analyzed in this article to study the relationship between different anatomical properties during the first 2 years of life. Specifically, longitudinal MR images of 73 healthy subjects from birth to 2 year old are used. For each subject at each time point, its measures of cortical thickness, cortical folding, and fiber density are projected to its cortical surface that has been partitioned into 78 cortical regions. Then, the correlation matrices for cortical thickness, cortical folding, and fiber density at each time point can be constructed, respectively, by computing the inter-regional Pearson correlation coefficient (of any pair of ROIs) across all 73 subjects. Finally, the presence/absence pattern (i.e., binary pattern) of the connection network is constructed from each inter-regional correlation matrix, and its statistical and anatomical properties are adopted to analyze the longitudinal development of anatomical networks. The results show that the development of anatomical network could be characterized differently by using different anatomical properties (i.e., using cortical thickness, cortical folding, or fiber density). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Six-Year Longitudinal Study of Consumption of Pornographic Materials in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S

    2016-02-01

    Using longitudinal data collected over 6 years, consumption of pornographic materials in adolescents in Hong Kong and the related demographic and psychosocial correlates were examined in this study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A longitudinal research design with 6 waves of data was used to examine consumption of pornographic materials in high school students. A total of 3291 high school students from 28 schools responded to the questionnaire at wave 1. Consumption of online pornography was higher than traditional pornography. There was an increase in consumption of pornographic materials in the high school years. Gender, family functioning, and positive youth development were related to the initial status of pornography consumption. Besides, gender, family intactness and positive youth development predicted rates of change in consumption of pornographic material over time. The present findings showed that gender, family functioning, and positive youth development are significant predictors for pornography consumption in Chinese adolescents. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Who Takes a Gap Year and Why? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Marilyn; Stanwick, John

    2012-01-01

    Taking a gap year--a break between high school and university--is becoming increasingly popular with Australian students. In terms of length and purpose, the traditional notion of a gap year being a year off between school and university has expanded considerably over time. For the purposes of the analysis reported in this paper, a person who…

  14. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk in an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shirley Xin; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Cassandra Sheung Yan; Espie, Colin A; Freeman, Daniel; Mason, Oliver; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2016-06-01

    Disrupted sleep is one of the prominent but often overlooked presenting symptoms in the clinical course of psychotic disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, particularly insomnia and nightmares, and their prospective associations with the risk of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. A naturalistic longitudinal study was conducted in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a regional university-affiliated public hospital in Hong Kong. A detailed sleep questionnaire was completed by 388 patients at baseline in May-June 2006. Relevant clinical information was extracted from clinical case notes from June 2007-October 2014. Prevalence of frequent insomnia and frequent nightmares was 19% and 9%, respectively. Baseline frequent insomnia was significantly associated with an increased incidence of suicide attempts during the follow-up period (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63, 95% confidence interval 1.40-15.36, P Sleep disturbances are common in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The association between sleep disturbances and suicidal risk underscores the need for enhanced clinical attention and intervention on sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. EARLY SEXUAL INITIATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS FOR 15-YEAR-OLDS IN PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cueto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El porcentaje de las adolescentes latinoamericanas, incluyendo las peruanas, que reportan haber tenido relaciones sexuales se ha incrementado. Existen pocos estudios en la región que identifiquen los predictores de esta conducta. El presente estudio utiliza una base longitudinal de datos del Perú para explorar las variables individuales, familiares y comunitarias a lo largo del tiempo que predicen las conductas sexuales a los 15 años de edad. Los resultados muestran que la iniciación sexual temprana está relacionada positivamente con el sexo masculino, tener una madre sin secundaria completa, un aumento en la riqueza de su familia, extraedad en la escuela y reportar consumir alcohol frecuentemente o conductas sexuales de su grupo de amigos. Las relaciones con pares fueron significativas solo para los hombres (asociación positiva, mientras que las relaciones con los padres lo fueron solo para las mujeres (asociación negativa. El 11% de los participantes reportan desconocer si su última pareja sexual utilizó protección.

  16. Background characteristics, resources and volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe (in)formal volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community, and the longitudinal relationships between background characteristics, resources (social, cognitive and physical functioning, social capital) and volunteering. At baseline, a total of 945 (out of 1440) independently living Dutch older adults (aged ≥70 years) completed the questionnaire (66% response). Two years later, these respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire again, of which 588 (62%) responded. Of 945 respondents (43% male; mean age 77.5 ± 5.8 years, range 70-101 years), 34.7% were married and 83.3% were born in the Netherlands. Social capital, social functioning and physical functioning were significantly higher among volunteering older adults. Being born in the Netherlands, higher educational level, social capital and social functioning were related to formal volunteering activities at baseline, and also predicted these activities 2 years later. Regarding informal volunteering activities, we found a significant association with age, being born in the Netherlands, marital status, educational level, social capital and social functioning at baseline. Examining their predictive nature, we found that younger age, being born in the Netherlands, social capital and physical functioning were associated with engagement in informal volunteering activities 2 years later. The present study shows that older adults remain engaged in volunteering activities, and that background characteristics (e.g. ethnic background, education) and resources (social functioning, social capital) contribute to this engagement. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Self-Perceived Cooking Skills in Emerging Adulthood Predict Better Dietary Behaviors and Intake 10 Years Later: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Winkler, Megan; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-05-01

    To determine whether perceived cooking skills in emerging adulthood predicts better nutrition a decade later. Data were collected as part of the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults longitudinal study. Participants reported on adequacy of cooking skills in 2002-2003 (age 18-23 years) and subsequently reported on nutrition-related outcomes in 2015-2016 (age 30-35 years) (n = 1,158). Separate regression models were used to examine associations between cooking skills at age 18-23 years and each subsequent outcome. One fourth of participants described their cooking skills as very adequate at 18-23 years, with no statistically significant differences by sociodemographic characteristics. Reports of very adequate cooking skills at age 18-23 years predicted better nutrition-related outcomes 10 years later, such as more frequent preparation of meals including vegetables (P skills by emerging adulthood may have long-term benefits for nutrition over a decade later. Ongoing and new interventions to enhance cooking skills during adolescence and emerging adulthood are warranted but require strong evaluation designs that observe young people over a number of years. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Concerted actions of insulin-like growth factor 1, testosterone, and estradiol on peripubertal bone growth: a 7-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leiting; Wang, Qin; Wang, Qingju; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Mikkola, Tuija; Völgyi, Eszter; Cheng, Shumei; Wiklund, Petri; Munukka, Eveliina; Nicholson, Patrick; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2011-09-01

    A better understanding of how bone growth is regulated during peripuberty is important for optimizing the attainment of peak bone mass and for the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. In this report we used hierarchical models to evaluate the associations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), estradiol (E(2) ), and testosterone (T) with peripubertal bone growth in a 7-year longitudinal study. Two-hundred and fifty-eight healthy girls were assessed at baseline (mean age 11.2 years) and at 1, 2, 3.5, and 7 years. Serum concentrations of IGF-1, E(2) , and T were determined. Musculoskeletal properties in the left lower leg were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Serum levels of IGF-1, E(2) , and T increased dramatically before menarche, whereas they decreased, plateaued, or increased at a lower rate, respectively, after menarche. IGF-1 level was positively associated with periosteal circumference (PC) and total bone mineral content (tBMC) throughout peripuberty but not after adjustment for muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA). On the other hand, IGF-1 was associated with tibial length (TL) independently of mCSA before menarche. T was positively associated with TL, PC, tBMC, and cortical volumetric bone mineral density, independent of mCSA, before menarche but not after. E(2) was associated with TL positively before menarche but negatively after menarche. These findings suggest that during puberty, circulating IGF-1 promotes bone periosteal apposition and mass accrual indirectly, probably through stimulating muscle growth, whereas the effects of sex steroids on bone growth differ before and after menarche, presenting a biphasic pattern. Hence the concerted actions of these hormones are essential for optimal bone development in peripuberty. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. The comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty eight years after the opening of the treaty for signature: what is the situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, G.; Rousseau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The International community has just celebrated the eight anniversary of the opening for signature, on 24 September 1996, of the Comprehensive Nuclear -test-Ban Treaty (C.T.B.T.). This event provides an opportunity to review briefly the current situation with regard to the Treaty and the international organisation responsible for preparing the various steps necessary for its implementation. The purpose of this paper is not to give once again a detailed description of the history of the Treaty, the issues at stake and its prospects. It is simply recalled that the major undertaking by States Parties to the Treaty is not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. It is also useful to note that the Treaty provides for a verification regime consisting of the following four elements: creation of a permanent International Monitoring system; consultation and clarification procedures to be followed by states in the event of a suspicious occurrence; on-site inspections, carried out at the request of a State Party; confidence-building measures. On the eve of important deadlines particularly during 2005 for disarmament and nonproliferation, it was useful to give a brief factual picture of the current Treaty situation and above all of the results obtained to date by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. (N.C.)

  20. Relationship transitions and change in health behavior: A four-phase, twelve-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Kim; Elovainio, Marko; Stenholm, Sari; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kauppi, Maarit; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2018-03-19

    Extensive scientific evidence shows an association between involvement in social relationships and healthy lifestyle. Prospective studies with many participants and long follow-ups are needed to study the dynamics and change in social factors within individuals over time. Our aim was to determine whether a change in relationship status (single, married, divorced, widow, cohabiting) is followed by a change in health behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index). We used data from 81,925 healthy adults participating in the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study in the period 2000-2013. We analyzed 327,700 person-observations from four data collection phases. Missing data were multiply imputed. A within-individual methodology was used to minimize the possibility of selection effects affecting the interpretation. All four health behaviors showed associations with relationship status. The effects were very similar and in the same direction in women and men, although there were gender differences in the magnitudes of the effects. The end of a relationship was followed by a decrease in body mass index, increased odds of being a smoker, increase in physical activity, and increase in alcohol consumption (widowed men). The effects were reverse when forming a new relationship. A change in relationship status is associated with a change in health behavior. The association is not explained by socioeconomic status, subjective health status, or anxiety level. People leaving or losing a relationship are at increased risk of unhealthy behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption), but at the same time they have a lower BMI and show higher physical activity compared to the time they were in a relationship. It is not clear if the cumulative health effect of these health behavior changes is positive or negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors and longitudinal course of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 10 years after baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Sara; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Sørensen, Holger J.

    2016-01-01

    of illness is another matter of interest. METHODS: Participants from The Danish OPUS Trial, aged 18-45years, with a baseline ICD-10 schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis, were assessed on psychopathology, social and vocational functioning at baseline, and cognitive functioning 5 (N=298) and 10years (N=322) after...

  2. [Longitudinal study of weight and body mass index after renal transplantation during 5 years of evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernandez Gallegos, Ruth; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael Jose; Peña Amaro, María Pilar

    2014-08-01

    Gain weight after transplantation is relatively common, also tends to be multifactorial and can be influenced by glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive medications, delayed graft function and cause serious health complications. Assess changes in weight, degree of obesity and body mass index as well as the effect of immunosuppressive treatment over these 5 years after kidney transplantation. The samples were 119 kidney transplant recipients, 70 men and 49 women, that attended the query post for five years. All patients were measured Pretransplant and post (from 1st year to the 5th year) weight, height and body mass index calculated by the formula weight/size2 relating it to immunosuppressive treatment taking. There is a considerable increase of body mass index, weight and degree of obesity in the first year after transplantation to increase more slowly in the next four years. The type of immunosuppressive treatment influence the weight and degree of obesity that occurs in this period of time. A high prevalence there are overweight and obesity after the transplant especially during the first year. A year patients earn an average of 6.6 kg in weight and an average of 2.5 kg/m2 in their BMI. During treatment should minimize doses of steroids and include dietary treatment and adequate physical exercise. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  4. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of soil CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce forest over an eight-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Dařenová, Eva; Krupková, Lenka; Pavelka, Marian

    256-257 (2018), s. 93-103 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001609 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Automated chamber system * Day of the year * Picea abies * Soil carbon flux * Temperature Soil water content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  5. Psychosocial predictors of the onset of anxiety disorders in women: Results from a prospective 3-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Amanda W.; Otto, Michael W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Soares, Claudio N.; Vitonis, Alison F.; Hearon, Bridget A.; Harlow, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    In a prospective, longitudinal, population-based study of 643 women participating in the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles we examined whether psychosocial variables predicted a new or recurrent onset of an anxiety disorder. Presence of anxiety disorders was assessed every six months over three years via structured clinical interviews. Among individuals who had a new episode of anxiety, we confirmed previous findings that history of anxiety, increased anxiety sensitivity (the fear of anxiety related sensations), and increased neuroticism were significant predictors. We also found trend level support for assertiveness as a predictor of anxiety onset. However, of these variables, only history of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity provided unique prediction. We did not find evidence for negative life events as a predictor of onset of anxiety either alone or in interaction with other variables in a diathesis-stress model. These findings from a prospective longitudinal study are discussed in relation to the potential role of such predictors in primary or relapse prevention efforts. PMID:19699609

  6. Trajectories of psychopathology in extremely low birth weight survivors from early adolescence to adulthood: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Ferro, Mark A; Schmidt, Louis A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Mathewson, Karen J

    2018-04-18

    Individuals born extremely preterm are exposed to significant perinatal stresses that are associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. However, a paucity of longitudinal studies has prevented the empirical examination of long-term, dynamic effects of perinatal adversity on mental health. Here, internalizing and externalizing problems from adolescence through adulthood were compared in individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2,500 g). Internalizing and externalizing data were collected over 20 years in three waves, during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. Growth models were used to compare longitudinal trajectories in a geographically based sample of 151 ELBW survivors and 137 NBW control participants born between 1977 and 1982 matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status at age 8. After adjusting for sex, socioeconomic and immigrant status, and family functioning, ELBW survivors failed to show the normative, age-related decline in internalizing problems over time relative to their NBW peers (β = .21; p Self-esteem (but not physical health, IQ, or maternal mood) partially mediated the association between ELBW status and internalizing problems. Extremely low birth weight survivors experienced a blunting of the expected improvement in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood. These findings suggest that altered physiological regulatory systems supporting emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the maintenance of internalizing problems in this population. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. A Three-Year Longitudinal Study of Reading and Spelling Difficulty in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia: The Matter of Morphological Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Lo, Jason Chor Ming; Shu, Hua

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we used a three-time point longitudinal design to investigate the associations of morphological awareness to word reading and spelling in a small group of those with and without dyslexia taken from a larger sample of 164 Hong Kong Chinese children who remained in a longitudinal study across ages 6, 7 and 8. Among those 164 children, 15 had been diagnosed as having dyslexia by professional psychologists, and 15 other children manifested average reading ability and had been randomly selected from the sample for comparison. All children were administered a battery of tasks including Chinese character recognition, word dictation, morphological awareness, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming. Multivariate analysis of variance and predictive discriminate analysis were performed to examine whether the dyslexic children showed differences in the cognitive-linguistic tasks in comparison with controls. Results suggested that the dyslexic groups had poorer performance in morphological awareness and RAN across all 3 years. However, phonological awareness was not stable in distinguishing the groups. Findings suggest that morphological awareness is a relatively strong correlate of spelling difficulties in Chinese, but phonological awareness is not. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use among 18- to 19-Year-Old Adolescent Women by Weight Status: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy; Davis, Matthew M; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Ela, Elizabeth J; Hall, Kelli S; Barber, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    To describe the association between weight status and sexual practices among 18- to 19-year-old women. We analyzed a population-based longitudinal study of 18- to 19-year-old women residing in a Michigan county at cohort inception. Weekly journal surveys measured sexual practices, including contraceptive behaviors. Outcomes included proportion of weeks with a partner, proportion of weeks with sexual intercourse, number of partners, average length of relationships, proportion of weeks with contraception use, and proportion of weeks where contraception was used consistently. We examined 26,545 journal surveys from 900 women over the first study year. Ordinary least squares regression models for each outcome examined differences by weight status, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The mean proportion of weeks in which adolescents reported sexual intercourse was 52%; there was no difference by weight status. Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks where any contraception was used compared with normal weight adolescents (84% vs 91%, P = .011). Among weeks in which adolescents reported sexual activity and contraceptive use, obese adolescents had a lower proportion of weeks with consistent contraceptive use (68% vs 78%, P = .016) and oral contraceptive pill use (27% vs 45%, P = .001) compared with normal weight adolescents. All other relationships by weight status were not statistically significant. In this longitudinal study, obese adolescent women were less likely to use contraception, and less likely to use it consistently when compared with normal weight peers. Findings suggest obesity may be an important factor associated with adolescent women's sexual behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic disease prevalence in women and air pollution--A 30-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Teresa; Zhu, Jingqin; Villeneuve, Paul J; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Feldman, Laura; Gao, Chenwei; Williams, Devon; Chen, Hong; Weichenthal, Scott; Wall, Claus; Miller, Anthony B

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5), can increase risk of adverse health events among people with heart disease, diabetes, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by aggravating these conditions. Identifying the influence of PM2.5 on prevalence of these conditions may help target interventions to reduce disease morbidity among high-risk populations. The objective of this study is to measure the association of exposure of PM2.5 with prevalence risk of various chronic diseases among a longitudinal cohort of women. Women from Ontario who enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (CNBSS) from 1980 to 1985 (n = 29,549) were linked to provincial health administrative data from April 1, 1992 to March 31, 2013 to determine the prevalence of major chronic disease and conditions (heart disease, diabetes, asthma, COPD, acute myocardial infarction, angina, stroke and cancers). Exposure to PM2.5 was measured using satellite data collected from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2006 and assigned to resident postal-code at time of entry into study. Poisson regression models were used to describe the relationship between exposure to ambient PM2.5 and chronic disease prevalence. Prevalence rate ratios (PRs) were estimated while adjusting for potential confounders: baseline age, smoking, BMI, marital status, education and occupation. Separate models were run for each chronic disease and condition. Congestive heart failure (PR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.51), diabetes (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.41), ischemic heart disease (PR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.30), and stroke (PR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.35) showed over a 20% increase in PRs per 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 after adjusting for risk factors. Risks were elevated in smokers and those with BMI greater than 30. This study estimated significant elevated prevalent rate ratios per unit increase in PM2.5 in nine of the ten chronic diseases studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies.

  11. Triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index as a predictor of incident hypertension: a 9-year longitudinal population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Mao, Yushan

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension and the triglyceride and glucose index both have been associated with insulin resistance; however, the longitudinal association remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the longitudinal association between the triglyceride and glucose index and incident hypertension among the Chinese population. Methods We studied 4686 subjects (3177 males and 1509 females) and followed up for 9?years. The subjects were divided into four groups based on the triglyceride ...

  12. Social influence on 5-year survival in a longitudinal chemotherapy ward co-presence network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Jeffrey; Marcum, Christopher Steven; Finney, John; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Koehly, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy is often administered in openly designed hospital wards, where the possibility of patient-patient social influence on health exists. Previous research found that social relationships influence cancer patient's health; however, we have yet to understand social influence among patients receiving chemotherapy in the hospital. We investigate the influence of co-presence in a chemotherapy ward. We use data on 4,691 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom who average 59.8 years of age, and 44% are Male. We construct a network of patients where edges exist when patients are co-present in the ward, weighted by both patients' time in the ward. Social influence is based on total weighted co-presence with focal patients' immediate neighbors, considering neighbors' 5-year mortality. Generalized estimating equations evaluated the effect of neighbors' 5-year mortality on focal patient's 5-year mortality. Each 1,000-unit increase in weighted co-presence with a patient who dies within 5 years increases a patient's mortality odds by 42% ( β = 0.357, CI:0.204,0.510). Each 1,000-unit increase in co-presence with a patient surviving 5 years reduces a patient's odds of dying by 30% ( β = -0.344, CI:-0.538,0.149). Our results suggest that social influence occurs in chemotherapy wards, and thus may need to be considered in chemotherapy delivery.

  13. A prospective 20-year longitudinal follow-up of dementia in persons with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, M; McCallion, P; Reilly, E; Dunne, P; Carroll, R; Mulryan, N

    2017-09-01

    To examine dementia characteristics, age at onset and associated co-morbidities in persons with Down syndrome. A total of 77 people with Down syndrome aged 35 years and older were followed up from 1996 to 2015. The diagnosis of dementia was established using the modified ICD 10 Criteria and a combination of objective and informant-based tests. Cognitive tests included the Test for Severe Impairment and the Down Syndrome Mental Status Examination; adaptive behaviour was measured using the Daily Living Skills Questionnaire, and data from the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities have been available since 2005. Over the 20-year period, 97.4% (75 of 77) persons developed dementia with a mean age of dementia diagnosis of 55 years (SD = 7.1, median = 56 years). Clinical dementia was associated with cognitive and function decline and seizure activity. Risk for dementia increased from 23% in those aged 50 years to 80% in those aged 65 years and above. There were no differences by level of ID. The previously reported high risk levels for dementia among people with Down syndrome were confirmed in this data as was the relationship with late onset epilepsy. The value of the instruments utilised in tracking decline and helping to confirm diagnosis is further highlighted. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Observed and predicted changes over eight years in frequency of barley powdery mildew avirulent to spring barley in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousset, L.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Caffier, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were studied in two French and two Danish regions from 1991 to 1999, at a time of year when only winter barley was present. A high frequency of genotypes not able to grow on the spring-sown crop of the previous growing season (denoted 'spring......-avirulent') was observed in most years and regions. This frequency increased with increasing proportion of winter barley; it was highest in France and decreased in general over the 8-year period. Most of the spring-avirulent genotypes possessed the V-a22 virulence gene, matching a resistance that has never been present...... of the pathogen population in this system, demonstrated that selection solely due to host resistance genes, i.e. without assuming any cost of virulence, might lead to such results as those observed. The changes in frequency of spring-avirulent genotypes and the frequency of unnecessary virulence genes may...

  15. Bone metastases from breast cancer at the time or radical mastectomy as detected by bone scan. Eight-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaroff, R B; Sklaroff, D M

    1976-07-01

    Sixty-four women with Stage II breast cancer who had Sr85 bone scans at the time of radical mastectomy were followed for 8 years in a prospective study. Those women with positive scans had a slight, but statistically significant, increased incidence of metastic disease, particularly for metastases to bone.However, 40% of those women with positive bone scans and negative roentgenograms survived 8 years without evidence of any metastatic disease. Therefore, it has not been shown at this time that bone scans should be obtained in order to exclude bone metastasis before regional therapy for breast cancer is instituted. Also, a significant percentage of women with negative bone scans developed both bone and soft tissue metastases. As many as 30% of asymptomatic women with a history of breast cancer and positive bone scans and negative bone roentgenograms may still harbor disease in bone after 8 years.

  16. Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia Ten Years prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111 and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280; group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results: Age- and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion: The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.

  17. Longitudinal patterns of problematic computer game use among adolescents and adults--a 2-year panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharkow, Michael; Festl, Ruth; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the longitudinal patterns (stability and change) of problematic computer game use and its interdependencies with psychosocial wellbeing in different age groups. Three-wave, annual panel study using computer-assisted telephone surveys. Germany. A total of 112 adolescents aged between 14 and 18 years, 363 younger adults between 19-39 years and 427 adults aged 40 years and older (overall n = 902). Problematic game use was measured with the Gaming Addiction Short Scale (GAS), which covers seven criteria including salience, withdrawal and conflict. Additionally, gaming behaviour and psychosocial wellbeing (social capital and support, life satisfaction and success) were measured in all three panel waves. The generally low GAS scores were very stable in yearly intervals [average autocorrelation across waves and age groups: r = 0.74, confidence interval (CI) = 0.71, 0.77]. Only nine respondents (1%, CI = 0.5, 1.9) consistently exhibited symptoms of problematic game use across all waves, while no respondent could be classified consistently as being addicted according to the GAS criteria. Changes in problematic gaming were not related consistently to changes in psychosocial wellbeing, although some cross-lagged effects were statistically significant in younger and older adult groups. Within a 2-year time-frame, problematic use of computer games appears to be a less stable behaviour than reported previously and not related systematically to negative changes in the gamers' lives. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan; Friedman, Shimon

    2012-05-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohort for which the 1-year outcome was previously reported. Apical microsurgery procedures were uniformly performed using SuperEBA (Staident International, Staines, UK) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (ProRoot MTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) root-end fillings or alternatively Retroplast capping (Retroplast Trading, Rorvig, Denmark). Subjects examined at 1 year (n = 191) were invited for the 5-year clinical and radiographic examination. Based on blinded, independent assessment by 3 calibrated examiners, the dichotomous outcome (healed or nonhealed) was determined and associated with patient-, tooth-, and treatment-related variables using logistic regression. At the 5-year follow-up, 9 of 191 teeth were unavailable, 12 of 191 teeth were extracted, and 170 of 191 teeth were examined (87.6% recall rate). A total of 129 of 170 teeth were healed (75.9%) compared with 83.8% at 1 year, and 85.3% were asymptomatic. Two significant outcome predictors were identified: the mesial-distal bone level at ≤ 3 mm versus >3 mm from the cementoenamel junction (78.2% vs 52.9% healed, respectively; odds ratio = 5.10; confidence interval, 1.67-16.21; P apical microsurgery was 8% poorer than assessed at 1 year. It also suggested that the prognosis was significantly impacted by the interproximal bone levels at the treated tooth and by the type of root-end filling material used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  19. A therapeutic workplace for the long-term treatment of drug addiction and unemployment: eight-year outcomes of a social business intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklin, Will M; Wong, Conrad J; Hampton, Jacqueline; Svikis, Dace S; Stitzer, Maxine L; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a therapeutic workplace social business on drug abstinence and employment. Pregnant and postpartum women (N = 40) enrolled in methadone treatment were randomly assigned to a therapeutic workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic workplace participants could work weekdays in training and then as employees of a social business, but were required to provide drug-free urine samples to work and maintain maximum pay. Three-year outcomes were reported previously. This paper reports 4- to 8-year outcomes. During year 4 when the business was open, therapeutic workplace participants provided significantly more cocaine- and opiate-negative urine samples than controls; reported more days employed, higher employment income, and less money spent on drugs. During the 3 years after the business closed, therapeutic workplace participants only reported higher income than controls. A therapeutic workplace social business can maintain long-term abstinence and employment, but additional intervention may be required to sustain effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Therapeutic Workplace for the Long-Term Treatment of Drug Addiction and Unemployment: Eight-Year Outcomes of a Social Business Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklin, Will M.; Wong, Conrad J.; Hampton, Jacqueline; Svikis, Dace S.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a Therapeutic Workplace social business on drug abstinence and employment. Pregnant and postpartum women (N=40) enrolled in methadone treatment were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or Usual Care Control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants could work weekdays in training and then as employees of a social business, but were required to provide drug-free urine samples to work and maintain maximum pay. Three-year outcomes were reported previously. This paper reports 4- to 8- year outcomes. During year 4 when the business was open, Therapeutic Workplace participants provided significantly more cocaine- and opiate-negative urine samples than controls; reported more days employed, higher employment income, and less money spent on drugs. During the 3 years after the business closed, Therapeutic Workplace participants only reported higher income than controls. A Therapeutic Workplace social business can maintain long-term abstinence and employment, but additional intervention may be required to sustain effects. PMID:25124257

  1. Heterogeneity of Mental Health Service Utilization and High Mental Health Service Use Among Women Eight Years After Initiating Substance Use Disorder Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Padwa, Howard; Li, Libo; Lin, Veronique; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine mental health service utilization patterns among women treated for substance use disorders (SUD) and identify factors associated with patterns of high mental health service use. Data were provided by 4447 women treated for SUD in California during 2000-2002 for whom mental health services utilization records were acquired. A latent class model was fitted to women's high use of services (>6 services/year over 8 years). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with utilization patterns. In 8 years after initiating SUD treatment, 50% of women utilized mental health services. High use probability was consistently low for most women (76.9%); for others, however, it decreased immediately following SUD treatment and then increased over time (8.7%), increased immediately following SUD treatment and then decreased (9.3%), or remained consistently high (5.1%). Consistently high services use was negatively associated with marriage (OR 0.60, pwomen with co-occurring mental health disorders at SUD treatment entry did not receive any mental health treatment in the subsequent 8 years. Mental health services utilization patterns among women treated for SUD are heterogeneous and dynamic. Understanding factors related to women's utilization patterns may aid efforts to optimize care and ensure appropriate use of mental health services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A longitudinal study of women's memories of their childbirth experiences at five years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2014-07-05

    Few studies have investigated whether women can accurately recall their birthing experiences after a long period. We investigated the consistency of women's memories of their childbirth experiences between those at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. This prospective cohort study comprised 1,168 women who delivered at a maternity hospital and four maternity homes in Japan between May 2002 and August 2003. Data were collected using structured interviews and transcriptions from medical records. The childbirth experience was assessed using the Childbirth Experience Scale (CBE-Scale) at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. We obtained 584 (50.0%) valid responses from women who completed the survey at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Significant differences were observed in 16 out of 18 items on the CBE-Scale when responses were compared at both time points. Women who answered "yes" to any item on the CBE-Scale at the baseline survey tended to demonstrate a more precise recollection for that item 5 years after childbirth than those who answered "no" for the corresponding item. We conclude that women remember their childbirth experience clearly at 5 years after the childbirth.

  3. A longitudinal study of women’s memories of their childbirth experiences at five years postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated whether women can accurately recall their birthing experiences after a long period. We investigated the consistency of women’s memories of their childbirth experiences between those at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised 1,168 women who delivered at a maternity hospital and four maternity homes in Japan between May 2002 and August 2003. Data were collected using structured interviews and transcriptions from medical records. The childbirth experience was assessed using the Childbirth Experience Scale (CBE-Scale) at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Results We obtained 584 (50.0%) valid responses from women who completed the survey at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Significant differences were observed in 16 out of 18 items on the CBE-Scale when responses were compared at both time points. Women who answered "yes" to any item on the CBE-Scale at the baseline survey tended to demonstrate a more precise recollection for that item 5 years after childbirth than those who answered "no" for the corresponding item. Conclusions We conclude that women remember their childbirth experience clearly at 5 years after the childbirth. PMID:24996683

  4. DEVELOPMENT VARIABILITY OF LONGITUDINAL SPINE FEATURES IN CHILDREN AGING 7-15 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kochan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased body growth is connected with higher sensitivity to environmental influence and may be a cause of instability of body posture. This happens when trunk and lower limbs growth is more intense. Because body posture disorders are most often diagnosed in children and school adolescents, the sample chosen were subjects between 7 and 15 years old. Material and methods. The data was gathered in 2002 in the town of Polkowice. Examination concerned 2706 boys and girls aged 7 to 15 years old. The measurement included basic somatic features and for the body posture photogrammetric method was used. Results. It was indicated that the relative trunk length in both sexes was decreasing in early school period but in the three oldest groups of age there was a significant increase. The height of kyphosis was increasing significantly in both sexes with age. Most intensive growth of this parameter was observed between 12 and 13 years old subjects. In both sexes there could be seen significant increase of kyphosis depth between 12 and 14 years old and also the decrease of lumbar lordosis between 12 and 13 years old subjects. Conclusion. Significant increase of thoracical spine relative height and lumbar lordosis depth in adolescents in both sexes can be one of the causes of weakening spine stability and affect correct body posture development.

  5. Kinematic characteristics of the ski jump inrun: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Elfmark, Milan; Vaverka, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    The athlete's inrun position affects the outcome for take-off in ski jumping. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematic parameters between skiers' adjacent body segments during their first straight path of the inrun. Elite ski jumpers participated in the study at the World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, during the years 1992 through 2001. A video image was taken at a right angle to the tracks of the K-110 (meter) jumping hill. Kinematic data were collected from the lower extremities and trunk of the athletes. Findings indicated that jumpers had diminished ankle and knee joint angles and increased trunk and hip angles over the 10 years. In recent years, the best athletes achieved a further length of their jumps, while they experienced slower inrun average velocity. These results are perhaps explained by several possible contributing factors, such as new technique of the jumper's body kinematics, advancements in equipment technology, and somatotype of the jumpers.

  6. Longitudinal study of DNA methylation during the first 5 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdinguio, Rocio G; Torró, María Isabel; Bayón, Gustavo F; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Fernández, Agustín F; Redon, Pau; Fraga, Mario F; Lurbe, Empar

    2016-06-03

    Early life epigenetic programming influences adult health outcomes. Moreover, DNA methylation levels have been found to change more rapidly during the first years of life. Our aim was the identification and characterization of the CpG sites that are modified with time during the first years of life. We hypothesize that these DNA methylation changes would lead to the detection of genes that might be epigenetically modulated by environmental factors during early childhood and which, if disturbed, might contribute to susceptibility to diseases later in life. The study of the DNA methylation pattern of 485577 CpG sites was performed on 30 blood samples from 15 subjects, collected both at birth and at 5 years old, using Illumina(®) Infinium 450 k array. To identify differentially methylated CpG (dmCpG) sites, the methylation status of each probe was examined using linear models and the Empirical Bayes Moderated t test implemented in the limma package of R/Bioconductor. Surogate variable analysis was used to account for batch effects. DNA methylation levels significantly changed from birth to 5 years of age in 6641 CpG sites. Of these, 36.79 % were hypermethylated and were associated with genes related mainly to developmental ontology terms, while 63.21 % were hypomethylated probes and associated with genes related to immune function. Our results suggest that DNA methylation alterations with age during the first years of life might play a significant role in development and the regulation of leukocyte-specific functions. This supports the idea that blood leukocytes experience genome remodeling related to their interaction with environmental factors, underlining the importance of environmental exposures during the first years of life and suggesting that new strategies should be take into consideration for disease prevention.

  7. Preoperative factors and 3-year weight change in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoulas, Anita P; Christian, Nicholas J; O'Rourke, Robert W; Dakin, Greg; Patchen Dellinger, E; Flum, David R; Melissa Kalarchian, Ph D; Mitchell, James E; Patterson, Emma; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Steffen, Kristine; Wolfe, Bruce M; Belle, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Limited data guide the prediction of weight loss success or failure after bariatric surgery according to presurgery factors. There is significant variation in weight change after bariatric surgery and much interest in identifying preoperative factors that may contribute to these differences. This report evaluates the associations of a comprehensive set of baseline factors and 3-year weight change. Ten hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers in the United States. Adults undergoing a first bariatric surgical procedure as part of clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Participants completed research assessments utilizing standardized and detailed data collection on over 100 preoperative and operative parameters for individuals undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Weight was measured 3 years after surgery. Percent weight change for RYGB or LAGB from baseline to 3 years was analyzed as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome with cut points at 25% for RYGB and 10% for LAGB. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to identify independent baseline predictors of the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. The median weight loss 3 years after surgery for RYGB (n = 1513) participants was 31.5% (IQR: 24.6%-38.4%; range, 59.2% loss to .9% gain) of baseline weight and 16.0% (IQR: 8.1%-23.1%; range, 56.1% loss to 12.5% gain) for LAGB (n = 509) participants. The median age was 46 years for RYGB and 48 years for LAGB; 80% of RYGB participants and 75% of LAGB participants were female; and the median baseline body mass index (BMI) was 46 kg/m(2) for RYGB and 44 kg/m(2) for LAGB. For RYGB, black participants lost 2.7% less weight compared with whites and participants with diabetes at baseline had 3.7% less weight loss at year 3 than those without diabetes at baseline. There were small but statistically significant differences in weight

  8. Preoperative Factors and Three Year Weight Change in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoulas, Anita P.; Christian, Nicholas J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.; Dakin, Greg; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Flum, David Reed; Kalarchian, Melissa; Mitchell, James E.; Patterson, Emma; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J.; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Steffen, Kristine; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Belle, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited data guide the prediction of weight loss success or failure following bariatric surgery according to pre-surgery factors. There is significant variation in weight change following bariatric surgery and much interest in identifying pre-operative factors that may contribute to these differences. OBJECTIVE This report evaluates the associations of a comprehensive set of baseline factors and three-year weight change. SETTING Ten hospitals in six geographically diverse clinical centers in the United States. METHODS: PARTICIPANTS and INTERVENTIONS Adults undergoing a first bariatric surgical procedure as part of clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Participants completed research assessments utilizing standardized and detailed data collection on over 100 preoperative and operative parameters for individuals undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Weight was measured 3 years following surgery. METHODS: MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Percent weight change for RYGB or LAGB from baseline to 3 years was analyzed as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome with cut points at 25% for RYGB and 10% for LAGB. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to identify independent baseline predictors of the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. RESULTS The median weight loss 3 years following surgery for RYGB (n=1513) participants was 31.5% (IQR: 24.6%–38.4%; range, 59.2% loss to 0.9% gain) of baseline weight and 16.0% (IQR: 8.1%–23.1%; range, 56.1% loss to 12.5% gain) for LAGB (n=509) participants. The median age was 46 years for RYGB and 48 years for LAGB; 80% of RYGB participants and 75% of LAGB participants were female; and the median baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) was 46 kg/m2 for RYGB and 44 kg/m2 for LAGB. For RYGB, Black participants lost 2.7% less weight compared to Whites and participants with diabetes at baseline had 3.7% less weight

  9. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kotsedi D; Kemper, Han C G; Amusa, Lateef O; Motshwane, Marcus

    2013-08-02

    Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18 years. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls) who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. A significant (p advertising tobacco products among the Ellisras rural boys (17% boys and 12.8% for girls, p advertisements of tobacco products on the TV screens, videos or movies. Exposure to tobacco products advertisements was high among Ellisras rural children. Though tobacco products legislation exists in South Africa, efforts should be taken by the health professionals to emphasize the danger of using tobacco products even among the illiterate. Teachers and parents should refrain from advertising tobacco products at schools and at homes.

  11. Unusual Thymic Hyperplasia Mimicking Lipomatous Tumor in an Eight-Year-Old Boy with Concomitant Pericardial Lipomatosis and Right Facial Hemihypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoo Jin; Kim Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lim, Yun Jung; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Byun, Sun Ju

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of thymic hyperplasia accompanied by pericardial lipomatosis and right facial hemihypertrophy in an 8-year-old boy. On imaging studies, the hyperplastic thymus had prominent curvilinear and nodular fatty areas simulating a fat-containing anterior mediastinal mass, which is an unusual finding in children. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with a combination of thymic hyperplasia, pericardial lipomatosis, and right facial hemihypertrophy. The radiologic findings are presented with a brief discussion.

  12. A Therapeutic Workplace for the Long-Term Treatment of Drug Addiction and Unemployment: Eight-Year Outcomes of a Social Business Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Aklin, Will M.; Wong, Conrad J.; Hampton, Jacqueline; Svikis, Dace S.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a Therapeutic Workplace social business on drug abstinence and employment. Pregnant and postpartum women (N=40) enrolled in methadone treatment were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or Usual Care Control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants could work weekdays in training and then as employees of a social business, but were required to provide drug-free urine samples to work and maintain maximum pay. Three-year outcomes were repor...

  13. Multi-year longitudinal profiles of cortisol and corticosterone recovered from baleen of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Lysiak, Nadine S; Moore, Michael; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2017-12-01

    Research into stress physiology of mysticete whales has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining repeated physiological samples from individuals over time. We investigated whether multi-year longitudinal records of glucocorticoids can be reconstructed from serial sampling along full-length baleen plates (representing ∼10years of baleen growth), using baleen recovered from two female North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) of known reproductive history. Cortisol and corticosterone were quantified with immunoassay of subsamples taken every 4cm (representing ∼60d time intervals) along a full-length baleen plate from each female. In both whales, corticosterone was significantly elevated during known pregnancies (inferred from calf sightings and necropsy data) as compared to intercalving intervals; cortisol was significantly elevated during pregnancies in one female but not the other. Within intercalving intervals, corticosterone was significantly elevated during the first year (lactation year) and/or the second year (post-lactation year) as compared to later years of the intercalving interval, while cortisol showed more variable patterns. Cortisol occasionally showed brief high elevations ("spikes") not paralleled by corticosterone, suggesting that the two glucocorticoids might be differentially responsive to certain stressors. Generally, immunoreactive corticosterone was present in higher concentration in baleen than immunoreactive cortisol; corticosterone:cortisol ratio was usually >4 and was highly variable in both individuals. Further investigation of baleen cortisol and corticosterone profiles could prove fruitful for elucidating long-term, multi-year patterns in stress physiology of large whales, determined retrospectively from stranded or archived specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Descriptive Study of Occupational Accidents and their Causes among Electricity Distribution Company Workers at an Eight-year Period in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Khadem, Monireh; Madreseh, Elham; Aghaei, Habib-Allah; Raei, Mehdi; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational accidents are unplanned events that cause damage. The socio-economic impacts and human costs of accidents are tremendous around the world. Many fatalities happen every year in workplaces such as electricity distribution companies. Some electrical injuries are electrocution, electric shock, and burns. This study was conducted in an electricity distribution company (with rotational 12-hour shift work) in Iran during an 8-year period to survey descriptive factors of injuries. Methods Variables collected included accident time, age of injured worker, employment type, work experience, injury cause, educational background, and other information about accidents. Results Results indicated that most of the accidents occurred in summer, and 51.3% were during shift work. Worker negligence (malpractice) was the cause of 75% of deaths. Type of employment had a significant relationship with type of injuries (p safety was related to job experiences. Temporary workers have no chance to work all year like permanent workers, therefore impressive experiences may be less in them. Because the lack of protective equipment and negligence are main causes of accidents, periodical inspections in workshops are necessary. PMID:24106647

  15. Parity and 11-Year Serum Thyrotropin and Thyroid Autoantibody Change: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    thyrotropin (TSH), as well as change in thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) status. A random sample of 4649 people aged 18-65 years participated in a population-based study in the period 1997-1998. In the study presented here, 1749 non-pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease were included who...

  16. Three Years of Digital Consumer Health Information: A Longitudinal Study of the Touch Screen Health Kiosk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Williams, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Examines the use, over three and a half years, of a sample of 20 touch-screen health kiosks in the United Kingdom. Identifies four patterns of use over time--declining, stable, increasing, and no trend--and discusses implications of these patterns. Thumbnail use graphs for the 20 kiosks are appended. (AEF)

  17. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  18. Anxiety in 11-Year-Old Children Who Stutter: Findings from a Prospective Longitudinal Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie A.; Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Kefalianos, Elaina; Hearne, Anna; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine if a community sample of 11-year-old children with persistent stuttering have higher anxiety than children who have recovered from stuttering and nonstuttering controls. Method: Participants in a community cohort study were categorized into 3 groups: (a) those with persistent stuttering, (b) those with recovered stuttering, and…

  19. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  20. An 8-year longitudinal study of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veer, Monique W; Gallup, Gordon G; Theall, Laura A; van den Bos, Ruud; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2003-01-01

    In a previous cross-sectional study of mirror self-recognition involving 92 chimpanzees, Povinelli et al. [Journal of Comparative Psychology 107 (1993) 347] reported a peak in the proportion of animals exhibiting self-recognition in the adolescent/young adult sample (8-15 years), with 75% being classified as positive. In contrast, only 26% of the older animals (16-39 years) were classified as positive, suggesting a marked decline in self-recognition in middle to late adulthood. In the present study, all of the chimpanzees from the 8-15-year-old group in the Povinelli et al. study (n=12) were again tested for self-recognition, 8 years later. Using the same criteria, 67% of the animals were classified the same. Although a higher proportion of the adult animals in this study (50%) exhibited self-recognition than would be inferred on the basis of the previous study (25%), all changes in self-recognition status were in the negative direction. These results show that mirror self-recognition is a highly stable trait in many chimpanzees, but may be subject to decline with age. Connections with human research are briefly discussed.

  1. Is Self-Esteem a Cause or Consequence of Social Support? A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sarah L.; Parker, Phillip D.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M[subscript…

  2. Five-Year Neuropsychological Outcome after Stereotactic Radiofrequency Amygdalohippocampectomy for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Longitudinal Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krámská, L.; Vojtěch, Z.; Lukavský, Jiří; Stará, M.; Malíková, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2017), s. 149-157 ISSN 1011-6125 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Cognitive outcome * Memory * Temporal lobe epilepsy * Stereotactic surgery Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.692, year: 2016

  3. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronvold Nina T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies.

  4. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldstadli, Kari; Tyssen, Reidar; Finset, Arnstein; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Gronvold, Nina T; Ekeberg, Oivind; Vaglum, Per

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies. PMID:16984638

  5. Midlife cardiovascular fitness and dementia: A 44-year longitudinal population study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörder, Helena; Johansson, Lena; Guo, XinXin; Grimby, Gunnar; Kern, Silke; Östling, Svante; Skoog, Ingmar

    2018-04-10

    To investigate whether greater cardiovascular fitness in midlife is associated with decreased dementia risk in women followed up for 44 years. A population-based sample of 1,462 women 38 to 60 years of age was examined in 1968. Of these, a systematic subsample comprising 191 women completed a stepwise-increased maximal ergometer cycling test to evaluate cardiovascular fitness. Subsequent examinations of dementia incidence were done in 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000, 2005, and 2009. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria on the basis of information from neuropsychiatric examinations, informant interviews, hospital records, and registry data up to 2012. Cox regressions were performed with adjustment for socioeconomic, lifestyle, and medical confounders. Compared with medium fitness, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause dementia during the 44-year follow-up was 0.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.54) among those with high fitness and 1.41 (95% CI 0.72-2.79) among those with low fitness. High fitness delayed age at dementia onset by 9.5 years and time to dementia onset by 5 years compared to medium fitness. Among Swedish women, a high cardiovascular fitness in midlife was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent dementia. Promotion of a high cardiovascular fitness may be included in strategies to mitigate or prevent dementia. Findings are not causal, and future research needs to focus on whether improved fitness could have positive effects on dementia risk and when during the life course a high cardiovascular fitness is most important. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  6. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102, 4 years (N = 51, and 20 years (N = 40 after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69% and avoidance (59% being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60% and feelings of guilt (50% were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps p = .003, but not decreased general mental health (p = .14, than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.

  7. The development of multitasking in children aged 7-12years: Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Xiao; Xie, Weizhen; Chen, Chu-Sheng; Altgassen, Mareike; Wang, Ya; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the development of multitasking ability across childhood. A sample of 65 typically developing children aged 7, 9, and 11years completed two multitasking tests across three time points within a year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data consistently indicated continuous linear growth in children's multitasking ability. By the age of 12years, children could effectively perform a simple multitasking scenario comprising six equally important tasks, although their ability to strategically organize assorted tasks with varied values and priorities in a complex multitasking setting had not reached proficiency yet. Cognitive functions underlying a complex multitasking scenario varied in their developmental trajectories. Retrospective memory developed continuously from 7 to 12years of age, suggesting its supporting role in the development of multitasking. Planning skills developed slowly and showed practice effects for older children but not for younger children. The ability to adhere to plans also developed slowly, and children of all age groups benefited from practice. This study offers a preliminary benchmark for future comparison with clinical populations and may help to inform the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Eight channel fast scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoup, W D; Stubbs, R J [Durham Univ. (UK)

    1977-11-01

    An eight channel 64-bit scaler has been constructed with a static CMOS memory. Scaling frequencies are independently variable, at each channel, as are the number of bits/channel. The scaler, when used in conjunction with a multichannel charge to time converter results in a very flexible, gated multichannel ADC.

  9. Clinical Outcomes Following the Ross Procedure in Adults: A 25-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elisabeth; Mohammadi, Siamak; Jacques, Frederic; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Voisine, Pierre; Doyle, Daniel; Perron, Jean

    2017-10-10

    Very few reports of long-term outcomes of patients who underwent the Ross procedure have been published. The authors reviewed their 25-year experience with the Ross procedure with the aim of defining very-long-term survival and factors associated with Ross-related failure. Between January 1990 and December 2014, the Ross procedure was performed in 310 adults (mean age 40.8 years) at a single institution. All patients were prospectively added to a dedicated cardiac surgery registry. Complete post-operative clinical examination and history were obtained, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed according to a standardized protocol. There was no loss to follow-up. Median follow-up was 15.1 years and up to 25 years. Bicuspid aortic valve was diagnosed in 227 patients (73.2%), and the most common indication for surgery was aortic stenosis (n = 225 [72.6%]). Freedom from any Ross-related reintervention was 92.9% and 70.1% at 10 and 20 years, respectively. Independent risk factors for pulmonary autograft degeneration were pre-operative large aortic annulus (hazard ratio: 1.1; p = 0.01), pre-operative aortic insufficiency (hazard ratio: 2.7; p = 0.002), and concomitant replacement of the ascending aorta (hazard ratio: 7.7; p = 0.0003). There were 4 hospital deaths (1.3%), and overall survival at 10 and 20 years was 94.1% and 83.6%, respectively. Long-term survival was not significantly different in patients who required Ross-related reintervention (log-rank p = 0.70). However, compared with the general population, survival was significantly lower in patients following the Ross procedure when matched on age and sex (p Ross procedure was associated with excellent long-term valvular outcomes and survival, regardless of the need for reintervention. Adults presenting with aortic insufficiency or a dilated aortic annulus or ascending aorta were at greater risk for reintervention. Unlike previous reports, long-term survival was lower in Ross

  10. Video game addiction and college performance among males: results from a 1 year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Zachary L; Livingston, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the pattern of video game usage and video game addiction among male college students and examined how video game addiction was related to expectations of college engagement, college grade point average (GPA), and on-campus drug and alcohol violations. Participants were 477 male, first year students at a liberal arts college. In the week before the start of classes, participants were given two surveys: one of expected college engagement, and the second of video game usage, including a measure of video game addiction. Results suggested that video game addiction is (a) negatively correlated with expected college engagement, (b) negatively correlated with college GPA, even when controlling for high school GPA, and (c) negatively correlated with drug and alcohol violations that occurred during the first year in college. Results are discussed in terms of implications for male students' engagement and success in college, and in terms of the construct validity of video game addiction.

  11. Longitudinal structure of stationary planetary waves in the middle atmosphere–extraordinary years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Križan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2018), s. 181-192 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03909S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : meteorology and atmospheric dynamics * middle atmosphere dynamics Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2016 https://www.ann-geophys.net/36/181/2018/angeo-36-181-2018.pdf

  12. A longitudinal study on lung disease in dental technicians: What has changed after seven years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Özdemir Dogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this 7-year follow-up study was to determine respiratory changes in dental technicians. Material and Methods: In our region, in the year 2005, 36 dental technicians were evaluated with a cross-sectional study on respiratory occupational diseases, and in 2012 we evaluated them again. Inclusion of information on respiratory symptoms and demographic features questionnaires was applied. Pulmonary function tests (PFT were performed. Chest X-rays (CXR were evaluated according to the ILO-2000 classification. For the comparisons of the technicians' findings in 2005 and 2012, data analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon test in addition to descriptive statistical procedures. Results: In 2012, 19 out of the 36 technicians continued to work in the same place, so we were able to evaluate their findings. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in dental technician was as follows: dyspnea 7 (37%, cough 6 (32%, and phlegm 5 (26%. According to ILO classifications in 2005, among the 36 technicians, 5 (13.8% had pneumoconiosis. At the end of 7 years, there were 9 pneumoconiosis cases among the 19 remaining technicians (47%. Thus, there was a statistically significant progression on the profusion of the radiologic findings (p < 0.005. Also there was a significant worsening on spirometric findings (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In dental technicians, a determination of both radiologic and functional progressions at the end of 7 years demonstrate that the primary and secondary preventive measures are necessary for these workplaces. Workplaces must be regularly controlled for worker health and hygiene.

  13. A longitudinal study of women’s memories of their childbirth experiences at five years postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated whether women can accurately recall their birthing experiences after a long period. We investigated the consistency of women’s memories of their childbirth experiences between those at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised 1,168 women who delivered at a maternity hospital and four maternity homes in Japan between May 2002 and August 2003. Data were collected using structured interviews and transcriptio...

  14. Long-term bladder and bowel management after spinal cord injury: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Gordana; Frankel, Hans L; Jamous, Mohamed Ali; Soni, Bakulesh M; Charlifue, Susan

    2018-02-16

    Prospective observational. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in bladder and bowel management methods in persons with long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI). Two spinal centres in UK. Data were collected through interviews and examinations between 1990 and 2010 in a sample of persons injured more than 20 years prior to 1990. For the 85 participants who completed the 2010 follow-up, the mean age was 67.7 years and the mean duration of injury was 46.3 years, 80% were male, 37.7% had tetraplegia AIS grade A, B, or C, 44.7% paraplegia AIS A, B, or C, and 17.6% an AIS D grade regardless of level. In all, 50.6% reported having changed their bladder method, 63.1% their bowel method, and 40.5% both methods since they enroled in the study. The reasons for change were a combination of medical and practical. In men, condom drainage remained the most frequent bladder method, and in women, suprapubic catheter replaced straining/expressing as the most frequent method. The use of condom drainage and straining/expressing bladder methods decreased, whereas the use of suprapubic and intermittent catheters increased. Manual evacuation remained the most frequent bowel management method. The percentage of participants on spontaneous/voluntary bowel emptying, straining and medications alone decreased, whereas the use of colostomy and transanal irrigation increased over time. More than half the sample, all living with SCI for more than 40 years, required change in their bladder and bowel management methods, for either medical or practical reasons. Regular follow-ups ensure adequate change of method if/when needed.

  15. PREDICTORS OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN 1-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN: A LONGITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvinskiene, Giedre; Zemaitiene, Nida; Jusiene, Roma; Markuniene, Egle

    2016-07-01

    Emotional and behavioral problems at an early age can reasonably be considered a high-risk factor for later mental health disorders. The aim of the article is to reveal predictive factors of 1½-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems. The study was a part of a prospective birth-cohort study. The study sample consisted of 172 full-term infants (born during Gestational Weeks 37-42) and their mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 1½ years were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (T. Achenbach & L. Rescorla, 2000), which was completed by mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at age of 1½ years were more prevalent in infants born via cesarean section, as compared to infants born vaginally without administration of medication. Newborns' suboptimal functioning after birth, complicated emotional acceptance of pregnancy, a couple's nonsatisfactory relationship during pregnancy, maternal distress during pregnancy and in the first months after childbirth, and inflexible and parent-oriented attitudes toward infant-rearing also predicted children's emotional and behavioral problems independent of sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that biomedical and psychosocial factors which manifest themselves in the prenatal and perinatal periods can have associations with later infant and child mental health. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Relational aggression and marital quality: A five-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Carroll, Jason S; Smith, Nathan J; Yang, Chongming; Holmgren, Hailey G; Johnson, Chad

    2017-04-01

    Relational aggression occurs in many different contexts, including in romantic relationships. The current study examined associations between two subtypes of relational aggression (love withdrawal and social sabotage) and marital quality over a 5-year time period. Participants consisted of 311 married couples who completed a number of questionnaires on relational aggression and relationship quality once a year over a 5-year period. Results revealed that relational aggression was highly stable over time and that women used more relational aggression than men. Men's use of social sabotage and love withdrawal were bidirectionally related to both partners' perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Conversely, only women's use of love withdrawal was related to her own perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Collectively, these results suggest that relational aggression by men may be less common, though particularly toxic in a marital relationship. Couples are encouraged to find healthier ways of coping with problems in relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Longitudinal Analysis of Adiponectin through 20-Year Type 1 Diabetes Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCaire, Tamara J; Palta, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Little information exists on the trajectory and determinants of adiponectin, a possible insulin sensitizer and marker for inflammation and endothelial function, across the duration of type 1 diabetes. The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study followed an incident cohort ≤ 30 years of age when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 1987-1992 up to 20-year duration. Adiponectin was concurrently and retrospectively (from samples frozen at -80 °C) measured for those participating in a 20-year exam (n = 304), during 2007-2011. Adiponectin levels were higher in females, declined through adolescence, and increased with age thereafter. Lower levels were associated with greater body weight and waist circumference and with higher insulin dose, especially at longer diabetes durations. Higher levels were associated with higher HbA1c and, at longer durations, with higher albumin-creatinine ratio. Adiponectin levels showed consistency within individuals that was not explained by these factors. We conclude that markers for insulin resistance are associated with lower adiponectin, and markers for potential microvascular complications are associated with higher adiponectin. The previously reported relationship with HbA1c remains largely unexplained. Additional individual specific factors likely also influence adiponectin level. The relationship between adiponectin and urinary protein excretion may enable identification of those predisposed to kidney disease earlier in type 1 diabetes.

  18. Longitudinal Analysis of Adiponectin through 20-Year Type 1 Diabetes Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J. LeCaire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the trajectory and determinants of adiponectin, a possible insulin sensitizer and marker for inflammation and endothelial function, across the duration of type 1 diabetes. The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study followed an incident cohort ≤30 years of age when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 1987–1992 up to 20-year duration. Adiponectin was concurrently and retrospectively (from samples frozen at −80°C measured for those participating in a 20-year exam (n=304, during 2007–2011. Adiponectin levels were higher in females, declined through adolescence, and increased with age thereafter. Lower levels were associated with greater body weight and waist circumference and with higher insulin dose, especially at longer diabetes durations. Higher levels were associated with higher HbA1c and, at longer durations, with higher albumin-creatinine ratio. Adiponectin levels showed consistency within individuals that was not explained by these factors. We conclude that markers for insulin resistance are associated with lower adiponectin, and markers for potential microvascular complications are associated with higher adiponectin. The previously reported relationship with HbA1c remains largely unexplained. Additional individual specific factors likely also influence adiponectin level. The relationship between adiponectin and urinary protein excretion may enable identification of those predisposed to kidney disease earlier in type 1 diabetes.

  19. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  20. 137Cesium-induced chromosome aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization: eight years follow up of the Goiânia radiation accident victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, A T; Santos, S J; Darroudi, F; Hadjidikova, V; Vermeulen, S; Chatterjee, S; Berg, M; Grigorova, M; Sakamoto-Hojo, E T; Granath, F; Ramalho, A T; Curado, M P

    1998-05-25

    The radiation accident in focus here occurred in a section of Goiânia (Brazil) where more than a hundred individuals were contaminated with 137Cesium on September 1987. In order to estimate the absorbed radiation doses, initial frequencies of dicentrics and rings were determined in 129 victims [A.T. Ramalho, PhD Thesis, Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiânia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992]. We have followed some of these victims cytogenetically over the years seeking for parameters that could be used as basis for retrospective radiation dosimetry. Our data on translocation frequencies obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be directly compared to the baseline frequencies of dicentrics available for those same victims. Our results provided valuable information on how precise these estimates are. The frequencies of translocations observed years after the radiation exposure were two to three times lower than the initial dicentrics frequencies, the differences being larger at higher doses (>1 Gy). The accuracy of such dose estimates might be increased by scoring sufficient amount of cells. However, factors such as the persistence of translocation carrying lymphocytes, translocation levels not proportional to chromosome size, and inter-individual variation reduce the precision of these estimates. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Responses of enchytraeids to increased temperature, drought and atmospheric CO2: Results of an eight-year field experiment in dry heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Schmelz, Rüdiger M.; Carrera, Noela

    2015-01-01

    In a long-term field trial we investigated the responses of enchytraeids to simulated future climatic conditions predicted for Denmark. At a semi-natural Danish heathland site we exposed 9.1 m2 plots to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (510 ppm), extended summer drought and passive night...... in spring 2013, perhaps indicating that warming stimulates fragmentation (reproduction) rates at this time of the year. Increased drought in MayeJune 2012 did not have lasting effects on abundance or biomass 3 months after the termination of drought treatment. However, comparison with earlier assessments...... of enchytraeids in the CLIMAITE experiment shows that the severity of drought and the time elapsed since the last drought is the best predictor of the biovolume (or biomass) of enchytraeids. Moreover, species richness was significantly impacted by the average soil water content experienced by enchytraeids during...

  2. Changes in performance: a 5-year longitudinal study of participants in a multi-source feedback programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violato, Claudio; Lockyer, Jocelyn M; Fidler, Herta

    2008-10-01

    Multi-source feedback (MSF) enables performance data to be provided to doctors from patients, co-workers and medical colleagues. This study examined the evidence for the validity of MSF instruments for general practice, investigated changes in performance for doctors who participated twice, 5 years apart, and determined the association between change in performance and initial assessment and socio-demographic characteristics. Data for 250 doctors included three datasets per doctor from, respectively, 25 patients, eight co-workers and eight medical colleagues, collected on two occasions. There was high internal consistency (alpha > 0.90) and adequate generalisability (Ep(2) > 0.70). D study results indicate adequate generalisability coefficients for groups of eight assessors (medical colleagues, co-workers) and 25 patient surveys. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for the validity of factors that were theoretically expected, meaningful and cohesive. Comparative fit indices were 0.91 for medical colleague data, 0.87 for co-worker data and 0.81 for patient data. Paired t-test analysis showed significant change between the two assessments from medical colleagues and co-workers, but not between the two patient surveys. Multiple linear regressions explained 2.1% of the variance at time 2 for medical colleagues, 21.4% of the variance for co-workers and 16.35% of the variance for patient assessments, with professionalism a key variable in all regressions. There is evidence for the construct validity of the instruments and for their stability over time. Upward changes in performance will occur, although their effect size is likely to be small to moderate.

  3. A Longitudinal Examination of the Bidirectional Associations among Perceived Parenting Behaviors, Adolescent Disclosure and Problem Behavior across the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Hamza, Chloe A.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the importance of parental monitoring to the deterrence of adolescent problem behavior by examining bidirectional associations among perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure and problem behaviors across the high school years. Adolescents (N = 2,941; 50.3% female) were surveyed each year from grades…

  4. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  5. The Quality of Romanian Breast Cancer Websites: a Five-Year Longitudinal Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Roşca, Anca Noela; Tarcea, Monica; Ábrám, Zoltán; Măruşteri, Marius

    2016-11-25

    The Internet has become an important source of overall health information and seems to be the second common source of information used by patients in the process of decision-making before breast surgery. The goal of this study was to monitor Romanian breast cancer websites and their quality over a period of 5 years. We evaluated a sample of 20 websites selected from Google's first search results pages using specific rating scores for e-health quality, completeness, accuracy, and potential risk, in 2011 and 2016, respectively. Only 15 (75%) of the websites in the 2011 sample were accessible in 2016 and only two (10%) retained real-life visibility (Google PageRank < 20). The mean quality scores at baseline (2011) and follow-up (2016), respectively, were as follows: e-health quality 3.80 vs. 4.05; completeness 4.23 vs. 5.43; accuracy 5.74 vs. 6.35; and potential risk score 7.60 vs. 7.30. All quality scores were low or, at best, modest and did not improve significantly over the 5-year period. The results of the study draw attention to the need for programs aiming to improve the ability of breast cancer patients to screen the online health resources and to better regulate the medical Internet to safeguard the best interest of health information seekers.

  6. All-Cause Mortality Among Belgian Military Radar Operators: A 40-Year Controlled Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, Etienne; Autier, Philippe; Grivegnee, Andre-Robert; Zizi, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that exposure to radiofrequency/microwaves radiations could be associated with greater health hazards and higher mortality. Methods: The all-cause mortality of 27,671 Belgian militaries who served from 1963 until 1994 in battalions equipped with radars for anti-aircraft defence was studied over the period 1968-2003. End of the seventies, technical modifications brought to the shielding of the micro-wave generators resulted in a reduction in irradiations. A control group was formed by 16,128 militaries who served during the same period in the same military area but who were never exposed to radars. Administrative procedures for identifying militaries and their vital status were equivalent in the radar and the control groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in the radar battalions was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.95-1.16) in professional militaries, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.85) in conscripts. In professional militaries no difference in mortality was found according to duration (less than, or five years or more) or to period of service (before 1978 or after 1977). Conclusions: During a 40-year period of observation, we found no increase in all-cause mortality in Belgian militaries who were in close contact with radar equipments of anti-aircraft defence battalions

  7. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-05

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  8. Psychological factors determining success in a medical career: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartas, Malgorzata; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Budzinski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Systemic review of predictors of success in medical career is an important tool to recognize the indicators of proper training. To determine psychological factors that predict success in a medical career. The success is defined as professional competence, satisfaction with medicine as a career, occupational stress and burnout and quality of life (QOF). Part I (1999-2005), medical students were examined each subsequent year, beginning with admission. Assessment included academic achievement (high school final examination results, entrance exam results, academic results during medical school) and psychological characteristics (sense of coherence (SOC), depression, anxiety, coping styles, value system and need for social approval). Part II (2008-2009), the same participants completed an Internet survey 4 years after graduation. Results of the postgraduate medical exam were taken under consideration. Academic achievement predicts only professional competence. Coping styles are significant indicators of satisfaction with medicine as a career. SOC, while assessed with anxiety and depression during studies, enabled us to recognize future QOF of medical graduates. Professional stress is not predictable to such an extent as other success indicators. There are significant psychological qualities useful to draw the outline of the future job and life performance of medical graduates.

  9. Prosthetic liner wear in total hip replacement: a longitudinal 13-year study with computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenhielm, Lars; Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E

    2018-06-01

    This case report follows a woman who had a total hip replacement in 1992 when she was 45 years old. Six serial computed tomography (CT) examinations over a period of 13 years provided information that allowed her revision surgery to be limited to liner replacement as opposed to replacement of the entire prosthesis. Additionally, they provided data that ruled out the presence of osteolysis and indeed none was found at surgery. In 2004, when the first CT was performed, the 3D distance the femoral head had penetrated into the cup was determined to be 2.6 mm. By 2017, femoral head penetration had progressed to 5.0 mm. The extracted liner showed wear at the thinnest part to be 5.5 mm, as measured with a micrometer. The use of modern CT techniques can identify problems, while still correctable without major surgery. Furthermore, the ability of CT to assess the direction of wear revealed that the liner wear changed from the cranial to dorsal direction.

  10. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  11. Swallowing Function and Nutritional Status in Japanese Elderly People Receiving Home-care Services: A 1-year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Y; Furuta, M; Akifusa, S; Takeuchi, K; Adachi, M; Kinoshita, T; Kikutani, T; Nakamura, S; Yamashita, Y

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people. Poor oral function leading to insufficient food intake can contribute to the development of malnutrition. In the present study, we explored the longitudinal association of malnutrition with oral function, including oral health status and swallowing function, in elderly people receiving home nursing care. Prospective observational cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Two mid-sized cities in Fukuoka, Japan from November 2010 to March 2012. One hundred and ninety-seven individuals, aged ≥ 60 years, living at home and receiving home-care services because of physical disabilities, without malnutrition. Oral health status, swallowing function, taking modified-texture diets such as minced or pureed foods, nutritional status, cognitive function, and activities of daily living were assessed at baseline. The associations between malnutrition at 1-year follow-up and these related factors were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Swallowing disorders [risk ratio (RR): 5.21, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.65-16.43] were associated with malnutrition. On the other hand, oral health status did not have a direct association with malnutrition. Swallowing disorders may be associated with the incidence of malnutrition in elderly people receiving home-care. The findings indicate that maintaining swallowing function may contribute to the prevention of malnutrition in frail elderly people.

  12. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  13. Longitudinal development of hormone levels and grey matter density in 9 and 12-year-old twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Koenis, M M G; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-05-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of the brain from 190 twins at age 9 [9.2 (0.11) years; 99 females/91 males]. This protocol was repeated at age 12 [12.1 (0.26) years] in 125 of these children (59 females/66 males). Using voxel-based morphometry, we tested whether circulating hormone levels are associated with grey matter density in boys and girls in a longitudinal, genetically informative design. In girls, changes in FSH level between the age of 9 and 12 positively associated with changes in grey matter density in areas covering the left hippocampus, left (pre)frontal areas, right cerebellum, and left anterior cingulate and precuneus. This association was mainly driven by environmental factors unique to the individual (i.e. the non-shared environment). In 12-year-old girls, a higher level of circulating estradiol levels was associated with lower grey matter density in frontal and parietal areas. This association was driven by environmental factors shared among the members of a twin pair. These findings show a pattern of physical and brain development going hand in hand.

  14. Empathetic attitudes of undergraduate paramedic and nursing students towards four medical conditions: a three-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Fielder, Chris

    2015-02-01

    In the healthcare context empathy is the cognitive ability to understand a patient's perspectives and experiences and to convey that understanding back to the patient. Some medical conditions are frequently stigmatised or otherwise detrimentally stereotyped with patients often describing healthcare practitioners as intolerant, prejudiced and discriminatory. The purpose of this study was to find how a group of paramedic students and nursing/paramedic double-degree students regard these types of patients and to note any changes that may occur as those students continued through their education. The 11-questions, 6-point Likert scale version of the Medical Condition Regard Scale was used in this prospective cross-sectional longitudinal study. This study included paramedic students enrolled in first, second, third and fourth year of an undergraduate paramedic or paramedic/nursing program from Monash University. A total of 554 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between double-degree and single-degree students (pintellectual disability and attempted suicide. No statistically significant results were found for acute mental illness. This study has demonstrated significant differences in empathy between paramedic and nursing/paramedic double-degree students in regard to patients with these complex medical conditions. Paramedic/nursing students generally showed a positive change in empathy towards these complex patients by their third year of study; however, they also showed some alarming drops in empathy between second and third year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in Weight and Comorbidities among Adolescents Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: 1-Year Results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Winegar, Deborah; Sherif, Bintu; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Reichard, Kirk W.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Livingstone, Alan S.; De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity but the weight loss and other health related outcomes for this procedure in large, diverse adolescent patient populations are not well characterized. Objective To analyze the prospective Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database (BOLD) to determine the weight loss and health related outcomes in adolescents. Setting BOLD data is collected from 423 surgeons at 360 facilities in the United States. Methods Main outcome measures included anthropometric and comorbidity status at baseline (n=890) and at 3 (n=786), 6 (n=541), and 12 (n=259) months after surgery. Adolescents (75% female; 68% non-Hispanic white, 14% Hispanic, 11% non-Hispanic black, and 6% other) age 11-to-19 years were included in the analyses. Results The overall one year mean weight loss for those who underwent gastric bypass surgery was more than twice that of those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery (48.6 kg versus 20 kg, Psurgery types (Psurgery. There were a total of 45 readmissions among gastric bypass patients and 10 among adjustable gastric band patients with 29 and 8 reoperations required, respectively. Conclusions Weight loss at 3-, 6-, and 12-months after surgery is approximately double in adolescent males and females who underwent gastric bypass surgery versus those who underwent adjustable gastric band surgery. Bariatric surgery can safely and substantially reduce weight and related comorbidities in morbidly obese adolescents for at least 1 year. PMID:22542199

  16. Longitudinal Study of Headache Trajectories in the Year After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kathryn; Bell, Kathleen R; Ehde, Dawn M; Temkin, Nancy; Dikmen, Sureyya; Williams, Rhonda M; Dillworth, Tiara; Hoffman, Jeanne M

    2015-11-01

    To examine headache trajectories among persons with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the year after injury and the relation of headache trajectory to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 1 year postinjury. Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants were recruited through a university medical center and participated in follow-up assessments by telephone. Prospectively enrolled individuals (N=212) within 1 week of MTBI who were hospitalized for observation or other system injuries. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Not applicable. Participants rated average headache pain intensity using the 0 to 10 numerical rating scale at each assessment period. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version was completed at 12 months postinjury. Latent class growth analysis produced a 4-trajectory group model, with groups labeled resolved, worsening, improving, and chronic. Multivariate regression modeling revealed that younger age and premorbid headache correlated with membership in the worse trajectory groups (worsening and chronic; PHeadache is common in the year after MTBI, with younger people, persons who previously had headaches, and persons with PTSD more likely to report chronic or worsening headache. Further research is needed to examine whether PTSD symptoms exacerbate headaches or whether problematic headache symptoms exacerbate PTSD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parsing trait and state effects of depression severity on neurocognition: Evidence from a 26-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapas, Casey; Shankman, Stewart A; Harrow, Martin; Goldberg, Joseph F

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in mood disorders falls along a continuum, such that more severe current depression is associated with greater cognitive impairment. It is not clear whether this association reflects transient state effects of current symptoms on cognitive performance, or persistent, trait-like differences in cognition that are related to overall disorder severity. We addressed this question in 42 unipolar and 47 bipolar participants drawn from a 26-year longitudinal study of psychopathology, using measures of attention/psychomotor processing speed, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, and verbal memory. We assessed (a) the extent to which current symptom severity and past average disorder severity predicted unique variance in cognitive performance; (b) whether cognitive performance covaried with within-individual changes in symptom severity; and (c) the stability of neurocognitive measures over six years. We also tested for differences among unipolar and bipolar groups and published norms. Past average depression severity predicted performance on attention/psychomotor processing speed in both groups, and in cognitive flexibility among unipolar participants, even after controlling for current symptom severity, which did not independently predict cognition. Within-participant state changes in depressive symptoms did not predict change in any cognitive domain. All domains were stable over the course of six years. Both groups showed generalized impairment relative to published norms, and bipolar participants performed more poorly than unipolar participants on attention/psychomotor processing speed. The results suggest a stable relationship between mood disorder severity and cognitive deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Longitudinal supportive periodontal therapy for severe chronic periodontitis with furcation involvement: a 12-year follow-up report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya-Ito, Akiyo; Tomita, Sachiyo; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yoshihiro; Tsunoda, Masatake; Saito, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We report a case involving a 12-year follow-up after treatment for chronic periodontitis with furcation involvement. A 54-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of hypersensitivity. Clinical examination at the first visit revealed 15% of sites with a probing depth ≥4 mm and 35% of sites with bleeding on probing. Initial periodontal therapy was implemented based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis. Surgical periodontal therapy was subsequently performed at selected sites. For #44, regenerative periodontal therapy using enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(®)) was selected. For #16, which exhibited a 2- to 3-wall vertical bony defect and class III (mesio-distal) furcation involvement, bone graft was scheduled. Other sites with residual periodontal pockets were treated by open flap debridement. For #37, with a gutter-shaped root, odontoplasty was performed. After reevaluation, the patient was placed on supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). During 12 years of SPT, the periodontal condition remained uneventful in most of the teeth. However, bone resorption was observed in the distal aspect of #37, making the prognosis poor. This indicates the need to continuously monitor risk factors, including inflammation and traumatic occlusion, during SPT. Although some problems still remain, severe periodontitis with furcation involvement was successfully maintained longitudinally with an adequate level of patient compliance and careful SPT.

  19. The reciprocal relationship between executive function and theory of mind in middle childhood: a one-year longitudinal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eAustin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is robust evidence showing a link between executive function (EF and theory of mind (ToM in 3- to 5-year-olds. However, it is unclear whether this relationship extends to middle childhood. In addition, there has been much discussion about the nature of this relationship. Whereas some authors claim that ToM is needed for EF, others argue that ToM requires EF. To date, however, studies examining the longitudinal relationship between distinct subcomponents of EF (i.e. attention shifting, WM updating, inhibition and ToM in middle childhood are rare.The present study examined 1 the relationship between three EF subcomponents (attention shifting, WM updating, inhibition and ToM in middle childhood, and 2 the longitudinal reciprocal relationships between the EF subcomponents and ToM across a one-year period. EF and ToM measures were assessed experimentally in a sample of 1,657 children (aged 6 to 11 years at time point one (t1 and one year later at time point two (t2.Results showed that the concurrent relationships between all three EF subcomponents and ToM pertained in middle childhood at t1 and t2, respectively, even when age, gender, and fluid intelligence were partialled out. Moreover, cross-lagged structural equation modeling (again, controlling for age, gender, and fluid intelligence, as well as for the earlier levels of the target variables, revealed partial support for the view that early ToM predicts later EF, but stronger evidence for the assumption that early EF predicts later ToM. The latter was found for attention shifting and WM updating, but not for inhibition. This reveals the importance of studying the exact interplay of ToM and EF across childhood development, especially with regard to different EF subcomponents. Most likely, understanding others’ mental states at different levels of perspective-taking requires specific EF subcomponents, suggesting developmental change in the relations between EF and ToM across childhood.

  20. Tibial and Femoral Tunnel Changes After ACL Reconstruction: A Prospective 2-Year Longitudinal MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexander E; Delos, Demetris; Oltean, Hanna N; Vadasdi, Katherine; Cavanaugh, John; Potter, Hollis G; Rodeo, Scott A

    2015-05-01

    Tunnel widening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is a well-accepted and frequent phenomenon, yet little is known regarding its origin or natural history. To prospectively evaluate the cross-sectional area (CSA) changes in tibial and femoral bone tunnels after ACL-R with serial MRI. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients underwent arthroscopic ACL-R with the same surgeon, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol. Each patient underwent preoperative dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and clinical evaluation, as well as postoperative time zero MRI followed by subsequent MRI and clinical examination, including functional and subjective outcome tests, at 6, 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks. Tibial and femoral tunnel CSA was measured on each MRI at tunnel aperture (ttA and ftA), midsection (ttM and ftM), and exit (ttE and ftE). Logistic regression modeling was used to examine the predictive value of demographic data and preoperative bone quality (as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) on functional outcome scores, manual and instrumented laxity measurements, and changes in tunnel area over time. Eighteen patients (including 12 men), mean age 35.5±8.7 years, underwent ACL-R. There was significant tunnel expansion at ttA and ftA sites 6 weeks postoperatively (P=.024 and .0045, respectively). Expansion continued for 24 weeks, with progressive tunnel narrowing thereafter. Average ttA CSA was significantly larger than ftA CSA at all times. The ttM significantly expanded after 6 weeks (P=.06); continued expansion to week 12 was followed by 21 months of reduction in tunnel diameter. The ftM and both ttE and ftE sites decreased in CSA over the 2 years. Median Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores significantly improved at final follow-up (P=.0083 and 1 year from time of injury) predicted increased tunnel widening and accelerated expansion in CSA (Pclinical outcome. Younger age, male sex, and delay from injury to ACL

  1. Specific Preschool Executive Functions Predict Unique Aspects of Mathematics Development: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanowski, Stefanie; Krajewski, Kristin

    2017-08-10

    This study assessed the extent to which executive functions (EF), according to their factor structure in 5-year-olds (N = 244), influenced early quantity-number competencies, arithmetic fluency, and mathematics school achievement throughout first and second grades. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in updating as a first, and inhibition and shifting as a combined second factor. In the structural equation model, updating significantly affected knowledge of the number word sequence, suggesting a facilitatory effect on basic encoding processes in numerical materials that can be learnt purely by rote. Shifting and inhibition significantly influenced quantity to number word linkages, indicating that these processes promote developing a profound understanding of numbers. These results show the supportive role of specific EF for specific aspects of a numerical foundation. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsheim Torbjørn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of

  3. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  4. Pubertal development, personality, and substance use: a 10-year longitudinal study from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2013-08-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age--related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages--related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  6. Eight years of Conservation Agriculture-based cropping systems research in Eastern Africa to conserve soil and water and mitigate effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Tesfay; Nyssen, Jan; Govaerts, Bram; Lanckriet, Sil; Baudron, Frédéric; Deckers, Jozef; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    In Ethiopia, repeated plowing, complete removal of crop residues at harvest, aftermath grazing of crop fields and occurrence of repeated droughts have reduced the biomass return to the soil and aggravated cropland degradation. Conservation Agriculture (CA)-based resource conserving cropping systems may reduce runoff and soil erosion, and improve soil quality, thereby increasing crop productivity. Thus, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2012) on a Vertisol to quantify - among others - changes in runoff and soil loss for two local tillage practices, modified to integrate CA principles in semi-arid northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, ploughed only once at planting by refreshing the furrow from 2005 to 2012 and 30% standing crop residue retention, (ii) terwah+ (TER+) with furrows made at 1.5 m interval, plowed once at planting, 30% standing crop residue retention and fresh broad beds, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three plain tillage operations and complete removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plough mahresha and wheat, teff, barley and grass pea were grown. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year onwards (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weeds in CA plots. Runoff and soil loss were measured daily. Soil water content was monitored every 6 days. Significantly different (pconstitute a field rainwater and soil conservation improvement strategy that enhances crop and economic productivity and reduces siltation of reservoirs, especially under changing climate. The reduction in draught power requirement would enable a reduction in oxen density and crop residue demand for livestock feed, which would encourage smallholder

  7. Sport activities differentiating match-play improvement in elite youth footballers - a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllich, Arne; Kovar, Peter; Zart, Sebastian; Reimann, Ansgar

    2017-02-01

    This study examined contributions of different types of sport activities to the development of elite youth soccer performance. Match-play performance of 44 German male players was assessed by expert coaches twice, 24 months apart (age 11.1-13.1 years), based on videotaped 5v5 matches. Player pairs were matched by identical age and initial performance at t 1 . Each player was assigned to a group of either "Strong" or "Weak Responders" based on a higher or lower subsequent performance improvement at t 2 within each pair (mean Δperformance 29% vs. 7%). A questionnaire recorded current and earlier amounts of organised practice/training and non-organised sporting play, in soccer and other sports, respectively. Group comparison revealed that "Strong Responders" accumulated more non-organised soccer play and organised practice/training in other sports, but not more organised soccer practice/training. Subsequent multivariate analyses (multiple linear regression analyses (MLR)) highlighted that higher resultant match-play performance at t 2 was accounted for R 2 adj  = 0.65 by performance at t 1 , together with more non-organised soccer play and organised engagement in other sports, respectively, and greater current, but less earlier volume of organised soccer. The findings suggest that variable early sporting experience facilitates subsequent soccer performance development in German elite youth footballers.

  8. Longitudinal associations between physical activity and depression scores in Swedish women followed 32 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, P; Lindwall, M; Gustafson, D R; Östling, S; Hällström, T; Waern, M; Skoog, I

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity is negatively associated with depressive symptoms. However, few studies consider dynamic associations of changes in physical activity and reciprocal relationships. This study aimed to perform comprehensive evaluations of relationships between physical activity and depression scores in women followed from mid- to late life. The Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden, provided repeated measures of self-reported physical activity and depressive symptoms between 1974 and 2005 (baseline N = 676, 84.5% response rate). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and physical activity was evaluated by the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale. Latent growth curve analyses were used to evaluate associations of change, and cross-lagged models were used to study the reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression scores. At baseline, lower levels of physical activity were related to higher depression scores. Individuals with decreasing physical activity over time evidenced higher depression scores at 32-year follow-up. Higher average baseline depression score was related to declining levels of physical activity at subsequent examinations. Reduced physical activity may be a long-term consequence of depression. It is important to address individual changes in physical activity and not merely absolute levels of physical activity in relationship to depression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Typologies and precursors of career adaptability patterns among emerging adults: a seven-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Vasalampi, Kati; Barr, Tamuz; Livne, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Pratt, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined career adaptability in 100 Israeli emerging adults who were followed from ages 22 to 29. Participants were given an in depth interview and were asked to talk about their current work, difficulties they might have had in the past and how they coped with them. In addition they were asked to elaborate on the extent to which their job fits their interests and is meaningful to them. Analyses of interviews yielded three distinctive career adaptability patterns that were associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Integrated, Compromised, and Vague. A lower level of identified motivation measured seven years earlier predicted membership in the Compromised pattern. A higher level of extrinsic motivation combined with decreased parental support predicted membership in the Vague pattern. Findings are discussed within the framework of the occupational adaptations and compromises that young people must make when approaching the age of 30. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between long working hours and depression: a 3-year longitudinal study of clerical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagasa, Takashi; Nakayama, Takeo

    2013-08-01

    To clarify how long working hours affect the likelihood of current and future depression. Using data from four repeated measurements collected from 218 clerical workers, four models associating work-related factors to the depressive mood scale were established. The final model was constructed after comparing and testing the goodness-of-fit index using structural equation modeling. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed. The final model showed the best fit (normed fit index = 0.908; goodness-of-fit index = 0.936; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.018). Its standardized total effect indicated that long working hours affected depression at the time of evaluation and 1 to 3 years later. The odds ratio for depression risk was 14.7 in employees who were not long-hours overworked according to the initial survey but who were long-hours overworked according to the second survey. Long working hours increase current and future risks of depression.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men in UK general practice: a 10-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Grace J; Harrison, Sean; Turner, Emma L; Walsh, Eleanor I; Oliver, Steven E; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Evans, Simon; Lane, J Athene; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Martin, Richard M; Metcalfe, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that around 6% of men undergo prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing each year in UK general practice (GP). This longitudinal study aims to determine the cumulative testing pattern of men over a 10-year period and whether this testing can be considered equivalent to screening for prostate cancer (PCa). Patient-level data on PSA tests, biopsies and PCa diagnoses were obtained from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for the years 2002 to 2011. The cumulative risks of PSA testing and of being diagnosed with PCa were estimated for the 10-year study period. Associations of a man's age, region and index of multiple deprivation with the cumulative risk of PSA testing and PCa diagnosis were investigated. Rates of biopsy and diagnosis, following a high test result, were compared with those from the programme of PSA testing in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. The 10-year risk of exposure to at least one PSA test in men aged 45 to 69 years in UK GP was 39.2% (95% CI 39.0 to 39.4%). The age-specific risks ranged from 25.2% for men aged 45-49 years to 53.0% for men aged 65-69 years (p for trend PSA level ≥3, a test in UK GP was less likely to result in a biopsy (6%) and/or diagnosis of PCa (15%) compared with ProtecT study participants (85% and 34%, respectively). A high proportion of men aged 45-69 years undergo PSA tests in UK GP: 39% over a 10-year period. A high proportion of these tests appear to be for the investigation of lower urinary tract symptoms and not screening for PCa. ISRCTN20141297,NCT02044172. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Ethnic Differences in Peripheral Skeletal Development Among Urban South African Adolescents: A Ten-Year Longitudinal pQCT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbuchner, Simon M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Prentice, Ann; Ward, Kate A

    2017-12-01

    There are no longitudinal pQCT data of bone growth and development from sub-Saharan Africa, where rapid environmental, societal, and economic transitions are occurring, and where fracture rates are predicted to rise. The aim of this study was to compare skeletal development in black and white South African adolescents using longitudinal data from the Birth to Twenty study. The Birth to Twenty Bone Health subcohort consisted of 543 adolescents (261 [178 black] girls, 282 [201 black] boys). Annual pQCT measurements of the radial and tibial metaphysis and diaphysis were obtained between ages 12 and 22 years (distal metaphysis: cross-sectional area [CSA] and trabecular bone mineral density [BMD]; diaphysis: total and cortical CSA, cortical BMD, and polar stress-strain index [SSIp]). Age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated to account for differences in maturational timing between ethnic groups and sexes. Mixed-effects models were used to describe trajectories for each pQCT outcome. Likelihood-ratio tests were used to summarize the overall difference in trajectories between black and white participants within each sex. APHV (mean ± SD years) was similar in black (11.8 ± 0.8) and white (12.2 ± 1.0) girls, but delayed in black (14.2 ± 1.0) relative to white boys (13.3 ± 0.8). By 4 years post-APHV, white adolescents had significantly greater cortical CSA and SSIp than black adolescents at the radius. There were no significant differences at the radial metaphysis but there was some divergence, such that black adolescents had greater radial trabecular BMD by the end of follow-up. At the tibia, white adolescents had lower diaphyseal CSA and SSIp, and greater metaphyseal CSA. There was no ethnic difference in tibial trabecular BMD. There are ethnic differences in bone growth and development, independent of maturation, in South African adolescents. This work gives new insights into the possible etiology of childhood fractures, which occur most

  13. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study on whiplash injury patients. Minimum 10-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Daisuke; Okada, Eijiro; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a prospective long-term follow-up study to assess associations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and changes in clinical symptoms, as well as factors relating to the prognosis of symptoms. A total of 133 patients with acute whiplash injury between 1993 and 1996 participated in this follow-up study. They underwent neurological examinations by spine surgeons and second MRI scans of the cervical spine were obtained. They also filled out a questionnaire regarding cervical symptoms and the accident details. The items evaluated by MRI were a decrease in the signal intensity of the intervertebral disc; anterior compression of the dura and the spinal cord; posterior disc protrusion; disc space narrowing; and foraminal stenosis. Relations between the presence/absence of degenerative changes on MRI, accident details, and patients' symptoms were assessed by calculating the adjusted odds ratio (OR). Progression of some degenerative changes was recognized on MRI in 98.5% of the 133 whiplash injury patients, and clinical symptoms diminished in more than a half of the 133 patients. There were no statistically significant associations between MRI findings and changes in clinical symptoms. The prognosis for neck pain tended to be poor after accidents with double collisions (rear-end collision followed by front-end collision) [adjusted OR 5.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-29.71] and accidents with serious car damage (2.87, 1.03-7.99). The prognosis for stiff shoulders tended to be poor in women (2.83, 1.23-6.51); and the prognosis for numbness in the upper extremities tended to be poor after accidents with serious car damage (3.39, 1.14-10.06). This study demonstrated that progression of degenerative changes of the cervical spine on MRI was not associated with clinical symptoms during the 10-year period after whiplash injury. (author)

  14. Is the quality of donated semen deteriorating? Findings from a 15 year longitudinal analysis of weekly sperm samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Har-Nir, Ruth; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Ben-Shoshan, Vered; Greenfield, Caryn; Eldar, Ido; Bdolah, Yuval; Hurwitz, Arye

    2012-06-01

    Studies suggest that global semen quality is declining, but the debate remains open owing to geographic variation. To evaluate temporal trends of sperm parameters - namely concentration, motility and total motile sperm count - in sperm donated during the period 1995-2009. In a retrospective longitudinal cohort study we analyzed the sperm count and motility of 2182 semen samples provided on a weekly basis by 58 young, healthy, fertile, university-educated, paid donors. Despite the lowering of criteria for sperm parameters satisfactory for donation that were implemented in 2004, 38% of applicants for sperm donation are now rejected based on semen quality as compared to a third of applicants 10-15 years ago (P average sperm parameters dropped from a concentration of 106 +/- 25 million spermatozoa/ml with 79% +/- 4.3% motility to 68 +/- 14 million/ ml with 66% +/- 4.5% motile sperm (P sperm count per ejaculate also decreased, from 66.4 +/- 18.2 million to 48.7 +/- 12 million (P sperm donors, only 18% of donors had an acceptable sperm quality, with an average concentration of 87 +/- 12 million spermatozoa/ml, 73% +/- 2.6% motile sperm and total motile sperm count of 53.1 +/- 3.8 million per ejaculate - still significantly lower than 15 years ago (P= 0.01, P= 0.003, P= 0.058 respectively). The rapid deterioration of sperm quality among fertile semen donors is alarming and may lead to cessation of sperm donation programs.

  15. Natural History of Parkinson's Disease in the Province of Segovia: Disability in a 20 Years Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jacinto; García Olmos, Luis Miguel; Mendoza, Amelia; Martínez Pueyo, Ángel; Clavería, Luis Erik

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease mainly affects the elderly population causing a progressive functional disability with motor, psychic, and cognitive deterioration. This study was carried out to evaluate disability caused by Parkinson's disease by analyzing the median time to reach Hoehn and Yahr stage III and to investigate predictor variables based on a 20-year longitudinal follow-up study. We examined 273 patients with Parkinson's disease recruited between 1978 and 1998. We performed a survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method to determine the time to disability and we used a Cox regression model to adjust prognosis factors. The median time to reach Hoehn and Yahr stage III was 7.73 years (95% CI: 5.95-8.05). Independent predictors of disability were: age at onset, the hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08-1.12; UPDRS II (activities of daily living) HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.14; and akinesia and rigidity at onset HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.24. Patients with Parkinson's disease evolve gradually toward disability, and prognostic factors of this evolution were identified. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golle, Kathleen; Granacher, Urs; Hoffmann, Martin; Wick, Ditmar; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2014-05-23

    Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9-12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p = 0.009, ES = 0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas.

  17. Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 69 girls, 103 boys) were tested for their physical fitness (i.e., endurance [9-min run], speed [50-m sprint], lower- [triple hop] and upper-extremity muscle strength [1-kg ball push], flexibility [stand-and-reach], and coordination [star coordination run]). Living area (i.e., urban or rural) and sports club participation were assessed using parent questionnaire. Results Over the 4 year study period, urban compared to rural children showed significantly better performance development for upper- (p = 0.009, ES = 0.16) and lower-extremity strength (p sports clubs compared to their non-participating peers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sport club programs with appealing arrangements appear to represent a good means to promote physical fitness in children living in rural areas. PMID:24886425

  18. Locus of control: relation to schizophrenia, to recovery, and to depression and psychosis -- A 15-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Martin; Hansford, Barry G; Astrachan-Fletcher, Ellen B

    2009-08-15

    The present prospectively designed 15-year longitudinal research was conducted to study whether locus of control is linked to diagnosis, to major symptoms, to functioning and recovery, and to personality for schizophrenia patients, depressive patients, and patients with other major disorders. The research studied 128 patients from the Chicago Follow-up Study at the acute phase and reassessed them 5 times over a 15-year period. Patients were evaluated on locus of control, global outcome, recovery, premorbid developmental achievements, psychosis, diagnosis, depression, and personality variables. 1) After the acute phase, schizophrenia patients were not more external than other diagnostic groups. 2) Internality is significantly associated with increased recovery in schizophrenia. 3) A more external locus of control was significantly related to depression. 4) The relationship between externality and psychosis was significant. In severe psychiatric disorders a more external locus of control is not specific to schizophrenia and after the acute phase is not associated with one particular diagnostic group. A more external locus of control is significantly related to fewer periods of recovery, to both depressed mood and psychosis, and to various aspects of personality.

  19. Personality Effects on Romantic Relationship Quality through Friendship Quality: A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study in Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality in young adulthood, via friendship quality development in adolescence. The study employed six waves of longitudinal questionnaire data from Dutch youths who had a romantic relationship when they were young adults. Two age cohorts were followed, from 12 to 21 years and from 16 to 25 years, respectively. Findings showed that resilients reported higher mean levels of friendship quality during adolescence (i.e., more support from, less negative interaction with and less dominance from their best friend) than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Through the mean levels of friendship quality throughout adolescence, resilients indirectly experienced higher romantic relationship quality during young adulthood than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Thus, results provide support for a developmental model in which adolescent friendship quality is a mechanism linking personality types with young adulthood romantic relationship quality. PMID:25232964

  20. Sleep and resilience: a longitudinal 37-year follow-up study of Vietnam repatriated prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Francine; Moore, Jeffrey L; Linnville, Steven; Hoyt, Robert E; Hain, Robert E

    2013-02-01

    This study examined sleep histories associated with resilience after trauma defined as a continuous lack of psychiatric illness across 37 years. Data were drawn from a 37-year follow-up examination of the effects of the Vietnam prisoner of war (POW) experience. The Robert E. Mitchell Center for POW Studies is a unique institution holding the only longitudinal study of the effects of the American POW experience in existence. The study used a sample of 440 Vietnam repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs). Psychiatric disorders were assessed at repatriation (1973) and were continued annually by a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. Sleep issues before, during, and after captivity were assessed upon repatriation during medical examinations. Odds ratios examining presence of sleep symptoms show resilient RPWs reporting fewer symptoms compared to nonresilient RPWS before, during, and after captivity. Logistic regression comparing before, during, and after indicates fewer reported sleep disturbance symptoms after captivity was the strongest predictor of resilience (b = -0.82, Wald chi2 (1) = 16.70, p < 0.000). Reporting fewer sleep complaints, but not necessarily an absence of them before, during, and after the trauma predicts resilience across time.

  1. Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Leah J; Harrison, Anna J; Abram, Karen M; Olson, Nichole D; Aaby, David A; McCoy, Kathleen P; Washburn, Jason J; Teplin, Linda A

    2016-05-01

    To examine sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of 9 substance-use disorders (SUDs)--alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine, inhalant, sedative, and unspecified drug--in youths during the 12 years after detention. We used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youths randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, starting in 1995 and reinterviewed up to 9 times in the community or correctional facilities through 2011. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs with Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2.3 (baseline) and Diagnostic Interview Schedule version IV (follow-ups). By median age 28 years, 91.3% of males and 78.5% of females had ever had an SUD. At most follow-ups, males had greater odds of alcohol- and marijuana-use disorders. Drug-use disorders were most prevalent among non-Hispanic Whites, followed by Hispanics, then African Americans (e.g., compared with African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites had 32.1 times the odds of cocaine-use disorder [95% confidence interval = 13.8, 74.7]). After detention, SUDs differed markedly by sex, race/ethnicity, and substance abused, and, contrary to stereotypes, did not disproportionately affect African Americans. Services to treat substance abuse--during incarceration and after release--would reach many people in need, and address health disparities in a highly vulnerable population.

  2. Exposure to parental separation in childhood and later parenting quality as an adult: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Myron D; John Horwood, L; Fergusson, David M; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has documented that exposure to parental separation/divorce during childhood can be associated with long-term consequences into adulthood. This study sought to extend this literature by examining associations between childhood exposure to parental separation/divorce and later parenting behavior as an adult in a New Zealand birth cohort. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Information about exposure to parental separation and divorce was gathered annually from birth to 15 years. At the 30-year follow-up, all cohort members who had become parents (biological or nonbiological) were assessed on several parenting dimensions (sensitivity, warmth, overreactivity, inconsistency, quality of child management, and physical punishment). The analyses showed that exposure to more frequent parental separation in childhood and adolescence was associated with lower levels of parental sensitivity and warmth, greater overreactivity, and an increased use of physical punishment as a parent, after controlling for a wide range of family socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and individual child characteristics. The findings suggest that as exposure to parental separation increases, so does the likelihood of experiencing multiple developmental challenges in childhood and adolescence. As an adult, these life-course experiences can have small but significant associations with the quality of parenting behavior. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Work-to-family conflict and its relationship with satisfaction and well-being: A one-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Mauno, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study produced new knowledge about gender differences with respect to work-to-family conflict and its longitudinal relations with indicators of satisfaction and well-being. The study examined the longitudinal relations between work-to-family conflict and self-reported satisfaction and

  4. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): Base-Year Data File Documentation. NCES 2011-328

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Burns, Laura J.; Dever, Jill A.; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Jin, Ying; Leinwand, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) secondary longitudinal studies. The core research questions for HSLS:09 explore secondary to postsecondary transition plans and the evolution of those plans; the paths into and out of science, technology, engineering,…

  5. Educational mobility and weight gain over 13 years in a longitudinal study of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Natalie; Jones, Mark; Tooth, Leigh; Koupil, Ilona; Mishra, Gita

    2014-11-25

    Limited evidence exists about the role of education and own educational mobility on body weight trajectory. A better understanding of how education influences long term weight gain can help us to design more effective health policies. Using random effects models, the association between i) highest education (n = 10 018) and ii) educational mobility over a 9 year period (n = 9 907) and weight gain was analysed using five waves of data (over 13 years) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1973-78 cohort (from 18-23 years to 31-36 years). Highest educational attainment was inversely associated with weight at baseline and weight gain over 13 years. Compared to high educated women, those with a low (12 years or less) or intermediate (trade/certificate/diploma) education, respectively, weighed an additional 2.6 kg (95% CI:1.9 to 3.1) and 2.5 kg (95% CI:1.9 to 3.3) at baseline and gained an additional 3.9 kg (95% CI:2.6 to 5.2) and 3.1 kg (95% CI:2.6 to 3.9) over 13 years. Compared to women who remained with a low education, women with the greatest educational mobility had similar baseline weight to the women who already had a high education at baseline (2.7 kg lighter (95% CI:-3.7 to -1.8) and 2.7 kg lighter (95% CI:-3.4 to -1.9), respectively) and similarly favourable weight gain (gaining 3.1 kg less (95% CI:-4.0 to -2.21) and 4.2 kg less (95% CI:-4.8 to -3.4) over the 13 years, respectively). While educational attainment by mid-thirties was positively associated with better weight management, women's weight was already different in young adult age, before their highest education was achieved. These findings highlight a potential role of early life factors and personality traits which may influence both education and weight outcomes.

  6. Morbid obese adults increased their sense of coherence 1 year after a patient education course: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagermoen MS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available May Solveig Fagermoen,1 Glenys Hamilton,2 Anners Lerdal1,3 1Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2GAH Consulting, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Research, Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Oslo, Norway Background: Personal factors are key elements to understand peoples' health behavior. Studies of such factors are important to develop targeted interventions to improve health. The main purpose of this study is to explore sense of coherence (SOC in a sample of persons with morbid obesity before and after attending a patient education course and to explore the association between SOC and sociodemographic and other personal factors. Methods: In this longitudinal purposely sampled study, the participants completed questionnaires on the first day of the course and 12 months after course completion. Sixty-eight participants had valid scores on the selected variables at follow-up: SOC, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Relationships were assessed with correlation analyses and paired and independent samples t-tests and predictors with linear regression analyses. Results: From baseline to follow-up, the total SOC score and the subdimension scores comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness all increased significantly. At both time points, the SOC scores were low compared to the general population but similar to scores in other chronically ill. At baseline, a multivariate analysis showed that older age, having paid work, and higher self-esteem were directly related to higher total SOC score after controlling for other sociodemographic factors and the participants' level of self-efficacy. Multivariate analyses of the relationship between baseline predictors of SOC at 12-month follow-up, controlling for baseline SOC scores or sociodemographic or personal factors, revealed that none of these variables independently predicted SOC scores at follow-up. Conclusion: The total SOC score and its

  7. Unemployment reaches eight year high / Ashley Brettell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brettell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Statistikaameti andmetel tõusis töötuse määr Eestis viimase kaheksa aasta kõrgeima tasemeni ning jõudis aasta esimeses kvartalis 11,4 protsendini. Tööga hõivatute arv vähenes aastaga 44 000 võrra.

  8. Surrogate mothers 10 years on: a longitudinal study of psychological well-being and relationships with the parents and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S; Golombok, S

    2015-02-01

    How do the psychological health and experiences of surrogate mothers change from 1 year to 10 years following the birth of the surrogacy child? The psychological well-being of surrogate mothers did not change 10 years following the birth, with all remaining positive about the surrogacy arrangement and the majority continuing to report good mental health. Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficult, but do not experience psychological problems 6 months or 1 year later. Research has also shown that surrogates can form close relationships with the intended parents during the pregnancy which may continue after the birth. This study used a prospective longitudinal design, in which 20 surrogates were seen at two time points: 1 year following the birth of the surrogacy child and 10 years later. The 20 surrogates (representing 59% of the original sample) participated in a semi-structured interview and completed self-report questionnaires. Eleven surrogates were gestational carriers and nine surrogates had used their own oocyte (genetic surrogacy). Four were previously known to the intended parents and 16 were previously not known. Ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child, surrogate mothers scored within the normal range for self-esteem and did not show signs of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Marital quality remained positive over time. All surrogates reported that their expectations of their relationship with the intended parents had been either met or exceeded and most reported positive feelings towards the child. In terms of expectations for the future, most surrogates reported that they would like to maintain contact or would be available to the child if the child wished to contact them. None expressed regrets about their involvement in surrogacy. The sample size of this study was small and the women may not be representative of all surrogates. Therefore the extent to which these findings can

  9. Associations of physical fitness and motor competence with reading skills in 9- and 12-year-old children: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Englund, Kjellrun Thora; Haga, Monika

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores the association of motor competence and physical fitness with reading skills in children aged 9 and 12 years. Sixty-seven children aged 9 years completed an assessment of motor competence (measured using the Movement Assessment battery for Children), physical fitness (assessed using the Test of Physical Fitness), and reading (measured using the Wordchain test). The testing procedures were repeated after 32 months. For the 9-year-old group, there was a low, neg...

  10. Characterization of fibromyalgia symptoms in patients 55-95 years old: a longitudinal study showing symptom persistence with suboptimal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra A; Simpson, Rachel G; Lubahn, Cheri; Hu, Chengcheng; Belden, Christine M; Davis, Kathryn J; Nicholson, Lisa R; Long, Kathy E; Osredkar, Tracy; Lorton, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption. To characterize FM symptoms and treatments in a cohort of older subjects examined over time to determine the extent to which current, community-based treatment for older FM patients is in accord with published guidelines, and effective in reducing symptoms. A longitudinal, observational study of 51 subjects with FM (range 55-95 years) and 81 control subjects (58-95 years) performed at Banner Sun Health Research Institute in Sun City, AZ, USA. Serial history and examination data were obtained over a 6-year period. FM data included medical history, medications, physical examination, tender point examination, neuropsychological testing, sleep and pain ratings, the Physical Function Subscale of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and other standardized scales to evaluate depression and other psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional impairment. Pain and stiffness that interfered with physical activity, sleep, and mood were reported by 80 % or more of subjects. Over time, pain involved an increasing number of body areas. Over half of subjects were treated with NSAIDs, one-quarter with opioids, and one-quarter with estrogen. Few were treated with dual-acting antidepressants or pregabalin. In this cohort of elders with suboptimally treated FM, substantial persistence of symptoms was seen over time. In general, recommended treatments were either not used or not tolerated. Age-appropriate treatments as well as education of primary care providers are needed to improve treatment of FM in the older population.

  11. Reports of child sexual abuse of boys and girls: Longitudinal trends over a 20-year period in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Bromfield, Leah; Walsh, Kerryann; Cheng, Qinglu; Norman, Rosana E

    2017-04-01

    Although prevalence studies show girls are more frequently sexually abused than boys, a significant proportion of boys also experience child sexual abuse (CSA). The challenges for public policy are amplified for boys due to less developed public and professional sensitisation to boys' experiences, conceptions of masculinity, and less research on boys including into reporting trends and outcomes. We conducted a 20-year longitudinal time-trend analysis of government data to identify reporting trends and report outcomes for CSA in Victoria, Australia from 1993 to 2012. We stratified by child gender and reporter status. Results indicate a new sensitisation to CSA, especially for boys, although this trend was not stable. Marked change occurred in the last five years, likely influenced by major social and political events. Comparison over time revealed that from 1993 to 2012, the rate of reporting of boys increased 2.6-fold whereas there was a 1.5-fold increase for girls. Comparing genders, with regards to rate of reporting, in 1993, the sex ratio of girls to boys was 2:1, while by 2012 this ratio changed to 1.14:1. Reports by police and other mandated reporters accounted for the majority of the increase in reports over the 20-year period, suggesting unequal sensitisation. Positive report outcomes (i.e. substantiations, findings of harm, and referral to services) increased twelve-fold for boys, and nearly five-fold for girls, indicating the increased levels of reports were based in actual clinical need. Most of this increase occurred from 2009 to 2012, influenced by a compound of social, political and agency-related factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. One-Year Longitudinal Study of Fatigue, Cognitive Functions, and Quality of Life After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noal, Sabine; Levy, Christelle; Hardouin, Agnes; Rieux, Chantal; Heutte, Natacha; Segura, Carine; Collet, Fabienne; Allouache, Djelila; Switsers, Odile; Delcambre, Corinne; Delozier, Thierry; Henry-Amar, Michel; Joly, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Most patients with localized breast cancer (LBC) who take adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) complain of fatigue and a decrease in quality of life during or after radiotherapy (RT). The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare the impact of RT alone with that occurring after previous CT on quality of life. Methods and Materials: Fatigue (the main endpoint) and cognitive impairment were assessed in 161 CT-RT and 141 RT patients during RT and 1 year later. Fatigue was assessed with Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General questionnaires, including breast and fatigue modules. Results: At baseline, 60% of the CT-RT patients expressed fatigue vs. 33% of the RT patients (p <0.001). Corresponding values at the end of RT were statistically similar (61% and 53%), and fatigue was still reported at 1 year by more than 40% of patients in both groups. Risk factors for long-term fatigue included depression (odds ratio [OR] = 6), which was less frequent in the RT group at baseline (16% vs. 28 %, respectively, p = 0.01) but reached a similar value at the end of RT (25% in both groups). Initial mild cognitive impairments were reported by RT (34 %) patients and CT-RT (24 %) patients and were persistent at 1 year for half of them. No biological disorders were associated with fatigue or cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Fatigue was the main symptom in LBC patients treated with RT, whether they received CT previously or not. The correlation of persistent fatigue with initial depressive status favors administering medical and psychological programs for LBC patients treated with CT and/or RT, to identify and manage this main quality-of-life-related symptom.

  13. Cervical vertebral maturation: An objective and transparent code staging system applied to a 6-year longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Bianchet, Alberto; Franchi, Lorenzo; Contardo, Luca

    2017-05-01

    To date, little information is available regarding individual cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) morphologic changes. Moreover, contrasting results regarding the repeatability of the CVM method call for the use of objective and transparent reporting procedures. In this study, we used a rigorous morphometric objective CVM code staging system, called the "CVM code" that was applied to a 6-year longitudinal circumpubertal analysis of individual CVM morphologic changes to find cases outside the reported norms and analyze individual maturation processes. From the files of the Oregon Growth Study, 32 subjects (17 boys, 15 girls) with 6 annual lateral cephalograms taken from 10 to 16 years of age were included, for a total of 221 recordings. A customized cephalometric analysis was used, and each recording was converted into a CVM code according to the concavities of cervical vertebrae (C) C2 through C4 and the shapes of C3 and C4. The retrieved CVM codes, either falling within the reported norms (regular cases) or not (exception cases), were also converted into the CVM stages. Overall, 31 exception cases (14%) were seen. with most of them accounting for pubertal CVM stage 4. The overall durations of the CVM stages 2 to 4 were about 1 year, even though only 4 subjects had regular annual durations of CVM stages 2 to 5. Whereas the overall CVM changes are consistent with previous reports, intersubject variability must be considered when dealing with individual treatment timing. Future research on CVM may take advantage of the CVM code system. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exclusive curietherapy by permanent iodine-125 implants: selection of patients and results after eight years; Curietherapie exclusive par implants permanents d'iode-125: selection des patients et resultats a huit ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutenbat, G.; Peiffert, D.; Bernier, V.; Moreau, J.L.; Boudran, G.; Noel, A.; Marchesi, V.; Huget, S. [Centre Alexis Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Moreau, J.L. [Cabinet prive d' urologie, 54 - Nancy (France); Boudran, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brabois, 54 - Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective study which assesses the results obtained over eight years and the toxicity of an exclusive curietherapy by permanent iodine-125 implants performed at the Nancy centre of struggle against cancer. More than five hundred patients have been treated between December 1999 and December 2007, a first group comprising patients suffering from a low risk cancer and a second group suffering from a medium risk cancer. The authors discuss the survival rates, the existence of side effects, and rectal toxicity results. Short communication

  15. The development of moral emotions and decision-making from adolescence to early adulthood: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Colasante, Tyler; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2014-04-01

    Adolescents' emotions in the context of moral decision-making repeatedly have been shown to predict actual behaviour. However, little systematic information on developmental change regarding these emotion expectancies has been available thus far. This longitudinal study investigated anticipated moral emotions and decision-making between the ages of 15 and 21 in a representative sample of Swiss adolescents (N = 1,258; 54 % female; M = 15.30 years). Anticipated moral emotions and decision-making were assessed through a semi-structured interview procedure. Using Bernoulli hierarchical linear modeling, it was found that positive feelings after a moral transgression (i.e., "happy victimizer" responses) decreased over time, whereas positive feelings after a moral decision (i.e., "happy moralist" responses) increased. However, this pattern was contingent upon the moral scenario presented. Systematic relationships between anticipated moral emotions and moral personality characteristics of sympathy, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were found, even when controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and cognitive ability. Overall, this study demonstrates that the development of anticipated moral emotions is not limited to childhood. Furthermore, our findings suggest that moral emotions serve as an important link between moral personality development and decision-making processes that are more proximal to everyday moral behavior.

  16. Evaluation of PDQ-8 and its relationship with PDQ-39 in China: a three-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kui; Yang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Feng-Tao; Li, Da-Ke; Bu, Lu-Lu; Yang, Ke; Wang, Ying; Shen, Bo; Guan, Rong-Yuan; Song, Jie; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jian-Jun

    2017-08-24

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms with wide ranging impacts on the health-related quality of life. The 39-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) is the most widely used PD-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire. The short-form 8-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) was found to produce results similar to that of the PDQ-39 cross-culturally. However, there is no evaluation of the PDQ-8 in the mainland of China. In this longitudinal study, 283 patients with Parkinson's disease were recruited. The PDQ-39, the PDQ-8 and other scales were administered. Patients attended the clinic once annually for three years to complete the scales. The PDQ-8 was found to have good validity and reliability. There was a strong correlation between the summary indices of the PDQ-8 and the PDQ-39 (r=0.93, P39 well at all follow-up time points (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.96-0.98). In addition, there was good test-retest reliability of the PDQ-8. The PDQ-8 is a valid and reliable instrument assessing health-related quality of life for PD patients in the mainland of China.

  17. Cognitively Stimulating Activities: Effects on Cognition across Four Studies with up to 21 Years of Longitudinal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan B. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in cognitively stimulating activities has been considered to maintain or strengthen cognitive skills, thereby minimizing age-related cognitive decline. While the idea that there may be a modifiable behavior that could lower risk for cognitive decline is appealing and potentially empowering for older adults, research findings have not consistently supported the beneficial effects of engaging in cognitively stimulating tasks. Using observational studies of naturalistic cognitive activities, we report a series of mixed effects models that include baseline and change in cognitive activity predicting cognitive outcomes over up to 21 years in four longitudinal studies of aging. Consistent evidence was found for cross-sectional relationships between level of cognitive activity and cognitive test performance. Baseline activity at an earlier age did not, however, predict rate of decline later in life, thus not supporting the concept that engaging in cognitive activity at an earlier point in time increases one's ability to mitigate future age-related cognitive decline. In contrast, change in activity was associated with relative change in cognitive performance. Results therefore suggest that change in cognitive activity from one's previous level has at least a transitory association with cognitive performance measured at the same point in time.

  18. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait.In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders.These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  19. The relationship between oral and written narratives: A three-year longitudinal study of narrative cohesion, coherence, and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between oral language and the writing process at early acquisition stages and the ways the former can enhance or limit the latter has not been researched extensively. The predictive relationship between kindergarten oral narrative competence and the first- and second-grade written narrative competence was explored in a 3-year longitudinal study. Among the first and second graders, the relationship between orthographic competence and narrative competence in written productions was also analysed. One hundred and nine Italian children participated in this study. Kindergarteners produced an oral narrative, whereas the first and second graders produced a written narrative. The oral and written narratives were analysed in terms of cohesion, coherence, and structure. The first-grade orthographic competence was assessed via a dictation task. Multiple linear regression and mediational analyses were performed. Kindergarten oral narrative competence affected the first- and second-grade written narrative competence via a mediational effect of orthographic competence. The results suggest the importance of practicing oral narrative competence in kindergarten and first grade and the value of composition quality independent of orthographic text accuracy. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Discrimination of Rhythmic Pattern at 4 Months and Language Performance at 5 Years: A Longitudinal Analysis of Data from German-Learning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhle, Barbara; Pauen, Sabina; Hesse, Volker; Weissenborn, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    In this article we report on early rhythmic discrimination performance of children who participated in a longitudinal study following children from birth to their 6th year of life. Thirty-four children including 8 children with a family risk for developmental language impairment were tested on the discrimination of trochaic and iambic disyllabic…

  1. Energy balance-related behavioural patterns in 5-year-old children and the longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Stafleu, A.; Thijs, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examined clustering of dietary intake and activity behaviours (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association with BMI and overweight development. Design Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to

  2. Energy balance-related behavioural patterns in 5-year-old children and the longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Stafleu, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study examined clustering of dietary intake and activity behaviours (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association with BMI and overweight development.DESIGN: Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to

  3. The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS): The First 10 Years and a Look at Public Perception of Emergency Medical Services (EMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Remle P; Bentley, Melissa A; Levine, Roger

    2016-12-01

    Crowe RP , Bentley MA , Levine R . The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS): the first 10 years and a look at public perception of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s1-s6.

  4. "Changes in Levels of Social Isolation and Loneliness among Older People in a Rural Area: A Twenty-Year Longitudinal Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, G. Clare; Burholt, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    The Bangor Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), conducted in rural Wales from 1979 to 1999, followed a cohort of survivors from more than 500 people over 20 years. Using both quantitative and qualitative data from the study, the factors associated with increases and decreases in loneliness and social isolation were identified. The study was based…

  5. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) Base Year to First Follow-Up Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Dever, Jill A.; Fritch, Laura Burns; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Kitmitto, Sami; Leinwand, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the design, and the procedures followed for data collection and processing, in the base year and first follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), with emphasis on the first follow-up. It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the public-use data…

  6. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) Base Year to First Follow-Up Data File Documentation. Appendixes. NCES 2014-361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Dever, Jill A.; Fritch, Laura Burns; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Kitmitto, Sami; Leinwand, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The manual that accompanies these appendices was produced to familiarize data users with the design, and the procedures followed for data collection and processing, in the base year and first follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), with emphasis on the first follow-up. It also provides the necessary documentation for use…

  7. Beyond return to work from sickness absence due to mental disorders : 5-year longitudinal study of employment status among production workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder-Kuper, Giny; van der Ben, Claartje A; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental disorders are increasing and account for one-third of all disability benefits in OECD countries. This study investigated the work status after mental sickness absence (SA). Methods: Five-year longitudinal cohort study of 6678 male production workers. Work status, work schedule and

  8. Sony D-Eight

    CERN Multimedia

    1987-01-01

    The 8mm backup format is a format for storing magnetic tape data used in computer systems, launched by Exabyte Corporation. It is also known as Data8, often abbreviated to D8 and writes D-Eight on some Sony brand media. The company was formed in order to take the 8 mm video format and make it suitable for data storage. They did this by building a mechanism and a reliable data format that used the common 8 mm video tape technology that was available at the time. This was the first form of helical scanning used commercially for data storage. The ribbon was made vertically and has a length of 112 meters. It was designed to withstand heat and high temperatures. It has been introduced in at CERN in 1994.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder in adult victims of cluster munitions in Lebanon: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Jawad; Gebeily, Souheil; Saad, Mohamad; Harati, Hayat; Nabha, Sanaa; Said, Najwane; Kanso, Mohamad; Abdel Rassoul, Ronza; Fares, Youssef

    2017-08-18

    This study aims to explore the short-term and long-term prevalence and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of cluster munitions. A prospective 10-year longitudinal study that took place in Lebanon. Two-hundred-and-forty-four Lebanese civilian victims of submunition blasts, who were injured in 2006 and were over 18 years old, were interviewed. Included were participants who had been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) and the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version in 2006. Interviewees were present for the 10-year follow-up. PTSD prevalence rates of participants in 2006 and 2016 were compared. Analysis of the demographical data pertaining to the association of long-term PTSD with other variables was performed. p Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant for all analyses (95% CI). All the 244 civilians injured by cluster munitions in 2006 responded, and were present for long-term follow-up in 2016. The prevalence of PTSD decreased significantly from 98% to 43% after 10 years (p<0.001). A lower long-term prevalence was significantly associated with male sex (p<0.001), family support (p<0.001) and religion (p<0.001). Hospitalisation (p=0.005) and severe functional impairment (p<0.001) post-trauma were significantly associated with increased prevalence of long-term PTSD. Symptoms of negative cognition and mood were more common in the long run. In addition, job instability was the most frequent socioeconomic repercussion among the participants (88%). Psychological symptoms, especially PTSD, remain high in war-affected populations many years after the war; this is particularly evident for Lebanese civilians who were victimised by cluster munitions. Screening programmes and psychological interventions need to be implemented in vulnerable populations exposed to war traumas. Officials and public health advocates should consider the socioeconomic implications, and

  10. Sasang constitutional types for the risk prediction of metabolic syndrome: a 14-year longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Jong Yeol; Cho, Namhan; Shin, Chol

    2017-09-02

    To examine whether the use of Sasang constitutional (SC) types, such as Tae-yang (TY), Tae-eum (TE), So-yang (SY), and So-eum (SE) types, increases the accuracy of risk prediction for metabolic syndrome. From 2001 to 2014, 3529 individuals aged 40 to 69 years participated in a longitudinal prospective cohort. The Cox proportional hazard model was utilized to predict the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. During the 14 year follow-up, 1591 incident events of metabolic syndrome were observed. Individuals with TE type had higher body mass indexes and waist circumferences than individuals with SY and SE types. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome was the highest among individuals with the TE type, followed by the SY type and the SE type. When the prediction risk models for incident metabolic syndrome were compared, the area under the curve for the model using SC types was significantly increased to 0.8173. Significant predictors for incident metabolic syndrome were different according to the SC types. For individuals with the TE type, the significant predictors were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. For Individuals with the SE type, the predictors were sex, smoking, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level, while the predictors in individuals with the SY type were age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, total cholesterol level, fasting glucose level, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. In this prospective cohort study among 3529 individuals, we observed that utilizing the SC types significantly increased the accuracy of the risk prediction for the development of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Discrimination and Acculturation Stress: A Longitudinal Study of Children's Well-Being from Prenatal Development to 5 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; White, Rebecca M B

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether cumulative family discrimination and acculturation stress (prenatally to 24 months postpartum) among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother-figures predicted children's socio-emotional functioning and academic achievement at 5 years of age, and the role of maternal depressive symptoms and mother-child interactions in the association. Mexican-origin families (N = 204) with an adolescent mother, a child, and a mother-figure participated in a 6-wave longitudinal study (2007-2013). Families were recruited and interviewed during the adolescent mother's pregnancy; adolescent mothers, mother-figures, and children were then assessed annually for the next 5 years using a combination of interview-based survey and observational methods. Maternal reports of children's socio-emotional behaviors (measured using the Child Behavior Checklist) and children's academic achievement (assessed with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement/Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz) were used. Structural equation modeling revealed that greater cumulative family discrimination and acculturation stress from pregnancy to 24 months postpartum predicted higher adolescent mothers' depressive symptoms, greater mother-child intrusive interactions, and less mother sensitivity at 36 months postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms were positively related to children's CBCL symptoms at 60 months postpartum. Greater cumulative discrimination and acculturation stressors directly predicted children's lower Woodcock Johnson/Bateria test scores after accounting for socio-economic status. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' and mother figures' cumulative discrimination and acculturation stress from pregnancy through children's second birthday predicted children's socio-emotional and academic achievement at age 5. Overall, the findings underscore the cumulative impact of these stressors on well-being in a population with substantial public health significance.

  12. Recovery from Dysphagia Symptoms after Oral Endotracheal Intubation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Survivors. A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Martin B; Huang, Minxuan; Shanholtz, Carl; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M

    2017-03-01

    Nearly 60% of patients who are intubated in intensive care units (ICUs) experience dysphagia after extubation, and approximately 50% of them aspirate. Little is known about dysphagia recovery time after patients are discharged from the hospital. To determine factors associated with recovery from dysphagia symptoms after hospital discharge for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors who received oral intubation with mechanical ventilation. This is a prospective, 5-year longitudinal cohort study involving 13 ICUs at four teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. The Sydney Swallowing Questionnaire (SSQ), a 17-item visual analog scale (range, 0-1,700), was used to quantify patient-perceived dysphagia symptoms at hospital discharge, and at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after ARDS. An SSQ score greater than or equal to 200 was used to indicate clinically important dysphagia symptoms at the time of hospital discharge. Recovery was defined as an SSQ score less than 200, with a decrease from hospital discharge greater than or equal to 119, the reliable change index for SSQ score. Fine and Gray proportional subdistribution hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate patient and ICU variables associated with time to recovery accounting for the competing risk of death. Thirty-seven (32%) of 115 patients had an SSQ score greater than or equal to 200 at hospital discharge; 3 died before recovery. All 34 remaining survivors recovered from dysphagia symptoms by 5-year follow-up, 7 (23%) after 6 months. ICU length of stay was independently associated with time to recovery, with a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.96 (0.93-1.00) per day. One-third of orally intubated ARDS survivors have dysphagia symptoms that persist beyond hospital discharge. Patients with a longer ICU length of stay have slower recovery from dysphagia symptoms and should be carefully considered for swallowing assessment to help prevent complications related to dysphagia.

  13. Change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China: A two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Le; Chen, Jian; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood has been targeted as an especially important period for self-esteem formation. The aim of this study is to examine the change and associated factors of self-esteem among children in rural China. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted with a general elementary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children aged between 7 and 16 years. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to examine relationships between low self-esteem and socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. On average, self-esteem level among children was increased across three assessments. Multivariable analysis (GEE) showed that low self-esteem in children was clearly associated with male gender (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.12-1.89), moderate and severe family dysfunction (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.40-2.51; OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.25-2.83, respectively), quality of life (OR = .97, 95%CI = .96-.98), depression (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.32-2.70), anxiety (OR = 2.05, 95%CI = 1.51-2.77), positive coping styles (OR = .91, 95%CI = .89-.94), and negative coping styles (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.03-1.07). Self-esteem is a dynamic rather than a static construct during childhood. Low self-esteem among children was associated with a number of socio-demographic, family environment, and psychosocial factors. Further studies exploring the pathways and mechanisms by which the effect of these factors impact on self-esteem among children are warranted.

  14. Cognitive development in children up to age 11 years born after ART-a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuscia, Anna; Mills, Melinda C

    2017-07-01

    How does the cognitive development of children conceived after ART (IVF and ICSI) - measured as cognitive skills at age 3, 5, 7 and 11 years - differ over time from those born after natural conception (NC)? Improved measures of cognitive development up to age 5 years were recorded in children conceived with ART compared to NC, which attenuates by 11 years, with ART children still scoring slightly better than NC children. Results on the cognitive outcomes of children conceived after ART have been highly contradictory. Some have shown that ART children have an impaired behavioural, socio-emotional and cognitive development and higher risk of mental disorders. Others have reported no increased risk or difference. Cognitive development has not been previously examined using latent growth curve models from ages 3 to 11 years, also including appropriate attention to confounding parental characteristics. Longitudinal data for the first five waves (2000-2012) of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were used, which is a two-stage sample of all infants born in 2000-2001 and resident in the UK at 9 months of age, drawn from the Department of Social Security Child Benefit Registers. A final sample of N = 15 218 children (125 IVF and 61 ICSI), from 14 816 families was used. Information was available for all waves for 8298 children. Four additional follow-up surveys were conducted in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2012. Our sample includes children born within a union (married or cohabiting parents) and where information on cognitive scores was available for at least two measurement points. Cognitive development was assessed with the British Ability Scales. At age 3 and 5 years (wave 2 and 3), children completed the naming vocabulary component, which measures expressive verbal ability. At age 7 years (wave 4), verbal cognitive abilities were assessed through the word reading test, and at age 11 years (wave 5) through a verbal similarity test. Two-tailed Student's t-tests examined differences

  15. Daily steps are low year-round and dip lower in fall/winter: findings from a longitudinal diabetes cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigal Ron J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher walking levels lead to lower mortality in type 2 diabetes, but inclement weather may reduce walking. In this patient population, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study to objectively quantify seasonal variations both in walking and in two vascular risk factors associated with activity levels, hemoglobin A1C and blood pressure. Methods Between June 2006 and July 2009, volunteer type 2 diabetes patients in Montreal, Quebec, Canada underwent two weeks of pedometer measurement up to four times over a one year follow-up period (i.e. once/season. Pedometer viewing windows were concealed (snap-on cover and tamper proof seal. A1C, blood pressure, and anthropometric parameters were also assessed. Given similarities in measures for spring/summer and fall/winter, and because not all participants completed four assessments, spring and summer values were collapsed as were fall and winter values. Mean within-individual differences (95% confidence intervals were computed for daily steps, A1C, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, by subtracting spring/summer values from fall/winter values. Results Among 201 participants, 166 (82.6% underwent at least one fall/winter and one spring/summer evaluation. Approximately half were women, the mean age was 62.4 years (SD 10.8, and the mean BMI was 30.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.7. Step counts averaged at a sedentary level in fall/winter (mean 4,901 steps/day, SD 2,464 and at a low active level in spring/summer (mean 5,659 steps/day, SD 2,611. There was a -758 (95% CI: -1,037 to -479 mean fall/winter to spring/summer within-individual difference. There were no significant differences in A1C or in anthropometric parameters. Systolic blood pressure was higher in fall/winter (mean 137 mm Hg, SD 16 than spring/summer (133 mm Hg, SD 14 with a mean difference of 4.0 mm Hg (95% CI: 2.3 to 5.7. Conclusions Daily step counts in type 2 diabetes patients are low, dipping lower during fall/winter. In this

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker supported diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and rapid dementias: a longitudinal multicentre study over 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Gawinecka, Joanna; Green, Alison; Ladogana, Anna; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Mitrova, Eva; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Kulczycki, Jerzy; Slivarichova, Dana; Saiz, Albert; Calero, Miguel; Knight, Richard; Aguzzi, Adriano; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Peoc’h, Katell; Schelzke, Gabi; Karch, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zerr, Inga

    2012-01-01

    To date, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, particularly protein 14-3-3 testing, presents an important approach in the identification of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. However, one special point of criticism of 14-3-3 testing is the specificity in the differential diagnosis of rapid dementia. The constant observation of increased cerebrospinal fluid referrals in the national surveillance centres over the last years raises the concern of declining specificity due to higher number of cerebrospinal fluid tests performed in various neurological conditions. Within the framework of a European Community supported longitudinal multicentre study (‘cerebrospinal fluid markers’) we analysed the spectrum of rapid progressive dementia diagnoses, their potential influence on 14-3-3 specificity as well as results of other dementia markers (tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1–42) and evaluated the specificity of 14-3-3 in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease diagnosis for the years 1998–2008. A total of 29 022 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed for 14-3-3 protein and other cerebrospinal fluid dementia markers in patients with rapid dementia and suspected Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in the participating centres. In 10 731 patients a definite diagnosis could be obtained. Protein 14-3-3 specificity was analysed for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease with respect to increasing cerebrospinal fluid tests per year and spectrum of differential diagnosis. Ring trials were performed to ensure the comparability between centres during the reported time period. Protein 14-3-3 test specificity remained high and stable in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease during the observed time period across centres (total specificity 92%; when compared with patients with definite diagnoses only: specificity 90%). However, test specificity varied with respect to differential diagnosis. A high 14-3-3 specificity was obtained in differentiation to other neurodegenerative diseases (95–97%) and non

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker supported diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and rapid dementias: a longitudinal multicentre study over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Katharina; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Gawinecka, Joanna; Green, Alison; Ladogana, Anna; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Mitrova, Eva; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Kulczycki, Jerzy; Slivarichova, Dana; Saiz, Albert; Calero, Miguel; Knight, Richard; Aguzzi, Adriano; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Peoc'h, Katell; Schelzke, Gabi; Karch, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Zerr, Inga

    2012-10-01

    To date, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, particularly protein 14-3-3 testing, presents an important approach in the identification of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. However, one special point of criticism of 14-3-3 testing is the specificity in the differential diagnosis of rapid dementia. The constant observation of increased cerebrospinal fluid referrals in the national surveillance centres over the last years raises the concern of declining specificity due to higher number of cerebrospinal fluid tests performed in various neurological conditions. Within the framework of a European Community supported longitudinal multicentre study ('cerebrospinal fluid markers') we analysed the spectrum of rapid progressive dementia diagnoses, their potential influence on 14-3-3 specificity as well as results of other dementia markers (tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β(1-42)) and evaluated the specificity of 14-3-3 in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosis for the years 1998-2008. A total of 29 022 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed for 14-3-3 protein and other cerebrospinal fluid dementia markers in patients with rapid dementia and suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the participating centres. In 10 731 patients a definite diagnosis could be obtained. Protein 14-3-3 specificity was analysed for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with respect to increasing cerebrospinal fluid tests per year and spectrum of differential diagnosis. Ring trials were performed to ensure the comparability between centres during the reported time period. Protein 14-3-3 test specificity remained high and stable in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during the observed time period across centres (total specificity 92%; when compared with patients with definite diagnoses only: specificity 90%). However, test specificity varied with respect to differential diagnosis. A high 14-3-3 specificity was obtained in differentiation to other neurodegenerative diseases (95-97%) and non

  18. Motor Impulsivity during Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Biometric Analysis of the Go/No-Go Task in 9- to 18-Year-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity from childhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. Motor impulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 time points: ages 9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years.…

  19. Eight-year randomized clinical evaluation of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations bonded with a one-step self-etch or a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    (13.5 %) and nine in the two-step etch-and-rinse group (13.0 %). This resulted in nonsignificant different annual failure rates of 1.69 and 1.63 %, respectively. Fracture of restoration was the main reason for failure. Conclusion: Good clinical performance was shown during the 8-year evaluation....... Results: One hundred and fifty-eight restorations were evaluated after 8 years. Three participants with five restorations (three Xeno III, two Excite) were registered as dropouts. Twenty-one failed restorations (13.3 %) were observed during the follow-up. Twelve in the one-step self-etch adhesive group...... and no significant difference in overall clinical performance between the two adhesives. Fracture was the main reason for failure. Clinical relevance: The one-step self-etch adhesive showed a good long-term clinical effectiveness in combination with the nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations....

  20. Longitudinal changes in resting-state fMRI from age 5 to age 6years covary with language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D; Margulies, Daniel S; Brauer, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful technique to study the whole-brain neural connectivity that underlies cognitive systems. The present study aimed to define the changes in neural connectivity in their relation to language development. Longitudinal resting-state functional data were acquired from a cohort of preschool children at age 5 and one year later, and changes in functional connectivity were correlated with language performance in sentence comprehension. For this, degree centrality, a voxel-based network measure, was used to assess age-related differences in connectivity at the whole-brain level. Increases in connectivity with age were found selectively in a cluster within the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). In order to further specify the connection changes, a secondary seed-based functional connectivity analysis on this very cluster was performed. The correlations between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and language performance revealed developmental effects with age and, importantly, also dependent on the advancement in sentence comprehension ability over time. In children with greater advancement in language abilities, the behavioral improvement was positively correlated with RSFC increase between left posterior STG/STS and other regions of the language network, i.e., left and right inferior frontal cortex. The age-related changes observed in this study provide evidence for alterations in the language network as language develops and demonstrates the viability of this approach for the investigation of normal and aberrant language development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender shift in realisation of preferred type of gp practice: longitudinal survey over the last 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorova, Tanja; Stevens, Fred; van der Velden, Lud; Scherpbier, Albert; van der Zee, Jouke

    2007-01-01

    Background An increasing number of newly trained Dutch GPs prefer to work in a group practice and as a non-principal rather than in a single-handed practice. In view of the greater number of female doctors, changing practice preferences, and discussions on future workforce problems, the question is whether male and female GPs were able to realise their initial preferences in the past and will be able to do so in the future. Methods We have conducted longitudinal cohort study of all GPs in the Netherlands seeking a practice between 1980 and 2004. The Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research (NIVEL) in Utrecht collected the data used in this study by means of a postal questionnaire. The overall mean response rate was 94%. Results Over the past 20 years, an increasing proportion of GPs, both male and female, were able to achieve their preference for working in a group practice and/or in a non-principal position. Relatively more women than men have settled in group practices, and more men than women in single-handed practices; however, the practice preference of men and women is beginning to converge. Dropout was highest among the GPs without any specific practice preference. Conclusion The overwhelming preference of male and female GPs for working in group practices is apparently being met by the number of positions (principal or non-principal) available in group practices. The preference of male and female GPs regarding the type of practice and job conditions is expected to converge further in the near future. PMID:17629907

  3. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender shift in realisation of preferred type of gp practice: longitudinal survey over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherpbier Albert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of newly trained Dutch GPs prefer to work in a group practice and as a non-principal rather than in a single-handed practice. In view of the greater number of female doctors, changing practice preferences, and discussions on future workforce problems, the question is whether male and female GPs were able to realise their initial preferences in the past and will be able to do so in the future. Methods We have conducted longitudinal cohort study of all GPs in the Netherlands seeking a practice between 1980 and 2004. The Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research (NIVEL in Utrecht collected the data used in this study by means of a postal questionnaire. The overall mean response rate was 94%. Results Over the past 20 years, an increasing proportion of GPs, both male and female, were able to achieve their preference for working in a group practice and/or in a non-principal position. Relatively more women than men have settled in group practices, and more men than women in single-handed practices; however, the practice preference of men and women is beginning to converge. Dropout was highest among the GPs without any specific practice preference. Conclusion The overwhelming preference of male and female GPs for working in group practices is apparently being met by the number of positions (principal or non-principal available in group practices. The preference of male and female GPs regarding the type of practice and job conditions is expected to converge further in the near future.

  5. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Portuguese nursing students: A longitudinal cohort study over four years of education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Conceição

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that can colonize healthy people mainly in the anterior nares. The aim of the present study was to evaluate S. aureus nasal colonization over time among Portuguese nursing students, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA.In this longitudinal cohort study, we collected 280 nasal swabs from nursing students at 14 time points over four years of schooling (2012-2016. The isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and SCCmec typing for MRSA. Among 47 students, 20 (43% carried methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA at admission, but none was colonized with MRSA. A total of 19 students (40% became colonized after exposure during the nursing training, out of which five carried MRSA. Overall, 39 students (83% had S. aureus detected at least once during the study period. Among the 97 MSSA isolates, most (65% belonged to four clones: PFGE A-ST30 (21%, B-ST72 (20%, C-ST508 (13%, and D-ST398 (11%. Three of the five MRSA carriers were colonized with the predominant clone circulating in Portuguese hospitals (ST22-IVh and two with ST3162-II. Colonization of nursing students was highly dynamic with continuous appearance of strains with distinct PFGE types in the same individual.A considerable proportion of students became colonized by S. aureus, including MRSA, during the nursing education, evidencing this population represents an important reservoir of S. aureus. Therefore, education on infection control measures in nursing schools is of major importance.

  6. Neuroanatomical differences between first-episode psychosis patients with and without neurocognitive deficit: a 3 year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eAyesa-Arriola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The course of cognitive function in first episode psychosis (FEP patients suggests that some individuals are normal or near-normal whereas some cases present a marked decline. The goal of the present longitudinal study was to identify neuroanatomical differences between deficit and non-deficit patients.Methods: Fifty nine FEP patients with neuroimage and neurocognitive information were studied at baseline and 3 year after illness onset. A global cognitive function score was used to classify deficit and non-deficit patients at baseline. Analysis of covarianes and repeated-measures analysis were performed to evaluate differences in brain volumes. Age, premorbid IQ and intracranial volume were used as covariates. We examined only volumes of whole brain, whole brain gray and white matter, cortical CSF and lateral ventricles, lobular volumes of gray and white matter, and subcortical (caudate nucleus and thalamus regions.Results: At illness onset 50.8% of patients presented global cognitive deficit. There were no significant differences between neuropsychological subgroups in any of the brain regions studied at baseline (all F(1,54 ≤ 3.42; all p ≥ 0.07 and follow-up (all F(1,54 ≤ 3.43; all p ≥ 0.07 time points. There was a significant time by group interaction for the parietal tissue volume (F(1,54 =4.97, p = 0.030 and the total gray matter volume (F(1,54 = 4.31, p =0.042, with the deficit group showing a greater volume decrease. Conclusions: Our results did not confirm the presence of significant morphometric differences in the brain regions evaluated between cognitively impaired and cognitively preserved schizophrenia patients at the early stages of the illness. However, there were significant time by group interactions for the parietal tissue volume and the total gray matter volume during the 3-year follow-up period, which might indicate that cognitive deficit in schizophrenia would be associated with progressive brain volume

  7. Longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C M; Skodol, A E; Gunderson, J G; Sanislow, C A; Stout, R L; Shea, M T; Morey, L C; Zanarini, M C; Bender, D S; Yen, S; McGlashan, T H

    2004-07-01

    To examine the longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of the DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). At baseline, criteria and diagnoses were determined using diagnostic interviews, and blinded assessments were performed 24 months later with 550 participants. Diagnostic efficiency indices (conditional probabilities, total predictive power, and kappa) were calculated for each criterion determined at baseline, using the independent OCPD diagnosis at follow-up as the standard. Longitudinal diagnostic efficiencies for the OCPD criteria varied; findings suggested the overall predictive utility of 'preoccupied with details', 'rigid and stubborn', and 'reluctant to delegate'. These findings suggest the predictive validity of three cognitive-interpersonal OCPD criteria.

  8. Gender-Related Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms and Disordered Eating in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…

  9. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by

  10. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  11. The Job Demands-Job Control Model and absence behaviour : results of a 3-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.G.W.; Nijhuis, F.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results of earlier studies only marginally supported the relevance of Karasek's Job Demands-Job Control Model for absence behaviour. Since longitudinal studies with respect to these relations were largely lacking, a four-wave panel study was carried out using data from 1755 male employees

  12. Mother and adolescent expressed emotion and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom development : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In expressed emotion (EE) theory, it is held that high EE household environments enhance adolescent psychopathological distress. However, no longitudinal study has been conducted to examine if either the mother's EE or the adolescent's perception of EE predicts adolescent internalizing and

  13. Interrelations between Executive Function and Symptoms of Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattention in Preschoolers: A Two Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Karin C.; Eninger, Lilianne; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study, including children at risk for developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), examined the idea that complex executive functions (EFs) build upon more simple ones. This notion was applied in the study of longitudinal interrelations between core EF components--simple and complex inhibition, selective attention, and…

  14. The Development of Internal State Language during the Third Year of Life: A Longitudinal Parent Report Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Licata, Maria; Thoermer, Claudia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Children's talk about the mind has been scarcely studied in non-English speakers. For this reason, this longitudinal study documents age-related changes in German-speaking children's internal state language. At 24, 30 and 36?months, children were administered general language tests and their internal state vocabulary levels were obtained via…

  15. The Role of Behavioral Self-Regulation in Learning to Read: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdóttir, Freyja; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Thorsdóttir, Fanney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, including success in literacy, but few studies have explored the relations that behavioral self-regulation may have with different components of early literacy development. The present study investigated the longitudinal contribution…

  16. Changes in gait characteristics of women with early and established medial knee osteoarthritis : Results from a 2-years longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudian, Armaghan; van Dieёn, Jaap H.; Baert, Isabel A.C.; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Faber, Gert S.; Luyten, Frank P.; Verschueren, Sabine M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the large number of cross-sectional studies on gait in subjects with knee osteoarthritis, there are scarcely any longitudinal studies on gait changes in knee osteoarthritis. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 25 women with early and 18 with established medial knee

  17. Surgical Approach, Findings, and Eight-Year Follow-Up in a Twenty-Nine Year Old Female With Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome Presenting With Blepharophimosis Causing Near-Complete Visual Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Augusto L; Poling, Mikaela I; McCormick, Rodger J

    2016-07-01

    The authors describe the surgical approach, findings, and 8-year follow-up in a 29-year-old woman, with severe Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, presenting with congenital blepharophimosis of both upper eyelids resulting in near-complete functional visual obstruction. To avoid possible Freeman-Sheldon syndrome-associated complications of malignant hyperthermia, difficult vascular access, and challenging endotracheal intubation, the surgery was completed under local anesthesia without sedation, and anatomical and functional correction was immediate and remained stable at 8-year follow-up. Unlike many congenital craniofacial syndromes, which frequently involve life-long impairments, important implications exist for plastic surgeons to facilitate opportunities for patients to overcome functional limitations.

  18. The influence of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication on Bahamian adolescent risk involvement: A three-year longitudinal examination

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent–adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual ris...

  19. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A 2-YEAR PRELIMINARY LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN HASHIMOTO’S THYROIDITIS UNDER LEVOTHYROXINE TREATMENT: ONLY TRAIL MAKING TEST IS MAKING A DIFFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaitsa Giannouli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined longitudinally depression, stress and cognition in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (HT under levothyroxine (LT4 treatment. Although HT is claimed to cause several mood changes and cognitive deficits in patients who are left untreated, we still know little about the longitudinal profile of these patients when they are under stable treatment. Sixteen middle-aged euthyroid HT women and sixteen healthy control women were examined with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering different cognitive functions (attention, visual and verbal memory, executive functions and mood, and with thyroid functions tests at three time points at one and two years post-baseline. Depression and perceived stress, along with verbal and visual memory were found to be stable at a two-year retesting in euthyroid HT women. Only TMT-Parts A and B deteriorated at one and two years in euthyroid HT. Although impaired performance in attention and executive deficits are linked with heighted levels of depression and stress, here they were not accompanied by changes in mood. The present study failed to detect any noticeable changes longitudinally in the cognitive and emotional function in euthyroid HT women under stable and continuous LT4 treatment. Patients’ restricted deficits may indicate that the decline in attention and executive functioning performance might be related to the effects of a specific progressive degenerative process associated with the disorder, rather than the effects of aging.

  1. Course of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 40 Years After the Vietnam War: Findings From the National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmar, Charles R; Schlenger, William; Henn-Haase, Clare; Qian, Meng; Purchia, Emily; Li, Meng; Corry, Nida; Williams, Christianna S; Ho, Chia-Lin; Horesh, Danny; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Shalev, Arieh; Kulka, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    The long-term course of readjustment problems in military personnel has not been evaluated in a nationally representative sample. The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is a congressionally mandated assessment of Vietnam veterans who underwent previous assessment in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS). To determine the prevalence, course, and comorbidities of war-zone posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across a 25-year interval. The NVVLS survey consisted of a self-report health questionnaire (n = 1409), a computer-assisted telephone survey health interview (n = 1279), and a telephone clinical interview (n = 400) in a representative national sample of veterans who served in the Vietnam theater of operations (theater veterans) from July 3, 2012, through May 17, 2013. Of 2348 NVVRS participants, 1920 were alive at the outset of the NVVLS, and 81 died during recruitment; 1450 of the remaining 1839 (78.8%) participated in at least 1 NVVLS study phase. Data analysis was performed from May 18, 2013, through January 9, 2015, with further analyses continued through April 13, 2015. Study instruments included the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, PTSD Checklist for DSM-IV supplemented with PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 items (PCL-5+), Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Nonpatient Version. Among male theater veterans, we estimated a prevalence (95% CI) of 4.5% (1.7%-7.3%) based on CAPS-5 criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis; 10.8% (6.5%-15.1%) based on CAPS-5 full plus subthreshold PTSD; and 11.2% (8.3%-14.2%) based on PCL-5+ criteria for current war-zone PTSD. Among female veterans, estimates were 6.1% (1.8%-10.3%), 8.7% (3.8%-13.6%), and 6.6% (3.5%-9.6%), respectively. The PCL-5+ prevalence (95% CI) of current non-war-zone PTSD was 4.6% (2.6%-6.6%) in male and 5.1% (2.3%-8.0%) in female theater veterans. Comorbid major depression occurred in 36.7% (95% CI, 6

  2. The ROOTS study: a 10-year review of findings on adolescent depression, and recommendations for future longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Jones, Peter B; Goodyer, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review longitudinal findings on adolescent mental health from the 'ROOTS study', and provide directions and recommendations for future longitudinal research. To do this, we discuss relevant findings from the ROOTS study, and review its strengths and limitations. We examined all publications from the ROOTS study up to July 2015, selected those examining adolescent mental health, and classified them as investigating (a) childhood risk factors for adolescent depression, (b) genetic and cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence, (c) genetic markers, childhood adversities, and neuroendophenotypes, (d) morning cortisol and depression, (e) physical activity and depression symptoms, and (f) the underlying structure of mental health in adolescence. We reviewed the strengths and limitations of the ROOTS study, and how they feed into recommendations for future longitudinal research. There was evidence supporting a putative hormonal biomarker for the emergence of depression in boys. Environmental pathways from child adversity to adolescent depression were confirmed in girls, partly accounted for by negative life events in early adolescence. The preceding role of automatic cognitive biases assessed using behavioural tasks was substantiated, with evidence for genetic susceptibility. Novel latent statistical models of child adversity, depression, anxiety, and psychotic experiences were produced, with concurrent and prospective validity. Our experiences conducting the ROOTS study resulted in a set of strengths, limitations, and recommendations for future longitudinal studies. The ROOTS study has advanced knowledge on the aetiology of adolescent depression by investigating environmental, genetic, hormonal, and neural risk factors. Findings provide a foundation for future research integrating cognitive neuroscience with epidemiology.

  3. Fatness predicts decreased physical activity and increased sedentary time, but not vice versa: support from a longitudinal study in 8- to 11-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M. F.; Chaput, J.-P.; Ritz, C.

    2014-01-01

    and FMI. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done using data from the OPUS school meal study on 785 children (52% boys, 13.4% overweight, ages 8–11 years). Total PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), sedentary time and sleep duration (7 days and 8 nights) were assessed......Objective: To examine independent and combined cross-sectional associations between movement behaviors (physical activity (PA), sedentary time, sleep duration, screen time and sleep disturbance) and fat mass index (FMI), as well as to examine longitudinal associations between movement behaviors...... by an accelerometer and FMI was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on three occasions over 200 days. Demographic characteristics, screen time and sleep disturbance (Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire) were also obtained. Results: Total PA, MVPA and sleep duration were negatively associated...

  4. Cytokines and Bone Loss in a 5-Year Longitudinal Study—Hormone Replacement Therapy Suppresses Serum Soluble Interleukin-6 Receptor and Increases Interleukin-1-Receptor Antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Bonnevie-Nielsen, V.; Ebbesen, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    ) and the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) potentially modify cytokine bioactivity. We therefore assessed the impact of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on cytokines and activity modifiers in serum within a 5-year longitudinal study. One hundred sixty perimenopausal women (age 50.1 +/- 2.8 years) were.......16; p = 0.17). In conclusion, serum IL-1ra and sIL-6R are influenced by HRT and are associated with the rate of bone loss in perimenopausal women....

  5. [Depressive symptoms and related factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province:a two-year longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Linsheng; Chen, Mingchun; Chen, Jian; Lyu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yuhong; Sun, Ying; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, trends on its longitudinal development and related influencing factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province. Through cluster sampling methods, all students from 3 to 9 grades in 5 primary schools and 3 middle schools in Changfeng county of Anhui province were investigated through questionnaire as subjects of baseline survey in December 2009. Subjects of this longitudinal study were students in grades 3, 4 and 7 at the time of the baseline survey and were contacted once a year for two years. At last, a total of 816 students participated in all the three surveys. A structured questionnaire including Children's Depression Inventory, socio-demographic characteristics and some potential influential factors was employed for this study. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to evaluate the related influencing factors of children's depressive symptoms in the longitudinal study. Prevalence rates of depressive symptoms were 11.3% , 10.4% and 8.5% , respectively, at the baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up studies, among primary and middle school students. Scores on depressive symptoms of total subjects and children who had always been left at home in the follow-up process showed significant differences at the three surveys (F = 13.423, P students who showed depressive symptoms at the baseline survey remained those depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up study and 87 percent of the 23 students who had depressive symptoms at the baseline and 1-year follow-up surveys still showing depressive symptoms at the 2-year follow-up study. Results from the GEE program indicated that grade 3 students, having syblings, family with dysfunction or at low level of self-esteem etc., were prone to development while sex and parents' educational level were not correlated with depressive symptoms. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county

  6. Prognostic factors for work ability in women with chronic low back pain consulting primary health care: a 2-year prospective longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeman, Lena; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2014-05-01

    To investigate prognostic factors for future work ability in women with chronic low back pain (CLBP) consulting primary health care. A 2-year prospective longitudinal cohort study of female patients with CLBP within the primary health care was conducted. Patients were assessed at the first assessment and after 2 years. Prognostic factors for work ability (yes/no) were analyzed by multivariate regression. A total of 130 patients were included at first assessment. After 2 years, 123 patients (95%) were followed up. The 6-minute walk test, depression, and earlier work ability predicted work ability at the 2-year follow-up. A nomogram was constructed to assess the probability of future work ability. The 6-minute walk test, work ability, and depression predicted work ability for women with CLBP after 2 years.

  7. Effects of tobacco-related media campaigns on smoking among 20-30-year-old adults: longitudinal data from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A; O'Malley, Patrick M; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-01-01

    Young adults in the USA have one of the highest smoking prevalence rates of any age group, and young adulthood is a critical time period of targeting by the tobacco industry. The authors examined relationships between potential exposure to tobacco-related media campaigns from a variety of sponsors and 2-year smoking change measures among a longitudinal sample of US adults aged 20-30 years from 2001 to 2008. Self-report data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 12,931 US young adults from age 20 to 30. These data were merged with tobacco-related advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. Two-year measures of change in smoking were regressed on advertising exposures. Two-year smoking uptake was unrelated to advertising exposure. The odds of quitting among all smokers and reduction among daily smokers in the 2 years between the prior and current survey were positively related to anti-tobacco advertising, especially potential exposure levels of 104-155 ads over the past 24 months. Tobacco company advertising (including corporate image and anti-smoking) and pharmaceutical industry advertising were unrelated to quitting or reduction. Continued support for sustained, public health-based well-funded anti-tobacco media campaigns may help reduce tobacco use among young adults.

  8. Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental field climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the growing season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the growing season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the growing season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting two-year longitudinal MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory outcomes after intensity modulated radiotherapy for locoregionally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepfert, Ryan P; Lewin, Jan S; Barrow, Martha P; Fuller, C David; Lai, Stephen Y; Song, Juhee; Hobbs, Brian P; Gunn, G Brandon; Beadle, Beth M; Rosenthal, David I; Garden, Adam S; Kies, Merrill S; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali A; Schwartz, David L; Hutcheson, Katherine A

    2017-04-01

    To determine the factors associated with longitudinal patient-reported dysphagia as measured by the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) in locoregionally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) survivors treated with split-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Retrospective patient analysis. A retrospective analysis combined data from three single-institution clinical trials for stage III/IV head and neck carcinoma. According to trial protocols, patients had prospectively collected MDADI at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. OPC patients with baseline and at least one post-treatment MDADI were included. Longitudinal analysis was completed with multivariate linear mixed effects modeling. There were 116 patients who met inclusion criteria. Mean baseline MDADI composite was 88.3, dropping to 73.8 at 6 months, and rising to 78.6 and 83.3 by 12 and 24 months, respectively (compared to baseline, all P dysphagia early after split-field IMRT for locoregionally advanced OPC that remains apparent 6 months after treatment. MDADI scores recover slowly thereafter, but remain depressed at 24 months compared to baseline. Higher tumor stage and smoking status are important markers of patient-reported function through the course of treatment, suggesting these are important groups for heightened surveillance and more intensive interventions to optimize swallowing outcomes. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:842-848, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Prevalence of trachoma in school children in the Marajó Archipelago, Brazilian Amazon, and the impact of the introduction of educational and preventive measures on the disease over eight years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Favacho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world and is associated with precarious living conditions in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of trachoma in three municipalities of the Marajó Archipelago, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. In 2008, 2,054 schoolchildren from the public primary school system of the urban area of the region and their communicants were clinically examined; in 2016, 1,502 schoolchildren were examined. The positive cases seen during the clinical evaluation were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF laboratory tests. The presence of antibodies against the genus Chlamydia was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, and the serotypes were determined by microimmunofluorescence (MIF. In 2008, the prevalence of trachoma among schoolchildren was 3.4% (69 cases and it was more frequent in children between six and nine years of age and in females; among the communicants, a prevalence of 16.5% was observed. In 2016, three cases of trachoma were diagnosed (prevalence of 0.2%, found only in the municipality of Soure. The results of the present study showed that in 2008, trachoma had a low prevalence (3.4% among schoolchildren in the urban area of Marajó Archipelago; eight years after the first evaluation and the introduction of control and prevention measures (SAFE strategy, there was a drastic reduction in the number of cases (0.2%, demonstrating the need for constant monitoring and effective measures for the elimination of trachoma.

  11. Sleep timing and child and parent outcomes in Australian 4-9-year-olds: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Price, Anna M H; Bittman, Michael; Hiscock, Harriet

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to use national Australian time-diary data to examine both (1) cross-sectionally and (2) longitudinally whether being late versus early to sleep or wake is associated with poorer child behavior, quality of life, learning, cognition and weight status, and parental mental health. Data from the first three waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were taken. A national representative sample of 4983 4-5-year-olds, recruited in 2004 from the Australian Medicare database and followed up biennially, was taken; 3631 had analyzable sleep information and a concurrent measure of health and well-being for at least one wave. Parents completed 24-h child time-use diaries for one week and one weekend day at each wave. Using median splits, sleep timing was categorized into early-to-sleep/early-to-wake (EE), early-to-sleep/late-to-wake (EL), late-to-sleep/early-to-wake (LE), and late-to-sleep/late-to-wake (LL) at each wave. The outcomes included parent-reported child behavior, health-related quality of life, maternal/paternal mental health, teacher-reported child language, literacy, mathematical thinking, and approach to learning. The study assessed child body mass index and girth. (1) Using EE as the comparator, linear regression analyses revealed that being late-to-sleep was associated with poorer child quality of life from 6 to 9 years and maternal mental health at 6-7 years. There was inconsistent or no evidence for associations between sleep timing and all other outcomes. (2) Using the count of the number of times (waves) at which a child was categorized as late-to-sleep (range 0-3), longitudinal analyses demonstrated that there was a cumulative effect of late-to-sleep profiles on poorer child and maternal outcomes at the child age of 8-9 years. Examined cross-sectionally, sleep timing is a driver of children's quality of life and maternal depression. Examined longitudinally, there appears to be cumulative and adverse relationships

  12. The relationship between physical fitness and clustered risk, and tracking of clustered risk from adolescence to young adulthood: eight years follow-up in the Danish Youth and Sport Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønfeldt Vivian

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD is usually caused by high levels of many risk factors simultaneously over many years. Therefore, it is of great interest to study if subjects stay within rank order over time in both the biological risk factors and the behaviour that influences these risk factors. Many studies have described stability (tracking in single risk factors, especially in children where hard endpoints are lacking, but few have analysed tracking in clustered risk. Methods Two examinations were conducted 8 years apart. The first time, 133 males and 172 females were 16–19 years of age. Eight years later, 98 males and 137 females participated. They were each time ranked into quartiles by sex in four CVD risk factors all related to the metabolic syndrome. Risk factors were the ratio between total cholesterol and HDL, triglyceride, systolic BP and body fat. The upper quartile was defined as being at risk, and if a subject had two or more risk factors, he/she was defined as a case (15–20 % of the subjects. Odds ratios (OR for being a case was calculated between quartiles of fitness in both cross-sectional studies. The stability of combined risk was calculated as the OR between cases and non-cases at the first examination to be a case at the second examination. Results ORs for having two or more risk factors between quartiles of fitness were 3.1, 3.8 and 4.9 for quartiles two to four, respectively. At the second examination, OR were 0.7, 3.5 and 4.9, respectively. The probability for "a case" at the first examination to be "a case" at the second was 6.0. Conclusions The relationship between an exposure like physical fitness and CVD risk factors is much stronger when clustering of risk factors are analysed compared to the relationship to single risk factors. The stability over time in multiple risk factors analysed together is strong. This relationship should be seen in the light of moderate or weak tracking of single risk

  13. A ocorrência de ceceio em crianças de oito a 11 anos em escolas municipais The occurrence of lisp in eight- to 11-year-old children from municipal schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Roses Monteiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a ocorrência de ceceio em crianças de oito a 11 anos das escolas municipais de Itaqui/RS, de acordo com sexo e faixa etária, além de verificar a associação do ceceio com possíveis fatores de risco, tais como hábitos de sucção (chupeta, dedo e mamadeira até os seis anos de idade, má oclusão dentária, respiração oral e praxias de língua. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, exploratório, contemporâneo, prospectivo e de grupo, por meio de questionário com os responsáveis e de avaliação fonoaudiológica das estruturas, das praxias da língua, da presença de sinais sugestivos de respiração oral e articulação dos sons da fala. Utilizou-se estatística não-paramétrica (Qui-quadrado para verificar associação entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: Participaram 200 crianças (50% meninos e 50% meninas de oito a 11 anos. A frequência de ceceio foi de 19%, maior nas meninas e observou-se que ceceio anterior diminui com o aumento da idade o que não ocorreu com o ceceio lateral. Os sinais sugestivos de respiração oral (p=0,037, o uso prolongado da mamadeira (p=0,027, as alterações de praxias de língua (p=0,002, e as alterações de oclusão (p=0,0001, foram os fatores de risco que mostraram associação estatística. CONCLUSÕES: Foi alta a frequência de ceceio e maior no sexo feminino. A maioria dos fatores de risco associou-se significativamente.PURPOSE: To verify the occurrence of lisp in eight- to 11-year-old children from public schools in Itaqui/RS (Brazil, according to gender and age group, and to associate the lisp with possible risk factors, such as sucking habits (pacifier, finger and bottle up to six years of age, malocclusion, oral breathing and tongue praxis. METHODS: An observational, exploratory, contemporary, prospective, group study was conducted using a questionnaire applied to caregivers and a speech-language evaluation that included examination of oral structures, tongue

  14. Evaluating automated dynamic contrast enhanced wrist 3 T MRI in healthy volunteers: One-year longitudinal observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Anshul, E-mail: anshul.rastogi@bartshealth.nhs.uk [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Kubassova, Olga, E-mail: olga@imageanalysis.org.uk [Image Analysis, Leeds (United Kingdom); Krasnosselskaia, Lada V., E-mail: solaguz@yahoo.com [Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Lim, Adrian K.P., E-mail: a.lim@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Radiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Satchithananda, Keshthra, E-mail: keshthra.satchithananda@imperial.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Boesen, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.boesen@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and the Parker Institute, Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg Hospitals (Denmark); Binks, Michael, E-mail: michael.h.binks@gsk.com [GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, SG1 2NY (United Kingdom); Hajnal, Joseph V., E-mail: jo.hajnal@kcl.ac.uk [Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Peter C., E-mail: peter.taylor@kennedy.ox.ac.uk [Kenn