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Sample records for eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl

  1. Effect of icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) on omeprazole plasma pharmacokinetics in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Rene A; Stirtan, William G; Soni, Paresh N

    2014-09-01

    Icosapent ethyl (IPE) is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride levels in adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Patients with high serum triglycerides may be taking concurrent medications for associated conditions such as obesity and/or diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of IPE on the plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) of omeprazole, a commonly used proton pump inhibitor and a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19. Omeprazole (40 mg/day for 7 days) was administered orally without and with 4 g/day IPE at steady state. The primary PK endpoint was area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24); secondary endpoints included maximum observed plasma concentration (C max). Safety was monitored in all subjects who received one or more dose(s) of the study drug. Thirty healthy adult subjects were enrolled and 28 completed the study. IPE 4 g/day at steady state did not significantly change the AUC0-24 or C max of omeprazole when co-administered at 40 mg/day to steady state. The ratios of least squares geometric means (90 % confidence interval) for AUC0-24 and C max (omeprazole with IPE vs. omeprazole alone) were 0.84 (76.0-91.9) and 1.01 (87.4-116.3), respectively. There were no clinically significant findings from laboratory tests, vital signs, or physical examinations. At steady-state concentrations, IPE 4 g/day did not inhibit the AUC0-24 or C max of omeprazole 40 mg/day, a CYP2C19 substrate. Co-administration of IPE with omeprazole was safe and well tolerated.

  2. Effects of MAT9001 containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, compared to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, on triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol, and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Bobotas, George; Dicklin, Mary R; Huebner, Margie; Keane, William F

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrate pharmaceuticals are used in the United States for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL) and are under investigation as adjuncts to statins for lowering cardiovascular risk in patients with high triglycerides (TGs; 200-499 mg/dL). To evaluate MAT9001, an investigational prescription-only omega-3 fatty acid agent containing predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid, in 42 men and women with fasting TG 200 to 400 mg/dL. In this open-label, crossover trial, subjects received MAT9001 and EPA ethyl esters (EPA-EE) in random order. They were housed in a clinical research unit for 2 14-day treatment periods, separated by a ≥35-day washout. Lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 levels were measured before and at the end of each treatment period. MAT9001, compared with EPA-EE, resulted in significantly (P < .05) larger reductions from pretreatment levels for TG (-33.2% vs -10.5%), total cholesterol (-9.0% vs -6.2%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-8.8% vs -4.6%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-32.5% vs -8.1%), Apo C3 (-25.5% vs -5.0%), and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (-12.3% vs +8.8%). MAT9001 also produced a significantly (P = .003) larger reduction in Apo A1 (-15.3% vs -10.2%), but responses for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-11.3% vs -11.1%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-2.4% vs -4.3%), and Apo B (-3.8% vs -0.7%), respectively, were not significantly different relative to EPA-EE. MAT9001 produced significantly larger reductions than EPA-EE in several lipoprotein-related variables that would be expected to favorably alter cardiovascular disease risk in men and women with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulated moving bed chromatography for the separation of ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid under nonlinear conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Bao, Zongbi; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2015-12-18

    In this study, ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were separated with simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography, where the stationary phase was C18 silica gel with particle size of 10μm packed in eight columns, and the mobile phase was pure methanol. The Henry constants, transport parameters and total porosity were measured from pulse response chromatographic experiments using a single column. The Henry constants were obtained from the first moment analysis. The transport parameters including axial dispersion coefficients and effective mass transfer coefficients were obtained from the second moment analysis. Nonlinear adsorption equilibrium isotherms for the pure components and their mixture were determined from adsorption-desorption method. The Langmuir model was used to fit the experimental data, and the corresponding parameters were further used to predict the competitive adsorption equilibria of the mixture. The validity of mathematical model parameters was checked by a frontal chromatography experiment. The simulated results of the SMB process using these parameters agreed well with the experimental results. At the feed concentration of 100g/L, the SMB separation was able to produce both solutes with relative purity above 99%, productivity of 13.11g/L adsorbent/h, and solvent consumption of 0.46L/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester): Effects on plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels in patients from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Braeckman, Rene A; Philip, Sephy; Stirtan, William G; Doyle, Ralph T; Soni, Paresh N; Juliano, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) regulates lipoprotein and triglyceride (TG) metabolism and may have a causal role in cardiovascular disease. In the Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, 12-Week Study With an Open-Label Extension (MARINE) and ANCHOR studies, icosapent ethyl, a high-purity prescription eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester, reduced TG, and other atherogenic lipid parameters without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with placebo. To evaluate the effects of icosapent ethyl on plasma ApoC-III levels in patients from 2 phase 3 studies. MARINE and ANCHOR were 12-week double-blind studies of icosapent ethyl in adult patients. Patients in MARINE had very high TG levels (≥500 and ≤2000 mg/dL) and patients in ANCHOR had high TG levels (≥200 and ANCHOR assessed the median percent change from baseline in plasma ApoC-III levels vs placebo and includes subgroup analyses by statin use/efficacy and median ApoC-III levels. We assessed ApoC-III levels in 148 and 612 patients in the MARINE and ANCHOR studies, respectively. In MARINE, the approved prescription dose of icosapent ethyl (4 g/day) significantly reduced ApoC-III levels by 25.1% (P ANCHOR, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced ApoC-III levels by 19.2% (P ANCHOR studies. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Icosapent ethyl, a pure ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid: effects on circulating markers of inflammation from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Braeckman, Rene A; Stirtan, William G; Soni, Paresh N

    2013-02-01

    Icosapent ethyl (IPE) is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. In addition to TG-lowering effects, IPE also reduces non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels without significantly increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with very high TG levels ≥500 mg/dL (MARINE study) and in patients with well-controlled LDL-C and residually high TG levels 200-500 mg/dL (ANCHOR study). This analysis examined the effect of IPE on inflammatory markers in patients from MARINE and ANCHOR. MARINE (N = 229) and ANCHOR (N = 702) were Phase III, double-blind studies that randomized hypertriglyceridemic patients to IPE 4 g/day, 2 g/day, or placebo. This analysis assessed the median placebo-adjusted percentage change from baseline in markers representing various stages of atherosclerotic inflammation such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Compared to placebo, IPE 4 g/day significantly decreased Ox-LDL (13 %, p ANCHOR), Lp-PLA(2) (14 %, p ANCHOR), and hsCRP levels (36 %, p ANCHOR), but did not significantly change ICAM-1 and IL-6 levels. In the MARINE study, IPE 2 g/day did not significantly change ICAM-1, Ox-LDL, Lp-PLA(2), IL-6, or hsCRP levels. Also, compared to placebo in the ANCHOR study, IPE 2 g/day significantly decreased Lp-PLA(2) levels (8 %, p < 0.0001), but did not significantly change levels of other assessed inflammatory markers. Compared to placebo, in hypertriglyceridemic patients, IPE 4 g/day significantly decreased Ox-LDL, Lp-PLA(2), and hsCRP levels.

  6. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based bioanalytical method for quantification of ethyl esters of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sekarbabu; Verma, P R P; Ganesan, Muniyandithevar; Manivannan, Jeganathan

    2017-07-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids are clinically useful and the two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are prevalent in fish and fish oils. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations should undergo a rigorous regulatory step in order to obtain United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approval as prescription drug. In connection with that, despite quantifying EPA and DHA fatty acids, there is a need for quantifying the level of ethyl esters of them in biological samples. In this study, we make use of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS)technique for the method development. Here, we have developed a novel multiple reaction monitoring method along with optimized parameters for quantification of EPA and DHA as ethyl esters. Additionally, we attempted to validate the bio-analytical method by conducting the sensitivity, selectivity, precision accuracy batch, carryover test and matrix stability experiments. Furthermore, we also implemented our validated method for evaluation of pharmacokinetics of omega fatty acid ethyl ester formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid reduces liver lipids and lowers plasma levels of lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Nahoko; Suzuki, Satoe; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Hitomi; Sassa, Shuji; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, i.e. simple steatosis may progress to advanced fibrosis and to cryptogenic cirrhosis via steatohepatitis, and ultimately to hepatocellular carcinoma. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a marine-derived n-3 fatty acid like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is an anti-thrombotic and hypolipidemic agent, and is an antagonist of platelet aggregation and an inhibitor of cholesterol and lipoprotein. In an attempt to confirm the hypolipidemic action of this agent, the effects of EPA on liver and plasma levels of lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. EPA markedly reduced the fatty droplets in the liver cells and the liver weight, also lowering plasma levels of total cholesterol, free total cholesterol, phospholipids and triglyceride. It is suggested that n-3 fatty acid intake and fish consumption may be able to prevent the occurrence not only of metabolic syndrome, but also of fatty liver and non-alcohlic steatohepatitis.

  8. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates Trichomonas vaginalis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosh, Travis; Jordan, Kelsey D; Wu, Ja-Shin; Yarlett, Nigel; Upmacis, Rita K

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite and, while it is often asymptomatic in males, the parasite is associated with disease in both sexes. Metronidazole is an effective treatment for trichomoniasis, but resistant strains have evolved and, thus, it has become necessary to investigate other possible therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of native and oxidized forms of the sodium salts of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids on T. vaginalis activity. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the most toxic with 190 and 380 μM causing approximately 90% cell death in Casu2 and ATCC 50142 strains, respectively. In contrast, oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid was the least toxic, requiring > 3 mM to inhibit activity, while low levels (10 μM) were associated with increased parasite density. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid revealed C20 products containing one to six additional oxygen atoms and various degrees of bond saturation. These results indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid has different effects on T. vaginalis survival, depending on whether it is present in the native or oxidized form. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in T. vaginalis may facilitate the design of synthetic fatty acids that are effective for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoate and dexamethasone resistance in therapy-refractory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murck, Harald; Song, Cai; Horrobin, David F; Uhr, Manfred

    2004-09-01

    Preliminary evidence shows that ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (E-EPA) has a marked clinical effect when used as an adjunct in therapy-refractory depression. EPA belongs to the class of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The mechanism of its action in depression is not fully understood. There are two related fields where the pathophysiology of refractory depression meets the effect of EPA. First, a general immunosuppressive effect of EPA meets a general immunoactivation in severe depression, especially an increase in CD4/CD8 ratio, neutrophilia, and an increase in interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-12 and of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Secondly, a resistance to dexamethasone (Dex) suppression of the HPA axis meets the effects of EPA on multidrug resistance reversing and HPA axis suppression. The effects of EPA on the immune system, the HPA axis, and multidrug resistance are connected through the action of a transport protein called p-glycoprotein (p-gp). Physiological and synthetic steroids such as cortisol and Dex are substrates of p-gp, and so Dex resistance in depression may be related to dysfunction of this protein. In addition, expression of p-gp is induced by PGE2, and EPA inhibits the synthesis of PGE2. The reversal of drug resistance by EPA may be mediated via this immunological mechanism and lead to its antidepressive efficacy. In addition, antidepressants such as amitriptyline, which have special efficacy in severe depression, decrease p-gp function. EPA may, furthermore, enhance the action of antidepressants, like many SSRIs that are p-gp substrates, which are actively transported out of the intracerebral space at the level of the blood-brain barrier.

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; Assies, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is common in individuals with diabetes. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of omega-3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) as adjuvant to antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression in adults with diabetes mellitus...

  11. Wheat aleurone polyphenols increase plasma eicosapentaenoic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Ounnas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: These studies were designed to assess whether wheat polyphenols (mainly ferulic acid [FA] increased the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA] in rats. Wheat aleurone (WA was used as a dietary source of wheat polyphenols. Two experiments were performed; in the first one, the rats were fed WA or control pellets (CP in presence of linseed oil (LO to provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of VLC n-3. In the second one, the rats were fed WA or CP in presence of control oil (CO without ALA. The concentrations of phenolic acid metabolites in urine were also investigated. Results: The urinary concentration of conjugated FA increased with WA ingestion (p<0.05. Plasma EPA increased by 25% (p<0.05 with WA in the CO group but not in the LO group. In contrast, there was no effect of WA on plasma DHA and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6. Finally, both n-3 and n-6 in the liver remained unchanged by the WA. Conclusion: These results suggest that WA consumption has a significant effect on EPA in plasma without affecting n-6. Subsequent studies are required to examine whether these effects may explain partly the health benefits associated with whole wheat consumption.

  12. Sunflower press cake as a substrate for eicosapentaenoic acid production by representatives of the genus Mortierella

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the regulation of critical biological functions in humans and other mammals. EPA production via solid state fermentation of sunflower press cake was investigated...

  13. Biologic plausibility, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borow, Kenneth M; Nelson, John R; Mason, R Preston

    2015-09-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in dyslipidemic patients despite intensive statin therapy, underscoring the need for additional intervention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into membrane phospholipids and atherosclerotic plaques and exerts beneficial effects on the pathophysiologic cascade from onset of plaque formation through rupture. Specific salutary actions have been reported relating to endothelial function, oxidative stress, foam cell formation, inflammation, plaque formation/progression, platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and plaque rupture. EPA also improves atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by reduction of triglycerides without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Other beneficial effects of EPA include vasodilation, resulting in blood pressure reductions, as well as improved membrane fluidity. EPA's effects are at least additive to those of statins when given as adjunctive therapy. In this review, we present data supporting the biologic plausibility of EPA as an anti-atherosclerotic agent with potential clinical benefit for prevention of CV events, as well as its cellular effects and molecular mechanisms of action. REDUCE-IT is an ongoing, randomized, controlled study evaluating whether the high-purity ethyl ester of EPA (icosapent ethyl) at 4 g/day combined with statin therapy is superior to statin therapy alone for reducing CV events in high-risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia. The results from this study are expected to clarify the role of EPA as adjunctive therapy to a statin for reduction of residual CV risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioequivalence Demonstration for Ω-3 Acid Ethyl Ester Formulations: Rationale for Modification of Current Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Johns, Colleen; Harris, William S; Puder, Mark; Freedman, Steven D; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Daak, Ahmed; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Sancilio, Frederick D

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for establishing bioequivalence (BE) of ω-3 acid ethyl esters (containing both eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] as ethyl esters), used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia, recommends the conduct of 2 studies: one with participants in the fasting state and one with participants in the fed state. For the fasting study, the primary measures of BE are baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA levels in total plasma lipids. For the fed study, the primary measures of BE are EPA and DHA ethyl esters in plasma. This guidance differs from that established for icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) in which the primary measure of BE is baseline-adjusted total EPA in plasma lipids for both the fasting and fed states. The FDA guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters is not supported by their physiologic characteristics and triglyceride-lowering mechanisms because EPA and DHA ethyl esters are best characterized as pro-drugs. This article presents an argument for amending the FDA draft guidance for ω-3 acid ethyl esters to use baseline-adjusted EPA and DHA in total plasma lipids as the primary measures of BE for both fasting and fed conditions. This change would harmonize the approaches for demonstration of BE for ω-3 acid ethyl esters and icosapent ethyl (EPA ethyl esters) products for future development programs and is the most physiologically rational approach to BE testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by mortierella spp on barley spent grain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in sources alternative to fish oil of long- chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly the ω-3 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The current study aims to produce ω- 3 PUFAs, by solid- state fungal...

  16. Two-Stage Enzymatic Preparation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Enriched Fish Oil Triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Fang; Ma, Xiang; Huang, Huihua; Wang, Yong

    2018-01-10

    Fish oil products in the form of triacylglycerols generally have relatively low contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and so it is of potential research and industrial interest to enrich the related contents in commercial products. Thereby an economical and efficient two-stage preparation of EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols is proposed in this study. The first stage was the partial hydrolysis of fish oil by only 0.2 wt.‰ AY "Amano" 400SD which led to increases of EPA and DHA contents in acylglycerols from 19.30 and 13.09 wt % to 25.95 and 22.06 wt %, respectively. Subsequently, products of the first stage were subjected to transesterification with EPA and DHA enriched fatty acid ethyl esters (EDEE) as the second stage to afford EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols by using as low as 2 wt % Novozyme 435. EDEEs prepared from fish oil ethyl ester, and recycled DHA and EPA, respectively, were applied in this stage. Final products prepared with two different sources of EDEEs were composed of 97.62 and 95.92 wt % of triacylglycerols, respectively, with EPA and DHA contents of 28.20 and 21.41 wt % for the former and 25.61 and 17.40 wt % for the latter. Results not only demonstrate this two-stage process's capability and industrial value for enriching EPA and DHA in fish oil products, but also offer new opportunities for the development of fortified fish oil products.

  17. Therapeutic impact of eicosapentaenoic acid on ischemic brain damage following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masayuki; Inaba, Toshiki; Nito, Chikako; Kamiya, Nobuo; Katayama, Yasuo

    2013-06-26

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been shown to reduce ischemic neuronal injury. We investigated the effects of ethyl-EPA (EPA-E) on ischemic brain damage using a rat transient focal cerebral ischemia model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=105) were subjected to 90 min of focal cerebral ischemia. EPA-E (100mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered once a day for 3, 5 or 7 days prior to ischemia. Different withdrawal intervals of 3, 5, and 7 days prior to ischemia following 7-day pretreatment with EPA-E or vehicle were also examined. In addition, post-ischemic administration of EPA-E was investigated. Pretreatment with EPA-E for 7 and 5 days, but not 3 days, showed significant infarct volume reduction and neurological improvements when compared with vehicle pretreatment. In addition, withdrawal of EPA-E administration for 3 days, but not 5 and 7 days, also demonstrated significant infarct volume reduction and neurological improvements when compared with vehicle treatment. Post-ischemic treatment of EPA-E did not show any neuroprotection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 7-day pretreatment with EPA-E significantly reduced cortical expression of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (maker for oxidative DNA damage), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (maker for lipid peroxidation), phosphorylated adducin (marker for Rho-kinase activation) and von Willebrand factor (endothelial marker) when compared with vehicle pretreatment. In addition, phosphorylated adducin expression co-localized with von Willebrand factor immunoreactivity. The present study established the neuroprotective effect of EPA-E on ischemic brain damage following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats, which may be involved in the suppression of oxidative stress and endothelial Rho-kinase activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of 3g eicosapentaenoic acid daily on recurrence of intrauterine growth-retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulstra-Ramakers, M. T. E. W.; Huisjes, H. J.; Visser, G. H. A.

    Objective To study the effects of addition of 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid daily to the diet, on recurrence rate of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension in a high risk population. Design Prospective, double blind, randomised multicentre study, Eicosapentaenoic acid or

  19. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by representatives of the genus Mortierella on brewers’ spent grain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewers’ spent grain (BSG) was evaluated as substrate for the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by solid state fermentation with 29 fungal strains representing different Mortierella species. The effect of a 10% (w/w) linseed oil (LSO...

  20. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yamakawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL and/or triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition.

  1. Oral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid modifies cardiac function and ameliorates congestive heart failure in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanushi, Tomoko T; Kabuto, Hideaki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Janjua, Najma; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on normal cardiac function (part 1) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (part 2) through electrocardiogram analysis and determination of EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in rat hearts. In part 2, pathologic assessments were also performed. For part 1 of this study, 4-wk-old male rats were divided into a control group and 2 experimental groups. The rats daily were orally administered (1 g/kg body weight) saline, EPA-ethyl ester (EPA-Et; E group), or DHA-ethyl ester (DHA-Et; D group), respectively, for 28 d. ECGs revealed that QT intervals were significantly shorter for groups E and D compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Relative to the control group, the concentration of EPA was higher in the E group and concentrations of EPA and DHA were higher in the D group, although AA concentrations were lower (P ≤ 0.05). In part 2, CHF was produced by subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline into 5-wk-old rats. At 3 d before monocrotaline injection, rats were administered either saline, EPA-Et, or DHA-Et as mentioned above and then killed at 21 d. The study groups were as follows: normal + saline (control), CHF + saline (H group), CHF + EPA-Et (HE group), and CHF + DHA-Et (HD group). QT intervals were significantly shorter (P ≤ 0.05) in the control and HD groups compared with the H and HE groups. Relative to the H group, concentrations of EPA were higher in the HE group and those of DHA were higher in the control and HD groups (P ≤ 0.05). There was less mononuclear cell infiltration in the myocytes of the HD group than in the H group (P = 0.06). The right ventricles in the H, HE, and HD groups showed significantly increased weights (P ≤ 0.05) compared with controls. The administration of EPA-Et or DHA-Et may affect cardiac function by modification of heart fatty acid composition, and the administration of DHA-Et may ameliorate CHF.

  2. [Efficacy evaluation of an oral powder supplement enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Candela, C; Villarino Sanz, M; Horrisberger, A; Loria Kohen, V; Bermejo, L M; Zamora Auñón, P

    2011-01-01

    The beneficial effect of eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer patients is widely described especially in relation to its role in tumour cachexia. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of administration of a new oral powder supplement enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid compared to a standard liquid supplement in cancer patients. A total of 61 cancer patients, aged more than 18 years, were randomized to receive during a month a bonus of 600 kcal/ day to their regular diet with an oral powder supplement enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (1.5 g) (RSI) or with a standard liquid supplement (RE). The following data were collected at baseline and after one month: the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (pg-SGA), anthropometric measurements (skin folds, circumferences and bioimpedance), dietary parameters (3-day food record), biochemical and inflammatory parameters (basic biochemistry, cytokines, prealbumin and Reactive C Protein). Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. At the end, scales were used to asses sensory perception, tolerance and satiety induced by the products and motivation to eat. 40 patients completed the study. After intervention, anthropometric parameters do not change and prealbumin values increased significantly in both groups (RSI 16.11 ± 5.66 mg/dl vs. 19.81 ± 6.75 mg/dl p cancer patients improved certain inflammatory parameters. This product may be a novel and valuable option to be added to the nutritional intervention strategies used for cancer patients.

  3. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves metabolic switching in human myotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessvik, Nina P.; Bakke, Siril S.; Fredriksson, Katarina; Boekschoten, Mark; Fjorkenstad, Anne; Koster, Gerbrand; Hesselink, Matthijs K.; Kersten, Sander; Kase, Eili T.; Rustan, Arild C.; Thoresen, Hege

    2010-01-01

    Metabolically healthy skeletal muscle is characterized by the ability to switch easily between glucose and fat oxidation, whereas loss of this ability seems to be related to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fatty acids (FAs) and the LXR ligand T0901317

  4. A Palmitic Acid Elongase Affects Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Plastidial Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol Levels in Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Lina-Juana; Rak, Camille; Perin, Giorgio; Tourcier, Guillaume; Broughton, Richard; Leterrier, Marina; Morosinotto, Tomas; Tellier, Frédérique; Faure, Jean-Denis; Falconet, Denis; Jouhet, Juliette; Sayanova, Olga; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Maréchal, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids, including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process. We identified seven elongases and five desaturases possibly involved in EPA production in Nannochloropsis gaditana Among the six heterokont-specific saturated FA elongases possibly acting upstream in this pathway, we characterized the highly expressed isoform Δ0-ELO1 Heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) showed that NgΔ0-ELO1 could elongate palmitic acid. Nannochloropsis Δ0-elo1 mutants exhibited a reduced EPA level and a specific decrease in MGDG In NgΔ0-elo1 lines, the impairment of photosynthesis is consistent with a role of EPA-rich MGDG in nonphotochemical quenching control, possibly providing an appropriate MGDG platform for the xanthophyll cycle. Concomitantly with MGDG decrease, the level of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing medium chain FAs increased. In Nannochloropsis, part of EPA used for MGDG production is therefore biosynthesized by a channeled process initiated at the elongation step of palmitic acid by Δ0-ELO1, thus acting as a committing enzyme for galactolipid production. Based on the MGDG/TAG balance controlled by Δ0-ELO1, this study also provides novel prospects for the engineering of oleaginous microalgae for biotechnological applications. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. A Palmitic Acid Elongase Affects Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Plastidial Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol Levels in Nannochloropsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Lina-Juana; Rak, Camille; Broughton, Richard; Leterrier, Marina; Tellier, Frédérique; Faure, Jean-Denis; Falconet, Denis; Jouhet, Juliette

    2017-01-01

    Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids, including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process. We identified seven elongases and five desaturases possibly involved in EPA production in Nannochloropsis gaditana. Among the six heterokont-specific saturated FA elongases possibly acting upstream in this pathway, we characterized the highly expressed isoform Δ0-ELO1. Heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) showed that NgΔ0-ELO1 could elongate palmitic acid. Nannochloropsis Δ0-elo1 mutants exhibited a reduced EPA level and a specific decrease in MGDG. In NgΔ0-elo1 lines, the impairment of photosynthesis is consistent with a role of EPA-rich MGDG in nonphotochemical quenching control, possibly providing an appropriate MGDG platform for the xanthophyll cycle. Concomitantly with MGDG decrease, the level of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing medium chain FAs increased. In Nannochloropsis, part of EPA used for MGDG production is therefore biosynthesized by a channeled process initiated at the elongation step of palmitic acid by Δ0-ELO1, thus acting as a committing enzyme for galactolipid production. Based on the MGDG/TAG balance controlled by Δ0-ELO1, this study also provides novel prospects for the engineering of oleaginous microalgae for biotechnological applications. PMID:27895203

  6. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Added to Statin Therapy on Coronary Artery Plaque in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K; Ashfaque, Hasan; Saleh, Mohamad; Bistrian, Bruce R; Welty, Francine K

    2017-12-15

    Although statins reduce cardiovascular events, residual risk remains. Therefore, additional modalities are needed to reduce risk. We evaluated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in pharmacologic doses added to statin treatment on coronary artery plaque volume. A total of 285 subjects with stable coronary artery disease on statins were randomized to omega-3 ethyl-ester (1.86 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.5 g of docosahexaenoic acid daily) or no omega-3 (control) for 30 months. Coronary plaque volume was assessed by coronary computed tomographic angiography. Mean (SD) age was 63.0 (7.7) years; mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤80 mg/dL. In the intention-to-treat analysis, our primary endpoint, noncalcified plaque volume, was not different between groups (P=0.14) but approached significance in the per protocol analysis (P=0.07). When stratified by age in the intention-to-treat analysis, younger omega-3 subjects had significantly less progression of the primary endpoint, noncalcified plaque (P=0.013), and fibrous, calcified and total plaque. In plaque subtype analysis, controls had significant progression of fibrous plaque compared to no change in the omega-3 ethyl-ester group (median % change [interquartile range], 5.0% [-5.7, 20.0] versus -0.1% [-12.3, 14.5], respectively; P=0.018). Among those on low-intensity statins, omega-3 ethyl-ester subjects had attenuation of fibrous plaque progression compared to controls (median % change [interquartile range], 0.3% [-12.8, 9.0] versus 4.8% [-5.1, 19.0], respectively; P=0.032). In contrast, those on high-intensity statins had no difference in plaque change in either treatment arm. High-dose eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid provided additional benefit to statins in preventing progression of fibrous coronary plaque in subjects adherent to therapy with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The benefit on low-intensity statin, but not high

  7. Interaction of erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid and physical activity predicts reduced risk of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Steven John; Parletta, Natalie; Milte, Catherine; Sullivan, Karen; Hills, Andrew P; Buckley, Jonathan; Howe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate relationships between self-reported physical activity, proportions of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3) in erythrocyte content (percentage of total fatty acids) and risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Community-dwelling male and female (n = 84) participants over the age of 65 years with and without MCI were tested for erythrocyte proportions of the LCn3s eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Physical activity was measured using a validated questionnaire. The interaction between erythrocyte EPA, but not DHA, and increased physical activity was associated with increased odds of a non-MCI classification. An interaction between physical activity and erythrocyte EPA content (percentage of fatty acids) significantly predicted MCI status in older adults. Randomised control trials are needed to examine the potential for supplementation with EPA in combination with increased physical activity to mitigate the risk of MCI in ageing adults.

  8. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis oceanica biomass rich in eicosapentaenoic acid utilizing wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Madhusree; Shah, Freny; Bharadwaj, S V Vamsi; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid rich marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis oceanica was grown in wastewaters sampled from four different industries (i.e. pesticides industry, pharmaceutical industry, activated sludge treatment plant of municipality sewage and petroleum (oil) industry). Under the wastewater based growth conditions used in this study, the biomass productivity ranged from 21.78±0.87 to 27.78±0.22mgL(-1)d(-1) in relation to freeze dried biomass, while the lipid productivity varied between 5.59±0.02 and 6.81±0.04mgL(-1)d(-1). Although comparatively higher biomass, lipid and EPA productivity was observed in Conway medium, the %EPA content was similarly observed in pesticides industry and municipal effluents. The results highlight the possibility of selectively using wastewater as a growth medium, demonstrating the elevated eicosapentaenoic acid content and biodiesel properties, that complies with the European standards for biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eicosapentaenoic acid release from the red alga Pachymeniopsis lanceolata by enzymatic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, R; Hatakeda, K; Ito, S; Numata, Y; Nakamachi, H; Hasebe, Y; Uchiyama, S; Notoya, M; Dubinsky, Z; Karube, I

    1999-05-01

    Forty-eight species of seaweeds from Japanese waters were screened for the valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The eight species that contained the highest levels of these compounds were analyzed in detail. Of all species tested the red alga Pachymeniopsis lanceolata contained the highest EPA concentration, and it was present as both the free and bound forms. EPA constituted 38.7% of total fatty acids, and polar lipids were the main constituent of the total lipids in P. lanceolata. EPA was obtained from the marine algae P. lanceolata by enzymatic hydrolysis of the total lipids extract using phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The release of EPA reached a plateau after 10 min of enzymatic treatment. These results suggest that P. lanceolata is a useful natural source of EPA and that PLA2 treatment is a convenient method for obtaining EPA from the red alga.

  10. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  11. Arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in bovine neutrophils and platelets: effect of calcium ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.M.; Laegreid, W.W.; Heidel, J.R.; Straub, K.M.; Liggitt, H.D.; Silflow, R.M.; Breeze, R.G.; Leid, R.W.

    1987-09-01

    Substitution of dietary fatty acids has potential for altering the inflammatory response. The purpose of the present study was to define the metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) secreted by bovine peripheral blood neutrophils and platelets. High performance liquid chromatography was used to characterize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites secreted in response to the calcium ionophore A23187. Cells were prelabelled with /sup 3/H-AA or /sup 3/H-EPA prior to challenge with the calcium ionophore. Bovine neutrophils secreted leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) as the major metabolites of AA, as well as the corresponding leukotriene B5 (LTB5) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) metabolites of EPA. Peptidoleukotrienes derived from /sup 3/H-AA or /sup 3/H-EPA were not detected under these conditions. The major tritiated metabolites secreted from bovine platelets were: thromboxane A2, measured as the stable metabolite thromboxane B2 (TXB2); hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) and 12-HETE derived from /sup 3/H-AA; and the omega-3 analogs TXB3 and 12-HEPE, derived from /sup 3/H-EPA. Preferred substrate specificities existed amongst the AA- and EPA-derived metabolites for the intermediary enzymes involved in the arachidonic acid cascade. These findings support the hypothesis that substitution of membrane-bound AA by EPA has potential for modulation of the host inflammatory response following cellular phospholipid mobilization.

  12. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Norambuena

    Full Text Available Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3, with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad-time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher

  13. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis for eicosapentaenoic acid production in wastewaters of pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Anna; Valev, Dimitar; Tarvainen, Marko; Mishra, Sujata; Kinnunen, Viljami; Antal, Taras; Yang, Baoru; Rintala, Jukka; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2015-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) containing marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata was grown in an effluent from anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant serving a combination of a pulp and a paper mill and a municipality (digester effluent, DE), mixed with the effluent of the same wastewater treatment plant. The maximum specific growth rate and photosynthesis of N. oculata were similar in the DE medium and in artificial sea water medium (ASW) but after 7 days, algae grown in the DE medium contained seven times more triacylglycerols (TAGs) per cell than cells grown in ASW, indicating mild stress in the DE medium. However, the volumetric rate of EPA production was similar in the ASW and DE media. The results suggest that N. oculata could be used to produce EPA, utilizing the nutrients available after anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge of a pulp and paper mill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High yielding synthesis of N-ethyl dehydroamino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís S; Suárez, Ana S

    2012-10-01

    Recently we reported the use of a sequence of alkylation and dehydration methodologies to obtain N-ethyl-α, β-dehydroamino acid derivatives. The application of this N-alkylation procedure to several methyl esters of β,β-dibromo and β-bromo, β-substituted dehydroamino acids protected with standard amine protecting groups was subsequently reported. The corresponding N-ethyl, β-bromo dehydroamino acid derivatives were obtained in fair to high yields and some were used as substrates in Suzuki cross-coupling reactions to give N-ethyl, β,β-disubstituted dehydroalanine derivatives. Herein, we further explore N-ethylation of β-halo dehydroamino acid derivatives using triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate as alkylating agent, but substituting N,N-diisopropylethylamine for potassium tert-butoxide as auxiliary base. In these conditions, for all β-halo dehydroamino acid derivatives, reactions were complete and the N-ethylated derivative could be isolated in high yield. This method was also applied for N-ethylation of non-halogenated dehydroamino acids. Again, with all compounds the reactions were complete and the N-ethyl dehydroamino acid derivatives could be isolated in high yields. Some of these N-ethyl dehydroamino acid methyl ester derivatives were converted in high yields to their corresponding acids and coupled to an amino acid methyl ester to give N-ethyl dehydrodipeptide derivatives in good yields. Thus, this method constitutes a general procedure for high yielding synthesis of N-ethylated dehydroamino acids, which can be further applied in peptide synthesis.

  15. Eicosapentaenoic acid protects cardiomyoblasts from lipotoxicity in an autophagy-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Li, Sin-Jin; Chen, Ching-Yi; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2017-07-24

    The cardiovascular health benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been demonstrated previously; however, the exact mechanism underlying them remains unclear. Our previous study found that lipotoxicity induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the inhibition of autophagy. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated whether EPA attenuated lipotoxicity-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through autophagy regulation. The role of EPA in mitochondrial dynamics was analyzed as well. To explore how EPA protected against lipotoxicity-induced myocardial injury, cardiomyoblast (H9C2) cells were left untreated or were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PAM) and/or 80 μM EPA for 24 h. Excessive PAM treatment induced apoptosis. EPA reduced this PAM-induced apoptosis; however, EPA was unable to ameliorate the effects of PAM when autophagy was blocked by 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1. PAM blocked the autophagic flux, thus causing the accumulation of autophagosomes and acid vacuoles, whereas EPA restored the autophagic flux. PAM caused a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and an increase in saturated fatty acid content in the mitochondrial membrane, while EPA was incorporated in the mitochondrial membrane and caused a significant increase in the PUFA content. PAM also decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, whereas EPA enhanced it. Finally, PAM elevated the expressions of autophagy-related proteins (LC3I, LC3II, p62) and mitochondrial fission protein (Drp1), whereas EPA inhibited their elevation under PAM treatment. EPA reduces lipotoxicity-induced cardiomyoblast apoptosis through its effects on autophagy.

  16. Isolation of eicosapentaenoic acid-producing fungi from soil based on polymerase chain reaction amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing-Rong; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Zhu, Yuan-Min; Ren, Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for rapid screening and isolation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-producing soil fungi through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Genes coding for delta6 fatty acid desaturase and delta5 fatty acid desaturase were used as molecular markers for screening these EPA-producing fungi from soil. Three out of 65 soil fungi gave positive results through PCR amplification. Two out of these three strains were found to produce EPA when they had grown in 80 ml potato/dextrose liquid medium at (25 +/- 1) degrees C for 144 h. The EPA yields were 215.81 mg 1(-1) and 263.80 mg 1(-1), respectively. The other positive strain was detected to produce arachidonic acid (AA). This study indicates that molecular detection of genes encoding delta6 and delta5 desaturases is an efficient method for primary screening of EPA- or its related polyunsaturated fatty acids (PuFAs)-producing fungi, which can improve the screening efficiency prominently.

  17. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2010-06-04

    Lipid droplet (LD) formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA) unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0) and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9) on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 microM FA during 7-day differentiation. EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARgamma, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  18. Solid acid catalysed formation of ethyl levulinate and ethyl glucopyranoside from mono- and disaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalised SBA-15 (SO3H-SBA-15), sulfated zirconia and beta, Y, ZSM-5 and mordenite zeolite catalysts have been applied for the dehydration of sugars to ethyl levulinate and ethyl-D-glucopyranoside (EDGP) using ethanol as solvent and reactant. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalyst showed...... a high catalytic activity for the selective conversion of fructose to ethyl levulinate (57%) and glucose to EDGP (80%) at 140 °C, whereas the disaccharide sucrose yielded a significant amount of both products. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalysts were found to be highly active compared to the zeolites under...

  19. Decreased eicosapentaenoic acid levels in acne vulgaris reveals the presence of a proinflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, İbrahim; Özcan, Filiz; Karaarslan, Taner; Kıraç, Ebru; Aslan, Mutay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). PUFA levels were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Lipid profile, routine biochemical and hormone parameters were assayed by standard kit methods Serum EPA levels were significantly decreased while AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in acne vulgaris patients compared to controls. Serum levels of AA, DGLA and DHA showed no significant difference while activity of sPLA2 and LPL were significantly increased in acne vulgaris compared to controls. Results of this study reveal the presence of a proinflammatory state in acne vulgaris as shown by significantly decreased serum EPA levels and increased activity of sPLA2, AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio. Increased LPL activity in the serum of acne vulgaris patients can be protective through its anti-dyslipidemic actions. This is the first study reporting altered EPA levels and increased sPLA2 activity in acne vulgaris and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvant treatment for acne patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and matrix loss of chondrocytes is inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Shuhei; Hayashi, Shinya; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Kawakita, Kohei; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Shingo; Iwasa, Kenjiro; Chinzei, Nobuaki; Kihara, Shinsuke; Haneda, Masahiko; Ueha, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takayuki; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an antioxidant and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines. We evaluated the role of EPA in chondrocyte apoptosis and degeneration. Normal human chondrocytes were treated with EPA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and that of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blotting. Chondrocyte apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. C57BL/6J mice were used for the detection of MMP expression by immunohistochemistry and for investigation of chondrocyte apoptosis. EPA inhibited SNP-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p53, and expression of MMP3 and MMP13. Intra-articular injection of EPA prevented the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) by inhibiting MMP13 expression and chondrocyte apoptosis. EPA treatment can control oxidative stress-induced OA progression, and thus may be a new approach for OA therapy. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  2. Potential Application of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Monoacylglyceride in the Management of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Morin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that marine omega-3 oils are involved in the reduction of cancer risk and progression. However, the anticancer effect of omega-3 monoglyceride on colorectal cancer has yet to be assessed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer effects of eicosapentaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-EPA in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Methods: The effect of MAG-EPA was evaluated in vitro on HCT116 cells and in vivo on mouse model of HCT116 xenograft. Results: Our data reveal that MAG-EPA decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, daily per os administration of MAG-EPA reduced tumor growth. Furthermore, MAG-EPA treatments decreased EGFR, VEGFR, and AKT activation pathways and reduced VEGF and HIF1α expression levels in tumors. Conclusion: MAG-EPA may promote apoptosis and inhibit growth of tumors by suppressing EGFR and VEGFR activation pathways. Altogether, these data provide new evidence regarding the mode of action of MAG-EPA in colorectal cancer cells.

  3. Suppression of Wnt Signaling and Osteogenic Changes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Eicosapentaenoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Saito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vascular medial calcification is often observed in patients with arteriosclerosis. It is also associated with systolic hypertension, wide pulse pressure, and fluctuation of blood pressure, which results in cardiovascular events. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has been shown to suppress vascular calcification in previous animal experiments. We investigated the inhibitory effects of EPA on Wnt signaling, which is one of the important signaling pathways involved in vascular calcification. Intake of food containing 5% EPA resulted in upregulation of the mRNA expression of Klotho, an intrinsic inhibitor of Wnt signaling, in the kidneys of wild-type mice. Expression levels of β-catenin, an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling pathway, were increased in the aortas of Klotho mutant (kl/kl mice compared to the levels in the aortas of wild-type mice. Wnt3a or BIO, a GSK-3 inhibitor that activates β-catenin signaling, upregulated mRNA levels of AXIN2 and LEF1, Wnt signaling marker genes, and RUNX2 and BMP4, early osteogenic genes, in human aorta smooth muscle cells. EPA suppressed the upregulation of AXIN2 and BMP4. The effect of EPA was cancelled by T0070907, a PPARγ inhibitor. The results suggested that EPA could suppress vascular calcification via the inhibition of Wnt signaling in osteogenic vascular smooth muscle cells via PPARγ activation.

  4. Clinical implications of eicosapentaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio (EPA/AA) in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Inai, Kei; Shinohara, Tokuko; Tomimatsu, Hirofumi; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies showed that a low ratio between the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and those of arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) is associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease and poor prognosis of heart failure, arrhythmia, and cardiac sudden death. However, the clinical implications of EPA/AA in adult patients with congenital heart disease remain unclear. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of EPA/AA regarding cardiac events in adult patients with congenital heart disease. We measured the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in 130 adult patients (median age, 31 years) stratified into two groups according to their EPA/AA (low, ≤0.22; high, >0.22). We prospectively analyzed the association between EPA/AA and incidence of cardiac events during a mean observation period of 15 months, expressed in terms of hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In the subgroup of patients with biventricular circulation (2VC) (n = 76), we analyzed the same clinical endpoints. In our study population, EPA/AA was not associated with the incidence of arrhythmic events (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.82-2.85; p = 0.19), but low EPA/AA was a predictor of heart failure hospitalization (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.35-6.30; p AA of ≤0.25 was associated with a significantly higher risk of arrhythmic events (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.11-6.41; p = 0.03) and heart failure hospitalization (HR, 5.20; 95% CI, 1.78-18.1; p AA represents a useful predictor of cardiac events in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

  5. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of vegan cohort, the index was significantly higher in females than males (3.9 ± 1.0% vs. 3.5 ± 1.0%; p = 0.026) and was directly related to age (p for trend = 0.009). The omega-3 index increased from 3.1 ± 0.6% to 4.8 ± 0.8% (p = 0.009) in the supplementation study. We conclude that vegans have low baseline omega-3 levels, but not lower than omnivores who also consume very little docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by Nannochloropsis oculata: Effects of carbon dioxide and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shene, Carolina; Chisti, Yusuf; Vergara, Daniela; Burgos-Díaz, César; Rubilar, Mónica; Bustamante, Mariela

    2016-12-10

    The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO2. Consumption of glycerol was small, but its effects were significant. Glycerol enhanced the lipid content of the biomass but reduced the chlorophyll a content. Mixotrophic cultivation favored the production of lipids with a high percentage of saturated fatty acids that are generally desired in oils for making biodiesel. EPA concentration (5.3±0.6 to 27.5±1.6mg EPA/L) in N. oculata cultures depended strongly on growth conditions. The highest EPA concentration occurred in non-aerated mixotrophic culture with intermittent CO2 supply without pH control. This EPA concentration (=27.5±1.6mg/L) was comparable to that obtained in semi-continuous culture without glycerol and pH control, and aerated with CO2 enriched air during the light period (=23.6±1.1mg/L). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO2 heterogeneous catalyst was carried out using two-step procedures of acid pretreatment by esterification and transesterification of the pretreated oil. The first step reduces the high free fatty acid in the oil to an acceptable level for transesterification ...

  8. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  9. Translating plasma and whole blood fatty acid compositional data into the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Ken D; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Metherel, Adam H; Pilote, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Specific blood levels of eicosapentaenoic plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA, wt% of total) in erythrocytes or "the omega-3 index" have been recommended for cardio-protection, but fatty acids are often measured in different blood fractions. The ability to estimate the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from the fatty acid composition of other blood fractions would enable clinical assessments of omega-3 status when erythrocyte fractions are not available and increase the ability to compare blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids across clinical studies. The fatty acid composition of baseline plasma, erythrocytes and whole blood samples from participants (n=1104) in a prospective, multicenter study examining acute coronary syndrome were determined. The ability to predict the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from other blood fractions were examined using bivariate and multiple linear regression modelling. Concordance analysis was also used to compare the actual erythrocytes EPA+DHA values to values estimated from other blood fractions. EPA+DHA in erythrocytes was significantly (pdata. This study shows that the fatty acid composition of different blood fractions can be used to estimate erythrocyte EPA+DHA in a population with acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: an emphasis on omega-3-acid ethyl esters 90 for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    A number of epidemiological/observational studies, as well as large-scale randomized intervention studies, have been conducted to provide evidence for the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acids against atherosclerotic diseases. Currently, ω-3 fatty acids are commercially available in many parts of the world containing the same active ingredients as Lotriga(®) (ω-3-acid ethyl esters 90 [O3AE highly concentrated ω-3 fatty acid ethyl esters, consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid-ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl ester [EPA-E/DHA-E]). A recent head-to-head comparative study of O3AEE90 versus EPA-E demonstrated that O3AEE90 4g/day led to a significantly greater reduction in triglycerides (TG) than EPA-E 1.8g/day and that O3AEE90 2g/day produced comparable effects on TG to those with EPA-E 1.8g/day. While both agents were shown to be useful in lowering TG, the hallmark feature of O3AEE90, that is, the presence of the DHA-E component versus its absence in EPA-E, needs to be further examined for its clinical implications.

  11. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and pigmentation in larvae of common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence confirms that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA are involved in growth as well in pigmentation of marine fish larvae. In the present study we examined the performance of common sole larvae reared...... to increased dietary ARA content. However, pigmentation was not affected by inclusion levels of EPA or DHA when ARA was high. This, and no relation between DHA: EPA or ARA: EPA ratios and pigmentation and only a weak relation to ARA: DHA ratio, advocate for that it is the absolute concentration of ARA...

  12. Concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA of Asian catfish oil by urea complexation: optimization of reaction conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpisanu Thammapat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the concentrating conditions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA extracted from Asian catfish oil was studied to obtain a maximum concentration. The crude fish oil was extracted from the belly flap and adipose tissue of Asian catfish, and the extracted oil was used as fresh crude oil. The EPA and DHA were concentrated by the urea complexation method. A hexagonal rotatable design was applied to examine the effects of crystallization temperature and urea-to-fatty acid ratio on the total content of EPA and DHA (Y1 and the liquid recovery yield (Y2 . The second order polynomial regression models for Y1 and Y2 were employed to generate the response surfaces. Under the optimum conditions of -20 °C and a urea-to-fatty acid ratio of 4 (w/w, the total concentration of EPA and DHA could be increased by up to 88%, while a liquid recovery yield of 26% was obtained.

  13. Chronic Psychological Stress Was Not Ameliorated by Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Bradbury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic psychological stress and mental health disorders are endemic in Western culture where population dietary insufficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA from seafood have been observed.Objective: This study was designed to test for a causal relationship between one of the most active components of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and chronic psychological stress.Method: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-assignment to two groups was designed (Trial Id: ACTRN12610000404022. The interventions were four EPA-rich fish oil capsules per day, delivering 2.2 g/d EPA (and 0.44 g/d DHA, or identical placebo (low-phenolic olive oil capsules with 5% fish oil to aid blinding. The primary outcome was the between-group difference on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 after 12 weeks supplementation. An a priori power analysis determined that group sizes of 43 would provide 80% power to detect a significant between-group difference of 12.5%, at α = 0.05. Ninety community members (64 females, 26 males reporting chronic work stress were recruited via public advertising in northern NSW, Australia.Results: At baseline the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA as % to total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes was 5.2% in both groups (SD = 1.6% control group; 1.8% active group. After supplementation this remained stable at 5.3% (SD = 1.6% for the control group but increased to 8.9% (SD = 1.5% for the active group, demonstrating successful incorporation of EPA into cells. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis found no significant between-group differences in PSS outcome scores post-intervention (b = 1.21, p = 0.30 after adjusting for sex (b = 2.36, p = 0.079, baseline PSS (b = 0.42, p = 0.001 and baseline logEPA [b = 1.41, p = 0.185; F(3, 86 = 8.47, p < 0.01, n = 89, R-square = 0.243].Discussion: Treatment increased cell membrane EPA but, contrary to the hypothesis, there was no effect on perceived stress. Limitations

  14. Do fatty acids help in overcoming reading difficulties? A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and carnosine supplementation on children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairaluoma, L; Närhi, V; Ahonen, T; Westerholm, J; Aro, M

    2009-01-01

    There are claims that dietary supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids could help children with dyslexia to overcome their reading problems. However, these claims have not yet been empirically tested. This study was designed to test whether dietary supplementation was superior to placebo in treating reading, spelling or other reading-related skills of children with dyslexia. The experimental group (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, n = 30) ate dietary supplements and the control group (placebo, n = 31) placebos during the 90-day treatment period. The supplements contained omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl-EPA, 500 mg/day) and carnosine (400 mg/day). The groups were matched for reading skills, grade, gender, attention problems, intelligence and amount of special education. The literacy-related skills of the two groups were assessed before and after the treatment period. No group differences were observed between EPA and placebo in measures of reading accuracy or speed, spelling, decoding fluency, arithmetical skills, reading-related language skills, attention or behavioural problems. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl-EPA) or carnosine has a role in the treatment of reading and spelling problems in children with dyslexia.

  15. Changes in renal hemodynamics and physiology after normothermic ischemia in animals supplemented with eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras, J; Soto, K; Riera, M; Herrero, I; Valles, J; Cruzado, J M; Alsina, J; Grinyo, J M

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine whether treatment of animals with an n-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), could modify renal hemodynamics and physiology after normothermic ischemia, we studied 42 Spraque Dawley rats orally supplemented with either olive oil or a purified lysine salt of EPA for 4 weeks. Four experimental groups were established. Three groups were treated with increasing doses of EPA: 20 mg/kg per day (EPA 20), 40 mg/kg per day (EPA 40) and 80 mg/kg per day (EPA 80), and one group was supplemented with isovolumetric olive oil (OLI). A control group that received neither EPA nor ischemia was also studied. On day 28, right nephrectomy was performed, followed by 30 min of left renal warm ischemia. Basal arterial pressure and renal blood flow (RBF) were monitored in two kidneys before arterial occlusion and continuously thereafter throughout the experiment in one kidney using an electronic transducer and a flowmeter. From 60 to 120 min after the end of ischemia, urine output (microliter/min), glomerular filtration rate (GFR, microliter/min), measured by inulin clearance, and fractional reabsortion of sodium (FRNa) were determined every 20 min. Renal plasma flow (RPF, ml/min) and renal vascular resistance (VR, mm Hg/ml per min) were calculated. RPF was estimated as RBF (1-hematocrit). Before ischemia, the mean RPF and RBF were higher in EPA-fed than in olive oil-fed animals and after ischemia showed a significantly greater increase in EPA-fed animals than in olive oil-fed animals. Mean VR was lower in EPA-fed animals than in olive oil-fed animals, both before arterial occlusion and after ischemia. Mean urine output was similar in the OLI and EPA 20 groups, and significantly higher in the EPA 40 and EPA 80 groups than in the control group. GFR was significantly lower in the OLI and EPA 20 groups than in the control group. Finally, the EPA 40 group showed a similar and the EPA 80 group a slightly higher GFR than the control group. We conclude that EPA

  16. Pythium irregulare fermentation to produce arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using soybean processing co-products as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Junyi; Wang, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were produced by Pythium irregulare fungus using soybean cotyledon fiber and soy skim, two co-products from soybean aqueous processing, as substrates in different fermentation systems. Parameters such as moisture content, substrate glucose addition, incubation time, and vegetable oil supplementation were found to be important in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean fiber, which is to be used as animal feed with enriched long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Soybean fiber with 8 % (dwb) glucose supplementation for a 7-day SSF produced 1.3 mg of ARA and 1.6 mg of EPA in 1 g of dried substrate. When soy skim was used as substrate for submerged fermentation, total ARA yield of 125.7 mg/L and EPA yield of 92.4 mg/L were achieved with the supplementation of 7 % (w/v) soybean oil. This study demonstrates that the values of soybean fiber and soy skim co-products could be enhanced through the long-chain PUFA production by fermentation.

  17. Transport of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived PGE₃, PGF(3α, and TXB₃ by ABCC4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Tanaka

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid-derived prostaglandin (PG E3, PGF(3α, and thromboxane (TX B3 are bioactive lipid mediators which have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. To exert their effects, PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 must be released to the extracellular space from cells, but the release mechanism has been unclear. We therefore investigated the contribution of ATP-binding cassette transporter C4 (ABCC4, which has been known as a prostanoids efflux transporter, to the release of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3.ATP-dependent transport of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 via ABCC4 was investigated by using inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from ABCC4-overexpressing HEK293 cells. To evaluate the contribution of ABCC4 to the release of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3, we measured the extracellular and intracellular levels of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 in A549 cells when we used ABCC4 inhibitors (dipyridamole, MK571, and probenecid or ABCC4 siRNAs. The quantification of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 was performed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.The apparent Km values for ABCC4-mediated transport were 2.9±0.1 µM for PGE3, 12.1±1.3 µM for PGF(3α, and 11.9±1.4 µM for TXB3 and the ATP-dependent accumulation of PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 into vesicles was decreased by using typical substrates and inhibitors of ABCC4. ABCC4 inhibitors and ABCC4 knockdown showed the reduction of extracellular/intracellular ratio of PGE3 (40-60% of control and PGF(3α (60-80% of control in A549 cells.Our results suggest that PGE3, PGF(3α, and TXB3 are substrates of ABCC4 and ABCC4 partially contributes to the release of PGE3 and PGF(3α.

  18. The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm development via suppression of tissue remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a prevalent vascular disease that can progressively enlarge and rupture with a high rate of mortality. Inflammation and active remodeling of the aortic wall have been suggested to be critical in its pathogenesis. Meanwhile, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are known to reduce cardiovascular events, but its role in AAA management remains unclear. Here, we show that EPA can attenuate murine CaCl2-induced AAA formation. Aortas from BALB/c mice fed an EPA-diet appeared less inflamed, were significantly smaller in diameter compared to those from control-diet-fed mice, and had relative preservation of aortic elastic lamina. Interestingly, CT imaging also revealed markedly reduced calcification of the aortas after EPA treatment. Mechanistically, MMP2, MMP9, and TNFSF11 levels in the aortas were reduced after EPA treatment. Consistent with this finding, RAW264.7 macrophages treated with EPA showed attenuated Mmp9 levels after TNF-α simulation. These results demonstrate a novel role of EPA in attenuating AAA formation via the suppression of critical remodeling pathways in the pathogenesis of AAAs, and raise the possibility of using EPA for AAA prevention in the clinical setting.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid suppress adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells via differential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Chiang, An-Na

    2015-04-01

    Dietary PUFAs modulate the progression of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms within vascular cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological function and regulatory mechanisms of PUFAs in LPS-activated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). To simulate the in vivo conditions of atherosclerosis, we have established an in vitro model in which THP-1 monocytes adhere to HAECs. Our results showed that n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) remarkably attenuated the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HAECs, probably through inhibiting the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Using lipid raft isolation and confocal microscopy, we found that DHA and EPA suppressed the translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts. Furthermore, DHA and EPA inhibited the ubiquitination and translocation of TRAF6, and the phosphorylation of TAK1, p38, and IκBα. We demonstrated that DHA reduced the phosphorylation of PKR, but EPA increased the expression of A20. Additionally, silencing of A20 reversed the inhibitory effect of EPA on the expression of adhesion molecules. Our study revealed differential signaling pathways modulated by n-3 PUFAs in LPS-stimulated HAECs. These signaling pathways are potential targets for the prevention of atherosclerotic progression. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester by carboxylester lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, T; Okuda, H

    1994-08-15

    Carboxylester lipase obtained from pig pancreas is associated with fatty acid ethyl ester synthase as judged by their elution in the same fraction from a heparin-Sepharose column, coprecipitations by antibody against purified carboxylester lipase and identical profiles of inhibition by diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Only one polypeptide of molecular mass 74-kDa in purified carboxylester lipase was labeled by immunostaining and affinity labeling with [3H]diisopropyl fluorosphate. Bovine serum albumin decreased the fatty-acid-ethyl-ester-synthesizing activity in a concentration-dependent manner. On incubation of purified carboxylester lipase with trioleylglycerol in an ethanol/water mixture, fatty acid ethyl ester was formed in the presence of a high concentration of bovine serum albumin. The acyltransfer activities from trioleylglycerol to ethanol (ethanolysis) were approximately 25-30 times higher than the acyltransfer activities to water (hydrolysis). When cholesterol was used as an acceptor, acyltransfer activity from trioleylglycerol to cholesterol (cholesterolysis) was also observed. We propose the following mechanism of fatty acid ethyl ester formation from triacyl glycerol. The enzyme attacks triacyl glycerol forming an acyl-enzyme intermediate, and during the deacylation process, alcohol binds to fatty acid as an acceptor. These results suggest that during lipid (triacyl glycerol) degradation, carboxylester lipase contributes to non-oxidative ethanol metabolism in the intestinal lumen.

  1. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background:N-3 fatty acids are associated with favorable, and obesity with unfavorable, concentrations of chronic disease risk biomarkers.Objective:We examined whether high eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid intakes, measured as percentages of total red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid...

  2. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid accelerates disease progression in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping K Yip

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by loss of motor neurons that currently has no cure. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, have many health benefits including neuroprotective and myoprotective potential. We tested the hypothesis that a high level of dietary EPA could exert beneficial effects in ALS. The dietary exposure to EPA (300 mg/kg/day in a well-established mouse model of ALS expressing the G93A superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 mutation was initiated at a pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stage, and the disease progression was monitored until the end stage. Daily dietary EPA exposure initiated at the disease onset did not significantly alter disease presentation and progression. In contrast, EPA treatment initiated at the pre-symptomatic stage induced a significantly shorter lifespan. In a separate group of animals sacrificed before the end stage, the tissue analysis showed that the vacuolisation detected in G93A-SOD1 mice was significantly increased by exposure to EPA. Although EPA did not alter motor neurone loss, EPA reversed the significant increase in activated microglia and the astrocytic activation seen in G93A-SOD1 mice. The microglia in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 mice treated with EPA showed a significant increase in 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, a highly toxic aldehydic oxidation product of omega-3 fatty acids. These data show that dietary EPA supplementation in ALS has the potential to worsen the condition and accelerate the disease progression. This suggests that great caution should be exerted when considering dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplements in ALS patients.

  3. Testing pelargonic acid and pyraflufen-ethyl with glyphosate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testing pelargonic acid and pyraflufen-ethyl with glyphosate as alternatives to paraquat dichloride for the preparation of fire-break tracer lines at Underberg, ... With the exception of Guild (at 0.5 l ha−1), the other herbicides at the rates tested either did not provide effective initial control of the vegetation or they killed the ...

  4. ω-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Diminish Postprandial Lipemia in Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dick C; Pang, Jing; Barrett, P Hugh R; Sullivan, David R; Burnett, John R; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-10-01

    Impaired postprandial chylomicron metabolism induces hypertriglyceridemia and may increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester (ω-3 FAEE) supplementation decreases plasma triglycerides. However, its effect on postprandial chylomicron metabolism in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has not yet been investigated. We aimed to examine the effect of ω-3 FAEE supplementation on postprandial responses in plasma triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100, and apoB-48 in FH patients receiving standard cholesterol-lowering treatment. We carried out an 8-week open-label, randomized, crossover intervention trial to test the effect of oral supplementation with 4 g/d ω-3 FAEE (46% eicosapentaenoic acid and 38% docosahexaenoic acid) on postprandial triglyceride, VLDL-apoB-100, and apoB-48 responses in FH patients after ingestion of an oral fat load. Plasma total and incremental triglyceride, VLDL-apoB-100, and apoB-48 0- to 10-hour area under the curve (AUC). ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly (P lipemia in FH patients receiving standard care; this may have implications for further reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in this high-risk patient group.

  5. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  6. Similar eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid plasma levels achieved with fish oil or krill oil in a randomized double-blind four-week bioavailability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurko-Mauro, Karin; Kralovec, Jaroslav; Bailey-Hall, Eileen; Smeberg, Vanessa; Stark, Jeffrey G; Salem, Norman

    2015-09-02

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide multiple health benefits for heart, brain and eyes. However, consumption of fatty fish, the main source of LC n-3-PUFAs is low in Western countries. Intakes of LC n-3-PUFA can be increased by taking dietary supplements, such as fish oil, algal oil, or krill oil. Recently, conflicting information was published on the relative bioavailability of these omega-3 supplements. A few studies suggested that the phospholipid form (krill) is better absorbed than the fish oil ethyl ester (EE) or triglyceride (TG) forms. Yet studies did not match the doses administered nor the concentrations of DHA and EPA per supplement across such comparisons, leading to questionable conclusions. This study was designed to compare the oral bioavailability of the same dose of both EPA and DHA in fish oil-EE vs. fish oil-TG vs. krill oil in plasma at the end of a four-week supplementation. Sixty-six healthy adults (n = 22/arm) were enrolled in a double blind, randomized, three-treatment, multi-dose, parallel study. Subjects were supplemented with a 1.3 g/d dose of EPA + DHA (approximately 816 mg/d EPA + 522 mg/d DHA, regardless of formulation) for 28 consecutive days, as either fish oil-EE, fish oil-TG or krill oil capsules (6 caps/day). Plasma and red blood cell (RBC) samples were collected at baseline (pre-dose on Day 1) and at 4, 8, 12, 48, 72, 336, and 672 h. Total plasma EPA + DHA levels at Week 4 (Hour 672) were measured as the primary endpoint. No significant differences in total plasma EPA + DHA at 672 h were observed between fish oil-EE (mean = 90.9 ± 41 ug/mL), fish oil-TG (mean = 108 ± 40 ug/mL), and krill oil (mean = 118.5 ± 48 ug/mL), p = 0.052 and bioavailability differed by oil and krill oil products when matched for dose, EPA, and DHA concentrations in this four week study, indicating comparable oral bioavailability irrespective of formulation

  7. Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Fetal Pulmonary Circulation: An Experimental Study in Fetal Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dyuti; Aubry, Estelle; Ouk, Thavarak; Houeijeh, Ali; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Besson, Rémi; Deruelle, Philippe; Storme, Laurent

    2017-07-16

    Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. n-3 Poly-unsaturated fatty acids have vasodilatory properties in the perinatal lung. We studied the circulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal sheep and in fetal pulmonary arterial rings. Methods: At 128 days of gestation, catheters were placed surgically in fetal systemic and pulmonary circulation, and a Doppler probe around the left pulmonary artery (LPA). Pulmonary arterial pressure and LPA flow were measured while infusing EPA or DHA for 120 min to the fetus, to compute pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The dose effects of EPA or DHA were studied in vascular rings pre-constricted with serotonin. Rings treated with EPA were separated into three groups: E+ (intact endothelium), E- (endothelium stripped) and LNA E+ (pretreatment of E+ rings with l-nitro-arginine). Results: EPA, but not DHA, induced a significant and prolonged 25% drop in PVR (n = 8, p < 0.001). Incubation of vascular rings with EPA (100 µM) caused a maximum relaxation of 60% in the E+ (n = 6), whereas vessel tone did not change in the E- (n = 6, p < 0.001). The vascular effects of EPA were significantly decreased in LNA E+ (n = 6). Incubation with DHA resulted in only a mild relaxation at the highest concentration of DHA (300 µM) compared to E+. Conclusions: EPA induces a sustained pulmonary vasodilatation in fetal lambs. This effect is endothelium- and dose-dependent and involves nitric oxide (NO) production. We speculate that EPA supplementation may improve pulmonary circulation in clinical conditions with PPHN.

  8. Integrated process of two stage cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. for nutraceutically valuable eicosapentaenoic acid along with biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Madhusree; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis is one of the potential producers of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a valued nutraceutical. Nannochloropsis sp. was cultivated under photoautotrophic condition utilizing CO2 in a two phase cultivation process in order to enhance the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) productivity. It was cultivated in a photobioreactor up to late log phase for cell growth (phase I). Then, the culture was harvested and confronted to relatively low temperature (10 °C) and low light (30 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) in both photobioreactor and Erlenmeyer flask (phase II), thus augmenting EPA% by 3.4 fold. Lower temperature with low light favored the synthesis of EPA although, biomass productivity, lipid content and lipid productivity were slightly decreased relative to phase I. The total lipids extracted from Nannochloropsis sp. fractionated into neutral lipids (NLs), glycolipids (GLs) and phospholipids (PLs) and a major proportion of EPA was found in phospholipids. Results suggested that low temperature and low light may ameliorate partitioning towards EPA in phospholipids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R; Palou, A.; Kok, F.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S; Zock, P.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children aged 2-12 years, and of research priorities. The authors concluded that EPA and DHA intakes per kg body weight may often be low in 2- to 12-year-old children, relative to intakes per kg body weigh...

  10. Antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm growing Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengjun; Dong, Jiachen; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm modes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The effects on planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were evaluated by growth curve determination and MTT assay, respectively. Then, colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and real-time PCR were performed to further investigate the actions of DHA and EPA on exponential phase-S. mutans. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to detect the influences on mature biofilms. The MICs of DHA and EPA against S. mutans were 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively; the MBC of both compounds was 100 μM. In the presence of 12.5 μM-100 μM DHA or EPA, the planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were reduced in varying degrees. For exponential-phase S. mutans, the viable counts, the bacterial membranes and the biofilm-associated gene expression were damaged by 100 μM DHA or EPA treatment. For 1-day-old biofilms, the thickness was decreased and the proportion of membrane-damaged bacteria was increased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. These results indicated that, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm growing S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DIFFERENTIAL-EFFECTS OF EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID ON GLYCEROLIPID AND APOLIPOPROTEIN-B METABOLISM IN PRIMARY HUMAN HEPATOCYTES COMPARED TO HEPG2 CELLS AND PRIMARY RAT HEPATOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIN, YG; SMIT, MJ; HAVINGA, R; VERKADE, HJ; VONK, RJ; KUIPERS, F

    1995-01-01

    We compared the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and oleic acid (OA) on glycerolipid and apolipoprotein B (apoB) metabolism in primary human hepatocytes, HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes. Cells were incubated for 1 to 5 h with 0.25 mM bovine serum albumin in the absence (control) or

  12. Bridging the omega-3 gap: The disparity between actual and target intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children

    OpenAIRE

    Herdzina-Huss, Lyndsey Rae

    2014-01-01

    To improve children's diet quality for optimal growth and development and the prevention of chronic disease, we conducted two studies. One was focused on analyzing nationally representative data; the other was designed to test the feasibility of children accepting and consuming oily fish in a childcare setting. The objective of our first study was to provide evidence for 2-18 year old children's fish and shellfish consumption patterns and their eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic ...

  13. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Uauy, Ricardo; Palou, Andreu; Kok, Frans; Hornstra, Gerard; Eilander, Ans; Moretti, Diego; Osendarp, Saskia; Zock, Peter; Innis, Sheila

    2010-03-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children aged 2-12 years, and of research priorities. The authors concluded that EPA and DHA intakes per kg body weight may often be low in 2- to 12-year-old children, relative to intakes per kg body weight of breast-fed infants and adult intakes, but reliable data are scarce. Little information is available that increasing dietary intakes of EPA or DHA in children has benefits to physical or mental function or other health endpoints. Studies addressing EPA and DHA intakes and tissue status among groups of children with different dietary habits, and measures of relevant development and health endpoints, are needed for developing potential advice on desirable intakes of EPA and/or DHA in children. At this time it appears prudent to advise that dietary intakes in childhood are consistent with future eating patterns supporting adult health, such as prevention of metabolic disorders and CVD, supporting immune function, and reproductive health. In conclusion, the available information relating dietary EPA and DHA intakes in children aged 2-12 years to growth, development and health is insufficient to derive dietary intake recommendations for EPA and DHA. Adequately designed studies addressing dietary intakes, measures of status and relevant functional or health effects across this age group are needed.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.

    2014-01-01

    ) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7......n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1...

  15. Synergistic Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Antiproliferative Action of Anticancer Drugs in a Cancer Cell Line Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Ayako; Miyake, Sachi; Kubota, Hisako; Higashida, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Hideo; Teramoto, Fusako; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2017-11-14

    It has been found experimentally and clinically that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exerts an anticancer effect and that it has a minimal adverse event profile relative to other anticancer drugs. Any synergy between EPA and other anticancer drugs could be of therapeutic relevance, especially in elderly or high-risk patients. Therefore, we investigated the synergism between anticancer drugs and EPA experimentally. EPA was coadministered in vitro with various anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil and cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum[II]) to TE-1 cells, which were derived from human esophageal cancer tumors. Cell proliferation was measured by the water soluble tetrazolium-1 method. Sub-threshold concentrations of EPA, which alone produced no anticancer effect, caused a synergistic suppressive effect on TE-1 cell proliferation when combined with other anticancer agents. Coadministration of EPA with other anticancer drugs may represent a new therapeutic paradigm offering a reduced side effect profile. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Biological effects of add-on eicosapentaenoic Acid supplementation in diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocking, R.J.T.; Assies, J.; Bot, M.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Schene, A.H.; Pouwer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may reduce increased risks for (cardiovascular) morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and comorbid major depressive depression (MDD). Yet, effects of EPA-supplementation on biological risk factors for adverse outcomes have not been

  17. Enhanced eicosapentaenoic acid production by a new deep-sea marine bacterium Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Zhang

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are products of secondary metabolism, essential for growth and important for human health. Although there are numerous reports of bacterial production of omega-3 fatty acids, less information is available on the biotechnological production of these compounds from bacteria. The production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3 by a new species of marine bacteria Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T was investigated under different fermentation conditions. This strain produced a high percentage (up to 26% of total fatty acids and high yields (mg / g of biomass of EPA at or below the optimal growth temperature. At higher growth temperatures these values decreased greatly. The amount of EPA produced was affected by the carbon source, which also influenced fatty acid composition. This strain required Na+ for growth and EPA synthesis and cells harvested at late exponential or early stationary phase had a higher EPA content. Both the highest amounts (20 mg g-1 and highest percent EPA content (18% occurred with growth on L-proline and (NH42SO4. The addition of cerulenin further enhanced EPA production to 30 mg g-1. Chemical mutagenesis using NTG allowed the isolation of mutants with improved levels of EPA content (from 9.7 to 15.8 mg g-1 when grown at 15°C. Thus, the yields of EPA could be substantially enhanced without the need for recombinant DNA technology, often a commercial requirement for food supplement manufacture.

  18. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-02-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA through fermentation using metabolically engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. In this mini-review, we will focus on DuPont's technology for EPA production. Specifically, EPA biosynthetic and supporting pathways have been introduced into the oleaginous yeast to synthesize and accumulate EPA under fermentation conditions. This Yarrowia platform can also produce tailored omega-3 (EPA, DHA) and/or omega-6 (ARA, GLA) fatty acid mixtures in the cellular lipid profiles. Fundamental research such as metabolic engineering for strain construction, high-throughput screening for strain selection, fermentation process development, and process scale-up were all needed to achieve the high levels of EPA titer, rate, and yield required for commercial application. Here, we summarize how we have combined the fundamental bioscience and the industrial engineering skills to achieve large-scale production of Yarrowia biomass containing high amounts of EPA, which led to two commercial products, New Harvest™ EPA oil and Verlasso® salmon.

  19. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-02-01

    Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil-containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P Camelina is a bioavailable source of EPA in mice. These data provide support for the future assessment of this oil in a human feeding trial.

  20. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. Objective: The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil–containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. Results: The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P Camelina is a bioavailable source of EPA in mice. These data provide support for the future assessment of this oil in a human feeding trial. PMID:26791554

  1. Increased Erythrocyte Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Associated With Improved Attention and Behavior in Children With ADHD in a Randomized Controlled Three-Way Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Parletta, Natalie; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Young, Ross M; Howe, Peter R C

    2015-11-01

    To investigate effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on attention, literacy, and behavior in children with ADHD. Ninety children were randomized to consume supplements high in EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (control) for 4 months each in a crossover design. Erythrocyte fatty acids, attention, cognition, literacy, and Conners' Parent Rating Scales (CPRS) were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12 months. Fifty-three children completed the treatment. Outcome measures showed no significant differences between the three treatments. However, in children with blood samples (n = 76-46), increased erythrocyte EPA + DHA was associated with improved spelling (r = .365, p DHA and EPA via dietary supplementation may improve behavior, attention, and literacy in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; pmembrane bilayer width, membrane fluidity, and cholesterol crystalline domain formation; suggesting omega-3 fatty acids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Moradi Sarabi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD, accounting for about half of the attributed deaths. Cholesterol homeostasis is one of the most important factors in atherosclerosis. ATP-Binding cassette transporters cholesterol. Omega (ω 3 fatty acids are important ligands for regulation of ABC transporters such as ABCG1. Concern has been raised that the low absolute intakes of EPA and high ratios of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFA to EPA may predispose some individuals to CVD. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is the most abundant ω3 fatty acid in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of EPA on the expression of ABCG1 gene in the human monocyte THP-1 cells. In this study, THP-1 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium, THP-1 monocytes were then differentiated to macrophages with PMA (phorbol myristic acid and stimulated with 50, 75 and 100 μM of EPA for 24 h at 37°C. We examined the effects of EPA treatment on the expression of ABCG1 gene using Quantitative Real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Our results, indicate that ABCG1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by 50, 75 and 100 μM EPA fatty acid treatments as compared to the control cells (р = 0.009, р < 0.001 and р = 0.002, respectively. These results suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as EPA have an effect on the cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages, and they can change the expression of ABCG1 gene. It seems that EPA has different effects on gene expression and lipid metabolism.

  4. Biological effects of add-on eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel J T Mocking

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA may reduce increased risks for (cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and comorbid major depressive depression (MDD. Yet, effects of EPA-supplementation on biological risk factors for adverse outcomes have not been studied in DM-patients with MDD. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind trial (n = 25 comparing add-on ethyl-EPA-supplementation to placebo on (I oxidative stress, (II inflammatory, (III hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-axis, (IV one-carbon-cycle, (V fatty acid metabolism and (VI lipoprotein parameters during 12-weeks' follow-up. RESULTS: Besides increases in supplemented α-tocopherol [estimate (95% CI; 3.62 (1.14-6.11 µmol/l; p = 0.006] and plasma and erythrocyte EPA, the intervention did not influence other oxidative stress, inflammatory or one-carbon-cycle parameters compared to placebo. HPA-axis reactivity significantly decreased in the EPA-group (N = 12 [AUC(i: -121.93 (-240.20--3.47 min×nmol/l; p = 0.045], not in the placebo-group (N = 12. Furthermore, EPA-supplementation increased erythrocyte and plasma docosapentaenoic acid, and decreased plasma arachidonic acid (AA concentrations [-1.61 (-3.10--0.11 %; p = 0.036]. Finally, EPA had a multivariate influence on lipoprotein concentrations (p = 0.030, reflected by relative increases in high density lipoprotein [HDL; 0.30 (0.02-0.58 mmol/l; p = 0.039] and total cholesterol concentrations [1.01 (0.29-1.72 mmol/l; p = 0.008]. CONCLUSION: Overall, add-on EPA-supplementation had limited effects on biological risk factors for adverse outcome in this sample of DM-patients with comorbid MDD. Besides increases in concentrations of supplemented α-tocopherol and EPA, AA decreased, and inconclusive effects on HPA-axis (reactivity and lipoprotein concentrations were observed. Therefore, further studies on the alleged beneficial effects of EPA-supplementation on biological risk factors for adverse

  5. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters.

  6. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha K; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-04-08

    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) by the fungus Pythium irregulare . When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 30 g/L crude glycerol and 10 g/L yeast extract, EPA yield and productivity reached 90 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L x day, respectively. Adding pure vegetable oils (flaxseed oil and soybean oil) to the culture greatly enhanced the biomass and the EPA production. This enhancement was due to the oil absorption by the fungal cells and elongation of shorter chain fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) into longer chain fatty acid (e.g., EPA). The major impurities contained in crude glycerol, soap and methanol, were inhibitory to fungal growth. Soap can be precipitated from the liquid medium through pH adjustment, whereas methanol can be evaporated from the medium during autoclaving. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass contained about 15% lipid, 36% protein, and 40% carbohydrate, with 9% ash. In addition to EPA, the fungal biomass was also rich in the essential amino acids lysine, arginine, and leucine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, sulfur, and zinc were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury and lead) were detected. The results show that it is feasible to use crude glycerol for producing fungal biomass that can serve as EPA-fortified food or feed.

  7. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somoza Veronika

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPARα, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

  8. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters.

  9. Effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid resources on egg quality and n-3 fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Tang, Chuanqiu; Ding, Zongqing; Huang, Hui; Sun, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous supplementation of laying hens with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) resources (flax, perilla, and Eucommia ulmoides [E. ulmoides] seeds) and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) resources (Schizochytrium sp.) on egg quality and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profile. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) diet C (control diet); ii) diet F (diet C+10% flaxseeds); iii) diet P, (diet C+10% perilla seeds); iv) diet E (diet C+10% E. ulmoides seeds); v) diet A (diet C+1.5% microalage); vi) diet AF (diet C+10% flaxseeds+1.5% microalage); vii) diet AP (diet C+10% perilla seeds+1.5% microalgae); viii) diet AE (diet C+10% E. ulmoides seeds+ 1.5% microalage). Egg weight, yolk weight and production ratio were not significantly affected by either algae or in combination with seeds (p>0.05). No significant difference was observed in ALA and DHA concentration in eggs between flaxseed, perila, and E. ulmodies seeds supplementation alone (p>0.05). N-3 PUFA in eggs was slightly improved by microalgae supplementation. The best supplementation, a combination of microalgae and perilla seeds, elevated (p<0.05) ALA from 19.7 to 202.5 mg/egg and EPA+DHA from 27.5 to 159.7 mg/egg. Highest n-3 PUFA enrichment (379.6 mg/yolk) was observed with supplementation of a combination of perilla seed and microalgae (362.2 mg/yolk), followed by a combination of flaxseed and microalgae (348.4 mg/yolk). The ALA, EPA, and DHA content obtained with a combination of microalgae and seeds surpassed the total sum of that obtained with microalgae or ALA-seeds alone. It is feasible to enrich eggs with n-3 PUFAs by perilla or E. ulmodies seeds instead of flaxseeds. Simultaneous supplementation of microalgae and seeds helped improve the transfer from EPA and docosapentaenoic acid into DHA.

  10. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus: Killing Kinetics, Selection for Resistance, and Potential Cellular Target

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    Phuc Nguyen Thien Le

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3, are attracting interest as possible new topical antibacterial agents, particularly due to their potency and perceived safety. However, relatively little is known of the underlying mechanism of antibacterial action of EPA or whether bacteria can develop resistance quickly against this or similar compounds. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to determine the mechanism of antibacterial action of EPA and investigate whether bacteria could develop reduced susceptibility to this fatty acid upon repeated exposure. Against two common Gram-positive human pathogens, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, EPA inhibited bacterial growth with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 64 mg/L, while minimum bactericidal concentrations were 64 mg/L and 128 mg/L for B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. Both species were killed completely in EPA at 128 mg/L within 15 min at 37 °C, while reduced bacterial viability was associated with increased release of 260-nm-absorbing material from the bacterial cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that EPA likely kills B. cereus and S. aureus by disrupting the cell membrane, ultimately leading to cell lysis. Serial passage of the strains in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of EPA did not lead to the emergence or selection of strains with reduced susceptibility to EPA during 13 passages. This present study provides data that may support the development of EPA and other fatty acids as antibacterial agents for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Micellar oleic and eicosapentaenoic acid but not linoleic acid influences the beta-carotene uptake and its cleavage into retinol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M; Lakshminarayana, R; Krishnakantha, T P; Baskaran, V

    2006-08-01

    Improving the bioavailability of beta-carotene is vital to manage vitamin A deficiency. The influence of micellar oleic (OA), linoleic (LA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids on plasma beta-carotene response and its conversion to retinol has been studied in rats employing single (9 h time course) and repeated (10 days) dose administrations. After a single dose, the levels (area under the curve) of plasma beta-carotene and retinyl palmitate in OA and EPA groups were higher (p absorption and metabolism of beta-carotene when fed mixed micelles with OA or EPA compared with LA. Although the mechanism involved in selective absorption of fatty acids needs further studies, intestinal beta-carotene uptake and its conversion to vitamin A can be modulated using specific fatty acids.

  13. Biological effects of add-on eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocking, Roel J T; Assies, Johanna; Bot, Mariska

    2012-01-01

    studied in DM-patients with MDD. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind trial (n = 25) comparing add-on ethyl-EPA-supplementation to placebo on (I) oxidative stress, (II) inflammatory, (III) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, (IV) one-carbon-cycle, (V) fatty acid metabolism and (VI.......008]. CONCLUSION: Overall, add-on EPA-supplementation had limited effects on biological risk factors for adverse outcome in this sample of DM-patients with comorbid MDD. Besides increases in concentrations of supplemented α-tocopherol and EPA, AA decreased, and inconclusive effects on HPA-axis (re...

  14. Combined application of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on depression in women: a meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials

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    Yang JR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jia-run Yang, Dong Han, Zheng-xue Qiao, Xue Tian, Dong Qi, Xiao-hui QiuDepartment of Medical Psychology, Public Health Institute of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of ChinaObjectives: Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs suggest that depression can be effectively treated by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the clinical applicability of the combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, which are the two major bioactive types of PUFAs, in depressed women.Methods: RCTs that compared the combination of DHA and EPA to placebo for short-course treatment of depression in women were systematically reviewed up to March 2015. Outcome measurement was the standardized difference in means in clinical measure of depression severity. Random effect model was performed. Meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the effects of baseline depression scores.Results: Data were obtained from eight RCTs. In these RCTs, 182 patients received placebo and 185 patients received DHA and EPA. The pooled standardized difference in mean was 0.65 with 95% CI = [0.18, 1.12]. There was no relation between the efficacy and the baseline depression scores. The sensitivity analysis found that the combination of EPA and DHA as monotherapy yielded a standardized difference in means of 0.65 (95% CI =0.41, 0.90 without heterogeneity.Discussion: These results indicate a beneficial effect of the combination of EPA and DHA on depressed mood in women compared with placebo. The clinical applicability of EPA and DHA showed greater promise and should be further explored.Keywords: depression, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA

  15. Enhancing the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2 using innovative photobioreactors with optimal light source arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Hsiao-Chen; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-09-01

    Binary combinations of LEDs with four different colors were used as light sources to identify the effects of multiple wavelengths on the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by an isolated microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2. Combining LED-Blue and LED-Red could give the highest EPA productivity of 13.24 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was further enhanced to 14.4 mg L(-1) d(-1) when using semi-batch operations at a 40% medium replacement ratio. A novel photobioreactor with additional immersed light sources improved light penetration efficiency and led to an 38% (0.170-0.235 g L(-1) d(-1)) increase in the microalgae biomass productivity and a 9% decrease in electricity consumption yield of EPA (10.15-9.33 kW-h (g EPA)(-1)) when compared with the control (i.e., without immersed light sources). Operating the immersed LEDs at a flashing-frequency of 9 Hz further lowered the energy consumption yield to 8.87 kW-h (g EPA)(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamolrat, Torkamol [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Gray, Stuart R., E-mail: s.r.gray@abdn.ac.uk [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ► These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ► EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 μM EPA or 50 μM DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion.

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS-Ca(2+)-JNK mitochondrial pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Han, Lirong; Qi, Wentao; Cheng, Dai; Ma, Xiaolei; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunling

    2015-01-24

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a well-known dietary n-3 PUFAS, has been considered to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism related to EPA-induced liver cancer cells apoptosis has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis mechanism through mitochondrial pathways. EPA inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and had no significant effect on the cell viability of humor normal liver L-02 cells. It was found that EPA initially evoked ROS formation, leading to [Ca(2+)]c accumulation and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening; EPA-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an inhibitor of ROS), 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM, a chelator of calcium) and CsA (inhibitor of MPTP). The relationship between ROS production, the increase of cytoplasmic Ca and MPTP opening was detected. It seems that ROS may act as an upstream regulator of EPA-induced [Ca(2+)]c generation, moreover, generation of ROS, overload of mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]c, and JNK activated cause the opening of MPTP. Western blotting results showed that EPA elevated the phosphorylation status of JNK, processes associated with the ROS generation. Simultaneously, the apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm through the MPTP and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These results suggest that EPA induces apoptosis through ROS-Ca(2+)-JNK mitochondrial pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between coronary flow reserve evaluated by phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance and serum eicosapentaenoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is associated with a low risk for cardiovascular disease. Phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (PC cine CMR) can assess coronary flow reserve (CFR). The present study investigates the relationship between CFR evaluated by PC cine CMR and the serum EPA. Methods We studied 127 patients (male, 116 (91%); mean age, 72.2 ± 7.4 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). X-ray coronary angiography revealed no significant coronary arterial stenoses (defined as luminal diameter reduction ≥50% on quantitative coronary angiogram (QCA) analysis) in all study participants. Breath-hold PC cine CMR images of the coronary sinus (CS) were acquired to assess blood flow of the CS both at rest and during adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion. We calculated CFR as CS blood flow during ATP infusion divided by that at rest. Patients were allocated to groups according to whether they had high (n = 64, EPA ≥ 75.8 μg/mL) or low (n = 63, EPA  2.5, which is the previously reported lower limit of normal flow reserve without obstructive CAD. Multivariate analysis revealed that EPA is an independent predictor of CFR > 2.5 (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 – 1.02, p = 0.008). Conclusions The serum EPA is significantly correlated with CFR in CAD patients without significant coronary artery stenosis. PMID:24359564

  19. Bioequivalence of two omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester formulations: a case of clinical pharmacology of dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Claudio; Maggi, Franco M; Risé, Patrizia; Sirtori, Cesare R

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the bioequivalence of two omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) ethyl ester preparations, previously shown not to be bioequivalent in healthy subjects, with the objective of providing a guideline for future work in this area. METHOD A randomized double-blind crossover protocol was chosen. Volunteers with the lowest blood concentrations of n-3 LC-PUFA were selected. They received the ethyl esters in a single high dose (12 g) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) blood concentrations were analyzed after fingerprick collection at intervals up to 24 h. RESULTS Differently from a prior study, the pharmacokinetic analysis indicated a satisfactory bioequivalence: for the AUC(0,24 h) 90% CI of the ratio between the two formulations were in the range for bioequivalence (for EPA 0.98, 1.04 and for DHA 0.99, 1.04) and the same was true for Cmax and tmax (90% CI were 0.95, 1.14 and 1.10, 1.25 for EPA and 0.88, 1.02 and 0.84, 1.24 for DHA). CONCLUSION This study shows that, in order to obtain reliable bioequivalence data of products present in the daily diet, certain conditions should be met. Subjects should have low, homogeneous baseline concentrations and not be exposed to food items containing the product under evaluation, e.g. fish. Finally, as in the case of omega-3 fatty acids, selected doses should be high, eventually with appropriate conditions of intake. PMID:22242645

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical t...

  1. Hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters as precursors to ethylphenols in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Josh L; Sleep, Nicola R; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Curtin, Christopher D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-03-07

    A method for determining ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate in wine using GC-MS with deuterium-labeled analogues has been developed and used to measure the evolution of these two esters during the production of two commercial monovarietal red wines, cv. Grenache and Shiraz. During fermentation, the concentration of ethyl coumarate rose from low levels to 0.4 mg/L in Grenache and 1.6 mg/L in Shiraz wines. These concentrations then increased further during barrel aging to 1.4 and 3.6 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of ethyl ferulate was much lower, reaching a maximum of only 0.09 mg/L. Conversion of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate to their corresponding ethylphenols was observed during fermentations of a synthetic medium with two strains of Dekkera bruxellensis (AWRI 1499 and AWRI 1608), while a third (strain AWRI 1613) produced no ethylphenols at all from these precursors. Strains AWRI 1499 and 1608 produced 4-ethylphenol from ethyl coumarate in 68% and 57% yields, respectively. The corresponding yields of 4-ethylguaiacol from ethyl ferulate were much lower, 7% and 3%. Monitoring of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate concentration during the Dekkera fermentations showed that the selectivity for ethylphenol production according to yeast strain and the precursor was principally a result of variation in esterase activity. Consequently, ethyl coumarate can be considered to be a significant precursor to 4-ethylphenol in wines affected by these two strains of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeast, while ethyl ferulate is not an important precursor to 4-ethylguaiacol.

  2. A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a

  3. A Novel Halophilic Lipase, LipBL, Showing High Efficiency in the Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dolores; Martín, Sara; Fernández-Lorente, Gloria; Filice, Marco; Guisán, José Manuel; Ventosa, Antonio; García, María Teresa; Mellado, Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    Background Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. Methods and Findings A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. Conclusions In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a lipolytic enzyme from

  4. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have different effects on peripheral phospholipase A2 gene expressions in acute depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Shih, Yin-Hua; Guu, Ta-Wei; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil; Gałecki, Piotr; Walczewska, Anna; Pariante, Carmine M

    2018-01-03

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects. We conducted a 12-week randomized-controlled trial comparing the effects of EPA and DHA on gene expressions of phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), serotonin transporter (5HTT), and Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH-2) in 27 MDD patients. In addition, the erythrocyte PUFA compositions and the candidate gene expressions were also compared between these 27 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls. EPA was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -13 to -21, p<0.001) and significant increases in erythrocyte levels of EPA (CI: +1.0% to +2.9%, p=0.001) and DHA (CI: +2.9% to +5.6%, p=0.007). DHA treatment was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-D scores (CI: -6 to -14, p<0.001) and a significant increase in DHA levels (CI: +0.2% to +2.3%, p=0.047), but not of EPA levels. The cPLA2 gene expression levels were significantly increased in patients received EPA (1.9 folds, p=0.038), but not DHA (1.08 folds, p=0.92). There was a tendency for both EPA and DHA groups to decrease COX-2 gene expressions. The gene expressions of COX-2, cPLA2, TPH-2 and 5-HTT did not differ between MDD cases and healthy controls. EPA differentiates from DHA in clinical antidepressant efficacy and in upregulating cPLA2 gene regulations, which supports the clinical observation showing the superiority of EPA's antidepressant effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  5. Can a standard dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation reduce the symptoms of delayed onset of muscle soreness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS which can affect athletic performance. Although DOMS is a useful tool to identify muscle damage and remodelling, prolonged symptoms of DOMS may be associated with the over-training syndrome. In order to reduce the symptoms of DOMS numerous management strategies have been attempted with no significant effect on DOMS-associated cytokines surge. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of a 2 × 180 mg per day dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on interleukin-6 (IL-6 mediated inflammatory response and symptoms associated with DOMS. Methods Seventeen healthy non-smoking females (age 20.4 ± 2.1 years, height 161.2 ± 8.3 cm and mass 61.48 ± 7.4 kg were randomly assigned to either placebo (N = 10 or EPA (N = 7. Serum IL-6, isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric strength, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded on four occasions: i-prior to supplementation, ii-immediately after three weeks of supplementation (basal effects, iii-48 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise (acute training response effects, and iv-48 hours following the last of a series of three bouts of resistance exercise (chronic training response effects. Results There was only a group difference in the degree of change in circulating IL-6 levels. In fact, relative to the first baseline, by the third bout of eccentric workout, the EPA group had 103 ± 60% increment in IL-6 levels whereas the placebo group only had 80 ± 26% incremented IL-6 levels (P = 0.020. We also describe a stable multiple linear regression model which included measures of strength and not IL-6 as predictors of RPE scale. Conclusion The present study suggests that in doubling the standard recommended dose of EPA, whilst this may still not be beneficial at ameliorating the symptoms of DOMS, it counter intuitively appears to enhance the cytokine response to

  6. Eicosapentaenoic acid and oxypurinol in the treatment of muscle wasting in a mouse model of cancer cachexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Vaughan

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia is a wasting condition, driven by systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study investigated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA in combination with oxypurinol as a treatment in a mouse model of cancer cachexia. Mice with cancer cachexia were randomized into 4 treatment groups (EPA (0.4 g/kg/day, oxypurinol (1 mmol/L ad-lib, combination, or control, and euthanized after 29 days. Analysis of oxidative damage to DNA, mRNA analysis of pro-oxidant, antioxidant and proteolytic pathway components, along with enzyme activity of pro- and antioxidants were completed on gastrocnemius muscle. The control group displayed earlier onset of tumor compared to EPA and oxypurinol groups (P<0.001. The EPA group maintained body weight for an extended duration (20 days compared to the oxypurinol (5 days and combination (8 days groups (P<0.05. EPA (18.2±3.2 pg/ml and combination (18.4±3.7 pg/ml groups had significantly higher 8-OH-dG levels than the control group (12.9±1.4 pg/ml, P≤0.05 indicating increased oxidative damage to DNA. mRNA levels of GPx1, MURF1 and MAFbx were higher following EPA treatment compared to control (P≤0.05. Whereas oxypurinol was associated with higher GPx1, MnSOD, CAT, XDH, MURF1, MAFbx and UbB mRNA compared to control (P≤0.05. Activity of total SOD was higher in the oxypurinol group (32.2±1.5 U/ml compared to control (27.0±1.3 U/ml, P<0.01, GPx activity was lower in the EPA group (8.76±2.0 U/ml compared to control (14.0±1.9 U/ml, P<0.05, and catalase activity was lower in the combination group (14.4±2.8 U/ml compared to control (20.9±2.0 U/ml, P<0.01. There was no change in XO activity. The increased rate of weight decline in mice treated with oxypurinol indicates that XO may play a protective role during the progression of cancer cachexia, and its inhibition is detrimental to outcomes. In combination with EPA, there was little significant improvement from control, indicating oxypurinol is unlikely to be a

  7. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids from the coastal marine fish of Bay of Bengal and their therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Rabindranath; Dhara, Tushar K; Bhadra, Ranjan; Majumder, Gopal C; Sen, Parimal C

    2010-12-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) significantly present in marine fish oil emerge as preventive agents for combating many health problems specially in chronic or metabolic disorders. The fish in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal has remained unexplored with respect to EPA/DHA enriched PUFA content in its oils, although it may be a potential source in harnessing the health benefit. In this study, seven varieties of the coastal fish were analysed for the content of EPA/DHA. The one locally known as lotte, (Harpadon nehereus) though has low content of total lipids, was found to have high EPA/DHA in its oil. The phospholipids rich fraction was extracted from the total fish oil. The EPA/DHA enriched PUFA was isolated to investigate the potential use for health benefits. EPA/DHA is found to act as protective agent against mercury poisoning studied in cell culture as well as in animal mode. It is found to be highly preventive in diabetes. The lotte is available in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal adjoining West Bengal, India in large scale and it is the first report showing EPA/DHA enriched PUFA in these fish oil that can be availed to harness in important health benefits.

  8. A Study of the Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA on Gene Expression Profiles of Stimulated Thp-1 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Allam-Ndoul

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An appropriate intake of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FAs such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA from marine sources is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects on health are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize gene expression profiles of THP-1 macrophages, incubated in either EPA or DHA and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a pro-inflammatory agent. Methods: THP-1 macrophages were incubated into 10, 50 and 75 µM of EPA or DHA for 24 h, and 100 nM of LPS was added to the culture media for 18 h. Total mRNA was extracted and gene expression examined by microarray analysis using Illumina Human HT-12 expression beadchips (Illumina. Results: Pathway analysis revealed that EPA and DHA regulate genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response and inflammation, oxidative stress and cancer pathways in a differential and dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: EPA and DHA appear to exert differential effects on gene expression in THP-1 macrophages. Specific effects of n-3 FAs on gene expression levels are also dose-dependent.

  9. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  10. A Study of the Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Gene Expression Profiles of Stimulated Thp-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte; Guénard, Frédéric; Barbier, Olivier; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2017-04-25

    Background: An appropriate intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) from marine sources is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects on health are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize gene expression profiles of THP-1 macrophages, incubated in either EPA or DHA and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pro-inflammatory agent. Methods: THP-1 macrophages were incubated into 10, 50 and 75 µM of EPA or DHA for 24 h, and 100 nM of LPS was added to the culture media for 18 h. Total mRNA was extracted and gene expression examined by microarray analysis using Illumina Human HT-12 expression beadchips (Illumina). Results: Pathway analysis revealed that EPA and DHA regulate genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response and inflammation, oxidative stress and cancer pathways in a differential and dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: EPA and DHA appear to exert differential effects on gene expression in THP-1 macrophages. Specific effects of n-3 FAs on gene expression levels are also dose-dependent.

  11. A toolkit for Nannochloropsis oceanica CCMP1779 enables gene stacking and genetic engineering of the eicosapentaenoic acid pathway for enhanced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliner, Eric; Pulman, Jane A; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Childs, Kevin; Benning, Christoph; Farré, Eva M

    2017-06-12

    Nannochloropsis oceanica is an oleaginous microalga rich in ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) content, in the form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We identified the enzymes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in N. oceanica CCMP1779 and generated multigene expression vectors aiming at increasing LC-PUFA content in vivo. We isolated the cDNAs encoding four fatty acid desaturases (FAD) and determined their function by heterologous expression in S. cerevisiae. To increase the expression of multiple fatty acid desaturases in N. oceanica CCMP1779, we developed a genetic engineering toolkit that includes an endogenous bidirectional promoter and optimized peptide bond skipping 2A peptides. The toolkit also includes multiple epitopes for tagged fusion protein production and two antibiotic resistance genes. We applied this toolkit, towards building a gene stacking system for N. oceanica that consists of two vector series, pNOC-OX and pNOC-stacked. These tools for genetic engineering were employed to test the effects of the overproduction of one, two or three desaturase-encoding cDNAs in N. oceanica CCMP1779 and prove the feasibility of gene stacking in this genetically tractable oleaginous microalga. All FAD overexpressing lines had considerable increases in the proportion of LC-PUFAs, with the overexpression of Δ12 and Δ5 FAD encoding sequences leading to an increase in the final ω3 product, EPA. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. beta-oxidation modulates metabolic competition between eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid regulating prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat hepatocytes-Kupffer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Winterthun, Synnøve

    2010-01-01

    and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for PGE(2) synthesis in a rat hepatocyte-Kupffer cell (HPC/KC) co-culture system when the cellular oxidation capacity was enhanced by exogenous l-carnitine. We demonstrate that in the absence of l-carnitine, 1) beta-oxidation rates of EPA and AA were comparable in HPCs and in KCs; 2) AA...... and not EPA was preferentially incorporated into glycerolipids; and 3) addition of EPA significantly decreased AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis in HPCs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in co-cultured HPCs/KCs. However, enhancing the cellular oxidation capacity by the addition of l-carnitine 1...... inhibition of AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis and COX-2 expression by EPA. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that l-carnitine affects competition between AA and EPA in PG synthesis in liver cells by enhancing oxidation of EPA in HPCs. This implies that the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA, especially...

  13. Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker discovery and association analysis with the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content in Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are valuable genetic resources for the association and conservation studies. Genome-wide SNP development in many teleost species are still challenging because of the genome complexity and the cost of re-sequencing. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS provided an efficient reduced representative method to squeeze cost for SNP detection; however, most of recent GBS applications were reported on plant organisms. In this work, we used an EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS protocol to teleost large yellow croaker, an important commercial fish in China and East-Asia, and reported the first whole-genome SNP development for the species. 69,845 high quality SNP markers that evenly distributed along genome were detected in at least 80% of 500 individuals. Nearly 95% randomly selected genotypes were successfully validated by Sequenom MassARRAY assay. The association studies with the muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content discovered 39 significant SNP markers, contributing as high up to ∼63% genetic variance that explained by all markers. Functional genes that involved in fat digestion and absorption pathway were identified, such as APOB, CRAT and OSBPL10. Notably, PPT2 Gene, previously identified in the association study of the plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid level in human, was re-discovered in large yellow croaker. Our study verified that EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS could produce quality SNP markers in a cost-efficient manner in teleost genome. The developed SNP markers and the EPA and DHA associated SNP loci provided invaluable resources for the population structure, conservation genetics and genomic selection of large yellow croaker and other fish organisms.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) vs. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): Effects in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Santos, Larissa Pereira; Machado, Daiana Guimarães Lopes; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to be beneficial for many diseases, including those associated with the metabolic syndrome (e.g. insulin resistance and hypertension). Nevertheless, not only their actions are not entirely understood, but also their only effects were not yet elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of EPA and DHA, alone or in combination, on the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in mice fed a high-fructose diet. 3-mo-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a control diet (C) or a high-fructose diet (HFru). After three weeks on the diets, the HFru group was subdivided into four new groups for another five weeks: HFru, HFru+EPA, HFru+DHA, and HFru-EPA+DHA (n=10/group). Besides evaluating biometric and metabolic parameters of the animals, we measured the adipocyte area and performed molecular analyses (inflammation and lipolysis) in the epididymal WAT. The HFru group showed adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and uncontrolled lipolysis. The treated animals showed a reversion of adipocyte hypertrophy, inhibition of inflammation with activation of anti-inflammatory mediators, and regularization of lipolysis. Overall, the beneficial effects were more marked with DHA than EPA. Although the whole-body metabolic effects were similar between EPA and DHA, DHA appeared to be the central actor in WAT metabolism, modulating pro and anti-inflammatory pathways and alleviating adipocytes abnormalities. Therefore, when considering fructose-induced adverse effects in WAT, the most prominent actions were observed with DHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid at low microgram per liter levels in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, G A; Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H

    1997-11-28

    A method is described for determining methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, which are hydrolysis products of the nerve agents VX (S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothiolate) and GB (sarin, isopropylmethyl phosphonofluoridate). The analytes are extracted from 50 ml groundwater using a solid-phase extraction column packed with 500 mg of silica with a bonded quaternary amine phase, and are eluted and derivatized with methanolic trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. Separation and quantitation are achieved using a capillary column gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector operated in its phosphorus-selective mode. Two independent statistically-unbiased procedures were employed to determine the detection limits, which ranged between 3 and 9 micrograms/l, for the three analytes.

  16. Alcohol consumption and synthesis of ethyl esters of fatty acids in adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björntorp, P; Depergola, G; Sjöberg, C; Pettersson-Kymmer, U.; Hallgren, P; Boström, K; Helander, K G; Seidell, J

    1990-01-01

    Ethyl esters of fatty acids (EEFA) have been found to be formed during ethanol metabolism. Human adipose tissue contains high concentrations of free fatty acids, the substrate for EEFA synthesis, and might therefore be a tissue with great potential for EEFA formation. In order to explore their

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla T Damsgaard

    Full Text Available n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3, but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1 investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2 explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7-day dietary records, physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood fatty acid composition, cholesterols, triacylglycerol, insulin resistance by the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR, and inflammatory markers. Whole blood EPA was associated with a 2.7 mmHg (95% CI 0.4; 5.1 higher diastolic blood pressure per weight% EPA, but only in boys. Heart rate was negatively associated with both EPA and DHA status (P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively. Whole blood EPA was negatively associated with triacylglycerol (P = 0.003 and positively with total cholesterol, low density and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and HDL:triacylglycerol (all P<0.01 whereas DHA was negatively associated with insulin and HOMA-IR (P = 0.003 and tended to be negatively associated with a metabolic syndrome-score (P = 0.05. Adjustment for waist circumference and physical activity did not change the associations. The association between DHA and HOMA-IR was attenuated but remained after adjustment for fiber intake and none of the other associations were confounded by dietary fat, protein, fiber or energy intake. This study showed that EPA status was negatively associated with triacylglycerol and positively with cholesterols whereas DHA was negatively associated

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Eidner, Maj B; Stark, Ken D; Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Andersen, Malene R; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7-day dietary records, physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood fatty acid composition, cholesterols, triacylglycerol, insulin resistance by the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), and inflammatory markers. Whole blood EPA was associated with a 2.7 mmHg (95% CI 0.4; 5.1) higher diastolic blood pressure per weight% EPA, but only in boys. Heart rate was negatively associated with both EPA and DHA status (P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Whole blood EPA was negatively associated with triacylglycerol (P = 0.003) and positively with total cholesterol, low density and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL:triacylglycerol (all PDHA was negatively associated with insulin and HOMA-IR (P = 0.003) and tended to be negatively associated with a metabolic syndrome-score (P = 0.05). Adjustment for waist circumference and physical activity did not change the associations. The association between DHA and HOMA-IR was attenuated but remained after adjustment for fiber intake and none of the other associations were confounded by dietary fat, protein, fiber or energy intake. This study showed that EPA status was negatively associated with triacylglycerol and positively with cholesterols whereas DHA was negatively associated with insulin resistance

  19. Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Whole Blood Are Differentially and Sex-Specifically Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in 8–11-Year-Old Danish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.; Hjorth, Mads F.; Sjödin, Anders; Andersen, Malene R.; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8–11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7-day dietary records, physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood fatty acid composition, cholesterols, triacylglycerol, insulin resistance by the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), and inflammatory markers. Whole blood EPA was associated with a 2.7 mmHg (95% CI 0.4; 5.1) higher diastolic blood pressure per weight% EPA, but only in boys. Heart rate was negatively associated with both EPA and DHA status (P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Whole blood EPA was negatively associated with triacylglycerol (P = 0.003) and positively with total cholesterol, low density and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL:triacylglycerol (all P<0.01) whereas DHA was negatively associated with insulin and HOMA-IR (P = 0.003) and tended to be negatively associated with a metabolic syndrome-score (P = 0.05). Adjustment for waist circumference and physical activity did not change the associations. The association between DHA and HOMA-IR was attenuated but remained after adjustment for fiber intake and none of the other associations were confounded by dietary fat, protein, fiber or energy intake. This study showed that EPA status was negatively associated with triacylglycerol and positively with cholesterols whereas DHA was negatively associated with

  20. 5 alpha-reductase-catalyzed conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone is increased in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells: suppression by 15-lipoxygenase metabolites of gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung; Ziboh, Vincent A

    2002-11-01

    Although the androgens, testosterone (T) and its highly active metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play a role in the development and progression of prostate cancer, the mechanism(s) are unclear. Furthermore, 5 alpha-reductase which catalyze the conversion of T to DHT, has been a target of manipulation in the treatment of prostatic cancer, hence synthetic 5 alpha-reductase activity inhibitors have shown therapeutic promise. To demonstrate that nutrients derived from dietary sources can exert similar therapeutic promise, this study was designed using benign hyperplastic cells (BHC) and malignant tumorigenic cells (MTC) derived from Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rat model of prostatic adenocarcinoma to test the effects of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and their 15-lipoxygenase metabolites on cellular 5 alpha-reductase activity. Our data revealed: (i) that incubation of MTC with [3H]-T resulted in marked conversion to [3H]-DHT when compared to similar incubation with BHC; (ii) that DHT-enhanced activity of 5 alpha-reductase was inhibited 80% by 15S-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, the 15-lipoxygenase metabolite of GLA, when compared to 55% by 15S-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, the 15-lipoxygenase metabolite of EPA; and (iii) that their precursor fatty acids, respectively, exerted moderate inhibition. Taken together, the study underscores the biological importance of 15-lipoxygenase metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in androgen metabolism.

  1. Profiling of Polar Lipids in Marine Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580: Prediction of the Potential Mechanism for Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Incorporation into Triacylglycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine oleaginous diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580 is a candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid productivity. However, the substantial eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content in this strain would affect the biodiesel quality. On the other hand, EPA is also known as the essential health supplement for humans. EPAs are mainly incorporated into glycerolipids in the microalgal cell instead of the presence as free fatty acids. Therefore, the understanding of the EPA biosynthesis including the incorporation of the EPA into glycerolipids especially triacylglycerol (TAG is fundamental for regulating EPA content for different purposes. In this study, in order to identify the biosynthesis pathway for the EPA-containing TAG species, a lipidomic characterization of the EPA-enriched polar lipids was performed by using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI-Q-TRAP-MS and MS/MS analyses. The determination of the fatty acid positional distribution showed that the sn-2 position of all the chloroplast lipids and part of phosphatidylcholine (PC species was occupied by C16 fatty acids. This result suggested the critical role of the chloroplast on the lipid synthesis in F. solaris. Furthermore, the exclusive presence of C18 fatty acids in PC highly indicated the biosynthesis of EPA on PC. Finally, the PC-based acyl-editing and head group exchange processes were proposed to be essential for the incorporation of EPA into TAG and chloroplast lipids.

  2. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA......). Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined) for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy children or adults. Long-term supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined up...... to about 5 g/day do not appear to increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications, or affect glucose homeostasis immune function or lipid peroxidation, provided the oxidative stability of the n-3 LCPUFAs is guaranteed. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses of 2...

  4. Change in blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and posttraumatic stress symptom: A secondary analysis of data from a placebo-controlled trial of omega3 supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yutaka J; Hamazaki, Kei; Nishi, Daisuke; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-11-15

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is suggested to be protective against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from two observational studies. We previously conducted a randomized controlled trial and found no effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for prevention of PTSD. This secondary analysis aimed to determine whether change in blood levels of EPA is associated with PTSD symptoms. The percentages of EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) were measured in erythrocyte membranes at baseline and posttreatment in 110 participants with severe physical injury who were randomly assigned to receive either a daily dose of 1,470mg DHA and 147mg EPA or of placebo for 12 weeks. Associations between change in erythrocyte fatty acid levels during the trial controlling for each baseline level and PTSD severity at 12 weeks were analyzed by treatment arm. In the omega3 supplements arm, changes in EPA+DHA (p=.023) and EPA (p=.001) as well as the EPA:AA ratio (p=.000) and EPA: DHA ratio (p=.013) were inversely correlated with PTSD severity. Change in AA was positively correlated with PTSD severity (p=.001). This trial was conducted at a single-center in Japan and PTSD symptoms in most participants were not serious. Increased erythrocyte level of EPA during the trial was associated with low severity of PTSD symptoms in patients receiving omega3 supplements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microalgae wet extraction using N-ethyl butylamine for fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered a promising feedstock for the production of food ingredients, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and biofuels. The energy intensity of drying and cell breaking of algae and solvent recovery afterwards hindered the route of algae biorefinery. In this work the influences of freeze drying and cell breaking to the extraction efficiency of crude lipid yield and fatty acid yield were investigated. Results showed that drying and cell breaking are not necessary for N-ethyl butylamine extraction, because good yields were obtained without. Crude lipid yield and fatty acid yield using N-ethyl butylamine were comparable with Bligh & Dyer extraction, making N-ethyl butylamine a candidate for further development of an energy efficient lipid extraction technology for non-broken microalgae. Keywords: Microalgae, Lipids, Extraction, Switchable solvent, Secondary amine

  6. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  7. Layered metal laurates as active catalysts in the methyl/ethyl esterification reactions of lauric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa, Fabio da Silva; Cordeiro, Claudiney S.; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br [Centro de Pesquisas em Quimica Aplicada (CEPESQ), Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Gardolinski, Jose Eduardo F. da Costa [Laboratorio de Analise de Minerais e Rochas (LAMIR), Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, characterization and investigation of the catalytic activity of layered copper(II), manganese(II), lanthanum(III) and nickel(II) laurates in the methyl and ethyl esterification reactions of lauric acid. In the methyl esterification, conversions between 80 and 90% were observed for all catalysts, while for the ethyl esterification only manganese laurate showed reasonable catalytic activity, with conversions close to 75%. Reuse of copper and lanthanum laurates in three cycles of reaction was also investigated and both catalysts preserved the structure and retained catalytic activity close to that observed for the first reaction cycle. (author)

  8. KINETIC OF ESTERIFICATION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL BY ACETIC ACID ON A CATALYTIC RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol İNCE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The conversion kinetics of diluted acetic acid to ethyl acetate by ethanol esterification in a batch reactor in liquid phase with an acidic polymer catalyst (lewatit series was studied. The intrinsic rate constants have been correlated with the reaction temperature, concentration of catalyst, initial ratios of reactants and initial water concentrations. The kinetic analysis was restricted to the system at hand in which a liquid and vapor phase are at equilibrium.

  9. Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargalló, Núria; Gilabert, Rosa; Romero-Mamani, Edwin-Saúl; Calder, Philip C.; Fitó, Montserrat; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix

    2017-01-01

    Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79). The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31) or presence (n = 27) of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC) proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake) at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques. PMID:28930197

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid ethyl esther (DHAEE microcapsule production by spray-drying: optimization by experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid with important metabolic activities. Its conjugated double bonds make it susceptible to decomposition. Its stability may be improved through fatty acid entrapment with a spray-drying technique; however, the many parameters involved in this technique must be considered to avoid affecting the final product quality. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the entrapment conditions and yields of fish oil enriched with docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester. Microcapsules were obtained from Acacia gum using a spray-drying technique. The experimental samples were analyzed by chromatography and delineated by Statistica software, which found the following optimum entrapment conditions: an inlet temperature of 188 °C; 30% core material; an N2 flow rate of 55 mm; and a pump flow rate of 12.5 mL/minute. These conditions provided a 66% yield of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester in the oil, corresponding to 19.8% of entrapped docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (w/w. This result was considered significant since 30% corresponded to wall material.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    where R is a mixture of various fatty acid chains. Generally, transesterification is a reversible reaction, although in the production of biodiesel, the backward reaction does not occur or is negligible because the glycerol formed is not miscible with the product, leading to a two-phase system. Nevertheless, an excess of alcohol ...

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates palmitate-induced lipotoxicity via the AMP kinase/dynamin-related protein-1 signaling pathway in differentiated H9c2 myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Saotome, Masao; Hasan, Prottoy; Satoh, Terumori; Ohtani, Hayato; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggested the preferable effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) against cardiac lipotoxicity, which worsens cardiac function by means of excessive serum free fatty acids due to chronic adrenergic stimulation under heart failure. Nonetheless, the precise molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we focused on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) as a possible modulator of the EPA-mediated cardiac protection against cardiac lipotoxicity, and investigated the causal relation between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Drp1. When differentiated H9c2 myocytes were exposed to palmitate (PAL; saturated fatty acid, 400µM) for 24h, these myocytes showed activation of caspases 3 and 7, enhanced caspase 3 cleavage, depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted intracellular ATP, and enhanced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. These changes suggested lipotoxicity due to excessive PAL. PAL enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation with increased Drp1 expression, as well. EPA (50µM) restored the PAL-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and mitochondrial fragmentation with increased Drp1 expression by PAL. EPA activated phosphorylation of AMPK, and pharmacological activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide ameliorated the PAL-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and downregulated Drp1. An AMPK knockdown via RNA interference enhanced Drp1 expression and attenuated the protective effects of EPA against the PAL-induced lipotoxicity. EPA ameliorates the PAL-induced lipotoxicity via AMPK activation, which subsequently suppresses mitochondrial fragmentation and Drp1 expression. Our findings may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EPA-mediated myocardial protection in heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of pure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on oxidative stress, inflammation and body fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-3 Fatty acids reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that they may reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the results are inconclusive, due, in part, to type of omega-3 fatty acids used. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pure eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, the two major omega-3 fatty acids, on inflammation, oxidative stress, and fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Sixty patients with DM-II were randomly allocated to receive daily either ~1 gr EPA or ~1 gr DHA, or a canola oil as placebo for 12 weeks in a randomized triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Serum MDA, CRP, body weight, BMI, and fat mass were measured at baseline and after intervention. Results: Forty-five patients with a mean (±SD age of 54.9 ± 8.2 years with BMI of 27.6 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 and fasting blood glucose 96.0 ± 16.2 mg/dl completed the intervention. Neither EPA nor DHA had significant effects on serum FBS, C-reactive protein, body weight, BMI, and fat mass after intervention (P > 0.05. In addition, while MDA increased 18% in the placebo group (P = 0.009, it did not change in the EPA or DHA group (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of supplementation with 1gr/d EPA or DHA prevent increasing oxidative stress without changing marker of inflammation. This study is the first report demonstrating that neither EPA nor DHA have effects on body fat mass in type 2 diabetic patients.

  14. Effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation in high-fat fed mice on lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ system in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Bertrand

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has beneficial effects on obesity and associated disorders. Apelin, the ligand of APJ receptor also exerts insulin-sensitizing effects especially by improving muscle metabolism. EPA has been shown to increase apelin production in adipose tissue but its effects in muscle have not been addressed. Thus, the effects of EPA supplementation (36 g/kg EPA in high-fat diet (HFD (45% fat, 20% protein, 35% carbohydrate were studied in mice with focus on muscle lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ expression. Compared with HFD mice, HFD+EPA mice had significantly less weight gain, fat mass, lower blood glucose, insulinemia and hepatic steatosis after 10 weeks of diet. In addition, EPA prevented muscle metabolism alterations since intramuscular triglycerides were decreased and β-oxidation increased. In soleus muscles of HFD+EPA mice, apelin and APJ expression were significantly increased compared to HFD mice. However, plasma apelin concentrations in HFD and HFD+EPA mice were similar. EPA-induced apelin expression was confirmed in differentiated C2C12 myocytes but in this model, apelin secretion was also increased in response to EPA treatment. In conclusion, EPA supplementation in HFD prevents obesity and metabolic alterations in mice, especially in skeletal muscle. Since EPA increases apelin/APJ expression in muscle, apelin may act in a paracrine/autocrine manner to contribute to these benefical effects.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0) is...

  16. Headspace solid-phase microextraction of higher fatty acid ethyl esters in white rum aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, J; Martí, M P; Mestres, M; Pérez, J; Busto, O; Guasch, J

    2002-04-19

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are the main components of rum aroma and play an important sensorial impact in these distilled alcoholic beverages. Herein, a method for analysing these volatile compounds is described. It involves a separation and concentration step using headspace solid-phase microextraction and determination by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The influence of different parameters related to the isolation and concentration step, such as ethanol concentration, ionic strength, sample volume, time and temperature of extraction, was studied. The developed method enabled recoveries >91% for the analyzed compounds with limits of detection between 0.007 and 0.027 mg/l, all of them lower than the range of concentrations found in rum samples. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters in different commercial white rums.

  17. Synthesis of sulfur-containing lubricant additives on the basis of fatty acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii S. Bodachivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals an energy-, resource- and eco-friendly method for preparation of sulfur-containing lubricant additives via interaction of fatty acid ethyl esters of rapeseed oil with elemental sulfur. The structure of synthesized compounds under various reactants ratio (5–50 wt.% of sulfur, duration (30–240 min and temperature of the process (160–215°С was investigated using various analytical techniques. According to the established data, aside from addition to double bonds, the side reaction of hydrogen substitution at α-methylene groups near these bonds occurs and induces the formation of conjugated systems and chromophoric sulfur-rich derivatives. Also, we found that increase of process duration evokes growth of polysulfane chains, in contrast to the raise of temperature, which leads to the formation of sulfur-containing heterocycles and hydrogen sulfide, as a result of elimination. Influence of accelerators on sulfurization of fatty acid ethyl esters was also examined. The most effective among them are mixtures of zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate with zinc oxide or stearic acid, which soften synthesis conditions and doubly decrease duration of the high-temperature stage. In addition, sulfur-containing compositions of ethyl esters and α-olefins, vulcanized esters by benzoyl peroxide, nonylphenols and zinc dinonylphenyldithiophosphate were designed. The study identified that lithium lubricant with sulfurized vulcanized esters provides improved tribological properties, in comparison with base lubricant or lubricant with the non-modified product.

  18. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and animal protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds.

  19. Impact of arachidonic versus eicosapentaenoic acid on exotonin-induced lung vascular leakage: relation to 4-series versus 5-series leukotriene generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimminger, F; Wahn, H; Mayer, K; Kiss, L; Walmrath, D; Seeger, W

    1997-02-01

    Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) is a proteinaceous pore-forming exotoxin that is implicated as a significant pathogenicity factor in extraintestinal E. coli infections including sepsis. In perfused rabbit lungs, subcytolytic concentrations of the toxin evoke thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction and prostanoid-independent protracted vascular permeability increase (11). In the present study, the influence of submicromolar concentrations of free arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on the HlyA-induced leakage response was investigated. HlyA at concentration from 0.02 to 0.06 hemolytic units/ml provoked a dose-dependent, severalfold increase in the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), accompanied by the release of leukotriene(LT)B4, LTC4, and LTE4 into the recirculating buffer fluid. Simultaneous application of 100 nmol/L AA markedly augmented the HlyA-elicited leakage response, concomitant with an amplification of LTB4 release and a change in the kinetics of cysteinyl-LT generation. In contrast, 50 to 200 nmol/L EPA suppressed in a dose-dependent manner the HlyA-induced increase in Kfc values. This was accompanied by a blockage of 4-series LT generation and a dose-dependent appearance of LTB5, LTC5, and LTE5. In addition, EPA fully antagonized the AA-induced amplification of the HlyA-provoked Kfc increase, again accompanied by a shift from 4-series to 5-series LT generation. We conclude that the vascular leakage provoked by HlyA in rabbit lungs is differentially influenced by free AA versus free EPA, related to the generation of 4- versus 5-series leukotrienes. The composition of lipid emulsions used for parenteral nutrition may thus influence inflammatory capillary leakage.

  20. Biomarker and dietary validation of a Canadian food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid intakes from whole food, functional food, and nutraceutical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley C; Hogg, Ryan C; Kishi, Diane M; Stark, Ken D

    2012-07-01

    Canadian dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include marine and non-marine whole foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. In the present study, these sources were incorporated into a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the ability to measure the EPA and DHA intakes of Canadian adults was assessed. Specifically, the EPA and DHA intakes estimated by FFQ of 78 men and women, 20 to 60 years of age, were compared with EPA and DHA measurements from 3-day food records and measures of EPA and DHA in fasting whole blood. Mean (±standard deviation) and median intakes of EPA+DHA were 0.34±0.34 and 0.21 g/day by FFQ and 0.47±0.71 and 0.13 g/day by food record, with no significant differences between mean intakes (P=0.93). The FFQ provided higher estimates than the food record at low intakes of EPA and DHA and lower estimates at high intakes based on Bland-Altman plots. The FFQ was moderately correlated with food record (r=0.31 to 0.49) and with blood biomarker measures of EPA and DHA (r=0.31 to 0.51). Agreement analysis revealed that 42% of participants were classified in the same and 77% into same or adjacent quartile when EPA and DHA intake was assessed by food record and by FFQ. Similar quartile agreement was found for EPA and DHA intakes by FFQ with blood biomarker EPA and DHA. The range of the validity coefficients, calculated using the method of triads, was 0.43 to 0.71 for FFQ measurement of EPA+DHA. The FFQ is an adequate tool for estimating usual EPA and DHA intakes and ranking Canadian adults by their intakes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of dietary concentrations of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid at various stages of larval ontogeny on eye migration, pigmentation and prostaglandin content of common sole larvae ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Banta, G.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary manipulations of arachidonic acid, ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA may have an influence on pigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L., Linnaeus 1758) which may be related to a "pigmentation window". This is a specific period in the larval ontogeny where nutritional factors...... determine pigmentation. Malpigmentation defined as hypomelanosis was significantly related to elevated dietary and larval ARA contents, but not to EPA. The study reports evidence for a pigmentation window, as larval sensitivity to ARA or its derivatives was much higher during pre metamorphosis, than during...... metamorphosis. Initiation of metamorphosis (i.e. start of eye migration) was related to the size of larvae and not related to ARA or EPA content. Dietary EPA or DHA did not retard the advance of eye migration. More than 90 % of highly malpigmented juveniles, (i.e. "albinos") had a permanent aberrant eye...

  2. Synthesis and immunomodulatory activites of new 5-hydrazino-3-methyl-4-isothiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicka, Urszula; Maczyński, Marcin; Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2009-01-01

    Several new derivatives of 5-hydrazino-3-methyl-4-isothiazolecarboxylic ethyl esters were synthesized. Using 4-aminoacetophenone, the hydrazine group was transformed in position 5 in the hydrazone which reacted with the isocyanates, aldehydes and sugars. Thirteen newly synthesized compounds were tested for their ability to affects the immunological response in vitro in several rodent models. The immunoregulatory properties of the compounds were differential and dose-dependent. The strongest activity was exhibited by 5-{N'-[1-4{-4-[3-(-methoxyphenyl)-ureidol]-phenylethylidene]-hydrazino}-3-methyl-4-isothiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (compound 3a). The compound strongly inhibited the secondary, humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes and the proliferative response of mouse splenocytes to concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen. The immunotropic activities of the new isothiazole derivatives and potential application of the compounds in therapy are discussed.

  3. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Grunebaum, Michael F; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n = 48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n = 39; HV, n = 33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Zeina; Kristal, Alan R.; Gulati, Roman; Luick, Bret; Bersamin, Andrea; O'Brien, Diane; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Stephensen, Charles B.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.; Boyer, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Background N-3 fatty acids are associated with favorable, and obesity with unfavorable, concentrations of chronic disease risk biomarkers. Objective We examined whether high eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid intakes, measured as percentages of total red blood cell (RBC) fatty acids, modify associations of obesity with chronic disease risk biomarkers. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 330 Yup'ik Eskimos, generalized additive models (GAM) and linear and quadratic regression models were used to examine associations of BMI with biomarkers across RBC EPA and DHA categories. Results Median (5th–95th percentile) RBC EPA and DHA were 2.6% (0.5–5.9%) and 7.3% (3.3–8.9%), respectively. In regression models, associations of BMI with triglycerides, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin differed significantly by RBC EPA and DHA. The GAM confirmed regression results for triglycerides and CRP: At low RBC EPA and RBC DHA, the predicted increases in triglycerides and CRP concentrations associated with a BMI increase from 25 to 35 were 99.5±45.3 mg/dl (106%) and 137.8±71.0 mg/dl (156%), respectively, for triglycerides and 1.2±0.7 mg/l (61%) and 0.8±1.0 mg/l (35%), respectively, for CRP. At high RBC EPA and RBC DHA, these predicted increases were 13.9±8.1 mg/dl (23%) and 12.0±12.3 mg/dl (18%), respectively, for triglycerides and 0.5±0.5 mg/l (50%) and −0.5±0.6 mg/l (−34%), respectively, for CRP. Conclusions In this population, high RBC EPA and DHA were associated with attenuated dyslipidemia and low-grade systemic inflammation among overweight and obese persons. This may help inform recommendations for n-3 fatty acid intakes in the reduction of obesity-related disease risk. PMID:21427737

  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). These findings suggested that Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro assessment of the combined effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, green tea extract and curcumin C3 on protein loss in C2C12 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Kamran A; Luo, Menghua; Pereira, Suzette; Voss, Anne; Das, Tapas; Tisdale, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    EPA has been clinically shown to reduce muscle wasting during cancer cachexia. This study investigates whether curcumin or green tea extract (GTE) enhances the ability of low doses of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to reduce loss of muscle protein in an in vitro model. A low dose of EPA with minimal anti-cachectic activity was chosen to evaluate any potential synergistic effect with curcumin or GTE. Depression of protein synthesis and increase in degradation was determined in C2C12 myotubes in response to tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). EPA (50 μM) or curcumin (10 μg ml(-1)) alone had little effect on protein degradation caused by PIF but the combination produced complete inhibition, as did the combination with GTE (10 μg ml(-1)). In response to TNF-α (25 ng ml(-1))-induced protein degradation, EPA had a small, but not significant effect on protein degradation; however, when curcumin and GTE were combined with EPA, the effect was enhanced. EPA completely attenuated the depression of protein synthesis caused by TNF-α, but not that caused by PIF. The combination of EPA with curcumin produced a significant increase in protein synthesis to both agents. GTE alone or in combination with EPA had no effect on the depression of protein synthesis by TNF-α, but did significantly increase protein synthesis in PIF-treated cells. Both TNF-α and PIF significantly reduced myotube diameter from 17 to 13 μm for TNF-α (23.5%) and 15 μm (11.8%) for PIF However the triple combination of EPA, curcumin and GTE returned diameters to values not significantly different from the control. These results suggest that either curcumin or GTE or the combination could enhance the anti-catabolic effect of EPA on lean body mass.

  7. Selective enrichment of Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) in N. oceanica CASA CC201 by natural auxin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayan, Aswathy; Arumugam, Muthu

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of different concentration of natural auxin, Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) on growth, lipid yield, PUFA and EPA accumulation in Nannochloropsis oceanica CASA CC201. It was observed that the, treatment with 10ppm concentration of IAA resulted in high cell number 579.5×106cells/ml than the control (215.5×106cells/ml). Treatment with IAA at a concentration of 40ppm gives the highest cellular lipid accumulation of 60.9% DCW than the control 31.05% DCW). Lipid yield is also found to be increased by the addition of 40ppm IAA (319.5mg/L) compared with the control (121.5mg/L). EPA percentage is increased to 10.76% by the addition of 40ppm IAA compared to the control (1.87%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the clinical signs and erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Stephen J; May, Lauren R; King, Crystal; Harris, William S; Shah, Zubin

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs is a prevalent and serious condition. The most common treatment for the clinical signs of OA in dogs is the administration of nonsteroidal antiiflammatory pharmaceuticals. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have been shown to reduce the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. The primary goals of this study were 1) to determine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the clinical signs of OA in dogs, 2) to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the arachadonic acid (ARA)/ (EPA+DHA) algorithm and 3) to correlate alterations in the ARA/(EPA+DHA) with changes in the clinical signs of canine OA. Seventy-eight client owned dogs were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Dogs were randomized to placebo oil or triglyceride n-3 oil (providing an average dose of 69mg EPA+DHA/kg/day). Orthopedic examinations and blood analyses were performed at baseline, day 42, and day 84. A single investigator confirmed a diagnosis of OA of the coxofemoral joints and/or stifle joints in all dogs. Seventy-four dogs completed the trial. All clinical outcomes for measuring discomfort, lameness, and joint severity at day 84 and all blood metrics at day 42 and day 84 significantly (p<0.05) improved compared with placebo. No major side effects were observed. This study demonstrated that the daily supplementation of a dogs diet with EPA and DHA shifts the blood fatty acid concentrations correlating to relief of clinical signs associated with OA in dogs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the Transformation of the Oil of Used Soya in Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sarracent-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of vegetable oils in food processing brings harmful health effects and on the other hand needs a complex treatment to discard without affecting the environment. Transformed into methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids and glycerin by transesterification with the corresponding alcohol, can be a suitable method for treatment. It was investigated residual soybean oil from a producer of fried foods and ethanol. It is known that with this spirit the transformation process presents difficulties not listed with methanol, but at the same time does not bring the drawbacks of the latter, for toxicity and acquisition, and that since it is a derivative of the domestic sugar industry does not constitute a raw material import. We experimented with ethanol 80 %, 85 % and 90 % purity and worked 35 ºC and 50 ºC. Final yields of ethyl esters, are low compared with those obtained for similar processes with methanol, 85 % being the highest yield obtained under the conditions of the process. An assessment of costs was conducted to produce 1L of ethyl esters in the laboratory, the expenses of 0,56 pesos/L.

  10. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS–Ca{sup 2+}–JNK mitochondrial pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Han, Lirong [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Qi, Wentao [Academy of State Administration of Grain, No.11 Baiwanzhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100037 (China); Cheng, Dai; Ma, Xiaolei; Hou, Lihua [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Cao, Xiaohong, E-mail: caoxh@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Chunling, E-mail: wangchunling@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • EPA evoked ROS formation, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} accumulation, the opening of MPTP and the phosphorylation of JNK. • EPA-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} elevation was depended on production of ROS. • EPA-induced ROS generation, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} increase, and JNK activated caused MPTP opening. • The apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C through the MPTP. • EPA induced HepG2 cells apoptosis through ROS–Ca{sup 2+}–JNK mitochondrial pathways. - Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a well-known dietary n−3 PUFAS, has been considered to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism related to EPA-induced liver cancer cells apoptosis has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis mechanism through mitochondrial pathways. EPA inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and had no significant effect on the cell viability of humor normal liver L-02 cells. It was found that EPA initially evoked ROS formation, leading to [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} accumulation and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening; EPA-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an inhibitor of ROS), 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM, a chelator of calcium) and CsA (inhibitor of MPTP). The relationship between ROS production, the increase of cytoplasmic Ca and MPTP opening was detected. It seems that ROS may act as an upstream regulator of EPA-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} generation, moreover, generation of ROS, overload of mitochondrial [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}, and JNK activated cause the opening of MPTP. Western blotting results showed that EPA elevated the phosphorylation status of JNK, processes associated with the ROS generation. Simultaneously, the apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm through the MPTP

  12. Bis(tetra-ethyl-ammonium) bis-(hydrogen l-tartrate) l-tartaric acid monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, M; Indirajith, R; Gopalakrishnan, R; Ramamurthi, K; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2011-06-01

    In the title compound, 2C(8)H(20)N(+)·2C(4)H(5)O(6) (-)·C(4)H(6)O(6)·H(2)O, the presence of the two tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations is balanced by two hydrogen l-tartrate anions. Also present in the asymmetric unit are a mol-ecule of l-tartaric acid and a water mol-ecule. The various components are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, two-dimensional networks are formed via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯O inter-actions involving the water mol-ecule, the hydrogen l-tartrate anions and the l-tartaric acid mol-ecules. These layers, which stack along [001], are separated by tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations. The latter are also involved in C-H⋯O inter-actions with the anions and the l-tartaric acid and water mol-ecules participating in the two-dimensional network.

  13. Protective effect of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Eicosapentaenoic acid/Docosahexaenoic acid 1:1 ratio on cardiovascular disease risk markers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluís, Laura; Taltavull, Núria; Muñoz-Cortés, Mònica; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Romeu, Marta; Giralt, Montse; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Torres, Josep Lluís; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Pazos, Manuel; Méndez, Lucía; Gallardo, José M; Medina, Isabel; Nogués, M Rosa

    2013-10-01

    High consumption of fish carries a lower risk of cardiovascular disease as a consequence of dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA; especially EPA and DHA) content. A controversy exists about the component/s responsible of these beneficial effects and, in consequence, which is the best proportion between both fatty acids. We sought to determine, in healthy Wistar rats, the proportions of EPA and DHA that would induce beneficial effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease risk. Female Wistar rats were fed for 13 weeks with 5 different dietary supplements of oils; 3 derived from fish (EPA/DHA ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 1:2) plus soybean and linseed as controls. The activities of major antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPX, and GR) were determined in erythrocytes and liver, and the ORAC test was used to determine the antioxidant capacity in plasma. Also measured were: C reactive protein (CRP), endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM and sICAM), prothrombotic activity (PAI-1), lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc, Apo-A1, and Apo-B100), glycated haemoglobin and lipid peroxidation (LDL-ox and MDA values). After three months of nutritional intervention, we observed statistically significant differences in the ApoB100/ApoA1 ratio, glycated haemoglobin, VCAM-1, SOD and GPx in erythrocytes, ORAC values and LDL-ox. Supplementation with fish oil derived omega-3 PUFA increased VCAM-1, LDL-ox and plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC). Conversely, the ApoB100/ApoA1 ratio and percentage glycated haemoglobin decreased. Our results showed that a diet of a 1:1 ratio of EPA/DHA improved many of the oxidative stress parameters (SOD and GPx in erythrocytes), plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and cardiovascular risk factors (glycated haemoglobin) relative to the other diets.

  14. Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Block the Protumorigenic Effects of Obesity in Mouse Models of Postmenopausal Basal-like and Claudin-Low Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Nikki A; Rossi, Emily L; Barnett, Kelsey; Yang, Peiying; Bowers, Laura W; Hidaka, Brandon H; Kimler, Bruce F; Carlson, Susan E; Shureiqi, Imad; deGraffenried, Linda A; Fabian, Carol J; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-09-01

    Obesity induces chronic inflammation and is an established risk and progression factor for triple-negative breast cancers, including basal-like (BL) and claudin-low (CL) subtypes. We tested the effects of dietary supplementation with ethyl esters of the marine-derived anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA; Lovaza) on growth of murine BL and CL mammary tumors. Female ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or a diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet with or without EPA+DHA (0.025%, resulting in blood levels of EPA and DHA comparable with women taking Lovaza 4 g/d) for 6 weeks. All mice were then orthotopically injected with Wnt-1 cells (a BL tumor cell suspension derived from MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors) or M-Wnt cells (a CL tumor cell line cloned from the Wnt-1 tumor cell suspension). Mice were killed when tumors were 1 cm in diameter. EPA+DHA supplementation did not significantly affect Wnt-1 or M-Wnt mammary tumor growth in normoweight control mice. However, EPA+DHA supplementation in DIO mice reduced growth of Wnt-1 and M-Wnt tumors; reduced leptin:adiponectin ratio and proinflammatory eicosanoids in the serum; improved insulin sensitivity; and decreased tumoral expression of COX-2 and phospho-p65. Thus, EPA+DHA supplementation in mouse models of postmenopausal BL and CL breast cancer offsets many of the protumorigenic effects of obesity. These preclinical findings, in combination with results from parallel biomarker studies in women, suggest that EPA+DHA supplementation may reduce the burden of BL and CL breast cancer in obese women. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. A novel collector 2-ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid: Flotation performance and adsorption mechanism to ilmenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Haifeng; Zhong, Hong, E-mail: zhongh@csu.edu.cn; Tang, Qing; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Guangyi, E-mail: guangyiliu@csu.edu.cn

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: EHHA's synthesis route, flotation performance and coadsorption molecule–ion mechanism to ilmenite. - Highlights: • 2-Ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid (EHHA) was synthesized and characterized. • EHHA showed stronger affinity to ilmenite. • EHHA might chemisorb onto ilmenite surfaces by form of five-membered chelates. • EHHA might adsorb onto ilmenite surfaces through molecule–ion coadsorption model. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel collector, 2-ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid (EHHA) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectra. The flotation performance and adsorption mechanism of EHHA to ilmenite were investigated by micro-flotation tests, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, FTIR spectra, zeta potential and solution chemistry analyses. The micro-flotation results indicated that EHHA exhibited superior flotation performance compared to isooctyl hydroximic acid (IOHA) and octyl hydroxamic acid (OHA), and floated out 84.03% ilmenite at pH 8.0 with 250 mg/L dosage. The analyses of FTIR spectra and zeta potential demonstrated that EHHA might chemisorb onto ilmenite surfaces by form of five-membered chelates. The solution chemistry analyses further inferred that at pH 6.3–10.5, both Fe and Ti species on ilmenite surfaces could chelate EHHA. DFT calculation results implied EHHA owned the strongest affinity to ilmenite among the three C{sub 8} hydroximic acids. To discern the sharply improving floatability of ilmenite at pH 8–10, a schematic co-adsorption molecule–ion model of EHHA on ilmenite surfaces was suggested.

  16. A randomized clinical trial of high eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acids and inositol as monotherapy and in combination in the treatment of pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Janet; Faraone, Stephen V; Chan, James; Tarko, Laura; Hernandez, Mariely; Davis, Jacqueline; Woodworth, K Yvonne; Biederman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3 fatty acids and inositol as monotherapy and in combination in children with bipolar spectrum disorders. Participants were children 5-12 years of age meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders (bipolar I or II disorder or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified [NOS]) and displaying mixed, manic, or hypomanic symptoms. Subjects with severe illness were excluded. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment arms: inositol plus placebo, omega-3 fatty acids plus placebo, and the combined active treatment of omega-3 fatty acids plus inositol. Data were collected from February 2012 to November 2013. Twenty-four subjects were exposed to treatment (≥ 1 week of study completed) (inositol [n = 7], omega-3 fatty acids [n = 7], and omega-3 fatty acids plus inositol [n =10]). Fifty-four percent of the subjects completed the study. Subjects randomized to the omega-3 fatty acids plus inositol arm had the largest score decrease comparing improvement from baseline to end point with respect to the Young Mania Rating Scale (P omega-3 fatty acids plus inositol reduced symptoms of mania and depression in prepubertal children with mild to moderate bipolar spectrum disorders. Results should be interpreted in light of limitations, which include exclusion of severely ill subjects, 54% completion rate, and small sample size. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01396486. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, K A; Alharethi, R; Laposata, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites present in human organs commonly damaged by ethanol abuse, have been implicated as mediators of organ damage. FAEE are additives in various foods and beverages to provide flavor or fragrance, and therefore are common dietary lipid constituents. We hypothesized that FAEE could be generated during alcoholic beverage production because fatty acids are present within microorganisms and ethanol is generated during the fermentation process. In this report, we demonstrate that FAEE are present in commercially available scotch beverages, and that in the preparation of scotch, FAEE can be produced during the fermentation reaction as a result of FAEE synthase activity in the yeast. Following ingestion of scotch, preformed FAEE are delivered to GI tract. The consequences of ingestion of FAEE in scotch, if any, remain to be determined.

  18. Preanalytical variables affecting the quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters in plasma and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, B L; Sicinska, E T; Blodget, E; Cluette-Brown, J E; Suter, P M; Schuppisser, T; Vetter, W; Laposata, M

    1999-12-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are cytotoxic nonoxidative ethanol metabolites produced by esterification of fatty acids and ethanol. FAEEs are detectable in blood up to 24 h after ethanol consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of gender, serum or plasma triglyceride concentration, time and temperature of specimen storage, type of alcoholic beverage ingested, and the rate of ethanol consumption on FAEE concentrations in plasma or serum. For some studies, subject were recruited volunteers; in others, residual blood samples after ethanol quantification were used. FAEEs were isolated by solid-phase extraction and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For weight-adjusted amounts of ethanol intake, FAEE concentrations were twofold greater for men than women (P /=24 h. The type of alcoholic beverage and rate of consumption did not affect FAEE concentrations. These studies advance plasma and serum FAEE measurements closer to implementation as a clinical test for ethanol intake.

  19. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic Acid Reduces Liver Lipids and Lowers Plasma Levels of Lipids in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NAHOKO NEMOTO; SATOE SUZUKI; HIROYUKI KIKUCHI; HITOMI OKABE; SHUJI SASSA; SHINOBU SAKAMOTO

    2009-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, i.e. simple steatosis may progress to advanced fibrosis and to cryptogenic cirrhosis via steatohepatitis, and ultimately to hepatocellular carcinoma...

  20. [Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on mRNA expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells after Escherichia coli LF82 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Jun; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Jiao; Wang, Ya; Chen, Peng-De; Hu, Chong-Kang; Zeng, Ling-Chao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Xi; Jiang, Xun

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E.coli LF82 treatment (0, 6, and 12 hours) groups. A microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the cells. MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth curve. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at both sides of the cell membrane was compared to evaluate the Caco-2 cell model. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of EPA on the survival rate and apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells. RT-qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells after EPA and/or E.coli LF82 treatment. ELISA was used to measure the change in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatant. After EPA treatment (25 and 50 μmol/L), the proliferation of Caco-2 cells was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly higher than those in the control group (Pcoli LF82 treatment groups had decreasing mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells over the time of treatment and had significantly lower mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the untreated group (Pcoli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed an increase in the mRNA expression of ZO-1 with the increasing concentration of EPA, as well as significantly higher mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (Pcoli LF82 alone for 6 or 12 hours had increasing secretion of TNF-α over the time of treatment and had significantly higher secretion than the untreated Caco-2

  1. Method for the purification of bis (2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1974-02-19

    Foreign products including the neutral organophosphorous compounds and the iron salts normally present in commercial bis(2ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid(HDEHP), and the radiolytic degradation products of HDEHP on exposure of HDEHP to beta and gamma irradiation are removed from HDEHP containing one or more of such products by contacting the said foreign product containing HDEHP with a macroreticular anion exchange resin in base form whereby the DEHP- ion of HDEHP exchanges with the anion of the resin and is thus adsorbed on the resin and the said foreign products are not adsorbed and will pass through a bed of particles of the resin. The adsorbed DEHP- ion is then eluted from the resin and acidified to form and recover the purified HDEHP. (auth)

  2. Physiological and transcriptional characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for production of fatty acid ethyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously been engineered to become a cell factory for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), molecules suitable for crude diesel replacement. To find new metabolic engineering targets for the improvement of FAEE cell factories, three different FAEE......-producing strains of S. cerevisiae, constructed previously, were compared and characterized by quantification of key fluxes and genome-wide transcription analysis. From both the physiological and the transcriptional data, it was indicated that strain CB2I20, with high expression of a heterologous wax ester synthase...... gene (ws2) and strain BdJ15, containing disruptions of genes DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, ARE2 and POX1, which prevent the conversion of acyl-CoA to sterol esters, triacylglycerides and the degradation to acetyl-CoA, triggered oxidative stress that consequently influenced cellular growth. In the latter strain...

  3. Two new Ni(II) supramolecular complexes based on ethyl isonicotinate and ethyl nicotinate for removal of acid blue 92 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Marie, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Two new luminescent supramolecular complexes (SC); [Ni(EIN)4(NCS)2] SC1 and [Ni2(EN)8(NCS)4] SC2, (EIN = ethyl isonicotinate, EN = ethyl nicotinate), have been synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, PXRD, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Both SC1 and SC2 are monoclinic crystals however, they have different asymmetric units. Ni(II) atoms in both SC are isostructural and have similar hexa-coordinate environment. The structures of SC1 and SC2 consist of parallel polymeric 1D-chains, extended in two and three dimensional supramolecular frameworks by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. SC1 and SC2 are luminescent materials which can be used in applications as molecular sensing systems. SC1 and SC2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts for degradation of acid blue 92 (AB-92) under sun light irradiation. The fluorescence measurements of terephthalic acid technique as a probe molecule were used to determine the •OH radicals. Also the radicals trapping experiments using isopropanol alcohol (IPA) as radical scavenger were discussed. In addition a mechanism of degradation was proposed and discussed.

  4. Chiral quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid in soils: Enantioselective degradation, enzymes interaction and toxicity to Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Liu, Hui; Qu, Han; Xu, Yangguang; Wang, Peng; Sun, Mingjing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    An enantioselective chromatographic method to analyze enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid was established using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on (R, R) Whelk-O 1 column. The enantioselective degradation kinetics of quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid in three soils were investigated. Moreover, the interaction with urease and catalase in the soils and the acute toxicity to Eisenia foetida of quizalofop-ethyl were also determined in order to assess their metabolism mechanism and environmental risk. From the results, quizalofop-ethyl was configurationally stable and was hydrolyzed rapidly to quizalofop-acid, which also degraded enantioselectively but slowly, and the inversion of the S-(-)-quizalofop-acid into the R-(+)-quizalofop-acid was observed in Xinxiang soil. In addition, quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid enantioselectively affected urease activity but not catalase. The acute toxicity assays to earthworm indicated that the racemic quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid were more toxic than quizalofop-p-ethyl and quizalofop-p-acid respectively, dramatically, the toxicity of the metabolite was much higher than the parent compound. These results revealed the enantioselective degradation of quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid, and the differences of toxicity among the enantiomers of the parent compound and the metabolite, which should be considered in future environmental risk evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 532) and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and contribution to normal cognitive function and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...

  6. Evaluation of the hepatic bioconversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in rats fed with oils from chia (Salvia hispánica or rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia O., G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The high dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids generates health disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases and other chronic diseases. The consumption of fish, which is rich in n-3 fatty acids, is low in Latin America and it is necessary to seek other alternatives, such as chia oil (CO or rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, which are rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of the n -3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. This study evaluates the hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA and the damage to the liver (histology and transaminase in Sprague- Dawley rats fed different vegetable oils. Four experimental groups (n = 9 animals each group were fed the following dietary supplements for 21 days: a sunflower oil (SFO, b RMO, c CO d olive oil with fish oil added (EPA and DHA (OO/FO. RMO and CO increased the hepatic levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p El elevado aporte en la dieta de ácidos grasos omega- 6, en relación a los ácidos grasos omega-3, genera alteraciones de la salud cardiovascular, inflamación y otras patologías crónicas no transmisibles. Por otro lado, el pescado rico en ácidos grasos omega-3 es de bajo consumo en Latinoamérica, siendo necesario buscar otras alternativas de aporte de ácidos grasos omega-3, como lo son el aceite de chía (CO o el de rosa mosqueta (RMO, ricos en ácido α-linolénico (ALA, que es el precursor de los ácidos grasos omega-3, eicosapentaenoico (EPA y docosahexaenoico (DHA. Este trabajo evaluó en forma preliminar la bioconversión hepática del ALA en EPA y DHA y el daño hepático (histología y transaminasas en ratas Sprague-Dawley alimentadas con diferentes aceites vegetales. Se conformaron cuatro grupos experimentales (n = 9 animales por grupo que recibieron durante 21 días: a aceite de girasol (SFO; b RMO, c CO y d aceite de oliva adicionado de aceite de pescado (EPA

  7. Combination of ester biosynthesis and ω-oxidation for production of mono-ethyl dicarboxylic acids and di-ethyl esters in a whole-cell biocatalytic setup with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuland, Youri M; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2017-11-02

    Medium chain length (C6-C12) α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and corresponding esters are important building blocks for the polymer industry. For DCAs of 12 carbon atoms and longer, a sustainable process based on monooxygenase catalyzed ω-oxidation of fatty-acids has been realized. For medium-chain DCAs with a shorter chain length however, such a process has not been developed yet, since monooxygenases poorly ω-oxidize medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). On the contrary, esterified MCFAs are ω-oxidized well by the AlkBGTHJ proteins from Pseudomonas putida GPo1. We show that MCFAs can be efficiently esterified and subsequently ω-oxidized in vivo. We combined ethyl ester synthesis and ω-oxidation in one-pot, whole-cell biocatalysis in Escherichia coli. Ethyl ester production was achieved by applying acyl-CoA ligase AlkK and an alcohol acyltransferase, either AtfA or Eeb1. E. coli expressing these proteins in combination with the ω-oxidation pathway consisting of AlkBGTHJ, produced mono-ethyl DCAs directly from C6, C8 and C9 fatty acids. The highest molar yield was 0.75, for mono-ethyl azelate production from nonanoic acid. Furthermore, di-ethyl esters were produced. Diethyl suberate was produced most among the di-ethyl esters, with a molar yield of 0.24 from octanoic acid. The results indicate that esterification of MCFAs and subsequent ω-oxidation to mono-ethyl DCAs via whole-cell biocatalysis is possible. This process could be the first step towards sustainable production of medium-chain DCAs and medium-chain di-ethyl esters.

  8. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An assessment of early genotoxic markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, L.E.; Shahbakhti, H.; Azurdia, R.M.; Moison, R.M.W.; Steenwinkel, M.J.S.T.; Homburg, M.I.; Dean, M.P.; McArdle, F.; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G.M.J.; Epe, B.; Vink, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) protect against photocarcinogenesis in animals, but prospective human studies are scarce. The mechanism(s) underlying the photoprotection are uncertain, although ω-3 PUFAs may influence oxidative stress. We examined the effect of

  9. Eicosapentaenoic acid free fatty acid prevents and suppresses colonic neoplasia in colitis-associated colorectal cancer acting on Notch signaling and gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzi, G.; Argenio, D' G.; Prossomariti, A.; Lembo, V.; Mazzone, G.; Candela, M.; Biagi, E.; Brigidi, P.; Vitaglione, P.; Fogliano, V.; Angelo and others, D' L.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased risk of developing colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Epidemiological data show that the consumption of ¿-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (¿-3 PUFAs) decreases the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, recent data have

  10. Placental Fatty Acid ethyl esters are elevated with maternal alcohol use in pregnancies complicated by prematurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa W Gauthier

    Full Text Available The accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs in meconium of term newborns has been described as one potential biomarker of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. FAEEs accumulate in multiple alcohol-exposed fetal tissues and in the placenta. Limited research has focused on the identification of the premature newborn exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in a significant proportion of premature deliveries and that this exposure can be detected as elevated placental FAEEs. The goals of this study were to 1 determine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use in the premature newborn and 2 investigate whether placental FAEEs could identify those newborns with fetal alcohol exposure. This prospective observational study evaluated 80 placentas from 80 women after premature delivery. Subjects were interviewed for alcohol intake and placental FAEEs were quantified via GC/MS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC Curves were generated to evaluate the ability of placental FAEEs to predict maternal drinking during pregnancy. Adjusted ROC curves were generated to adjust for gestational age, maternal smoking, and illicit drug use. 30% of the subjects admitted to drinking alcohol during pregnancy and approximately 14% answered questions indicative of problem drinking (designated AUDIT+. The specific FAEEs ethyl stearate and linoleate, as well as combinations of oleate + linoleate + linolenate (OLL and of OLL + stearate, were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in placentas from AUDIT+ pregnancies. Adjusted ROC Curves generated areas under the curve ranging from 88-93% with negative predictive values of 97% for AUDIT+ pregnancies. We conclude that nearly one third of premature pregnancies were alcohol-exposed, and that elevated placental FAEEs hold great promise to accurately determine maternal alcohol use, particularly heavy use, in pregnancies complicated by premature delivery.

  11. The Hypoxia Mimetic Protocatechuic Acid Ethyl Ester Inhibits Synaptic Signaling and Plasticity in the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Sinead M; O'Connor, John J

    2018-01-15

    During hypoxia a number of physiological changes occur within neurons including the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). The activity of these proteins is regulated by O 2 , Fe 2+ , 2-OG and ascorbate-dependant hydroxylases which contain prolyl-4-hydroxylase domains (PHDs). PHD inhibitors have been widely used and have been shown to have a preconditioning and protective effect against a later and more severe hypoxic insult. In this study we have investigated the neuroprotective effects of the PHD inhibitor, protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4, dihydroxybenzoate: EDHB), as well as its effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the rat hippocampus using electrophysiological techniques. We report for the first time, an acute concentration-dependent and reversible inhibitory effect of EDHB (10-100 μM) on synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus but not Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region which does not affect cell viability. This effect was attenuated through the application of the NMDA or GABA A receptor antagonists, AP-5 and picrotoxin in the dentate gyrus. There were no changes in the ratio of paired responses after EDHB application suggesting a post-synaptic mechanism of action. EDHB (100 μM), was found to inhibit synaptic plasticity in both the dentate gyrus and CA1 regions. Application of exogenous Fe 2+ (100 μM) or digoxin (100 nM) did not reverse EDHB's inhibitory effect on synaptic transmission or plasticity in both regions, suggesting that its effects may be HIF-independent. These results highlight a novel modulatory role for the PHD inhibitor EDHB in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. A novel post-synaptic mechanism of action may be involved, possibly involving NMDA and GABA A receptor activation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  13. Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Larsen, Crilles Casper

    2013-01-01

    dissolution testing. The release from defect extrudates was visualized by the absorbance maps and the release was highest from the compromised part of the extrudates. UV imaging has proven to be a useful technique to visualize the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single film coated extrudates and it has......The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single extrudates by UV imaging and to explore the technique as a visualization tool for detecting film coating defects on extrudates coated with a thin ethyl cellulose layer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid...... from four different coating levels were placed in agarose gels and UV imaging was performed for a total of 240min. Absorbance maps were obtained thus visualizing the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid over time and it was possible to detect a decrease in release as a function of increased ethyl cellulose...

  14. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid on coronary high-intensity plaques detected with non-contrast T1-weighted imaging (the AQUAMARINE EPA/DHA study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Kazuhiro; Noguchi, Teruo; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Morita, Yoshiaki; Kanaya, Tomoaki; Fujino, Masashi; Hosoda, Hayato; Yoneda, Shuichi; Kawakami, Shoji; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Nishihira, Kensaku; Nakashima, Takahiro; Kumasaka, Reon; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Nakanishi, Michio; Kataoka, Yu; Tahara, Yoshio; Goto, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Haruko; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2018-01-08

    Despite the success of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy in reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular events, a residual risk for cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remains. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are promising anti-atherosclerosis agents that might reduce the residual CAD risk. Non-contrast T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) less invasively identifies high-risk coronary plaques as high-intensity signals. These high-intensity plaques (HIPs) are quantitatively assessed using the plaque-to-myocardium signal intensity ratio (PMR). Our goal is to assess the effect of EPA/DHA on coronary HIPs detected with T1WI in patients with CAD on statin treatment. This prospective, controlled, randomized, open-label study examines the effect of 12 months of EPA/DHA therapy and statin treatment on PMR of HIPs detected with CMR and computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with CAD. The primary endpoint is the change in PMR after EPA/DHA treatment. Secondary endpoints include changes in Hounsfield units, plaque volume, vessel area, and plaque area measured using CTA. Subjects are randomly assigned to either of three groups: the 2 g/day EPA/DHA group, the 4 g/day EPA/DHA group, or the no-treatment group. This trial will help assess whether EPA/DHA has an anti-atherosclerotic effect using PMR of HIPs detected by CMR. The trial outcomes will provide novel insights into the effect of EPA/DHA on high-risk coronary plaques and may provide new strategies for lowering the residual risk in patients with CAD on statin therapy. The University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry, ID: UMIN000015316 . Registered on 2 October 2014.

  15. Effect of Enriched Artemia sp. by EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid; C20:5n-3 and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid; C22:6n-3 on Survival Rate of Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agus Suprayudi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient content of natural food is one of the main factors for determining the successful of marine fish fry production.  EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid are two essential fatty acids for marine fish larvae.   Low levels of EPA and DHA content in natural food is major problem in marine fish larval production.  Rotifers fed by Nannochloropsis contained EPA about 0.94%-1.46% and DHA was limited, while in Artemia was 0.27%-0.39% EPA and DHA was undetected (Suprayudi et al., 2002a.  Feeding on supplemented Artemia with EPA 28G and DHA 70G in ratio of 1:1 could not significantly improved its survival rate and larval development time, while growth by length and carapas width at first crab were higher  than  that of fed with unenriched Artemia. Keywords: EPA, DHA, Artemia, swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus   ABSTRAK Kandungan nutrisi dalam pakan alami merupakan salah satu faktor utama yang menentukan keberhasilan produksi benih spesies akuatik laut.  EPA (asam ekosapentanat dan DHA (asam dokosaheksanat merupakan 2 asam lemak esensil bagi larva ikan laut.  Kandungan EPA dan DHA yang rendah pada pakan alami merupakan masalah utama dalam produksi larva ikan laut.  Rotifer yang diberi pakan Nannochloropsis mengandung EPA 0,94%-1,46% dan DHA dengan jumlah yang sangat kecil, sementara Artemia EPA mengandung 0,27%-0,39% dan DHA tidak terdeteksi (Suprayudi et al., 2002a. Pemberian Artemia yang diperkaya dengan EPA 28G dan DHA 70G dengan perbandingan 1:1 tidak memberikan hasil yang signifikan pada tingkat kelangsungan hidup dan waktu perkembangan larva rajungan, sementara pertumbuhan panjang dan lebar karapas lebih baik pada crab 1 dibandingkan dengan yang diberi Artemia tidak diperkaya. Kata kunci: EPA, DHA, Artemia, rajungan, Portunus pelagicus

  16. Heat capacities and thermal diffusivities of n-alkane acid ethyl esters—biodiesel fuel components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatishcheva, N. S.; Faizullin, M. Z.; Nikitin, E. D.

    2017-09-01

    The heat capacities and thermal diffusivities of ethyl esters of liquid n-alkane acids C n H2 n-1O2C2H5 with the number of carbon atoms in the parent acid n = 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16 are measured. The heat capacities are measured using a DSC 204 F1 Phoenix heat flux differential scanning calorimeter (Netzsch, Germany) in the temperature range of 305-375 K. Thermal diffusivities are measured by means of laser flash method on an LFA-457 instrument (Netzsch, Germany) at temperatures of 305-400 K. An equation is derived for the dependence of the molar heat capacities of the investigated esters on temperature. It is shown that the dependence of molar heat capacity C p,m (298.15 K) on n ( n = 1-6) is close to linear. The dependence of thermal diffusivity on temperature in the investigated temperature range is described by a first-degree polynomial, but thermal diffusivity a (298.15 K) as a function of n has a minimum at n = 5.

  17. Optimization of reaction parameters for enzymatic glyceride synthesis from fish oil: Ethyl esters versus free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Damstrup, Marianne L.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free fatty acids (FFA) or fatty acid ethyl esters (FAE) into glycerides via esterification or transesterification was examined. The reactions catalyzed by Lipozyme™ 435, a Candida antarctica lipase, were optimized. Influence on conversion yields of fatty acid chain...... length, saturation degree, temperature, enzyme dosage, molar ratio glycerol:fatty acids, acyl source composition (w/w ratio FFA:FAE), and reaction time was evaluated collectively by multiple linear regression. All reaction variables influenced the conversion into glycerides. Transesterification of FAE...

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.

    2014-01-01

    ) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7......-day dietary records, physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood fatty acid composition, cholesterols, triacylglycerol, insulin resistance by the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), and inflammatory...... markers. Whole blood EPA was associated with a 2.7 mmHg (95% CI 0.4; 5.1) higher diastolic blood pressure per weight% EPA, but only in boys. Heart rate was negatively associated with both EPA and DHA status (P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Whole blood EPA was negatively associated...

  19. Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentjes, M A H; Mulligan, A A; Welch, A A; Bhaniani, A; Luben, R N; Khaw, K-T

    2015-12-01

    Total nutrient intake (TNI) is intake from food and supplements. This provides an assessment of nutrient adequacy and the prevalence of excessive intake, as well as the response with respect to biomarkers. Cod liver oil (CLO) is the most frequently consumed supplement in the UK, containing nutrients that might have varying influences on health. We calculated TNI for vitamins A, D and E, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and assessed associations with the respective blood concentrations. Seven-day diet diaries and blood samples were taken from two subsets of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort (age range 39-79 years; n = 1400 for vitamin D; n = 6656 for remaining nutrients). TNI was calculated for the subgroups: nonsupplement users, those consuming the nutrient in supplement form and those consuming a supplement without this nutrient. CLO-related nutrients were supplemented by 15%-33%, which approximately doubled median intakes. Almost everyone in the supplement + vitamin A group reached the estimated average requirement; however, guideline levels were likely to be exceeded. Partial correlations between intake of vitamins A and D and biomarkers were low and modestly strengthened by the inclusion of supplement sources (correlation = 0.01-0.13). Correlations between biomarker and TNI of vitamin E and EPA+DHA were in the range 0.40-0.46; however, vitamin E exceeding food intake resulted in attenuated coefficients. Linear associations between food or TNI EPA+DHA and plasma were weak but consistent across subgroups. CLO-related nutrients contribute substantially to nutrient intake, with a risk of over-consumption. Apart from EPA+DHA, biomarker data suggest that CLO-related nutrients in supplements are not linearly associated with vitamin status. © 2014 Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Dietetic Association.

  20. Optimization of SPE for Analysis of Mandelic Acid as a Biomarker of Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Shahtaheri, M Abdollahi, F Golbabaei, A Rahimi-Froushani, F Ghamari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl benzene is an important constituent of widely used solvents in industries and laboratories, causing widespread environmental and industrial pollutions. For evaluation of occupational exposure to such pollutants, biological monitoring is an essential process, in which, preparation of environmental and biological samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to chromatographic techniques. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has been grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE. In this study, SPE using bonded silica has been optimized with regard to sample pH, sample concentration, elution solvent, elution volume, sorbent type, and sorbent mass. Through experimental evaluation, a strong anion exchange silica cartridge (SAX has been found successful in simplifying sample preparation. The present approach proved that, mandelic acid could be retained on SAX sorbent based on specific interaction. Further study was employed using 10% acetic acid to extract the analyte from spiked urine and gave a clean sample for HPLC-UV system. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography, using reverse-phase column was used. The isocratic run was done at a constant flow rate of 0.85 ml/min, the mobile phase was water/methanol/acetic acid and a UV detector was used, setting at 225 nm. At the developed conditions the extraction recovery was exceeded 98%. The factors were evaluated statically and also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments.

  1. Acid Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Behaviour of Ethyl Hydroxyethyl Cellulose on Mild Steel Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Arukalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution by ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose has been studied in relation to the concentration of the additive using weight loss measurement, EIS, polarization, and quantum chemical calculation techniques. The results indicate that EHEC inhibited corrosion reaction in the acid medium and inhibition efficiency increased with EHEC concentration. Further increase in inhibition efficiency is observed in the presence of iodide ions, due to synergistic effect. Impedance results reveal that EHEC is adsorbed on the corroding metal surface. Adsorption followed a modified Langmuir isotherm, with very high negative values of the free energy of adsorption (ΔGads. The polarization data indicate that the inhibitor was of mixed type, with predominant effect on the cathodic partial reaction. The frontier molecular orbitals, HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO (the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital as well as local reactivity of the EHEC molecule, were analyzed theoretically using the density functional theory to explain the adsorption characteristics at a molecular level. The theoretical predictions showed good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Enhancing fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through metabolic engineering and medium optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R Adam; Trinh, Cong T

    2014-11-01

    Biodiesels in the form of fatty acyl ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a promising next generation biofuel due to their chemical properties and compatibility with existing infrastructure. It has recently been shown that expression of a bacterial acyl-transferase in the established industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to production of FAEEs by condensation of fatty acyl-CoAs and ethanol. In contrast to recent strategies to produce FAEEs in S. cerevisiae through manipulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis or a series of arduous genetic manipulations, we introduced a novel genetic background, which is comparable in titer to previous reports with a fraction of the genetic disruption by aiming at increasing the fatty acyl-CoA pools. In addition, we combined metabolic engineering with modification of culture conditions to produce a maximum titer of over 25 mg/L FAEEs, a 40% improvement over previous reports and a 17-fold improvement over our initial characterizations. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2200-2208. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effects of a single oral dose of ethyl linoleate on urinary prostaglandin E excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a single oral dose of ethyl linoleate on urinary prostaaglandin E (PGE) excretion and urine output were investigated in essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient rats. Weanling male rats were fed a fat-free diet. After 13 wk of feeding, eight rats received an oral dose of 400 mg of ethyl...... oleate. Seven days later the same eight rats received 400 mg of ethyl linoleate. The oleate dosage served as control. Another seven EFA-deficient rats received an oral dose of 100 mg of ethyl linoleate. The 24-hr urine collections from each animal were analyzed for PGE by radioimmunoassay. Within 24 h...

  4. The effect of ethanol on the kinetics of lipase-mediated enantioselective esterification of 4-methyloctanoic acid and the hydrolysis of its ethyl ester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, N.W.J.T.; Valente, A.M.; Schmienk, H.G.F.; Padt, van der A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Groot, de Æ.; Riet, van 't K.

    2001-01-01

    The Novozym 435? catalyzed esterification and hydrolysis reactions of 4-methyloctanoic acid (ethyl ester) were investigated. In both the hydrolysis and esterification reactions, the increase of ethanol concentration led to an increase in enantiomeric ratio (E). For hydrolysis of the ethyl ester, the

  5. An evaluation of washing and extraction techniques in the analysis of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters from hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossers, L C A M; Paul, R; Berry, A J; Kingston, R; Middendorp, C; Guwy, A J

    2014-03-15

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are alcohol metabolites measured in hair and are after a decade of research thought to be the best markers in hair to indicate alcoholism and abstinence Forensic Sci. Int. 218 (2012) 2. A great body of work concerning EtG and FAEEs detection in hair has been performed. However, no recent extensive comparison has been made concerning washing and extraction procedures. This work shows that the washing procedure of dichloromethane followed by a methanol rinse of the hair sample removes more than 16% of the FAEEs and 50% of the total EtG that is present in and on the hair. A review of ten washing protocols (where the removal is categorised: high, medium or low) showed that a relatively high percentage of FAEEs was removed and "medium" amount of EtG compared to the other washing protocols. This work shows promising results for the extraction of the FAEEs and the combined extraction of FAEEs and EtG by using 30min of sonication with methanol. More FAEEs were recovered from hair with methanol than with any other extraction solvent including the commonly used dimethyl sulfoxide/heptane mixture. When the sonication time was increased a higher percentage of transesterification of the FAEEs was observed, the extraction was "dirtier" as solids and a colour change was observed whereas the extraction efficiency did not increase. Therefore, washing the hair sample with dichloromethane and methanol followed by an addition of 1ml of methanol and sonication for 30min to extract the FAEEs and EtG from hair is recommended for FAEEs as well as for the combined analysis of EtG and FAEEs. A linear calibration curve (r(2)>0.99) was obtained for all analytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Fares,1 Carl J Lavie,2,3 James J DiNicolantonio,4 James H O'Keefe,5 Richard V Milani2 1Department of Hospital Medicine, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA, 4Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, MO, 5Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri–Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA Abstract: Hypertriglyceridemia is a highly prevalent lipid abnormality and it is associated with atherosclerosis, with a growing body of evidence linking elevated triglycerides (TGs with cardiovascular disease. The current major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA combination, lowers serum TGs while often increasing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Icosapent ethyl is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with a 96% pure ethyl ester of EPA that has been recently approved for lowering TG levels in patients with very high TGs (≥500 mg/dL, and it does so without significantly affecting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acid therapy for dyslipidemias will be discussed, including the potential pros and cons of EPA alone versus the more common and readily available EPA/DHA combination therapy. Keywords: triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  7. Effect of Cooling Rates on Shape and Crystal Size Distributions of Mefenamic Acid Polymorph in Ethyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalip, S. K. Abdul; Adam, F.; Parveen, J.; Abu Bakar, M. R.; Amran, N.; Sulaiman, S. Z.; Che Man, R.; Arshad, Z. I. Mohd; Shaarani, S. Md.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigate the effect of cooling rates on mefenamic acid crystallisation in ethyl acetate. The cooling rate was varied from 0.2 to 5 °C/min. The in-line conductivity system and turbidity system were employed to detect the onset of the crystallization process. The crystals produced were analysed using optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the crystals produced at different cooling rates were needle-like and exhibit polymorphic form type I. However, the aspect ratio and crystal size distributions were varied with the increased of cooling rate. A high crystals aspect ratio and narrower CSD (100-900 μm) was obtained at cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min. Thus, can be suggested as the most suitable cooling rate for crystallization of mefenamic acid in ethyl acetate.

  8. Antiarrhythmogenic effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in a patient treated with Omacor after a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Ardashev

    2014-02-01

    The patient agreed to add omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation (1 g/day to his treatment regimen. Pacemaker analyses 3 months later demonstrated no NSVT and only 215 PVBs daily. In more than 1 year of follow-up, the patient has remained well and has had no further ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation may be beneficial in post-MI patients with pacemakers who develop ventricular arrhythmias.

  9. Understanding hypertriglyceridemia in women: clinical impact and management with prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Dayspring

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas D DayspringNorth Jersey Institute of Menopausal Lipidology, Wayne, NJ, USABackground: Elevated triglycerides (TGs are a common lipid disorder in the US and are associated with comorbidities such as pancreatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. TGs are generally elevated in postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women. Meta-analysis has shown that elevated TGs are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD.Objective: This article provides a general overview of TG metabolism and reviews data on the epidemiology and risk of elevated TGs in women, as pregnancy and menopause, in particular, have been associated with unfavorable changes in the lipoprotein profile, including elevations in TGs. In addition, this review seeks to explain the recommended TG goals and treatment options for hypertriglyceridemia with an emphasis on severe hypertriglyceridemia (TGs ≥ 500 mg/dL and its respective treatment with prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3.Methods: MedLine was searched for articles published through August 2009 using the terms “hypertriglyceridemia” and “dyslipidemia”, with subheadings for “prevalence”, “women”, “treatment”, “guidelines”, “risk”, and “omega-3 fatty acids”. Publications discussing the epidemiology of hypertriglyceridemia, CHD risk, treatment guidelines for lipid management, or clinical trials involving P-OM3 were selected for review. The reference lists of relevant articles were also examined for additional citations.Results: Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with increased CHD risk. Women, especially those with polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, or who are postmenopausal, should be monitored regularly for the impact of hypertriglyceridemia on their lipid profile. Cardiovascular risk of TGs can be indirectly assessed by monitoring non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C levels. There are multiple sets of guidelines

  10. A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Janie; Couture, Patrick; Leclerc, Myriam; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Talbot, Denis; Tchernof, André; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-08-01

    To date, most studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans have used a mixture of the 2 fatty acids in various forms and proportions. We compared the effects of EPA supplementation with those of DHA supplementation (re-esterified triacylglycerol; 90% pure) on inflammation markers (primary outcome) and blood lipids (secondary outcome) in men and women at risk of cardiovascular disease. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, healthy men (n = 48) and women (n = 106) with abdominal obesity and low-grade systemic inflammation consumed 3 g/d of the following supplements for periods of 10 wk: 1) EPA (2.7 g/d), 2) DHA (2.7 g/d), and 3) corn oil as a control with each supplementation separated by a 9-wk washout period. Primary analyses assessed the difference in cardiometabolic outcomes between EPA and DHA. Supplementation with DHA compared with supplementation with EPA led to a greater reduction in interleukin-18 (IL-18) (-7.0% ± 2.8% compared with -0.5% ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.01) and a greater increase in adiponectin (3.1% ± 1.6% compared with -1.2% ± 1.7%, respectively; P DHA and EPA, changes in CRP (-7.9% ± 5.0% compared with -1.8% ± 6.5%, respectively; P = 0.25), IL-6 (-12.0% ± 7.0% compared with -13.4% ± 7.0%, respectively; P = 0.86), and tumor necrosis factor-α (-14.8% ± 5.1% compared with -7.6% ± 10.2%, respectively; P = 0.63) were NS. DHA compared with EPA led to more pronounced reductions in triglycerides (-13.3% ± 2.3% compared with -11.9% ± 2.2%, respectively; P = 0.005) and the cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (-2.5% ± 1.3% compared with 0.3% ± 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.006) and greater increases in HDL cholesterol (7.6% ± 1.4% compared with -0.7% ± 1.1%, respectively; P DHA compared with EPA was significant in men but not in women (P-treatment × sex interaction = 0.046). DHA is more effective than EPA in modulating specific markers of inflammation

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrogen Oxides in the Air with 2-N-Ethyl-5-Naphthol-7-Sulfonic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Shi, W.; Zhang, C.; Wen, H.

    2017-09-01

    For the determination of nitrogen oxides in the air, the structure of diazo and coupling compounds was studied and tested by experiments. The conditions and methods of diazo and coupling reactions were investigated. Furthermore, a spectrophotometric method using sulfanilamide as a diazo compound and 2-N-ethyl-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid (N-ethyl J acid) as a coupling compound was proposed. The maximum absorption wavelength of sulfanilamide-Nethyl J acid azo compound was at 478 nm. The molar absorptivity was 4.31 × 104 L/(mol × cm) with a recovery of 98.7-100.9% and RSD of 1.85%. For nitrogen oxides, the determinate limit of this measurement was 0.015 mg/m3 and the determinate range 0.024-2.0 mg/m3. Moreover, a high degree of correlation was observed between the results obtained by the proposed method and the standard methods. The proposed method can be easily applied to determine nitrogen oxides in the air.

  12. A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens von Schacky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clemens von SchackyMedizinische Klinik and Poliklinik Innenstadt, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events, cardiovascular prevention, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  13. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly......The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...... oxygen-assisted) dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde. It also is concluded that most of the CO2 formed as a byproduct in the reaction results from the absorbed intermediate in the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde. By varying the amount of water in the reaction mixture...

  14. Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester from Crude Jatropha curcas Oil having High Free Fatty Acid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Dixit, Anoop; Singh, Shashi Kumar; Singh, Gursahib; Sachdeva, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The two step process was carried out to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil. The pretreatment process was carried out to reduce the free fatty acid content by (≤2 %) acid catalyzed esterification. The optimum reaction conditions for esterification were reported to be 5 % H2SO4, 20 % ethanol and 1 h reaction time at temperature of 65 °C. The pretreatment process reduced the free fatty acid of oil from 7 to 1.85 %. In second process, alkali catalysed transesterification of pretreated oil was carried and the effects of the varying concentrations of KOH and ethanol: oil ratios on percent ester recovery were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions for transesterification were reported to be 3 % KOH (w/v of oil) and 30 % (v/v) ethanol: oil ratio and reaction time 2 h at 65 °C. The maximum percent recovery of ethyl ester was reported to be 60.33 %.

  15. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses...

  16. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients ...

  17. Evaluation of the orofacial antinociceptive profile of the ethyl acetate fraction and its major constituent, rosmarinic acid, from the leaves of Hyptis pectinata on rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela E.A. Falcão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit., Lamiaceae, popularly known as "sambacaitá," is an aromatic shrub largely grown in the Brazilian northeastern. We investigated the antinociceptive effects of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the leaves of H. pectinata and of its main constituent rosmarinic acid, on formalin (2%-, glutamate (25 µM- and capsaicin (2.5 µg-induced orofacial nociception in rodents. Male mice were pretreated with ethyl acetate fraction (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o., rosmarinic acid (10 or 20 mg/kg, p.o., morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p., or vehicle (distilled water + 0.2% Tween 80. Ethyl acetate fraction reduced the nociceptive face-rubbing behavior during the two phase of the formalin test, whereas pretreatment with rosmarinic acid decreased the pain behavior in the second phase. Ethyl acetate fraction produced significant antinociceptive effects in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. This study showed that oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction produced potent antinociceptive effects compared to treatment with rosmarinic acid.

  18. Continuous production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil at supercritical conditions - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.11255

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a tubular reactor in one-step reaction and experimentally simulating two reactors, one operated in series and the other a recycle reactor. The reaction products were analyzed for their content of residual triglycerides, glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters and decomposition. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to their fatty acid ethyl esters derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (< 5.0 wt%.

  19. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae EHT1 and EEB1 genes encode novel enzymes with medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis and hydrolysis capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerens, Sofie M G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Van Laere, Stijn D M; Voet, Arnout R D; Van Dijck, Patrick; Delvaux, Freddy R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2006-02-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are secondary metabolites produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many other fungi. Their natural physiological role is not known but in fermentations of alcoholic beverages and other food products they play a key role as flavor compounds. Information about the metabolic pathways and enzymology of fatty acid ethyl ester biosynthesis, however, is very limited. In this work, we have investigated the role of a three-member S. cerevisiae gene family with moderately divergent sequences (YBR177c/EHT1, YPL095c/EEB1, and YMR210w). We demonstrate that two family members encode an acyl-coenzymeA:ethanol O-acyltransferase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters. Deletion of either one or both of these genes resulted in severely reduced medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester production. Purified glutathione S-transferase-tagged Eht1 and Eeb1 proteins both exhibited acyl-coenzymeA:ethanol O-acyltransferase activity in vitro, as well as esterase activity. Overexpression of Eht1 and Eeb1 did not enhance medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester content, which is probably due to the bifunctional synthesis and hydrolysis activity. Molecular modeling of Eht1 and Eeb1 revealed the presence of a alpha/beta-hydrolase fold, which is generally present in the substrate-binding site of esterase enzymes. Hence, our results identify Eht1 and Eeb1 as novel acyl-coenzymeA:ethanol O-acyltransferases/esterases, whereas the third family member, Ymr210w, does not seem to play an important role in medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester formation.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Protocatechuic Acid Ethyl Ester on Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains Alone and in Combination with Antistaphylococcal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Miklasińska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to examine in vitro the antibacterial activity of protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, EDHB against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates alone and in the combination with four selected antibiotics. The EDHB antimicrobial activity was tested against twenty S. aureus strains isolated from the clinical samples, and three reference strains. The phenotypes and genotypes of resistance to methicillin for the tested strains were defined as well as the phenotypic resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB. EDHB displayed diverse activity against examined S. aureus strains with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC within the range from 64 to 1024 µg/mL. Addition of ¼ MIC of EDHB into the Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA resulted in augmented antibacterial effect in the presence of clindamycin. In the case of cefoxitin no synergistic effect with EDHB was noted. For erythromycin and vancomycin the decrease of mean MICs in the presence of EDHB was observed but did not reach statistical significance. The results of the present study showed that in vitro EDHB possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus clinical strains and triggers a synergistic antimicrobial effect with clindamycin and to the lesser extent with erythromycin and vancomycin.

  1. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galpin Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on resting and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in exercise-trained men. Fourteen men supplemented with 2224 mg EPA+2208 mg DHA and a placebo for 6 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with an 8 week washout prior to performing a 60 minute treadmill climb using a weighted pack. Blood was collected pre and post exercise and analyzed for a variety of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Blood lactate, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase activity were also measured. Results Treatment with EPA/DHA resulted in a significant increase in blood levels of both EPA (18 ± 2 μmol·L-1 vs. 143 ± 23 μmol·L-1; p -1 vs. 157 ± 13 μmol·L-1; p 0.05. There was a mild increase in oxidative stress in response to exercise (XO and H2O2 (p Conclusion EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute aerobic exercise.

  2. A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, M B; Sprague, M; Usher, S; Sayanova, O; Campbell, P J; Napier, J A; Tocher, D R

    2015-01-29

    For humans a daily intake of up to 500 mg omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is recommended, amounting to an annual requirement of 1.25 million metric tonnes (mt) for a population of 7 billion people. The annual global supply of n-3 LC-PUFA cannot meet this level of requirement and so there is a large gap between supply and demand. The dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, fish and seafood, is increasingly provided by aquaculture but using fish oil in feeds to supply n-3 LC-PUFA is unsustainable. Therefore, new sources of n-3 LC-PUFA are required to supply the demand from aquaculture and direct human consumption. One approach is metabolically engineering oilseed crops to synthesize n-3 LC-PUFA in seeds. Transgenic Camelina sativa expressing algal genes was used to produce an oil containing n-3 LC-PUFA to replace fish oil in salmon feeds. The oil had no detrimental effects on fish performance, metabolic responses or the nutritional quality of the fillets of the farmed fish.

  3. Effects of 6-month eicosapentaenoic acid treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion ability, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction among newly-diagnosed impaired glucose metabolism patients with coronary artery disease. An open label, single blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takahiro; Tsubata, Hideo; Hashimoto, Naoko; Takabe, Michinori; Miyata, Taishi; Aoki, Kosuke; Yamashita, Soichiro; Oishi, Shogo; Osue, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Kiminobu; Tsukishiro, Yasue; Onishi, Tetsuari; Shimane, Akira; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Yasaka, Yoshinori; Ohara, Takeshi; Kawai, Hiroya; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-26

    Recent experimental studies have revealed that n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) regulate postprandial insulin secretion, and correct postprandial glucose and lipid abnormalities. However, the effects of 6-month EPA treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction remain unknown in patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We randomized 107 newly diagnosed IGM patients with CAD to receive either 1800 mg/day of EPA (EPA group, n = 53) or no EPA (n = 54). Cookie meal testing (carbohydrates: 75 g, fat: 28.5 g) and endothelial function testing using fasting-state flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were performed before and after 6 months of treatment. The primary outcome of this study was changes in postprandial glycemic and triglyceridemic control and secondary outcomes were improvement of insulin secretion and endothelial dysfunction. After 6 months, the EPA group exhibited significant improvements in EPA/arachidonic acid, fasting triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The EPA group also exhibited significant decreases in the incremental TG peak, area under the curve (AUC) for postprandial TG, incremental glucose peak, AUC for postprandial glucose, and improvements in glycometabolism categorization. No significant changes were observed for hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose levels. The EPA group exhibited a significant increase in AUC-immune reactive insulin/AUC-plasma glucose ratio (which indicates postprandial insulin secretory ability) and significant improvements in FMD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that decreases in the TG/HDL-C ratio and incremental TG peak were independent predictors of FMD improvement in the EPA group. EPA corrected postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and insulin secretion ability. This amelioration of several metabolic abnormalities was accompanied by

  4. A randomized controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or aspirin for colorectal adenoma prevention during colonoscopic surveillance in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Mark A; Sandell, Anna C; Montgomery, Alan A; Logan, Richard F A; Clifford, Gayle M; Rees, Colin J; Loadman, Paul M; Whitham, Diane

    2013-07-29

    The naturally-occurring omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces colorectal adenoma (polyp) number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. The safety profile and potential cardiovascular benefits associated with ω-3 PUFAs make EPA a strong candidate for colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention, alone or in combination with aspirin, which itself has recognized anti-CRC activity. Colorectal adenoma number and size are recognized as biomarkers of future CRC risk and are established as surrogate end-points in CRC chemoprevention trials. The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial 'efficacy' study, which will determine whether EPA prevents colorectal adenomas, either alone or in combination with aspirin. Participants are 55-73 year-old patients, who have been identified as 'high risk' (detection of ≥5 small adenomas or ≥3 adenomas with at least one being ≥10 mm in diameter) at screening colonoscopy in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Exclusion criteria include the need for more than one repeat endoscopy within the three-month BCSP screening period, malignant change in an adenoma, regular use of aspirin or non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, regular use of fish oil supplements and concomitant warfarin or anti-platelet agent therapy. Patients are randomized to either EPA-free fatty acid 1 g twice daily or identical placebo AND aspirin 300 mg once daily or identical placebo, for approximately 12 months. The primary end-point is the number of participants with one or more adenomas detected at routine one-year BCSP surveillance colonoscopy. Secondary end-points include the number of adenomas (total and 'advanced') per patient, the location (left versus right colon) of colorectal adenomas and the number of participants re-classified as 'intermediate risk' for future surveillance. Exploratory end-points include levels of

  5. Biocatalytic Resolution of Rac-α-Ethyl-2-Oxo-Pyrrolidineacetic Acid Methyl Ester by Immobilized Recombinant Bacillus cereus Esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yin-Yan; Luo, Wei-Feng; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Ying, Xiang-Xian; Wang, Zhao

    2016-04-01

    A new esterase-producing strain (Bacillus cereus WZZ001) which exhibiting high hydrolytic activity and excellent enantioselectivity on rac-α-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidineacetic acid methyl ester (R, S-1) has been isolated from soil sample by our laboratory. In this study, the stereoselective hydrolysis of (R, S-1) was performed using the recombinant Bacillus cereus esterase which expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Under the optimized conditions of pH 8.0, 35 °C, and concentration of substrate 400 mM, a successful enzymatic resolution was achieved with an e.e. s of 99.5 % and conversion of 49 %. Immobilization considerably increased the reusability of the recombinant esterase; the immobilized enzyme showed excellent reusability during 6 cycles of repeated 2 h reactions at 35 °C. Thereby, it makes the recombinant B. cereus esterase a usable biocatalyst for industrial application.

  6. Interactions between 5-Lipoxygenase Polymorphisms and Adipose Tissue Contents of Arachidonic and Eicosapentaenoic Acids Do Not Affect Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men and Women in a Danish Case-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammelmark, Anders; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Nielsen, Michael S

    2017-07-01

    Background: The 5-lipoxygenase pathway has been linked to atherothrombotic disease, and a functional tandem repeat polymorphism in the arachidonate lipoxygenase-5 (ALOX-5) gene has been associated with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Interestingly, 2 studies have reported an interaction between dietary intakes of the ALOX-5 substrates, arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and genotype.Objective: We investigated whether the interactions between the ALOX-5 tandem repeat polymorphism (rs59439148) and adipose tissue AA and EPA were associated with incident MI.Methods: In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, we conducted a case-cohort study including 3089 participants with incident MI identified from national registries and a randomly selected subcohort of 3000 participants. Participants were men and women with a median age of 56 y at baseline and no previous history of cancer. Adipose tissue and blood samples were collected at baseline along with comprehensive questionnaires on lifestyle and demographic data. The ALOX-5 tandem repeat polymorphism was genotyped by multititer plate sequencing. Associations were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazards models.Results: We observed a higher risk of MI for homozygous carriers of the variant alleles in the fifth quintile of AA content than for the reference group with the lowest quintile of AA and carrying the wild-type allele (HR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.41, 6.44). In contrast, homozygotes for the variant alleles tended to have a higher risk of MI when comparing the lowest quintile of EPA content with the reference group with the highest quintile of EPA and carrying the wild-type allele (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 0.91, 5.09; P = 0.08). Although our results suggested interactions between the polymorphism and adipose tissue AA and EPA, a quantitative evaluation of interaction by calculating the relative excess risk due to interactions was not significant.Conclusions: Adipose tissue EPA and AA and the ALOX-5

  7. Two-step synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from soybean oil catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jinnan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic biodiesel production by transesterification in solvent media has been investigated intensively, but glycerol, as a by-product, could block the immobilized enzyme and excess n-hexane, as a solution aid, would reduce the productivity of the enzyme. Esterification, a solvent-free and no-glycerol-release system for biodiesel production, has been developed, and two-step catalysis of soybean oil, hydrolysis followed by esterification, with Yarrowia lipolytica lipase is reported in this paper. Results First, soybean oil was hydrolyzed at 40°C by 100 U of lipase broth per 1 g of oil with approximately 30% to 60% (vol/vol water. The free fatty acid (FFA distilled from this hydrolysis mixture was used for the esterification of FFA to fatty acid ethyl ester by immobilized lipase. A mixture of 2.82 g of FFA and equimolar ethanol (addition in three steps were shaken at 30°C with 18 U of lipase per 1 gram of FFA. The degree of esterification reached 85% after 3 hours. The lipase membranes were taken out, dehydrated and subjected to fresh esterification so that over 82% of esterification was maintained, even though the esterification was repeated every 3 hours for 25 batches. Conclusion The two-step enzymatic process without glycerol released and solvent-free demonstrated higher efficiency and safety than enzymatic transesterification, which seems very promising for lipase-catalyzed, large-scale production of biodiesel, especially from high acid value waste oil.

  8. Raman Spectroscopy of Fish Oil Capsules: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Quantitation Plus Detection of Ethyl Esters and Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Daniel P; Marshall, Susan N; Burgess, Elaine J; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B

    2017-05-03

    Fish oils are the primary dietary source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but these compounds are prone to oxidation, and commercial fish oil supplements sometimes contain less PUFA than claimed. These supplements are predominantly sold in softgel capsules. In this work, we show that Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectra of fish oils (n = 5) and ω-3 PUFA concentrates (n = 6) can be acquired directly through intact softgel (gelatin) capsules. These spectra could be used to rapidly distinguish supplements containing ethyl esters from those containing triacylglyceride oils. Raman spectroscopy calibrated with partial least-squares regression against traditional fatty acid methyl ester analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be used to rapidly and nondestructively quantitate PUFA and other fatty acid classes directly though capsules. We also show that FT-Raman spectroscopy can noninvasively detect oxidation with high sensitivity. Oils with peroxide values of as low as 10 mequiv kg -1 , which are on the cusp of falling outside of specification, could be readily distinguished from oils that were within specification (7 mequiv kg -1 ).

  9. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 21.107....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by...); for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of ethyl acetate are distilled by this...

  10. Encapsulation of ferulic acid ethyl ester in caseinate to suppress off-flavor formation in UHT milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-12-15

    Phenolic compounds can principally suppress the off-flavor development in ultrahigh temperature (UHT) treated milk, but little has been studied for lipophilic phenolic compounds that are to be encapsulated for even distribution in milk. The objective of this work was to study physicochemical properties of ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) encapsulated in sodium caseinate and the inhibition of volatile formation after UHT processing. The capsules had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 246.2±10.9nm, a polydispersity index of 0.26±0.01, and a zeta-potential of -31.72±0.74mV. The capsules and the encapsulated FAEE were stable after heating at 138°C for 16min and UV radiation at 365nm for 32h. The encapsulated FAEE at a level of 0.18-1.42mg/mL suppressed the formation of 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline in model UHT milk by 32.8-63.2% after 30-day storage at 30°C. Therefore, FAEE encapsulated in caseinate can be potentially used to improve the quality of UHT milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accumulation of short n-chain ethyl esters by esterases of lactic acid bacteria under conditions simulating ripening Parmesan cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, K M; Rankin, S A; Steele, J L

    2003-09-01

    EstA from Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 (Lbh-EstA), EstB, and EstC from Lactobacillus casei LILA, and EstA from Lactococcus lactis MG1363 (Lcl-EstA) were evaluated for their ability to accumulate esters in a model system simulating Parmesan cheese ripening conditions (10 degrees C, 2 to 3% NaCl, pH 5.4 to 5.5, aw = 0.850 to 0.925) using Capalase K from kid goat as a positive control. All of the LAB esterases and Capalase K mediated the accumulation of esters in the model system in an enzyme specific manner, which was influenced by a, and selectivity for fatty acid chain-length. In general, enzyme mediated accumulation of ethyl esters was higher at aw values of 0.850 and 0.900 than at aw of 0.925, demonstrating that aw is a critical parameter influencing ester accumulation. The substrate selectivity of esterases, aw, and enzyme type may be important factors in the development of fruity flavors, as evidenced by results in this model system simulating Parmesan cheese ripening conditions.

  12. Determination of Monomers Reactivity Ratios in Ethyl Acrylate-Methacrylic Acid Copolymerization by Off-Line 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ashenagar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of polymer systems depend on the micro-structural characteristics of their macromolecular chains. Along with the most characteristic kinetic parameters in copolymerization reactions are the reactivity ratios, which give a clear idea of the average composition and the monomer sequence distribution in copolymer systems. This research studies the solution radical copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA-ethyl acrylate (EA system at low conversion with 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as thermal initiator at 60°C in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6 as a reaction solvent. In this case, the monomer reactivity ratios were determined using linear off-line 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR methods such as Mayo-Louis, Finemann-Ross, Inverted Finemann-Ross , Ezrielev-Brokhina-Roskin, Joshi-Joshi, Kelen-Tudos, extended Kelen- Tudos, Mao-Huglin at low and high conversions. The next estimation process in off-line 1H NMR methods were performed by applying techniques based on ordinary least square (OLS and generalized least square (GLS. The results showed that the GLS approach compared to the OLS increased regression coefficients (R2 and the order of magnitude of parameter variances obtained from GLS was many times lower than that obtained from OLS. In addition, the monomer reactivity ratios obtained by the Mao-Huglin method and the GLS approach showed the best linear estimation.

  13. Laccase-catalysed functionalisation of chitosan by ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate: evaluation of physicochemical and biofunctional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Chevalot, Isabelle; Jasniewski, Jordane; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie; Scher, Joël; Muniglia, Lionel

    2014-10-15

    Chitosan and its derivatives functionalized by laccase-catalyzed oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) were characterised for their physico-chemical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The enzymatic grafting of oxidised phenols led to FA-coloured and EF-colourless chitosan derivatives with good stability of colour and grafted phenols towards the chemical treatment by organic solvents. The efficiency of FA-products grafting onto chitosan was higher than that of EF-products. Moreover, the enzymatic grafting of phenols onto chitosan changed its morphological surface, increased its molecular weight and its viscosity. Furthermore, the chitosan derivatives presented improved antioxidant properties especially for FA-chitosan derivative when compared with chitosan with good antioxidant stability towards thermal treatment (100°C/1h). Chitosan and its derivatives showed also similar antibacterial activities and more precisely bactericidal activities. This enzymatic procedure provided chitosan derivatives with improved properties such as antioxidant activity, thermal antioxidant stability as well as the preservation of initial antibacterial activity of chitosan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of bio-additives: transesterification of ethyl acetate with glycerol using homogeneous or heterogeneous acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Bruno A.; Pereira, Vera Lucia P., E-mail: patrocinio@nppn.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais

    2013-01-15

    A new catalytic route with potential practical interest to sustainable production of bioadditives from glycerol is described. Ethyl acetate was transesterified with glycerol, in the ratio glycerol:EtOAc 1:10, at 25 or 90 deg C using 0.1 equiv.of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or TsOH, as homogeneous catalysts. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} led to the total glycerol consumption in 2 h. In the equilibrium, attained in 9 h, 100% yield of a diacetin:triacetin (55:45) mixture was formed. Using Amberlyst Registered-Sign 15 dry and Amberlyst Registered-Sign 16 wet in 1:30 glycerol:EtOAc ratio and reflux at 90 Degree-Sign C the total glycerol consumption was achieved in 2 and 10h, respectively. The lower reactivity of Amberlyst-16 wet was explained in terms of deactivation of acid sites and decrease in glycerol diffusion to the inner resin pores, both factors caused by adsorbed water. The kinetics of glycerol transformation and product distribution in the equilibrium in relation to the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Amberlyst-15 (dry) and Amberlyst-16 (wet) catalyzed reactions were measured. (author)

  15. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the oxylipin composition of lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic, statin-treated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John W; Pedersen, Theresa L; Brandenburg, Verdayne R; Harris, William S; Shearer, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities. To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL). They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs), ketones (KETEs), epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs). At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs) were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean |95% CI|) being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL); 42% |31, 57| followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 27% |20, 36|; and LDL 21% |16, 28|. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% |-33, -12|, p = 0.0003), and expanded EPA-(322% |241, 422|, plipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00959842.

  16. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the oxylipin composition of lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic, statin-treated subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Newman

    Full Text Available Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities.To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL. They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3 for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs, ketones (KETEs, epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs.At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean |95% CI| being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL; 42% |31, 57| followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL; 27% |20, 36|; and LDL 21% |16, 28|. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% |-33, -12|, p = 0.0003, and expanded EPA-(322% |241, 422|, p<0.0001 and DHA-derived oxylipins (123% |80, 176|, p<0.0001.Each lipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00959842.

  17. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enhance Dexamethasone Sensitivity in Multiple Myeloma Cells by the p53/miR-34a/Bcl-2 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianping; Li, Mengshun; Geng, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Dexamethasone is widely used in multiple myeloma (MM) for its cytotoxic effects on lymphoid cells. However, many MM patients are resistant to dexamethasone, although some can benefit from dexamethasone treatment. In this study, we noted that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) enhanced the dexamethasone sensitivity of MM cells by inducing cell apoptosis. q-PCR analysis revealed that miR-34a could be significantly induced by PUFAs in U266 and primary MM cells. Transfection with miR-34a antagonist or miR-34a agomir could restore or suppress the dexamethasone sensitivity in U266 cells. Both luciferase reporter assay and Western blot showed that Bcl-2 is the direct target of miR-34a in MM cells. In addition, we observed that PUFAs induced p53 protein expression in MM cells under dexamethasone administration. Furthermore, suppressing p53 by its inhibitor, Pifithrin-α, regulated the miR-34a expression and modulated the sensitivity to dexamethasone in U266 cells. In summary, these results suggest that PUFAs enhance dexamethasone sensitivity to MM cells through the p53/miR-34a axis with a likely contribution of Bcl-2 suppression.

  18. Behavior of ethyl linoleate in batch rectification of aqueous ethanol solution containing linoleic acid; Rinoru san wo fukumu etanoru suiyoeki no kaibun jyoryu ni okeru rinoru san echiru no ryoshutsu kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwada, Masanori; Kawano, Yoshinobu; Shiomori, Koichiro [Miyazai University, Miyazaki (Japan). Department of Materials Science; Aiko, Ryoko; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Hatate, Yasuo [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    In shochu mash containing citric acid, fatty acids react with ethyl alcohol to form their esters having high volatility, and the taste and smell of shochu are influenced by these esters. Ester formation rates between ethanol and linoleic acid were measured at various temperatures. The formation rates are affected by the concentrations of linoleic acid, citric acid as catalyst, and ethanol, and by the reaction temperature. The rate equation of esterification of the linoleic acid is formulated as a function of the concentrations of linoleic acids (C{sub L}), citric acid (C{sub C}) and ethyl alcohol (C{sub E}) as follows. r=k{sub L} C{sub L}{sup l} C{sub C}{sup m} C{sub E}{sup n} The exponents l, m and n were determined. Furthermore, the rate constant (K{sub L}) was estimated as a function of temperature. The distillation behavior of aqueous ethanol solution containing linoleic acid is measured. No linoleic acid is detected in the distillation effluent. The distillation behavior of ethyl linoleate is interpreted based on the esterification of linoleic acid by ethyl alcohol in the distillation still and the equilibrium of ethyl linoleate in aqueous ethanol solution. (author)

  19. Ethyl group as matrix modifier and inducer of ordered domains in hybrid xerogels synthesised in acidic media using ethyltriethoxysilane (ETEOS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Xabier; Moriones, Paula; Echeverría, Jesús C. [Departamento de Química Aplicada, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus Arrosadía, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Luquin, Asunción; Laguna, Mariano [Instituto de Síntesis Química y Catálisis Homogénea (CSIC), Departamento de Química Inorgánica. Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, Julián J., E-mail: j.garrido@unavarra.es [Departamento de Química Aplicada, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus Arrosadía, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Hybrid silica xerogels favourably combine the properties of organic and inorganic components in one material; consequently these materials are useful for multiple applications. The versatility and mild synthetic conditions provided by the sol-gel process are ideal for the synthesis of hybrid materials. The specific aims of this study were to synthesise hybrid xerogels in acidic media using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ethyltriethoxysilane (ETEOS) as silica precursors, and to assess the role of the ethyl group as a matrix modifier and inducer of ordered domains in xerogels. All xerogels were synthesised at pH 4.5, at 60 °C, with 1:4.75:5.5 TEOS:EtOH:H{sub 2}O molar ratio. Gelation time exponentially increased with the ETEOS molar ratio. Incorporation of the ethyl groups into the structure of xerogels reduced cross-linking, increased the average siloxane bond length, and promoted the formation of ordered domains. As a result, a transition from Q{sup n} to T{sup n} signals detected in the {sup 29}Si NMR spectra, the Si–O structural band in the FTIR spectra shifted to lower wavelength, and a new peak in the XRD pattern at 2θ < 10° appeared in the XRD patterns. Mass spectroscopy detected fragments with high numbers of silicon atoms and a polymeric distribution. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hybrid xerogels were synthesised for ETEOS/TEOS mixtures up to 80% ETEOS. • The gelification time exponentially increased with ETEOS content. • FTIR, XRD and MAS NMR demonstrated the presence of ethyl groups into xerogels. • For ETEOS contents ≤30%, ethyl group acted as matrix modifier. • For ETEOS contents ≥30%, ethyl groups induced the formation of ordered domains.

  20. Molecular and physiological responses of Iranian Perennial ryegrass as affected by Trinexapac ethyl, Paclobutrazol and Abscisic acid under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Etemadi, Nematollah; Arab, Mohammad Mehdi; Aalifar, Mostafa; Arab, Mostafa; Pessarakli, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Drought stress is the major limiting factor which affects turfgrass management in area with restricted rainfall or irrigation water supply. Trinexapac ethyl (TE), Paclobutrazol (PAC) and Abscisic acid (ABA) are three plant growth regulators (PGRs) that are commonly used on turf species for increasing their tolerance to different environmental stresses such as drought. However, little is known about the impact of PGRs on stress tolerance of Iranian Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The present study was conducted to examine the visual and physiological changes of Iranian Perennial ryegrass in response to foliar application of TE, PAC, and ABA under drought stress conditions. According to the obtained results, application of all three PGRs considerably restored visual quality of drought exposed plants. TE treatment increased chlorophyll content, proline content and resulted in less malondialdehyde (MDA) in drought stressed Perennial ryegrass. Application of all PGRs enhanced the relative water content (RWC) and decreased the electrolyte leakage (EL) and Hydrogen peroxide contents (H 2 O 2 content) of plants under drought stress, though the impact of TE was more pronounced. Throughout the experiment, TE- and ABA-treated plant showed greater soluble sugar (SSC) content as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes activities of drought exposed plants were considerably increased by PGRs application. Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were greater in TE-treated grasses followed by PAC-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly enhanced by TE and ABA application. The results of the present investigation suggest that application of TE, ABA and PAC enhances drought tolerance in Perennial ryegrass. TE, PAC and ABA were all effective in mitigating physiological damages resulting from drought stress, however the beneficial effects of TE were more pronounced. The result obtained of real time

  1. Carrier transport and luminescence properties of nanocomposites of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] and dehydrated nanotubes titanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Ran; Teng, Feng; Wang, Yongsheng; Xu, Xurong

    2007-12-01

    The carrier transport capability and luminescence efficiency of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) films are enhanced by doping with dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA). MEH-PPV molecules, either wrapped on the outer surface of or encapsulated into DNTA pores, have a more open, straighter conformation than undoped molecules, which induces a longer conjugated backbone and stronger interchain interactions, thereby, enhancing carrier mobility. MEH-PPV molecules within DNTA pores have higher exciton recombination efficiency owing to quantum confinement and the antenna effect.

  2. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Electronic Structures and Photoelectrical Properties of Ethyl Red and Carminic Acid for DSSC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The photoelectrical properties of two dyes—ethyl red and carminic acid—as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated in experiments herein described. In order to reveal the reason for the difference between the photoelectrical properties of the two dyes, the ground state and excited state properties of the dyes before and after adsorbed on TiO2 were calculated via density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT. The key parameters including the light harvesting efficiency (LHE, the driving force of electron injection ( Δ G inject and dye regeneration ( Δ G regen , the total dipole moment ( μ normal , the conduction band of edge of the semiconductor ( Δ E CB , and the excited state lifetime (τ were investigated, which are closely related to the short-circuit current density ( J sc and open circuit voltage ( V oc . It was found that the experimental carminic acid has a larger J sc and V oc , which are interpreted by a larger amount of dye adsorbed on a TiO2 photoanode and a larger Δ G regen , excited state lifetime (τ, μ normal , and Δ E CB . At the same time, chemical reactivity parameters illustrate that the lower chemical hardness (h and higher electron accepting power (ω+ of carminic acid have an influence on the short-circuit current density. Therefore, carminic acid shows excellent photoelectric conversion efficiency in comparison with ethyl red.

  3. Supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) / Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in a ratio of 1/1.3 during the last trimester of pregnancy results in EPA accumulation in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükuslu, Nihal; Ovalı, Sema; Altuntaş, Şükriye Leyla; Batırel, Saime; Yiğit, Pakize; Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez

    2017-10-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA), specifically DHA, are associated with fetal growth and development. We aimed to determine the levels of DHA and EPA in cord serum after n-3 FA supplementation during the last trimester of pregnancy. Among 55 women, 23 were administered daily one capsule of n-3 FA supplement, involving DHA/EPA in a ratio of 1/1.3. Twenty nine women were enrolled as control group. Blood samples were collected at 22-24 weeks of gestation and at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed with the method of GC-MS. Cord DHA level increased and EPA level decreased in both groups between the days of 22-24 and delivery. However, decrease in cord EPA level was significant in control group (p 0.05). Supplementation of DHA/EPA in a ratio of 1/1.3 during the last trimester of pregnancy caused higher cord EPA level compared to control group indicating an accumulation in umbilical cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Composicao quimica, perfil de acidos graxos e quantificacao dos acidos ƒ¿-linolenico, eicosapentaenoico e docosahexaenoico em visceras de tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus = Percentual composition, fatty acids and quantification of the LNA (Alfa-Linolenic, EPA (Eicosapentaenoic and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acids in visceras of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a composição química de vísceras de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em cativeiro Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídios totais foram de 64,4%; 1,3%; 6,3% e 18,0%, respectivamente, caracterizando alta concentração de lipídiostotais em relação a outros resíduos de peixes. Foram identificados 49 ácidos graxos, sendo majoritários os ácidos: oléico, (32,8%, seguido do palmítico, (19,9% e linoléico, (18,2%. As razões entre n-6/n-3 e ácidos poliinsaturados/saturados foram de 5,5 e 0,9, respectivamente. As quantificações dos ácidos graxos alfa-linolênico, eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico, em mg/g de lipídios totais, foram de 10,4, 1,4 e 9,3, respectivamente. O elevado teor de lipídios totais das vísceras contribuiu significativamente para as quantidadesde ácidos graxos n-3. Todos os parâmetros analisados foram satisfatórios sob o ponto de vista nutricional e neste sentido as vísceras de tilápias poderão ser utilizadaa para alimentar peixes ou outros animais.The chemical composition was evaluated in visceras of tilapias raised in captivity. The moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipids contents were 64.4%; 1.3%; 6.3% and 18.0%, respectively, characterizing high total lipids concentration in relation other residues of fish. Forty nine fatty acids were detected, the major fatty acids were oleic (32.8%, palmitic (19.9% and linoleic-1 (18.2% and oleic (9.4%. The ratio n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids, showed the values 5.5 and 0.9, respectively. The quantifications of alfa-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (in mg/g of total lipids, were 10.4, 1.4 and 0.3, respectively. The higher contents of total lipids in visceras contributed significantly for amounts of n-3 fatty acids. All the parameters analyzed were shown nutritional value satisfactory in this sense visceras of tilapias can be used in the feed of fish and other animal.

  5. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  6. Preparation of complex nano-particles based on alginic acid/poly[(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] and a drug vehicle for doxorubicin release controlled by ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Ni, Caihua; Zhang, Liping

    2012-01-23

    Monodispersed complex nano-particles were synthesized simply by mixing alginic acid (ALG-H) with poly[(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (PDEMA) in pure water without any surfactants or additives. The structure and properties of the nano-particles were extensively studied. The surface charges and average sizes of the nano-particles were varied with the composition of ALG-H and PDEMA. The nano-particles were formed through electrostatic attraction force, and they were very stable in pure water, but dissociated in salt solutions. An anticancer drug (doxorubicin) was loaded in the nano-particles and released in different saline solutions. The release profiles revealed that the drug release could be controlled by adjusting the pH and salt concentrations. The nano-particles displayed apparent advantages such as simple preparation process, low cost, free of organic solvents, size controllable, biodegradable and biocompatible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethyl Carbamate Formation Regulated by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonconventional Yeasts in Solid-State Fermentation of Chinese Moutai-Flavor Liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Song, Zhewei; Xu, Yan

    2018-01-10

    This study aimed to identify specific microorganisms related to the formation of precursors of EC (ethyl carbamate) in the solid-state fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavor liquor. The EC content was significantly correlated with the urea content during the fermentation process (R2 = 0.772, P culture-dependent analysis. Lactobacillus spp. could competitively degrade arginine through the arginine deiminase pathway with yeasts, and most Lactobacillus species were capable of degrading urea. Some dominant nonconventional yeasts, such as Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces species, were shown to produce low amounts of urea relative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, unusual urea degradation pathways (urea carboxylase, allophanate hydrolase, and ATP-independent urease) were identified. Our results indicate that EC precursor levels in the solid-state fermentation can be controlled using lactic acid bacteria and nonconventional yeasts.

  8. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. 584.200... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets... having had added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance...

  9. 1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions of ethoxycarbonyl-nitrile benzylimine and synthesis of ß-amino acids. Synthesis and reactions of ethyl 2-chloro-2-ethoxyacetate and 2-chloro-2-ethoxyacetylchloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, K.K.; El-Seedi, H.R.; Jensen, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    -amines and subsequent hydrolysis gave beta-amino acids. The syntheses of the title reagents were described. Ethyl 2-chloro-2-ethoxy-acetate gave selectively oximes, hydrazones, nitrones, and phosphonium salts with hydroxylamine, hydrazines, N-substituted hydroxylamines and triphenylphosphine respectively...

  10. Nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester and ethyl diazoacetate to give the alkylating agent and mutagen ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Haorah, James; Chen, Sheng C; Wang, Xiaojie; Kolar, Carol; Lawson, Terence A; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2004-03-01

    Whereas nitrosation of secondary amines produces nitrosamines, amino acids with primary amino groups and glycine ethyl ester were reported to react with nitrite to give unidentified agents that alkylated 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine to produce purple dyes and be direct mutagens in the Ames test. We report here that treatment of glycine ethyl ester at 37 degrees C with excess nitrite acidified with HCl, followed by ether extraction, gave 30-40% yields of a product identified as ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate [ClC(=NOH)COOEt, ECHA] and a 9% yield of ethyl chloroacetate. The ECHA was identical to that synthesized by a known method from ethyl acetoacetate, strongly alkylated nitrobenzylpyridine, and may have arisen by N-nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester to give ethyl diazoacetate, which was C-nitrosated and reacted with chloride to give ECHA. Nitrosation of ethyl diazoacetate also yielded ECHA. Ethyl nitroacetate was not an intermediate as its nitrosation did not produce ECHA. ECHA reacted with aniline to give ethyl (hydroxamino)(phenylimino)acetate [PhN=C(NHOH)CO2Et]. This product was different from ethyl [(phenylamino)carbonyl]carbamate [PhNHC(=O)NHCO2Et], which was synthesized by reacting ethyl isocyanatoformate (OCN.CO2Et) with aniline. ECHA reacted with guanosine to give a derivative, which may have been a guanine-C(=NOH)CO2Et derivative. ECHA showed moderate toxicity and weak but significant mutagenicity without activation in Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 (mean, 1.31 x control value for 12-18 microg/plats) and for V79 mammalian cells (1.5-1.7 x control value for 60-100 microM). In conclusion, gastric nitrosation of glycine derivatives such as peptides with a N-terminal glycine might produce ECHA analogues that alkylate bases of gastric mucosal DNA and thereby initiate gastric cancer.

  11. Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters as biomarkers of late gestational ethanol exposure and indicator of ethanol-induced multi-organ injury in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Zelner

    Full Text Available Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE constitute a biomarker of heavy fetal ethanol exposure. Our objective was to measure meconium FAEE in fetal sheep following daily, relatively moderate-dose ethanol exposure in late gestation, and to evaluate their utility in identifying fetal organ-system injury.Pregnant ewes received ethanol (0.75 g/kg; n = 14 or saline (n = 8 via 1-h i.v. infusion daily during the third trimester equivalent, while additional pregnant sheep served as untreated controls (n = 6. The daily ethanol regimen produced similar maximal maternal and fetal plasma ethanol concentrations of 0.11-0.12 g/dL. Ewes and fetuses were euthanized shortly before term, and meconium was collected and analyzed for FAEE (ethyl palmitate, stearate, linoleate, and oleate.Meconium total FAEE concentration was significantly higher in ethanol-exposed fetuses compared with controls, and a positive cut-off of 0.0285 nmol total FAEE/g meconium had 93.3% sensitivity and specificity for detecting fetal ethanol exposure. When the studied animals (ethanol-exposed and controls were classified according to meconium FAEE concentration, FAEE-positive and FAEE-negative groups frequently differed with respect to previously examined pathological endpoints, including nephron endowment, lung collagen deposition, cardiomyocyte maturation, and tropoelastin gene expression in cerebral vessels. Furthermore, in all studied animals as a group (ethanol-exposed and controls combined, meconium FAEE concentration was correlated with many of these pathological endpoints in fetal organs.We conclude that, in fetal sheep, meconium FAEE could serve as a biomarker of daily ethanol exposure in late gestation and could identify fetuses with subtle ethanol-induced toxic effects in various organs. This study illustrates the potential for using meconium FAEE to identify neonates at risk for dysfunction of major organs following in-utero ethanol exposure that does not result in

  12. Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters as biomarkers of late gestational ethanol exposure and indicator of ethanol-induced multi-organ injury in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelner, Irene; Kenna, Kelly; Brien, James F; Bocking, Alan; Harding, Richard; Walker, David; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) constitute a biomarker of heavy fetal ethanol exposure. Our objective was to measure meconium FAEE in fetal sheep following daily, relatively moderate-dose ethanol exposure in late gestation, and to evaluate their utility in identifying fetal organ-system injury. Pregnant ewes received ethanol (0.75 g/kg; n = 14) or saline (n = 8) via 1-h i.v. infusion daily during the third trimester equivalent, while additional pregnant sheep served as untreated controls (n = 6). The daily ethanol regimen produced similar maximal maternal and fetal plasma ethanol concentrations of 0.11-0.12 g/dL. Ewes and fetuses were euthanized shortly before term, and meconium was collected and analyzed for FAEE (ethyl palmitate, stearate, linoleate, and oleate). Meconium total FAEE concentration was significantly higher in ethanol-exposed fetuses compared with controls, and a positive cut-off of 0.0285 nmol total FAEE/g meconium had 93.3% sensitivity and specificity for detecting fetal ethanol exposure. When the studied animals (ethanol-exposed and controls) were classified according to meconium FAEE concentration, FAEE-positive and FAEE-negative groups frequently differed with respect to previously examined pathological endpoints, including nephron endowment, lung collagen deposition, cardiomyocyte maturation, and tropoelastin gene expression in cerebral vessels. Furthermore, in all studied animals as a group (ethanol-exposed and controls combined), meconium FAEE concentration was correlated with many of these pathological endpoints in fetal organs. We conclude that, in fetal sheep, meconium FAEE could serve as a biomarker of daily ethanol exposure in late gestation and could identify fetuses with subtle ethanol-induced toxic effects in various organs. This study illustrates the potential for using meconium FAEE to identify neonates at risk for dysfunction of major organs following in-utero ethanol exposure that does not result in overt

  13. Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopkar, Yashdeep; Kojtari, Arben; Swearer, Dayne; Zivanovic, Sandra; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-09-01

    We report the application of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate. The conductivity of the crystalline nano/microwires increases quickly and selectively in the presence of ethyl acetate vapor, but not with water, acid and alcohol vapors, suggesting that the nanowires of PTCDI may be used for monitoring ethyl acetate during a wine manufacturing process.

  14. Production of oleic acid ethyl ester catalyzed by crude rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase in a modified fed-batch system: problem and its solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indro Prastowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fed-batch system was modified for the enzymatic production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester (OAEE using rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase by retaining the substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid at 2.05: 1 during the reaction. It resulted in an increase in the ester conversion up to 76.8% in the first 6 h of the reaction, and then followed by a decrease from 76.8% to 22.9% in 6 h later. Meanwhile, the production of water in the reaction system also showed a similar trend to the trend of ester production. The water was hypothesized to lead lipase to reverse the reaction which resulted in a decrease in both (water and esters in the last 6 h of the reaction. In order to overcome the problem, zeolite powders (25 and 50 mg/ml were added into the reaction system at 5 h of the reaction. As the result, final ester conversions increased drastically up to 90 - 95.7% (1.17 – 1.24 times. The addition also proved a hypothesis that the water was involved in reducing the ester conversion in the last 6 h of the reaction. Thus, the combination was effective to produce the high final ester conversion.

  15. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) and ethyl monoester as building polymers for drug-loadable electrospun nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Amalia; Mateo, C Reyes; Mallavia, Ricardo; Falco, Alberto

    2017-12-08

    New biomaterials are sought for the development of bioengineered nanostructures. In the present study, electrospun nanofibers have been synthesized by using poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) and poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic ethyl monoester) (PMVEMA-Ac and PMVEMA-ES, respectively) as building polymers for the first time. To further functionalize these materials, nanofibers of PMVEMA-Ac and PMVEMA-ES containing a conjugated polyelectrolyte (HTMA-PFP, blue emitter, and HTMA-PFNT, red emitter) were achieved with both forms maintaining a high solid state fluorescence yield without altered morphology. Also, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was incorporated within these nanofibers, where it remained chemically stable. In all cases, nanofiber diameters were less than 150 nm as determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and encapsulation efficiency of 5-ALA was 97 ± 1% as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both polymeric matrices showed rapid release kinetics in vertical cells (Franz cells) and followed Higuchi kinetics. In addition, no toxicity of nanofibers, in the absence of light, was found in HaCaT and SW480 cell lines. Finally, it was shown that loaded 5-ALA was functional, as it was internalized by cells in nanofiber-treated cultures and served as a substrate for the generation of protoporphyrin IX, suggesting these pharmaceutical vehicles are suitable for photodynamic therapy applications.

  16. Improved stability and enhanced efficiency to degrade chlorimuron-ethyl by the entrapment of esterase SulE in cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liqiang [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Xu, MingKai [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Huiwen, E-mail: hwzhang@iae.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Esterase SulE was entrapped in a three-dimensional network of CPE. • CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability. • CPE-SulE displayed obviously enhanced efficiency in degrading chlorimuron-ethyl. • The three-dimensional network and kinetic parameters of CPE-SulE were analysed. • CPE-SulE possesses the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated in situ. - Abstract: Free enzymes often undergo some problems such as easy deactivation, low stability, and less recycling in biodegradation processes, especially in soil condition. A novel esterase SulE, which is responsible for primary degradation of a wide range of sulfonylurea herbicides by methyl or ethyl ester de-esterification, was expressed by strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1 and entrapped for the first time in an environment-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel (CPE). The activity and stability of CPE-SulE were compared with free SulE under varying pH and temperature condition by measuring chlorimuron-ethyl residue. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional network of CPE-SulE was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability compared with free SulE. Furthermore, CPE-SulE enhanced degrading efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl in both soil and water system, especially in acid environment. The characteristics of CPE-SulE suggested the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  17. Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of new (4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-indol-1-yl)-3-R-propionic acids and propionic acid ethyl esters generated by molecular mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Roberto; Clara-Sosa, Angel; Ramírez Apan, Ma Teresa

    2007-06-01

    Indolones 4 and 5, and indolyl-aminoacids 6a-e, 7a-e, and 8a and 8b were designed by structural modification of lead compound 3. These compounds were tested on six tumor cell lines to determine the role of the azepinone ring and the N-phenyl substituent in the cytotoxicity of 3. Our results show that 4 and 5 have dramatically reduced cytotoxicity, due to the loss of the azepinone moiety of lead compound 3. In contrast, indolyl-aminoacids 6a, 7a, and 8a (N-(L)-cysteine ethyl ester derivatives) inhibited the proliferation of almost all cancer cell lines tested, even though they lack the azepinone ring. In addition, derivative 6c (N-(D)-alanine methyl ester group) was selectively cytotoxic to HCT-15 cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies with these compounds revealed the importance of the ethyl ester moiety on the amino acid moiety. Compounds 6a-e, 7a-e, and 8a and 8b were obtained in good yields by a catalytic Paal-Knorr reaction carried out under microwave irradiation using commercially available chiral amino esters or amino acids and 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds.

  18. Modulation of cardiac connexin-43 by omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-ester supplementation demonstrated in spontaneously diabetic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radošinská, J.; Kurahara, L. H.; Hiraishi, K.; Viczenczová, C.; Egan Beňová, T.; Szeiffová Bačová, B.; Dosenko, V.; Navarová, J.; Obšitník, B.; Imanaga, I.; Soukup, Tomáš; Tribulová, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2015), s. 795-806 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : diabetes * omega-3 fatty acids * cardiac connexin-43 * PKC * ultrastructure Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  19. Distillation behavior of ethyl linoleate in the batch distillation of ethanol water liquid including linoleic acid; Rinorusan wo fukumu etanoru suiyoeki no kaibun joryu ni okeru rinorusan echiru no ryushutsu kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwada, Masanori; Kono, Shigenobu; Shiomori, Koichiro; Aiko, Ryoko; Uemura, Yoshizo; Hatade, Yasuo

    1999-06-05

    It changes in the ester which the volatility is higher by various fatty acids which are included for the shochu mash reacting with the ethanol under the citric acid existence in the distillation within the year, and it is based on quality of liquor as a distillation product in respect of the effect. In this study, esterification reaction rate between ethanol in model aqueous solution of the shochu mash and linoleic acid was measured. These reaction rate receive the effect of concentration of linoleic acid, citric acid concentration as a catalyst, ethanol concentration and temperature. It was proven that esterification rate equation of linoleic acid was shown by the following equation as concentration C{sub L} of linoleic acid, concentration C{sub c} of citric acid, ethanol concentration C{sub E} and function of the temperature. r=k{sub L}xC{sub L}{sup l}xC{sub c}{sup m}xC{sub E}{sup n}. Velocity constant k{sub L} was required as a function of the temperature, while the value of linoleic acid concentration citric acid concentration which affects the generation rate of ethyl linoleate and order of reaction l, m of the ethanol concentration and n was obtained. In addition, it distilled the ethanol aqueous solution including linoleic acid or this ester, and ester generation by the esterification reaction in the can and the distillation behavior were examined. It was proven that distillation behavior of ethyl linoleate could estimate from the vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethyl linoleate in the. Distillation can of esterification reaction rate and in ethanol aqueous solution. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Synthesis, Purification, and Quantification of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters After trans-Esterification of Large Batches of Tobacco Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf-Khorassani Mehdi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de la présente étude était de quantifier les esters éthyliques d'acides gras (FAEE produits à partir de deux grands lots d'huile de graines de tabac soumis à une transéstérification éthanolique en présence d'un catalyseur d'acide sulfurique. La purification des produits combinés de la réaction des esters éthyliques visait la suppression, autant que faire se peut, de la couleur et de l'odeur du produit final et fut accomplie via une chromatographie sur colonne conventionnelle avec silice sublimée et une élution en tandem de l'hexane, dans un premier temps et de l'alcool éthylique, dans un deuxième temps, en guise de phase mobile. La chromatographie en phase gazeuse fut utilisée afin de quantifier les esters éthyliques des acides gras spécifiques dans la matière purifiée. Le pourcentage d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras purs récupérés dans le lot n°1 s'éleva à près de 87% tandis que le pourcentage d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras purs récupérés dans le lot n°2 fut supérieur à 89% avec des rendements à la préparation supérieurs à 400 g d'esters éthyliques par essai d'estérification. Les esters éthyliques d'acides gras ne possédaient pas d'arome détectable et ne présentaient qu'une légère coloration jaune à l'issue de ce traitement chromatographique. Pour caractériser la pureté de chaque lot d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras produits, une chromatographie en phase supercritique dont la phase mobile était un fluide composé de dioxyde de carbone modifié au méthanol/acétonitrile et une phase fixe composée d'une silice greffée avec groupement fonctionnel octadécyle furent utilisées. Aucune impureté liée au glycérol ou à des acides gras libres ne fut détectée dans le produit transestérifié purifié. Notre article est le premier rapport décrivant la transestérification optimisée de l'huile de graines de tabac à une échelle relativement grande, ladite transest

  1. Improved stability and enhanced efficiency to degrade chlorimuron-ethyl by the entrapment of esterase SulE in cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Xu, MingKai; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-04-28

    Free enzymes often undergo some problems such as easy deactivation, low stability, and less recycling in biodegradation processes, especially in soil condition. A novel esterase SulE, which is responsible for primary degradation of a wide range of sulfonylurea herbicides by methyl or ethyl ester de-esterification, was expressed by strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1 and entrapped for the first time in an environment-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel (CPE). The activity and stability of CPE-SulE were compared with free SulE under varying pH and temperature condition by measuring chlorimuron-ethyl residue. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional network of CPE-SulE was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability compared with free SulE. Furthermore, CPE-SulE enhanced degrading efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl in both soil and water system, especially in acid environment. The characteristics of CPE-SulE suggested the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lamellar Liquid Crystal Improves the Skin Retention of 3-O-Ethyl-Ascorbic Acid and Potassium 4-Methoxysalicylate In Vitro and In Vivo for Topical Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanru; Dong, Cuilian; Cun, Dongmei; Liu, Jie; Xiang, Rongwu; Fang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed at increasing the skin retention of 3-O-ethyl-ascorbic acid (EA) and potassium 4-methoxysalicylate (4-MSK) via topical administration for effective skin-whitening. To achieve this goal, EA and 4-MSK were formulated into lamellar liquid crystalline (LLC) cream, and response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the formulation. Polarized light microscopy (PLM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and rheological experiments were performed to confirm the presence of the LLC structure in the base of cream. In addition, a comparison analysis of the skin retention of the two drugs between the LLC cream and the common o/w (COW) cream was made through in vitro permeation and in vivo drug distribution experiments. As a result, the optimal formulation was defined as 1.2% of EA, 1.48% of 4-MSK, 14.05% of Schercemol™ DISM Ester (DISM) as the oil, 4.0% of Emulium® Delta as the emulsifier, and 3.0% of stearyl alcohol as the co-emulsifier. In comparison with the COW cream, the LLC cream significantly increased the skin retention of EA and 4-MSK both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the LLC carrier serves as a promising choice for topical preparation by enhancing skin retention and providing desirable rheological characteristics.

  3. Characterization of porous collagen/hyaluronic acid scaffold modified by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Nae; Park, Jong-Chul; Kim, Hea Ok; Song, Min Jung; Suh, Hwal

    2002-02-01

    In order to develop a scaffolding material for tissue regeneration, porous matrices containing collagen and hyaluronic acid were fabricated by freeze drying at -20 degrees C, -70 degrees C or -196 degrees C. The fabricated porous membranes were cross-linked using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in a range of 1-100 mM concentrations for enhancing mechanical stability of the composite matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) views of the matrices demonstrated that the matrices obtained before cross-linking process had interconnected pores with mean diameters of 40, 90 or 230 microm and porosity of 58-66% according to the freezing temperature, and also the porous structures after cross-linking process were retained. The swelling test and IR spectroscopic measurement of different cross-linked membranes were carried out as a measure of the extent of cross-linking. The swelling behavior of cross-linked membranes showed no significant differences as cross-linking degree increased. FT-IR spectra showed the increase of the intensity of the absorbencies at amide bonds (1655, 1546, 1458 cm(-1)) compared to that of CH bond (2930 cm(-1)). In enzymatic degradation test, EDC treated membranes showed significant enhancement of the resistance to collagenase activity in comparison with 0.625% glutaraldehyde treated membranes. In cytotoxicity test using L929 fibroblastic cells, the EDC-cross-linked membranes demonstrated no significant toxicity.

  4. Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Menhaden Oil Using Proteus vulgaris Lipase-Mediated One-Step Transesterification and Urea Complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2016-05-01

    An organic solvent-stable lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 was used to produce the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ω-3 PUFA EEs). First, the lyophilized recombinant lipase K80 (LyoK80) was used to perform the transesterification reaction of menhaden oil and ethanol. LyoK80 produced the ω-3 PUFA EEs with a conversion yield of 82 % in the presence of 20 % water content via a three-step ethanol-feeding process; however, in a non-aqueous condition, LyoK80 produced only a slight amount of the ω-3 PUFA EEs. To enhance its reaction properties, the lipase K80 was immobilized on a hydrophobic bead to derive ImmK80; the biochemical properties and substrate specificity of ImmK80 are similar to those of LyoK80. ImmK80 was then used to produce ω-3 PUFA EEs in accordance with the same transesterification reaction. Unlike LyoK80, ImmK80 achieved a high ω-3 PUFA EE conversion yield of 86 % under a non-aqueous system via a one-step ethanol-feeding reaction. The ω-3 PUFA EEs were purified up to 92 % using a urea complexation method.

  5. Analysis of the herbicidal mechanism of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid ethyl ester using iTRAQ and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyue; Liu, Ce; Yang, Juan; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lihui; Dong, Jingao

    2017-04-21

    Absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) is the latest development in the new quantitative proteomics technology for high-throughput identification and quantitation of proteins. The mechanisms underlying the 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid ethyl ester treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. Deficiency-induced changes in the protein profile of A. thaliana caused by this compound were analyzed using iTRAQ and quantitative real-time PCR. A total of 2909 proteins were quantified, of which 49 and 34 proteins were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in the experimental plants compared with the controls. Treatment results showed that numerous proteins were involved in photosystemII, energy metabolism, and cell structure formation. Based on the upregulated and downregulated proteins, high amount of AT4G21280 protein acted on the oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3-1, while low amount of AT1G10340 protein affected the catabolic process of the photosystemII-associated light-harvesting complex II. We selected these proteins to preliminarily verify the expression of proteins using quantitative real-time PCR to provide a reliable basis for further studies after proteomics analysis. Results show that the combined use of iTRAQ and quantitative real-time PCR provides an effective method to study proteins, leading to the determination of a new herbicide mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioiodinated D-(+)-N1-ethyl-2-iodolysergic acid diethylamide: A ligand for in vitro and in vivo studies of serotonin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.R.; Scheffel, U.A.; Musachio, J.L.; Stathis, M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Radioiodinated D-(+)-N1-ethyl-2-iodolysergic acid diethylamide ((125I)-EIL) has been evaluated as a ligand for in vitro and in vivo studies of cerebral serotonin 5-HT{sub 2} receptors. (125I)-EIL exhibited high affinity for 5-HT{sub 2} receptors with a high degree of specific binding in membranes from rat prefrontal cortex. The regional distribution of (125I)-EIL binding in vivo to seven areas of mouse brain correlated significantly with known densities of 5-HT{sub 2} receptors. In vivo specificity, defined by tissue to cerebellum radioactivity ratios, reached a maximum for frontal cortex at 6 hr (21.2) and persisted through 16 hr (8.8). Ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist, fully inhibited binding in a dose dependent fashion in all brain regions except cerebellum. By contrast, blockers for dopamine D{sub 2}, {alpha}- or {beta}-adrenergic receptors did not significantly inhibit radioligand binding in any region. (125I)-EIL selectively labels 5-HT{sub 2} receptors in vivo with the highest specificity of any serotonergic ligand reported to date, indicating that (123I)-EIL should prove applicable to single photon emission computed tomography studies in living brain.

  7. Investigations of vibrational spectra and bioactivity of novel anticancer drug N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-gamma-amino butyric acid ethyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhi, Geethu; Rajina, S. R.; Praveen, S. G.; Xavier, T. S.; Kenny, Peter T. M.; Jaiswal-Nagar, D.; Binoy, J.

    2017-10-01

    The bioactivity of compounds is mainly dependent on molecular structure and the present work aims to explore the bonding features responsible for biological activity of novel anticancer drug N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-gamma-amino butyric acid ethyl ester (FNGABEE). In the present study, we investigate the molecular structural properties of newly synthesized title compound through experimental and quantum chemical studies. The detailed vibrational analysis has been performed using FT IR and FT Raman spectrum, aided by DFT computed geometry, vibrational spectrum, Eigen vector distribution and PED, at B3LYP/6-311 ++G(d,p) level. The resonance structure of naphthalene, different from that of benzene, revealed by molecular structure has been investigated using Csbnd C and Cdbnd C stretching modes. The proton transfer in amide has been analyzed to obtain spectral distinction between different carbonyl and Csbnd N groups which point to the reactive sites responsible for binding with DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The spectral distinction between eclipsed and staggered form of ferrocene has been analyzed. The molecular docking of FNGABEE with BSA and DNA has been performed to find the strength of binding and the moieties responsible for the interactions. The experimental binding studies of FNGABEE with BSA and DNA has been performed using UV absorption spectroscopy and fluorometric assay, to find the nature and strength of binding.

  8. Preparation of a Salecan/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanosulfonic acid-co-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) Semi-IPN Hydrogel for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoliang; Li, Junjian; Wei, Wei; Su, Ting; Zuo, Gancheng; Pan, Xihao; Zhang, Jianfa; Dong, Wei

    2017-01-20

    Salecan is a water-soluble bacterial polysaccharide consisting of glucopyranosyl units linked by α-1,3 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds. salecan is suitable for the development of hydrogels for biomedical applications, given its outstanding physicochemical and biological profiles. In this study we designed a new semi-interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel that introduces the salecan polysaccharide into a stimuli-responsive poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanosulfonic acid-co-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (PAM) hydrogel matrix for controlled insulin release. We found that salecan not only tunes the structure and pore size of the PAM hydrogels, but also endows them with adjustable water release rates. More importantly, in vitro drug loading/release assays demonstrated that insulin is efficiently loaded into the resulting hydrogels and can be released in an on-demand manner by controlling the pH and salecan dose. Furthermore, cell viability and cell adhesion experiments verified the cell compatibility of these hydrogel carriers. Together, these results make salecan-incorporated PAM hydrogels promising materials for drug delivery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. New spectrophotometric method for determining nitrogen dioxide in air using 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt and passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Alaa A; Soliman, Ahmed A; El-Haty, Ismail A

    2011-01-01

    A new simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for determining nitrogen dioxide in air was developed. The method is based on converting atmospheric nitrogen dioxide to nitrite ions within the IVL passive samplers used for samples collection. Acidifying nitrite ions with concentrated HCl produced the peroxynitrous acid oxidizing agent which was measured using 2, 2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt (ABTS) as reducing coloring agent. A parallel series of collected samples were measured for its nitrite content using a validated ion chromatographic method.The results obtained using both methods were compared in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy. Developed spectrophotometric method was shown to be one order of magnitude higher in sensitivity compared to the ion chromatographic method. Quantitation limits of 0.05 ppm and 0.55 μg/m(3) were obtained for nitrite ion and nitrogen dioxid, respectively. Standard deviations in the ranges of 0.05-0.59 and 0.63-7.92 with averages of 0.27 and 3.11 were obtained for determining nitrite and nitrogen dioxide, respectively.Student-t test revealed t-values less than 6.93 and 4.40 for nitrite ions and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. These values indicated insignificant difference between the averages of the newly developed method and the values obtained by ion chromatography at 95% confidence level.Compared to continuous monitoring techniques, the newly developed method has shown simple, accurate, sensitive, inexpensive and reliable for long term monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air.

  10. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  11. Update on the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia – focus on free fatty acid forms of omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirillo A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Pirillo,1,2 Alberico Luigi Catapano2,3 1Center for the Study of Atherosclerosis, Bassini Hospital, Cinisello Balsamo, Italy; 2IRCCS Multimedica, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Abstract: High levels of plasma triglycerides (TG are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, often associated with anomalies in other lipids or lipoproteins. Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG, particularly at very high levels, significantly increases also the risk of acute pancreatitis. Thus, interventions to lower TG levels are required to reduce the risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease. Several strategies may be adopted for TG reduction, including lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions. Among the available drugs, the most commonly used for HTG are fibrates, nicotinic acid, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (usually a mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA. These last are available under different concentrated formulations containing high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, including a mixture of EPA and DHA or pure EPA. The most recent formulation contains a free fatty acid (FFA form of EPA and DHA, and exhibits a significantly higher bioavailability compared with the ethyl ester forms contained in the other formulations. This is due to the fact that the ethyl ester forms, to be absorbed, need to be hydrolyzed by the pancreatic enzymes that are secreted in response to fat intake, while the FFA do not. This higher bioavailability translates into a higher TG-lowering efficacy compared with the ethyl ester forms at equivalent doses. Omega-3 FFA are effective in reducing TG levels and other lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients as well as in high cardiovascular risk patients treated with statins and residual HTG. Currently, omega-3 FFA formulation is under evaluation to establish whether, in high cardiovascular risk

  12. Combination of ester biosynthesis and ω-oxidation for production of mono-ethyl dicarboxylic acids and di-ethyl esters in a whole-cell biocatalytic setup with Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuland, van Youri M.; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medium chain length (C6-C12) α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and corresponding esters are important building blocks for the polymer industry. For DCAs of 12 carbon atoms and longer, a sustainable process based on monooxygenase catalyzed ω-oxidation of fatty-acids has been realized. For

  13. Simultaneous determination of myristyl nicotinate, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide in rabbit plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using methyl ethyl ketone as a deproteinization solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catz, Paul; Shinn, Walter; Kapetanovic, Izet M; Kim, Hyuntae; Kim, Moonsun; Jacobson, Elaine L; Jacobson, Myron K; Green, Carol E

    2005-12-27

    Myristyl nicotinate (Nia-114) is an ester prodrug being developed for delivery of nicotinic acid (NIC) into the skin for prevention of actinic keratosis and its progression to skin cancer. To facilitate dermal studies of Nia-114, a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) as a deproteinization solvent was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Nia-114, NIC, and nicotinamide (NAM) in rabbit plasma. NAM is the principal metabolite of NIC, which is also expected to have chemopreventive properties. The analytes were chromatographically separated using a Spherisorb Cyano column under isocratic conditions, and detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode with a run time of 9 min. The method utilized a plasma sample volume of 0.2 ml and isotope-labeled D4 forms of each analyte as internal standards. The method was linear over the concentration range of 2-1000, 8-1000, and 75-1000 ng/ml, for Nia-114, NIC, and NAM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day assay accuracy and precision were within +/-15% for all analytes at low, medium, and high quality control standard levels. The relatively high value for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of NAM was demonstrated to be due to the high level of endogenous NAM in the rabbit plasma (about 350 ng/ml). Endogenous levels of NIC and NAM in human, dog, rat, and mouse plasma were also determined, and mean values ranged from NIC and 38.3 ng/ml NAM in human, to 233 ng/ml NIC and 622 ng/ml NAM in mouse. Nia-114 was generally unstable in rabbit plasma, as evidenced by loss of 44-50% at room temperature by 2 h, and loss of 64-70% upon storage at -20 degrees C for 1 week, whereas it was stable (<7% loss) upon storage at -80 degrees C for 1 month.

  14. Simple method for the simultaneous quantification of medium-chain fatty acids and ethyl hexanoate in alcoholic beverages by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector: development of a direct injection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2011-10-28

    Free medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) can negatively influence the fermentation process and taste quality in alcoholic beverages. Ethyl hexanoate is important in providing a fruit-like flavour to drinks, particularly in Japanese sake. In this study, we developed a direct injection method for a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector following the semi-purification of chemical components, such as esters, alcohols and MCFAs in alcoholic beverages. Evaluation of MCFAs by this method gave a limit of detection on the order of sub-ppm and relative standard deviations less than 10% in standard solution. Good repeatability and recovery rates against MCFAs and ethyl hexanoate were also obtained in non-distilled real alcoholic beverages. Because this method enabled us to simultaneously quantify the concentrations of MCFAs and ethyl hexanoate, the proportion of ester against MCFAs was proposed as a quality control index. This method could be suitable for routine analysis in the alcohol beverage industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia.

  16. Modified montmorillonite as a heterogeneous catalyst in (m)ethyl esterification reaction of lauric acid; Montmorilonita modificada como catalisador heterogeneo em reacoes de esterificacao (M)etilica de acido laurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatta, Leandro; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba , PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Montmorillonite was modified with zirconium polyoxycations in the presence of ammonium sulphate. The material was characterized and used as a catalyst in the esterification of lauric acid, the reactions being accompanied by 2{sup 3} factorial design. Conversions of up to 95.33 and 83.35% were observed for the methyl and ethyl esterification reactions respectively, proving superior to results obtained by thermal conversion. The material was submitted to three reaction cycles and similar conversions were observed, indicating the catalyst is not significantly deactivated after reuse. The catalyst was also tested under reflux conditions, yielding a maximum conversion of 36.86%. (author)

  17. Lipid Class Specific Quantitative Analysis of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Food Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Laura; Ostermann, Annika I; Konrad, Thade; Riegel, Dieter; Hellhake, Stefan; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2017-01-11

    Supplementation products containing n-3 PUFA from marine sources serve a large market. Although the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the products is provided by the manufacturer, no or little information is available on their lipid pattern. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed the fatty acid pattern in the lipid fractions triglycerides, phospholipids, ethyl esters, and free fatty acids in supplementation products by means of solid phase extraction and gas chromatography. Twelve products from the European and U.S. markets containing fish, krill, algal, or plant oil were analyzed. Total n-3 PUFA content ranged from 68 g/100 g fat (fish oil) to 42 g/100 g fat (algal oil) to 17 g/100 g fat (krill oil). On the basis of the n-3 PUFA containing lipid class, the supplements can be separated dominantly in ethyl ester, re-esterified triglyceride, triglyceride, and phospholipid containing products. Algae-based products contained natural triglycerides, krill oils a complex mixture of phospholipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, and fish oil products either ethyl esters, re-esterified triglycerides, or triglycerides. Even products of the same class and source showed distinct differences in their lipid pattern. A specification of the lipid composition of n-3 PUFA products would allow distinguishing the different (qualities of) supplements.

  18. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  19. Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerens, S M G; Delvaux, F; Verstrepen, K J; Van Dijck, P; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection.

  20. Novel recombinant ethyl ferulate esterase from Burkholderia multivorans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, KJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of bacterial isolates with specific ferulic acid (FA) esterase activity and cloning of a gene encoding activity. A micro-organism with ethyl ferulate hydrolysing (EFH) activity was isolated by culture enrichment...

  1. Antimicrobial potential of bioconverted products of omega-3 fatty acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioconverted omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (bEPA) and docosahexanoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of non-bioconverted eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. bEPA and bDHA at 5 µl/...

  2. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products: considerations for patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nadeem Tajuddin,1 Ali Shaikh,2 Amir Hassan2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Clinic of Endocrinology, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome contribute to hypertriglyceridemia, which may increase residual risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with elevated triglyceride (TG levels despite optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels with statin therapy. Prescription products containing the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are an effective strategy for reducing TG levels. This article provides an overview of prescription OM3FAs, including relevant clinical data in patients with T2DM and/or metabolic syndrome. Prescription OM3FAs contain either combinations of DHA and EPA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-carboxylic acids, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A or EPA alone (icosapent ethyl. These products are well tolerated and can be used safely with statins. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that all prescription OM3FAs produce statistically significant reductions in TG levels compared with placebo; however, differential effects on LDL-C levels have been reported. Products containing DHA may increase LDL-C levels, whereas the EPA-only product did not increase LDL-C levels compared with placebo. Because increases in LDL-C levels may be unwanted in patients with T2DM and/or dyslipidemia, the EPA-only product should not be replaced with products containing DHA. Available data on the effects of OM3FAs in patients with diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome support that these products can be used safely in patients with T2DM and have beneficial effects on atherogenic parameters; in particular, the EPA-only prescription product significantly reduced TG, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo B, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity CRP levels without increasing

  3. Influence of iron solubility and charged surface-active compounds on lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters containing association colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Johnson, David R; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-05-15

    The impact of iron compounds with different solubilities on lipid oxidation was studied in the presence and absence of association colloids. Iron (III) sulfate only accelerated lipid oxidation in the presence of association colloids while iron (III) oleate accelerated oxidation in the presence and absence of association colloids. Further, iron (III) oxide retarded lipid oxidation both with and without association colloids. The impact of charged association colloids on lipid oxidation in ethyl oleate was also investigated. Association colloids consisting of the anionic surface-active compound dodecyl sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT), cationic surface-active compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surface-active compound 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) retarded, promoted, and had no effect on lipid oxidation rates, respectively. These results indicate that the polarity of metal compounds and the charge of association colloids play a big role in lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fibronectin fixation on poly(ethyl acrylate)-based copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, N; Antolinos-Turpin, C M; Alió, J; Garagorri, N; Ribelles, J L Gómez; Gómez-Tejedor, J A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the adhered fibronectin (FN; by adsorption and/or grafting) and the exposure of its cell adhesive motifs (RGD and FNIII7-10) on poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) copolymers whose chemical composition has been designed to increase wettability and to introduce acid functional groups. FN was adsorbed to PEA, poly(ethyl acrylate-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid), and poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers, and covalently cross-linked to poly(ethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) and poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers. Amount of adhered FN and exhibition of RGD and FNIII7- 10 fragments involved in cell adhesion were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Even copolymers with a lower content of the hydrophilic component showed a decrease in water contact angle. In addition, FN was successfully fixed on all surfaces, especially on the hydrophobic surfaces. However, it was demonstrated that exposure of its cell adhesion sequences, which is the key factor in cell adhesion and proliferation, was higher for hydrophilic surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Characterization of Meldrum's acid derivative 5-(5-Ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylamino)methylene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, T. A.; da Silva, L. E.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; Freire, P. T. C.; Pizani, P. S.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the structural and vibrational properties of Meldrum's acid derivative 5-(5-Ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylamino)methylene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione, C11H13N3O4S were studied combining experimental techniques such as Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded at room conditions in the regions from 80 to 3400 cm-1 and 400 to 4000 cm-1, respectively. Vibrational wavenumbers were predicted using DFT calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP and basis set 6-31G(d,p). A comparison between experimental and theoretical data is provided for the Raman and FT-IR spectra. The descriptions of the normal modes were carried by means of potential energy distribution (PED).

  6. Fabrication and characterization of superparamagnetic and thermoresponsive hydrogels based on oleic-acid-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, hexa(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and 2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaphilippou, Petri C., E-mail: mep6pp1@ucy.ac.c [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Pourgouris, Antonis, E-mail: a_pourgouris@hotmail.co [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Marinica, Oana, E-mail: marinica.oana@gmail.co [National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, University ' Politehnica' Timisoara, Bd. Mihai Viteazul No. 1, 300222 Timisoara (Romania); Taculescu, Alina, E-mail: alina_taculescu@yahoo.co [Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Romanian Academy, Timisoara Branch, Bd. Mihai Viteazul, No. 24, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Athanasopoulos, George I., E-mail: georgios.athanasopoulos@ucy.ac.c [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Vekas, Ladislau, E-mail: vekas@acad-tim.tm.edu.r [Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Romanian Academy, Timisoara Branch, Bd. Mihai Viteazul, No. 24, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Krasia-Christoforou, Theodora, E-mail: krasia@ucy.ac.c [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2011-03-15

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposites comprised of swollen polymer networks, in which magnetic nanoparticles are embedded, are a relatively new class of 'smart' soft materials presenting a significant impact on various technological and biomedical applications. A novel approach for the fabrication of hydrogel nanocomposites exhibiting temperature- and magneto-responsive behavior involves the random copolymerization of hexa(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (HEGMA, hydrophilic, thermoresponsive) and 2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate (AEMA, hydrophobic, metal-chelating) in the presence of preformed oleic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles (OA.Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). In total, two series of hydrogel nanocomposites have been prepared in two different solvent systems: ethyl acetate (series A) and tetrahydrofuran (series B). The degrees of swelling (DSs) of all conetworks were determined in organic and in aqueous media. The nanocrystalline phase adopted by the embedded magnetic nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The obtained diffraction patterns indicated the presence of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Deswelling kinetic studies that were carried out at {approx}60 {sup o}C in water demonstrated the thermoresponsive properties of the hydrogel nanocomposites, attributed to the presence of the hexaethylene glycol side chains within the conetworks. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed that these materials exhibited superior thermal stability compared to the pristine hydrogels. Further to the characterization of compositional and thermal properties, the assessment of magnetic characteristics by vibrational sample magnetometry (VSM) disclosed superparamagnetic behavior. The tunable superparamagnetic behavior exhibited by these materials depending on the amount of magnetic nanoparticles incorporated within the networks combined with their thermoresponsive properties may allow for their future

  7. Structure of five molecular salts assembled from noncovalent associations between organic acids, imidazole, benzimidazole, and 1-(2-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-benzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuchong; Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2017-09-01

    Cocrystallization of the imidazole derivatives, L1-L3, with a series of organic acids gave a total of five molecular salts with the compositions: (imidazole): (DL-10-camphorsulfonic acid) [(HL1+)·(cpsa-), cpsa- = DL-10-camphorsulfonate] (1), (imidazole): (3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) [(HL1+) · (3,5-dba-), 3,5-dba- = 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate] (2), (imidazole): (isophthalic acid): H2O [(HL1)+·(Hmpa)-·H2O, Hmpa- = hydrogenisophthalate] (3), (benzimidazole): (butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid) [(HL2+)·(H3bta -), H3bta- = trihydrogen butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylate] (4), and (benzimidazole)2: 1-(2-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-benzimidazole: (5-nitrosalicylic acid)2 [(L2)2·(H2L3)2+·(5-nsa-)2, 5-nsa- = 5-nitrosalicylate], (5). The five salts have been characterized by XRD technique, IR, and EA, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the five investigated crystals the ring N in the imidazole moieties are protonated when the organic acids are ionized, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong Nsbnd H⋯O H-bond from the imidazole and the ionized acids. In addition to the Nsbnd H⋯O H-bond, the Osbnd H⋯O H-bonds were also established at the salts 2-5, compound 1 has the additional Nsbnd H⋯S H-bonds. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts displayed that a different family of additional CHsbnd O/CH2sbnd O/CH3sbnd O, CHsbnd S, CHsbnd π, NHsbnd π, and πsbnd π associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total 3D framework structures. For the coexistence of the various weak interactions these structures had homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical supramolecular synthons, such as R12(4), R22(7), and R22(8) usually observed in crystals of organic acids with imidazole, were again shown to be involved in constructing most of these hydrogen bonding networks.

  8. Optimization and validation of liquid chromatography and headspace-gas chromatography based methods for the quantitative determination of capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, glycol monosalicylate, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, camphor and l-menthol in a topical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Jochen; D'Autry, Ward; Van den Bossche, Larissa; Dewever, Cédric; Forier, Michel; Vandenwaeyenberg, Stephanie; Wolfs, Kris; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2012-02-23

    Capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol monosalicylate, camphor and l-menthol are widely used in topical formulations to relieve local pain. For each separate compound or simple mixtures, quantitative analysis methods are reported. However, for a mixture containing all above mentioned active compounds, no assay methods were found. Due to the differing physicochemical characteristics, two methods were developed and optimized simultaneously. The non-volatile capsaicinoids, salicylic acid and glycol monosalicylate were analyzed with liquid chromatography following liquid-liquid extraction, whereas the volatile compounds were analyzed with static headspace-gas chromatography. For the latter method, liquid paraffin was selected as compatible dilution solvent. The optimized methods were validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision in a range of 80% to 120% of the expected concentrations. For both methods, peaks were well separated without interference of other compounds. Linear relationships were demonstrated with R² values higher than 0.996 for all compounds. Accuracy was assessed by performing replicate recovery experiments with spiked blank samples. Mean recovery values were all between 98% and 102%. Precision was checked at three levels: system repeatability, method precision and intermediate precision. Both methods were found to be acceptably precise at all three levels. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of some real samples (cutaneous sticks). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, J. Chris; Hilleman, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    The triglyceride (TG)-lowering benefits of the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are well documented. Available as prescription formulations and dietary supplements, EPA and DHA are recommended by the American Heart Association for patients with coronary heart disease and hypertriglyceridemia. Dietary supplements are not subject to the same government regulatory standards for safety, efficacy, and purity as prescription drugs are; moreover, supplements may contain variable concentrations of EPA and DHA and possibly other contaminants. Reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remains the primary treatment goal in the management of dyslipidemia. Dietary supplements and prescription formulations that contain both EPA and DHA may lower TG levels, but they may also increase LDL-C levels. Two prescription formulations of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are available in the U.S. Although prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM-3-A EEs, Lovaza) contain high-purity EPA and DHA, prescription icosapent ethyl (IPE, Vascepa) is a high-purity EPA agent. In clinical trials of statin-treated and non–statin-treated patients with hypertriglyceridemia, both OM-3-A EE and IPE lowered TG levels and other atherogenic markers; however, IPE did not increase LDL-C levels. Results of recent outcomes trials of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, and niacin have been disappointing, failing to show additional reductions in adverse cardiovascular events when combined with statins. Therefore, the REDUCE–IT study is being conducted to evaluate the effect of the combination of IPE and statins on cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients. The results of this trial are eagerly anticipated. PMID:24391388

  10. Extraction, Separation, and Purification of Blueberry Anthocyanin Using Ethyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry contains many substances that are important to the human body and can prevent cardiovascular diseases, protect the retina, and soften blood vessels. Anthocyanin, which is extracted from blueberry, can activate the retina, strengthen vision, reduce serum cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein, and protect cell nucleus tissues from radical oxidation; hence, blueberry is of importance to scientists from different countries. In this study, anthocyanin was extracted and separated from blueberry using ethyl alcohol to investigate the effects of factors, such as ethyl alcohol volume ratio on anthocyanin extraction and separation technologies. The extracting solution was then purified using the macroreticular resin purification method to investigate the effects of ethyl alcohol concentration and eluent dosage on anthocyanin extraction during purification. The research results demonstrated that 60 % ethyl alcohol volume fraction, 1 : 10 mass ratio of solid to liquid, and 60 °C ultrasonic temperature were the best conditions for anthocyanin extraction. The best purification conditions were 95 % ethyl alcohol, which had been acidized by 0.3 % hydrochloric acid and 70 ml of eluent. This work provides a reference for the application of ethyl alcohol in anthocyanin extraction.

  11. Ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells.......Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells....

  12. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  14. Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters; Estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de esteres etilicos de acidos graxos de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Roseli Ap.; Oliveira, Vanessa da Silva; Scabio, Ardalla [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos]. E-mail: ferrarir@uepg

    2005-06-01

    Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters, derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, and its utilization is associated to the substitution of the diesel oil in engines. Depending on the raw material, bio diesel can contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids in its composition, which are susceptible to oxidation reactions accelerated by exposition to oxygen and high temperatures, being able to change into polymerized compounds. The objective of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of bio diesel produced by ethanolysis of neutralized, refined, soybean frying oil waste, and partially hydrogenated soybean frying oil waste. The evaluation was conducted by means of the Rancimat equipment, at temperatures of 100 and 105 deg C, with an air flow of 20 L h{sup -1}. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC and the iodine value was calculated. It was observed that even though the neutralized, refined and waste frying soybean oils presented close comparable iodine values, bio diesel presented different oxidative stabilities. The bio diesel from neutralized soybean oil presented greater stability, followed by the refined and the frying waste. Due to the natural antioxidants in its composition, the neutralized soybean oil promoted a larger oxidative stability of the produced bio diesel. During the deodorization process, the vegetable oils lose part of these antioxidants, therefore the bio diesel from refined soybean oil presented a reduced stability. The thermal process degrades the antioxidants, thus the bio diesel from frying waste oil resulted in lower stability, the same occurring with the bio diesel from partially hydrogenated waste oil, even though having lower iodine values than the other. (author)

  15. Labelling of 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid with Technetium-99m: biodistribution study in Swiss mice; Marcacao do acido 5-etil-5-fenilbarbiturico com tecnecio-99m: estudo da biodistribuicao em camundongos Swiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Susana B.E.; Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Gutfilen, Bianca; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Alves, Andreia Coelho; Machado-Silva, Jose R. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    1996-07-01

    The 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid (phenobarbital) is used as a sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant drug. We decided to label it with technetium-99m. In order to determine the optimal conditions, different concentrations of this drug were incubated with various stannous chloride solutions. Then, {sup 99m}Tc was added and chromatography was performed using 0.9% NaCl solution, acetone and n-butyl alcohol as the mobile phase. Using a solution of 0.01 mg/ml stannous chloride and 1.0 mg/ml phenobarbital over 92% of the radioactivity bound to phenobarbital {sup 99m}Tc-phenobarbital. In the biodistribution study, {sup 99m}Tc-phenobarbital was administered in mice intraperitoneal. The main uptake of the labeled drug was in the liver, blood, kidneys, spleen and stomach. The phenobarbital is also used as anesthetic drug in animals. Earlier studies confirm that this drug can dislocate the adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni to mesenteric vein towards the liver and portal vein, so that we used infected animals, radioactivity was not found in isolated worms and we can conclude that the phenobarbital has an indirect action in relation to the displacement of the worms. (author)

  16. Comparison of different solid-phase-extraction cartridges for a fatty acid cleanup of the ethyl acetate/cyclohexane based multi-pesticide residue method EN 12393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Philipp; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-01-03

    SPE cartridges of different anion exchange materials and florisil were compared regarding their efficiency to remove free fatty acids from ethylacetate/cyclohexane (1:1) extracts, their elution profiles and recovery rates for 38 representative pesticides, their contribution to an elevated background during gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and on possible matrix effects caused by the cartridge material itself. From the seven tested cartridges, only Varian PSA (PSA) and Silicycle SiliaPrep Diamine (SPD) were very well able to retain fatty acids from ethylacetate/cyclohexane solutions and provided satisfying recoveries and elution profiles for the tested pesticides. Thus, with both cartridges a fast and simple cleanup was developed and tested with 86 pesticides as well as with EN 12393 GPC extracts of oat flour. The SPE cleanup clearly improved the identification of pesticides and reduced false negative findings due to retention time shifts and superimpositions of quantifier and/or qualifier ions. As compared with dispersive SPE it was shown, that depending on the amount of sorbent the cleanup efficiency was comparable, but recoveries were generally better for cartridge SPE procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibria of minute amounts of {beta}-phenethyl alcohol, {beta}-phenethyl acetate and ethyl esters of low fattu acids in ethyl alcohol aqueous solution; Etanoru suiyoekichu no biryo no {beta}-fenechiru arukoru, sakusan {beta}-fenechiru oyobi teikyu shibosan echiruesuteru rui no kieki heiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatate, Y.; Aiko, R.; Taniguchi, K.; Uemura, Y. [Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kashiwada, M. [Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawano, M. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Omori, T.; Shimoda, M. [Sanwa Shurui Co. Ltd., Oita (Japan)

    1997-05-10

    Equilibrium ratios of minute amounts of ethyl n-carpet, ethyl n-carpet, ethyl n-laurate, {beta}-phenethyl alcohol and {beta}-phenethyl acetate in ethanol aqueous solution were measured to obtain the following results. 1. Constant equilibrium ratio was confirmed below the concentration of 10{sup -2} mole fraction for each minute component in ethanol. 2. It was obvious from the measurements of equilibrium ratios of each minute component in ethanol aqueous solution that equilibrium ratios of each minute component are independent of its concentrations below 800 ppm, and increase with decreasing ethanol concentration in the same manner as the other minute components in Shochu mash. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Return of the lysergamides. Part III: Analytical characterization of N6 -ethyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (ETH-LAD) and 1-propionyl ETH-LAD (1P-ETH-LAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Simon D; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Westphal, Folker; Elliott, Simon P; Wallach, Jason; Stratford, Alexander; Nichols, David E; Halberstadt, Adam L

    2017-10-01

    The psychoactive properties of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have fascinated scientists across disciplines and the exploration of other analogues and derivatives has been motivated by deepening the understanding of ligand-receptor interactions at the molecular level as well as by the search for new therapeutics. Several LSD congeners have appeared on the new psychoactive substances (NPS) market in the form of blotters or powders. Examples include 1-propionyl-LSD (1P-LSD), AL-LAD, and LSZ. The absence of analytical data for novel compounds is a frequent challenge encountered in clinical and toxicological investigations. Two newly emerging lysergamides, namely N6 -ethyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (ETH-LAD) and 1P-ETH-LAD, were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), low and high mass accuracy electrospray MS(/MS), GC solid-state infrared analysis, high performance liquid chromatography diode array detection as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Limited analytical data for ETH-LAD were previously available, whereas information about 1P-ETH-LAD has not previously been encountered in the scientific literature. This study extends the characterization of lysergamides distributed on the NPS market, which will help to make analytical data available to clinicians, toxicologists, and other stakeholders who are likely to encounter these substances. The analysis of a test incubation of 1P-ETH-LAD with human serum at 37°C by LC single quadrupole MS at various time points (0-6 h, once per hour and one measurement after 24 h) revealed the formation of ETH-LAD, suggesting that 1P-ETH-LAD might serve as a pro-drug. 1P-ETH-LAD was still detectable in serum after 24 h. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are...

  20. Features of the Thermodynamics of Trivalent Lanthanide/Actinide Distribution Reactions by Tri-n-Octylphosphine Oxide and Bis(2-EthylHexyl) Phosphoric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis S. Grimes; Peter R. Zalupski

    2014-11-01

    A new methodology has been developed to study the thermochemical features of the biphasic transfer reactions of trisnitrato complexes of lanthanides and americium by a mono-functional solvating ligand (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide - TOPO). Stability constants for successive nitrato complexes (M(NO3)x3-x (aq) where M is Eu3+, Am3+ or Cm3+) were determined to assist in the calculation of the extraction constant, Kex, for the metal ions under study. Enthalpies of extraction (?Hextr) for the lanthanide series (excluding Pm3+) and Am3+ by TOPO have been measured using isothermal titration calorimetry. The observed ?Hextr were found to be constant at ~29 kJ mol-1across the series from La3+-Er3+, with a slight decrease observed from Tm3+-Lu3+. These heats were found to be consistent with enthalpies determined using van ’t Hoff analysis of temperature dependent extraction studies. A complete set of thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H, ?S) was calculated for Eu(NO3)3, Am(NO3)3 and Cm(NO3)3 extraction by TOPO and Am3+ and Cm3+ extraction by bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). A discussion comparing the energetics of these systems is offered. The measured biphasic extraction heats for the transplutonium elements, ?Hextr, presented in these studies are the first ever direct measurements offered using two-phase calorimetric techniques.

  1. omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) and placebo in the treatment of female subjects with borderline personality disorder. The authors conducted an 8-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of E-EPA in 30 female subjects meeting Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to 1 g of E-EPA; 10 subjects were given placebo. Ninety percent of those in both groups completed all 8 weeks of the trial. Analyses that used random-effects regression modeling and controlled for baseline severity showed E-EPA to be superior to placebo in diminishing aggression as well as the severity of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that E-EPA may be a safe and effective form of monotherapy for women with moderately severe borderline personality disorder.

  2. 4-Hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death via activation of Nrf2-ARE and eIF2α-ATF4 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Hara, Hirokazu; Mitsugi, Yukari; Yamaguchi, Eiji; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Itoh, Akichika; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2017-08-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Oxidative stress has been reported to be closely related to the pathogenesis and worsening of symptoms of PD. One therapeutic strategy is to alleviate neuronal injuries caused by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated protective effects of royal jelly (RJ) fatty acids and their derivatives on oxidative stress-induced cell death using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 4-Hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester (HPO-DAEE), a synthesized RJ fatty acid derivative, markedly induced antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Pretreatment with HPO-DAEE protected against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of antioxidative responses, plays a key role in the acquisition of resistance to oxidative stress. HPO-DAEE elicited nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and activated antioxidant response element (ARE), a cis-activating regulatory element, indicating that HPO-DAEE induced expression of antioxidant genes through Nrf2-ARE signaling. Recently, the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) has been shown to cooperate with Nrf2 and modulate antioxidant gene expression. We also found that HPO-DAEE promoted phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which is an upstream effector of ATF4, and subsequent nuclear accumulation of ATF4. The eIF2α phosphatase inhibitor, salubrinal, augmented HPO-DAEE-induced HO-1 expression and protection against 6-OHDA-induced cell death. These results indicate that HPO-DAEE activates both the Nrf2-ARE and eIF2α-ATF4 pathways. Moreover, ROS generation occurred upon treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with HPO-DAEE, and the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and glutathione suppressed HPO-DAEE-induced activation of the Nrf2-ARE and eIF2α-ATF4 pathways. Therefore, sublethal oxidative stress caused by HPO-DAEE is likely to

  3. Cellular Inhibition of Checkpoint Kinase 2 (Chk2) and Potentiation of Camptothecins and Radiation by the Novel Chk2 Inhibitor PV1019 [7-Nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl}-amide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobson, Andrew G.; Lountos, George T.; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Llamas, Jenny; Connelly, John; Cerna, David; Tropea, Joseph E.; Onda, Akikazu; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Kondapaka, Sudhir; Zhang, Guangtao; Caplen, Natasha J.; Cardellina, II, John H.; Yoo, Stephen S.; Monks, Anne; Self, Christopher; Waugh, David S.; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Pommier, Yves; (NIH)

    2010-04-05

    Chk2 is a checkpoint kinase involved in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated pathway, which is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage, leading to either cell death (apoptosis) or cell cycle arrest. Chk2 provides an unexplored therapeutic target against cancer cells. We recently reported 4,4'-diacetyldiphenylurea-bis(guanylhydrazone) (NSC 109555) as a novel chemotype Chk2 inhibitor. We have now synthesized a derivative of NSC 109555, PV1019 (NSC 744039) [7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {l_brace}4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-amide], which is a selective submicromolar inhibitor of Chk2 in vitro. The cocrystal structure of PV1019 bound in the ATP binding pocket of Chk2 confirmed enzymatic/biochemical observations that PV1019 acts as a competitive inhibitor of Chk2 with respect to ATP. PV1019 was found to inhibit Chk2 in cells. It inhibits Chk2 autophosphorylation (which represents the cellular kinase activation of Chk2), Cdc25C phosphorylation, and HDMX degradation in response to DNA damage. PV1019 also protects normal mouse thymocytes against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, and it shows synergistic antiproliferative activity with topotecan, camptothecin, and radiation in human tumor cell lines. We also show that PV1019 and Chk2 small interfering RNAs can exert antiproliferative activity themselves in the cancer cells with high Chk2 expression in the NCI-60 screen. These data indicate that PV1019 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Chk2 with chemotherapeutic and radiosensitization potential.

  4. Density functional study of electronic, charge density, and chemical bonding properties of 9-methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kamarudin, H. [Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Alahmed, Z.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Auluck, S. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Chyský, Jan [Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical density functional investigation of the electronic crystal structure, chemical bonding, and the electron charge densities of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3, 2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester (C{sub 15}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}O{sub 2}S{sub 2}) is performed. The density of states at Fermi level equal to 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, and the calculated bare electronic specific heat coefficient is found to be 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K{sup 2} for the local density approximation (Engel–Vosko generalized gradient approximation). The electronic charge density space distribution contours in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes were calculated. We find that there are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit exhibit intramolecular C–H…O, C–H…N interactions. This intramolecular interaction is different in molecules A and B, where A molecule show C–H…O interaction while B molecule exhibit C–H…N interaction. We should emphasis that there is π–π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules gives extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. The calculated distance between the two neighbors pyrimidine rings found to be 3.345 Å, in good agreement with the measured one (3.424(1) Å). - Highlights: • Electronic structure, chemical bonding, and electron charge density were studied. • Density of states at Fermi level is 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, for LDA (EVGGA). • Bare electronic specific heat coefficient is 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K{sup 2} for LDA(EVGGA). • There are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit.

  5. Two Players Make a Formidable Combination: In Situ Generated Poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) Cross-Linking Gel Polymer Electrolyte toward 5 V High-Voltage Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Ma, Jun; Chai, Jingchao; Liu, Zhihong; Ding, Guoliang; Xu, Gaojie; Liu, Haisheng; Chen, Bingbing; Zhou, Xinhong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-11-29

    Electrochemical performance of high-voltage lithium batteries with high energy density is limited because of the electrolyte instability and the electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactivity. Hence, a cross-linking polymer network of poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) (PAMM)-based electrolyte was introduced via in situ polymerization inspired by "shuangjian hebi", which is a statement in a traditional Chinese Kungfu story similar to the synergetic effect of 1 + 1 > 2. A poly(acrylic anhydride) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-based system is very promising as electrolyte materials for lithium-ion batteries, in which the anhydride and acrylate groups can provide high voltage resistance and fast ionic conductivity, respectively. As a result, the cross-linking PAMM-based electrolyte possesses a significant comprehensive enhancement, including electrochemical stability window exceeding 5 V vs Li+/Li, an ionic conductivity of 6.79 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature, high mechanical strength (27.5 MPa), good flame resistance, and excellent interface compatibility with Li metal. It is also demonstrated that this gel polymer electrolyte suppresses the negative effect resulting from dissolution of Mn2+ ions at 25 and 55 °C. Thus, the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 cells using the optimized in situ polymerized cross-linking PAMM-based gel polymer electrolyte deliver stable charging/discharging profiles and excellent rate performance at room temperature and even at 55 °C. These findings suggest that the cross-linking PAMM is an intriguing candidate for 5 V class high-voltage gel polymer electrolyte toward high-energy lithium-on batteries.

  6. Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Ester From Some Common Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalytic conversion of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was carried out by homogeneous and heterogeneous transesterification of melon seed, shea butter and neem seed oils using NaOH, KOH and 5wt%CaO/Al2O3 catalyst systems respectively. Oil content of the seeds from n-hexane or hot water extract ranged ...

  7. Nitrosation Reactions of Ethyl Centralite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    Colour Test Reagents. .. ......... .... 3 2.2 Procedures .. .. ........ .......... ... 4 2.2.1 Synthesis and Characterization of Ethyl Centralite (EC...8217-ethylcarbanilide 2,4 ,6-TNNNNEA 2 ,4,6-Trinitro-N-nitroso-N-ethylaniline NB Nitrobenzene NNNEA N-Nitroso-N-ethylaniline 3-NNNNEA 3-Nitro-N-Nitroso-N...ethyl aniline 4-NNNNEA 4-Nitro-N-Nitroso-N-ethylaniline 2-NA 2-Nitroanil ine 3-NA 3-Nitroaniline 4-NA 4-Nitroaniline 2,4,-VNA 2,4,-Dinitroaniline 2,4,6

  8. Unimolecular Gas-Phase Thermolysis of Ethyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1983-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolysis of ethyl acetate has been investigated by the Flash-Vacuum-Thermolysis/Field-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FVT/FI-MS) method in combination with Collision Activation (CA) mass spectrometry at 1253K. Two predominant reactions are observed: elimination...... of ethylene affording acetic acid, the latter to some extent consecutively yielding ketene, and intramolecular oxygen to oxygen ethyl group migration. Additionally minor amounts of acetaldehyde is formed. The mechanistic aspects are discussed based on 18O and 18O/ 13C labelling....

  9. Evaluation and Characterization of Biodiesels Obtained Through Ethylic or Methylic Transesterification of Tryacylglicerides in Corn Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Queiroz Santos; Ana Paula de Lima; Maíra Martins Franco; David Maikel Fernandes; Waldomiro Borges Neto; José Domingos Fabris

    2014-01-01

    This work was devoted to the transesterification of corn oil either with methyl or ethyl alcohol and to the characterization of the biodiesels (composed by FAME—fatty acid methyl esters—or FAEE—fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively) produced. As an initial hypothesis, it was argued whether or not the two alcohols, both with short molecular chains, would impart significant differences to the chemical characteristics of the two biodiesels from corn oil. The most common properties of the biodies...

  10. Temperature Independent Catalytic Two-Electron Reduction of Dioxygen by Ferrocenes with a Tris[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine-Copper(II) Catalyst in the Presence of Perchloric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipanwita; Lee, Yong-Min; Ohkubo, Kei; Nam, Wonwoo; Karlin, Kenneth D.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    Selective two-electron plus two-proton (2e−/2H+) reduction of O2 to hydrogen peroxide by ferrocene (Fc) or 1,1′-dimethylferrocene (Me2Fc) in the presence of perchloric acid is catalyzed efficiently by a mononuclear copper(II) complex, [CuII(tepa)]2+ {tepa = tris[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine} (1) in acetone. The E1/2 value for [CuII(tepa)]2+ as measured by cyclic voltammetry is 0.07 V vs Fc/Fc+ in acetone, being significantly positive, which makes it possible to use relatively weak one-electron reductants such as Fc and Me2Fc for the overall two-electron reduction of O2. Fast electron transfer from Fc or Me2Fc to 1 affords the corresponding CuI complex, [CuI(tepa)]+ (2), which reacts at low temperature (193 K) with O2, however only in presence of HClO4 to afford the hydroperoxo complex, [CuII(tepa)(OOH)]2+ (3). The detailed kinetic study on the homogeneous catalytic system reveals the rate-determining step to be the O2-binding process in the presence of HClO4 at lower temperature as well as at room temperature. The O2-binding kinetics in the presence of HClO4 were studied, demonstrating that the rate of formation of the hydroperoxo complex (3) as well as the overall catalytic reaction remained virtually the same with changing temperature. The apparent lack of an activation energy for the catalytic two-electron reduction of O2 is shown to result from the existence of a pre-equilibrium between 2 and O2 prior to the formation of the hydroperoxo complex 3. No further reduction of [CuII(tepa)(OOH)]2+ (3) by Fc or Me2Fc occurred, and instead 3 is protonated by HClO4 to yield H2O2 accompanied by regeneration of 1, thus completing the catalytic cycle for the two-electron reduction of O2 by Fc or Me2Fc. PMID:23394287

  11. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b...

  12. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  13. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and... Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether containing...

  14. Catalytic distillation to remove minute amount of ethyl acetate in aqueous ethanol solution; Ethanol suiyoekichu no biryo no sakusan ethyl no jokyo ni taisuru shokubai joryu no shiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikari, A.; Hatate, Y.; Aiko, R. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    Pillow-type packings were prepared by wrapping ion exchange resin with stainless steel wire netting. An experimental apparatus for batch distillation was constructed, in which 60 packings were packed. Aqueous ethanol solutions containing a minute amount of ethyl acetate were changed in the still and distilled. When all the condensed top vapor was returned to the column, the concentration of ethyl acetate in distillate decreased rapidly, and the concentration of acetic acid in the still increased gradually. On the contrary, when the aqueous ethanol solution containing a minute amount of acetic acid was distilled, ethyl acetate was produced in the column, and its concentration in distillate increased gradually. From these experimental results, the applicability of catalytic distillation for removing a minute amount of ethyl acetate in aqueous ethanol solution is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate breast cancer growth through activation of a neutral sphingomyelinase‐mediated pathway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Min; Harvey, Kevin A; Ruzmetov, Nargiz; Welch, Zachary R; Sech, Laura; Jackson, Kim; Stillwell, William; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2005-01-01

    ...) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were investigated on breast cancer growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega‐3 (fish oil) or omega‐6 (corn oil) fatty acids...

  16. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  17. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be safely...

  18. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate on bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, M.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Industrial Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate (dodecanoic acid ethyl ester) as a representative model compound of vegetable oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite support material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, NiW, PtNiW) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the metal loading and reducibility influence product selectivity as well as deactivation behavior of catalyst samples. (orig.)

  20. Effect of three sources of long-chain fatty acids on the plasma fatty acid profile, plasma prostaglandin E2 concentrations, and pruritus symptoms in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, L W; Monsen, E R; Ahmad, S

    1996-08-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure exhibit plasma fatty acid patterns indicative of essential fatty acid deficiency. The plasma fatty acid profile of 25 hemodialysis patients with a history of pruritus symptoms indicated lower 20:3n-9 (eicosatrienoic acid), 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid), and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) concentrations; a higher 18:1n-9 (oleic acid) concentration; and above-normal ranges of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) compared with 22 subjects chosen from a normal population. No significant difference in 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) was shown between the hemodialysis patients and the normal subjects. The dietary intake of 20:5n-3 was higher and that of 18:1n-9 lower in the patients compared with the normal population group. In this 8-wk double-blind study the hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to receive daily supplements of 6 g ethyl ester of either fish oil, olive oil, or safflower oil. At the end of 8 wk of treatment the fish oil group (FO group) had a greater decrease in 18:1n-9 (P P > 0.05) compared with the other two groups. The increases in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the FO group indicate compliance with fish oil supplementation. Results indicate that hemodialysis patients have abnormal fatty acid profiles and increased PGE2 values. Fish oil intervention changes the fatty acid profile and may improve the symptoms of pruritus.

  1. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not more...

  2. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  3. [HPLC fingerprint of ethyl acetate extraction of Saxifraga stolonifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Chen, Hua-Guo; Xian, Chun; Huang, Zhi-Jin; Zhou, Xin

    2013-04-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of ethyl acetate extraction of Saxifraga stolonifera. The HPLC analysis was performed on a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with isocratic elution of acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was set at 256 nm and the column temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The HPLC fingerprint of ethyl acetate extraction of S. stolonifera has been established. There were fifteen common peaks, seven of which were identified by reference substances. The RSD of relative retention time was less than 3% in the precision and repeated tests. Eleven samples from different area can be distinguished from their fingerprints. This method is reasonable and reliable and can be used for quality control of S. stolonifera.

  4. Ethyl ester production from (RBD palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil by evaluating the oil’s transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering the best results and carrying out the purification stage. Raw materials and products were characterised for comparing the latter with those obtained by traditional means and verifying the quality of the esters so produced; minimum differences were found bet-ween both. The proposed methodology thus allows esters to be used as raw material in petrochemical industry applications. A more profitable process can be obtained compared to those used today, given the amounts of separation agent so established (1% H3PO4 solution, in water. The overall process achieved 74.4% yield, based on the oil being used.

  5. Potential Approach of Microbial Conversion to Develop New Antifungal Products of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3/('-3) or n-3 fatty acids are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-3 position. n-3 Fatty acids which are important in human nutrition are: a-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3; EPA), and docosahexaen...

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids differentially modulate enzymatic anti-oxidant systems in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E P; Nachbar, R T; Levada-Pires, A C; Hirabara, S M; Lambertucci, R H

    2016-01-01

    During physical activity, increased reactive oxygen species production occurs, which can lead to cell damage and in a decline of individual's performance and health. The use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a supplement to protect the immune system has been increasing; however, their possible benefit to the anti-oxidant system is not well described. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) can be beneficial to the anti-oxidant system in cultured skeletal muscle cells. C2C12 myocytes were differentiated and treated with either eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid for 24 h. Superoxide content was quantified using the dihydroethidine oxidation method and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity, and expression was quantified. We observed that the docosahexaenoic fatty acids caused an increase in superoxide production. Eicosapentaenoic acid induced catalase activity, while docosahexaenoic acid suppressed superoxide dismutase activity. In addition, we found an increased protein expression of the total manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes when cells were treated with eicosapentaenoic acid. Taken together, these data indicate that the use of eicosapentaenoic acid may present both acute and chronic benefits; however, the treatment with DHA may not be beneficial to muscle cells.

  7. Update on cardiometabolic health effects of w-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Goede, de J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The fish fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may promote cardiometabolic health. This review summarizes the results of recent meta-analyses of prospective studies on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes type 2 and markers of atherosclerosis and

  8. Photostability of Isovaline and its Precursor 5-Ethyl-5-methylhydantoin Exposed to Simulated Space Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Kaneko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of isovaline and its precursor molecule, 5-ethyl-5-methylhydantoin, were irradiated with ultraviolet and γ-ray photons, to evaluate their structural stability against space radiation. The degree of photolysis was measured and irradiation products were identified using chiral, reversed-phase and ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental results show that the degree of photolysis of 5-ethyl-5-methylhydantoin is more significant than that of isovaline under ultraviolet light irradiation, while the results under γ-ray irradiation are the opposite. As the products of isovaline photolysis, aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid and alanine were dominantly detected.

  9. Hemo-De as substitute for ethyl acetate in formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Neimeister, R; Logan, A L; Gerber, B; Egleton, J H; Kleger, B

    1987-01-01

    In comparative studies, Hemo-De (PMP Medical Industries, Inc., Irving, Tex.) was found to be a suitable replacement for ethyl acetate in the Formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. With essentially equivalent recovery rates for both procedures, the Formalin-Hemo-De concentration technique is considered to be the preferred technique because Hemo-De is less toxic and less flammable and does not present disposal problems, and its cost is approximately one-fourth that of ethyl acetate.

  10. Rapid and sensitive screening of some acidic micronutrients in infant foods by HPLC with fluorescent detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Kong, Weiheng; Fan, Guangsen; Wang, Wenli; Hu, Na; Chen, Guang; Zhao, Xianen; You, Jinmao

    2016-06-01

    Currently, commercially prepared complementary foods have become an important part of the diet of many infants and toddlers. But the method for simultaneous analysis of different types of micronutrient remains poorly investigated, which hinders the rapid and comprehensive quality control of infant foods. In the presented study, we first tried to employ the fluorescence labeling strategy combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for simultaneous determination of some acidic micronutrients including biotin, nicotinic acid, linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in infant foods. 2-(5-Benzoacridine) ethyl-p-toluenesulfonate was used as the fluorescence labeling reagent for simultaneous labeling of the seven components. The labeling conditions were optimized systematically by response surface methodology. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves of the tested compounds ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9998. Limits of detection were in the range of 1.99-3.05 nmol L(-1) . Relative standard deviation values of retention time and peak area of seven compounds were less than 0.05% and 0.75%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was in the range of 1.81-3.80% and 3.21-4.30%, respectively. When applied to analysis of several infant foods it showed good applicability. The developed method has been proven to be simple, inexpensive, selective, sensitive, accurate and reliable for analysis of some acidic micronutrients in infant foodstuffs. Furthermore, this developed method also has powerful potential in the analysis of many other complementary foodstuffs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. N-acyl amines of docosahexaenoic acid and other n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids – From fishy endocannabinoids to potential leads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.; Balvers, M.G.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs), in particular a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are receiving much attention because of their presumed beneficial health effects. To explain these, a variety of

  12. Behaviour of solid phase ethyl cyanide in simulated conditions of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier-Tamburelli, I.; Toumi, A.; Piétri, N.; Chiavassa, T.

    2018-01-01

    In order to simulate different altitudes in the atmosphere of Titan, we investigated using infrared spectrometry and mass spectrometry the photochemistry of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) ices at different temperatures. Heating experiments of the solid phase until complete desorption showed up three phase transitions with a first one appearing to be approximately at the temperature of Titan's surface (94 K), measured by the Huygens probe. Ethyl cyanide, whose presence has been suggested in solid phase in Titan, can be considered as another nitrile for photochemical models of the Titan atmosphere after our first study (Toumi et al., 2016) concerning vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN). The desorption energy of ethyl cyanide has been calculated to be 36.75 ( ± 0.55) kJ mol-1 using IRTF and mass spectroscopical techniques. High energetic photolysis (λ > 120 nm) have been performed and we identified ethyl isocyanide, vinyl cyanide, cyanoacetylene, ethylene, acetylene, cyanhydric acid and a methylketenimine form as photoproducts from ethyl cyanide. The branching ratios of the primary products were determined at characteristic temperatures of Titan thanks to the value of the νCN stretching band strength of ethyl cyanide that has been calculated to be 4.12 × 10-18 cm molecule-1. We also report here for the first time the values of the photodissociation cross sections of C2H5CN for different temperatures.

  13. Microbial community dynamics during the bioremediation process of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  14. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214

  15. Synthesis of 9-O-substituted derivatives of 9-hydroxy-5, 6-dimethyl-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole-1-carboxylic acid (2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)amide and their 10- and 11-methyl analogues with improved antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillonneau, C; PierréA; Charton, Y; Guilbaud, N; Kraus-Berthier, L; Léonce, S; Michel, A; Bisagni, E; Atassi, G

    1999-06-17

    Analogues of the antitumor drug S 16020-2 modified at the 9, 10, or 11 position were synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo on the P388 leukemia and B16 melanoma models. Starting from 9-methoxy-5, 11-dimethyl-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole-1-carboxylic acid ethyl ester, the 11-CH3 analogue of 9-hydroxy-5,6-dimethyl-6H-pyrido[4, 3-b]carbazole-1-carboxylic (2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)amide (1), compound 4, was synthesized using a four-step sequence, whereas its 10-CH3 analogue 5 was prepared using a two-step pathway, starting from compound 1. Finally starting from the 9-OH compounds 1, 4, and 5, a series of variously 9-O-substituted derivatives were synthesized. In these series, the most active compounds resulted from esterification of the 9-OH group with various aliphatic diacids, which led to 9-O-CO-( )-COOH derivatives of 1, 4, and 5. For these compounds, the number of long-term surviving mice obtained at the optimal dose were 60-100% in the ip/iv P388 leukemia and 10-35% in the ip/ip B16 melanoma, corresponding to an improved therapeutic index with respect to 1 and 4. This high antitumor activity, with curative examples in both models, was not due to a higher cytotoxicity since these compounds were equally or slightly less potent in vitro than 1 and 4. The most active compounds were thus selected for further in vivo evaluation.

  16. Fatty Acid Content Of The Smoked, Fresh-Water Fish Clairas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the healthful n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are underrepresented in the diets of many people who live in the hot semi-arid regions of West Africa, we were interested in knowing the fatty acid content and composition of the oil of Clairas gariepinus ...

  17. Comparison of natural antioxidants and their effects on omega-3 fatty acid oxidation in fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been found to offer a variety of health benefits including cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory effect and human development. It is known that fish and algae o...

  18. High-oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid and little a-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child...

  19. The role of essential fatty acids in the control of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from various research paradigms supports the cardiovascular benefits of a high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the long-chain, marine-derived n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids. The effect of the plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (AL...

  20. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on tumor growth and metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C. E.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids of the n-6 and n-3 class have been shown to affect tumor growth and metastasis. The very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family, e.g. eicosapentaenoic acids (C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acids (C22:5n-3), have an inhibiting effect on tumor growth.

  1. An ethyl acetate sensor utilizing cataluminescence on Y₂O₃ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoan; Tao, Ying; Li, Liling; Liu, Yonghui; Peng, Yan; Li, Jinwen

    2011-01-01

    A cataluminescence (CTL) sensor using Y₂O₃ nanoparticles as the sensing materials was proposed for the determination of ethyl acetate. This ethyl acetate sensor showed high sensitivity and specificity at the optimal temperature of 264°C. Quantitative analysis was performed at a wavelength of 425 nm. The linear ranges of CTL intensity vs ethyl acetate concentrations were 2.0-250 ppm (r = 0.9965) and 250-6500 ppm (r = 0.9997) with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.5 ppm. There was no response or weak response when foreign substances such as formic acid, n-hexane, toluene, acetic acid, benzene, and formaldehyde passing through the surface of Y₂O₃ nanoparticles. The sensor had a long lifetime more than 80 h with 3600 ppm ethyl acetate. It had been applied successfully to determine ethyl acetate in artificial air samples. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The anti-inflammatory effects of Caragana tangutica ethyl acetate extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Li, Yongmei; Li, Weifeng; Hu, Hua; Yao, Huan; Li, Huani; Mu, Qingli

    2014-02-27

    Caragana tangutica KOM has been used to treat arthritis, wounds, fever and other disease conditions in traditional Chinese medicine (TMC). To support the application of the plant in traditional Chinese medicine by investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate extract of Caragana tangutica. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by animal models including xylene-induced ear edema in mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, acetic acid induced writhing in mice and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The anti-inflammatory mechanism was evaluated by detecting prostaglandin E2 and immunohistochemistry expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) using an EIA assay kit and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed that the xylene-induced ear edema in mice was significantly reduced by the ethyl acetate extract at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, and the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was monitored to be reduced by the ethyl acetate extract 3h after carrageenan injection. The ethyl acetate extract was also found to reduce the inflammation pain of acetic acid-induced writhing model in a dose-dependent manner and cause reduction of the ALI in mice through the inhibition of the release of PGE2 and the LPS-induced COX-2 expression in the lung. Our study demonstrates that the ethyl acetate extract of the plant can help to reduce inflammations by inhibiting the expression of COX-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilization of catalytic hydrolysis of ethyl acetate for solvent removal during microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjung; Kang, Jookyung; Sah, Hongkee

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the specific acid-catalysed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate to completing solvent extraction during an emulsion-based microencapsulation process. The dispersed phase consisting of poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and ethyl acetate was emulsified in an acid catalyst containing aqueous phase. Catalytic hydrolysis of ethyl acetate led to its continual leaching from the dispersed phase of the emulsion, thereby triggering microsphere hardening with high efficiency. Ketoprofen was successfully encapsulated into microspheres via this technique, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that its structural integrity was preserved during microencapsulation. Compared to typical solvent extraction approaches, the acid-catalysis technique helped minimize the consumption of a quench liquid. Also, the resultant microspheres displayed excellent dispersibility and decreased propensity for aggregation. Furthermore, the new method provided better drug encapsulation efficiency and lower levels of residual ethyl acetate in microspheres. In conclusion, the acid-catalysis approach had great potential for the preparation of versatile microspheres and nanoparticles.

  4. ENZYMATIC PRODUCTION OF ETHYL OLEATE ESTER USING A LIPASE FROM CANDIDA ANTARCTICA B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sampaio Neta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are biocatalysts of great importance in different areas, being able to catalyze reactions in aqueous or organic media. Furthermore, these enzymes are capable of using several substrates being stable in a wide range of pH and temperatures. Lipases promote the esterification between fatty acids and ethanol producing oleate esters. The aim of this work is to produce ethyl oleate ester by enzymatic esterification of oleic acid with ethanol. A lipase from Candida antarctica type B was used at a temperature of 55 °C. The reaction was conducted using oleic acid, sodium sulfate anhydrous, lipase and ethanol, with a ratio of oleic acid (0.03 mol or 10 ml, lipase (0.1 mol or 0.01 g, sodium sulfate anhydrous (5 g and ethanol 99 % (100 ml. Several reaction times were studied, namely 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C and Infrared spectra confirmed the production of ethyl oleate ester for the studied conditions. The highest ethyl oleate production yield was obtained for 96 hours reaction time. Ethyl oleate esters have been reported to possess interesting applications in several industrial fields, such as food, aromatics, cosmetics, detergents, flavors and pharmaceuticals.

  5. Protective effects of prescription n-3 fatty acids against impairment of spatial cognitive learning ability in amyloid β-infused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Katakura, Masanori; Shahdat, Hossain; Haque, Abdul Md; Tanabe, Yoko; Gamoh, Shuji; Shido, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    Deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) into the brain causes cognitive impairment. We investigated whether prescription pre-administration of n-3 fatty acids improves cognitive learning ability in young rats and whether it protects against learning ability impairments in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease that was prepared by infusion of Aβ(1-40) into the cerebral ventricles of rats. Pre-administration of TAK-085 (highly purified and concentrated n-3 fatty acids containing eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester) at 300 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 12 weeks significantly reduced the number of reference memory errors in an 8-arm radial maze, suggesting that long-term administration of TAK-085 improves cognitive leaning ability in rats. After pre-administration, the control group was divided into the vehicle and Aβ-infused groups, whereas the TAK-085 pre-administration group was divided into the TAK-085 and TAK-085 + Aβ groups (TAK-085-pre-administered Aβ-infused rats). Aβ(1-40) or vehicle was infused into the cerebral ventricle using a mini osmotic pump. Pre-administration of TAK-085 to the Aβ-infused rats significantly suppressed the number of reference and working memory errors and decreased the levels of lipid peroxide and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Aβ-infused rats, suggesting that TAK-085 increases antioxidative defenses. The present study suggests that long-term administration of TAK-085 is a possible therapeutic agent for protecting against Alzheimer's disease-induced learning deficiencies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  6. 2-Ethyl-3,5,6-triphenylpyrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anuradha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C24H20N2, the pyrazine ring is significantly distorted from planarity, presumably due to steric crowding, and its conformation is well described as a flattened twist-boat. The benzene ring adjacent to the ethyl group forms dihedral angles of 53.79 (13 and 85.47 (12° with the other benzene rings; the dihedral angle between adjacent benzene rings is 57.90 (12°. The ethyl group is disordered over two positions; the site-occupancy factor of the major component is 0.546 (4. No hydrogen bonds are found in the crystal structure.

  7. UK Food Standards Agency alpha-linolenic acid workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderson, P; Finnegan, YE; Williams, CM; Calder, PC; Burdge, GC; Wootton, SA; Griffin, BA; Millward, DJ; Pegge, NC; Bemelmans, WJE

    2002-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from plant oils (alpha-linolenic acid; ALA) were as beneficial to cardiovascular health as the n-3 PUFA from the marine oils, eicosapentaenoic

  8. Comparison of solvents for extraction of krill oil from krill meal: Lipid yield, phospholipids content, fatty acids composition and minor components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Jin, Jun; Sun, Jiang; Liang, Li; Wang, Xiaosan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe

    2017-10-15

    The effects of seven different extraction solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, isohexane, n-hexane, and subcritical butane) on the lipid yield and quality of the oil extracted from krill meal were investigated in this study. Phospholipids (PL), fatty acids (FA) composition and minor components including sterols, astaxanthin, vitamin A and tocopherols in the extracted krill oil were analyzed. The results indicated that ethanol and isopropanol led to comparatively higher lipid yields (16.33 and 14.52%, respectively) and PL contents (39.2 and 38.7%, respectively) but lower contents of the minor components than the other solvents. The krill oil extracted with acetone had the lowest PL content (20.63%) but contained more astaxanthin (206.74mg/kg), vitamin A (27.84mg/100g), and sterols (39.00mg/g). Moreover, high levels of n-3 FA were present in the extracts with high PL contents. Further analysis revealed that 23.65-28.10% of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 16.71-21.03% of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were present in the PL, while only 2.83-3.48% of EPA and 1.40-1.74% of DHA were detected in the triacylglycerols (TAG). In addition, subcritical butane proved to be an alternative to n-hexane and isohexane; krill oil extracted with these three solvents had similar qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethyl oleate production by means of pervaporation-assisted esterification using heterogeneous catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. S. Figueiredo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pervaporation-assisted esterification of oleic acid and ethanol was investigated by means of heterogeneous acid catalysis with the aim of increasing the ethyl oleate yield. The experimental strategy comprised kinetic tests with Amberlyst 15 Wet (Rohm & Haas, the characterization of hydrophilic Pervap 1000 membrane (Sulzer and the evaluation of the membrane-assisted reactor. Kinetic tests were carried out to study the effect of temperature, catalyst loading and ethanol/organic acid molar ratio for the esterification of oleic acid and ethanol. The ester yield and initial reaction rate were used as response. The hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol membrane was able to remove water from the reaction medium and, hence, the ester yield was increased. The potential of coupling esterification and pervaporation was demonstrated, with a two-fold increase in the reaction yield of ethyl oleate.

  10. Ácido giberélico, bissulfureto de carbono e ácido 2-4 cloroetil fosfônico e a dormência e produtividade de tubérculos de batata Giberellic acid, carbon-disulphide and 2-4 chloro-ethyl phosphonic and the dormancy and yield of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do ácido giberélico, bissulfureto de carbono e ácido 2-4 cloroetil-fosfônico (EthrellR na quebra de dormência e na produção de batata, cv. "Marijke", foi conduzido um ensaio no período de 1990/ 91 em Piraí do Sul, PR . A superioridade do tratamento com o ácido 2-4-cloroetil-fosfônico em relação ao ácido giberélico e ao bissulfureto de carbono, aliada a sua facilidade de aplicação, justifica a sua recomendação com vistas a quebra de dormência de tubérculos do genótipo de batata em estudo, para a região de Piraí do Sul, PR, onde a dose de 842 mg.L-1 de EthrellR ocasionou a produção máxima de 23395 kg/ha.In order to evaluate the efficiency of giberellic acid, carbon-disulphide, and 2-4 chloro-ethyl phosphonic acid (EthrellR on dormancy breaking and yield of potato cv. 'Marijke', an essay was conducted at Piraí do Sul, PR, Brazil, during 1990/1991. The superiority of the EthrellR treatment over giberellic acid and carbon-disulphide, and its easy application, justify its use for dormancy breaking of potato tubers, for the studied genotype and location, at the rate of 842 mg.L-1, resulting in a potato yield of 23,395 kg/ha.

  11. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G P; Karthikeyan, M; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  12. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-08

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Fermentation-Guided Natural Products Isolation of a Grape Berry Triacylglyceride that Enhances Ethyl Ester Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Blackford

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented. Non-targeted SPME-GCMS analyses of the wines showed that several medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters were more abundant in wines made by fermenting model musts spiked with certain fractions. Further fractionation of the non-polar fractions and fermentation of model must after addition of these fractions led to the identification of a mixture of polyunsaturated triacylglycerides that, when added to fermenting model must, increase the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters in wines. Dosage-response fermentation studies with commercially-available trilinolein revealed that the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters can be increased by the addition of this triacylglyceride to model musts. This work suggests that grape triacylglycerides can enhance the production of fermentation-derived ethyl esters and show that this fractionation method is effective in segregating precursors or factors involved in altering the concentration of fermentation volatiles.

  14. No effect of n-3 fatty acids on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein after myocardial infarction: The Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, E.K.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Giltay, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. n-3 Fatty acids may have anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effect of plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

  15. 2-Ethyl-6-methylanilinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ye

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H14N+·C7H7SO3−, contains a 2-ethyl-6-methylanilinium cation and a 4-methylbenzenesulfonic anion. The cations are anchored between the anions through N—H...O hydrogen bonds. Electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, as well as hydrogen bonds, maintain the structural cohesion.

  16. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  17. No effect on n-3 fatty acids supplementation on NT-proBNP after myocardial infaction: THe Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, E.K.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Sant, van 't P.; Gemen, E.F.; Giltay, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: heart failure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, for which n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial effects. We examined the effect of marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on N-Terminal-pro Brain

  18. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM): its anti-cancer efficacy and intercalation mechanism identified via multi-model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Liu, Jiawang; Wu, Jianhui; Kang, Guifeng; Peng, Shiqi

    2011-03-01

    {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) was provided as a DNA-intercalator. For the comprehensive evaluation of this new intercalator, an assay system consisting of cell, S180 mouse, healthy mouse, spectrum, non-spectrum, and gel electrophoresis models was constructed. On the cell (S180, K562, MCF-7, HeLa and HepG2) models, MIAM selectively inhibited the viability of HeLa. On the S180 mouse model, 0.89, 8.9, 89 and 890 μmol kg(-1) of MIAM dose-dependently inhibited the tumor growth. Even at a dose of 890 μmol kg(-1), MIAM did not damage the treated S180 mice. The safety of MIAM was supported by a high spleen index and an obvious increase of body weight of the treated S180 mice. On the healthy mouse model the LD(50) value of MIAM is higher than 890 μmol kg(-1). The ultraviolet (UV), fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), relative viscosity, melting curve, and gel electrophoresis assays of DNA with or without MIAM consistently supported an intercalation mechanism for MIAM.

  19. Intake of very long chain n-3 fatty acids from fish en incidence of heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; van Rooij, F.J.A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Evidence is accumulating for a cardioprotective effect of fish or its n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined EPA plus DHA and fish intake in relation to incident heart failure in the population-based Rotterdam Study.Methods and resultsThe

  20. 77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... plant growth regulator, trinexapac-ethyl and its primary metabolite CGA-179500, in or on grass, forage... aggregate exposure for trinexapac-ethyl including exposure resulting from the tolerances established by this...

  1. 77 FR 60917 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 RIN 2070-ZA16 Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental... trinexapac-ethyl in or on multiple commodities and modifies existing tolerance levels and commodity definitions for trinexapac-ethyl, which are identified and discussed later in this document. EPA proposed...

  2. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Djerafi, R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rifampicin-loaded submicron-sized particles were prepared through supercritical anti-solvent process using ethyl cellulose as polymeric encapsulating excipient. Ethyl acetate and a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (70/30 and 85/15) were...

  3. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental Protection... FFDCA section 408(e), 21 U.S.C. 346a(e), is proposing to amend the existing trinexapac-ethyl tolerances... tolerance table for trinexapac-ethyl that was published in the Federal Register on March 2, 2012 (77 FR...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials, containers...

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong oxidizing...

  6. Fate of 2-Chloro Ethyl Ethyl Sulfide on 13X Molecular Sieve Adsorbent Implications for Regenerative Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-17

    Fate of 2-Chloro Ethyl Ethyl Sulfide on 13X Molecular Sieve Adsorbent Implications for Regenerative Filtration 2003 Joint Scientific Conference on...2003 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fate of 2-Chloro Ethyl Ethyl Sulfide on 13X Molecular Sieve Adsorbent...protection than the currently fielded single pass filtration technology. • Many past and current regenerative filtration prototypes utilize zeolite

  7. Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters Estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de ésteres etílicos de ácidos graxos de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Ap. Ferrari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters, derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, and its utilization is associated to the substitution of the diesel oil in engines. Depending on the raw material, biodiesel can contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids in its composition, which are susceptible to oxidation reactions accelerated by exposition to oxygen and high temperatures, being able to change into polymerized compounds. The objective of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel produced by ethanolysis of neutralized, refined, soybean frying oil waste, and partially hydrogenated soybean frying oil waste. The evaluation was conducted by means of the Rancimat® equipment, at temperatures of 100 and 105ºC, with an air flow of 20 L h-1. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC and the iodine value was calculated. It was observed that even though the neutralized, refined and waste frying soybean oils presented close comparable iodine values, biodiesel presented different oxidative stabilities. The biodiesel from neutralized soybean oil presented greater stability, followed by the refined and the frying waste. Due to the natural antioxidants in its composition, the neutralized soybean oil promoted a larger oxidative stability of the produced biodiesel. During the deodorization process, the vegetable oils lose part of these antioxidants, therefore the biodiesel from refined soybean oil presented a reduced stability. The thermal process degrades the antioxidants, thus the biodiesel from frying waste oil resulted in lower stability, the same occuring with the biodiesel from partially hydrogenated waste oil, even though having lower iodine values than the other.Biodiesel consiste em ésteres de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, proveniente de fontes renováveis como óleos vegetais, e sua utilização está associada à substituição do diesel em motores. Dependendo da matéria-prima, o biodiesel

  8. Original Article. Studies on trinexapac-ethyl dose reduction by combined application with adjuvants in spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miziniak Wojciech

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trinexapac-ethyl is a popular plant growth regulator used in various crops, mostly due to its unique anti-lodging properties. Recently it has been found that this substance is also active in stress protection, which may increase its importance in the coming years. This paper presents a new approach to its application. Trinexapac-ethyl belongs to the cyclohexanedione class of herbicide chemistry, thus it is structurally similar to common graminicides frequently used with adjuvants. This study examines the effects of the application of trinexapac-ethyl with adjuvants. Field trials were conducted in the Institute of Plant Protection in Poznań (Poland, in 2014 and 2015. Trinexapac-ethyl was applied at recommended (0.4l・ha-1 and reduced doses (0.2l・ha-1 with organosilicone surfactant, ammonium sulphate and citric acid on spring barley. Stem shortening, yield components and grain quality were examined. The results of the study confirmed the possibility of dose reduction of trinexapac-ethyl by way of combined application with citric acid that reduced the pH of spray liquid or with ammonium sulphate without affecting its effectiveness. The greatest stem height reduction was observed after the application of a full dose of trinaxapac ethyl and its reduced dose in the mixture with citric acid or ammonium sulphate. Depending on the year of study, the effectiveness of the substances on stem reduction ranged from 5.6 to 16.5%. The tested mixtures did not have any significant impact on the number of grains per ear or the yield of spring barley. Trinexapac-ethyl and its mixtures with adjuvants did not influence the crude protein and starch in spring barley grains.

  9. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For a-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We

  10. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid nutrition amongst Malaysians are far from desirable

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Kock Wai Ng; Sivalingam Nalliah; Azlinda Hamid; Siew Rong Wong; Sim Ling Chee; Cheryl Andrea Augustine

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews available reports on theomega-6 (linoleic acid, LA) and omega-3 fatty acid[alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) + eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid) intakes amongstMalaysians against Malaysian Recommended NutrientIntakes (RNI), focussing particularly on pregnant andlactating women because of the availability of data forthese latter vulnerable groups. Overall, the omega-6 andomega-3 fatty acid nutrition amongst Malaysians arepoor and far from desirable. The nutritional...

  11. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  12. N-3 fatty acids, ventricular arrhythmia-related events, and fatal myocardial infarction in postmyocardial infarction patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Boer, de M.J.; Deckers, J.W.; Boersma, E.; Zock, P.L.; Giltay, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We carried out a secondary analysis in high-risk patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes in the Alpha Omega Trial. We tested the hypothesis that in these patients an increased intake of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),

  13. Intake of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids in relation to coronary calcification: The Rotterdam Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Broring, R.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; Vliegenthart Proenca, R.; van Rooij, F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a cardioprotective effect of n23 (omega-3) fatty acids from fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of fish and EPA plus DHA intakes with coronary calcification

  14. Intake of very long chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and the incidence of heart failure: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.; Brouwer, I.A.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Evidence is accumulating for a cardioprotective effect of fish or its n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined EPA plus DHA and fish intake in relation to incident heart failure in the population-based Rotterdam Study. Methods and results: The

  15. Intake of very long chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and the incidence of heart failure: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; van Rooij, F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Evidence is accumulating for a cardioprotective effect of fish or its n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined EPA plus DHA and fish intake in relation to incident heart failure in the population-based Rotterdam Study.Methods and resultsThe

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce-beta oxidation in white fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flachs, P.; Horakova, O.; Brauner, P.; Rossmeisl, M.; Pecina, P.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Ruzickova, J.; Sponarova, J.; Drahota, Z.; Vlcek, C.; Keijer, J.; Houstek, J.; Kopecky, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adipose tissue mass, preferentially in the abdomen. The more pronounced effect of marine-derived eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on adiposity, compared with their precursor -linolenic acid, may be mediated by

  17. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4/p22, Sirtuin3 (SIRT3/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21 pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation.

  18. Telotristat ethyl in carcinoid syndrome: safety and efficacy in the TELECAST phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Marianne; Gross, David J; Benavent, Marta; Perros, Petros; Srirajaskanthan, Raj; Warner, Richard R P; Kulke, Matthew H; Anthony, Lowell B; Kunz, Pamela L; Hörsch, Dieter; Weickert, Martin O; Lapuerta, Pablo; Jiang, Wenjun; Kassler-Taub, Kenneth; Wason, Suman; Fleming, Rosanna; Fleming, Douglas; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio

    2018-03-01

    Telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was efficacious and well tolerated in the phase 3 TELESTAR study in patients with carcinoid syndrome (CS) experiencing ≥4 bowel movements per day (BMs/day) while on somatostatin analogs (SSAs). TELECAST, a phase 3 companion study, assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat ethyl in patients with CS (diarrhea, flushing, abdominal pain, nausea or elevated urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA)) with <4 BMs/day on SSAs (or ≥1 symptom or ≥4 BMs/day if not on SSAs) during a 12-week double-blind treatment period followed by a 36-week open-label extension (OLE). The primary safety and efficacy endpoints were incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and percent change from baseline in 24-h u5-HIAA at week 12. Patients ( N  = 76) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive placebo or telotristat ethyl 250 mg or 500 mg 3 times per day (tid); 67 continued receiving telotristat ethyl 500 mg tid during the OLE. Through week 12, TEAEs were generally mild to moderate in severity; 5 (placebo), 1 (telotristat ethyl 250 mg) and 3 (telotristat ethyl 500 mg) patients experienced serious events, and the rate of TEAEs in the OLE was comparable. At week 12, significant reductions in u5-HIAA from baseline were observed, with Hodges-Lehmann estimators of median treatment differences from placebo of -54.0% (95% confidence limits, -85.0%, -25.1%, P  < 0.001) and -89.7% (95% confidence limits, -113.1%, -63.9%, P  < 0.001) for telotristat ethyl 250 mg and 500 mg. These results support the safety and efficacy of telotristat ethyl when added to SSAs in patients with CS diarrhea (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: Nbib2063659). © 2018 The authors.

  19. CARBON CRYOGEL MICROSPHERE FOR ETHYL LEVULINATE PRODUCTION: EFFECT OF CARBONIZATION TEMPERATURE AND TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUZAKKIR M. ZAINOL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The side products of biomass and bio-fuel industry have shown potential in producing carbon catalyst. The carbon cryogel was synthesized from ligninfurfural mixture based on the following details: 1.0 of lignin to furfural (L/F ratio, 1.0 of lignin to water (L/W ratio, and 8M of acid concentration. The lignin-furfural sol-gel mixture, initially prepared via polycondensation reaction at 90 °C for 30 min, was followed by freeze drying and carbonization process. Effects of carbonization temperature and time were investigated on the total acidity and surface area of the carbon cryogel. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters were studied on the ethyl levulinate yield through esterification reaction of levulinic acid in ethanol. The esterification reaction was conducted at reflux temperature, 10 h of reaction time, 19 molar ratio of ethanol to levulinic acid, and 15.0 wt.% carbon cryogel loading. Based on the carbonization temperature and time studies, the carbon cryogel carbonized at 500 °C and 4 h exhibited good performance as solid acid catalyst. Large total surface area and acidity significantly influenced the catalytic activity of carbon cryogel with 80.0 wt.% yield of ethyl levulinate. Thus, carbon cryogel is highly potential as acid catalyst for the esterification of levulinic acid with ethanol.

  20. Bioencapsulation strategy and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the enrichment period, the fatty acid composition of the nauplii were analysed and estimated individually along with freshly hatched A. franciscana and O. niger liver oil. The HUFA content such as linoleic (18: 2n-6), linolenic (18: 3n-3), arachidonic (20: 4n-3 + n-6), eicosapentaenoic (20: 5-n3) and docosahexaenoic ...

  1. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga, Carla C., E-mail: curanga@cicese.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beld, Joris, E-mail: joris.beld@drexelmed.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Mrse, Anthony, E-mail: amrse@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Córdova-Guerrero, Iván, E-mail: icordova@uabc.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Calzada Universidad 14418 Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. 22390 (Mexico); Burkart, Michael D., E-mail: mburkart@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Hernández-Martínez, Rufina, E-mail: ruhernan@cicese.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  2. Page 1 360 J. M. SEHGAL AND T. R. SESHADRI ethyl acetate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ethyl acetate-petroleum ether mixture when it appeared as yellow soft needles melting at 271–72°; yield, 1.9 g. (Found: C, 62.9; H, 5-1. Cls Has O, requires C, 62-8; H, 4.7%). It gave a red colour with magnesium and hydrochloric acid and a brownish red colour with aqueous ferric chloride and did not emit any fluorescence ...

  3. Wet in situ transesterification of microalgae using ethyl acetate as a co-solvent and reactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Chang, Yong Keun; Lee, Jae W

    2017-04-01

    This study addresses wet in situ transesterification of microalgae for the production of biodiesel by introducing ethyl acetate as both reactant and co-solvent. Ethyl acetate and acid catalyst are mixed with wet microalgae in one pot and the mixture is heated for simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification. As a single reactant and co-solvent, ethyl acetate can provide higher FAEE yield and more saccharification of carbohydrates than the case of binary ethanol and chloroform as a reactant and a co-solvent. The optimal yield was 97.8wt% at 114°C and 4.06M catalyst with 6.67mlEtOAC/g dried algae based on experimental results and response surface methodology (RSM). This wet in situ transesterification of microalgae using ethyl acetate doesn't require an additional co-solvent and it also promises more economic benefit as combining extraction and transesterification in a single process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pallidol hexa-acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol-ecule of pallidol hexa-acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis-[4-(acet-yloxy)phen-yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra-hydro-indeno-[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra-acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol-ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa-acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å) is 54.73 (6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol-ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C-O(carb-oxy)-C-C torsion angles = -70.24 (14), -114.43 (10) and -72.54 (13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C-H⋯O inter-actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol-ecules reside.

  5. Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Omega-3-Carboxylic Acids in Healthy Japanese Male Subjects: A Phase I, Randomized, Open-label, Three-period, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Catarina; Noda, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal. All subjects fasted for ≥10 h prior to drug/meal administration. The primary objective was to examine the effect of meal timing on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA after OM3-CA administration. The secondary objectives were to examine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. A total of 42 Japanese subjects was enrolled in the study. The baseline-adjusted maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h for EPA, DHA, and EPA +DHA were lower in the fasting and before meal conditions than in the after meal condition. The maximum total EPA, total DHA, and total EPA+DHA concentrations were reached later when administered in fasting conditions than in fed conditions, indicating slower absorption in fasting conditions. Diarrhea was reported by five, six, and no subjects in the fasting, before meal, and after meal conditions, respectively. The timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake influences the systemic bioavailability of EPA and DHA in healthy Japanese male subjects. NCT02372344.

  6. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers and coronary heart disease: Pooling project of 19 cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. Most prior longitudinal studies evaluated self-reported consumption rather than biomarkers. This study sought to evaluate biomarkers of seafood-derived eicosapentaenoic acid ...

  7. Dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids do not diminish eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of fish oil supplements on diminishing airway inflammation in asthma have been studied in mouse models and human intervention trials with varying results. However, the independent effects of the main omega-3 PUFAs found in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (D...

  8. THE USE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Malygin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.

  9. THE USE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Malygin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.

  10. Quality and fatty acid profile of the oil extracted from fish waste (head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marine lipid contains long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6 n-3). Consumptions of these PUFAs have been perceived to be important in human nutrition, health and disease prevention. Tuna, the important industrial ...

  11. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential to regulate the immune, cardiovascular, digestive and neurological systems in mammals. These fatty acids have to be included in mammal and fish diets. The main aim dietary source of HUFA is marine fish oil...

  12. Metabolic switching of human myotubes is improved by n-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessvik, N.P.; Bakke, S.S.; Fredriksson, K.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Fjorkenstad, A.; Koster, G.; Hesselink, M.K.; Kersten, A.H.; Kase, E.T.; Rustan, A.C.; Thoresen, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether pretreatment with different fatty acids, as well as the liver X receptor (LXR) agonist T0901317, could modify metabolic switching of human myotubes. The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased suppressibility, the ability of glucose to

  13. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and identification of the constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Rhus verniciflua Stokes by HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Zhou, Hao; Tao, Ran; Ye, Jianzhong; Li, Wenjun

    2017-07-01

    Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Rhus verniciflua Stokes is an important source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was the tentative identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, comparison of the phenolic structure-antioxidant activity relationships. Twelve compounds of EAF belonging to polyphenol types were detected by high performance liquid chromatography and analysed on line with negative ion electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry, which were ethoxy 3-hydroxy benzoic acid, gallic acid (GA), 3,4-dihydroxy amygdalic acid, gallic acid cetyl ester, protocatechuic acid (PA), fustin, ethyl gallate (EG), garbanzol, fisetin, sulfuretin, butin and 3,7-dihydroxyflavanone-4'-rhamnoside. The antioxidant activity were evaluated based on the different types of radical scavenging capacities, i.e. DPPH·, ABTS·+ and OH. The antioxidant capacity of EAF mainly depended on the GA, EG, PA, fisetin, sulfuretin and butin. The phenolics exhibited a dose-dependent behaviour and high antioxidant ability.

  15. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    In addition, the price of virgin vegetable oil is about two times more than that of animal fat, although the drawbacks of using animal fat as a raw material for biodiesel production is its physical properties which could be eliminated by adding necessary amount of alcohol and catalyst. Thus, the price of feedstock can be reduced ...

  16. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number...

  17. A green approach to ethyl acetate: Quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Gaofeng

    2012-11-07

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters or hydrogen acceptors (see scheme). © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  19. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto,P.; Follegatti-Romero,L. A.; Batista,E. A. C.; Meirelles,A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  20. Profiling of Omega 3 fatty acids from marine green algae Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami Seeralan; Murugesan S.; Narender Sivaswamy S

    2016-01-01

    The applications of Omega-3 fatty acids for human health are rapidly expanding, which necessitates exploring alternative sources of fish. Single cell oils are now widely accepted in the market place and there is a growing awareness of the health benefits of PUFAs, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The high prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide indicates the requirement for alternative sources of omega 3 f...

  1. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Ethyl Levulinate Oxidation in a Jet-Stirred Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jui-Yang

    2017-06-01

    A jet-stirred reactor was designed and constructed in the Clean Combustion Research Center (CCRC) at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); was validated with n-heptane, iso-octane oxidation and cyclohexene pyrolysis. Different configurations of the setup have been tested to achieve good agreement with results from the literature. Test results of the reactor indicated that installation of a pumping system at the downstream side in the experimental apparatus was necessary to avoid the reoccurrence of reactions in the sampling probe. Experiments in ethyl levulinate oxidation were conducted in the reactor under several equivalence ratios, from 600 to 1000 K, 1 bar and 2 s residence time. Oxygenated species detected included methyl vinyl ketone, levulinic acid and ethyl acrylate. Ethylene, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide were further quantified with a gas chromatography, coupled with a flame ionization detector and a thermal conductivity detector. The ethyl levulinate chemical kinetic model was first developed by Dr. Stephen Dooley, Trinity College Dublin, and simulated under the same conditions, using the Perfect-Stirred Reactor code in Chemkin software. In comparing the simulation results with experimental data, some discrepancies were noted; predictions of ethylene production were not well matched. The kinetic model was improved by updating several classes of reactions: unimolecular decomposition, H-abstraction, C-C and C-O beta-scissions of fuel radicals. The updated model was then compared again with experimental results and good agreement was achieved, proving that the concerted eliminated reaction is crucial for the kinetic mechanism formulation of ethyl levulinate. In addition, primary reaction pathways and sensitivity analysis were performed to describe the role of molecular structure in combustion (800 and 1000 K for ethyl levulinate oxidation in the jet-stirred reactor).

  2. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  3. Long-Chain Omega-3 fatty acids associated with better cognitive function and less depressive symptoms in a population of Puerto Rican adults in Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) found in fatty fish are increasingly recommended for promoting brain health with aging. Studies have reported protective associations between dietary DHA/EPA or fatty fish and incident dementia, but few have reported ...

  4. The effect of fluorine atom on the synthesis and composition of gametocidal ethyl oxanilates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, Jernej; Titan, Primož; Meglič, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Three derivatives of ethyl oxanilate were synthesized in order to test their application as gametocides on the hermaphrodite plants like common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A substituent at para position (F, Br, CN) of aniline defined its reactivity towards diethyl oxalate 2. Classical reaction in toluene was not selective and amidation occurred also at the second carbonyl groups of 2. Alternative synthesis under solvent-free conditions with application of low pressure for removal of EtOH provided selectively with ethyl oxanilate 3a and 3b. 4-Cyanoaniline did not react selectively and the corresponding ethyl oxanilate 3c was prepared from mono acid chloride of oxalic acid. Fluoro derivative 3a was found to be the only one that gives stable aqueous suspension for its application as chemical hybridizing agent for common wheat, while bromo- 3b and cyano- 3c analogues were not soluble enough and suspension was stable for less than 2 hours. Fluoro derivative had shown the best induction of male sterility, while in comparison with standard chemical hybridizing agent they were substantially less toxic for plant.

  5. Reactions of CH-acids with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryshtal, G. V.; Zhdankina, G. M.; Astakhova, Irina Kira

    2004-01-01

    Metal carbonate-catalyzed reactions of CH-acids (diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl cyanoacetate, and ethyl 2-acetyl- and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-5,9- dimethyldeca-4,8-dienoates) with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, crotonaldehyde, citral) were studied in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3- methyl...

  6. Cyclohexenones Through Addition of Ethyl Acetoacetate to 3-Aryl-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chalcone derivatives 3a–i containing a thiophene ring were prepared by the condensation of 1-(thiophen-3-yl)ethanone with aromatic aldehydes in excellent yields. The Michael addition of ethyl acetoacetate 4 to chalcone derivatives 3a–i resulted in the formation of nine novel ethyl 6-aryl ...

  7. 2,6-Bis(9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2,6-bis(ethyl-9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone has been synthesized by condensation of 9-ethylcarbazole-3-aldehyde and cyclohexanone in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  8. Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile and Ethyl Methacrylate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graft copolymers of Acrylonitrile and ethyl methcrylate on dextrin were prepared by the use of ceric ion initiator in aqueous medium at 290C. The molecular weight of grafted poly(ethyl methacrylate) chains were higher than for polyacrylonitrile grafts; but the latter were more frequently grafted on the backbone polymer.

  9. Ethyl acetate production by the elusive alcohol acetyltransferase from yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, Alex; Levisson, Mark; Mars, Astrid E.; Ploeg, van der Max; Garcés Daza, Fernando; Ellena, Valeria; Kengen, Servé W.M.; Oost, van der John; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2017-01-01

    Ethyl acetate is an industrially relevant ester that is currently produced exclusively through unsustainable processes. Many yeasts are able to produce ethyl acetate, but the main responsible enzyme has remained elusive, hampering the engineering of novel production strains. Here we describe the

  10. Antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract isolated from edible fungi, Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malençon, growing in Algeria, was investigated. Extraction was done by the Soxhlet and the fractions obtained were purified with silica-gel column. Two fractions of ethyl acetate extract were tested against ...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  12. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh (Rubiaceae) (MM-EA) properties against experimental diarrheoa induced by castor oil in albino Wistar rats. Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body ...

  13. short communication chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. The antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Dichrostachys cinerea and the roots of Parkia bicolor have been evaluated. Ethyl acetate extracts have been investigated, studies that led to a series of known compounds, amongst which many are reported here for ...

  14. Non-feed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for industrial microorganism fe...

  15. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of eicosapentaenoic acid, using a novel δ5-desaturase from Paramecium tetraurelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Andrade Pereira Tavares, Sabina; Grotkjær, Thomas; Obsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    . lucimarinus, O. tauri, and M. alpina are promiscuous toward the acyl carrier substrate but prefer phospholipid-bound substrates. In contrast, the Δ5-desaturase from L. major showed no activity on phospholipid-bound substrate and thus appears to be an exclusively acyl coenzyme A-dependent desaturase. ©American...

  16. Pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate as an alternative precursor for SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, M.I., E-mail: ibarrena@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Soria, A.; Matesanz, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    This work reported basically aims at understanding the extent of SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers using two different sol-gel precursors for the silicate glass. The silicate precursors employed were tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The first route consisted in an acid hydrolysis and polycondensation of the TEOS and the second one in a polycondensation of the pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The techniques of Fourier Infra Red spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the materials obtained. Both kinds of SiO{sub 2} precursor can coat the CNF effectively. However, the use of pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate (faster gelation times and higher surface areas) can be considered a low-cost and facile alternative with respect to the use of TEOS, to obtain industrially silica-coated carbon nanofibers.

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Pyridinolyses of Ethyl Methyl and Ethyl Propyl Chlorothiophosphates in Acetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barai, Hasi Rani; Lee, Hai Whang [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    The kinetic studies on the reactions of ethyl methyl (2) and ethyl propyl (4) chlorothiophosphates with X-pyridines have been carried out in acetonitrile at 35.0 .deg. C. The free energy correlations with X show biphasic concave upwards with a break point at X = H (2) and 3-Ph (4), respectively. A stepwise mechanism with a rate-limiting leaving group expulsion from the intermediate is proposed based on the magnitudes of selectivity parameters for both substrates. The considerably large values of β{sub X} = 1.50(2) and 1.44(4) with strongly basic pyridines and relatively small values of β{sub X} = 0.43(2) and 0.36(4) with weakly basic pyridines are interpreted as a change of the attacking direction of the X-pyridines from a frontside to a backside attack toward the chloride leaving group.

  18. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Martini, I A; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

  19. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton T. Souza

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.

  20. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Ngane, Rosalie A Ngono; Njateng, Guy S S; Kamtchueng, Monique O; Kuiate, Jules-Roger

    2014-04-17

    Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Dayspring, Thomas D; Moran, Terrance J

    2013-11-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), have been extensively studied therapeutically in a wide variety of disease conditions, but in none more than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our review summarizes mechanisms of action, recent meta-analyses of CVD outcome trials, sources (fish and supplements), and recommendations for use of omega-3 FA in clinical practice. With the ability to now measure the omega-3 FA biostatus through blood tests, patients can achieve cardioprotective levels by either taking fish oil supplements or simply eating more oily fish. Two omega-3 FA formulations (both in the ethyl ester form) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with very high triglyceride levels (> 500 mg/dL); one contains both EPA and DHA, whereas the other contains only EPA. The agents have been extensively tested in 2 patient populations, those with very high triglycerides and those with triglycerides between 200 and 500 mg/dL while on background statin therapy. In general, treatment with EPA+DHA appears to lower patient triglycerides more effectively, but in those patients with very high triglyceride levels, use of EPA+DHA also raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas EPA alone did not. Both formulations, at doses that do not lower triglycerides, have been shown to reduce CVD events in some, but not all, studies. Given the favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for these essentially nutritional agents, use is expected to continue to expand.

  2. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...

  3. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...

  4. Effect of the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the diet on the growth and fecundity of Daphnia galeata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, P.M.M.; Gulati, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    1. The importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), for the growth and development of Daphnia galeata (Sars) was tested using food types differing in PUFA and EPA contents. 2. Life history experiments of D. galeata fed with the

  5. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects

  6. ANTISECRETORY AND ANTIULCERATIVE EFFECTS OF ETHYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-12-02

    Steroidal Anti-inflammatory. Drug-induced ... ulcer and preventive indices were analysed, while volume of gastric juice, titratable acidity, acid output and pepsin .... of humidity, temperature and light/dark cycle respectively and each of ...

  7. Effects of Temperature and Dietary Lipids on Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Membrane Fluidity in Steinernema carpocapsae

    OpenAIRE

    Fodor, A.; Dey, I; Farkas, T; Chitwood, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of Steinernema carpocapsae was studied in relation to diet and culture temperature. When reared at 18 and 27.5 C on Galleria mellonella or on an artificial diet supplemented with lard, linseed oil, or fish oil as lipid sources, nematode phospholipids contained an abundance of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, with eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n - 3)) predominant, regardless of the fatty acid composition of the diet. Because the level of linolenic acid (18:3(n ...

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids differentially modulate enzymatic anti-oxidant systems in skeletal muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, E. P.; Nachbar, R. T.; Levada-Pires, A. C.; Hirabara, S. M.; Lambertucci, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    During physical activity, increased reactive oxygen species production occurs, which can lead to cell damage and in a decline of individual’s performance and health. The use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a supplement to protect the immune system has been increasing; however, their possible benefit to the anti-oxidant system is not well described. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) can be bene...

  9. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  10. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai A. Lund-Blix; Rønningen, Kjersti S.; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children.Objective: The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).Design: Cross-sectional data for the present...

  11. Ethyl cellulose nanoparticles: clarithomycin encapsulation and eradication of H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan-In, Porntip; Banlunara, Wijit; Chaichanawongsaroj, Nuntaree; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2014-08-30

    The extreme acidic environment of the stomach, its regular voidance of contents and the restricted access to the mucus covered habitat combined with the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria, all contribute to the poor success in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastric infections. Here, we demonstrate that by encapsulating clarithromycin into ethyl cellulose (EC) nanoparticles, the efficiency of H. pylori clearance in C57BL/6 mice infected with these bacteria was significantly improved. Clarithomycin-loaded EC nanoparticles were prepared via a simple yet effective anti-solvent particle induction method, to yield sub-micron sized particles with 22.3 ± 0.17% (w/w) clarithromycin loading at 86 ± 0.5% (w/w) encapsulation efficiency. The particles dispersed well in water and simulated gastric fluid and gave a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.09-0.18 μg/ml against four strains of H. pylori. Encapsulation into EC particles not only enhanced the anti-adhesion activity of clarithromycin when tested with H. pylori and Hep-2 cells, but also gave significant enhancement of H. pylori clearance in the stomach of C57BL/6 mice infected with the bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester.

  13. Use and Effectiveness of Ethyl Chloride for Hand Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Orrin I; Stern, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    Limited literature supports using ethyl chloride topical spray as an anesthetic for hand injections whereas documented risks include frostbite, skin irritation, and inhalation toxicity. We hypothesize that ethyl chloride spray imparts no benefit to patients' perception of pain or anxiety for routine hand injections. We first surveyed all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand to discern the prevalence of ethyl chloride use during routine injections. We then performed a prospective, randomized, study at 2 institutions evaluating the efficacy of ethyl chloride spray compared with "routine injection" (no topical spray) in patients indicated for a hand injection. All patients completed a pre- and postinjection 11-point questionnaire that inquired about various components of pain and anxiety. A total of 2,083 (73% response rate) American Society for Surgery of the Hand members responded to the survey and revealed that 59% of hand surgeons always or often use ethyl chloride, and 24% never use it. There were no differences for region or practice setting, but experienced surgeons were less likely to routinely use ethyl chloride (35%) compared with younger surgeons (66%). Among 151 patients participating in the clinical study (75 with ethyl chloride), there were no differences for any outcome measure assessed. Injection pain in the spray and no-spray groups, pain after 1 minute, and overall anxiety were equivalent. Subgroup analysis demonstrated no effect of sex, anticipated anxiety, or pain threshold. Ethyl chloride is widely used among hand surgeons but imparts no benefit for routine hand injections in the clinical setting. The potential risks and costs of ethyl chloride use may outweigh its benefits. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enriched eggs as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to enrich eggs with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by using plant oils and fish oil as dietary supplements in laying hens’ feed. The focus was put on the effect of the daily consumption of 100 g of egg yolk, i.e. 100 g of egg mass, on the human health. The 1st group of laying hens was fed a diet containing soybean and fish oil, and the 2nd group was given feed containing a combination of linseed, rapeseed, soybean, and fish oils. Eggs laid by the 2nd group contained 4.73% α-linolenic acid, 0.20% eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.37% docosahexaenoic acid (% of total fatty acids in yolk lipids, P < 0.001, which marks an increase of × 4.04 for α-linolenic acid, × 3.33 for eicosapentaenoic acid, and × 1.75 for docosahexaenoic acid compared to eggs laid by the 1st group. Total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs of the 2nd group were × 2.8 higher than in the 1st first group. Calculated per 100 g of eggs of the 2nd group, the intake for the human body corresponds to 435 mg α-linolenic acid, 18.43 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, and 218.2 mg docosahexaenoic acid.

  15. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of ethyl butyrate synthesis inn-hexane- a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, N Annapurna; Radhika, G B; Bhargavi, R J

    2017-08-01

    Kinetics of lipase catalyzed transesterification of ethyl caprate and butyric acid was investigated. The objective of this work was to propose a reaction mechanism and develop a rate equation for the synthesis of ethyl butyrate by transesterification using surfactant coated lipase from Candida rugosa . The reaction rate could be described in terms of Michaelis-Menten equation with a Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism and competitive inhibition by both the substrates. The values of kinetic parameters computed were V max  = 2.861 μmol/min/mg; K m(acid)  = 0.0746 M; K m(ester)  = 0.125 M; K i acid = 0.450 M. This study indicated a competitive enzyme inhibition by butyric acid during lipase catalyzed transesterification reaction. Experimental observations had clearly indicated that the substrates as well as product act as dead-end inhibitors.

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) by bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in sulfuric acid medium; Extracao liquido-liquido de ferro (III) e titanio (IV) pelo acido bis-(2-etil-hexil) fosforico (D2EHPA) em meio de acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Glauco Correa da; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Materiais Nucleares; Dweck, Jo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Processos Inorganicos; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica]. E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a study on the separation of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) from sulfuric acid leaching solutions of ilmenite (FeTiO{sub 3}) using liquid-liquid extraction with D2EHPA in n-dodecane as extracting agent. The distribution coefficients (K{sub D}) of the elements related to free acidity and concentration of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) were determined. Free acidity was changed from 3x10{sup -2} to 11.88 mol L{sup -1} and D2EHPA concentration was fixed at 1.5 mol L{sup 1}. Recovery of final products as well as recycling of wastes generated in the process were also investigated. The LLE process as a feasible alternative to obtain high-purity TiO{sub 2}. (author)

  17. Effect of low doses of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases in 4,837 post-myocardial infarction patients: Design and baseline characteristics of the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Teitsma-Jansen, A.M.; Katan, M.B.; Kromhout, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid

  18. Evaluation and Characterization of Biodiesels Obtained Through Ethylic or Methylic Transesterification of Tryacylglicerides in Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Queiroz Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was devoted to the transesterification of corn oil either with methyl or ethyl alcohol and to the characterization of the biodiesels (composed by FAME—fatty acid methyl esters—or FAEE—fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively produced. As an initial hypothesis, it was argued whether or not the two alcohols, both with short molecular chains, would impart significant differences to the chemical characteristics of the two biodiesels from corn oil. The most common properties of the biodiesels were evaluated by determining corresponding parameters for acid value, peroxide value, water content, oxidative stability, free and total glycerin, kinematic viscosity at 40 ℃ and density at 20 ℃, for both chemical routes, FAME and FAEE. In general, values were found to be well within the recommended limits for commercial biodiesel, in accordance with the Brazilian, European and American standard recommendations, except only for the oxidative stability. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.08 mg KOH/g; peroxide index, 23.77 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 3.10 h; water content, 297.1 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.092 %; free glycerin, 0.009 %; viscosity, 4.05 mm2/s and density, 878.7 kg/m. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.11 mg/ KOH; peroxide index, 22.39 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 2.13 h; water content, 264.8 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.25 %; free glycerin, 0.02 %; viscosity, 4.37 mm2/s and density, 874.0 kg/m. From a direct inspection of chemical data for the two products prepared via the two chemical routes, it can be drawn that values of the physical and chemical parameters for both, methyl and ethyl biodiesels, are essentially similar, except for the oxidative stability. However, the oxidative stability can be suitably adjusted by adding an anti-oxidizing agent to the ethyl biodiesel medium. The two biodiesels are thus promising alternatives to fully replace or to be admixed to the mineral diesel. Relatively to the pure petrol

  19. Assessment of anti-inflammatory properties of ethyl acetate extract of Stachys schtschegleevii Sosn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazemiyeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stachys schtschegleevii Sosn. (commonly known as "Poulk" and "Sonbeleh Arasbarani" and Stachys inflate Benth. ("Sonbeleh Arghavani" are most widely used for medicinal purposes. Stachys schtschegleevii Sosn.( Lamiaceae is  widespread in North West of Iran and have been used traditionally to treat infections, asthma, rheumatic and other inflammatory disorders. In the present studies the anti-inflammatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of both flowering and sterile tops of S. schtschegleevii were investigated.Material and Methods: The methanolic extract of the sterile aerial parts was partitionated between chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The column chromatography (CC on silica gel was used to fractionate the ethyl acetate extract and the anti-inflammatory effects of each main fraction were evaluated by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema assay. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC was used to isolate compounds from the active fractions and their structure (1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The ethyl acetate portion was fractionated into 11 major fractions.Results: the most prominent anti-inflammatory effect was observed with fractions 8 to 10 of the ethyl acetate portion. Fraction 8 abolished considerably the mean maximal responses of inflammation from 87.003.5% in control to 61.107.2% (p<0.001 and 62.103.6% (p<0.001 in 15 and 30 mg/kg fraction-treated groups, respectively. Preparative-HPLC analyses of fractions 5 and 8-10 led to the isolation and identification of three major compounds, chrysoeriol 7-O-β-[6"-(p- coumaroyl]-glucoside (1, apigenin 7-O-β-[6"-(p- coumaroyl]-glucoside (2, and acteoside (3. Conclusion: It seems that caffeic acid derivatives such as acteoside may be implicated in anti-inflammatory effect of Stachys schetschegleevii Sosn.

  20. Investigation of biological activities of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions of Platonia insignis Mart. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Júnior, Joaquim S; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Sousa, Taciana O; Silva, Romézio A C; De Lima, Sidney G; Feitosa, Chistiane M; Citó, Antônia M G L; Melo Cavalcante, Ana A C; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Moura Sperotto, Angelo R; Péres, Valéria F; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer

    2013-01-01

    Platonia insignis Mart., a native species of the Brazilian Amazon more commonly known as bacuri, is a member of the Clusiaceae family. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition and the antioxidant and toxicity activities of the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions from P. insignis seed ethanolic extract using different experimental models. Our results demonstrate in vitro antioxidant effects, by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assays, as well as in vivo effects in antioxidant-defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to both fractions. Toxicity was evaluated against the micro-crustaceous Artemia salina Leach. and promastigote Leishmania amazonensis. The dichloromethane fraction was the most active fraction evaluated on A. salina and promastigote L. amazonensis (IC(50)  = 24.89 μg/mL and 2.84 μg/mL, respectively). In addition, a slight cytotoxicity was observed in mammalian V79 cells using ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions with MTT assays. Both fractions displayed genotoxicity up to 25 μg/mL (dichloromethane) and 10 μg/mL (ethyl acetate) in V79 cells, as evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate for the first time that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions from P. insignis seeds display antioxidant effects, a toxic effect against A. salina and L. amazonensis and induce genotoxicity in V79 mammalian cells. The observed activities can be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in these fractions and to the presence of xanthones (alpha- and gamma-mangostin). © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  1. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction ofBiophytum sensitivumextract against sodium oxalate-induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Anil T; Vyawahare, Niraj S

    2017-10-01

    The methanolic whole plant extract of Biophytum sensitivum (gǎnyìng cǎo) has been found to possess antiurolithiatic effect. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiurolithiatic effect of some fractions of methanolic whole plant extract of B. sensitivum (MBS) in rats as a step toward activity-directed isolation of antiurolithiatic component. The MBS was successively extracted with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water to obtain fractions. Sodium oxalate (70 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to rats for seven days to develop calcium oxalate urolithiasis. These rats were treated with two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) of the fractions, 1 h before sodium oxalate injections. Antiurolithiatic activity was assessed by estimating biochemical changes in urine, serum and kidney homogenate along with histological changes in kidney tissue. Sodium oxalate administration caused biochemical alterations in urine which was found to be prevented significantly by the ethyl acetate fraction. Supplementation with ethyl acetate fraction prevented the elevation of serum creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen levels. The elevated calcium, oxalate and phosphate levels in the kidney tissue homogenate of lithiatic rats were significantly reduced by the treatment with ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction also caused significant decrease in lipid peroxidation activity, accumulation of calcium oxalate deposits and histological changes in the kidney tissue. The results showed that the antiurolithiatic component of the methanolic whole plant extract of the plant is contained in the ethyl acetate fraction. The effect is attributed to its diuretic, antioxidant, nephroprotective properties and effect on lowering the concentration of urinary stone-forming constituents.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma; relation to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inflammatory ... (DHA) and 700 mg eicosapentaenoic (EPA) in a dose of one capsule per day for one month, and group B (50 subjects) received placebo capsules for one month.

  3. Influence of prohexadione-calcium, trinexapac-ethyl and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethyl (TNE) and hexaconazole (HX) on lodging and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway of rice cultivar, Hwayeongbyeo. It was observed that these novel synthetic growth retardants suppressed lodging of rice under field conditions through ...

  4. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  5. Identification of Jasmonic Acid in Chlorella and Spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Junichi; Miyamoto, Kensuke; AOKI, Miyako; Hirata, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Tomohiro; MOMOTANI, Yoshihide

    1991-01-01

    The occurrence of jasmonic acid and its related compounds in Chlorella and Spirulina cells was studied using a gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (selected ion monitoring system, GC/SIM). Jasmonic acid was identified in the ethyl acetate soluble-acidic material of Chlorella and Spirulina, and its methyl ester form, methyl jasmonate, was also identified in the ethyl acetate soluble-neutral material of Chlorella. These results suggest that jasmonic acid and its related compounds are wi...

  6. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of an omega-3 fatty acid and vitamins E+C in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, H; Osnes, K; Refsum, H; Solberg, D K; Bøhmer, T

    2013-12-17

    Membrane lipid metabolism and redox regulation may be disturbed in schizophrenia. We examined the clinical effect of adding an omega-3 fatty acid and/or vitamins E+C to antipsychotics. It was hypothesized that lower baseline levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) would predict more benefit from the add-on treatment. The trial had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design. Patients aged 18-39 years with schizophrenia or related psychoses were consecutively included at admission to psychiatric departments in Norway. They received active or placebo ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (EPA) 2 g day⁻¹ and active or placebo vitamin E 364 mg day⁻¹+vitamin C 1000 mg day⁻¹ (vitamins) for 16 weeks. The main outcome measures were Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscales scores, analyzed by linear mixed models. Ninety-nine patients were included. At baseline, erythrocyte PUFA were measured in 97 subjects. Given separately, EPA and vitamins increased drop-out rates, whereas when combined they did not differ from placebo. In low PUFA patients, EPA alone impaired the course of total PANSS (Cohen's d=0.29; P=0.03) and psychotic symptoms (d=0.40; P=0.003), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.48; P=0.0004). Vitamins alone impaired the course of psychotic symptoms (d= 0.37; P=0.005), especially persecutory delusions (d=0.47; P=0.0005). Adding vitamins to EPA neutralized the detrimental effect on psychosis (interaction d=0.31; P=0.02). In high PUFA patients, there were no significant effects of trial drugs on PANSS scales. In conclusion, given separately during an acute episode, EPA and vitamins E+C induce psychotic symptoms in patients with low levels of PUFA. Combined, these agents seem safe.

  7. Combined intervention with pioglitazone and n-3 fatty acids in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: improvement of lipid metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veleba, J.; Kopecký Jr., J.; Janovská, Petra; Kuda, Ondřej; Horáková, Olga; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Trnovská, J.; Hájek, M.; Škoch, A.; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Rossmeisl, Martin; Olza, J.; de Castro, S. G.; Calder, P. C.; Gardlo, Alžběta; Fišerová, E.; Jensen, J.; Bryhn, M.; Kopecký, Jan; Pelikánová, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, Dec 2 (2015), s. 52 ISSN 1743-7075 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13763 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : eicosapentaenoic acid * docosahexaenoic acid * indirect calorimetry * meal test * humans * hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.280, year: 2015

  8. Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Flachs, P.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Kuda, O.; Bunschoten, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vink, C.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Kopecky, J.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA), are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small

  9. Serum content of oleic acid is associated with higher platelet-, endothelial- and leukocyte-derived circulating microparticles in Norwegian normolipidemic elderly patients after an acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiva-Blanch, G; Bratseth, V; Laake, K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...

  10. Toxicity Studies of Ethyl Maltol and Iron Complexes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl maltol and iron complexes are products of ethyl maltol and the iron found in the cooking pots used to prepare the Chinese dish, hot-pot. Because their safety is undocumented, the toxicity study of ethyl maltol and iron complexes was conducted in male and female Kunming (KM mice. The animal study was designed based on the preliminary study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50. The doses used in the study were 0, 1/81, 1/27, 1/9, and 1/3 of the LD50 (mg kg body weight (BW−1 day−1 dissolved in the water. The oral LD50 of the ethyl maltol and iron complexes was determined to be 743.88 mg kg BW−1 in mice. The ethyl maltol and iron complexes targeted the endocrine organs including the liver and kidneys following the 90 D oral exposure. Based on the haematological data, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL of the ethyl maltol and iron complexes was determined to be 1/81 LD50 (9.18 mg kg BW−1 day−1 in both male and female mice. Therefore, we suggest that alternative strategies for preparing the hot-pot, including the use of non-Fe-based cookware, need to be developed and encouraged to avoid the formation of the potentially toxic complexes.

  11. Ethyl acetate production by the elusive alcohol acetyltransferase from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Aleksander J; Levisson, Mark; Mars, Astrid E; van der Ploeg, Max; Garcés Daza, Fernando; Ellena, Valeria; Kengen, Servé W M; van der Oost, John; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2017-05-01

    Ethyl acetate is an industrially relevant ester that is currently produced exclusively through unsustainable processes. Many yeasts are able to produce ethyl acetate, but the main responsible enzyme has remained elusive, hampering the engineering of novel production strains. Here we describe the discovery of a new enzyme (Eat1) from the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus that resulted in high ethyl acetate production when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purified Eat1 showed alcohol acetyltransferase activity with ethanol and acetyl-CoA. Homologs of eat1 are responsible for most ethyl acetate synthesis in known ethyl acetate-producing yeasts, including S. cerevisiae, and are only distantly related to known alcohol acetyltransferases. Eat1 is therefore proposed to compose a novel alcohol acetyltransferase family within the α/β hydrolase superfamily. The discovery of this novel enzyme family is a crucial step towards the development of biobased ethyl acetate production and will also help in selecting improved S. cerevisiae brewing strains. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of postcoronary angioplasty restenosis by omega-3 fatty acids: main results of the Esapent for Prevention of Restenosis ITalian Study (ESPRIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresta, Aleardo; Balduccelli, Marco; Varani, Elisabetta; Marzilli, Mario; Galli, Claudio; Heiman, Franca; Lavezzari, Maurizio; Stragliotto, Eduardo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2002-06-01

    Previous trials of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) for restenosis prevention after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) have yielded conflicting results. We tested the hypothesis that long-term administration of omega-3 FA before PTCA may have significant effects on restenosis. We randomized 339 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of omega-3 FA (as an ethyl ester preparation given as 6 1-g capsules providing 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.1 g docosahexaenoic acid/d started 1 month before PTCA and given for 1 month thereafter, then continued at half-dose for 6 months) versus an olive oil placebo. Of these, 257 patients (125 on omega-3 FA, 132 on placebo) well matched for risk factors underwent successful balloon-only PTCA (280 total lesions) and were evaluable at 6 months with repeat angiography. Restenosis was defined at quantitative angiography as a recurrence of >50% diameter stenosis in the dilated vessel (Definition I) and as >50% loss of the short-term gain immediately after PTCA (Definition II). Restenosis rates per vessel were 29.4% and 31.6% in the omega-3 FA group, and 39.6% and 35.4% in the placebo group according to Definitions I (P =.04) and II (P = not significant), respectively. Restenosis rates per patient were 31.2% and 33.6% in the omega-3 FA group, and 40.9% and 37.1% in the placebo group according to Definitions I (P =.05) and II (P = not significant), respectively. With a long treatment before PTCA, omega-3 FA produced a small but significant decrease in the restenosis rate compared with placebo.

  13. Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Animals Susceptible or Resistant to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs has been reported to reduce cardiac mortality following myocardial infarction as well as to decrease resting heart rate (HR and increase heart rate variability (HRV. However, it has not been established whether n-3 PUFAs exhibit the same actions on HR and HRV in individuals known to be either susceptible or resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability were evaluated before and 3 months after n-3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed myocardial infarction that were either susceptible (VF+, n = 31 or resistant (VF-, n = 31 to ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a 2 min coronary artery occlusion during the last minute of a submaximal exercise test. HR and HRV were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise and in response to acute myocardial ischemia at rest before and after either placebo (1 g/day, corn oil, VF+, n = 9; VF- n = 8 or n-3 PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, 1-4g/day, VF+, n = 22; VF-, n = 23 treatment for 3 months. The n-3 PUFA treatment elicited similar increases in red blood cell membrane, right atrial, and left ventricular n-3 PUFA levels in both the VF+ and VF- dogs. The n-3 PUFA treatment also provoked similar reductions in baseline HR and increases in baseline HRV in both groups that resulted in parallel shifts in the response to either exercise or acute myocardial ischemia (that is, the change in these variables induced by physiological challenges was not altered after n-3 PUFA treatment. These data demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA decreased HR and increased HRV to a similar extent in animals known to be prone to or resistant to malignant cardiac tachyarrhythmias.

  14. Sustained Release of Amoxicillin from Ethyl Cellulose-Coated Amoxicillin/Chitosan–Cyclodextrin-Based Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Songsurang, Kultida; Pakdeebumrung, Jatuporn; Praphairaksit, Narong; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2010-01-01

    Sustained release mucoadhesive amoxicillin tablets with tolerance to acid degradation in the stomach were studied. The sustained-release tablets of amoxicillin were prepared from amoxicillin coated with ethyl cellulose (EC) and then formulated into tablets using chitosan (CS) or a mixture of CS and beta-cyclodextrin (CD) as the retard polymer. The effects of various (w/w) ratios of EC/amoxicillin, the particle sized of EC coated amoxicillin and the different (w/w) ratios of CS/CD for the reta...

  15. Corneal damage by half mustard (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, CEES) in vitro preventive studies: a histologic and electron microscopic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, S D; Devamanoharan, P S; Ali, A H; Henein, M; Petrali, J; Brozetti, J; Lehnert, E

    1998-10-01

    The effect of half-mustard (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, CEES) on the morphology and ultrastructure of the cornea has been studied in vitro. Extensive necrotic changes were observed histologically as well as electron microscopically. The outer layer of corneal epithelium was observed to undergo vacuolization and globulization prior to its denudation. The epithelium becomes separated from the Bowman's membrane. These necrotic changes are prevented from taking place in the presence of a mixture of taurine, pyruvic acid, alpha-keto glutaric acid and pantothenic acid suggesting the use of this mixture in the prevention of mustard damage.

  16. A study on correlation coefficients between fatty acids in the meat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds fed the experimental diets containing 7% fish oil had a much lower and more favorable ratio between total n-6 and n-3 fatty acids; being about 0.6:1 and 0.9:1, and the ratio between amino acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was about 0.06:1 and 0.07:1 in breast and thigh muscles, respectively. The broiler ...

  17. [Iminium compounds against bacteria and fungi. 29. 3-Alkoxymethyl-1-ethyl-, 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-ethyl-, 3-alkoxymethyl-1-butyl-, and 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-butylbenzimidazolium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Skrzypczak, A; Michalak, L; Jedraszczyk, J; Krysiński, J; Kazmierczak, M; Mrówczyński, B

    1993-04-01

    Syntheses and antimicrobial activity of 3-alkoxymethyl-1-ethyl-, 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-ethyl-, 3-alkoxymethyl-1-butyl-, and 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-butylbenzimidazolium chlorides are described. The compounds were obtained by reaction of 1-ethyl- or 1-butylbenzimidazole with chloromethylalkyl ethers or chloromethylalkyl sulfide. Antibacterial properties were tested on 13 strains of bacteria and fungi. 3-Dodecylthio-methyl-1-ethyl-benzimidazolium chloride exhibited the highest antibacterial activity.

  18. Effects of Temperature and Dietary Lipids on Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Membrane Fluidity in Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, A; Dey, I; Farkas, T; Chitwood, D J

    1994-09-01

    The phospholipid composition of Steinernema carpocapsae was studied in relation to diet and culture temperature. When reared at 18 and 27.5 C on Galleria mellonella or on an artificial diet supplemented with lard, linseed oil, or fish oil as lipid sources, nematode phospholipids contained an abundance of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, with eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n - 3)) predominant, regardless of the fatty acid composition of the diet. Because the level of linolenic acid (18:3(n - 3)) in nematode phospholipids was very low and because eicosapentaenoic acid was present even when its precursor (linolenic acid) was undetectable in the diet, S. carpocapsae likely produces n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by de novo biosynthesis, a pathway seldom reported in eukaryotic animals. Reduction of growth temperature from 25 to 18 C increased the proportion of 20:5(n - 3) but not other polyunsaturated fatty acids. A fluorescence polarization technique revealed that vesicles produced from phospholipids of nematodes reared at 18 C were less ordered than those from nematodes reared at 27.5 C, especially in the outermost region of the bilayer. Dietary fish oil increased fluidity in the outermost region but increased rigidity in deeper regions. Therefore, S. carpocapsae appears to modify its membrane physical state in response to temperature, and eicosapentaenoic acid may be involved in this response. The results also indicate that nematode membrane physical state can be modified dietarily, possibly to the benefit of host-finding or survival of S. carpocapsae at low temperatures.

  19. Characterisation of phenolic compounds of the ethyl acetate fraction from Tabernaemontana catharinensis and its potential antidepressant-like effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleti, Nathielli Nayara; Mello, Jonas; Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; de Albuquerque, Cláudia Almeida Coelho; Alberton, Michele Debiasi; Barauna, Sara Cristiane

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluates the antidepressant-like effect and analysed the qualitative and quantitative 74 phenolic standards of ethyl acetate fraction from Tabernaemontana catharinensis leaves. Acute administration of fraction in mice reduced the immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests confirming its antidepressant-like activity. The anti-immobility effect elicited by this fraction was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg kg -1 ), ketanserin (5 mg kg -1 ), SCH 23,390 (0.05 mg kg -1 ) or yohimbine (1 mg kg -1 ). A sub effective dose of the fraction produced a synergistic effect with fluoxetine (5 mg kg -1 ). Chromatographic analysis identified 4-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids in the ethyl acetate fraction from T. catharinensis. Capillary electrophoresis presented 7.34 ± 0.02 mg g -1 of p-coumaric acid concentration in the fraction. Therefore, it is possible that antidepressant-like effect elicited by ethyl acetate fraction from T. catharinensis be dependent on the p-coumaric acid.

  20. Spectroscopy reveals that ethyl esters interact with proteins in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gaspero, Mattia; Ruzza, Paolo; Hussain, Rohanah; Vincenzi, Simone; Biondi, Barbara; Gazzola, Diana; Siligardi, Giuliano; Curioni, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Impairment of wine aroma after vinification is frequently associated to bentonite treatments and this can be the result of protein removal, as recently demonstrated for ethyl esters. To evaluate the existence of an interaction between wine proteins and ethyl esters, the effects induced by these fermentative aroma compounds on the secondary structure and stability of VVTL1, a Thaumatin-like protein purified from wine, was analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The secondary structure of wine VVTL1 was not strongly affected by the presence of selected ethyl esters. In contrast, VVTL1 stability was slightly increased by the addition of ethyl-octanoate, -decanoate and -dodecanoate, but decreased by ethyl-hexanoate. This indicates the existence of an interaction between VVTL1 and at least some aroma compounds produced during fermentation. The data suggest that proteins removal from wine by bentonite can result in indirect removal of at least some aroma compounds associated with them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential incorporation of fish-oil eicosapentaenoate and docosahexaenoate into lipids of lipoprotein fractions as related to their glyceryl esterification: a short-term (postprandial) and long-term study in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadou, H; Léger, C L; Descomps, B; Barjon, J N; Monnier, L; Crastes de Paulet, A

    1995-12-01

    We investigated how the distribution of eicosapentaenoate (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoate (DHA, 22:6n-3) in the sn-2 and sn-1(3) positions of fish-oil triacylglycerols influenced their respective incorporation into triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids of two lipoprotein fractions: low- and very-low-density lipoprotein (VL/LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Nine healthy volunteers were studied over both a short-term (0-8 h) and a long-term (30 d) postprandial period of daily supplementation with 2 g EPA and 1.3 g DHA given as 11 g fish-oil triacylglycerol in which DHA was predominantly situated in the sn-2 position. Our results strongly suggest that the higher triacylglycerol incorporation of DHA and the higher metabolic availability of EPA compared with DHA for phospholipid accumulation (particularly in the short-term study) depend on their respective preferential sn-2/sn-1(3) positions in fish-oil triacylglycerol, emphasizing the important role of the triacylglycerol structure and its potential manipulation for modulating availability of either or both fatty acids.

  2. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    of 2,5-anhydrides and not the expected 2-acetamido-2-deoxy aldose phenylhydrazones. The acetylated phenylhydrazones were found to eliminate acetic acid when heated in aqueous ethanol and 1-phenylazoalkenes could be isolated by crystallisation. By this method the 17, 20, 23 and 25 were prepared from....... The aziridino amides 43 and 51 were reductively cleaved with hydrazine to give 3-amino-2,3-dideoxyhexonhydrazides 83 and 85, which were easily converted into the corresponding lactone 84 and acid 86. The aziridine ring of 43 and 51 was also opened with acetic acid to give the 3-amino-3-deoxyhexonic acids 79....... These compounds did not react with 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl amine 105. Instead the commercially available unsubstituted 4-carboxyl tetronolactone 108 was converted into the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl amides 110 and 111 in two steps. These amides were cyclised by the Bischler-Napieralski cyclisation to give...

  3. Formation of ethyl ferulate by rice koji enzyme in sake and mirin mash conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Katsumi; Ito, Toshihiko; Ishizuka, Takahiro; Takeda, Naoki

    2013-08-01

    Formation mechanism of ethyl ferulate (EF) in sake and mirin mash conditions was investigated to understand EF level control in the manufacturing process. Rice koji formed EF from ferulic acid (FA) and ethanol and decomposed EF to FA. This did not occur in sake yeast and chemical esterification was rare. Esterification of FA and hydrolysis of EF by rice koji might be due to feruloyl esterase(s). The rice koji enzyme showed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics for FA in ethyl esterification and for EF in hydrolysis, but not for ethanol in the esterification reaction. Substrate specificity of the rice koji enzyme for hydroxycinnamic acids suggested that the main enzyme involved might be similar to type A feruloyl esterase. We studied the rice koji enzyme properties, short-term digestion of steamed rice grains with exogenous ethanol and small scale mirin making with pH adjustment. Our results suggested differences in the esterification and hydrolysis properties of the enzyme, in particular, different pH dependencies and different behaviors under high ethanol conditions; these factors might cause the differing EF levels in sake and mirin mashes. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE2 synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Haring, M.M.G.; Keestra, N.G.M.; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and its prostaglandin product PGE2 in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-mediated effects on cellular proliferation of two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The long chain PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid

  5. Marine n-3 fatty acids, fish consumption, and the 10-year risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease in a large population of Dutch adults with a low fish intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the dose-response relations within a low range of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and fish intake on fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). In a Dutch population-based cohort study, EPA+DHA and fish intake were assessed at

  6. Selective determination of ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and methyl ethyl ketone using quartz crystal nanobalance combined with principle component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohseni, A; Razzaghi, M A; Pourata, R; Rastgouye-Hojagan, M; Zavareh, S

    2009-07-15

    Quartz crystal nanobalance (QCN) sensors are considered as powerful mass sensitive sensors to determine materials in the subnanogram level. In the current study a method based on QCN modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been developed to determine organic vapors (ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone). The frequency shift of QCN was found to be linear against analytes concentrations in the range between 4 to 35 mg/L for acetone vapor and 4-70 mg/L for 3 other vapors. The correlation coefficients for ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and methyl ethyl ketone were 0.9971, 0.9976, 0.9984 and 0.9927, respectively. The principal component analysis was also utilized to process the frequency response data of the organic vapors. Using principal component analysis, it was found that over 95% of the data variance could still be explained by use of two principal components (PC1 and PC2). Subsequently, the successful discrimination of ethyl acetate and other compounds was possible through the principal component analysis of the transient responses of the PEG-modified QCN sensor.

  7. Fatty acid composition of Taiwanese human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzee-Chung; Lau, Beng-Huat; Chen, Po-Hon; Wu, Li-Te; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze quantitatively the fatty acid composition of the milk of Taiwanese women. Two hundred and sixty-nine human milk specimens were obtained from 240 Taiwanese mothers, aged 19-41 years, and subjected to chromatographic analysis. Milk specimens were pooled by the mothers' districts of residence and lactation stages, at 0-11 days, 22-45 days, 46-65 days and 66-297 days after delivery. The fatty acid composition was expressed as weight percentage of all fatty acids detected with C8-C24 chain length. More than 80% of the fatty acids were composed of lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. The amount of saturated fatty acid was 36.7%. With regard to essential fatty acids, the amount of linoleic acid (LA) was 22% and that of linolenic acid (ALA) was 1.8%, both levels being higher than in human milk from Western countries. However, the ratio of LA/ALA remained at 13:1 for the whole duration of lactation. It has been reported that mothers with high fish consumption have a high content of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in their milk, and we found this phenomenon occurring in our study. The percentage of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in Taiwanese human milk was 0.79% and 0.17%, respectively. Fatty acid composition in human milk varies during lactation. With regard to essential fatty acids, the amount of LA was 22% and that of ALA was 1.8%, both levels being higher than in human milk from Western and other Asian countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Chemical Constituents from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; He, Cui-xia; Chen, Xue-xiang; Ye, Shu-min; Peng, Shan; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The constituents were separated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (1), phytyl-acetate (2), cubenol (3), eucalyptin (4), n-docosanoic acid-p-hydroxy-phenethylol ester (5),8-methyl-5,7- dihydroxy-flavonone (6), 6-methyl-5,7-dihydroxy-flavonone (7), betulinic acid (8), carnosol (9), quercetin (10), and 2,4,6-tirhydroxy- 3,5-dimethyl-diphenylketone-4-O-(6'"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (11). Compounds 1-9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  9. A highly bioavailable omega-3 free fatty acid formulation improves the cardiovascular risk profile in high-risk, statin-treated patients with residual hypertriglyceridemia (the ESPRIT trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Orloff, David G; Nicholls, Stephen J; Dunbar, Richard L; Roth, Eli M; Curcio, Danielle; Johnson, Judith; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H

    2013-09-01

    A novel omega-3 formulation in free fatty acid form (OM3-FFA) has as much as 4-fold greater bioavailability than ethyl ester forms and reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding OM3-FFA (2 or 4 g/d) to statin therapy for lowering non-HDL-C and TG levels in subjects with persistent hypertriglyceridemia and at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this double-blind, parallel-group study, 647 diet-stable patients with fasting TG levels ≥ 200 mg/dL and <500 mg/dL (treated with a maximally tolerated dose of statin or statin with ezetimibe) and at high risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized to 6 weeks of treatment with capsules of control (olive oil [OO]) 4 g/d, OM3-FFA 2 g/d (plus 2 g/d OO), or OM3-FFA 4 g/d. Assessments included fasting serum levels of lipids and apolipoproteins (apo); plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid; and laboratory safety values and adverse events. In the 627 subjects in the intention to treat sample, non-HDL-C levels were reduced with OM3-FFA 2 g/d and OM3-FFA 4 g/d (-3.9% and -6.9%, respectively) compared with OO (-0.9%) (both, P < 0.05), as were TG levels (-14.6% and -20.6%, respectively, vs -5.9%; both, P < 0.001). LDL-C levels increased with OM3-FFA 2 g/d (4.6%) compared with OO (1.1%) (P = 0.025) but not with OM3-FFA 4 g/d (1.3%). Total cholesterol and VLDL-C concentrations were reduced compared with OO with both OM3-FFA dosages, and the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and apo AI and apo B levels were significantly lowered with OM3-FFA 4 g/d only (all at least P < 0.05). Percent changes from baseline in HDL-C did not differ between OO and either OM3-FFA group. Plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were significantly increased and arachidonic acid was significantly reduced in both OM3-FFA treatment

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  11. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Topical Ethyl Vanillate in Enhancing the Effect of Narrow Band Ultraviolet B against Vitiligo: A Double Blind Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Namazi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired disease of skin that presents with depigmented patches due to lack of melanocytes in the epidermis. Accumulation of toxic free radicals like hydrogen peroxide in the epidermis may be responsible for melanocytes death. Since ethyl vanillate (vanillic acid ethyl ester is a strong hydrogen peroxide scavenger, it may be effective against vitiligo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of ethyl vanillate cream on vitiligo patients receiving phototherapy. Methods: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial using ethyl vanillate cream 20% was performed on 30 cases of generalized stable vitiligo (randomly selected who were receiving phototherapy in the outpatient clinic of Faghihi Hospital (Shiraz, Iran. The patients randomly applied ethyl vanillate on an assigned lesion (left or right side of the body and placebo on the opposite side lesion (almost the same size and location twice a day for 3 months, while receiving a narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB 2-3 times weekly. Photos were taken at the beginning of the trial and at the end of 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks. Then, images were compared with the photos from the beginning of the trial based on VASI score. Results: There was a significant change in pigmentation after applying ethyl vanillate compared with baseline in medication side (P=0.002, but no significant change in placebo side (P=0.066. Additionally, there was a significant difference between medication and placebo sides in pigmentation (P=0.005. Conclusion: Ethyl vanillate may serve as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of vitiligo, although changes in pigmentation are mild clinically.

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of two biodiesel model compounds: methyl propionate and ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vibeke F; Berhanu, Tesfaye A; Nilsson, Elna J K; Jørgensen, Solvejg; Nielsen, Ole John; Wallington, Timothy J; Johnson, Matthew S

    2011-08-18

    The atmospheric chemistry of two C(4)H(8)O(2) isomers (methyl propionate and ethyl acetate) was investigated. With relative rate techniques in 980 mbar of air at 293 K the following rate constants were determined: k(C(2)H(5)C(O)OCH(3) + Cl) = (1.57 ± 0.23) × 10(-11), k(C(2)H(5)C(O)OCH(3) + OH) = (9.25 ± 1.27) × 10(-13), k(CH(3)C(O)OC(2)H(5) + Cl) = (1.76 ± 0.22) × 10(-11), and k(CH(3)C(O)OC(2)H(5) + OH) = (1.54 ± 0.22) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The chlorine atom initiated oxidation of methyl propionate in 930 mbar of N(2)/O(2) diluent (with, and without, NO(x)) gave methyl pyruvate, propionic acid, acetaldehyde, formic acid, and formaldehyde as products. In experiments conducted in N(2) diluent the formation of CH(3)CHClC(O)OCH(3) and CH(3)CCl(2)C(O)OCH(3) was observed. From the observed product yields we conclude that the branching ratios for reaction of chlorine atoms with the CH(3)-, -CH(2)-, and -OCH(3) groups are 9 ± 2%, respectively. The chlorine atom initiated oxidation of ethyl acetate in N(2)/O(2) diluent gave acetic acid, acetic acid anhydride, acetic formic anhydride, formaldehyde, and, in the presence of NO(x), PAN. From the yield of these products we conclude that at least 41 ± 6% of the reaction of chlorine atoms with ethyl acetate occurs at the -CH(2)- group. The rate constants and branching ratios for reactions of OH radicals with methyl propionate and ethyl acetate were investigated theoretically using transition state theory. The stationary points along the oxidation pathways were optimized at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The reaction of OH radicals with ethyl acetate was computed to occur essentially exclusively (∼99%) at the -CH(2)- group. In contrast, both methyl groups and the -CH(2)- group contribute appreciably in the reaction of OH with methyl propionate. Decomposition via the α-ester rearrangement (to give C(2)H(5)C(O)OH and a HCO radical) and reaction with O(2) (to give CH(3)CH(2)C

  13. A combination of eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and proanthocyanidins has a strong effect on mTOR signaling in colorectal cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelo, D' L.; Piazzi, G.; Pacilli, A.; Prossomariti, A.; Fazio, C.; Montanaro, L.; Graziani, G.; Fogliano, V.; Munarini, A.; Bianchi, F.; Belluzzi, A.; Bazzoli, F.; Ricciardiello, L.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. The development of novel anti-CRC agents able to overcome drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity is of pivotal importance. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a critical role in CRC, regulating protein

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are converted by 3T3-L1 adipocytes to N-acyl ethanolamines with anti-inflammatory properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, M.G.J.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Plastina, P.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Meijerink, J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    n-3 PUFAs have beneficial health effects which are believed to be partly related to their anti-inflammatory properties, however the exact mechanisms behind this are unknown. One possible explanation could be via their conversion to N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), which are known to possess

  15. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga inhibits angiogenesis through tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Ekowati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Many tumors express on their receptor tyrosine kinases vascular endothelial growth factor activity associated with angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis through reduction of tyrosine kinase activity is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The present study aimed to determine the mechanism and potency of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC isolated from Kaempferia galanga as angiogenesis inhibitor. Methods A laboratory experimental study was conducted using chorio-allantoic membranes (CAMs of nine-day old chicken eggs induced by 60ng basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC potency was determined at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and compared with celecoxib 60 mg as reference drug and one negative bFGF-induced control group. Neovascularization and endothelial cell count in CAM blood vessels were evaluated. To predict the antiangiogenic mechanism of EPMC, a docking study was performed with the Molegro Virtual Docker program on tyrosine kinase as receptor (PDB 1XKK. Results Angiogenesis stimulation by bFGF was prevented significantly (p<0.05 by EPMC at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and this activity was dose dependent. Molecular docking showed interaction between EPMC functional groups and tyrosine kinase amino acids at Met766, Met793, Thr854, Thr790, Gln791 and Ala743. There was an association between EPMC antiangiogenic activity and docking study results. Conclusions Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate is a potential new angiogenesis inhibitor through interaction with tyrosine kinase. EPMC could be a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.

  16. Serum Adipokine Levels and their Relationship with Fatty Acids in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sete,Manuela Rubim Camara; Lira Júnior,Ronaldo; Fischer,Ricardo Guimarães; Figueredo,Carlos Marcelo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Adipokines are present in inflammatory processes and may be directly related to periodontal disease. Moreover, their activities may be regulated by fatty acids. The goal of this study was to quantify the concentrations of the main adipokines, leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and the docosahexaenoic (DHA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and arachidonic (AA) fatty acids, in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. As a secondary objective, the ratios of these substances...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Upe Francisca Babaiwa1, Osayemwenre Erharuyi2, Abiodun Falodun2 and John. O Akerele1. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria, 2Department of.

  18. Glucolipid from the ethyl acetate fraction of Acalypha wilkesiana var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant recipes are classified as medicinal when the biological activities of compounds obtained from them have been scientifically established. Before now, three compounds namely, ethyl gallate, pyrogallol and D-arabino-hex-1- enitol-1, 5-anhydro-2-deoxy have been isolated from the butanol fraction of Acalypha ...

  19. (Z-Ethyl 2-(3-nitrobenzylidene-3-oxobutanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Shi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C13H13NO5, adopts a Z conformation at the C= C double bond. The ethoxy atoms of the ethyl ester group are disordered over two orientations in a 3:2 ratio. Weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing.

  20. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  1. The ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Groot, J.C.M.J. de; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been shown to be ototoxic in animals and there is evidence that these solvents can induce hearing loss in humans. In this study, the effects of inhalation of the possibly ototoxic solvent ethyl benzene on the cochlear function and morphology were evaluated using

  2. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  3. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that ethyl acetate extract of T. superba lowers blood glucose and hyperlipidemia, prevents oxidative stress and reduces blood pressure in diabetic conditions, thus justify its traditional use for the management of diabetes and hypertension. Keywords: Antidiabetic, antioxidant, streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes, ...

  4. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Human Leukemia U937 Cells by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species. C-H Kang, S-H Kang, S-H Boo, S-Y Park, D-O Moon, G-Y Kim ...

  5. Effects of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Vitex simplicifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five rats each, and daily ...

  6. Electrical transport in ethyl cellulose–chloranil system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The charge-transport behaviour in pure and chloranil (Chl) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) system has been studied by measuring the dependence of current on field, temperature, electrode material and dopant con- centration. The role of doping molecular concentration in the polymer matrix and modification in the ...

  7. Radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate on nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Ethyl caffeate, Radio-sensitizing effects, Caspase, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, CNE-2 cell line, β- .... Data are expressed as mean ± standard .... apoptotic proteins. Previous studies indicated that caspase-9, the initiating protein in caspase cascade reaction, is activated by cytochrome c, and in turn, the activated ...

  8. EFFECTS OF ETHYL ACETATE LEAF EXTRACTS OF Vitex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five.

  9. Antisecretory and antiulcerative effects of ethyl acetate fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was carried out to investigate the possible effects of ethyl acetate seed fraction of Nigella sativa on gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretions using the Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug-induced (NSAID) model. Phytochemical screening according to Trease and Evans, 2002 and acute toxicity tests ...

  10. Effects of Piliostigma thonningii ethyl acetate leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent research findings extol the medicinal significance of the different parts of Piliostigma thonningii. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of its ethyl acetate leaf extract against AlCl3-induced hepatocellular derangement in mature male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (mean weight, 207 ± 11.01g) were ...

  11. 77 FR 26456 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... proposed mode of action of carfentrazone-ethyl in target plants is through inhibition of the enzyme... enzyme in heme biosynthesis and its inhibition can lead toxic effects where heme is utilized (e.g., red... the rat. Subchronic toxicity studies in rats, mice, and dogs demonstrated that the primary effects...

  12. Effects of pesticide (Chlorpyrifos Ethyl) on the fingerlings of catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos ethyl on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was evaluated to determine its effect on the survival, body morphology and the lethal concentration (LC50). Following a preliminary bioassay in mg/l concentration which showed 100% mortality, fish were ...

  13. Adsorption of acetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. II. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of diethatyl-ethyl on saturated Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W P; Fang, Z; Liu, H J; Yang, W C

    2001-04-01

    Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of the herbicide diethatyl-ethyl [N-chloroacetyl-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)glycine ethyl ester] on homoionic Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-montmorillonite clays were investigated in water solution. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient, Ki, got from isotherms on clay followed the order of Na+ approximately K+ > Mg2+ approximately Ca2+. Analysis of FT-IR spectra of diethatyl-ethyl adsorbed on clay suggests probable bonding at the carboxyl and amide carbonyl groups of the herbicide. The rate of herbicide hydrolysis in homoionic clay suspensions followed the same order as that for adsorption, indicating that adsorption may have preceded and thus caused hydrolysis. Preliminary product identification showed that hydrolysis occurred via nucleophilic substitution at the carboxyl carbon, causing the cleavage of the ester bond and formation of diethatyl and its dechlorinated derivative, and at the amide carbon, yielding an ethyl ester derivative and its acid. These pathways also suggest that hydrolysis of diethatyl-ethyl was catalyzed by adsorption on the clay surface.

  14. Antiamnesic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) inner skin on Aβ(25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Heo, Ho Jin

    2012-12-01

    To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Antiamnesic Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) Inner Skin on Aβ25–35-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H2O2 only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)–induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23134459

  16. AKTIVITAS ANTIHIPERURIKEMIA EKSTRAK ETIL ASETAT DAN ETANOL BUAH SALAK VARIETAS BONGKOK (Salacca edulis Reinw. PADA TIKUS GALUR WISTAR [Antihyperuricemic Activity of Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol Extracts of Snake Fruit var. Bongkok (Salacca edulis Reinw. on Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Herliani Afrianti1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study was to determine antihyperuricemic activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extractsof snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw. var. Bongkok on Wistar male rats. Wistar male rats administered with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w ethyl acetat extract and 200 mg/kg b.w ethanol extract and simulationsly induced with potassium oxonate peritoneally and uric acid orally showed descreased uric acid serum level significantly as compared to control group at 6th and 7thhour (p < 0.05. Meanwhile ethanol extract at 100 mg/kg bw did not affect uric acid serum level significantly. Determination of uric acid level in urine of the rats, indicated that administration ofethanol extract at 200 mg/kg bw, orprobenecid as a standard at 45 mg/kg bw, increased excretion of urine uric acid level significantly as compared to control group at 7thhour (p < 0.05. Additionally, administration of ethyl acetate extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg bw did not show an increase of uric acid excretion in urine. Mechanism of action of the ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract as an antihyperuricemic agent has been proposed by inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity wich decrease the synthesis of uric acid. Hence, the mechanism of action of antihyperuricemia of the ethanol extract was suggested to be an uricosuric i.e. increases the excretion of urine uric acid and xanthine oxidase inhibitory.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A.

    2002-06-01

    A laboratory procedure involving the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is described. This experiment has been used in a general chemistry sequence that includes a section on organic chemistry, but is also well suited for an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course. ETBE is prepared by the acid-catalyzed reaction of tert-butyl alcohol with ethyl alcohol. The product is recovered as a low-boiling azeotrope and purified by liquid liquid extraction with water. By using gas chromatography and IR spectroscopy to examine both the crude and the purified products, students can see how much the purity of their sample improves. They can also appreciate the value of these methods (especially GC) as tools to establish purity. Student results are presented. The use of ETBE and its more prominent cousin methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as gasoline oxygenates has become very controversial because they have polluted underground water supplies. This lab permits students to prepare a compound that has a real use and regularly makes headlines in the news. This lab experiment is part of an effort to develop a general chemistry sequence for engineering students using the theme of "Chemistry and the Automobile".

  18. A comparative study of the chemical kinetics of methyl and ethyl propanoate

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2014-10-01

    High temperature pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH3) and ethyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH2CH3) was studied behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1250-1750 K and pressure of 1.5 atm. Species time-histories were recorded for CO, CO2, C2H4, and H2O using laser absorption methods over a test time of 1 ms. Pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (MP) appears to be faster than that of ethyl propanoate (EP) under the present experimental conditions, where CO and CO 2 reach their plateau values faster for MP at a specific temperature and fuel concentration. Higher plateau values are reached for CO in case of MP while the CO2 levels are similar for the two ester fuels. Ethylene production is larger for EP due to the presence of six-centered ring elimination reaction that produces ethylene and propanoic acid. Very little H2O is produced during MP pyrolysis in contrast with appreciable H2O production from EP. Sensitivity and rate-of-production analyses were carried out to identify key reactions that affect the measured species profiles. Previous kinetic mechanisms of Yang et al. (2011) [1,2] and Metcalf et al. (2009, 2007) [3,4] were used as base models and then refined to propose a new MP/EP pyrolysis mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Alchornea triplinervia on Healing Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia A. Hiruma-Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. We previously described the gastroprotective action of methanolic extract (ME of Alchornea triplinervia and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF in increasing of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 gastric levels in the mucosa. In this work we evaluated the effect of EAF in promoting the healing process in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In addition, toxicity was investigated during treatment with EAF. After 14 days of treatment with EAF, the potent stimulator of gastric cell proliferation contributed to the acceleration of gastric ulcer healing. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a pronounced expression of COX-2, mainly in the submucosal layer. The 14-day EAF treatment also significantly increased the number of neutrophils in the gastric mucosa regeneration area. The EAF induced angiogenesis on gastric mucosa, observed as an increase of the number of blood vessels supplying the stomach in rats treated with EAF. Oral administration for 14 days of the ethyl acetate fraction from Alchornea triplinervia accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats by promoting epithelial cell proliferation, increasing the number of neutrophils and stimulation of mucus production. This fraction, which contained mainly phenolic compounds, contributed to gastric mucosa healing.

  1. The relation between the omega-3 index and arachidonic acid is bell shaped : Synergistic at low EPA plus DHA status and antagonistic at high EPA plus DHA status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Smit, Ella N.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The relation between docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) vs. arachidonic acid (AA) seems characterized by both synergism and antagonism. Materials and methods: Investigate the relation between EPA + DHA and AA in populations with a wide range of EPA + DHA status and across

  2. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum bloodstage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y.A.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jakobsen, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the erythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum, serum and erythrocytes were separated from blood of a healthy donor before and after he had taken fish oil capsules for 8 days. Such intake supplied an amount of eicosapentaeno...

  3. A possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extracts of Teucrium stocksianum Bioss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukarram Shah, Syed Muhammad

    2015-08-29

    Teucrium stocksianum (T. stocksianum) is one of the important members of the genus Teucrium which contains numerous biologically active compounds. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of fever, pain, as expectorant and blood purifier. Researchers are trying to discover plants origin, novel and safe remedies for the management of various ailments. The present study was aimed to determine the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extract of T. stocksianum. Preliminary, the ethanolic extract and sub-fractions were screened for anti-inflammatory potential at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (i.p) body weight, using carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. In-order to determine the possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect, the ethyl acetate fraction was ascertained with different phlogistic agents like histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins E2 and arachedonic acid via paw edema test in mice. The ethanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum displayed marked to moderate anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. Among the sub-fractions, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) demonstrated excellent (66%) anti-inflammatory action at the highest tested dose (300 mg/kg) that reached to the maximum value at 3rd hour after carrageenan injection and remained significant (***P<0.001) till 5th hour of test sample administration. EAF revealed moderate effect against the paw edema induced by histamine (31.048%) while non-significant results (18.148%) were observed against the edema induced by bradykinin. The extract demonstrated significant (66.23-73.076%) anti-inflammatory potential against the edematogenic effect of prostaglandin E2. Moreover, the extract also significantly inhibited (51.33%) the paw edema induced by arachedonic acid. Our results suggest that the EAF has dual action and produced the anti-inflammatory effect by blocking both pathways of arachedonic acid metabolites (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase). Thus

  4. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month period...'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol, and the Commission transmitted it determinations to the U.S...

  5. Acute intentional self-poisoning with a herbicide product containing fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron and isoxadifen ethyl. A prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAWAHIR, SHUKRY; ROBERTS, DARREN M.; PALANGASINGHE, CHATHURA; MOHAMED, FAHIM; EDDLESTON, MICHAEL; DAWSON, ANDREW H.; BUCKLEY, NICK A.; REN, LINGLING; MEDLEY, GREGORY A.; GAWARAMMANA, INDIKA

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Herbicides are commonly ingested for self-harm; however, relatively little has been published on poisoning with herbicides other than paraquat and glyphosate. We report here a case series of patients with acute exposure to a combination herbicide (brand name Tiller Gold or Whip Super) containing the selective phenoxy herbicide fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, the sulfonylurea herbicide ethoxysulfuron and the safener isoxadifen ethyl. METHOD Clinical data on all patients presenting with Tiller Gold or Whip Super poisoning to two General Hospital in Sri Lanka from 2002-2008 were collected prospectively until discharge. RESULTS Eighty-six patients with a history of Tiller Gold or Whip Super ingestion were included. The median time to presentation was 4 hours post-ingestion (IQR 2 to 10 hrs) and the median volume ingested was 22.5ml (IQR: 20-60; n=64). Most patients demonstrated limited clinical signs of poisoning and none required mechanical ventilation or intensive care treatment. The main clinical features were an epigastric burning sensation and vomiting; however, most of those who vomited had received gastric lavage or forced emesis. Eight patients had a reduced level of consciousness on admission (GCS 9 -14) that resolved without intervention over several hours. Only symptomatic and supportive care was required. The median hospital stay was 1 day (IQR: 1 to 2) and the case fatality was zero (95% CI: zero to 4.2%). This low case fatality compared favorably with the case fatality of other common herbicides in our cohort: paraquat >40%, propanil >10%, 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) > 5% and glyphosate >2%. CONCLUSION This combination herbicide product appears to be safe in patients with acute self-poisoning, particularly in comparison with other herbicides, and causing few clinical features PMID:19663557

  6. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake during late pregnancy affects fatty acid composition of mature breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Renata Y; Barbieiri, Patricia; Castro, Gabriela S F de; Jordão, Alceu A; Perdoná, Gleici da Silva Castro; Sartorelli, Daniela S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid intake at different periods during pregnancy affects the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in mature human milk. A prospective study was conducted involving 45 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 35 y, who had full-term pregnancies and practiced exclusive or predominant breast-feeding. Mature breast milk samples were collected after the 5th postpartum week by manual expression; fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Fatty acid intake during pregnancy and puerperium was estimated through multiple 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regression models, adjusted by postpartum body mass index and deattenuated, were used to determine associations between estimated fatty acids in maternal diet during each trimester of pregnancy and fatty acid content in mature human milk. A positive association was identified between maternal intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (β, 1.873; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.545, 3.203) and docosahexaenoic acid (β, 0.464; 95% CI, 0.212-0.714) during the third trimester of pregnancy, as well as the maternal dietary ω-3 to ω-6 ratio (β, 0.093; 95% CI, 0.016-0.170) during the second and third trimesters and postpartum period, with these fatty acids content in mature breast milk. The maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid content during late pregnancy may affect the fatty acid composition of mature breast milk. Additionally, the maternal dietary intake of ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acid ratio, during late pregnancy and the postpartum period, can affect the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of breast milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Photodegradation of ethyl paraben using simulated solar radiation and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontistis, Zacharias [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Antonopoulou, Maria [Department of Environmental & Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi St., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Petala, Athanasia [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Venieri, Danae [School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Konstantinou, Ioannis [Department of Environmental & Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi St., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kondarides, Dimitris I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Mantzavinos, Dionissios, E-mail: mantzavinos@chemeng.upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with a bandgap of 2.4 eV is a photocatalyst highly responsive to visible. • Factorial design was used to assess important factors for ethyl paraben degradation. • Ethyl paraben and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration, time, water matrix are significant factors. • Dealkylated and decarboxylated transformation by-products have been identified. • All parabens are slightly estrogenic compared to estradiol. - Abstract: In this work, the solar light-induced photocatalytic degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was studied using silver orthophosphate, a relatively new photocatalytic material. The catalyst was synthesized by a precipitation method and had a primary crystallite size of ca 70 nm, specific surface area of 1.4 m{sup 2}/g and a bandgap of 2.4 eV. A factorial design methodology was implemented to evaluate the importance of EP concentration (500–1500 μg/L), catalyst concentration (100–500 mg/L), reaction time (4–30 min), water matrix (pure water or 10 mg/L humic acid) and initial solution pH (3–9) on EP removal. All individual effects but solution pH were statistically significant and so were the second-order interactions of EP concentration with reaction time or catalyst concentration. The water matrix effect was negative (all other effects were positive) signifying the role of humic acid as scavenger of the oxidant species. Liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry revealed the formation of methyl paraben, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid and phenol as primary transformation by-products; these are formed through dealkylation and decarboxylation reactions initiated primarily by the photogenerated holes. Estrogenicity assays showed that methyl paraben was more estrogenic than EP; however, parabens are slightly estrogenic compared to 17β-estradiol.

  8. Whole Blood Omega 3 Fatty Acid Levels of HIV Exposed and HIV Unexposed 7 - 10 Years Old Children from a Low Income Country with High Burden of Under-Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kuona, Patience; Mashavave, Grace; Dzangare, Janet; Munjoma, Marshall; Nathoo, Kusum; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2015-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential macronutrients that have several benefits which have been described for children’s health. Omega 3 LCPUFA metabolism has been reported to be altered in under-nourished and in HIV infected children. Therefore, we describe Eicosapentaenoic acid, Docosapentaenoic acid and Docosahexaenoic acid levels of HIV infected, HIV exposed uninfected and HIV unexposed uninfected school aged children from a low income country with a high burden of HIV infe...

  9. Bioavailability of fatty acids from krill oil, krill meal and fish oil in healthy subjects?a randomized, single-dose, cross-over trial

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Anton; Sarkkinen, Essi; Tapola, Niina; Niskanen, Tarja; Bruheim, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background Krill contains two marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly bound in phospholipids. Typical products from krill are krill oil and krill meal. Fish oils contain EPA and DHA predominantly bound in triglycerides. The difference in the chemical binding of EPA and DHA has been suggested to affect their bioavailability, but little is known on bioavailability of EPA and DHA in krill meal. This study was undertaken to co...

  10. Photodegradation of ethyl paraben using simulated solar radiation and Ag3PO4 photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Petala, Athanasia; Venieri, Danae; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Kondarides, Dimitris I; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2017-02-05

    In this work, the solar light-induced photocatalytic degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was studied using silver orthophosphate, a relatively new photocatalytic material. The catalyst was synthesized by a precipitation method and had a primary crystallite size of ca 70nm, specific surface area of 1.4m2/g and a bandgap of 2.4eV. A factorial design methodology was implemented to evaluate the importance of EP concentration (500-1500μg/L), catalyst concentration (100-500mg/L), reaction time (4-30min), water matrix (pure water or 10mg/L humic acid) and initial solution pH (3-9) on EP removal. All individual effects but solution pH were statistically significant and so were the second-order interactions of EP concentration with reaction time or catalyst concentration. The water matrix effect was negative (all other effects were positive) signifying the role of humic acid as scavenger of the oxidant species. Liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry revealed the formation of methyl paraben, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid and phenol as primary transformation by-products; these are formed through dealkylation and decarboxylation reactions initiated primarily by the photogenerated holes. Estrogenicity assays showed that methyl paraben was more estrogenic than EP; however, parabens are slightly estrogenic compared to 17β-estradiol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  12. A highly sensitive sensor for ethyl acetate by changing fluorescent colour of lanthanide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina

    2017-09-01

    A lanthanide complex, namely, [La 2 (L-DBTA) 3 (CH 3 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ]∙2H2O has been synthesized using a simple reaction of L-O,O´-dibenzoyl tartaric acid with LaCl 3 ∙6H 2 O under ambient temperature. The luminescence spectrum in the solid state at room temperature revealed that the complex exhibited blue-light emission that originated from ligand. In addition, the lanthanide complex is developed as a fluorescent probe for sensing small molecules. Luminescence studies reveal that the lanthanide complex could detect ethyl acetate sensitively through fluorescence colour change from blue to yellow. Furthermore, the complex exhibited appealing features including high sensitivity and an ultrafast response. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Ethylation interference footprinting of DNA-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, Iain W; Stockley, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Structural studies of DNA-protein complexes reveal networks of contacts between proteins and the phosphates, sugars and bases of DNA. A range of biochemical methods, termed chemical footprinting, aim to determine the functional groups on DNA which are protected in solution by bound protein against modification or where chemical pre-modification interferes with subsequent protein binding. One of these approaches, termed ethylation interference footprinting, reveals which backbone phosphate groups are contacted by protein and the positions where the DNA-protein interface is so tight that the modification cannot be accommodated. This chapter describes the steps necessary to perform an ethylation interference experiment, including modification of DNA using ethylnitrosourea, fractionation of the products based on their affinities for a DNA-binding protein and analysis of the "bound" and "free" fractions to reveal sites critical for complex formation. This is illustrated using results from our experiments with the Escherichia coli methionine repressor, MetJ.

  14. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopía y Bioespectroscopía, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología CAB, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T., E-mail: lucie.kolesnikova@uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: brittany.gordon@ncf.edu, E-mail: shipman@ncf.edu [Division of Natural Sciences, New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL 34243 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  15. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microtropins A-I: 6'-O-(2″S,3″R)-2″-ethyl-2″,3″-dihydroxybutyrates of aliphatic alcohol β-D-glucopyranosides from the branches of Microtropis japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yuka; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2013-03-01

    From the branches of Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae), nine aliphatic glucosides, named microtropins A-I, were isolated. The 6-position of glucose was esterified with (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid. Microtropins A-D contained a rare natured product nitrile functional group in their aglycones. The absolute structures of the (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid moiety and aglycone of microtropin A were determined by an X-ray crystallographic method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical Properties of Ethyl Methacrylate as a Bolus in Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atousa Montaseri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bolus is a soft and resilient material which is used for increasing skin dose or to even out the irregular patient contour. The main property of various materials used presently as bolus is the water-equivalent electron density. Ethyl methacrylate is used as a soft-liner in dentistry and its physical and chemical properties are proved to be nontoxic for human body. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of using this material as bolus in radiotherapy and also evaluating some parameters such as mass, electron densities, and transmission factors. Materials and Methods Computed tomography data from the sample material were acquired to assess mass and electron densities with various techniques (mA and kVp. Circular ROIs were delineated on CT DICOM images and densities were calculated using CT numbers. Transmission factors were calculated for 6 and 18 MV. Results Evaluation of our results are evident that showed that mass and electron densities of ethyl methacrylate are similar to those of water and soft tissue. Furthermore, transmission factors are close to those of water. Conclusion According to the results of this study and other properties such as flexibility and harmlessness, it seems that ethyl methacrylate is a suitable material to be used as bolus in radiotherapy.

  18. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  19. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  20. Page 1 Some Important Ethyl and Ethyl-lifetiyl Ellies of Flavonols 83 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkali fission gave rise to proto- catechuic acid and monomethyl phloroglucinol. This indicated that the methoxyl was in the 5- or 7-position. But the production of quercetin tetramethyl ether (XIV) from rhamnetin (XII) by the action of methyl iodide showed that the resistant 5-hydroxyl was free and that the 7-position therefore.