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Sample records for eichhornia crassipes water

  1. Eichhornia crassipes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaranyika

    2015-10-26

    Oct 26, 2015 ... The surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) root biomass were studied before and after extraction with dilute nitric acid and toluene/ethanol (2/1, v/v) followed by ethanol, using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray.

  2. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured

  3. Potential Of Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) In Treating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a means for water pollution abatement was investigated. Two types of industrial wastewaters, namely that from the textile/dyeing industry and raw sugar manufacturing were studied in batch systems. The percentage reduction in COD for textile effluents was on ...

  4. Proliferation of the water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This plant prevents the movement of motorized boats, prevents the penetration of oxygen in water, which greatly reduces the number of organism such as fish fry, crocodiles nest and boas. © 2015 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, Sô river, aquatic weed, biological control ...

  5. Stigmasterol from Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) : Isolation, characterization and X-ray structure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Sawant, S.G.; PrabhaDevi; Kaminsky, W.

    Chemical investigation of Eichhornia Crassipes (Water Hyacinth)collected from the back waters of kochin, southern India lead to isolation of an oxygenated sterol, stigmasterol (1) The molecular formula of 1 was determined to be C29

  6. Management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using bioagents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, Firehun Yirefu

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a study on management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using insects and fungal pathogens as bioagents. The main goal was to develop an effective biocontrol strategy for water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To this end, a field survey

  7. Uptake rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water by Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucio; Esteves

    2000-05-01

    The main goal of this research was to survey information about the physiology of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata and their capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the environment, after quantifying the concentrations of the nitrogen (NO3-N, NH4-N and total-N) and phosphorus (PO4-P and total-P) compounds in the water. The macrophytes were incubated in the laboratory in plastic vials of approximately 1.5 litters containing a previously prepared solution of NH4NO3, NH4Cl and KH2PO4. Eichhornia crassipes exhibited the highest rates of nutrient reduction and the concentrations of NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P in the water influenced the uptake rates of nitrogen and phosphorus of the E. crassipes and S. auriculata. This information can help to reach adequate management strategies for aquatic macrophytes in order to reduce the eutrophication process in Imboassica lagoon.

  8. Phytoremediation of wastewater toxicity using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Kouamé Kouamé; Séka, Yapoga; Norbert, Kouadio Kouakou; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Celestin, Atsé Boua

    2016-10-02

    This paper elucidates the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth and water lettuce on the reduction of wastewater toxicity. Acute toxicity tests were performed in an aquarium with a population of Sarotherodon melanotheron, contaminated by different concentrations of wastewaters before and after phytoremediation with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes. Lethal concentrations (LC50) of the fish's population obtained during 24 hours of exposures were determined. COD, BOD, ammonium, TKN and PO4(3-) concentrations in wastewaters were of 1850.29, 973.33, 38.34, 61.49 and 39.23 mg L(-1), respectively, for each plant. Phytoremediation reduced 58.87% of ammonium content, 50.04% of PO4(3-), 82.45% of COD and 84.91% of BOD. After 15 days of the experiment, metal contents in treated wastewaters decreased from 6.65 to 97.56% for water hyacinth and 3.51 to 93.51% for water lettuce tanks. Toxicity tests showed that the mortality of fish exposed increased with increase in concentration of pollutants in wastewaters and the time of exposure. Therefore, the highest value of LC50 was recorded for fish subjected to 3 hours of exposure (16.37%). The lowest rate was obtained after an exposure of 20 to 24 hours (5.85%). After phytoremediation, the effluents purified by Eichhornia crassipes can maintain the fish life beyond 24 hours of exposure.

  9. Dynamics of photosynthesis in Eichhornia crassipes Solms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The natural light intensity and temperatures in Jiangsu are suitable for E. crassipes to rapidly grow but not good ... Eichhornia crassipes Solms, commonly known as water hyacinth, is an aquatic plant with a bundle. ... Known as one of the fastest-growing plants, E. crassipes is native to the Amazon basin, ...

  10. The feeding activity of Colossoma macropomum larvae (tambaqui) in fishponds with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Braga, F M S

    2007-08-01

    Analysis of macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as an organic fertilizer of Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) larvae in ponds is provided. Water hyacinth produce an organic fertilizer at the ratio of 100 g x m(-2) in tambaqui ponds. Two groups of 5,000 larvae were transferred to two fishponds with and without water hyacinth fertilizer and reared until day 43. The fertilized pond evidenced more plankton abundance during the entire production period when compared with the control pond (P 0.05) in both ponds (with and without organic fertilizer). Fish larvae failed to show any preference or selectivity in relation to the different algae (P > 0.01) in the pond, but exhibited high ingestion selectivity for zooplankton (P < 0.05). Application of fertilizer increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the treatment pond. Since water hyacinth fertilizer is quite cheap and easily available, it may be conveniently used to enhance fish yield in ponds.

  11. Treatment of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwin, Rijwana; Karar Paul, Kakoli

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes for treatment of raw kitchen wastewater was studied in the present research work. An artificial wetland of 30 liter capacity was created for phytoremediation of kitchen wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes. Kitchen wastewater samples were collected from hostel of an educational institute in India. Samples were characterized based on physical and chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid. The physico-chemical parameter of kitchen wastewater samples were analysed for durations of 0 (initial day), 4 and 8 days. After 8 days of retention period, it was observed that pH value increases from 6.25 to 6.63. However, percentage reduction for turbidity, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon and total dissolved solid were found to be 74.71%, 50%, 78.75%, 60.28%, 25.31%, 33.33%, 15.38% and 69.97%, respectively. Hence water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is found efficient and easy to handle and it can be used for low cost phytoremediation technique.

  12. Evaluation of nutritive value of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia Crassipes )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum maximum) mixture as animal feed resources in the tropics were evaluated. The mixture of the treatments: A (0% water hyacinth + 90% Guinea grass + 10% concentrate), B (30% water hyacinth + 60% Guinea grass + 10% concentrate), ...

  13. Assessment of Crushed Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate and compare organic buffering capacity of crushed water hyacinth and calcium carbonate on acidic borehole water for aquaculture. Thirty, 25-litre shaded plastic tanks (20-litre filled with experimental water, pH 3.0) of three replicates per treatment of 180 g buffer agent were ...

  14. Modeling phytoremediation of nitrogen-polluted water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Hanai, Emmanuel E.

    2017-08-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has a great potential for purification of wastewater through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. In an attempt to improve the quality of effluents discharged from waste stabilization ponds at the University of Dar es Salaam, a pilot plant was constructed to experiment the effectiveness of this plants for transformation and removal of nitrogen. Samples of wastewater were collected and examined for water quality parameters, including pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and various forms of nitrogen, which were used as input parameters in a kinetic mathematical model. A conceptual model was then developed to model various processes in the system using STELLA 6.0.1 software. The results show that total nitrogen was removed by 63.9%. Denitrification contributed 73.8% of the removed nitrogen. Other dominant nitrogen removal mechanisms are net sedimentation and uptake by water hyacinth, which contributed 16.7% and 9.5% of the removed nitrogen, respectively. The model indicated that in presence of water hyacinth biofilm about 1.26 g Nm-2day-1 of nitrogen was removed. However, in the absence of biofilm in water hyacinth pond, the permanent nitrogen removal was only 0.89 g Nm-2day-1. This suggests that in absence of water hyacinth, the efficiency of nitrogen removal would decrease by 29.4%.

  15. Potential of Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of water hyacinth for the removal of chromium (Cr) from tannery wastewater. This experiment was performed using healthy, young and acclimatized water hyacinth collected from unpolluted Awash River. Cr concentrations of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 20 mg/L were ...

  16. The effect of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pontederiaceae), on benthic biodiversity in two impoundments on the New Year's River, South Africa. ... Thus, the control of water hyacinth is important, in order to prevent both ecological and economic impacts of biodiversity loss. Keywords: ...

  17. Studies on biomethanation of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) using biocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Santanu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Banerjee, Saikat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Salalah College of Technology, Salalah (Oman)

    2013-07-01

    Water hyacinth is a huge source of biomass in tropical countries. That can be used for biogas production. The aim of this conversion process is to improve the quality, specific energy content, transportability, etc. of the raw biomass source or to capture gases which are naturally produced as biomass is micro biologically degraded. An experimental study on catalytic biomethanation of Water Hyacinth has been carried out in a semi batch digester at different substrate concentration using cow urine as an organic catalyst under controlled pH with in the range of 6.9 to 7.2. The rate of bio gas production varies with different conditions and parameters like temperature, stirring speed, feed concentration, catalyst concentration, etc. It has been found that the catalyst mainly increases the production rate of biogas from water hyacinth. Mathematical analysis of the experimental data on catalytic biomethanation has been done in the present study. Mathematical equations relating maximum specific growth rate and kinetic parameter at different substrate and catalyst concentration have been developed.

  18. Description of a cryptic new species of the plant bug genus Eccritotarsus (Heteroptera: Miridae: Bryocorinae) from Peru, a new biocontrol agent of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new plant bug Eccritotarsus eichhorniae is described from specimens taken on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Maynas Province, Peru. This new species is extremely similar to Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho), a species described from Santa Catarina, Brazil. These two populations were...

  19. Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a clonal aquatic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Ye; Zhang, Da-Yong; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2010-05-01

    Aquatic plant invasions are often associated with long-distance dispersal of vegetative propagules and prolific clonal reproduction. These reproductive features combined with genetic bottlenecks have the potential to severely limit genetic diversity in invasive populations. To investigate this question we conducted a global scale population genetic survey using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers of the world's most successful aquatic plant invader -Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). We sampled 1140 ramets from 54 populations from the native (South America) and introduced range (Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, Central America and the Caribbean). Although we detected 49 clones, introduced populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and little differentiation compared with those from the native range, and approximately 80% of introduced populations were composed of a single clone. A widespread clone ('W') detected in two Peruvian populations accounted for 70.9% of the individuals sampled and dominated in 74.5% of the introduced populations. However, samples from Bangladesh and Indonesia were composed of different genotypes, implicating multiple introductions to the introduced range. Nine of 47 introduced populations contained clonal diversity suggesting that sexual recruitment occurs in some invasive sites where environmental conditions favour seedling establishment. The global patterns of genetic diversity in E. crassipes likely result from severe genetic bottlenecks during colonization and prolific clonal propagation. The prevalence of the 'W' genotype throughout the invasive range may be explained by stochastic sampling, or possibly because of pre-adaptation of the 'W' genotype to tolerate low temperatures.

  20. Study of physicochemical parameters for cadmium (II) and mercury (II) phytoremediation using the specie Eichhornia Crassipes (water hyacinth)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poma Llantoy, Victor R.; Valderrama Negron, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the studies were performed to measure the sorption capacity of metal ions Cd (II) and Hg (II) using the specie Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). This study includes assays where the nutrient concentration, the pH and the metal ion concentration were optimized. These tests were carried out at room temperature and with aqueous solutions of Cd (II), Hg (II), in which the samples of Eichhornia crassipes were placed. To confirm the removal of these metals, the waste solutions after the treatment with the Water Hyacinth species were treated using the method APHA 3030-e. However, Eichhornia crassipes samples were treated using the EPA 200.3 method. The concentration of Cd (II) was determined by an ICP-OES spectrometer and Hg (II), by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed: Optimal dosage 1 mL of A and 0,5 mL of B, optimum pH 5, optimum concentration of Cd (II) and Hg (II) 5 mg/L for each ion. With these parameters, it was started the removal of 5 mg/L of the metal ions contained in 1 L of solution. Being the percentages of sorption 16,56% for Cd (II) and 15,6% for Hg (II) after a period of 7 days. (author)

  1. Identifying and classifying water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using the HyMap sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Sepalika S.; Khanna, Shruti; Andrew, Margaret E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, the impact of aquatic invasive species on biodiversity has become a major global concern. In the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region in the Central Valley of California, USA, dense infestations of the invasive aquatic emergent weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) interfere with ecosystem functioning. This silent invader constantly encroaches into waterways, eventually making them unusable by people and uninhabitable to aquatic fauna. Quantifying and mapping invasive plant species in aquatic ecosystems is important for efficient management and implementation of mitigation measures. This paper evaluates the ability of hyperspectral imagery, acquired using the HyMap sensor, for mapping water hyacinth in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Classification was performed on sixty-four flightlines acquired over the study site using a decision tree which incorporated Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, absorption feature parameters in the spectral region between 0.4 and 2.5μm, and spectral endmembers. The total image dataset was 130GB. Spectral signatures of other emergent aquatic species like pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides) showed close similarity with the water hyacinth spectrum, however, the decision tree successfully discriminated water hyacinth from other emergent aquatic vegetation species. The classification algorithm showed high accuracy (κ value = 0.8) in discriminating water hyacinth.

  2. The feeding activity of Colossoma macropomum larvae (tambaqui in fishponds with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available Analysis of macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes as an organic fertilizer of Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui larvae in ponds is provided. Water hyacinth produce an organic fertilizer at the ratio of 100 g.m-2 in tambaqui ponds. Two groups of 5,000 larvae were transferred to two fishponds with and without water hyacinth fertilizer and reared until day 43. The fertilized pond evidenced more plankton abundance during the entire production period when compared with the control pond (P 0.05 in both ponds (with and without organic fertilizer. Fish larvae failed to show any preference or selectivity in relation to the different algae (P > 0.01 in the pond, but exhibited high ingestion selectivity for zooplankton (P < 0.05. Application of fertilizer increased (P < 0.05 the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the treatment pond. Since water hyacinth fertilizer is quite cheap and easily available, it may be conveniently used to enhance fish yield in ponds.

  3. Comparative Studies on Nitrogen Removal Between Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes in Lake Dianchi Caohai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEN Xue-zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare two different floating aquatic plants about the nitrogen removal effect of eutrophic water in Lake Dianchi Caohai, Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were employed to microcosm experiments. Results showed that Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes had no obvious difference on the ability of nitrogen enrichment and the total nitrogen removal rate. Under the water total nitrogen (TN, dissolved total nitrogen(DTN, nitrate(NO3--N, ammonium(NH4+-Ninitial concentration of 8.40, 7.20, 4.12, 2.59 mg·L-1, Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia crassipes seedlings were 1 kg, the average total nitrogen(TN, dissolved total nitrogen(DTN, nitrate(NO3--N, ammonium(NH4+-Nremoval rate of Eichhornia crassipes test group were 74.24%, 76.81%, 87.62%, 80.30%respectively; The average total nitrogen(TN, dissolved total nitrogen(DTN, nitrate(NO3--N, ammonium(NH4+-Nremoval rate of Pistiacrassipes test group were 70.10%, 78.89%, 94.77%, 87.64% respectively. The average assimilation away from total nitrogen in water nitrogen loss rate of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia crassipes test group were 89.39% and 82.33% respectively. The average nitrogen content in the sediment of nitrogen in the water loss rate of Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia crassipes and control test group were 6.94%, 11.64% and 83.51% respectively. Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia crassipes could not only effectively inhibit the formation of sediment, but also could significantly decrease the DO and pH of the water. Although Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes can significantly reduce the total nitrogen of water, considering the Pistia stratiotes plant is brittle, so large-scale Eichhornia crassipes planting is a feasible way to control eutrophication of lakes.

  4. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CINÉTICA DE LA ACUMULACIÓN DE CROMO EN EL BUCHÓN DE AGUA (Eichhornia crassipes AVALIAÇÃO DA CINÉTICA DE ACUMULAÇÃO DE CROMO EM JACINTO DE AGUA (Eichhornia crassipes EVALUATION OF THE KINETICS OF ACCUMULATION OF CHROMIUM IN WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO BENÍTEZ

    2011-12-01

    distributed in almost all tropical countries, which can tolerate conditions of metal contamination or eutrophication of bodies of lentic and lotic waters. This plant has become an environmental problem, however, has sparked interest in the treatment of metal pollution in agricultural soils and water bodies. The toxicity of metals is a serious problem with this reasoning, since it affects the storage capacity and transmission into the food chain. In this study we evaluated the behavior of the rates of accumulation of chromium in aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes, at concentrations of 30, 60 and 90 mg/L, using a randomized experimental design with control and three replicates per level. Studies carried out in glass aquaria, showed sites of accumulation of chromium in the plant, establishing the kinetics of accumulation.

  6. Industrial water treatment with heavy metals through zeolites and bioremediation systems with aquatic plants especially Eichhornia crassipes. State of art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Fernando Carreño-Sayago

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we explore different opportunities to use a cheap natural material for removing and retention of heavy metals from polluted waters by waste of different processes. Two research systems will be addressed: the first through a material known as zeolite or more generally porous  luminosilicates, which may be synthesized or extracted from the mines of clays and minerals, being used in its natural state or after modification processes and doping. The other mechanism is bioremediation through algae, some bacteria and especially aquatic plants such as Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth. We will evaluate the viability of joining these two types complementing each other. Investigations into the feasibility of Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth as feedstock for biofuels are also reviewed.

  7. Ethanol production from candidate energy crops: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, D; Kuniki, M; Sei, K; Soda, S; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    2008-05-01

    Fermentation modes and microorganisms related to two typical free-floating aquatic plants, water hyacinth and water lettuce, were investigated for their use in ethanol production. Except for arabinose, sugar contents in water lettuce resembled those in water hyacinth leaves. Water lettuce had slightly higher starch contents and lower contents of cellulose and hemicellulose. A traditional strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NBRC 2346, produced 14.4 and 14.9 g l(-1) ethanol, respectively, from water hyacinth and water lettuce. Moreover, a recombinant strain, Escherichia coli KO11, produced 16.9 and 16.2 g l(-1) ethanol in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode (SSF), which was more effective than the separated hydrolysis and fermentation mode (SHF). The ethanol yield per unit biomass was comparable to those reported for other agricultural biomasses: 0.14-0.17 g g-dry(-1) for water hyacinth and 0.15-0.16 g g-dry(-1) for water lettuce.

  8. Biogas production from Eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant; Producao de biogas a partir da planta aquatica Eichhornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Silva, Jose Goncalves da; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Virtually all plants and waste plants and animals may in some way be used as an energy source. The anaerobic digestion of these materials is an option, resulting in the biogas. Besides the gas obtained in the process, is produced, inside the biodigester, an excellent fertilizer. The aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes is found in large quantities in various water bodies, such as reservoirs, lakes and ponds, becoming mostly often a big problem and it is necessary its systematic removal of water. The bench biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced, and a reservoir to monitor the production of biogas. The reactor is located within a receptacle containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the purpose of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor made in a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity, show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. The process of biodigestion of aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes shows potential to obtain biogas, with considerable levels of methane in order to make its exploitation. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humid, total organic matter, mineral and organic carbon residue.

  9. Dynamics of photosynthesis in Eichhornia crassipes Solms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-14

    With LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system, the photosynthetic characteristics of artificially cultured Eichhornia crassipes in Jiangsu, China, were monitored from June 1 to November 14, 2009. Both the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in different positions and light and temperature-response curves of the top fourth leaf were ...

  10. The evaluation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassiper) control program in Rawapening Lake, Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, N.; Soeprobowati, T. R.; Helmi, M.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of water hyacinths and other aquatic plants have been a major concern in Rawapening Lake for many years. Nutrient input from water catchment area and fish feed residues suspected to leads eutrophication, a condition that induces uncontrolled growth of aquatic plants. In dry season, aquatic plants cover almost 70% of lake area. This problem should be handled properly due to wide range of lake function such as water resources, fish farming, power plants, flood control, irrigation and many other important things. In 2011, Rawapening Lake was appointed as pilot project of Save Indonesian Lake Movement: the Indonesian movement for lakes ecosystem conservation and rehabilitation. This project consists of 6 super priority programs and 11 priority programs. This paper will evaluate the first super priority program which aims to control water hyacinth bloom. Result show that the three indicators in water hyacinth control program was not achieved. The coverage area of Water hyacinth was not reduced, tend to increase during period 2012 to 2016. We suggesting better coordination should be performed in order to avoid policies misinterpretation and to clarify the authority from each institution. We also give a support to the establishment of lake zonation plan and keep using all the three methods of cleaning water hyacinth with a maximum population remained at 20%.

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AS BIOSENSITIZER FOR FERRI PHOTOREDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnly Alfreds Rorong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the phenolics, flavonoids and tannins compounds has been done on water hyacinth leaves (Eichornia crassipessolms. The research was carried out in several stages, including: sample preparation, maceration extraction, and evaporation. The total phenolics constituted analysis by folin ciocalteu 50%, flavonoidss by using aluminium chloride 2% in ethanol, and tannins by using vanillin 4% solution in methanol, continued by using ultra violet visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis methods. The analysis showed that the phenolics content of water hyacinth with methanol 60% equal to gallic acid 2.72 mg/kg is the highest phenolics content, and the lowest phenolics by distilled water equal to gallic acid 1.07 mg/kg and the flavonoids with methanol 80% equal to 3.29 mg quercetin/kg is the highest flavonoids content, and the lowest by the distilled water of quercetin 1.65 mg /kg and the highest condensed tannins content by methanol 80% of 0.7 mg/kg catechin . The Fe2+ content process with methanol 60% solution was 17.67 mg/kg, and with distilled water was 2.94 mg/kg. Solution without extract as sensitizer produced only Fe2+ ion at 5.6 mg/kg and the extract solution without light at 0.06 mg/kg

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes) OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AS BIOSENSITIZER FOR FERRI PHOTOREDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Johnly Alfreds Rorong; Sudiarso; Budi Prasetya; Jeany Polii-Mandang; Edi Suryanto

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the phenolics, flavonoids and tannins compounds has been done on water hyacinth leaves (Eichornia crassipessolms). The research was carried out in several stages, including: sample preparation, maceration extraction, and evaporation. The total phenolics constituted analysis by folin ciocalteu 50%, flavonoidss by using aluminium chloride 2% in ethanol, and tannins by using vanillin 4% solution in methanol, continued by using ultra violet visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) methods. ...

  13. Evaluation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a potential raw material source for briquette production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Kamaruddin, Siti Fatimah; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Singh, Lakhveer; Yong, Ee Ling; Dahalan, Farrah Aini

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the fuel properties of bio-briquettes made from a combination of water hyacinth and empty fruit bunch fiber (palm oil mill residue). Water hyacinth (WH) was mixed with empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers in a ratio of 25, 50, 75, 90, and 100% by weight and cassava starch added as binder. The experimental results showed that the addition of WH had a little effect (p < 0.05) on the physical and combustion properties of the briquettes. The proximate analysis showed that the moisture content, ash content and fixed carbon content were increased with the increase in WH amount from 25 to 100%, while the volatile matter content and calorific value decreased. Combustion test showed that the increase in the WH percentage in bio-briquette resulted in the decreased of O 2 and CO level, whereas, that of CO 2 and NO, NO 2 and SO 2 were increased. Therefore, the results conclude that the WH: EFB biomass bio-briquette could be a great potential as an alternative source to conventional coal to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases. - Highlights: • Fuel briquettes of mixtures of water hyacinth and empty fruit bunches were studied. • Various ratios of WH and EFB were analyzed, burned and the flue gas analyzed. • A ratio of WH 25% and EFB 75% was the optimum mixture. • The mixed content briquettes burn well with coal and can displace some coal.

  14. THE STUDY OF CADMIUM UPTAKE BY WATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES USING A NATURAL MODELLING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara E. Romanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation on the accumulation of cadmium by water hyacinth, depending on the conditions of pollutant exposure and the presence of various additives are discussed. The main specialty of this study is that all the experiments were carried out in natural conditions using the approach based on the application of the capacities called minicosms. It allowed estimating hit consequences of pollutant on ecosystem most really having made experiment in the conditions as much as possible close to the natural. In this article a very important problem of an accuracy and reliability of the results of trace elements determination in plants is also debated. As a result of carried investigations it was shown that the degree of cadmium extraction by hyacinth from contaminated natural water while maintaining the viability of the plants depends on the way of pollutant introducing into the reservoir and the maximum (about 79% value is observed in the case of it’s gradual entry.

  15. Fermentation Quality of Ensiled Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Affected by Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Van Man, Ngo; Pauly, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    A lab-scale ensiling study was carried out to investigate the fermentation quality of water hyacinth (WH) supplemented with molasses, rice bran, as an absorbent, and an inoculant in the form of fermented vegetable juice and their combinations. After wilting the water hyacinths for 7 h to a dry matter (DM) content of 240 to 250 g/kg, the following treatments were applied: i) Control (C), WH only; ii) WH with sugarcane molasses at 40 g/kg WH (CM); iii) WH inoculated with fermented vegetable juice at 10 ml/kg WH (CI); iv) CM and CI (CMI) combined; v) WH with 150 g rice bran/kg WH (CA); vi) CA and CI combined (CAI); vii) CA and CM combined (CAM); and viii) CA, CM and CI combined (CAMI). After application of additives, the differently treated forages were mixed and ensiled in triplicates in 1,500-ml polyethylene jars. After ensiling for 3 d, pH values in all treatments, except C and CI, had decreased to approximately 4.0 and remained low till 14 d. After 56 d, pH had increased between 0.4 to 0.9 pH-units compared to those at 14 d. The ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration ranged from an acceptable level in treatment CM (8 g/kg N) to a high NH3-N value in treatment CMI (16 g/kg N). Lactic acid formation was higher in CI than in all other treatments. Butyric acid contents, which indicate badly fermented silages, were low in all silages (<2 g/kg DM). There were two-way interactions (p-values from <0.001 to 0.045) for almost all fermentation end-products and pH, except for the molasses×inoculant interaction on NH3-N (p = 0.26). Significant 3-way interactions were found on all observed variables except for weight losses of silages. It is concluded that conserving wilted WH as silage for ruminants may be improved by the addition of molasses or rice bran.

  16. Phytochemical Analysis, Antifungal, Antimicrobial Activities and Application of Eichhornia crassipes Against Some Plant Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    HAGGAG, M.W.; ABOU EL ELLA, S.M.; ABOUZIENA, H.F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an oceanic macrophyte and one of the worst sea-going weeds in the world and Egypt. The grouping of substantial metals in water hyacinth was higher in roots than in shoots. Nutrient content e.g. ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate was higher in the shoots of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth is a wellspring of phytochemicals which have a medicinal function. In this study, the high degree of peroxidation and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems wer...

  17. Invertebrate fauna associated with water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invertebrate fauna associated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Benin River was studied between February and August, 1990. Water hyacinth along with water samples was collected for analysis. The range of water temperature was 26.0–32.2oC, dissolved oxygen (D.O) was 1.60–14.98 mgl-1 and salinity ...

  18. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Polluted Aquatic Ecosystem (Ologe Lagoon) By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) and the Socio-Egological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, C. C.; Chukwuka, K. S.; Ndimele, P. E.

    2016-02-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents containing harmful substances such as heavy metals has become a global problem because of the negative effects of these substances on humans. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been considered a menace since it entered Nigerian inland waters through neighbouring Republic of Benin in the 80's. Attempts to eradicate it has not been successful. Thus, the need to explore it useful potentials. It is used in paper production, feed formulation, phytoremediation etc. Phytoremediation is a bioremediation process that uses plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy pollutants in soil and water. The aim of the study was to investigate the phytoremediative potentials of water hyacinth resident in Ologe Lagoon as well as the socio-economic and ecological implications of their invasiveness. The study was conducted over a period of 18 months and 5 sampling stations were selected based on their proximity to the point of discharge of effluent, presence of water hyacinth and human activities. Water, sediment and water hyacinth samples were collected monthly from each sampling station and analysed for heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As). Questionnaire was also administered for socio-economic impact assessment. The results showed that water hyacinth can absorb heavy metals from water even when the concentration of the metal in water is low. It was also discovered that water hyacinth invasion of Ologe Lagoon has adversely affected fishing, navigation, aesthetic and cultural values of the Lagoon.

  19. Classical Biological Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes (Liliales: Pomteridiaeae), Using Neochentina Spp, Weevils (Curculionidae), During the Re-Inversion Period in the Lake victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiel, G.R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents recent results from an ongoing classical biological control programme for water hyacinth, implemented by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Under the Lake Environmental Project. After the successful control of the weed, a re-inversion in the lake was experienced in August 2000 in Nyakach Bay. Between november 2000 and June 2001, approximately 5600 adults Neochetina spp. (coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevils, biological control agents for water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Liliales: Ponteridaceae) were harvested, from the Kibos rearing facility, Namba-Okana 'field security' and community weevil rearing units. Weevils were released on water hyacinth at thirteen sites in Berkeley, Nyakach, Osodo, Kendu, Homa and Karungu and Muhuru Bays, at Kuja-Migori river tributaries and upstream of Nzoia, Yala and Sondu-Miriu rivers. In general, reproductive and growth potential (number of daughter plants, petiole length and laminar area) and fresh weight of the weed was suppressed. there was a gradual increase in insect population levels (number of weevils plant -1 ) and damage to plants by weevil larvae. there is need to carry out an aerial survey to verify the visual estimates of water hyacinth cover and intensify mass rearing and releases of weevils in hotspot areas and to concentrate releases in riverine systems

  20. Comparative study on the peroxidase activity from the floats of Caulerpa lentillifera (grapes seaweeds), roots of Tamarindus indica (tamarind), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) and Dracaena surculosa (spotted dracaena)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berosil, Maan Dyann N.; Magtibay, Cherrie Joy C.

    2005-02-01

    Peroxidase activities from four different varieties of plant roots were investigated through the use of UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Hydrogen peroxide was used as the substrate and phosphate buffer at a pH that have been determined to be the optimal pH for peroxidase activity for the specific sample type. The four plant root extracts showed an assay pH optimum of 7.5 for the Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), pH 5.5 for Dracaena surculosa (spotted dracaena) and pH 7.0 for Caulerpa lentillifera (grapes seaweeds) using Maehly and Chance method. Determination of peroxidase at 510 nm of the four extracts indicated that, spotted dracaena gave the highest peroxidase activity with 361.07 U ml -1 , followed by tamarind with 57.11 U ml -1 , then water hyacinth with 29.39 U m -1 and lastly, grapes seaweeds with 7.55 U ml -1 . The specific peroxidase activities of the spotted dracaena, water hyacinth, tamarind and grapes seaweeds are 0.3224, 0.2048, 0.0721 and 0.0341 U mg -1 respectively. The peroxidase of the four plant tissues that were kept at ultra low personal freezer for almost a week was degraded. (Authors)

  1. The change of nutritional value of the fermented Eichhornia crassipes Mart meal as broiler rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fera Mahmilia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes Mart is one of the water plants which grows in the rivers, ricefields, water reservoirs or dams. This plant is often considered as water weeds that harm people much. This weed can be used for feeding the animal, but it has high crude fiber. Fermentation tehnology could be done to overcome the problem. E. crassipes Mart is grounded into meal and solidly fermented by mixing minerals and Trichoderma harzianum for 4 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted the increase of nutritional value. The crude protein increases for 61.81% (from 6.31 to 10.21% and crude fiber decreases for 18% (26.61 to 21.82%. The in vivo experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design using 80 day old broiler chicks with 5 replication. They were alotted to 4 diets containing one control without fermented E. crassipes Mart, 5, 10 and 15% of fermented E. crassipes Mart. Diets were fed ad libitum for 6 weeks. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio, carcas and abdominal fat were observed as parameters. Result showed that no parameter were significantly affected by treatments, although the nutritional values were slightly decreasing in higher fermented E. crassipes. The fermented E. Crassipes Mart can be used up to 15% in broiler rations.

  2. Adsorption of Zn(2+) and Ni(2+) in a binary aqueous solution by biosorbents derived from sawdust and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Musarurwa, Tinashe; Nyamugafata, Phillip; Chaukura, Nhamo; Chaparadza, Allen; Mbera, Sharron

    2014-01-01

    The Zn(2+) and Ni(2+) adsorption capacities of six biosorbents derived from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (WH) and sawdust (SD) were investigated, with activated carbon as the control. The biosorbents were raw biomass (WH, SD), charred WH (BWH) and SD and sulphonated bio-chars of WH and SD. The effect of the initial solution pH and Zn(2+) and Ni(2+) concentrations on adsorption capacity was studied, and adsorption isotherms for Zn(2+) and Ni(2+) evaluated. The initial solution pH significantly influenced adsorption (p adsorption on all biosorbents. The adsorption capacities of the biosorbents were statistically (p ≤ 0.05) similar to or higher than that of activated carbon. The effects of pyrolysis and bio-char sulphonation on adsorption were inconsistent and dependent on biomass type; in most cases bio-char was a better biosorbent than the original biomass, while sulphonation resulted in less or comparable adsorption. Adsorption data obeyed at least one of three isotherms (linear, Langmuir and Freundlich) (r(2) = 0.90-0.995, p < 0.05). The study revealed that low-cost biosorbents may be used as alternatives to activated carbon in applications including selective separation of Zn(2+) from multi-metal ion solutions containing Ni(2+), and water and wastewater treatment.

  3. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J; Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management.

  4. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes, an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional

  5. Evaluating the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor in detecting and mapping the spatial configuration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in inland lakes, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Bangamwabo, Victor; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    The remote sensing of freshwater resources is increasingly becoming important, due to increased patterns of water use and the current or projected impacts of climate change and the rapid invasion by lethal water weeds. This study therefore sought to explore the potential of the recently-launched Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS sensor in mapping invasive species in inland lakes. Specifically, the study compares the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor, with more advanced sensor design and image acquisition approach to the traditional Landsat-7 ETM+ in detecting and mapping the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) invasive species across Lake Chivero, in Zimbabwe. The analysis of variance test was used to identify windows of spectral separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. The results showed that portions of the visible (B3), NIR (B4), as well as the shortwave bands (Band 8, 9 and 10) of both Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM, exhibited windows of separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. It was also observed that on the use of Landsat 8 OLI produced high overall classification accuracy of 72%, when compared Landsat 7 ETM, which yielded lower accuracy of 57%. Water hyacinth had optimal accuracies (i.e. 92%), when compared to other land cover types, based on Landsat 8 OLI data. However, when using Landsat 7 ETM data, classification accuracies of water hyacinth were relatively lower (i.e. 67%), when compared to other land cover types (i.e. water with accuracy of 100%). Spectral curves of the old, intermediate and the young water hyacinth in Lake Chivero based on: (a) Landsat 8 OLI, and (b) Landsat 7 ETM were derived. Overall, the findings of this study underscores the relevance of the new generation multispectral sensors in providing primary data-source required for mapping the spatial distribution, and even configuration of water weeds at lower or no cost over time and space.

  6. Removal of Copper by Eichhornia crassipes and the Characterization of Associated Bacteria of the Rhizosphere System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Kabeer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess doses of trace element contamination make conventional water treatment methods less effective and more expensive, where in alternative biotechnological applications open up new opportunities with their reduced cost and lesser impacts to the environment. In the present investigation, effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes was tested for the removal of copper in laboratory conditions. Water samples were collected from macrophytes natural habitat and water tubs used for growing E. crassipes and analysed along with plant tissues for Cu content. The work also characterized the associated microbiota of the rhizosphere system of the E. crassipes as well as the wetland system of its occurrence. Copper concentration of the wetland water samples ranged from 0.009 to 0.03ppm. Six bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Kurthia, Listeria and Chromobacterium were represented in rhizosphere of E.crassipes and 4 bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Listeria and Chromobacterium were recorded in wetland water samples. Copper resistance studies of the bacterial isolates showed that out of 26 isolates from rhizosphere and 19 strains from water samples,12 of them showed low resistance (80% of copper during 15 days experiment. Copper accumulation was found to be high in the root followed by leaf and petiole. Results of the present study concluded that E. crassipes is an efficient plant for the removal of copper.

  7. BIOBRIKET ENCENG GONDOK (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR ENERGI TERBARUKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Ariyanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Menipisnya cadangan energi fosil sebagai akibat dari meningkatnya pertumbuhan penduduk dan sektor industri. Biomassa dapat dianggap sebagai pilihan terbaik untuk energy alternatif terbarukan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengamati kemungkinan eceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes untuk diolah menjadi bio-briket. Penelitian briket dilakukan dengan menggunakan tepung tapioka dan lem kayu sebagai perekat. Dengan persentase perekat adalah 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, dan 12%. Bio-briket yang dihasilkan diamati kadar air evalueted, kadar abu dan nilai kalor. Dari hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kadar air dan kadar abu meningkat dengan meningkatnya presentasi perekat pada bio-briket. Namun, nilai kalor mencapai titik maksimum 10% dan 8% untuk masing-masing penambahan tapioka strach dan lem kayu perekat.

  8. REMOVAL AND LEACHING OF NUTRIENTS BY SALVIN1A MOLESTA MITCHEL AND EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART. SOLMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. WEE and H.H. YEOH

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Profuse growth of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta in Singapore reservoirs required their regular manual removal as their prolonged presence can lead to deterioration in the quality of the potable water. Clearing of the reservoir catchments, together with regular removal of the weeds and dumping them away from the catchments, should, in the long term, reduce their presence in the reservoirs. Laboratory experiments showing the removal of chloride, sulphate, phosphorus and nitrate from the growing medium and the release of chloride, phosphorus and nitrate by rotting plants should convince the administrators of the benefit of proper management of the problem.

  9. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  10. Utilization of water hyacinth weed (Eichhornia crassipes) for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aquatic environments: an adsorption isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamadi, C; Nharingo, T

    2010-10-01

    The potential of Eichhornia crassipes biomass for the adsorption of three metal ions, Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II), from aqueous solution was studied using five two-parameter adsorption isotherm equations--Langmuir, Freundlich, Flory-Huggins, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The equilibrium adsorption data were obtained at different initial metal ion concentrations (C0 = 10-60 mg/L), 3 h contact time, 30 degrees C temperature, a dosage of 2 g/L, agitation rate of 150 rpm and buffered at pH 4.84. Langmuir isotherms gave monolayer sorption capacities (qm) of 26.32, 12.60 and 12.55 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) metal ions, respectively. The same trend of metal uptake was indicated by plots of sorption favourability (S(F)). Negative values of deltaGads0 indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic in nature, and values from the Temkin isotherm constant, bT, suggested a mechanism consistent with an ion-exchange process. The results from these studies indicated that E. crassipes biomass has promising potential for the removal of toxic metals from aquatic environments.

  11. Poblaciones de hongos y actinomicetos presentes en el proceso de compostaje con base en bora (Eichhornia crassipes, residuos de café y de jardinería | Fungi and actinomycetes populations present in the composting process based on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, coffee and garden waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalys Rivas-Nichorzon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a bio-oxidative process involving numerous and varied microorganisms, whose population dynamics are influenced by the type of organic substrate used. In order to quantify fungal and actinomycetes populations and identifying fungi present during the composting process, three compost were developed with the inclusion of different organic materials, differing by the inclusion of fibrous substrates water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, coffee husks and garden waste. Three metal composters were used with dimensions: 62.5 x 77.5 x 75.0 cm. The statistical design was a randomized block with repeated measurements over time, with treatments from a 3x3 factorial arrangement, three types of compost, three evaluation times (20, 40 and 60 days and three repetitions. The values obtained were transformed to log10 and an analysis of variance was performed; means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungi count was elevated at the beginning and during the course of composting for compost based on garden waste and bora. The most frequent fungi species identified during the composting process were Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp. and Penicillium sp. Stocks of actinomycetes fell at the end of the composting process in all composts.

  12. Identification of gene fragments related to nitrogen deficiency in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Minghui; Jiang, Lihua; Li, Yuanmei; Yan, Guohua; Zheng, Lijun; Jinping, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon River Basin. It has become a serious weed in freshwater habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs both in tropical and warm temperate areas worldwide. Some research has stated that it can be used for water phytoremediation, due to its strong assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the accumulation of heavy metals, and its growth and spread may play an important role in environmental ecology. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of E. crassipes to responses to nitrogen deficiency, we constructed forward and reversed subtracted cDNA libraries for E. crassipes roots under nitrogen deficient condition using a suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The forward subtraction included 2,100 clones, and the reversed included 2,650 clones. One thousand clones were randomly selected from each library for sequencing. About 737 (527 unigenes) clones from the forward library and 757 (483 unigenes) clones from the reversed library were informative. Sequence BlastX analysis showed that there were more transporters and adenosylhomocysteinase-like proteins in E. crassipes cultured in nitrogen deficient medium; while, those cultured in nitrogen replete medium had more proteins such as UBR4-like e3 ubiquitin-protein ligase and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein 8-like, as well as more cytoskeletal proteins, including actin and tubulin. Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) analysis also demonstrated that in the forward library, the most ESTs were involved in coenzyme transportation and metabolism. In the reversed library, cytoskeletal ESTs were the most abundant. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis categories demonstrated that unigenes involved in binding, cellular process and electron carrier were the most differentially expressed unigenes between the forward and reversed libraries. All these results suggest that E. crassipes can respond to different nitrogen status by efficiently regulating and controlling

  13. Identification of gene fragments related to nitrogen deficiency in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Minghui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon River Basin. It has become a serious weed in freshwater habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs both in tropical and warm temperate areas worldwide. Some research has stated that it can be used for water phytoremediation, due to its strong assimilation of nitro- gen and phosphorus, and the accumulation of heavy metals, and its growth and spread may play an important role in environmental ecology. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of E. crassipes to responses to nitrogen deficiency, we constructed forward and reversed subtracted cDNA libraries for E. crassipes roots under nitrogen deficient condition using a suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH method. The forward subtraction included 2 100 clones, and the reversed included 2 650 clones. One thousand clones were randomly selected from each library for sequencing. About 737 (527 unigenes clones from the forward library and 757 (483 unigenes clones from the reversed library were informative. Sequence BlastX analysis showed that there were more transporters and adenosylhomocysteinase-like proteins in E. crassipes cultured in nitrogen deficient medium; while, those cultured in nitrogen replete medium had more proteins such as UBR4-like e3 ubiquitin- protein ligase and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein 8-like, as well as more cytoskeletal proteins, including actin and tubulin. Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG analysis also demonstrated that in the forward library, the most ESTs were involved in coenzyme transportation and metabolism. In the reversed library, cytoskeletal ESTs were the most abundant. Gene Ontology (GO analysis categories demonstrated that unigenes involved in binding, cellular process and electron carrier were the most differentially expressed unigenes between the forward and reversed libraries. All these results suggest that E. crassipes can respond to different nitrogen status by efficiently

  14. Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, K.B.; Mehra, A.; Farago, M.E.; Banerjee, D.K. [University of Derby, Derby (United Kingdom). School of Environmental and Applied Science

    2000-12-01

    The main solid waste product from coal-fired power stations is pulverised fuel ash (PFA). This study investigates the uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the aquatic plant E-crassipes grown in leachates and slurries prepared from two different PFA samples. PFA samples were obtained from Indraprastha Power Station (IPP stn.) in New Delhi, India and the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station in the UK. Results show that E. crassipes has a high accumulation capacity for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from leachates and slurries generated from two different PFAs and uptake of these metals is stronger in the roots than in the tops of the plant. As the metal concentrations in the growth medium increase in the 1:5 PFA:DIW ratio as compared to the 1:50 ratio, metal accumulation (as indicated by accumulation factor (AF) values) from both leachates and slurries is higher for plants grown in the 1:50 (PFA:DIW) ratios than in the 1:5 ratios. Lower metal accumulation in the plants grown in slurries than in leachates is related to the high turbidity of growth medium in slurries resulting in ash particles adhering to the root surfaces thus reducing the surface area of metal absorption. In terms of neutralisation capacity of the pH of the growth medium, Eichhornia is seen to be able to reduce the pH of all leachates. Accumulation of Cd and Zn by the plant is higher from the lower pH IPP leachates than the Ratcliffe leachates, indicating that these metals are more soluble and bioavailable in the acidic medium. Accumulation of Cu and Ni is independent of the pH of the leachates; indicating that there may be other contributory factors. 78 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. The impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on greenhouse gas emission and nutrient mobilization depends on rooting and plant coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira-Junior, Ernandes Sobreira; Tang, Yingying; Berg, van den Sanne J.P.; Cardoso, Simone J.; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Kosten, Sarian

    2018-01-01

    Water hyacinth stands are known to affect both nutrient concentrations in the water and carbon exchange with the atmosphere. However, both enhanced and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been reported in relation to water hyacinth presence. This controversy may be explained by variation in

  16. A note on the utilisation of the water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) for the treatment of tannery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed which grows quickly in ponds, ditches and streams. It clogs drains, irrigation canals and run-off streams promoting back waters and flood conditions. By its prolific growth it competes with other aquatic weeds and causes destruction of the ecosystems of inland waters. Other damaging effects of water hyacinth include incubation of insects and disease vectors, hindrance to navigation, interference with fishing, increased loss of water by plant transpiration, restriction of desirable aquatic plant growth, depletion of oxygen in water and destruction of recreation values of inland waters. It has been observed from the literature that world-wide attempts have been made to destroy water hyacinth for the reasons enumerated above. But recently emphasis has been given to its utilisation rather than its destruction. Reports are available on its use in paper and pulp industries, for production of biogas, as a food for animals and as fertilizer. Water hyacinth has been used in oxidation ponds for the treatment of digested sugar wastes and effluents of septic tanks, but no work has been reported as yet on use of water hyacinth in the treatment of tannery effluents. The waste water from a tannery is highly coloured with a foul odour and contains toxic materials like phenols, sulphides and chromium in addition to bio-degradable matter like proteins, flesh, hair, etc. The untreated effluents when let into streams deplete the dissolved oxygen of the stream and destroy the aquatic life. Similarly, when the untreated effluents are let off into sewers they choke the sewers, or when let off on land they cause ground water pollution. The conventional methods of treatment of sewage, namely the trickling filter activated sludge process are equally applicable for the treatment of tannery waste water. But these methods are known to be costly both in construction and maintenance. Certain low-cost waste treatment methods have been developed involving the use

  17. Respon Bioakumulator Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes Terhadap Logam Berat Pb dan Cd di Sungai Pegangsaan Dua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Teguh Rahayu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is one of Indonesia’s wild plant considered as weed. Its presence can disrupt ecosystems in the river. However, it is proven to absorb Pb and Fe. It is also believed that E. crassipescan absorb other metals such as Hg, Zn, Cu and Cd which were belong to the same group as Pb and Fe. In addition to heavy metal sequestration, Eichhornia crassipes can also absorb pesticide residues. This descriptive research was done to determine the bioaccumulator response to Pb and Cd in Pegangsaan Dua river using Inductively Coupled Plasma method. Bioaccumulator response of Eichhornia crassipes were analyzed from the stem. The results of the study also showed that the Eichhornia crassipes plants were able to accumulate heavy metals of Pb and Cd. The organs most potential to absorb Cd and Pb were stem organ with average point 1 of Cd: 0,056 ppm and Pb: 0,5002 ppm, then the average point 2 of Cd: 0,0328 ppm and Pb: 0,0215 ppm, and the average point 3 of Cd: 0.0143 ppm and Pb: 1,293 ppm. In the end, it is suggested that the stem organ could be developed as bioaccumulation agent.

  18. Salinity gradient in the Manamo River, a dammed distributary of the Orinoco Delta, and its influence on the presence of Eichhornia crassipes and Paspalum repens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, E.; Colonnello, G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a saline gradient established by the damming of the Manamo River, a former freshwater environment, in the Orinoco Delta and the influence of this gradient on the distribution of Eichhornia crassipes Solms (water hyacinth), and Paspalum repens Berg, The two most abundant aquatic macrophytes. The present work demonstrates, on the basis of measurements of leaf osmolality and ion concentrations, that salinity is acting in the dammed river as a regulator of the studied species E. Crassipes is a potential weed which was originally controlled by the hydrodynamics of waters in the Orinoco River. Plants and river water were sampled in ten sites, three of them with high salinity. The osmolality as well as relative proportions of the main soluble ions explain the relative tolerance to salinity of E. Crassipes in comparison with P. Repens. In sites where both species were present, the K+/Na+ ratio in the leaf sap was higher in the E. Crassipes than in P. repens (authors)

  19. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhat Kumar Rai; Mayanglambam Muni Singh

    2016-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Developm...

  20. Evaluación de la calidad de compost a base de jacinto de agua (Eichhornia crassipes) mediante la inoculación de Trichoderma sp.”

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Tipán, Mayra Karina; Villamarín Ortiz, Marcos Adrián

    2016-01-01

    The present essay was performed in Guamaní, South of Quito-Ecuador, with the objective of evaluate the quality of compost-based on Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) through the inoculation of Trichoderma sp., for which the lake San Pablo Commune Camuendo was chosen as sampling place, it possess physicochemical characteristics of water and soil propitious to the development of aquatic macrophytes, these samples were sent to the UPS laboratories in Quito and Cayambe for t...

  1. Biosynthesized iron nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Eichhornia crassipes and its mechanism in the hexavalent chromium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yufen; Fang, Zhanqiang; Zheng, Liuchun; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2017-03-01

    Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), a species of invasive weeds has caused serious ecological damage due to its extraordinary fertility and growth rate. However, it has not yet been exploited for use as a resource. This paper reported the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron nanoparticles (Ec-Fe-NPs) from Fe(III) salts in aqueous extracts of Eichhornia crassipes. The nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, XPS, FTIR, DLS and the zeta potential methods. The characterization results confirmed the successful synthesis of amorphous iron nanoparticles with diameters of 20-80 nm. Moreover, the nanoparticles were mainly composed of zero valent iron nanoparticles which were coated with various organic matters in the extracts as a capping or stabilizing agents. Batch experiments showed that 89.9% of Cr(VI) was removed by the Ec-Fe-NPs much higher than by the extracts alone (20.4%) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (47.3%). Based on the kinetics study and the XPS analysis, a removal mechanism dominated by adsorption and reduction with subsequently co-precipitation was proposed.

  2. Biosorption of Congo Red from aqueous solution onto burned root of Eichhornia crassipes biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Biosorption is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement the present dye removal processes from dye containing waste water. In this work, adsorption of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solution on burned root of Eichhornia crassipes ( BREC) biomass was investigated. A series of batch experiments were performed utilizing BREC biomass to remove CR dye from aqueous systems. Under optimized batch conditions, the BREC could remove up to 94.35 % of CR from waste water. The effects of operating parameters such as initial concentration, pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on the adsorption of CR were analyzed using response surface methodology. The proposed quadratic model for central composite design fitted very well to the experimental data. Response surface plots were used to determine the interaction effects of main factors and optimum conditions of the process. The optimum adsorption conditions were found to be initial CR concentration = 5 mg/L-1, pH = 7, adsorbent dose = 0.125 g and contact time = 45 min. The experimental isotherms data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm equations and the results indicated that the Freundlich isotherm showed a better fit for CR adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from Van't Hoff plot, confirming that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The high CR adsorptive removal ability and regeneration efficiency of this adsorbent suggest its applicability in industrial/household systems and data generated would help in further upscaling of the adsorption process.

  3. Uptake, Distribution, and Transformation of CuO NPs in a Floating Plant Eichhornia crassipes and Related Stomatal Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Ren, Wenting; Dai, Yanhui; Liu, Lijiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Yu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Junzhe; Wang, Xiangke; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-07-05

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are being released into aquatic environments with their increasing applications. In this work, we investigated the interaction of CuO NPs with a floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). CuO NPs (50 mg/L) showed significant growth inhibition on both roots and shoots of E. crassipes after 8-day exposure, much higher than that of the bulk CuO particles (50 mg/L) and their corresponding dissolved Cu 2+ ions (0.30 mg/L). Scanning electron and light microscopic observations showed that the root caps and meristematic zone of E. Crassipes were severely damaged after CuO NP exposure, with disordered cell arrangement and a destroyed elongation zone of root tips. It is confirmed that CuO NPs could be translocated to shoot from both roots and submerged leaves. As detected by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis (XANES), CuO NPs were observed in roots, submerged leaves, and emerged leaves. Cu 2 S and other Cu species were also detected in these tissues, providing solid evidence of the transformation of CuO NPs. In addition, stomatal closure was observed during CuO NPs-leaf contact, which was induced by the production of H 2 O 2 and increased Ca level in leaf guard cells. These findings are helpful for better understanding the fate of NPs in aquatic plants and related biological responses.

  4. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION AND EXPOSURE TIME ON COPPER ACCUMULATION IN EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART. SOLMS. (PONTEDERIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lunardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Different factors can influence the absorption and storage of substances in plant biomass. In this study, we evaluated the effect of copper concentration in growth medium and plant exposure time on copper accumulation in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. (Pontederiaceae roots and leaves under controlled conditions. Plants were subjected to four treatments of copper concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 μg.mL-1, with a control treatment of 0 μg.mL-1, and evaluated at seven-day intervals over 21 days. Copper concentration in biomass was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame atomisation. The results showed that copper concentration in the growth medium and time of exposure had a significant effect on the amount of copper accumulated by E. crassipes roots and leaves, with roots more efficient compared to leaves. It is likely that E. crassipes has mechanisms for the translocation of metal from the root system to the leaves. Symptoms of copper toxicity were observed in the vegetative parts of the plants at the end of the experiments. This study demonstrates that E. crassipes presents great potential in the absorption and accumulation of copper under laboratory conditions, indicating its effectiveness for applications in phytoremediation processes.

  5. Produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob serasah dan eceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes dengan sumber inokulum kotoran sapi dan kotoran ayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REVOLUSI PRAJANINGRAT SAKTIYUDHA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Saktiyudha RP. 2014. Biogas production from anaerobic digesters of leaf litter and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes with a source of inoculum cattle and chicken manures. Bioteknologi 11: 23-27. Biogas is a renewable alternative energy source also has the added value, which is in the processing of waste biomass is environmentally friendly. This study aims to examine the production of biogas in anaerobic reform process based on a mixture of biomass litter substrate and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms using inoculum source of cattle manure and chicken manure. Litter biomass and water hyacinth biomass were as a substrate (80% in the anaerobic digester with inoculum source of cattle manure or chicken manure (20% through the fermentation process. Factorial experiment with four replications performed using a completely randomized design (CRD with two factors. The first factor in the form of variations in the substrate, the substrate control with 100 % litter, litter substrate variation and water hyacinth (75%:25%, and a mixture of litter and water hyacinth (50%:50% . The second factor were a variation of the source of inoculum, ie cattle manure and chicken manure. Parameter measurements performed at weeks 0th, 2nd, 4th, 6th. Parameters observed were volume of biogas, CH4 concentration, temperature, pH, COD, BOD, TS and VS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by DMRT at 5 % level test. Highest production of biogas in the sixth week (862.5 ml was showed by the treatment of 75 % litter and 25 % water hyacinth with inoculum source of cattle manure. Removal efficiency of COD; BOD; TS and VS on that treatment were amounted to 76.12 %, 32.88 %, 66.53 % and 63.74 %.

  6. Aplicación de la técnica fotoacústica resuelta en tiempo al monitoreo de la fotosíntesis en plantas de lirio acuático (Eichhornia Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leticia Cardona-Gomez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported about the use of the time resolved photoacoustic technique for the analysis of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the energy storage in green plants. We present an application of this technique to the study of the photosynthesis in the aquatic vegetation, usually called aquatic lirium or water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes.

  7. Joint use of insects and fungal pathogens in the management of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): Perspectives for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, F.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2013-01-01

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] remains one of the worst aquatic weeds worldwide. Its presence in Ethiopia was officially reported in Koka Lake and Awash River about 60 yr ago. Experiences worldwide indicate that the use of bioagents is the most economical and sustainable control

  8. Optimization of organic matter degradation kinetics and nutrient removal on artificial wetlands using Eichhornia crassipes and Typha domingensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Peraza, J G; Mendivil-García, K; Cedillo-Herrera, C I G; Rochín-Medina, J J; Rodríguez-Mata, A E; Bustos-Terrones, Y A

    2017-11-15

    This study describes the optimization of the wastewater treatment process through the use of a free water surface flow constructed wetland with floating macrophytes at the laboratory level (20 L). A factorial design 2 3 was used in order to find the best operation conditions of the wastewater treatment process. The performance of macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Typha domingensis was investigated by operating the wetland system at hydraulic retention times of 2 and 4 days. The results showed an optimum operational condition that removed 92.39% of initial organic load (measured as COD). The nutrient removal efficiency of the constructed wetland was 99.28% for total nitrogen and 87.78% for phosphorus. The best operating condition includes the use of E. crassipes, with 4 days of hydraulic retention and the use of gravel as a filter. According to this, organic matter degradation kinetics was studied by the comparison of three kinetic models: first-order model, Stover-Kincannon model and Grau-second-order model. Stover-Kincannon and Grau kinetics models were more appropriate to represent the organic matter degradation kinetics in constructed wetland, with a determination coefficient of 0.9997. Based on the kinetic removal results, the process showed a maximum rate of organic load removal of 2500 mg/L d.

  9. Use of Eichhornia crassipes modified Nano-chitosan as a biosorbent for lead (II), cadmium (II), and copper (II) ion removal from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaff, A. H.; Hendri, H.; Farozy, I. H.; Annisa, M.; Aritonang, R. P.

    2018-01-01

    Industrial waste in a major city poses a considerable threat to water environment from the accumulation of heavy metals. Additionally, uncontrolled growth of Eichhornia crassipes will also damage the water environment by lowering the levels of dissolved oxygen. Therefore, we conduct research to not only treat industrial waste in water but also reduce the population of E. crassipes in water. We made this biosorbent by mixing E. crassipes with nano-chitosan in various compositions. Its absorptivity was tested against single metal solutions of lead (II), cadmium (II), and copper (II) to get the best biosorbent composition. The chosen biosorbent then went through an adsorptivity test against a mixture of three solutions, with each test was carried at various pH. The best biosorbent composition is the mixture of 1 g of E. crassipes with 30 mL of nano-chitosan 0.01%, while adsorption tests in single or three metals solution show that the biosorbent performs better in neutral pH.

  10. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Development of the technology and used in accumulation and absorption of the heavy metals and other nutrients under phytoremediation from the aquatic bodies, biofuel and biogas production through fermentation and decomposition, fertilizer production through composting / vermicomposting, production of feeds for animal and many more utilities which are beneficial is discussed in this review. The review paper also deals with this multifaceted utility approach of this plant and their application in management.

  11. Fungi associated with Eichhornia crassipes in South Africa and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nation-wide surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2011 on various aquatic bodies of South Africa to identify the fungal pathogens associated with water hyacinth. Diseased plant parts were collected and fungi were isolated and identified. ... Keywords: biological control, mycoherbicides, plant pathogens, water hyacinth

  12. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  13. In Vitro Pollen Germination of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms: An Insight into its Preferred Mode of Clonal Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath BHOWMIK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms is an aquatic invasive weed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant rarely produces any fruit under natural condition In order to understand the causes of failure of seed set in this plant various aspect of pollen biology were studied. Pollen fertility and pollen viability was assessed using Muntzing� s mixture and in acetic orcein and TTZ, while pollen germination was assessed with different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with boric acid and Ca and Mg salts. The aim of present study was to find out the cause of sexual incompatibility of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. In spite of high pollen fertility, pollen viability and pollen germination the species show hardly any fruit set under natural condition. The abnormal pollen germination like curling of pollen tubes, shrinkage of pollen tube tips and bending of pollen tube might be reasons of sexual incompatibility of this species. It is observed that the taxa required comparatively low sucrose concentration (5% for their optimal in vitro pollen germination (54.08%. Boric acid to certain extent also influences the in vitro pollen germination (56.2%. In the present investigation the nature of substrate in association with the effect of Boric acid, CaCO3, MgSO4 on the in vitro pollen germination of Eichhornia crassipes is also worked out. However the tested salts show no significant effect on pollen germination in the present study.

  14. Eichhornia crassipes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    , apigenin, tricin, chrysoeriol, kaempferol, azaeleatin, gossypetin and orientin), amino acids (methionine, valine, glutamic acid theonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine and lysine), phosphorous, protein, organic matter and cyanide. Some of these.

  15. Industrial water treatment with heavy metals through zeolites and bioremediation systems with aquatic plants especially Eichhornia crassipes. State of art review

    OpenAIRE

    Uriel Fernando Carreño-Sayago

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore different opportunities to use a cheap natural material for removing and retention of heavy metals from polluted waters by waste of different processes. Two research systems will be addressed: the first through a material known as zeolite or more generally porous  luminosilicates, which may be synthesized or extracted from the mines of clays and minerals, being used in its natural state or after modification processes and doping. The other mechanism is bioremediation...

  16. Molecular characterization of the endophytic fungal community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) (Pontederiaceae) native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, T T; Orlandelli, R C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2015-05-11

    Endophytic fungi live in the interior of healthy plants without causing them any damage. These fungi are of biotechnological interest; they may be used in the biological control of pests and plant diseases, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) belong to the Pontederiaceae family. The first is a fixed-floating species and the second is a free-floating species that is known for its phytoremediation potential. The fungal endophytes associated with the leaves of E. azurea and E. crassipes, native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil, were isolated. The sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA was performed and the nucleotide sequences obtained were compared with those available in the GenBank database for the molecular identification of the isolates. The construction of phylogenetic trees was performed using the MEGA5 software. The results showed that high colonization frequencies were obtained from the 610 foliar fragments sampled from each plant: 87.86% for E. azurea and 88.85% for E. crassipes. At the genus level, it was possible to identify 19 fungal endophytes belonging to the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Cercospora, Diaporthe, Gibberella, Pestalotiopsis, Plectosphaerella, Phoma, and Saccharicola. Two other endophytes were identified at the species level (Microsphaeropsis arundinis). Genera Bipolaris, Cercospora, Microsphaeropsis, and Phoma were found as endophytes in the two macrophytes and the other genera were host-specific, being isolated from only one macrophyte, proving that there is a small difference in the endophytic diversity of the two Eichhornia species analyzed.

  17. Capacidad de las macrofitas Lemna minor y Eichhornia crassipes para eliminar el niquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRES, P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la capacidad de dos especies de macrofitas, Lemna minor y Eichhornia crassipes, para eliminar el níquel. Se realizaron cuatro tratamientos durante dos semanas para cada una de las especies. Las plantas fueron incubadas con 0, 1, 3 y 6 mg l-1 de Ni. Ambas especies mostraron, en todos los tratamientos con Ni, una reducción en la concentración a lo largo del tiempo. L. minor mostró ser más eficiente para remover este ión a la más baja concentración. Sin embargo, en concentraciones más elevadas no se observaron diferencias entre ambas especies. El análisis del tejido de las plantas mostró que las mismas acumulaban el metal, en los tres casos evaluados con concentraciones diferentes.Palabras clave: fitorremediación, metales pesados, plantas acuáticas, acumulación.

  18. Utilization of two invasive free-floating aquatic plants (Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes) as sorbents for oil removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunan; Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    Free-floating aquatic plants Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes are well-known invasive species in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to utilize the plants as cost-effective and environmentally friendly oil sorbents. Multilevel wrinkle structure of P. stratiotes leaf (PL), rough surface of E. crassipes leaf (EL), and box structure of E. crassipes stalk (ES) were observed using the scanning electron microscope. The natural hydrophobic structures and capillary rise tests supported the idea to use P. stratiotes and E. crassipes as oil sorbents. Experiments indicated that the oil sorption by the plants was a fast process. The maximum sorption capacities for different oils reached 5.1-7.6, 3.1-4.8, and 10.6-11.7 g of oil per gram of sorbent for PL, EL, and ES, respectively. In the range of 5-35 °C, the sorption capacities of the plants were not significantly different. These results suggest that the plants can be used as efficient oil sorbents.

  19. Nanotoxicity for E. Coli and Characterization of Silver Quantum Dots Produced by Biosynthesis with Eichhornia crassipes

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    Angelica Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are widely used in health and biomedical applications, however, only a few studies investigate their toxic effects.  The present report signifies a contribution to the study of the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on   E. coli cells, which is a model organism of anthropogenic pollution. The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their chemical and surface properties, shape and size. Nanoparticles that have the same chemical composition but different shapes or sizes might have different effects on cells. In this work, Ag nanoparticles  were biosynthesized with an Eichhornia crassipes biomass, and it was demonstrated for the first time, that the amounts of hydrolysable tannins in this plant, are directly related to the size, shape, structure and composition of the Ag nanoparticles ; furthermore, the toxic effect was studied using E. coli cell culture. The EC was divided in three sections, i.e. roots, stems and leaves. Particle aggregation seems to be influenced by the amount of tannins present in the biomass. For each plant part, the amounts of hydrolysable tannins were determined, the highest amounts of these chemicals were present in the leaves, and hence these Ag nanoparticles dissolutions were used for the nanotoxicity experiments. . The cytotoxicity  of Ag nanoparticles in a suspension was tested using the Ag nanoparticles synthesized with leaves, against Escherichia Coli ATCC 25992 where the concentration that inhibited 100% of bacterial growth, was 5 mg/L in contrast with a commercial solution which needed 10mg/L of Ag. For the most part, the Ag nanoparticles  seemed to be of a nearly spherical shape, although on closer examination were determined to be mainly polyhedral.  Leaves biomass, produced mainly quantum dot nanoparticles with sizes below 10 nm and the Ag nanoparticles were mostly AgO. The cytotoxicity of Ag NPs in a suspension tested using the Ag nanoparticles on E. coli was highly effective towards

  20. Evaluation of copper speciation in the extract of Eichhornia crassipes using reverse and forward/CLE voltammetric titrations

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    Wael H.M. Abdelraheem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reverse and forward titrations coupled with the competitive ligand equilibration (CLE technique were, for the first time, used to investigate the chemical organic speciation of copper ions in an aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes (E.C plant growing in Egypt. Salicylaldoxime (SA was used as the competitive ligand. Two samples were collected from huge submerged masses in the Nile water at Sohag and Mansura cities. In this study the concentration of the natural complexing ligands (CLn and their conditional stability constants with copper (KCuLn′ in the aqueous extract were determined by linear and nonlinear modeling. Reverse titration resulted in two classes of copper complexation (CuL1 and CuL2 in both samples. The strongest class, CuL1, is predominant in Sohag-sample with average logKCuL1′ and CL1 of 15.66 and 435.5 nM, respectively, and also dominated in the Mansura-sample with average 16.77 and 162 nM, respectively. The second class (CuL2 is minor in both samples. For comparison, forward titration was performed for the Sohag-sample. The results indicated that reverse titration showed a breakthrough ability to detect, for the first time, different types of metal complexation present in equilibrium in the aqueous extracts of biological samples. Moreover, the presence of E.C in Nile water is so useful in transforming free Cu ions to less toxic forms by organic complexation.

  1. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) and Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) under heavy metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odjegba, V. J.; Fasidi, I. O.

    2007-01-01

    Whole plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were exposed to various concentrations (0,0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM) of 8 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) hydroponically for 21 days. Spectrometric assays for the total activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the leaves were studied. At the end of the experimental period, data referred to metal treated plants were compared to data of untreated ones (control). Heavy metals increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in both species and there was differential inducement among metals. Overall, Zn had the least inducement of antioxidant enzymes in both species while Hg had the highest inducement. The increase in antioxidant enzymes in relation to the control plants was more in E. crassipes than P. stratiotes. The results showed that E. crassipes tolerated higher metal concentrations in a greater number of metals than P. stratiotes. (author)

  2. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic macrophytes: Results of hydroponic experiments with Echinodorus horemanii and Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, N; Ng, J Z; Kelly, B C

    2017-12-01

    Information regarding the bioaccumulation behaviour of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic plants is limited. The present study involved controlled hydroponic experiments to assess uptake and elimination rate constants (k u , k e ), bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of several PhACs and EDCs in two aquatic macrophyte species, including one submerged species (Echinodorus horemanii) and one free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes). The results revealed that the studied compounds are readily taken up in these aquatic plants. While bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of the test compounds varied substantially, no discernible relationship with physicochemical properties such as octanol-water distribution coefficient (D ow ), membrane-water distribution coefficient (D mw ) and organic carbon-water partition coefficient (K oc ). Diphenhydramine and triclosan exhibited the highest degree of uptake and bioaccumulation potential. For example, the whole-plant BCF of triclosan in E. horemanii was 4390L/kg, while the whole-plant BCF of diphenhydramine in E. crassipes was 6130L/kg. BCFs of 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E1) and bisphenol A (BPA) were relatively low (2-150L/kg). BCFs were generally higher in free-floating aquatic macrophyte species compared to the submerged species. For the free-floating species, E. crassipes, the majority of PhACs and EDCs were more allocated in roots compared to leaves, with TFscaffeine, atrazine, diphenhydramine, E2 and carbamazepine were more allocated in leaf tissue (TFs>1). The study findings may be useful for design and implementation of phytoremediation systems, as well as aid future modeling and risk assessment initiatives for these emerging organic contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Eichhornia crassipes: Agro-waster for a novel thermostable laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus SYBC-L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixin; Liu, Jiayang; Ning, Yawei; Liao, Xiangru; Jia, Yingmin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the utilization of an intractable waster of Eichhornia crassipes in laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus SYBC-L1. E. crassipes as the sole carbon and nitrogen source was confirmed to produce laccase (7.26 U/g dry substrate). The fermentation medium for the maximum enzyme production was optimized and the laccase was then purified and characterized. The optimized culture medium was 25.1% E. crassipes, 13.9% sawdust, 1.5 mM CuSO 4 , 40 μM gallic acid, 65% moisture content and initial pH 6.0. A maximum laccase activity of 32.02 U/g dry substrate was detected at 9th day, which was 4.5-fold compared to the initial medium. The molecular mass of the purified Lac-S was 58.4 kDa. The optimum activity of Lac-S for DMP was at pH 3.0 and 70°C. Lac-S showed not only high catalytic activities at low temperature, but also good stabilities toward pH and temperature. The residual catalytic activities of Lac-S were 30%, 40% and 50% at 0°C, 10°C and 20°C, and the half-lives at 50°C, 60°C and 70°C were 21.7, 9.7 and 1.5 h, respectively. The results provide a significant basis for E. crassipes further utilization and Lac-S specific application in harsh industry. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Avaliações fisiológicas e bioquímicas de plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes cultivadas com níveis excessivos de nutrientes Physiological and biochemical evaluations of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, cultivated with excessive nutrient levels

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    E. Alves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de aguapé foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon n.2, cujo aumento dos níveis de N, P e Cu estabeleceu as diferenças entre os tratamentos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As variáveis fisiológicas avaliadas foram área foliar, peso de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa assimilatória líquida, razão de área foliar, peso específico de folha, área foliar específica. Foram determinados também os teores de açúcares totais e redutores e de aminoácidos totais e a atividade das enzimas glutationa S-transferase e superóxido dismutase. Os extratos enzimáticos foram obtidos da matéria fresca da parte aérea das plantas. Após a coleta, foram determinados os pesos de material seco de raízes, pecíolos e folhas, que foram utilizados para a determinação de açúcares solúveis totais e redutores e de aminoácidos. O excesso de nitrogênio causou aumento de açúcares nas folhas e de aminoácidos nas raízes. Já o tratamento com excesso de fósforo levou ao aumento de açúcares nas raízes. Os resultados apresentados sugerem que, entre os nutrientes em excesso avaliados, o cobre (0,12 mg L-1 foi o maior indutor da atividade da GST e SOD, sugerindo que este elemento induziu estresse nas plantas de aguapé.Water hyacinth plants were cultivated in a Hoagland & Arnon n.2 nutrient solution with increased N, P and Cu levels establishing the differences among the treatments. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Physiological evaluations included leaf area, dry matter and growth analysis parameters (absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilatory rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf weight, specific leaf area. Biochemistry evaluations were total and reducing sugars, total amino acids and activity of the antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase and superoxide

  5. DISTRIBUSI NITROGEN DAN FOSFOR PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN GABUS (Channa striata DENGAN APLIKASI ECENG GONDOK (Eichhornia crassipes DAN PROBIOTIK

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    Adang Saputra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan yang dihadapi pembudidaya ikan dengan sistem intensif adalah meningkatnya limbah yang terakumulasi pada air dan sedimen. Limbah budidaya ikan pada umumnya berupa padatan dan nutrien terlarut pada air terutama nitrogen dan fosfor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji distribusi nitrogen total dan fosfor total pada budidaya ikan gabus secara intensif yang diberi eceng gondok Eichhornia crassipes dan probiotik (Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Achromobacter insuavis. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan pemberian kombinasi eceng gondok dan probiotik (A, pemberian eceng gondok (B, dan pemberian probiotik (C, masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Benih ikan gabus yang digunakan berukuran panjang 14,74 ± 0,01 cm dan bobot 25,53 ± 0,09 g dengan padat tebar 175 ekor/kolam (50 ekor/m3. Selama 90 hari masa pemeliharaan, ikan gabus diberi pakan berupa pelet dengan kandungan protein sekitar 30%. Jumlah pemberian pakan 5% dari biomassa dengan frekuensi pemberian empat kali dalam sehari (pagi, siang, sore, dan malam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nitrogen dan fosfor pada budidaya ikan gabus terdistribusi pada eceng gondok, sedimen, air, dan ikan. Eceng gondok menyerap nitrogen dan fosfor paling tinggi (P<0,05 dibandingkan air, ikan, dan sedimen. Laju pertumbuhan spesifik bobot (4,37 ± 0,01%/hari dan biomassa (1,88 ± 0,01 g ikan gabus tertinggi dicapai pada pemberian kombinasi eceng gondok dan probiotik. Hasil ini dapat dijadikan landasan untuk pengelolaan limbah nitrogen dan fosfor pada budidaya ikan gabus secara intensif. One of the problems in intensive aquaculture system is the the accumulation of waste in the water and sediment. Aquaculture wastes are discharged into the water in form of solids and dissolved nutrients which mostly consisted of nitrogen and phosphorus. The purpose of this study was to study the dynamics of total nitrogen and phosphorus in an intensive aquaculture media supplied with water

  6. The role of the host-specific grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae as consumer of native Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae floating meadows

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    María Celeste Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cornops aquaticum is a widely distributed semiaquatic grasshopper in the Neotropics. The development, feeding and oviposition of C. aquaticum take place on Pontederiaceae, especially on species of Eichhornia. Several aspects of the feeding of C. aquaticum are studied because is one of the most important herbivores of the highly invasive floating Eichhornia crassipes in native areas. The aims of this paper were: (1 to quantify the amount of E. crassipes consumed by C. aquaticum, (2 to determine the growth rate and the conversion efficiency of food ingested by this grasshopper, and (3 to determine the possible effect of consumption on E. crassipes productivity. Thirty individuals from each specific age class were used in the experiment: nymphs A, nymphs B, adult males and adult females. Insects were individually confined in plastic pots with a leaf of E. crassipes. We estimated feeding by individual, consumption index (CI, relative growth rate (GR and efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance (ECI. The impact of C. aquaticum consumption on E. crassipes floating meadows was assessed with the abundance of the grasshopper, and the available data on primary production of the host plant at the study site. Food intake of C. aquaticum was 11.23% of plant productivity. Food consumption, growth rate and food conversion efficiency of this grasshopper varied according to the specific age classes. Damage caused by C. aquaticum is high in comparison with the damage caused by other semiaquatic and grassland grasshoppers, however it is not enough to prevent the growth and coverage of native E. crassipes floating meadows because abundance of grasshoppers are realtively low and the growth rate and productivity of the host plant is high. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1407-1418. Epub 2011 September 01.

  7. The role of the host-specific grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as consumer of native Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) floating meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, María Celeste; De Wysiecki, María Laura; Poi de Neiff, Alicia; Galassi, María Eugenia; Martínez Fedra, Solange

    2011-09-01

    Cornops aquaticum is a widely distributed semiaquatic grasshopper in the Neotropics. The development, feeding and oviposition of C. aquaticum take place on Pontederiaceae, especially on species of Eichhornia. Several aspects of the feeding of C. aquaticum are studied because is one of the most important herbivores of the highly invasive floating Eichhornia crassipes in native areas. The aims of this paper were: (1) to quantify the amount of E. crassipes consumed by C. aquaticum, (2) to determine the growth rate and the conversion efficiency of food ingested by this grasshopper, and (3) to determine the possible effect of consumption on E. crassipes productivity. Thirty individuals from each specific age class were used in the experiment: nymphs A, nymphs B, adult males and adult females. Insects were individually confined in plastic pots with a leaf of E. crassipes. We estimated feeding by individual, consumption index (CI), relative growth rate (GR) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance (ECI). The impact of C. aquaticum consumption on E. crassipes floating meadows was assessed with the abundance of the grasshopper, and the available data on primary production of the host plant at the study site. Food intake of C. aquaticum was 11.23% of plant productivity. Food consumption, growth rate and food conversion efficiency of this grasshopper varied according to the specific age classes. Damage caused by C. aquaticum is high in comparison with the damage caused by other semiaquatic and grassland grasshoppers, however it is not enough to prevent the growth and coverage of native E. crassipes floating meadows because abundance of grasshoppers are realtively low and the growth rate and productivity of the host plant is high.

  8. Efeito de pontas de pulverização e de arranjos populacionais de plantas de Eichhornia crassipes e Salvinia auriculata na deposição de calda de pulverização sobre plantas de Pistia stratiotes Effect of spray tips and water hyacinth and water lettuce plant population arrangements of watermoss plant spray mix deposition

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    S.R. Marchi

    2009-06-01

    de pulverização, independentemente do tipo de ponta de pulverização. A ponta TXVK-8 proporcionou depósitos unitários e totais de calda de pulverização superiores aos da ponta DG 11002VS.This study aimed to evaluate two types of nozzles (ConeJet TXVK-8 and TeeJet DG 11002 VS and the amount of spray mix deposited on water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes plants organized under different population arrangements with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and eared watermoss (Salvinia auriculata plants. In addition to a full-dominance proportion over the area, corresponding to 100% cover of the water tank by eared watermoss plants, arrangements were used with either water hyacinth or water lettuce at 75%:25%, 50%:50%, and 25%:75%. Triple density was also used, with the three species being equally displayed at a 33.33% proportion. Dye solutions of FD&C Yellow no. 5 at 3,500 ppm and FD&C Blue no. 1 at 1,000 ppm were used as spraying tracers for TXVK-8 and DG 11002 VS nozzles, respectively. Both solutions were sprayed at the same plot within 30 minute interval each through a CO2 pressured backpack knapsack calibrated to deliver a spray volume around 200 L ha-1 . Plants at reservoirs were flushed with distilled water until total removal of the dyes deposited on them. The total spray deposits were estimated in μL per plant and the unitary deposits where estimated in μL cm-2 of foliar surface. Increase in water hyacinth plant proportion in the arrangement resulted in lower spray deposition over water lettuce. Increase in water moss plant proportion in the arrangement provided higher spray depositions over water lettuce, independently of the nozzle type used. The TXVK-8 nozzles provided higher unitary and total spray depositions compared to the DG 11002 VS nozzle.

  9. Ação da chuva sobre a eficiência de Glyphosate no controle de Eichhornia crassipes e Pistia stratiotes Action of rain under the effectiveness of Glyphosate in controlling Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes

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    G.S.F. Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da chuva ocorrida em diferentes períodos de tempo após a aplicação do herbicida glyphosate, foram conduzidos dois estudos, sendo um com Eichhornia crassipes e outro com Pistia stratiotes. Ambos os experimentos foram instalados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foi simulada uma chuva de 12 mm durante cinco minutos em diferentes períodos de tempo (0h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h, 24h e não simulação de chuva após a aplicação de glyphosate, na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1 (4,5 L p.c. ha-1 da formulação Rodeo + 0,5% v/v de Aterbane. Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle das plantas daninhas aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA. O aumento do tempo sem a ocorrência de precipitações após a aplicação de glyphosate proporcionou maior eficiência no controle das duas espécies; o tratamento sem ocorrência de chuva e os com ocorrência a partir de duas horas da aplicação de glyphosate controlaram de forma visual as plantas de E. crassipes após 14 DAA e de P. stratiotes somente a partir de 21 DAA. O tratamento com ocorrência de chuva imediatamente após a aplicação do herbicida mostrou controle satisfatório das duas espécies de plantas daninhas aquáticas somente aos 28 DAA.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of rain at different periods of time after glyphosate application, one with Eichhornia crassipes and the other with Pistia stratiotes, both arranged in a randomized design with four replications. The treatments consisted of simulating a 12 mm rainfall for five minutes, at different periods of time (0h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h, 24h, and no rain simulation after glyphosate application at a dose of 2,160 g a.e. ha-1 (4.5 L c.p. ha-1 Rodeo formulation + 0.5% v/v aterbane. Visual evaluations of weed control at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after application (DAA were conducted. The increase in time without rainfall after glyphosate application

  10. Spatial variation of periphyton structural attributes on Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. in a tropical lotic ecosystem - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.17879

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    Valéria Oliveira Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of physical, chemical and physico-chemical variables of water on the biomass of periphyton community and verified the differences between six sampling sites over the course of São Mateus river: two upstream of the city of São Mateus, Espírito Santo State (E1, E2, two along (E3, E4, and two downstream of the city (E5, E6. The periphyton was collected from roots of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. Samplings were undertaken every week in September and October 2010. The periphyton biomass was estimated through chlorophyll ‘a’, biovolume, dry mass, ash-free dry mass, and ash. Higher values of chlorophyll ‘a’ were found at E1, while the total biovolume featured greater values in E4 and E3. Regarding the values of periphyton dry mass, the inorganic fraction was higher at sites along and downstream of the city of São Mateus. The variation of periphyton biomass was influenced by the availability of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen and turbidity, as evidenced by the CCA. The results suggest that the input of allochthonous material, especially from human activities (fish farming and discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater, has changed the water quality (as pointed out by the PCA, as well as the communities present.   

  11. Structure and density population of the invasive mollusc Limnoperna fortunei associated with Eichhornia crassipes in lakes of the Middle Paraná floodplain

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    Gabriela E. Musin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Eichhornia crassipes provide different microhabitats for invertebrates, including substrate for the Asian invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei. This work evaluated the density and size structure of L. fortunei on the roots of E. crassipes in lentic waterbodies associated with the Middle Paraná floodplain. The field work was carried out between November 2009–2010, covering different phases of the hydrological regime. Floating meadows of E. crassipes were sampled monthly in two lakes with different degrees of connection to the main channel of the Paraná River. Bivalve densities were not associated with variations of the biomass of E. crassipes roots and the highest mussel densities were recorded during months of high temperature. The maximum size recorded in both lakes corresponded to individuals approximately 2.5 years old; however, up to 75% of the molluscs were represented by pre-reproductive individuals (up to 6 months old. In these lakes with soft bottom and limited hard substrates, E. crassipes is an important site for the mussel attachment during its early stages of development and could not be the final site of settlement during its lifecycle.

  12. Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associado a Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae em um Lago de Várzea na Amazônia Central, Brasil Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associated with Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae in a Floodplain Lake in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Carlos Elias Braga

    2011-12-01

    la planta huésped, están estrechamente relacionados con la oscilación estacional del nivel del río (pulso de inundación.The Neotropical grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner lives associated with the macrophytes of the family Pontederiaceae from which it feeds. In the lakes of Central Amazon, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (water hyacinth or Mururé is considered the most important host plant for this grasshopper. This study aimed to perform a phenological study of adults and nymphs of grasshopper in association with its host plant, compared to the hydrological regime of the Central Amazon. This study was undertaken between April 2006 and August 2007 at the Chameleon Lake (03 17'05"S, 60 11'11"W in the Central Amazon floodplain. An entomological net adapted for catching grasshoppers was used. 850 individuals (296 adults and 554 nymphs were captured. It was observed that the abundance and biomass of adults and nymphs of C. aquaticum, as well as their macrophyte host are related to the "flood pulse", ie. to the seasonal oscillations of the Amazonian rivers.

  13. The role of the host-specific grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae as consumer of native Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae floating meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cornops aquaticum is a widely distributed semiaquatic grasshopper in the Neotropics. The development, feeding and oviposition of C. aquaticum take place on Pontederiaceae, especially on species of Eichhornia. Several aspects of the feeding of C. aquaticum are studied because is one of the most important herbivores of the highly invasive floating Eichhornia crassipes in native areas. The aims of this paper were: (1 to quantify the amount of E. crassipes consumed by C. aquaticum, (2 to determine the growth rate and the conversion efficiency of food ingested by this grasshopper, and (3 to determine the possible effect of consumption on E. crassipes productivity. Thirty individuals from each specific age class were used in the experiment: nymphs A, nymphs B, adult males and adult females. Insects were individually confined in plastic pots with a leaf of E. crassipes. We estimated feeding by individual, consumption index (CI, relative growth rate (GR and efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance (ECI. The impact of C. aquaticum consumption on E. crassipes floating meadows was assessed with the abundance of the grasshopper, and the available data on primary production of the host plant at the study site. Food intake of C. aquaticum was 11.23% of plant productivity. Food consumption, growth rate and food conversion efficiency of this grasshopper varied according to the specific age classes. Damage caused by C. aquaticum is high in comparison with the damage caused by other semiaquatic and grassland grasshoppers, however it is not enough to prevent the growth and coverage of native E. crassipes floating meadows because abundance of grasshoppers are realtively low and the growth rate and productivity of the host plant is high. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1407-1418. Epub 2011 September 01.Cornops aquaticum es una tucura semiacuática Neotropical que vive asociada a las Pontederiaceae y constituye uno de los más importantes herbívoros de

  14. Kinetic modeling of the biosorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions onto Eichhornia crassipes roots using potentiometry: low-cost alternative to conventional methods

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    Carolina Martínez-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of potentiometric measurements for kinetic studies of biosorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions on Eichhornia crassipes roots. The open circuit potential of the Cd/Cd2+ electrode of the first kind was measured during the bioadsorption process. The amount of Cd2+ ions accumulated was determined in real time. The data were fit to different models, with the pseudo-second-order model proving to be the best in describing the data. The advantages and limitations of the methodology proposed relative to the traditional method are discussed.

  15. First record and ecological features of Goeldichironomus petiolicola (Diptera: Chironomidae mining Eichhornia crassipes in the Middle Paraná River floodplain, Argentina

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    Luciana MONTALTO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el primer registro para Argentina de Goeldichironomus petiolicola Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, especie cuyos estadios inmaduros minan dentro de los pecíolos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms, en humedales del río Paraná Medio. Las larvas y pupas de G. petiolicola fueron recolectadas estacionalmente durante 2005, de los stands de E. crassipes y en muestras de sedimento en diferentes ambientes de la llanura. Ejemplares de la especie fueron criados en laboratorio a fin de completar su ciclo de vida. G. petiolicola fue el quironómido más abundante que habita en el interior de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, se registraron los estadios de larva III y IV y pupa durante todas las estaciones. No fueron registrados los estadios larvales I y II. Las mayores densidades medias de G. petiolicola fueron obtenidas en otoño-invierno (588,5 ind.kg-1 dw - 778,7 ind.kg-1 dw, esto sugiere que presentan mejores condiciones para la supervivencia, lo que permite a los individuos obtener un desarrollo más lento hasta el próximo período de inundación, con mayores temperaturas. El valor calculado de r (Dyar fue 1,66. G. petiolicola mina dentro de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, principalmente, durante el inicio del proceso de senescencia del vegetal, por lo que no provoca daños importantes.

  16. O uso do camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, para confecção de artesanato no Distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brasil The use of the camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, for handicraft in the District of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Maria Bortolotto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, conhecida localmente como camalote, é uma planta aquática nativa da América do Sul, abundante no Pantanal. Os índios Guató usavam essa planta no Pantanal para a confecção de esteiras para dormir. Atualmente a comunidade não indígena do distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, está fazendo artesanato com essa planta. O processo foi ensinado por uma índia Guató (74 anos que manteve a tradição de trançar o camalote. O uso do camalote para a confecção de artesanato é descrito aqui. O método utilizado inclui entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante. A extração do camalote é feita nos rios, corixos e lagoas da região. As folhas são cortadas e somente os pecíolos são transportados para casa, lavados em água corrente e colocados para secar ao sol. Depois de secos os pecíolos são trançados e costurados. A técnica original dos Guató consiste em costurar o artesanato com linhas confeccionadas com algodão (Gossypium sp. ou tucum (Bactris sp., atualmente substituídos por fios de nylon, em Albuquerque. O artesanato é vendido aos turistas.Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, known locally as camalote, is an aquatic plant indigenous to South America, abundant in the Pantanal, Brazil. Guató Indians used it for making sleeping mats in the Pantanal. The non-Indian community of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, nowadays, is also using it for the same purposes. An ancient Guató Indian 74 years old taught the process. The use of the camalote for handicraft in Albuquerque is described here. The methods of investigation included both semi structured interviews and participant observations. The extraction of the camalote is made on the rivers, corixos and lagoons of the area. The leaf blades are cut and only petioles are carried to the houses, washed in clear water, and dried in the sun. After dried, the petioles are woven and sewed. The Guató original technique consists of sewing the craft

  17. Adsorption dynamics and mechanism of aqueous sulfachloropyridazine and analogues using the root powder of recyclable long-root Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Hu, Shuangqing; Shen, Genxiang; Farooq, Usman; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Sen; Lin, Kuangfei

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we reclaimed the root powder of long-root Eichhornia crassipes (L.R.E.C.) as a biosorbent to remove aqueous sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) and other sulfonamides. The adsorption processes were investigated dependent on multiple measurements, including FT-IR and XPS analysis. The results confirmed that the basic amine group of neutral SCP molecules and the carboxyl hydroxyl on the surface of the root powder played the leading role in adsorption processes. Additionally, the experiments of ionic strength effect validated the involvement of electrostatic interaction in adsorption. Meanwhile, the adsorption data were fitted by various models and the results indicated that the Pseudo-second-order model and Freundlich model could well describe the adsorption processes, indicating the existence of physisorption and chemisorption as multi-layer adsorption. The maximum capacities of root powder for SCP were calculated to be 226.757 μg g -1 (288.15 K), 182.815 μg g -1 (303.15 K) and 163.132 μg g -1 (318.15 K) at pH of 3.0. The thermodynamic results revealed that the adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Moreover, the accordance with intra-particle diffusion presented that the adsorption processes could be divided into three steps and the reaction constant had a negatively linear relationship with the thickness of the boundary layer. The results proved that root powder of L.R.E.C. has great potential to remediate sulfonamides at practical level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ), any opportunities for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the plant as fertilizer, animal fodder or for handicrafts seems to represent a feasible alternative to improve the livelihood of the local population. However, local concerns about livelihood security may hinder acceptance of such new alternatives. Providing information as well as financial and technical support to local ...

  19. Estimating nitrogen and phosphorus saturation point for Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms and Salvinia molesta Mitchell in mesocosms used to treating aquaculture effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the growth of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms and Salvinia molesta Mitchell in tanks used for treating aquaculture effluent and compare the results with literature data in order to estimate the nutrients saturation point. METHODS: An experiment with six rectangular fiberglass tanks were separated in two treatments, inflow and outflow (higher and lower nutrient concentration, and the two macrophytes above cited was carried out during 50 days. A floating quadrat with 0.25 m² of E. crassipes and S. molesta at inflow and outflow of the tanks was collected weekly for fresh mass measurement. At the beginning and end of the experiment samples of macrophytes were oven-dried at 60 ºC until constant weight to determine the dry mass. Dry mass of plants was estimated by a simple linear regression analysis between fresh mass and dry mass (DM. RESULTS: The N and P concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 in the inflow (mean of 0.66 mg L-1 and 233.6 mg L-1, respectively than in the outflow of the tanks (mean of 0.38 mg L-1 and 174.7 mg L-1, respectively. However, no significantly different plant growth was observed for either higher or lower concentration. For both higher and lower nutrient concentrations, the biomass gain for E. crassipes was, respectively, 428.5 and 402.7 g DM.m². For S. molesta, biomass gain was 135.2 and 143.1 g DM.m², in the higher and lower concentrations, respectively. Others studies reported high growth of E. crassipes and S. molesta in concentrations of nitrogen (0.14 - 0.18 mg L-1 and phosphorus (14.2 - 77.0 mg L-1 lower than this study. CONCLUSION: The comparison of E. crassipes and S. molesta growth in this study with others allow us to assume that the saturation point of E. crassipes should be 0.26 mg L-1 of nitrogen and 77 mg L-1 of phosphorus and for S. molesta below 0.19 mg L-1 of nitrogen and 15.1 mg L-1 of phosphorus.

  20. Application of Pesticide Phytoremediation in Irrigated Rice Fields System Using Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes) Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriani, Ika Kartika; Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    The problem of environmental pollution especially urban water pollution becomes major issue in Indonesia. The cause of water pollution is not only from industrial factory waste disposal but also other causes which become pollution factor. One cause of water pollution is the existence of agricultural activities with the use of the amount of pesticides that exceed the threshold. As regulated in Government Regulation No. 82/2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control, it is necessary to manage water quality and control water pollution wisely by taking into account the interests of current and future generations as well as the ecological balance. To overcome the problem of water pollution due to agricultural activities, it is necessary to conduct research on phytoremediation technique by utilizing eceng gondok plant. It is excepted that using this phytoremediation technique can reduce the problem of water pollution due to the use of pesticides on agricultural activities.

  1. Estudo integrado do potencial fitorremediador da Eichhornia crassipes em ambientes naturais e sua utilização para obtenção de extratos proteicos

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Daniel Freitas Freire

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho analisou o potencial fitorremediador da Eichhornia crassipes em ambientes naturais, otimizou o processo de extração da proteína bruta do tecido vegetal e obteve e caracterizou a mesma, determinando sua viabilidade de uso em substituição as fontes protéicas de rações animais e/ou humana. Para isso, determinou-se na água do Rio Apodi/Mossoró a concentração de íons amônio, nitrito, nitrato, cálcio, magnésio, potássio, ferro, cobre, manganês, zinco, níquel, cobalto, s...

  2. First record and ecological features of Goeldichironomus petiolicola (Diptera: Chironomidae mining Eichhornia crassipes in the Middle Paraná River floodplain, Argentina Primer registro y aspectos ecológicos de Goeldichironomus petiolicola (Diptera: Chironomidae minador de Eichhornia crassipes en la llanura aluvial del río Paraná Medio, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Montalto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The first records from Argentina of larvae of Goeldichironomus petiolicola Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino mining in Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms petioles in wetlands of the Paraná River floodplain were analyzed. G petiolicola larvae and pupae were collected seasonally during 2005 from stands of E. crassipes and bottom sediment samples in floodplain habitats. Larvae inside E. crassipes petioles were reared with the purpose of obtaining their complete life cycle. G. petiolicola was the most abundant chironomid species living inside E. crassipes petioles; the III and IV instar larvae and pupae were found during all the seasons while the I and II instar larvae were not found. The highest average densities of G. petiolicola larvae inside the E. crassipes petioles were recorded in Autumn-Winter (588.5 ind.kg-1 dw - 778.7 ind.kg-1 dw. This suggests that they have better conditions for survival, allowing the individuals to develop more slowly until the next flooded period with higher temperatures. The r (Dyar value obtained was 1.66. We conclude that G. petiolicola mines into E. crassipes petioles mainly when the plants begin their senescence process and does not cause important damage to them.Se presenta el primer registro para Argentina de Goeldichironomus petiolicola Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, especie cuyos estadios inmaduros minan dentro de los pecíolos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms, en humedales del río Paraná Medio. Las larvas y pupas de G petiolicola fueron recolectadas estacionalmente durante 2005, de los stands de E. crassipes y en muestras de sedimento en diferentes ambientes de la llanura. Ejemplares de la especie fueron criados en laboratorio a fin de completar su ciclo de vida. G petiolicola fue el quironómido más abundante que habita en el interior de los pecíolos de E. crassipes, se registraron los estadios de larva III y IV y pupa durante todas las estaciones. No fueron registrados los estadios larvales I y II

  3. Pengaruh Aktivasi Kimia Arang Tanaman Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia Crassipes) terhadap Adsorpsi Logam Timbal (Pb)

    OpenAIRE

    Sangkota, Vivi Dia A; Supriadi, Supriadi; Said, Irwan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum pH and the optimum weight of charcoal and activated charcoal from water hyacinth in adsorbing the lead (Pb) metals. Determination of adsorbed metal content in the charcoal and the activated charcoal was measured using a spectrophotometer spectrodirect. Activated water hyacinth charcoal was prepared by carbonization in a furnace at a temperature of 300 oC in low oxygen levels. Then the carbon was activated by adding ZnCl2 10%, soaked for 24 hours, filt...

  4. Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associado a Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae em um Lago de Várzea na Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Elias BRAGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La tucura Neotropical, Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, vive asociada a las macrófitas de la familia Pontederiaceae, de las cuales se alimenta. En los lagos de la Amazonia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (camalote o aguape constituye la planta huésped más importante de esta tucura. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la fenología de los adultos y las ninfas de C. aquaticum en los camalotales de E. crassipes, en relación al régimen hidrológico de la Amazonia Central. Los muestreos se realizaron entre los meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007, en el Lago Camaleón (03o17’05”S 60o11’11”O en la Várzea de la Amazonia Central. Los individuos fueron capturados desde una embarcación a motor, utilizando una red entomológica de 70 cm de diámetro. Durante este estudio, se capturaron un total de 850 ejemplares (296 adultos y 554 ninfas. Se observó que la abundancia y la biomasa de los adultos y de las ninfas de C. aquaticum, así como la planta huésped, están estrechamente relacionados con la oscilación estacional del nivel del río (pulso de inundación.

  5. PEMANFAATAN ECENG GONDOK (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART. SOLMS. DALAM PENYISIHAN LOGAM BERAT CHROM (CR PADA LIMBAH ELEKTROPLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiyati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Effluent that is produce by the electroplating industry, especially nickel chrome plating, contains chromemetal that is carcinogenic. The toxicities from chrome are caused by its ability to dissolve and it’s mobilityin the environment. An alternative treatment to reduce chrome is called fitoremediasi which uses plants asits indicator; in this case we use water hyacinth.At the preface experiment, we tried to plant mature water hyacinth in electroplating waste. First we tried toplant in 100% waste water in witch we repeated it 3 times. At the 3rd week; day 18; the plants becameyellowish and became wilted. Knowing this fact, we applied the time for our experiment the we were goingto executed, with assuming at the 18th day the plants will become wilted as an indicator that the waterhyacinth are saturated in adsorbing chrome as the heavy metal pollutant. This became the parameter indesigning the time treatment for the plant zone, 4 until 15 days.The treatment was done by making variation in the amount of plants that are planted, which was 0 plants(as the control, 1 plant, 2 plants, 3 plants, and 4 plants; with 3 times repeating at each stage. The result ofthis experiment after 18 days shows the chrome concentration and the efficiently in decreasing theconcentration on each stage. The highest efficiently for each plant was the treatment by 1 plant only. Thehighest efficiently in decreasing the concentration was 78,95% ad it was done by the treatment with 4plants. To get chrom concentration which is fill with the standard, we can add more water hyacinth into thewaste with the balance equivalent or we need the lower beginning concentration.

  6. (eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    change, reverse osmosis, electrolysis and chemi- cal precipitation are recommended (Vlyssides and Israilides, 1997; Hafez et al., 2002). However, these methods are ... solutions were then fitted to micro Kjeldahi digestion apparatus by setting the temperature dial to 150°C for 3 hours and 30 min. The digested solution was ...

  7. IONS FROM AQUEOUS PHASE BY WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    passive process for adsorption of the metal ions by metabolically inactive biomass. It is dependent on the ... environmentally friendly water filters for heavy metal ions removal in aqueous systems. Currently E. crassipes is .... pore size cellulose nitrate membrane filter and the filtrate was analyzed for the remaining metal.

  8. Elaboración de abono orgánico a partir de plantas acuáticas: Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto o Lirio de agua (Eichhornia crassipes), procedentes del Lago de Coatepeque y Lago de Güija

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes de Cabrales, Cecilia Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por finalidad elaborar un abono orgánico bajo la técnica de compostaje, conocida como proceso de descomposición aeróbica. Se realizaron tres formulaciones de abono a partir de las plantas acuáticas Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto de agua (Eichhornia crassipes) en las siguientes proporciones: Elodea 100%, Jacinto de agua 100% y mezcla de ambas en una proporción de 50:50. A los abonos obtenidos se les realizaron análisis químico con la finalidad de cuantificar...

  9. VALORACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DEL AGUA DE TRES CIÉNAGAS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CESAR MEDIANTE MACROINVERTEBRADOS ASOCIADOS A EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (PONTEDERIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DEL ÁNGEL MARTÍNEZ-RODRÍGUEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la calidad de agua de tres ciénagas del departamento del Cesar (Zapatosa, Mata de Palma y La Pachita mediante la caracterización de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados acuáticos asociados a la planta acuática-flotante Eichhornia crassipes (taruya, buchón. Se realizaron dos muestreos en época de aguas altas y dos en el periodo de aguas bajas. Para determinar la calidad del agua se midieron variables fisicoquímicas y se utilizaron el Índice Biótico de Polución (IBP y el Índice de Integridad Biótica de Macroinvertebrados (IIBM, este último desarrollado específicamente para las ciénagas estudiadas. Los individuos encontrados pertenecen a 15 órdenes, 34 familias y 87 morfotipos, y de ellos el orden Coleoptera fue el más diverso con 49 morfotipos (56% del total. Las familias Hydrophilidae y Dytiscidae (Coleptera, Cyclestheriidae (Branchiopoda, Chironomidae (Diptera y Planorbidae (Basommatophora fueron las más representativas en cuanto a la abundancia. Las abundancias por área fluctuaron entre 3130 ind.m-2 en Mata de Palma (27% Conchostraca y 190686 ind.m-2 en La Pachita (95% Chironomidae. El IBP presentó las mayores correlaciones con las variables fisicoquímicas, pero el IIBM fue más flexible y sensible, por lo que se recomienda su utilización.

  10. Evaluación de la remoción de nutrientes y compuestos organoclorados y sus rutas de bioacumulación con la planta flotante Eichhornia crassipes expuesta a efluentes de pulpa de celulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Margarita Míguez Caramés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo piloto tuvo como objetivo estudiar el proceso de bioacumulación de nutrientes y compuestos organoclorados en Eichhornia crassipes expuesta a efluentes de una fábrica de celulosa que vierte en aguas del Río Uruguay, cerca de la ciudad de Fray Bentos, Río Negro, Uruguay. Se caracterizaron los principales atributos del efluente, antes y después del cultivo con Eichhornia, así como también se estudiaron las concentraciones de los halógenos orgánicos en plantas control y en plantas sometidas al efluente. Se observaron cambios macroscópicos en la planta, los compuestos organoclorados se bioacumularon principalmente en las hojas, registrándose valores de 9,4 µg/g frente a 2,1 µg/g observados en la biomasa control. La remoción de nutrientes fue del orden del 90%. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la fitorremediación con plantas flotables es un método potencialmente ventajoso para ser utilizado como tratamiento terciario en países tropicales y subtropicales para disminuir la concentración de compuestos orgánicos clorados recalcitrantes y como método de remoción de nitratos y fosfatos de efluentes de plantas de celulosa.

  11. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Omondi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water samples with PCB to obtain concentrations of 5 10 and 15 amp956gL which were in one to two orders of magnitude above the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA limit of 0.5 amp956gL or 0.5 ppb. Water hyacinth plants were grown in 2 L samples of the PCB spiked water for 15 days and evaluated for tolerance and bioaccumulation of PCB. Phytoremediation of PCB spiked water by the plants was evaluated by measuring the change in concentration of PCB. The plants tolerated PCB concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 amp956gL without depicting any serious adverse effect except for change in root color and an initial wilting of peripheral leaves. Water hyacinth reduced the concentration of PCBs in the leachate over 15 days from 15 to 0.42 amp956gL for the 15 amp956gL initial concentration sample and to below the GCMS detection limit of 0.142 amp956gL for the 10 and 5 ugL initial concentration samples. Bioaccumulation of PCB in the plant tissue was evaluated through solid phase extraction and testing of samples for PCB with GCMS. Bioaccumulation of PCBs at a concentration of 0.179 amp956gg was observed in the water hyacinth roots for the 15 amp956gL sample but none was detected for the lower initial PCB concentration and shoots. The study demonstrated potential of water hyacinth plants in phytoremediation of PCBs in e-waste leachate.

  12. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, A.; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaves, and flowers of Eichornia crassipes; (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl [DPPH] radical...... and in the antioxidant activities of extracts from the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analyzed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of a varied number of phenolic acids....... Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained the highest total phenolic content, were found to have high DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. However, ethanolic extracts of leaf exerted a high Fe2+ chelating activity and also inhibited lipid peroxidation process both in liposomes and fish...

  13. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating...... activity, reducing power and prevention of oxidation in a liposome model system) and its effectiveness in retarding lipid peroxidation in fish oil by accelerated stability test. Significant differences were observed in total and individual phenolic content and antioxidant activities of extracts from...... the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analysed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and phydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of varied number of phenolic acids. Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained...

  14. Water quality changes in a post-herbicide treated water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality changes after in situ chemical control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solm-Laub. using five chemical products were monitored in a green house experiment. The observed changes in water quality coincided with the loss of treated plant photosynthetic activities, submerging of the dead plants in ...

  15. Planktonic community regeneration in a post-herbicidal water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planktonic community regeneration in a post-herbicidal water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes Mart.) treated environment. ... However, water hyacinth in the reference untreated control medium had healthy, bright green leaves and resilent stems. The phytoplanktonic flora observed in the culture media 28 DAT consisted of 8 ...

  16. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes is considered the most damaging aquatic weed in the world. However, few studies have quantified the impact of this weed economically and ecologically, and even fewer studies have quantified the benefits of its control. This paper focuses on water loss saving as the benefit derived ...

  17. Uptake of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury from polluted waters by the water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigbo, F.E.; Smith, R.W.; Shore, F.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes was studied as a pollution monitor for the simultaneous accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mecury. After cultivation of the plants for 2 days in tanks containing 10 ppm of each of the metals in aqueous solution, the plants were harvested and rinsed with tap water. The leaves and stems were separated and analysed for each of the metals. The ratio of the concentration of arsenic and mercury in the leaves to the concentrations in the stems was found to be 2:1. Cadmium and lead showed a concentration ratio in leaves to stems of about 1:1. The leaf concentration of arsenic was the lowest of the metals of 0.3428 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material whilst the leaf concentration of cadmium was highest at 0.5740 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material. Control plants were grown in unpolluted water. Plants grown in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi sewage lagoon were also analysed. The mercury concentrations of the leaves of plants grown in the sewage lagoon were significantly different from the control sample which had a concentration of 0.0700 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material.

  18. Phytoremediation potential of some heavy metals by water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) was investigated on some metals. The plants were grown for 7 days each in phytoremediation tanks containing a solution of 100 ppm concentration of either Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Cadmium (Cd), Magnesium ...

  19. Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) root biomass were studied before and after extraction with dilute nitric acid and toluene/ethanol (2/1, v/v) followed by ethanol, using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, ...

  20. Surveillance of potential pathogenic fungi associated with water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by the International Mycoherbicide Programme for Eichhornia crassipes Control in Africa (IMPECCA) for development into a mycoherbicide. Other fungal pathogens isolated included Rhizoctonia solani, Acremonium zonatum and Cercospora piaropi. Key words: Bio-control, pathogenic fungi, Kainji Lake, water hyacinth, ...

  1. Experimental and kinetic modelling studies on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Danon, B.; Manurung, R.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T = 150-175 degrees C, C-H2SO4 - 0.1-1 M, water hyacinth intake = 1-5 wt%). At high acid concentrations (>

  2. Effect of water hyacinth on distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub, on the distribution of populations of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sediments from various stations on the shores of Lake Victoria around Mwanza Municipality, Tanzania, was studied. Lactate-utilising SRB were observed to be the dominant ...

  3. The Effects of Water Plants on the Creek Water Purification

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 史子; 中野, 芳輔; 舟越, 保; 弓削, こずえ; Yamamoto, Fumiko; Nakano, Yoshisuke; Funakoshi, Tamotsu; Yuge, Kozue

    2002-01-01

    The activity of some creek water plants on water purification was studied. Five water plants collected for the experiment are locally called, hoteiaoi (Eichhornia crassipes), yoshi (Phragmites cornmunis), hishi (Trapa natans L.var. bispinosa), ukikusa (Spirodela polyrhi2a), suzumenohie (Paspalum Thunbergii). Additionally, anacalis originated outside of Japan was studied for comparison. The items of measured water quality were, water temperature, DO, EC, pH and NO3. Hoteiaoi was most effective...

  4. Nanostructured MnO2 catalyst in E. crassipes (water hyacinth for indigo carmine degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cuervo Blanco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of water hyacinth’s dried matter (Eichhornia crasippes as a support matrix for nano-MnO2 and its application for the removal of indigo carmine (IC was studied. Different pretreatment processes were tested and results indicated that an acid-alkali pretreatment is an efficient method to binding nanoparticles (NPs to cellulosic matrix. In adittion, the MnO2 NPs were synthesized by sonochemical reduction of MnO4- using different methods (ultrasonic horn system, ultrasonic bath and reaction with ethanol, where the influence of the precursor concentration was observed. The synthesized material was further characterized by ATR-IR, AAS, XRD, SEM, nitrogen isotherms adsorption, EDS, and pHpzc. The IC removal capacity of the nanostructured material, the chemical nature of the degradation products and the effect of various parameters (temperature, pH, initial IC concentration, among others were explored in water samples. After this process, the material, obtained by the ultrasonic bath method, was able to remove 97.6% of IC color in five min, without losing dye degradability efficiency for several consecutive cycles. Through this approach, environmental dangerous effluents from many commercial activities such as textile industry can be efficiently removed with low cost, using synthesize process biodegradable nanocomposite materials.

  5. Attenuation of chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, M.; Patra, H.

    2011-01-01

    The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6). Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54%) toxic concentrations of C...

  6. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  7. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1995-01-01

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences (α < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author)

  8. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  9. Changes in feeding biology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), after invasion of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Njiru, M.

    1999-01-01

    Oreochrimis niloticus (L.) was introduced to Lake victoria in the 1950s. It remained relatively uncommon in catches until 1965, when the numbers began to increase dramatically. It is now the third most important commercial fish species after the Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin). Oreochromis niloticus is considered a herbivore, feeding mostly on algae and plant material. The diet now appears to be more diversified , with insects, fish, algae and plant mat...

  10. Remediation of chromium and copper on water hyacinth (E. crassipes shoot powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tannery effluent characterization and removal efficiency of Chromium (Cr and Copper (Cu on water hyacinth has been observed by filtration process. The effluent was contaminated by deep blue color, acidic pH, higher value of total dissolve solid (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and lower value of dissolve oxygen (DO. After filtration, the effluent shows that the permissible limit of investigated metals. Adsorbent capacity of water hyacinth shoot powder for Cr and Cu ion was found to be 99.98% and 99.96% for standard solution (SS and 98.83% and 99.59% for tannery effluent (TE, respectively.

  11. Application of phytoremediation technique in the treatment of produced water using eichornea crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dune Kingdom, K. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Fabian, E. Ezeilo [Department of Civil Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Longjohn, T. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out to determine the effectiveness of using a hyper accumulating plant like Eichorneacrassipes (water hyacinth) to reduce toxicity of produced water gotten from an oil field of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Results from the phytoremediation experiment showed that the concentration of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and oil/grease were reduced from initial concentrations of 10.6mg/l, 150 mg/l and 7.70 mg/l to 7.25mg/l, 106.25 mg/l and 8.35mg/l respectively. Heavy metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), Magnesium (Mg), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) were reduced from initial concentrations of 3.00 mg/l, 3.40 mg/l, 1.22 mg/l, 1.40 mg/l, 0.06 mg/l, and 0.030 mg/l to 2.18, 2.09, 0.82, 0.25, 0.015, and 0.009 mg/l, respectively. A comparison of the system’s effluent characteristics with effluent discharge limits in Nigeria, show that for inland, near-shore and offshore disposals, the effluent can be discharged into these environments with minimum public hazards. It is recommended that every company should carryout proper detoxification of produced water before disposal, while regulatory agencies such as DPR, FEPA, etc., must ensure proper monitoring and enforcement of effluent standards.

  12. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zohny, E.

    1996-01-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs

  13. Uso de biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes visando à remoção de metais pesados de soluções contaminadas = Use of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes dry biomass for removing heavy metals from contaminated solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a eficiência da biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes na remoção dos metais pesados cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb, cromo (Cr, cobre (Cu, zinco (Zn e níquel (Ni de soluções preparadas com estes metais. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (soluções com diferentes concentrações dos metais pesados e quatro repetições. A biomassa seca permaneceu nas soluções dos tratamentos por um período de 48h, e nos intervalos de 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 e 48h após a instalação do experimento, coletaram-se alíquotas de cada tratamento,determinando-se a maior remoção de cada metal pesado pela biomassa seca do aguapé. Foi realizada digestão nitroperclórica na biomassa seca e determinação dos teores dos metais na biomassa e nas alíquotas por espectrometria de absorção atômica, modalidade chama. Paraos metais Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu e Zn ocorreu remoção significativa pela massa seca do aguapé nos diferentes tratamentos, enquanto para o Ni não foi encontrada diferença significativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a biomassa seca produzida, a partir do aguapé Eichornia crassipes, é um excelente material para a remoção, tanto em pequena como em grande escala, de corpos hídricos contaminados com metais pesados.The present work evaluated the efficiency of the dry biomass of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes in the removal of heavy metalscadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, cupper (Cu, zinc (Zn and nickel (Ni from solutions prepared with these metals. The delineation used was entirely randomized, with five treatments (solutions with different concentrations of heavy metals and fourrepetitions. The dry biomass remained in the treatment solutions for a period of 48h. In the intervals of 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 and 48h after experiment installation, samples were collected of each treatment, determining the greater removal for each heavy metal by water hyacinth dry biomass. Nitro

  14. LAJU PENURUNAN LOGAM BERAT PLUMBUM (PB DAN CADMIUM (CD OLEH EICHORNIA CRASSIPES DAN CYPERUS PAPYRUS (The Diminution Rate Of Heavy Metals, Plumbum And Cadmium By Eichornia Crassipes And Cyperus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan Tosepu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 menganalisis lama waktu (hari laju penurunan logam berat plumbum dan cadmium oleh Eichornia crassipes dan Cyperus papyrus. (2 membandingkan laju penurunan logam lumbum dan cadmium oleh Eichornia crassipes dan Cyperus papyrus. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kota Makassar dengan pemeriksaan sampel air dilakukan di Laboratotium Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau Maros. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis statistik dengan uji T test dan uji Post Hoc Test. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi logam berat plumbum lebih cepat terakumulasi habis dengan menggunakan tumbuhan Eichornia crassipes dibandingkan dengan menggunakan tumbuhan Cyperus papyrus. Logam berat plumbum dan cadmium memiliki laju penurunan yang cepat oleh tumbuhan Eichornia crassipes dibandingkan dengan tumbuhan Cyperus papyrus. ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the diminution rate of heavy metals, plumbum and cadmium by Eichornia crassipes and Cyperus papyrus and to compare the rate of their decrease. The study conducted in Makassar city by examining the water sample in the Brackish Water Culture Fishery Research in Maros.  The data were analyzed statistically by employing T test and Post Hoc test. The results of the study indicate that the concentration of heavy metal, plumbum is quicker by using Eichornia crassipes plant than the Cyperus papyrus plant. The heavy metals, plumbum and cadmium have rapid rates of diminution by  Eichornia crassipes plant than the Cyperus papyrus plant.

  15. Remoção de compostos fenólicos de soluções aquosas utilizando carvão ativado preparado a partir do aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes: estudo cinético e de equilíbrio termodinâmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was produced from the water hyacinth (CAA by impregnation with ZnCl2 (1:2, followed by pyrolysis at 700 ºC, under N2. CAA was used for the adsorption of phenol, m-cresol and o-cresol from aqueous solutions, using batch adsorption. The effects of contact time, pH, temperature and concentration on sorption were investigated. Adsorption capacity, calculated using the Langmuir model proved to be dependent on temperature, reaching values of 163.7, 130.2 and 142.3 mg g-1 for phenol, m-cresol and o-cresol, respectively, at 45 ºC. Thermodynamic data at the solid-liquid interface suggests an endothermic, spontaneous and environmentally-friendly process.

  16. Exploring rhizosphere bacteria of Eichhornia crassipes for metal tolerance and biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Gomez, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Deshpande, S.A.; Singh, K.S.; DeSouza, L.

    identified on the basis of 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis. Morphological and compositional studies were conducted using computer-assisted Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The maximum tolerable concentration...

  17. Experimental and kinetic modelling studies on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant to levulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisuta, B; Danon, B; Manurung, R; Janssen, L P B M; Heeres, H J

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T=150-175 degrees CH2SO4 = 0.1-1M, water hyacinth intake=1-5wt%). At high acid concentrations (>0.5M), LA was the major organic acid whereas at low acid concentrations (acid instead of LA was favoured. The highest yield of LA was 53mol% (35wt%) based on the amount of C6-sugars in the water hyacinth (T=175 degrees CH2SO4 =1M , water hyacinth intake=1wt%). The LA yield as a function of the process conditions was modelled using a kinetic model originally developed for the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of cellulose and good agreement between the experimental and modelled data was obtained.

  18. Penurunan bahan pencemar dalam air limbah samak krom dengan eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes Solms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Sunaryo

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is meant to know the capability of Eichornia crassipes in reducing pollutant in chrome tanning waste water. E. crassipes having the same condition was collected from a pool in Gambiran, Yogyakarta. Then those plants were put down into the media contaning chrome tanning waste water with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ml per litre ground water. The chrome tanning waste water was taken from Leather Tanning Process Labolatory, IRDLAI, Yogyakarta. Based on laboratory research it was found that E. crassipes was able to reduce pollutant in chrome tanning waste water ranging from 2.5 up to 87%. Those values were as follows : COD : 2.5 – 41%; C1 : 14 – 63.5%; S:44-87% total Cr : 55.5 – 77% and total Cr : 55.5 – 77%. E. crassipes which had decrease efficiency of C1, S and Cr effectively were the treatments using chrome tanning waste water with 5, 10 and 15 ml per litre ground water.

  19. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil; Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) em Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) no norte do pantanal de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fatima R.J da; Marques, Marinez I., E-mail: fateca@gmail.com.b, E-mail: marinez@ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ecologia e Conservacao da Biodiversidade; Battirola, Leandro D., E-mail: ldbattirola@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Sinop, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Naturais, Humanas e Sociais; Lhano, Marcos G., E-mail: marcos@ufrb.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Ambientais e Biologicas

    2010-07-15

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  20. Kinetic and equilibrium study for the sorption of Pb(II) ions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic and equilibrium study for the sorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous phase by water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... Abstract. This paper reports the kinetic and equilibrium studies of Eichhornia crassipes root biomass as a biosorbent for Pb(II) ions from aqueous system.

  1. Response of aquatic macrophyte biomass to limnological changes under water level fluctuation in tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Moura Júnior

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the response of the biomass of aquatic macrophytes under limnological changes after water level fluctuation (WLF of two tropical reservoirs (R1 and R2, located in northeastern Brazil. Initially we tested the hypothesis that post-WLF limnological conditions and biomass of macrophytes increase or decrease, depending on the variable or species. We monitored a 4 × 50 m permanent plot, in four expeditions per period (pre- or post-WLF, assessing species biomass and 10 limnological variables. We utilized 0.25 × 0.25 m quadrats for biomass. Once the effect of WLF in limnological variables and species biomass was confirmed, we utilized Canonical Correspondence Analysis to understand the relationship between limnological variables and species biomass. The abundant and/or dominant species in pre-WLF of R1 ( Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata and R2 (Paspalidium geminatum and S. auriculata reduced their biomass post-WLF and were correlated with temperature, total phosphorous and nitrate. The reduced biomass of P. stratiotes, E. crassipes and S. auriculata in post-WLF widened resource availability, allowing coexistence of species. Therefore, we suggest that the change of limnological conditions in post-WLF in artificial lakes acts only as a moderator factor of the interspecific interaction (especially coexistence, without direct relation between these conditions and species biomass.

  2. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: f.espinoza@terra.com.br; Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Modenes, A.N.; Palacio, S.M.; Silva, E.A.; Rossi, F.L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr{sup 6+} mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  3. Effect of Sunken Decomposing Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chlorophyceae dominated the diet of O. niloticus in both bays, followed by Cyanobacteria, Bacilariophyceae and macro-invertebrates. Significant differences (p<0.05) were also observed in the frequency of occurrence of these phytoplanktons in the diet of O. niloticus within the two bays. Relative importance of food ...

  4. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fatima R.J da; Marques, Marinez I.; Battirola, Leandro D.; Lhano, Marcos G.

    2010-01-01

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  5. [Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fatima R J da; Marques, Marinêz I; Battirola, Leandro D; Lhano, Marcos G

    2010-01-01

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Poconé, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the "Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth" project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the first stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

  6. Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6. Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54% toxic concentrations of Cr+6 from contaminated mine waste water when passed through succeeding water hyacinth ponds. The reduction of toxic chromium level varied with the plant age and passage distance of waste water. Chromium phytoaccumulation and Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF was maximum at growing stage of plant i.e. 75 days old plant. High BCF (10,924 and Transportation Index (32.09 for water hyacinth indicated that the weeds can be used as a tool of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination in mining areas.

  7. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  8. The Use of Megamelus scutellaris Berg in the Southern United States as a Biocontrol Agent of Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    flooded rice ( Oryza sativa ) and wild rice (Zizania spp.) to control several pest species, including rice weevils. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-33 July 2014 7...multiple life stages (adult and various nymph instars). This information was combined with visual assessments of general condition of the

  9. Laboratory Study on Possibility of Using Eichhornia To Decrease The Concentrations of Some Heavy Metals in Industrial Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alia, T.; Juniedi, H.; Salama, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study Eichhornia crassipes was used under varying conditions of heavy metals concentrations, due to typical study for wastewater concentrations from the batteries factories, to decrease them. Moreover, the concentrations in different media of the plants have been distributed depending on the Response Surface design for three factors 100- 300 mg Pb/l, 15-50 mg Cd/l, 5-10 mg Mn/l which are the concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater of batteries factories. The experiment has continued for fourteen days in which a study has been made for the current changes over the plants endurance for the different concentrations by continuing the morphologic changes which have appeared through this period. The heavy metals concentrations of the media were measured during two days. At the end of the experiment, analyses for metals were also carried out on the plant samples to determine the effect of different media on metal accumulation by roots and aerial parts of the plants. The results showed that the plant can absorb heavy metals from the industrial wastewater which is polluted by them, but at certain concentrations. It is unable to survive in a mixture of high heavy metals concentrations of these three factors together (Pb, Cd, Mn). (author)

  10. Digestibilidade aparente de macrófitas aquáticas pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e qualidade da água em relação às concentrações de nutrientes Apparent digestibility of aquatic macrophytes by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and water quality in relation nutrients concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzaga Henry-Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da proteína bruta e dos aminoácidos de duas espécies de macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Eichhornia crassipes e Pistia stratiotes pela tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e verificar a qualidade da água dos aquários de digestibilidade em relação às concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo. Foram elaboradas três rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de cromo-III, sendo uma ração-referência (purificada e as demais contendo 30% de cada uma das macrófitas aquáticas. As tilápias-do-nilo (58,8 + 18,5 g foram alimentadas até a saciedade aparente e a coleta de fezes foi feita pelo sistema Guelph modificado. Os CDA médios da proteína e dos aminoácidos foram, respectivamente, 93,17 e 93,32% para a ração-referência; 59,23 e 60,35% para E. crassipes; e 52,24 e 57,40% para P. stratiotes. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas entre os valores de CDA da proteína e dos aminoácidos dos ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram reduzida eficiência da tilápia-do-nilo em assimilar a maioria dos aminoácidos de E. crassipes e P. stratiotes. As excretas das tilápias-do-nilo contribuíram para o aumento das concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo na água dos aquários, independentemente da ração fornecida.The objectives of this trial were to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of crude protein and amino acids for two species of free floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes by Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine the water quality of digestibility aquariums in relation nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Tree feeds were developments, containing 0.10% of chromic oxide - III, one being the reference diet (purified and the others containing 30% of aquatic macrophytes. The Nile tilapias (58.8 + 18.5 g were fed to apparent satiation and the faeces

  11. Water Hyacinth in China: A Sustainability Science-Based Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Jianguo; Fu, Zhihui; Zhu, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The invasion of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) has resulted in enormous ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Although the spread of this weed in Africa, Australia, and North America has been well documented, its invasion in China is yet to be fully documented. Here we report that since its introduction about seven decades ago, water hyacinth has infested many water bodies across almost half of China’s territory, causing a decline of native biodiversity, alteration of ecosystem services, deterioration of aquatic environments, and spread of diseases affecting human health. Water hyacinth infestations have also led to enormous economic losses in China by impeding water flows, paralyzing navigation, and damaging irrigation and hydroelectricity facilities. To effectively control the rampage of water hyacinth in China, we propose a sustainability science-based management framework that explicitly incorporates principles from landscape ecology and Integrated Pest Management. This framework emphasizes multiple-scale long-term monitoring and research, integration among different control techniques, combination of control with utilization, and landscape-level adaptive management. Sustainability science represents a new, transdisciplinary paradigm that integrates scientific research, technological innovation, and socioeconomic development of particular regions. Our proposed management framework is aimed to broaden the currently dominant biological control-centered view in China and to illustrate how sustainability science can be used to guide the research and management of water hyacinth.

  12. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae ( Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  13. Neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum Rubiaceae in mice

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    Moses W. Bariweni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Northern Nigeria, Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum Rubiaceae leaf extracts are used in the treatment of convulsion, pain and mental illness; however, there is paucity of information on its neuropharmacological effects. Aims: To evaluate the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Pavetta crassipes. Methods: Pavetta crassipes leaves were harvested, dried and powdered using an electric mill. Hot aqueous extraction was done with 250 g powdered leaf in 1000 mL distilled water. The dry extract was partitioned in various solvents with only the aqueous fraction (AF, and butanol fraction (BF giving significant yields. Neuropharmacological effects including anticonvulsant, behavioural, antipsychotic, muscle relaxant and sedative effects were evaluated in the extract and fractions at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, using standard methods. Results: The onset of strychnine induced convulsions was significantly (p<0.01 delayed by doses of AE and BF. Pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions were significantly (p<0.01 delayed by doses of AF and BF while AE at 400 mg/kg offered 100% protection. The duration of maximum electroshock induced tonic hind limb extension was reduced significantly (p<0.01 by AE, AF and BF. There were also significant reductions in motor coordination (p<0.01, rearing (p<0.05, locomotor activity (p<0.01, grooming (p<0.01, time of sleep onset (p<0.01, and an increase in sleeping time (p<0.01 by doses of AE, AF and BF. Conclusions: The extract and fractions of P. crassipes possess anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant, antipsychotic and muscle relaxant effects to varying degrees.

  14. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  15. Potential of Fungal Pathogens for Biological Control of Water Hyacinth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungal pathogens associated with water hyacinth. Several potential pathogen isolates including Alternaria eichhorniae, Cercospora sp. and Acremonium zonatum were identified. Isolates of Cercospora sp. and A. eichhorniae were evaluated for their effectiveness on water hyacinth plants in the screen bouse. The disease ...

  16. Detection of high levels of pyrrolizidine-N-oxides in the endangered plant Cryptantha crassipes (Terlingua Creek cat's-eye) using HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maria T; Warnock, Bonnie J; Betz, Joseph M; Beck, John J; Gardner, Dale R; Lee, Stephen T; Molyneux, Russell J; Colegate, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    A previous investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids produced by nine species of Cryptantha identified at least two chemotypes within the genus. Other research has postulated that pyrrolizidine-N-oxide concentrations increase as the growing conditions become harsher, particularly with respect to water availability. Cryptantha crassipes is an endangered plant with a very limited distribution range within a dry, harsh Texan ecosystem. To determine the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (and their N-oxides) profile and concentrations in Cryptantha crassipes. Methanolic extracts of Cryptantha crassipes were partitioned into dilute sulphuric acid and the alkaloids concentrated using strong cation exchange, solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analysed using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry. The N-oxides of lycopsamine and intermedine were the major pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in Cryptantha crassipes. Smaller to trace amounts of other pyrrolizidine alkaloids observed were: the 7- and 3'-acetylated derivatives and the 1,2-dihydro analogs of lycopsamine-N-oxide and/or intermedine-N-oxide; a pair of unidentified N-oxides, isobaric with lycopsamine-N-oxide; and the N-oxides of leptanthine, echimiplatine, amabiline, echiumine and dihydroechiumine. Only trace amounts, if any, of the parent free base pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected. The concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was estimated to be 3-5% of the dry weight of milled leaves, or 10-50 times the levels previously reported for similar chemotypes. The high levels of the N-oxides of lycopsamine and intermedine establish the genus chemotype of the endangered Cryptantha crassipes and support earlier data linking high levels of N-oxides to dry, harsh growing conditions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Biodegradation and kinetics of organic compounds and heavy metals in an artificial wetland system (AWS) by using water hyacinths as a biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Mendoza-Pérez, J A; Tabla-Hernandez, J; Martínez-Tavera, E; Monroy-Mendieta, M M

    2018-01-02

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to absorb organic compounds (potassium hydrogen phthalate, sodium tartrate, malathion, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), and piroxicam). For the aforementioned purpose, an artificial wetland system (AWS) was constructed and filled with water hyacinth collected from the Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Mexico. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium tartrate were measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). The present study indicated that the water hyacinths absorbed nearly 1.8-16.6 g of COD kg -1 dm (dry mass of water hyacinth), while the absorbance efficiency of BOD was observed to be 45.8%. The results also indicated that the maximum absorbance efficiency of malathion, 2,4-D, and piroxicam was observed to be 67.6%, 58.3%, and 99.1%, respectively. The kinetics of organic compounds fitted different orders as malathion followed a zeroth-order reaction, while 2,4-D and piroxicam followed the first-order reactions. Preliminary assessment of absorption of heavy metals by the water hyacinth in the AWS was observed to be (all values in mg g -1 ) 7 (Ni), 13.4 (Cd), 16.3 (Pb), and 17.5 (Zn) of dry biomass, thus proving its feasibility to depurate wastewater.

  18. The development from kinetic coefficients of a predictive model for the growth of Eichhomia crassipes in the field. I. Generating kinetic coefficients for the model in greenhouse culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Musil

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of N- and P- limited growth of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart . Solms were investigated in greenhouse culture with the object of developing a model for predicting population sizes, yields, growth rates and frequencies and amounts of harvest, under varying conditions of nutrient loading and climate, to control both nutrient inputs and excessive growth in eutrophied aquatic systems. The kinetic coefficients, maximum specific growth rate (Umax, half saturation coefficient (Ks and yield coefficient (Yc were measured under N and P limitation in replicated batch culture experiments. Umax values and Ks concentrations derived under N limitation ranged from 5,37 to 8,86% d + and from 400 to 1 506 µg  N ℓ1respectively. Those derived under P limitation ranged from 4,51 to 10,89% d 1 and from 41 to 162 fig P ℓ1 respectively. Yc values (fresh mass basis determined ranged from 1 660 to 1 981 (87 to 98 dry mass basis for N and from 16 431 to 18 671 (867 to 980 dry mass basis for P. The reciprocals of Yc values (dry mass basis, expressed as percentages, adequately estimated the minimum limiting concentrations of N and P {% dry mass in the plant tissues. Kinetic coefficients determined are compared with those reported for algae. The experimental method used and results obtained are critically assessed.

  19. Identifying relevant hyperspectral bands using Boruta: a temporal analysis of water hyacinth biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agjee, Na'eem Hoosen; Ismail, Riyad; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-10-01

    Water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes) are threatening freshwater ecosystems throughout Africa. The Neochetina spp. weevils are seen as an effective solution that can combat the proliferation of the invasive alien plant. We aimed to determine if multitemporal hyperspectral data could be utilized to detect the efficacy of the biocontrol agent. The random forest (RF) algorithm was used to classify variable infestation levels for 6 weeks using: (1) all the hyperspectral bands, (2) bands selected by the recursive feature elimination (RFE) algorithm, and (3) bands selected by the Boruta algorithm. Results showed that the RF model using all the bands successfully produced low-classification errors (12.50% to 32.29%) for all 6 weeks. However, the RF model using Boruta selected bands produced lower classification errors (8.33% to 15.62%) than the RF model using all the bands or bands selected by the RFE algorithm (11.25% to 21.25%) for all 6 weeks, highlighting the utility of Boruta as an all relevant band selection algorithm. All relevant bands selected by Boruta included: 352, 754, 770, 771, 775, 781, 782, 783, 786, and 789 nm. It was concluded that RF coupled with Boruta band-selection algorithm can be utilized to undertake multitemporal monitoring of variable infestation levels on water hyacinth plants.

  20. Present status of the development of mycoherbicides against water hyacinth: successes and challenges. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijakli, MH.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of bioherbicides has been stimulated as part of the search for alternatives to chemical control, as the use of these more environmentally-friendly formulations minimizes hazards resulting from herbicide residue to both human and animal health, and to the ecology. In addition, one of the major strategies in the concept of biological control is the attempt to incorporate biological weed control methods as a component of integrated weed management, in order to achieve satisfactory results while reducing herbicide application to a minimum. Several fungal pathogens with mycoherbicide potential (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Hyakillä and Cercospora rodmanii, named ABG-5003 have been discovered on diseased water hyacinth plants, but none has become commercially available in the market. Biological, technological, and commercial constraints have hindered progress in this area. Many of these constraints are being addressed, but there is a critical need to better understand the biochemical and physiological data regarding the pathogenesis of these new bioherbicides. Oil emulsions are recognized as a way to increase both efficiency of application and efficacy of biocontrol agents.

  1. On the ultrasonic irradiation in the photosynthetic activity of aquatic lirium (Eichornia crassipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Cardona, A.; Juarez G, A. G.; Marin, E.; Munoz H, R. A.; Diaz G, J. A.

    2012-10-01

    We report, for the first time, the application of the photoacoustic technique for monitoring the photosynthesis evolution in aquatic lirium (Eichornia crassipes), before and after it was exposed to ultrasonic irradiations. We obtained the disappearance of the phototobaric contribution in the Pa signal measured for the irradiated samples with ultrasound of 17 khz, and therefore of a possible damage in the centers producing the photosynthesis, due to the irradiation. These results show the utility of the ultrasonic irradiation, as well as, of the photosynthesis monitoring by means of the photoacoustic technique, for the elaboration and establishment of methodologies in the control of this aquatic plant, whose propagation causes many consequences extremely unfavorable for the environment, as well as for the diverse human activities that are developed in the bodies of water in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. (Author)

  2. Water quality index calculated from biological, physical and chemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Francisco Cleiton; Andrade, Eunice Maia; Lopes, Fernando Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    To ensure a safe drinking water supply, it is necessary to protect water quality. To classify the suitability of the Orós Reservoir (Northeast of Brazil) water for human consumption, a Water Quality Index (WQI) was enhanced and refined through a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Samples were collected bi-monthly at seven points (P1 - P7) from July 2009 to July 2011. Samples were analysed for 29 physico-chemical attributes and 4 macroinvertebrate metrics associated with the macrophytes Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. PCA allowed us to reduce the number of attributes from 33 to 12, and 85.32% of the variance was explained in five dimensions (C1 - C5). Components C1 and C3 were related to water-soluble salts and reflect the weathering process, while C2 was related to surface runoff. C4 was associated with macroinvertebrate diversity, represented by ten pollution-resistant families. C5 was related to the nutrient phosphorus, an indicator of the degree of eutrophication. The mean values for the WQIs ranged from 49 to 65 (rated as fair), indicating that water can be used for human consumption after treatment. The lowest values for the WQI were recorded at the entry points to the reservoir (P3, P1, P5, and P4), while the best WQIs were recorded at the exit points (P6 and P7), highlighting the reservoir's purification ability. The proposed WQI adequately expressed water quality, and can be used for monitoring surface water quality.

  3. Removal of Lanthanum (III) From Aqueous Solution Using Non-Living Water Hyacinth Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.; Amer, H.A.; Shawky, S.; Shawky, S.; Kandil, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of lanthanum (III) from aqueous solution using dried roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been investigated. The roots have been characterized by determining the ash percentage, the ph of the slurry, the elemental composition, the thermal gravimetric analysis, the surface area, the pore size, the zeta potential and ph of zero point charge. A surface area of 128 m 2 /g has been found and the micropore structure of the roots has been confirmed. Zeta potential and ph of zero point charge of the roots surfaces showed that they are positively charged within the ph range from 2 to 7.5. Sorption is rapid and depends on ph, weight of roots, concentration of lanthanum (III) and ionic strength. The sorption of lanthanum (III) was confirmed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and the release of Ca +2 , Mg +2 and K +1 after sorption of lanthanum (III) have been indicated an ion exchange mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated surface complexation mechanism, and sorption isotherms and kinetics were discussed. The roots were tested for removal of radioactive lanthanum ( 140 La) from simulated radioactive waste. Accepted June 2013.

  4. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth mixed with pig manure was also studied on seeds germination. Only water hyacinth substrate with 25% WH + 75% PM enhanced seeds germination for Oryza sp. and Nasturtium officinale. At the end of experiments, a significant decrease was observed in organic carbon content for each tested substrates (S1 to S8, in total nitrogen (N for substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 and compost substrates (S1 and S2. An important decrease was also noted in total potassium for all vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8, in total magnesium for composted substrates (S1 and S2, and in C/N ratio for substrates containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6. Whereas total N in vermicompost containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6, total phosphorus, total potassium in composted substrates (S1 and S2, total magnesium in vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8 and C:N ratio in substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 expressed a significant increase after eight weeks. The result suggested that water hyacinth could be potentially useful as raw material in vermicomposting and biofertilizing if mixed with 75% of pig manure.

  5. EFEKTIVITAS ECENG GONDOK (Echhornia crassipes DALAM PENYERAPAN KADMIUM (Cd PADA LEACHATE TPA GUNUNG TUGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is liquid of result organic garbage that contain substance is dissolved and suspension as decomposition by microorganism. Leachate contain material organic with high level and many formed at landfill with open dumping system. Material organic in leachate can be reduced by phytoremediation with water hyacinth (Echhornia crassipes. The aim of research are know large closure of water hyacinth, long residence time and the best interaction to reduce the levels of material organic in leachate. Method of research was designed experimental based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with Factorial Design. The first factor are closing large percentage of water hyacinth (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% and the second factor are long residence time (4 days, 5 days and 6 days. Result of research showed that is closing large of 75% is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 29,279%. and long residence time of 6 days is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 27,211%. Interaction closing large of 75% and long residence time of 6 days is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 39,770%

  6. Kinetic studies of biogas generated from water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. The fate of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. detritus within a tropical reservoir O destino dos detritos de Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. em um reservatório tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha Santino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is aimed at comparing the kinetics of decomposition of Eichhornia azurea and discussing the fate of its detritus; METHODS: The samples of aquatic macrophytes and water were collected in the Piraju Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil. The plant material was oven-dried and triturated and for each experimental condition (aerobic and anaerobic, 72 mineralization chambers were prepared with plant fragments and reservoir water. On sampling days the particulate and dissolved organic matter were quantified (on carbon basis POC and DOC, respectively; RESULTS: The decomposition of E. azurea is more efficient under aerobic conditions, being 2.2 times faster than for the anaerobic process, according to the amount of mineralized carbon. For the decay of leaves, stems and roots of E. azurea the aerobic processes were 1.22-fold faster. It is assumed that the fractions responsible for the high oxygen consumption have reduced periods of half-time, and therefore do not accumulate in the ecosystems. Owing to the biomass of E. azurea in the Piraju Reservoir, the aerobic decay of E. azurea can promote moderate depletion in the dissolved oxygen budget. With the rate of the mineralization of refractory materials (Ξ half-time varying from 385 to 462 days, the fibrous debris of this plant, i.e. refractory fractions, associated with the appropriate conditions of pH and oxi-reduction potential, can contribute to the gas production and storage of particulate organic matter in sediments.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram comparadas as cinéticas de decomposição de Eichhornia azurea e discutidos os destinos de seus detritos; MÉTODOS: As amostras de plantas e de água foram coletadas no reservatório de Piraju (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As plantas foram secas e trituradas; para cada condição experimental (meio aeróbio e anaeróbio foram preparadas 72 câmaras de mineralização com fragmentos de planta e água do reservatório. Nos dias de coleta as fra

  8. The rise and fall of water hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River basin, 1989-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Moorhouse, T.G.; McNabb, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is an invasive aquatic macrophyte associated with major negative economic and ecological impacts to the Lake Victoria region since the plant's establishment in Uganda in the 1980s. Reliable estimates of water hyacinth distribution and extent are required to gauge the severity of the problem through time, relate water hyacinth abundance to environmental factors, identify areas requiring management action, and assess the efficacy of management actions. To provide such estimates and demonstrate the utility of remote sensing for this application, we processed and analyzed remotely sensed imagery to determine the distribution and extent of water hyacinth. Maps were produced and coverage was quantified using a hybrid unsupervised image classification approach with manual editing for each of the riparian countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, as well as for numerous gulfs and bays. A similar procedure was carried out for selected lakes in the Rwanda-Tanzania borderlands lakes region in the Kagera River basin. Results confirm the severity of the water hyacinth infestation, especially in the northern parts of the lake. A maximum lake-wide extent of at least 17,374 ha was attained in 1998. Following this, a combination of factors, including conditions associated with the 1997 to 1998 El Nin??o and biocontrol with water hyacinth weevils, appear to have contributed to a major decline in water hyacinth in the most affected parts of the lake. Some lakes in the Kagera basin, such as Lake Mihindi, Rwanda, were severely infested in the late 1990s, but the level of infestation in most of these decreased markedly by the early 2000s.

  9. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Martinez, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn Kα. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 μg/g) > S (7593.3 μg/g) > Fe (4406.6 μg/g) > Ca (2601.8 μg/g) > Mn (604.2 μg/g) > Ti (230.7 μg/g) > Zn (51.65 μg/g) > Sr (43.55 μg/g) > Rb (18.61 μg/g) > Cu (12.78 μg/g) > Cr (6.45 μg/g) > Ni (4.68 μg/g) > Pb (4.32 μg/g) > Br (4.31 μg/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  10. Re-use of invasive plants (water hyacinth) as organic fertilizer through composting and vermicomposting (Extremadura, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Moreno, Marta M.

    2015-04-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive plant that is native of the Amazon basin and whose capacity for growth and propagation causes major conservation problems with considerable socioeconomic repercussions. The greatest damage due to its fast expansion has been in the middle reaches of the River Guadiana in the SW Iberian Peninsula, where was detected in the Autumn of 2004. Due to its rapid expansion, mechanical extraction was carried out by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (CHG) of Spain's Ministry of the Environment since the affected zone is an important area of irrigation farming and hydraulic works and this alien plant weed provoked acute social alarm (Ruiz et al., 2008). In this work we used composting and vermicomposting techniques as an environmental alternative to assess the possibilities of biotransformation of the water hyacinth biomass removed mechanically from the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Four compost piles 1.5 x 10 m size, mechanically tumbled and with no forced ventilation (turning windrows system), were constructed outdoor. Each compost pile was considered as a different treatment: CC1: fresh water hyacinth / wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC2: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC3: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (2:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2) to favor the composting process; CC4: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2). The vermicomposting process was performed on mesh coated wooden boxes (0.34 m3) covered with a shadow mesh with the aim of harmonizing the environmental conditions. The quantities of water hyacinth biomass used were identical in volume (120 l) but with different state or composition: fresh and chopped biomass (VCF); dry and chopped biomass (VCS); fresh and pre-composted biomass with sheep manure rich in wheat straw (VCP). Identical worm density, irrigation

  11. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 60}Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH Almost-Equal-To 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs present with {sup 60}Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of {sup 60}Co is affected negatively by the presence of {sup 137}Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides

  12. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing 137 Cs and 60 Co radionuclides. ► Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. ► Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. ► Factors affecting bioaccumulation of 137 Cs and 60 Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with 137 Cs and/or 60 Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH ≈ 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of 137 Cs present with 60 Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of 60 Co is affected negatively by the presence of 137 Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 60 Co.

  13. Effect of Non Ionic Surfactant Addition to Cellulase Performance in High-Substrate-Loading-Hydrolysis of Palm Oil EFB and Water-Hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuku Beuna Bardant

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysis with high substrate loading of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis empty fruit bunch (EFB and water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes were investigated as a prior part of ethanol production from lignocelluloses. Commercial surfactant Span 85 and Tween 20 were used as cellulase performance enhancer in hydrolysis process with substrate loading above 20% (w/w. Cellulase performances were compared based on hydrolysis conversion. Hydrolysis conversions of EFB using cellulase with concentration 10 and 15 FPU/g-substrate was 38.55% and 88.80% respectively. Addition 2% (v/v of Tween 20 to EFB hydrolysis reaction with cellulase concentration 10 FPU/g-substrate gave the conversion 87.30%. This addition enhance the cellulase performance up to 226.5% or similar with the performance of cellulase 15 FPU/g substrate. Addition 2% (v/v of Span 85 to the similar reaction only enhances cellulase performance to 174.7%. Hydrolysis conversion of boiling-pretreated water-hyacinth and autoclave-pretreated water-hyacinth using cellulase 15 FPU/g-substrate was 45.84% and 52.29% respectively. Addition 2% (v/v of Tween 20 and Span 85 to boiling-pretreated water-hyacinth hydrolysis with cellulase concentration 15 FPU/g-substrate enhance cellulase performance of 128.9% and 153.5% respectively. Addition 1% (v/v of Tween 20 and Span 85 to the similar reaction with cellulase concentration 10 FPU/g-substrate gave conversions 51.00% and 53.79% respectively, or similar with conversion of autoclave-pretreated water-hyacinth hydrolysis with 15 FPU/g-substrate.

  14. 419-IJBCS-Article-Okunowo wahad

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Phytoremediation potential of some heavy metals by water hyacinth. Wahab Oluwanisola OKUNOWO 1* and ... The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) was investigated on some metals. The plants were grown ... processes of metal removal from soil or water. These processes include: ...

  15. Age structure and feeding of the neotropical grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, M C; de Wysiecki, M L; Poi, A

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the variation in the age structure of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) population and its relation to the host plant biomass and the feeding of the different age classes of this grasshopper on the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes along 2 years, in a Paraná River floodplain lake (Chaco, Argentina). Individuals of C. aquaticum were captured with a 70-cm diameter sweep and separated in nymphs A (instars I and II), nymphs B (instars III to VI), adult females, and adult males; host plant biomass was sampled using a ring with a 0.30-m(2) diameter. Relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum population was calculated by multiplying the number of individuals captured per minute by the daily consumption by individual obtained in each age classes. We found that the age structure and the relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum varied between seasons and years. The highest values of grasshopper abundance, leaf biomass, and relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum population were observed in summer 2006. Plant biomass was directly correlated with nymph abundance and not correlated with adult abundance. Plant biomass available as refuge (leaves), food (laminas), and oviposition site (petioles) to C. aquaticum represented up to 62% of the total plant biomass. The results obtained in C. aquaticum show the importance of considering total plant biomass and plant biomass available for herbivores separately. Our study highlights the need to find an adequate method to estimate the density of C. aquaticum and other semiaquatic grasshoppers in the Paraná River floodplain involving different seasons, years, and water phases (rising and falling).

  16. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Moloukhia, H.; Belacy, N.; Abd El-Rahman, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  17. The phytoremediation of crude oil-polluted aquatic environment by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phytoremediation experiment was carried out in the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to examine the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to detoxify crude oil-polluted aquatic environments. There were fifteen (15) experimental units; twelve (12) had water hyacinth ...

  18. Effects of hyacinth residues on chemical properties and productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed that has blocked many navigable water-ways in the tropics. ... amendments more than S2 and showed that maize performance during the first cropping was better on S1 than S2, whereas during the residual cropping the crop performed equally well on both soils.

  19. 818-IJBCS-Article-Ademola Yakub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1): 9. Nwankwo DI. 1998. The influence of sawmill wood wastes on diatom population at. Oko-baba, Lagos, Nigeria. Nigerian. Journal of Botany, 11: 15 – 24. Nwankwo DI, Akinsoji A. 1992. Epiphyte community on water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in coastal waters of southwestern Nigeria.

  20. Effective utilization of an aquatic weed in an eco-friendly treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World's most troublesome aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been studied for its tendency to accumulate the heavy metal contaminants present in water bodies. A thorough chemical investigation has shed light on the fact that it accumulates heavy metals like Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn) and ...

  1. Wetlands Research Program. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling Vegetation and Delineating Wetlands Transition Zones in Coastal West-Central Florida, January 1979-May 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    include Brazilian pepper bush ( Schinus terebinthifolius ), mela- leuca (Nelalueca quinquenervia), and waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (Austin 1978). 18...pepper Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Broom-sedge Andropogon capillipes Nash Broom-sedge Andropogon virginicus L. Bugleweed Lycopus rubellus Moench 0 Bur...caroliniana Michx. Common willow Sambucus canadensis L. Elderberry Samolus ebracteatus HBK Water pimpernel Saururus cernuus L. Lizard’s tail Schinus

  2. High-yield cellulase production in solid-state fermentation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the strain Trichoderma reesei SEMCC-3.217 was used for producing cellulase in solid-state fermentation with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). The results of fractional factorial design showed that, the addition amount of wheat bran, (NH4)2SO4, CaCl2 and Tween 80 had significant effect on the cellulase ...

  3. Optimization of EDXRF for the study of heavy metal pollution of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectrometer was subsequently utilized to determine concentrations of heavy metals in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms.) found growing along the shore of Lake Victoria. The optimal conditions and detection limits were determined experimentally by variation of the excitation parameters. The study ...

  4. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of volatile n-alkane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of volatile n-alkane hydrocarbons on water hyacinth. (Eichhornia crassipes) root biomass: Effect of organic solvent and mineral acid treatment. Netai Mukaratirwa-Muchanyereyi1,2, Jameson Kugara1 and Mark Fungayi Zaranyika1*. 1Chemistry Department, University of ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 5, No 3 (2009) - Articles Quantitative estimation of biogas produced from the leaves and stem mixtures of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Abstract · Vol 5, No 3 (2009) - Articles Comparative evaluation of protein and amino acid composition of melon (Citrullus vulgaris) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds

  6. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    João Marcelo Lima

    Endophytic and epiphytic fungi isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Cyperus ligularis. L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones were identified by means of the rDNA region sequencing.

  7. Caracterização da qualidade de água e sedimento na UHE Americana relacionados à ocorrência de plantas aquáticas Characterization of water and sediment quality at the Americana reservoir related to the occurrence of aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Velini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na UHE Americana, pertencente à Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz, e faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa e desenvolvimento realizado em conjunto com a Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (UNESP de Botucatu. Foram realizadas amostragens de água e sedimento nos meses de outubro e dezembro de 2003 e fevereiro, abril e junho de 2004. Selecionaram-se seis pontos de coleta no reservatório, sendo cinco a montante da barragem e um a jusante. Levantamentos de flora foram realizados nos meses de dezembro de 2003 e abril e julho de 2004, sendo constatados elevados teores de nitrogênio e fósforo nas amostras de água, com valores médios de 3,867 mg L-1 para nitrato, 0,706 mg L-1 para amônia, 1,372 mg L-1 para nitrito e 151,979 µg L-1 para fosfato dissolvido na água. O sedimento apresentou elevado nível de fertilidade, com médias de 32,18 g kg-1 para matéria orgânica, 68,87 mg dm-3 para P, 36,96 mmol dm-3 para Ca e 11,88 mmol dm-3 para Mg. Espécies marginais e flutuantes foram as principais infestantes do reservatório, destacando-se Brachiaria subquadripara, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes e Salvinia auriculata.This work was carried out at the Americana Reservoir, owned by Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz, and was part of a joint R & D project with Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - Botucatu - São Paulo - Brazil. Water and sediment samplings were collected in October and December 2003 and February, April and June 2004. Six sampling points were selected, being five upstream the barrage and one downstream. Flora assessment was carried out in December 2003, April and July 2004. High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus were observed in the water samples with average values of 3.867 mg L-1 for nitrate, 0.706 mg L-1 for ammonia, 1.372 mg L-1 for nitrite and 151.979 µg L-1 for phosphate dissolved in water. Sediment presented a high level of fertility with mean values of 31.18 g kg-1 for organic matter, 68

  8. Tratamento de efluentes de carcinicultura por macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes Treatment of shrimp effluents by free-floating aquatic macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzaga Henry-Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste estudo a eficiência de sistemas compostos de duas espécies de macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Eichhornia crassipes e Pistia stratiotes no tratamento de efluentes gerados por um viveiro de manutenção de reprodutores de camarões-canela (Macrobrachium amazonicum. Os sistemas de tratamento foram constituídos de 12 unidades experimentais com as macrófitas aquáticas e três sem plantas (controle. Foram analisadas amostras da água de abastecimento do viveiro de criação de camarões-d'água-doce, do efluente gerado e dos efluentes tratados. A remoção de nutrientes não diferiu significativamente entre as duas espécies vegetais. As maiores remoções foram obtidas para fósforo total (41,9% pelo controle; 71,6% por E. crassipes; 69,9% por P. stratiotes; 72,5% por E. crassipes + P. stratiotes e 72,1% por P. stratiotes + E. crassipes e para turbidez (30,6% pelo controle; 80,2% por E. crassipes; 75,2% por P. stratiotes; 79,8% por E. crassipes + P. stratiotes e 81,5% por P. stratiotes + E. crassipes. As macrófitas aquáticas foram eficientes na remoção de nitrogênio e fósforo dos efluentes de criação de M. amazonicum.The efficiency of systems composed of two species of floating aquatic macrophyte (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes to treat effluents from shrimp culture was evaluated in this research. The effluent originated from a pond populated with Macrobrachium amazonicum. Treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks with aquatic macrophyte and three tanks without plants (control. Water samples were collected from the fresh water supply and before and after passing through the treatment systems. There are no differences in the removal of nutrients between the two species. The higher nutrient removal was observed for total phosphorus (41.9% by control; 71.6% by E. crassipes; 69.9 by P. stratiotes; 72.5% by E. crassipes + P. stratiotes and 72.1 by P. stratiotes + E. crassipes and turbidity (30.6% by

  9. Macrophytes aquatiques dans les eaux "continentales" ivoiriennes

    OpenAIRE

    N'dah, E.; Arfi, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Inventory and socio-economic impacts of water weed are presented. Free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia strationes) floating leaves plants (Nymphaea lotus, Polygonum senegalense) as well as emerged species such as Echinochloa pyramidalis and Nelumbo nucifera are the most common species in the concerned aquatic environments. These plants have been colonizing these environments for about a decade and the colonized area are equivalent to 70 % of the whole of the water surface. Besi...

  10. Biological Screening of Eichornia crassipes against Different Pathogenic Microbes: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Rehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research is a biological screening of Eichornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the whole plant were investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, and cytotoxic activities. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using agar well-diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi. The antifungal activity was evaluated using the agar tube–dilution method against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, and Fusarium solani. The phytotoxicity activity was determined using Lemna bioassay against Lemna minor. Brine shrimp–cytotoxicity assay was determined against brine-shrimp larvae. Dichloromethane extract exhibited significant phytotoxicity (100% growth regulation at 1,000 µg/ml concentration against Lemna minor whereas methanolic extracts showed moderate (75% growth regulation phytotoxicity at the same concentration. Methanolic extract showed cytotoxicity at the highest level of dose whereas dichloromethane extract showed no activity having Etoposide as standard drug. Both of the extracts have nonsignificant antifungal and antibacterial activity.

  11. Redescription and revision of the Neotropical genus Pseudoheptascelio Szabó (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Scelioninae, parasitoids of eggs of short-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Johnson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pseudoheptascelio Szabó is redescribed and its species revised. We recognize four species: P. muesebecki Szabó, P. cornopis Masner, P. tico sp. n. and P. rex sp. n. The genus is found from Guatemala south to the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The species P. cornopis is recorded as a parasitoid of the eggs of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.

  12. Redescription and revision of the Neotropical genus Pseudoheptascelio Szabó (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Scelioninae), parasitoids of eggs of short-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Norman F; Musetti, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The genus Pseudoheptascelio Szabó is redescribed and its species revised. We recognize four species: Pseudoheptascelio muesebecki Szabó, Pseudoheptascelio cornopis Masner, Pseudoheptascelio ticosp. n. and Pseudoheptascelio rexsp. n. The genus is found from Guatemala south to the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The species Pseudoheptascelio cornopis is recorded as a parasitoid of the eggs of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.

  13. Functionality of the plastron in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera, Curculionidae: aspects of the integument coating and submersion laboratory experiments Funcionalidade do plastrão em adultos de Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera, Curculionidae: aspectos do revestimento tegumentar e experimentos laboratoriais de submersão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Oliveira de Sousa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments. The tegument processes were recognized in three types: agglutinated scales with large perforations, plumose scales of varied sizes and shapes, and hairs. The experiments were carried out on 264 adult individuals which were kept submerged at different time intervals (n = 11 and in two types of treatment, natural non-aerated water and previously boiled water, with four repetitions for each treatment. The tests showed a maximum mortality after 24 hours of immersion in the previously boiled water treatment. The survival of the adults was negative and significantly correlated with the types of treatment employed and within the different time intervals. The values of oxygen dissolved in water (mg/l differed significantly within the types of treatment employed. They were positively correlated with the survival of the adults in the two types of treatment, although more markedly in the treatment with previously boiled water. The mortality of adults after 24 hours of submersion in the treatment with previously boiled water may be associated with the physical-chemical conditions of the non-tested water in this study, such as low surface tension and concentration of solutes. These results suggest plastron functionality in the adults of this species.A teoria plastrão foi testada em adultos de Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, por meio da análise da estrutura que reveste o tegumento destes insetos e em experimentos laboratoriais de submersão. Os processos tegumentares foram reconhecidos em três tipos: escamas aglutinadas e com perfurações largas; escamas plumosas de tamanhos e formas variadas; e pêlos. Os experimentos realizados com 264 indivíduos adultos os quais permaneciam submersos por diferentes intervalos de tempo (n = 11 e em dois

  14. Biodigestion of the aquatics plants mixtures and biogas production; Biodigestao de misturas de plantas aquaticas e producao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Abreu, Fernando Luiz Barbuda de; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Several systems of generating electricity using water storage reservoirs. One problem that occurs constantly in these reservoirs is the accumulation of aquatic plants, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia that may cause serious problems for the system. Periodically, the biomass must be removed and disposed of appropriate form, so that does not cause contamination of soil, groundwater or allowing the proliferation of vectors. One possible destination is the use of biomass in a process of biodigestion, resulting in biogas. The bench of biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced and a reservoir for the monitoring the production of biogas. The reactor is located inside a container containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the aim of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor was obtained using a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity. These results show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humidity, total organic matter, waste mineral and organic carbon. The process of biodigestion of the mixture of aquatic plants: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea and Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia shows potential for obtaining biogas, with considerable levels of methane, in order to facilitate its recovery.

  15. Proposal for the utilisation of water hyacinth for paper and board making. Commonwealth Regional (Asia/Pacific) Rural Technology Programme proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the most prolific aquatic plants, which spreads at an alarming rate having spikes of large blue flowers and roundish leaves with inflated bladder-like petioles. In Louisiana, USA, a single water hyacinth produced the incredible number of 248,000 daughter plants in just 90 days. It is reported that a one hectare pond of water hyacinth can produce 0.9 to 1.8 tonnes of dry mass of weed per day. The disadvantages associated with this alarming rate of growth can be an advantage if the water hyacinth can be effectively utilised for any industrial purposes. Earlier references on the utilisation of water hyacinth for making pulp and paper are rather controversial. The Philippines research group on water hyacinth utilisation claims to have produced quality paper, while research workers of the University of California, after extensive testing, have expressed their complete disappointment as a source of paper pulp. Exhaustive investigations have been made at the University of Florida with a view to making paper using various pulping conditions; these have reportedly been a failure. The failure was ascribed to moisture clinging to the fibre with the result that the pulp cannot be drained or dewatered in modern high speed paper forming machines, it was concluded that 'water hyacinth does not therefore look promising as an immediate source of pulp', presumably for the large scale paper industry, using sophisticated high speed sheet making machines. The separation of vascular fibre bundles would be more difficult from the water hyacinth plants than bagasse, because the water hyacinth plant consists of root,stalk and leaves in contrast to bagasse which is made up almost entirely of pressed stalk. Azam reported that the whole plant cannot be used for paper making as the dried leaves are brittle and the roots are rather dark in colour, which makes the pulp dirty and brittle, but that the pulp made from the stalk gives satisfactory

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with roots of Eichhornia azuera (Swarts Kunth (Pontederiaceae in an oxbow lake in Pantanal, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique L. Saulino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play an important role in the community structure of aquatic systems. In this study, we examined the macroinvertebrate communities within 20 Eichhornia azurea roots in an oxbow lake in Pantanal (MS during dry season. Species abundance and richness were compared via linear regression, and the mean relative proportion of macroinvertebrates among root samples was determined. Macroinvertebrates were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, and root volume was measured using the volume displacement method. We identified 371 specimens, belonging to 31 families and 21 taxonomic groups. Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae, Slavinia sp. and Dero sp. (Naididae, all detritivores, were most the represented taxon. Regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between root volume and the abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between species abundance and richness among different E. azuera root volumes, however we did observe a trend toward a positive correlation of both variables with increasing root volume. We suspect that greater root volumes should increase microhabitat availability, which could explain this observed trend. Our results indicate that E. azurea roots may play an important ecologic role (e.g., by providing shelter, food stock in lake macroinvertebrate communities.

  17. Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters for adsorptive removal of dye Basic Blue 9 by ground nut shells and Eichhornia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanjit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of dye Basic Blue 9 (BB9 was studied using ground nut shells charcoal (GNC, and Eichhornia charcoal (EC as adsorbents. The characterization was done with FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Batch adsorption studies have been investigated by measuring the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, contact time, temperature, and ionic strength. Adsorption of the dye increased with increase in contact time, temperature, amount of adsorbent and initial concentration. The kinetic experimental data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle diffusion, Elovich model and Bangham’s model and corresponding constants were calculated and discussed. Pseudo-second order kinetics was found to describe the adsorption of dye BB9 on both the adsorbents and rate is mainly controlled by intra particle diffusion. A study of five isotherm models; Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin and Radushkevich and generalized isotherms have been made and important thermodynamic parameters have been obtained. The adsorption of BB9 onto GNC and EC was spontaneous and endothermic as concluded from thermodynamic assays. Experimental results confirmed that dye BB9 can be successfully removed from the aqueous solutions economically and efficiently.

  18. Holocene climatic fluctuations from Lower Brahmaputra flood plain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phaea nouchali, Typha latifolia, Trapa bispinosa,. Lemna minor, Eichhornia crassipes, Utricularia flexuosa, U. exoieta, Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia arrhiza, Nelumbo nucifera, Myriophyllum indicum,. Ceratopteris thalictroides, Marsilea minuta, Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia oblongifolia and Azolla pinnata, respectively. However ...

  19. Trichoptera (Insecta in water hyacinth roots: evaluation of the influence of exotic mussel and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Francisca Marçal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Information on the influence of mussel macrofouling in invertebrate communities usually have the initial assumption of negative interference. Methods We analyzed this relationship in a community of aquatic invertebrates associated to roots of Eichhornia crassipes in 15 shallow marginal lakes in the Pantanal National Park and surroundings. We sampled quadrants of floating vegetation, identified the aggregate fauna and evaluated the density effect of Limnoperna fortunei, as well as abiotic factors of the Trichoptera community using ordinances and multivariate regressions. Results We found no significant relationship between the abundance of mussels on the macrophytes and the Trichoptera larvae. However, we observed an interference of oxygen on the structure and density of genera. The composition and abundance of the phytophylous caddisfly community is influenced by the depth and the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the marginal regions of the lakes. Conclusions We suggest that the absence of the effects of the assessed L. fortunei in the community is related to the 'biotic resistance', in which the phytophylous caddisfly demonstrated adaptation to an environment characterized by hypoxic conditions in the dry season. L. fortunei was limited by the depth and reduction of oxygen, presenting lower density in lakes with such characteristics.

  20. Feeding patterns of the aquatic grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the middle Paraná river, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, S; de Wysiecki, M L; Marchese, M

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) is native to South America and inhabits lowlands from southern Mexico to Central Argentina and Uruguay. This grasshopper is host-specific to aquatic plants of the genera Eichhornia and Pontederia. The objectives of this study were to analyze the feeding patterns of the aquatic grasshopper C. aquaticum in relationship to development stages and sex and to determine the food consumption rate in their host plant, Eichhornia crassipes. Samples were collected from April 2006 to May 2007 in different floodplain lakes of the Middle Parana River. The average consumption was greater in the females (0.127 g food/day ± 0.051) than in the males (0.060 g food/day ± 0.025). The feces of 361 nymphs and adults of this locust were examined and the most common tissue fragments found were of the water hyacinth (E. crassipes). In the initial nymphal stages (I, II and III), an exclusive consumption of E. crassipes was registered, while in the IV and V stages the choice included also other macrophytes. In summary, C. aquaticum presents polyphagy in the field, feeding on six macrophytes of different classes and families.

  1. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  2. Pengurangan Kadar N dan P pada Limbah Cair Laboratorium secara Fitoremediasi Menggunakan Enceng Gondok (Eichornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmaya Arofah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory liquid waste contains both metal, nonmetal, organic and anorganic content. If it is discharged directly to environment, it will cause pollution that is harmful for living thing. Data of waste survey result in 2009-2010 indicated that liquid waste of Laboratory in Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (JTK UGM consist of various complex compound such as NH4+, PO43-. JTK UGM has wastewater treatment plant (WWTP to deal with environmental pollution coming from waste of each laboratory and have three process, anaerobe activated sludge, aerobe and phytoremediation. Because the laboratory’s waste was very complex, the WWTP have not operated maximally yet. So, it is necessary research on wwtp processing step, particularly for phytoremediation process using water hyacinth. Objective of this research was to study effect of concentrations N and P on adaptability and capability of water hyacinth to grow. In addition it developed a mathematical model to estimate of N and P concentration decrease rate in liquid. The research was done in batch by planting water hyacinth that has been acclimated in wastewater containing N-NH4OH and P-H3PO4. Parameter observed is N and P concentration in liquid. The result indicated that water hyacinth can absorb N and P. Water hyacinth grow well in N-NH4OH concentration of 9.651 ppm and 15.573 ppm and P-H3PO4 concentration of 2.013 ppm and 2.7373 ppm. It was marked with additional weight and colour of water hyacinth leaves of fresh green. Mathematical model presented to estimate N concentration decrease rate indicated good result in experiment. However, P concentration decrease in liquid phase, the presented model is still not good, because P nutrient decomposition process has not been accommodated during absorption by water hyacinth.

  3. The association between invertebrates and macrophytes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hirudineans, Placobdella sp. and Haemopsis sp., and a turbellarian, Dugesia sp., were the most abundant taxa in the shoreline zone where Eichhornia crassipes was the most important macrophyte. The invertebrate community on other macrophytes was very different from that on Eichhornia, being dominated by ...

  4. Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (pplants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing wetland to remediate high levels of perchlorate polluted water.

  5. Suitability of aquatic biomass from Lake Toba (North Sumatra, Indonesia) for energy generation by combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, A.; Roubík, H.; Herák, D.

    2017-09-01

    Several aquatic plant species were identified as aquatic pollution of Lake Toba, North Sumatra (Indonesia); specifically, water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and aquatic weeds Hydrilla verticillata and Myriophyllum spicatum due to their high biomass yield which causes impenetrable mats at the bottom and surface of the lake. That complicates other vegetation growth and utilization of water areas for fishing or recreation. In attempt to clean the lake and prevent plants expansion, great amount of plants populations are removed from water but subsequent efficient utilization of such aquatic biomass is not ensured. Present research investigated energy potential of aquatic biomass originated from mentioned aquatic plants from Lake Toba and its possible utilization for energy production by direct combustion. Performed chemical analysis contained from determination of moisture, ash and volatile matter contents and calorific values. Evaluation of results proved highest suitability and energy potential of Eichhornia crassipes with gross calorific value (GCV) 16.31 MJ·kg-1, followed by Hydrilla verticillata with GCV 15.24 MJ·kg-1. Samples of Myriophyllum spicatum exhibited unsatisfactory results due to its low GCV (11.27 MJ·kg-1) in combination with high ash content (36.99%) which indicates complications during combustion, thus, low energy production efficiency and overall unsuitability for combustion purposes.

  6. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  7. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C V; Henry, R

    2013-02-01

    Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009), the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea) should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa) divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  8. Microbial production, ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from terrestrial (P. hysterophorus) and aquatic (E. crassipes) invasive weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sushobhan; Borah, Arup Jyoti; Poddar, Maneesh Kumar; Dikshit, Pritam Kumar; Rohidas, Lilendar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2017-10-01

    This study reports synthesis of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) polymer from two invasive weeds, viz. P. hysterophorus and E. crassipes. The pentose and hexose-rich hydrolyzates obtained from acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of two biomasses were separately fermented using Ralstonia eutropha MTCC 8320 sp. PHB was extracted using sonication and was characterized using FTIR, 1 H and 13 C NMR and XRD. PHB content of dry cell mass was 8.1-21.6% w/w, and the PHB yield was 6.85×10 -3 -36.41×10 -3 % w/w raw biomass. Thermal properties of PHB were determined by TGA, DTG and DSC analysis. PHB obtained from pentose-hydrolyzate had glass transition temperatures of 6°-9°C, while PHB from hexose-rich hydrolyzate had maximum thermal degradation temperatures of 370°-389°C. These thermal properties were comparable to the properties of commercial PHB. Probable causes leading to differences in thermal properties of pentose and hexose-derived PHB are: extent of crystallinity and presence of impurity in the polymer matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of lead-doped hydroponic medium on the adsorption/bioaccumulation processes of lead and phosphorus in roots and leaves of the aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes

    2013-11-30

    In this study, lead bioaccumulation by the living free-floating aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes in different hydroponic conditions with variations in phosphorus and lead concentrations was investigated. A set of growth experiments in hydroponic media doped with lead and phosphorus within a wide concentration range was performed for 32 days in a greenhouse. All experiments were carried out with periodic replacement of all nutrients and lead. The concentration of lead and nutrients in biomass was determined by synchrotron radiation-excited total reflection X-ray fluorescence. By increasing the lead concentration in the medium, a reduction in biomass growth was observed, but a higher phosphorus retention in roots and leaves was shown at lower lead concentrations. In addition, an increase in the amount of bioaccumulated lead and phosphorus in roots was observed for higher lead and phosphorus concentrations in the medium, reaching saturation values of 4 mg Pb g(-1) and 7 mg P g(-1), respectively. Four non-structural kinetic models were tested, to represent the bioaccumulation of lead and phosphorus in roots. Pseudo-second order and irreversible kinetic models described the lead bioaccumulation data well, however, an irreversible kinetic model better fitted phosphorus uptake in roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  11. Macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados às raízes de Eichhornia azuera (Swarts Kunth (Pontederiaceae em uma lagoa marginal no Pantanal, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique Lanzi Saulino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p65 Macrófitas aquáticas desempenham um importante papel na estruturação de comunidades dos ecossistemas de aquáticos. No presente estudo, a abundância e a riqueza da comunidade de macroinvertebrados foram comparadas através de correlação simples e da participação relativa média com o volume de raízes de Eichhornia azurea numa lagoa marginal no Pantanal (MS no período de seca. Os macroinvertebrados foram identificados até o menor nível taxonômico possível e os volumes das raízes obtidos pelo método de deslocamento de volume. Foram identificados 21 táxons pertencentes a 13 famílias num total de 371 exemplares. Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae, Slavina sp. e Dero sp. (Naididae, todos detritívoros, foram mais representativos. Houve correlação positiva entre o volume das raízes com a abundância e riqueza de macroinvertebrados. Embora a análise de variância não tenha mostrado diferenças significativas entre riqueza e abundância da macrofauna e o volume das raízes, observou-se uma tendência de aumento de ambas as variáveis com o aumento do volume das raízes. Assim, as raízes maiores devem ter maior disponibilidade de microhabitats justificando a tendência observada. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as dimensões das raízes E. azurea podem desempenhar importante papel ecológico como abrigo e local de acúmulo de alimentos para os macroinvertebrados em lagoas.

  12. Fitorremediación mediante el uso de dos especies vegetales Lemna minor (Lenteja de agua), y Eichornia crassipes (Jacinto de agua) en aguas residuales producto de la actividad minera

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Jumbo, Mariuxi Del Cisne; Flores Campoverde, Edison Darío

    2012-01-01

    La contaminación del agua con metales pesados es un problema de gran importancia, aunque existen varios métodos convencionales para su remoción estos son muy costosos por lo que la fitorremediación es una alternativa que utiliza plantas para reducir la concentración de dichos contaminantes. En este trabajo se determinó la capacidad de absorción del mercurio mediante el uso de las macrófitas acuáticas Eichornia crassipes y Lemna minor en diferentes condiciones experimentales. A las macrófit...

  13. KAJIAN EFEKTIFITAS PENGGUNAAN TANAMAN ECENG GONDOK (Eichornia crassipes DALAM MENURUNKAN BEBAN PENCEMAR AIR LIMBAH INDUSTRI GULA TEBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udin Hasanudin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane industries produce wastewater with high levels of pollution load. Wastewater pollutant load can be lowered by treating wastewater in the WWTP. Wastewater treatment process using Biological conventional system still has the disadvantage of increasing the pH of the waste water at a given time. It causes algae blooming. Algae population levels increases due to nutrients in wastewater. To prevent algae  from blooming, nutrient concentration in the waste water should be reduced. This study was aimed to measure the effectiveness of Waterhyacinth in lowering pollutant load of sugar cane industrial wastewater. The method used was to plant Waterhyacinth in aeration pond number 2 of WWTP and then taking samples at four locations and consists of point I (inlet pond aeration 2, point A (before the water hyacinth plant, point B (after the water hyacinth plant, the point C (waste pond outlet monitor. Parameters measured included pH, TSS, COD, NH4, and NO3. The result showed the wastewater treatment system using water hyacinth plant reduced the pollutant load sugar cane industrial wastewater at the rate of  0,000858%/m2 day, 0,010997%/m2 day, 0,008691%/m2 day, 0,005936%/m2 day, and 0,015016%/m2 day, respectively. These conditions indicate planting hyacinth was effective in lowering the level of industrial wastewater pollutant load of sugar cane. Keywords: algae bloom, sugarcane industry wastewater, waterhyacinth

  14. Invertebrate Colonization During Leaf Decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth (Commelinales: Pontoderiaceae and Salvinia auriculata Aubl. (Salvinales: Salvinaceae in a Neotropical Lentic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidimara da Silveira

    2016-04-01

    Resumo. A decomposição de macrófitas é um processo essencial para ciclagem de carbono e nutrientes, e é fonte de matéria orgânica para invertebrados em lagos. Avaliamos a colonização por invertebrados aquáticos em folhas em decomposição de duas espécies de macrófitas em um sistema lêntico Neotropical. O experimento foi conduzido entre novembro de 2007 e fevereiro de 2008, com a utilização de 54 sacos de detrito (Eichhornia azurea (Swartz: n = 27 e Salvinia auriculata Aubl.: n = 27, cada um contendo 10 g de folhas secas. Três sacos de cada espécie foram recuperados após 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 e 72 dias de incubação. A massa remanescente de folha das duas espécies de macrófitas tendeu a diminuir com o tempo, embora a velocidades diferentes. A decomposição de folhas de E. azurea e S. auriculata foram classificadas como rápida e intermédia, respectivamente. Em geral, durante o experimento a razão carbono: nitrogênio diminuiu em E. azurea e aumentou em S. auriculata, e apresentou diferença entre os dias de experimento e entre as espécies de macrófitas. Em E. azurea perda de massa foi negativamente correlacionada com a razão de carbono: nitrogênio das folhas, mas o mesmo padrão não foi observado para as folhas de S. auriculata. A composição e riqueza de invertebrados diferiram entre os dias, mas não entre espécies de macrófitas. Concluímos que o processo de sucessão ao longo da cadeia de detritos foi mais importante na estruturação da comunidade de invertebrados do que a variação na qualidade nutricional do detrito de folha para estas duas espécies de macrófitas.

  15. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil Macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados à Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth e suas relações com as variáveis abióticas em ecossistemas lênticos marginais (São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.Lagoas marginais são caracterizadas por apresentar elevada diversidade biológica, devido à presença de macrófitas aquáticas nas suas zonas litor

  16. Recycling the nutrients in residues from methane digesters of aquatic macrophytes for new biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisak, M. D.; Williams, L. D.; Ryther, J. H.

    1980-04-01

    The floating freshwater macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) was fermented anaerobically to produce 0.4 l of biogas/g volatile solids at 60% methane with a bioconversion efficiency of 47%. Both the liquid and solid digester residues were a rich source of nutrients that were recycled to produce additional biomass. An approximate balance of the nitrogen recycled through the culture-digester-culture system indicated that nitrogen was conserved within the digester. All of the nitrogen originally added to the digester in the form of shredded water hyacinths could be found in the liquid (48%) and solid (52%) residues; 65.5% of the nitrogen in these residues could be reassimilated by cultures of water hyacinths. This study indicated the potential of bioconversion of aquatic macrophytes to methane as a possible means of both producing and conserving energy.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXTRACTION TEMPERATURE ON THE RENDEMENT AND PECTIN METHOXYL CONTENTS OF WATERHYACINTH (Eichornia crassipes (Mart Solms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Daniarsari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find out the influence of the extraction temperature on the rendement and pectin methoxyl contents of waterhyacinth with the applied temperatures ranged from 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C.The stages of this research involve extraction, precipitation, washing and drying. The pectin produced was, then, identified by reacting it with water, ethanol 96 %, NaOH and spectrophotometer IR. Its product was, then, compared to the comparing pectin. To determine the methoxyl contents, the acid - base titration was used. The resulting data were analysed and tested using One Direction Anava with SPSS 10.0 program. From the quantitative used by this study, pectin was produced. This is shown by the gel-formation. The rendements produced with the extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C were 0,428 %; 0,487 %; 0,629 %; 0,774 % and 0,958% respectively. While its methoxyl contents were 3,879 %; 3,993 %; 4,413 %; 3,573 % and 2,837 %. Based on the analysed data, it was found that the treatment with the extraction temperature gives a significant influence on the rendement and pectin methoxyl contents of waterhyacinth. Keywords: extraction, pectin, methoxyl contents

  18. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air ... can hurt your health. Learn more about the health effects of polluted water. You can also learn more ... Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Here are ...

  19. Uso de biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes visando à remoção de metais pesados de soluções contaminadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i1.3166

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a eficiência da biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes na remoção dos metais pesados cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb, cromo (Cr, cobre (Cu, zinco (Zn e níquel (Ni de soluções preparadas com estes metais. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (soluções com diferentes concentrações dos metais pesados e quatro repetições. A biomassa seca permaneceu nas soluções dos tratamentos por um período de 48h, e nos intervalos de 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 e 48h após a instalação do experimento, coletaram-se alíquotas de cada tratamento, determinando-se a maior remoção de cada metal pesado pela biomassa seca do aguapé. Foi realizada digestão nitroperclórica na biomassa seca e determinação dos teores dos metais na biomassa e nas alíquotas por espectrometria de absorção atômica, modalidade chama. Para os metais Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu e Zn ocorreu remoção significativa pela massa seca do aguapé nos diferentes tratamentos, enquanto para o Ni não foi encontrada diferença significativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a biomassa seca produzida, a partir do aguapé Eichornia crassipes, é um excelente material para a remoção, tanto em pequena como em grande escala, de corpos hídricos contaminados com metais pesados.

  20. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  1. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  2. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available to explore desalination for future capacity. Water is essential to life: the human body is about 75 percent water, with up to 85 percent of brain cells liquid. Around 71 percent of the planet is covered in water, but 97,5 percent of it is salt water... risen to 90 percent, leaving only 10 percent for animals and plants. Yet 40 percent of the water used globally is for sanitation and other uses in buildings. The operation of buildings places a strain on raw water reserves, while wastewater and sewage...

  3. Variação espacial e temporal de larvas de Odonata associadas com macrófitas aquáticas em duas lagoas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil Spatial and temporal variation of Odonata larvae associated with macrophytes in two floodplain lakes from the upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilza Maria de Souza Franco

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de macrófitas aquáticas foram coletadas de março de 1992 a fevereiro de 1993, nas lagoas do Guaraná (Eichhornia azurea e dos Patos (E. crassipes e E. azurea. Na lagoa do Guaraná, a maior densidade e a maior diversidade foram registradas nas águas altas, com dominância de Telebasis e Acanthagrion, enquanto na lagoa dos Patos a maior densidade e a maior diversidade foram verificadas na fase de águas baixas. Os táxons dominantes na lagoa dos Patos foram Telebasis, Acanthagrion, Neoneura (?,Coryphaeschna adnexa, Miathyria, Diastatops intensa e Erythemis. A lagoa dos Patos diferenciou-se da lagoa do Guaraná principalmente pela alta densidade de C. adnexa, Miathyria, D. intensa e Erythemis, sugerindo que a morfologia de E. crassipes abrigue maior número de invertebrados. A variação do nível hidrométrico dos rios influenciou na concentração de oxigênio dissolvido e pH. Essa variação foi um dos fatores determinantes na flutuação mensal da densidade das larvas. A diferença entre as lagoas, mostrada na análise DCA, deveu-se, principalmente, à variação da densidade de Odonata.Samples of aquatic macrophytes were collected on Guaraná (Eichhornia azurea and Patos (E. crassipes and E. azurea Lakes from March 1992 to February 1993. On Guaraná Lake the highest density and diversity were registered during the high water phase with dominance of Telebasis and Acanthagrion, while on Patos Lake, highest density and diversity were observed during the low water phase. The dominant taxa on Patos Lake were Telebasis, Acanthagrion, Neoneura (?,Coryphaeschna adnexa, Miathyria, Diastatops intensa and Erythemis. DCA and ANOVA differentiated Patos Lake mainly, because of the high abundance of C. adnexa, Miathyria, D. intensa and Erythemis which may be due to morphology of E. crassipes that shelters larger number of invertebrates. Water level variation of rivers influenced concentration of dissolved oxygen and pH. This variation was

  4. Avaliação da sensibilidade de diversas espécies de plantas daninhas aquáticas ao carfentrazone-ethyl, em ambiente controlado Assessment of sensitivity of several aquatic weeds to carfentrazone-ethyl under controlled environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Foloni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas aquáticas, especialmente macrófitas, tornam-se sério problema em hidrelétricas, afetando a múltipla utilização dos corpos d'água, incluindo produção de peixes e atividades de pesca, perdas d'água por evapotranspiração, esportes aquáticos, canoagem, irrigação e produção de energia nas usinas hidrelétricas. Com o objetivo de analisar o potencial de uso do carfentrazone-ethyl no controle das principais plantas daninhas aquáticas no Brasil, foi instalado um experimento em vasos com água. Utilizaram-se os seguintes tratamentos herbicidas (g i.a. ha-1: carfentrazone-ethyl a 15, 30 e 60; glyphosate a 4.536; 2,4-D a 4.690; imazapyr a 1.250; e uma testemunha sem herbicida. Esses tratamentos foram testados nas seguintes espécies: Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes, Myriophyllum aquaticum, Brachiaria arrecta, Hydrocotyle umbellata, Typha sp. e Echinochloa polystachya. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após os tratamentos. Os resultados mostraram que o carfentrazone-ethyl foi eficiente no controle de E. crassipes (maior dose e P. stratiotes (duas maiores doses, com efeito supressivo sobre S. auriculata. Foi observado que nas outras plantas daninhas estudadas não houve eficiência de controle.Aquatic weeds, especially macrophytes, are a serious problem in hydroelectric plant systems, affecting the multiple use of water, such as fish production and fishing activities, water losses by evapotranspiration, aquatic sports, boating, irrigation and hydroelectric power production. An experiment using boxes filled with water was carried out to analyze the potential use of carfentrazone-ethyl in the control of the main aquatic weeds in Brazil. The following herbicide treatments (g i.a. ha-1 were used: carfentrazone-ethyl at 15, 30 and 60; glyphosate at 4,536; 2,4D at 4,690; imazapyr at 1,250, and no herbicide. These treatments were tested on the species: Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia

  5. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marion County, Indiana Salt Lake County, Utah Seattle-King County, Washington Tools and Training CLPPP CAP Healthy ... wish to use tap water for drinking or cooking, especially when the water has been off and ...

  6. Synthesis of Furfural from Water Hyacinth (Eichornia croassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismiyarto; Ngadiwiyana; windarti, T.; Purbowatiningrum, RS; Hapsari, M.; Rafi'ah, FH; Suyanti; Haq, MS

    2017-02-01

    Furfural has been prepared from hydrolysis of dried biomass of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) by using diluted hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid as catalysts. This process involved the conversion of the pentosane fraction in water hyacinth into pentose, and then pentose was cyclodehydrated into furfural. The reaction was conducted in a distillation set with receiving the flask that contains chloroform. Furfural was identified by fehling test which was then characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The yield of furfural obtained using sulphuric acid catalyst was 0.38% and hydrochloric acid catalyst was 0.01% of dried biomass.

  7. Experiences of the Use of Bio monitors for Heavy Metal Pollution Control in Almendares River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares- Rieumont, S.; Lima, L.; De la Rosa, D.; Martinez, F.; Borroto, J.; Columbie, I.; Sanchez, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text: This work is the first approach to establish a monitoring system for heavy metals in the Almendares Vento Basin. This basin is the most important watershed of Havana City, which main river is the Almendares River, that with 42 km of length goes through 5 municipalities, where live more than 500,000 inhabitants. The river receives a large pollution loads from more than 50 pollution sources of Havana City. Inputs of toxic substances like heavy metals come from the industries located along the river and tributaries, the urban discharges and from important speedways in both shores of the river. In the work, concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in sediments, water, gastropod species Tarebia granifera Lamarck, macrophyte Eichhornia Crassipes and fish from the specie Gambusia were evaluated at 14 stations during the dry season of 2003. Concentrations of copper and lead in water samples exceeded applicable guidelines for many of the sites monitored in the river basin. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed using three-stage sequential extraction procedure. In sediments high contents of studied metals were found in the bioavailable fraction. Some stations were highly polluted with all elements. Two main sources of pollution with heavy metals could be identified in the basin due to the higher concentration of most of the studied metals in the analized sampling stations. Pb concentrations were high in almost all the stations. Similar behaviour was found for the metal concentration in Eichhornia Crassipes roots, that appear to have an interesting potential as bio monitor of the pollution with heavy metals. Tarebia granifera Lamarck only could be found in 5 of the 14 stations monitored, and it presence is related with the quality of the river water. The magnitude of contamination was estimated by the comparison between local backgrounds and concentration of metals measured. Only high concentration of Zn were found in the Gambusia tissue, and no

  8. Discovery and Innovation - Vol 16, No 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eichhornia Crassipes) Substrate · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Cousins Gwanama, Keto E Mshigeni, Shu T Chang, 105-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v16i3.15663 ...

  9. Qualité bioécologique d'un milieu lacustre hyper-eutrophisé en zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dysfunctioning of this lentic medium and the high load of orthophosphate and nitrates are confirmed by the identification of a high density of macrophytes such as Nymhea lotus, Pistia stratiotes et d'Eichhornia crassipes. The high correlation that is observed between the physico-chimical and biological parameters and ...

  10. Biomonitoring of heavy metals pollution in Lake Burullus, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    that, the eastern and eastern southern parts of the lake have generally higher concentrations of heavy metals than the western and middle one. Potamogeton pectinatus showed high contents of Pb, Cd and Zn respectively. On the other hands Eichhornia crassipes showed high level of copper while in Ceratophyllum.

  11. Comparison of the density and species composition of aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aquatic invertebrates found between the roots of Eichhornia crassipes plants from Lakes Cubhu and Nsezi were analysed and compared with each other. Root samples in Lake Cubhu were dominated by Corophium triaenonyx and Caridina nilotica whilst root samples from Lake Nsezi were dominated by oligochaetes, ...

  12. Interactive Influence of N and P on their uptake by four different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uptake kinetics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) by hydrophytes can be influenced by the interaction between N and P. In this study, Pistia stratiotes (a floating plant), Eichhornia crassipes (a floating plant), Vallisneria spiralis (a submerged plant), and Cyperus papyrus (an emergent plant) were selected to measure ...

  13. Ocorrência de plantas aquáticas nos reservatórios da Light-RJ Ocurrence of aquatic plants in the Light-RJ reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar as comunidades infestantes de plantas aquáticas presentes nos reservatórios da Light-Sistema de Eletricidade S.A., localizada no município de Piraí-RJ. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de julho a setembro de 1998. Os reservatórios analisados foram: Vigário, Pereira Passos e Lajes, sendo as quantidades de pontos amostrados de 19, 9 e 15, respectivamente. Em cada ponto amostrado fez-se a marcação das coordenadas geográficas e avaliou-se a porcentagem de ocupação do corpo d'água pelas espécies de plantas aquáticas presentes. Depois da identificação das plantas, pôde-se verificar quais eram as espécies mais freqüentes e a sua distribuição dentro do sistema de geração de energia. As espécies encontradas nos reservatórios foram: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht; Salvinia auriculata (Micheli Adans; e Thypha dominguensis L.This study aimed to describe the aquatic weeds infesting the Light-Electric System S.A. reservoirs, located in Pirai-RJ, Brazil. The survey was carried out from July to September 1998. The reservoirs analyzed were: Vigario, Pereira Passos and Lajes, with 19, 9 and 15 points being sampled, respectively. Sampled geographic coordinates were marked in each point and a visual estimate was made of the percentage of river water occupied by the aquatic plants. After plant identification, the most frequent species and their distribution were determined as follows: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham.& Schlecht

  14. Fabrication and characterization of water hyacinth nanocellulose fiber polymer hydrogel nanocomposites in potential wound dressing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Tristan Joshua; Diaz, Jose Mario; Chakraborty, Soma; Rojas, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in attention gained by nanocellulose for its use in biomedical applications because of its unique properties in biocompatible materials such as superior mechanical properties, remarkable surface chemistry, high surface area, water retention, low cytotoxity and excellent biocompatibility, studies have been conducted to utilize the nanomaterial and have shown significant results in this high end application. Not to mention, it can be naturally-derived from plant sources; hence, highly biodegradable and renewable. In this study, nanocellulose from raw water hyacinth (E. Crassipes) fibers will be fabricated into a nanocomposite pellicular material to serve as wound dressing in skin tissue regenerative healing. Water hyacinth is a known to be world's worst weed due to its extensive rapid-mat like proliferation. Utilizing water hyacinth fibers as such would allow for another method to possibly reduce surplus plant population; and, transform this underutilized plant into a remarkably high-end product. (author)

  15. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  16. Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots from biomass via simple one-pot method and exploration of their application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiming; Duan, Jialong; Yang, Wen; Li, Xueming; Mo, Jinghui; Yang, Peizhi; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-03-01

    Pursuit of low-cost and large-scale method to prepare carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is a persistent objective in recent years. In this work, we have successfully synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) under different hydrothermal temperature employing Eichhornia crassipes (ECs) as precursors. Considering the pollution ability to water and low-cost, this study may direct the novel path to convert waste material to useful quantum dots. After measurements such as TEM, XRD, Raman, XPS, PL as well as the UV-vis absorbance ability, outstanding optical properties have been discovered. In this fashion, solar cells are tentative to be fabricated, yielding the maximized solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 0.17% with a good fill factor of 67%. Meanwhile, the above-mentioned quantum dots also show the up-conversion ability, suggesting the potential application in infrared detection or broadening light-absorbing devices.

  17. Occurrence of Mesostoma tetragonal (Müller (Turbellaria in the Deepar wetlands of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girindra Kalita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesostoma tetragonum (Müller, a freshwater free living turbellarian occupies a niche in the aquahabitat of the Deepar wetlands of Assam (91036’-91042”E and 26006’-26009’26”N. The studied wetland is a Ramsar Site of India. Mesostoma tetragonum was recorded for the first time from the region. It was collected from the littoral stands of partly decomposed Eichhornia crassipes in the wetlands during scientific studies on the diversity of macro-invertebrate fauna. Some of the biological and behavioural aspects of the species were observed during laboratory rearing. A few relevant physical and chemical water parameters of its habitat are critically analyzed.

  18. Estudo da degradação da biomassa de três espécies de plantas aquáticas no reservatório da UHE de Americana-SP Study on the degradation of three aquatic weeds at the Americana-SP reservoir in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Negrisoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de decomposição de plantas aquáticas foi realizado na UHE de Americana-CPFL, com o objetivo de avaliar a taxa de degradação de plantas na própria água do reservatório. Foram consideradas como variáveis a profundidade (superfície, 3,5 e 7,0 m, as espécies de plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia crassipes, Brachiaria subquadripara e Pistia stratiotes e o tipo de processamento a que estas foram submetidas (planta inteira, planta picada manualmente e com aplicação de fogo. Este estudo indicou que as espécies E. crassipes e P. stratiotes foram rapidamente decompostas no reservatório, ao contrário de B. subquadripara. Um outro fator importante observado foi a similaridade na decomposição das plantas, independentemente da profundidade testada. Essas diferenças devem ser consideradas na elaboração de planos de manejo e na previsão do impacto ambiental de programas de controle de plantas aquáticas.A study on aquatic weed decomposition was carried out at the Americana-SP reservoir in Brazil, to compare degradation rate of the plants in the reservoir's water itself. Three variables were considered as treatments: depth (surface, 3.5 and 7.0 m; aquatic weed species (Eichhornia crassipes, Brachiaria subquadripara, and Pistia stratiotes and type of handling the aquatic weeds (whole plant, hand cut plant, and burnt plant. The results indicated that the species E. crassipes and P. stratiotes had a fast decomposition in the reservoir, unlike B. subquadripara. These differences must be considered in the elaboration of management plans and prediction of environmental impact of aquatic plant control programs. The most positive aspect of the study was to demonstrate that decomposition at 3.5m and 7.0 m of depth had practically the same speed observed on the surface.

  19. Sucessão de invertebrados durante o processo de decomposição de duas plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1017 Succession of invertebrates during the decomposition process of two aquatic plants (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Monkolski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A colonização de invertebrados durante o período de 56 dias de decomposição de duas espécies de plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum foi investigada para determinar o papel de macroinvertebrados no processo de fragmentação da folha. Durante a análise do material, foi constatado um total de 2096 invertebrados, associados a E.azurea e 6154 invertebrados associados a P. ferrugineum, identificados dentro de 18 táxons, com predominância de larvas de Diptera da família Chironomidae, seguido por espécimes de Oligochaeta, microcrustáceos como Cladocera e Copepoda. Em ambas as plantas, os macroinvertebrados mostraram um aumento significativo de densidade ao longo do processo de decomposição, o que provavelmente está associado à perda de compostos fenólicos. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies de macrófitas apresentam associações específicas com seus consumidores, ou seja, o processo de sucessão da colonização torna-se diferenciado de acordo com as características fenológicas da planta.The invertebrate colonization was investigated during 56-day decomposition of two macrophytes species (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum. The aim was to determine the role of macroinvertebrates in the process of leaf fragmentation. During material analysis, 2096 invertebrates were associated with E.azurea and 6154 were associated with P. ferrugineum, identified in 18 taxons, with predominance of Diptera larvae (Chironomidae family specially, followed by Oligochaeta species and microcrustaceans such as Cladocera and Copepoda. In both macrophytes the macroinvertebrates showed a significant increase of density through the process of decomposition, which is probably associated with the loss of phenolic compounds. Results suggest that macrophytes specimens show specific associations with their consumers, i.e., the succession process of colonization becomes singular according to the phenolic characteristics of the

  20. Temporal and spatial variation of limnological variables and biomass of different macrophyte species in a Neotropical reservoir (São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bottino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study reports an investigation of limnological characteristics and aquatic macrophyte occurrence in a neotropical reservoir in order to assess the spatio-temporal variation of water and sediment variables and their influence on plant distribution. METHODS: Macrophytes, water and sediment samples were collected from a Brazilian reservoir in different seasons from four main arms of the reservoir. In total sixteen water-sediment variables were analyzed including N:P ratio and Trophic State Index. The plants were collected using a quadrat sampling procedure and the dry weight per sample was measured. MANOVA was performed to evaluate spatial and temporal variation of environmental variables as well as seasonal biomass differences. To assess the relationship among environmental variables and macrophytes an ordination analysis (using Canonical Correspondence Analysis: CCA was carried out. RESULTS: The spatial and temporal variation of limnological variables generated a heterogeneous system which supports the presence of different species of macrophyte. pH, dissolved oxygen and sediment composition were important predictors of Polygonum lapathifolium occurrence while nutrients were associated with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes. Inorganic substances were related to biomass variation of Eichhornia azurea and Myriophyllum aquaticum. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial variation of the environmental variables has caused heterogeneity in the reservoir and it may support the occurrence of different species of macrophyte. Limnological variables highlighted in CCA are important to predict the species occurrence and their control in the study area.

  1. Weed clearance in Hudiara Nallah by chemical weed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    Hudiara Nallah is a flood stream in West Punjab. It has a length of about 45km and breadth of nearly 25 metres. About 20 subsidiary drains join with the Nallah. These drains have a length of about 270km. The Nallah has a discharge capacity of 1248 cusecs. Most of the subsidiary drains start from ponds which are generally infected with Eichhornia plants. These plants enter into the subsidiary drains and finally into Hudiara Nallah. The plants float freely on the surface of water and multiply at a high rate. One plant of the weed propagates to 24 plants in a period of one month. The plants thus cover the whole drain in a few months. The weed also originates from seeds. Their heavy growth forms a mat-like surface. The weeds also choke bridges and sometimes cause damage to their structures. These obstruct the flow of water and decrease the carrying capacity of the drain. Their infestation thus causes floods and the very purpose of the drains gets lost. Thus the Nallah is heavily infested with Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth weed). Due to its fast propagation and heavy infestation it was not possible to clear the weed manually. The problem was, therefore, referred to the Chemistry Division of the Irrigation and Power Research Institute, Amritsar, by the Drainage Circle of the Irrigation Department in June 1978 when weed propagation was in full swing. A chemical treatment method of eradication was attempted

  2. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  3. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

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    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  4. Physico-chemical assessment of paper mill effluent and its heavy metal remediation using aquatic macrophytes--a case study at JK Paper mill, Rayagada, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Swayamprabha; Mohanty, Monalisa; Pradhan, Chinmay; Patra, Hemanta Kumar; Das, Ritarani; Sahoo, Santilata

    2013-05-01

    The present investigation aims to assess the phytoremediation potential of six aquatic macrophytes, viz. Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata, Jussiaea repens, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Trapa natans grown in paper mill effluent of JK Paper mill of Rayagada, Orissa, for remediation of heavy metals. The experiment was designed in pot culture experiments. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of paper mill effluent showed significant decrease in pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chlorine, sulphur, biological and chemical oxygen demand after growth of macrophytes for 20 days. Phytoremediation ability of these aquatic macrophytic species for copper (Cu) and mercury (Hg) was indicated by assessing the decrease in the levels of heavy metals from effluent water. Maximum reduction (66.5 %) in Hg content of untreated paper mill effluent was observed using L. minor followed by T. natans (64.8 %). L. minor showed highest reduction (71.4 %) of Cu content from effluent water followed by E. crassipes (63.6 %). Phytoextraction potential of L. minor was remarkable for Hg and Cu, and bioaccumulation was evident from bioconcentration factor values, i.e. 0.59 and 0.70, respectively. The present phytoremediation approach was considered more effective than conventional chemical treatment method for removing toxic contaminants from paper mill effluent.

  5. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats.

  6. Remoção de metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo em biofertilizante suíno utilizando macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes como bioindicador - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i1.3179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes como bioindicador e alternativa na remoção dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb e Cr em biofertilizante de origem suína. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 2x4, sendo os fatores representados pelas partes da planta (aérea e raiz, e pelos quatro tratamentos. Na instalação do experimento coletou-se uma alíquota da solução de cada tratamento para determinar as concentrações iniciais dos metais e, após 30 dias de cultivo, as plantas foram retiradas, coletando-se novamente uma alíquota da solução de cada tratamento. As plantas foram separadas em parte aérea e raiz, secas e trituradas. A macrófita apresentou-se eficiente na remoção dos metais pesados, observou-se que o sistema radicular da macrófita apresentou maiores concentrações de Cd, Pb e Cr. Com este trabalho, conclui-se que a macrófita aquática (Eichornia crassipes pode ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de biofertilizante e dejetos provenientes da suinocultura

  7. Pontederiaceae do litoral piauiense, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Hilda Cristina Evaristo; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Silva, Maria Francilene Souza; Matias, Ligia Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo apresenta o tratamento taxonômico da família Pontederiaceae no litoral piauiense, contribuindo para o conhecimento da diversidade biológica do estado do Piauí. Foram identificadas cinco espécies distribuídas em três gêneros, Eichhornia Kunth, Heteranthera Ruiz & Pav. e Pontederia L. Eichhornia foi o mais representativo com três espécies, E. azurea (Sw.) Kunth, E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms e E. diversifolia (Vahl) Urb., enquanto Pontederia e Heteranthera estão representadas por...

  8. Pontederiaceae do litoral piauiense, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Hilda Cristina Evaristo; Andrade,Ivanilza Moreira de; Silva,Maria Francilene Souza; Matias,Ligia Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo apresenta o tratamento taxonômico da família Pontederiaceae no litoral piauiense, contribuindo para o conhecimento da diversidade biológica do estado do Piauí. Foram identificadas cinco espécies distribuídas em três gêneros, Eichhornia Kunth, Heteranthera Ruiz & Pav. e Pontederia L. Eichhornia foi o mais representativo com três espécies, E. azurea (Sw.) Kunth, E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms e E. diversifolia (Vahl) Urb., enquanto Pontederia e Heteranthera estão representadas...

  9. Flora do Rio de Janeiro: Pontederiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Michele Guarany Quintanilha; Moreira, Andréia Donza Rezende; Bove, Claudia Petean

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo tem como objetivo contribuir para o conhecimento das espécies de Pontederiaceae ocorrentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro. O trabalho tem por base a análise morfológica de materiais depositados em herbários e coletas de campo, além da compilação de dados de literatura. Foram registrados três gêneros e cinco espécies: Eichhornia azurea, Eichhornia crassipes, Heteranthera reniformis, Pontederia cordata e Pontederia sagittata. Chave para identificação, descrições, dados sob...

  10. Anatomía y etnobotánica de las especies medicinales de monocotiledóneas de la Estepa Pampeana de Argentina: Orchidaceae y Pontederiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa, María Cecilia; Vizcaíno, Claudia E.; Colares, Marta N.

    1998-01-01

    En la estepa pampeana de Argentina se encuentran 34 especies medicinales de Monocotiledóneas, de las cuales 5 son tratadas en el presente estudio: Cyclopogon elatus (Sw.) Schlecht. y Oncidiurn bifolium Sims (Orchiúaceae), Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach y Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae). De ellas se brindan: basónimos, principales sinónimos, nombres vulgares, descripción, análisis histológico de las partes utilizadas, mapa de distribución en la...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional Value of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, Nile Tilapia, Meat from Three Different Ecosystems

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    Fanuel Jim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of protein, lipid, and mineral content of fish meat is necessary to ensure that it meets requirements for food regulations and commercial specifications. The objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of Oreochromis niloticus (L., Nile tilapia, under three different ecosystems: (1 high pollution and high density of Eichhornia crassipes, that is, water hyacinth (Lake Chivero, (2 medium pollution and medium density of water hyacinth (Lake Manyame, and (3 low pollution and low density of water hyacinth (Lake Kariba. Dry matter, protein, lipids, and ash were evaluated by proximate analysis. Minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and pH was determined by a pH meter. Lake Kariba fish had the highest percentage of dry matter, protein, and ash. These qualities were correlated to low levels of pollutants and high oxygen content in the harvest waters. The phosphorus content of fish from Lake Chivero was very high, in tandem with phosphate levels in the harvest waters. In addition, water from Lake Chivero had an alkaline pH, high nitrate, and low oxygen content. The results suggest that effluent from sewage works and fertilizer industries caused pollution and proliferation of water hyacinth, contributing to pervasion of the chemical composition of fish.

  12. Arsenic removal in solution using non living bio masses of aquatic weed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin A, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid considered among the most dangerous to health. The As maximum level allowed of drinkable water is 0.01 mg/L established by the Who. Several techniques have been proposed to remove arsenic from water, among which are the sorption processes in economic biological materials, which has advantages for its high efficiency in dilute toxic removing from contaminated water, for these reason it is necessary to study new bio sorbents materials which are economic, simple and easy to apply in the treatment of contaminated areas. The aim of this project was evaluate the removal of As (V) in solution using two non living aquatic plants: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor), characterize these materials and compare the efficiency between both; the parameters evaluated were the As (V) initial concentration in solution, contact time, ph value and the amount of biomass in contact with them. It describes the method to prepare the non living plants. The physicochemical characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis was made. The results shown that cellulose is the main component confirmed by the techniques above mentioned. Surface characterization of Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor by specific surface area, shown 1.3521 m 2 /g and 0.6395 m 2 /g respectively, the hydration kinetic indicates that 24 h was the maximum hydration time for both plants; the point of zero charge determination by mass titration gives a ph=6.1 for the first plant and ph=7.1 for the second plant, finally the active site density obtained for the plants were of 8.57 sites/nm 2 and 12.47 sites/nm 2 . The point of zero charge was analyzed for know the ph from which the As (V) species are removal preferably. Tested contact processes between bio sorbent-As (V) were performed to assess the ability of bio masses to removal As (V) from aqueous solutions, investigated

  13. Arsenic removal in solution using non living bio masses of aquatic weed; Remocion de As en solucion empleando biomasas no vivas de maleza acuatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A, M. J.

    2010-07-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid considered among the most dangerous to health. The As maximum level allowed of drinkable water is 0.01 mg/L established by the Who. Several techniques have been proposed to remove arsenic from water, among which are the sorption processes in economic biological materials, which has advantages for its high efficiency in dilute toxic removing from contaminated water, for these reason it is necessary to study new bio sorbents materials which are economic, simple and easy to apply in the treatment of contaminated areas. The aim of this project was evaluate the removal of As (V) in solution using two non living aquatic plants: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor), characterize these materials and compare the efficiency between both; the parameters evaluated were the As (V) initial concentration in solution, contact time, ph value and the amount of biomass in contact with them. It describes the method to prepare the non living plants. The physicochemical characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis was made. The results shown that cellulose is the main component confirmed by the techniques above mentioned. Surface characterization of Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor by specific surface area, shown 1.3521 m{sup 2}/g and 0.6395 m{sup 2}/g respectively, the hydration kinetic indicates that 24 h was the maximum hydration time for both plants; the point of zero charge determination by mass titration gives a ph=6.1 for the first plant and ph=7.1 for the second plant, finally the active site density obtained for the plants were of 8.57 sites/nm{sup 2} and 12.47 sites/nm{sup 2}. The point of zero charge was analyzed for know the ph from which the As (V) species are removal preferably. Tested contact processes between bio sorbent-As (V) were performed to assess the ability of bio masses to removal As (V) from aqueous solutions

  14. Uso de “wetland” construído para tratamento de resíduos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5002 Constructed wetland in wastewater treatment - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Variáveis físico-químicas da água e do solo foram avaliadas a fim de verificar a eficiência de um “wetland” construído no tratamento de resíduos. Foram escolhidas oito espécies de macrófitas baseadas na capacidade de retenção e disponibilidade no local de estudo. Dentre elas estão: Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxerodos, Heteranthera reniformis, Hydrocotyle umbeliferae, Ludwigia elegan, Ludwigia sericea, Myriophyllum aquaticum e Thypha domingensis. Foram amostrados dois pontos um na entrada e outro na saída de água do “wetland”. Diferenças significativas (p -1 e de condutividade, acima de 80 µS cm-1. As concentrações de clorofila-a decresceram ao passar pelo “wetland”, sendo mais elevadas no período de chuva (período de engorda de peixe. Amônia, fósforo total, DBO5, fósforo e matéria orgânica do sedimento decresceram ao passar pelo “wetland” construído para indicar a eficiência desse sistema. Assim, essa tecnologia biológica (macrófitas aquáticas apresenta-se como uma opção adequada para melhoria de efluentes de aquicultura e de suinocultura.Physical and chemical variables of soil and water were measured to determine the effectiveness of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment. Eight different macrophyte species, namely Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxerodos, Heteranthera reniformis, Hydrocotyle umbeliferae, Ludwigia elegan, Ludwigia sericea, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Thypha domingensis, were transplanted. Inlet water and outlet water were the two sampling sites evaluated. There were significant differences (p -1, and conductivity was high, above 80 µS cm-1. Chlorophyll-a levels generally tended to decrease at the wetland outlet and were higher during the rainy period (fish growth period. Results show that ammonia, total phosphorus, BOD5, phosphorus and organic matter in the sediment removals in the constructed wetland were higher, indicating that macrophytes played an

  15. Constructed wetland in wastewater treatment = Uso de “wetland” construído para tratamento de resíduos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical variables of soil and water were measured todetermine the effectiveness of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment. Eight different macrophyte species, namely Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxerodos, Heteranthera reniformis, Hydrocotyle umbeliferae, Ludwigia elegan, Ludwigia sericea, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Thypha domingensis, were transplanted. Inlet water and outlet water were the two sampling sites evaluated. There were significant differences (p Variáveis físico-químicas da água e do solo foram avaliadas a fim de verificar a eficiência de um “wetland” construído no tratamento de resíduos. Foram escolhidas oito espécies de macrófitas baseadas na capacidade de retenção e disponibilidade no local de estudo. Dentreelas estão: Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxerodos, Heteranthera reniformis, Hydrocotyle umbeliferae, Ludwigia elegan, Ludwigia sericea, Myriophyllum aquaticum e Thypha domingensis.Foram amostrados dois pontos um na entrada e outro na saída de água do “wetland”. Diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 foram observadas entre a entrada e saída do “wetland” em relação às variáveis limnológicas. Em geral, foram observadas concentrações de oxigêniodissolvido acima de 4 mg L-1 e de condutividade, acima de 80 mS cm-1. As concentrações de clorofila-a decresceram ao passar pelo “wetland”, sendo mais elevadas no período de chuva (período de engorda de peixe. Amônia, fósforo total, DBO5, fósforo e matéria orgânica dosedimento decresceram ao passar pelo “wetland” construído para indicar a eficiência desse sistema. Assim, essa tecnologia biológica (macrófitas aquáticas apresenta-se como uma opção adequada para melhoria de efluentes de aquicultura e de suinocultura.

  16. Variation of nutrient and metal concentrations in aquatic macrophytes along the Rio Cachoeira in Bahia (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Andreas; Bauer, Konrad; Franz-Gerstein, Charis; de Menezes, Max

    2002-07-01

    The use of cuprous fungicides in cocoa production in the southern part of the state of Bahia (Brazil) for decades has caused an accumulation of copper in various components of the cocoa plantations, and a contamination of regional freshwater ecosystems is suspected. Urban and industrial sources are supposed to contribute to water pollution and eutrophication of the Rio Cachoeira, the main river in this region. In order to study the metal contamination and nutritional status of this freshwater ecosystem, samples of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were collected at seven sites along the river course. The samples were analysed for their copper, aluminium, chromium, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The levels of heavy metals increased in the downstream direction, particularly in the roots of water hyacinth. A dramatic increase of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in water as well as in plant tissues was found in samples collected downstream from the city of Itabuna. Metal input and eutrophication were attributed to agricultural, industrial and urban sources in the region. Biomonitoring of the water quality using aquatic macrophytes as accumulative indicator plants is recommended in addition to chemical water analyses.

  17. Morphometric differentiation in Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae): associations with sex, chromosome, and geographic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María Luciana; Colombo, Pablo César; Remis, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The water-hyacinth grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) is native to South America and inhabits lowlands from southern Mexico to central Argentina and Uruguay. This grasshopper feeds and lays eggs on species from the genera Eichhornia and Pontederia. Particularly, Eichhornia crassipes is considered "the world's worst water weed," and the release of C. aquaticum was proposed as a form of biological control. Morphometric variation on the chromosomally differentiated populations from the middle and lower Paraná River and its possible association with geographic, sex, and chromosomal conditions was analyzed. Significant phenotype variation in C. aquaticum population was detected. C. aquaticum presents body-size sexual dimorphism, females being bigger than males. Female-biased sexual size dimorphism for all five analyzed traits was detected. The assessment of variation in sexual size dimorphism for tegmen length showed that this trait scaled allometrically, indicating that males and females did not vary in a similar fashion. The detected allometry was consistent with Rensch's rule demonstrating greater evolutionary divergence in male size than in female size and suggests that males are more sensitive to environmental condition. The analysis of morphometric variation in the context of chromosome constitution showed that the presence of fusion 1/6 was related to body-size variation. Fusion carriers displayed bigger body size than standard homozygotes. Besides, a positive relationship between tegmen length and the number of fused chromosomes was detected, showing a chromosome dose effect. Because the highest frequency of fusions has been found in the lower Paraná River, a marginal environment for this species, the results found would support the hypothesis that some supergenes located in the fusions may be favored in the southern populations, thus contributing to the establishment and maintenance of the polymorphism. © The Author 2014

  18. Richness and distribution of aquatic macrophytes in a subtropical reservoir in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Carolina Pavão

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: to evaluate the richness, biomass and distribution of aquatic macrophytes in a subtropical reservoir in the dry and rainy seasons. Methods this study was carried out in the Itupararanga Reservoir, an important water source in São Paulo State, undergoing a continuous process of eutrophication. Samples of macrophytes were collected at 12 sampling sites in the summer and at 9 sampling sites in the winter in the Itupararanga Reservoir using the quadrat method (0.25 m2. In the laboratory, the plants were washed to remove the coarse material and then were dried (60 °C for biomass determination (gDW. m-2. All the species in the sampling sites in both periods were identified using the specific literature. In each sampling site, the water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen were measured using a probe. The temporal and spatial differences were analyzed using t-test and a Cluster Analysis was performed. Results The checklist showed sixteen species, 75% of them were emergent. From the 16 species, 15 were present in the summer and 10 in the winter. Eichhornia crassipes, Polygonum sp., and Urochloa sp. were the frequent taxa and had the highest biomass in both periods. The winter showed the highest biomass mainly due to the growth of free-floating species. The headwaters of the reservoir, the most eutrophic region, showed that the highest macrophyte richness and the sampling sites of this area were clustered in both the summer and winter. Conclusions There was no significant spatial variation among the measured variables. E. crassipes, Salvinia sp. and Urochloa sp. showed a significant variation of biomass between two periods. Urochloa sp. is a nuisance species occurring in up to 60% of the sampling sites having implications for the whole catchment. Continuous macrophyte monitoring is important due to the increasing trophic status of this ecosystem.

  19. Variação do peso fresco em Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associado a Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae em uma baía no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso Variation of the fresh weight in Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae in a bay in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima R. Jaloretto da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Variação do peso fresco em Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associado a Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae em uma baía no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso. Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera, Acrididae desenvolve seu ciclo de vida sobre macrófitas aquáticas da família Pontederiaceae. Como os gafanhotos são capazes de responder às mudanças sazonais, a alternância de períodos que ocorre no Pantanal pode refletir em sua biologia. Este estudo foi desenvolvido no Pantanal de Poconé - MT, com o objetivo de avaliar possíveis variações no peso fresco dos adultos e ninfas de C. aquaticum. Durante o período de março/2006 a fevereiro/2007 coletaram-se mensalmente, 50 indivíduos de C. aquaticum. Um total de 600 indivíduos foi avaliado, sendo 43,5 % adultos e 56,5 % ninfas. Os maiores valores de peso fresco total ocorreram nos meses de setembro (9,106g; 0,182g/indivíduo e outubro/2006 (8,865g; 0,177g/indivíduo e os menores em março/2006 (3,413g; 0,068g/indivíduo. Nos indivíduos adultos os maiores pesos frescos foram registrados em setembro/2006 (8,680g; 0,223g/indivíduo e outubro/2006 (8,654g; 0,234g/indivíduo, no final do período de seca, e o menor em março/2006 (1,792g; 0,138g/indivíduo, durante o período de cheia. As ninfas tiveram o maior peso fresco em abril/2006 (2,913g; 0,076g/indivíduo início da vazante, enquanto o menor peso fresco ocorreu em outubro/2006 (0,211g; 0,016g/indivíduo início da enchente. Apenas a variação no peso fresco médio das fêmeas foi significativa (f = 6,43; p = 0,001, com os maiores registros durante o período de enchente, o que pode evidenciar uma estratégia reprodutiva.Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera, Acrididae develops its life cycle on aquatic macrophyte of the Pontederiaceae family. As grasshoppers are able to respond to the seasonal changes, the alternation of periods that occurs in the Pantanal may reflect in their biology. This study

  20. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

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    Ioni G. Colares

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.Para determinar o hábito alimentar do peixe-boi da Amazonia em alguns rios e lagos da Amazonia Central, nós comparamos as epidermes de plantas encontradas nos conteúdos alimentares e/ou fezes de animais com uma coleção de referência de epidermes de plantas presentes nas áreas de estudo. Foram analisadas 25 amostras de trato digestivo de animais encontrados mortos e 25 amostras de fezes . A familia Gramineae foi encontrada em 96% das amostras, com maior ocorrência das espécies Paspalum repens e Echinochloa polystachya. A segunda familia mais freqüente foi Pontederiaceae sendo Eichhornia crassipes a espécie predominante. Durante o período de água cheia, os animais apresentaram uma dieta mais seletiva (oito espécies identificadas. Já na água baixa, com menor oferta de alimentos, os animais apresentam uma maior diversidade de espécies em sua dieta (21 espécies de plantas

  1. Polluting macrophytes Colombian lake Fúquene used as substrate by edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Nieto, Patricia; García-Gómez, Gustavo; Mora-Ortiz, Laura; Robles-Camargo, George

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aquatic plants from Lake Fúquene (Cundinamarca, Colombia), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.) have been removed mechanically from the lake and can be used for edible mushrooms production. The growth of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on these aquatic macrophytes was investigated in order to evaluate the possible use of fruiting bodies and spent biomass in food production for human and animal nutrition, respectively. Treatments included: water hyacinth, Brazilian elodea, sawdust, rice hulls and their combinations, inoculated with P. ostreatus at 3%. Water hyacinth mixed with sawdust stimulated significantly fruiting bodies production (P = 3.3 × 10(-7)) with 71% biological efficacy, followed by water hyacinth with rice husk (55%) and elodea with rice husk (48%), all of these have protein contents between 26 and 47%. Loss of lignin (0.9-21.6%), cellulose (3.7-58.3%) and hemicellulose (1.9-53.8%) and increment in vitro digestibility (16.7-139.3%) and reducing sugars (73.4-838.4%) were observed in most treatments. Treatments spent biomass presented Relative Forage Values (RFV) from 46.1 to 232.4%. The results demonstrated the fungus degrading ability and its potential use in aquatic macrophytes conversion biomass into digestible ruminant feed as added value to the fruiting bodies production for human nutrition.

  2. Potential of some aquatic plants for removal of arsenic from wastewater by green technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Barznji Dana A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation or green technology is counted among the successful and effective biological contaminated water treatment techniques. Basically, the concept of this green, cost-effective, simple, environmentally nondisruptive method consists in using plants and microbiological processes to reduce contaminants in the ecosystem. Different species from aquatic plants (emerged, free-floating, and submerged have been studied to mitigate toxic contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, etc. Arsenic is one of the most severe toxic elements; it is widely distributed in the environment, usually found in combination with chloride, oxygen, sulphur and metal ions as a result of mineral dissolution from sedimentary or volcanic rocks and the dilution of geothermal water. The effluents from both industrial and agricultural sectors are also regarded as sources to contaminate water. From the accumulation point of view, several aquatic plants have been mentioned as good arsenic accumulators and their performance is evaluated using the green technology method. These include Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia globosa, Lemna gibba, L. minor, Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, Azolla pinnata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Pistia stratiotes. The up-to-date information illustrated in this review paper generates knowledge about the ability of some common aquatic plants around the globe to remediate arsenic from contaminated water.

  3. Mapping invasive aquatic vegetation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using hyperspectral imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, E C; Mulitsch, M J; Greenberg, J A; Whiting, M L; Ustin, S L; Kefauver, S C

    2006-10-01

    The ecological and economic impacts associated with invasive species are of critical concern to land managers. The ability to map the extent and severity of invasions would be a valuable contribution to management decisions relating to control and monitoring efforts. We investigated the use of hyperspectral imagery for mapping invasive aquatic plant species in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in the Central Valley of California, at two spatial scales. Sixty-four flightlines of HyMap hyperspectral imagery were acquired over the study region covering an area of 2,139 km(2) and field work was conducted to acquire GPS locations of target invasive species. We used spectral mixture analysis to classify two target invasive species; Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa), a submerged invasive, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a floating emergent invasive. At the relatively fine spatial scale for five sites within the Delta (average size 51 ha) average classification accuracies were 93% for Brazilian waterweed and 73% for water hyacinth. However, at the coarser, Delta-wide scale (177,000 ha) these accuracy results were 29% for Brazilian waterweed and 65% for water hyacinth. The difference in accuracy is likely accounted for by the broad range in water turbidity and tide heights encountered across the Delta. These findings illustrate that hyperspectral imagery is a promising tool for discriminating target invasive species within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta waterways although more work is needed to develop classification tools that function under changing environmental conditions.

  4. Water hyacinth biomass stabilization by its composting with swine wasterwater and slaugther house wasters / Estabilização da biomassa de aguapé através da compostagem com águas resíduárias de suínos e resíduos de frigorífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio César Sampaio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to evaluate the composting of water hyacinth (E. crassipes biomass, after its usage for the removal of pollutants from the effluent of a swine slaughter house wastewater treatment system, recycling the waste water used for swine transportation trucks and piggery hygienic cleaning and the cellulosic gut generated in the sausage processing . The composting was evaluated by building eight composting piles measuring approximately 0,60m3 each; the piles consisted of four distinct treatments that were done twice. The treatments were: T1 – Water hyacinth (E. crassipes, T2 – Water hyacinth and swine excrement, T3 – Water hyacinth, swine excrement and earth, T4 – Water hyacinth, swine excrement and cellulosic gut, for a period of 90 days. Considering the C:N ratio as a compost maturity indicator, it was observed that the T4 treatment (water hyacinth, excrement and cellulosic gut had the shorter period of stabilization, 60 days. Regarding the biostabilization rate, the statistic analysis showed that there was no significant difference at 5% level by the F test between the four treatments evaluated during 90 days. The total organic carbon and the nitrogen biostabilization average rates were 1,8x10-2 day-1 and 0,8x10-3 day-1, respectively. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a compostagem da biomassa de aguapé (E. crassipes, após sua utilização na remoção de poluentes em sistema de tratamento de efluente de uma Unidade Frigorífica de suínos, com o aproveitamento de águas residuárias provenientes da higienização de pocilgas e dos caminhões que transportam os suínos, e das tripas celulósicas geradas no processamento de salsichas. Avaliou-se a compostagem, montando-se oito leiras com aproximadamente 0,60m3, com quatro tratamentos distintos e duas repetições, sendo: T1 – Aguapé (E. crassipes, T2 – Aguapé e dejeto suíno, T3 – Aguapé, dejeto suíno e terra, T4 – Aguap

  5. Temporal evolution of pollution by trace metals and plants analysis in Apipucos reservoir, Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Santos, Suzana O.; Paiva, Ana C. de; Silva, Waldecy A. da

    2015-01-01

    Water and sediments may reflect the current quality of an aquatic system and the historical behavior of certain hydrological and chemical parameters. Analysis of metals in sediment profiles are used to determine anomalies in their concentrations, as well as sources of pollution. This study was performed in Apipucos Reservoir in the city of Recife, Brazil. Samples of water, plants and sediments were collected in the study area and their metals content (extract by adding acids) were determined a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The 210 Pb activity concentration in each sediment layer was determined through the beta counting of 210 Bi after lead precipitation as lead chromate. The results showed the metals' behavior in sediments: iron and manganese concentrations in sediments increase proportionately with the ages of the sediments. In general, cobalt, copper and zinc were also their concentrations increased over the years. These same elements in water are similar from the blank samples, however the roots of 'Eichhornia crassipes' assimilated higher concentrations of metals than the stems and leaves of this species. (author)

  6. Temporal evolution of pollution by trace metals and plants analysis in Apipucos reservoir, Recife, PE, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Santos, Suzana O.; Paiva, Ana C. de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Water and sediments may reflect the current quality of an aquatic system and the historical behavior of certain hydrological and chemical parameters. Analysis of metals in sediment profiles are used to determine anomalies in their concentrations, as well as sources of pollution. This study was performed in Apipucos Reservoir in the city of Recife, Brazil. Samples of water, plants and sediments were collected in the study area and their metals content (extract by adding acids) were determined a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in each sediment layer was determined through the beta counting of {sup 210}Bi after lead precipitation as lead chromate. The results showed the metals' behavior in sediments: iron and manganese concentrations in sediments increase proportionately with the ages of the sediments. In general, cobalt, copper and zinc were also their concentrations increased over the years. These same elements in water are similar from the blank samples, however the roots of 'Eichhornia crassipes' assimilated higher concentrations of metals than the stems and leaves of this species. (author)

  7. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Graetz, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH 4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15 N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg -1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 27 0 C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO 2 evolution and 15 N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO 2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15 N to 15 NO 3 - -N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  8. Limnological and botanical characterization of larval habitats for two primary malarial vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, in coastal areas of Chiapas State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, H M; Rejmankova, E; Arredondo-Jim'enez, J I; Roberts, D R; Rodr'iguez, M H

    1990-12-01

    Field surveys of mosquito breeding sites on the Pacific coastal plain and foothill regions of southern Chiapas, Mexico, were carried out in the dry and wet seasons of 1988. At each site, selected environmental variables were measured or estimated, presence and percent cover of aquatic plants recorded, a water sample collected for subsequent analyses, and 10-30 dips made for mosquito larvae. Logistic regression and discriminant analyses revealed that the occurrence of Anopheles albimanus larvae in both the wet and dry seasons was positively associated with planktonic algae and negatively associated with altitude. In the dry season, An. albimanus larvae were largely restricted to the margins of permanent water bodies and were associated with the presence of floating plants, particularly Eichhornia crassipes. During the wet season An. albimanus larvae were positively associated with emergent plants, particularly seasonally flooded Cyperaceae, and phosphorus (PO4) concentrations, and were negatively associated with abundant filamentous algae, high levels of total suspended solids (TSS) and Salvinia. In the dry season, An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were positively associated with filamentous algae, altitude and the presence of Heteranthera if encountered in a riverine setting, and were negatively associated with water depth. During the wet season, flooding eliminated typical flood plain An. pseudopunctipennis habitats, and larvae were rarely encountered.

  9. [Biomass of Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in wetlands of Northeast Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Luciana Irene; Celeste Franceschini, María; Guadalupe Poi, Alicia Susana; Laura de Wysiecki, María

    2015-03-01

    The estimation of biomass in insect populations is a key factor to quantify the available resources and energy fluxes in ecosystems food webs. Cornops aquaticum is a common herbivore in Eichhornia plants in wetlands of Northeast Argentina. We aimed to analyse its biomass variation, related to the different grasshopper age categories populations in two host-plants: Eichhornia azurea and Eichhornia crassipes. For this, standard samplings of C. aquaticum populations were carried out with an entomological net of 70 cm diameter in two wetlands with E. azurea and E. crassipes, in Corrientes and Chaco Provinces; besides, dry weight was also obtained (directly and indirectly), and a regression model to indirectly estimate the biomass from a linear dimension measure (hind femur length) is proposed. A total of 2307 individuals were collected and separated in different age categories; their abundance and linear dimension data were obtained. The model proposed was InDM=lna+b*lnH (where DM=dry mass, a and b are constants and H=hind femur length) (R2 = 0.97). The population biomass variations of C. aquaticum were due to the relative abundance of each age category and the grasshopper individual dry weight. No significant differences were found between populations biomasses obtained by direct and indirect methods in E. azurea and E. crassipes floating meadows. This model made easier the C. aquaticum biomass calculation for both individuals and the population, and accelerated the processing of high number of samples. Finally, high biomass values of populations and individual age category (especially in adults) emphasize the importance of C. aquaticum as a consumer and a resource for predators on Eichhornia floating meadows food webs.

  10. Eco-distribution Mapping of Invasive Weed Limnocharis flava (L. Buchenau Using Geographical Information System: Implications for Containment and Integrated Weed Management for Ecosystem Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Abhilash

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Exotic weed invasion has been identified as one of the serious environmental problem impacting the structure, composition and function of biological diversity. They are aggressive colonizers, which have flexible habitat requirement and ability to outcompete native species. The present paper describes the distribution and autecology of an exotic weed Limnocharis flava (L. Buchenau (an emergent aquatic weed of ‘Limnocharitaceae’ in Kumarakom Grama Panchayat, one of the well known tourist spot of South India famous for its vast stretches of paddy fields, wetlands and backwaters. The mapping of L. flava in the entire study area has been done using Geographical Information System (Arc-info 8.3 version. The growth and distribution pattern of L. flava were studied quantitatively. Data on distribution, abundance, biomass, ecological associations and root zone nutrient quality of water and sediment samples were collected from different sampling points of Kumarakom. The study reflected that nutrients, water depth and land use patterns were the major factors responsible for the growth and proliferation of this exotic weed. The strategies for controlling L. flava invasion are discussed in detail. If early steps are not taken to eradicate this weed, it will become a problematic weed in the same way as other noxious aquatic weeds like Salvinia molesta D. Mitch and Eichhornia crassipes (C. Martius Solms-Laub.

  11. DDT and Derivatives in Indicator Species of the Aquatic Food Web of Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Rohitrattana, J.; Thongkongowm, P.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of DDT and derivatives in the food web of freshwater ecosystems of Rangsit agricultural area, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand were investigated from June 2004 to May 2007. By using gas chromatography (GC) with micro electron capture detector (μ ECD), DDT and derivatives in water, sediment, and fifteen indicator species i.e., 2 producers; Eichhornia crassipes and plankton (phyto- and zoo- plankton), an herbivore; Trichogaster microlepis (3) 3 omnivores; Trichogaster trichopterus, Oreochromis niloticus, and Puntius gonionotus, 6 carnivores; Channa striatus, Oxyeleotris marmoratus, Macrognathus siamensis, Parambassis siamensis, Anabas testudineus, and Pristolepis fasciatus, and 3 detritivores; Macrobrachium lanchesteri, Pomacea sp., and Filopaludina mertensi were measured. Results show low concentration levels (part per billion) of DDT & derivatives in each food web compartment i.e. water, sediment, aquatic plant, plankton, fish, and invertebrates. Magnification patterns, i.e. bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification, based on habitat and foraging behavior of selected freshwater species indicates that DDT & derivatives can accumulate and be magnified through the food chain from the lowest up to the highest trophic level. Therefore, the presence of residues and the evidence of magnification patterns can be observed as ecological indicators for evaluating ecological health risk. PMID:20161116

  12. Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Vieira Borges, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites. Y J M Koné (1) & A.V. Borges (2) (1) Centre de recherches océanologiques (CRO) d'Abidjan, (Ivory Coast) (2) University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Liège, Belgium (Belgium) Eutrophication is a worldwide environmental problem and a definitive solution is far from being achieved, despite the large number of studies documenting its causes. In small aquatic ecosystems, excessive growth of macrophytes is a well known undesirable consequence of eutrophication. When these plants die and sink to the bottom the decomposing biomass depletes oxygen content in the water column thus leading to anoxia promoting methane (CH4) production. Here, we reported the CH4 data obtained during six campaigns covering the annual cycle in two small lagoons of Ivory Coast (Ono, Kodjoboué) that are contrasted in the degree of eutrophication and the corresponding coverage of macrophytes (e.g. Echinochloa pyramidalis, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata). Our data showed a high spatio-temporal variability of CH4 within the lagoons and between the two systems, with CH4 concentrations in surface waters ranging between 80 to 74,604 nmol L-1. The highest CH4 concentration values were observed in the eutrophic Ono lagoon that is covered by 80% of macrophytes, suggesting that lagoons dominated by macrophytes are significant sources of CH4 toward the atmosphere.

  13. Production of fermentable sugars by combined chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To change the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulosic material for maximum hydrolysis yield, a comprehensive study was done by using sulphuric acid as an exclusive catalyst for the pretreatment process. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass [Water Hyacinth: Eichhornia crassipes] after pretreatment was determined by measuring the hydrolysis yield of the pretreated material obtained from twenty four different pretreatment conditions. These included different concentrations of sulphuric acid (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%, at two different temperatures (108 and 121 ºC for different residence times (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0h.The highest reducing sugar yield (36.65 g/L from enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained when plant material was pretreated at 121 ºC for 1.0 h residence time using 3.0% (v/v sulphuric acid and at 1:10 (w/v solid to liquid ratio. The total reducing sugars obtained from the two-stage process (pretreatment + enzymatic hydrolysis was 69.6g/L. The resulting sugars were fermented into ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield from the enzymatic hydrolyzate was 95.2% of the theoretical yield (0.51g/g glucose, as determined by GS-MS, and nearly 100% since no reducing sugars were detected in the fermenting media by TLC and DNS analysis.

  14. Biosurfactants produced by Microbacterium sp., isolated from aquatic macrophytes in hydrocarbon-contaminated area in the Rio Negro, Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva Lima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms., collected in oil contaminated wastewater of effluent generated by Petrobras refinery in Manaus were investigated to determine their potential for producing biosurfactants. Assay with 2.6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP indicator to verify hydrocarbon biodegradation activity; oil emulsification test; drop-collapse method; surface tension and growth curve of biosurfactant production. The M87 Microbacterium sp. strain chosen for this work was identified by the sequencing of the rDNA region and the chemical characterization was performed by FTIR, UFLC/MS and 1H RMN techniques. The selected bacterial isolate provided 3g L-1 of biosurfactant, using diesel oil as sole carbon source, being efficient in biodegrading oil as demonstrated by the DCPIP test. Fractions obtained by column chromatography were efficient in reducing water surface tension around 40 mN m-1, especially fraction 1, which reduced it to 34.17 mN m-1. The different techniques of chemical analysis used for the identification of the biosurfactant isolate indicated that this is probably a long - chain fatty acid lipid type, which may be used in the future as both biosurfactant in decontamination processes of hydrocarbon-polluted areas or as bioemulsifier in countless processes, since it exhibited no toxicity as determined by Alamar Blue assay.

  15. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  16. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were continued during 1977 to 1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of Gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. The yields of several other species of freshwater plants were investigated. Only the pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) appears to approach the productivity of water hyacinth on the basis of preliminary measurements. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants.

  17. Patterns of the aquatic macrophyte cover in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir (GO-MG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, L M; Oliveira, L G; Souza, D C; Carvalho, P; Pinto, M P

    2005-02-01

    The relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover in upper segments of tributaries and this cover in these tributaries but near the reservoir's main body was tested. Sixteen taxa belonging to 12 families of aquatic macrophytes were recorded in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir. The most frequent species were Eichhornia azurea (frequency of occurrence=92%; n=37 sites) and E. crassipes (44%). Upper segments of the tributaries were the main areas colonized by these aquatic macrophytes. The positive relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover between the upper and lower segments of tributaries indicates the importance of dispersion in the colonization of the arms and the reservoir's main body.

  18. Levantamento da infestação de plantas aquáticas em Porto Primavera antes do enchimento final do reservatório Aquatic plant infestation assessment in Porto Primavera reservoir before final filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as plantas aquáticas e os níveis de infestação de cada espécie em Porto Primavera antes do enchimento final do reservatório. Foram avaliados todos os focos de vegetação aquática no reservatório (72 pontos, sendo os pontos demarcados com um aparelho de GPS. As espécies foram identificadas e estimouse visualmente (tamanho da área a distribuição proporcional das plantas no foco de infestação. Após a identificação, foram encontradas 18 espécies de plantas aquáticas vegetando no reservatório, das quais foram determinadas a frequência de espécie de planta aquática e a distribuição dentro do sistema de geração de energia. As espécies encontradas no reservatório foram: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes, Paspalum repens, Cyperus brevifolius, Paspalum conspersum, Echinochloa polystachya, Egeria densa, Egeria najas, Polygonum hidropiperoides, Polygonum lapathifolium, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Eleocharis sellowiana, Nymphaea ampla, Pontederia cordata, Salvinia auriculata, Salvinia rotundifolia e Typha angustifolia. As maiores frequências relativas foram observadas em: E. azurea (36,11%, E. crassipes (16,67%, P. stratiotes (13,89%, S. auriculata (13,89%, C. brevifolius (11,11% e P. lapathifolium (6,94%.The objective of this work was to identify the aquatic plants and their infestation levels in Porto Primavera Reservoir in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, before the reservoir was filled. The aquatic vegetation in the dam (72 sites were evaluated and marked with GPS equipment. The species were identified and a visual estimate (site size of the proportional distribution of the plants in the infestation foci was carried out. After plant identification, eighteen macrophyte species were found in the dam and their frequency and distribution were determined as follows: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes, Paspalum repens, Cyperus brevifolius

  19. Las plantas acuáticas en un contexto de aprovechamiento sostenible de los recursos naturales.I. Azolla spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Jesus; Gonzalez Garcia, Eliel

    1998-01-01

    Las plantas acuáticas son conceptuadas generalmente como malezas; sin embargo, en ocasiones se les da una utilización económica como alimento animal, fertilizante y para la descontaminación de efluentes. Ello hace que en la literatura aparezca esporádicamente información vinculada con estos usos. Por tal razón, en este artículo se intenta resumir una parte importante de la información referente a las especies del género Azolla. La Azolla, junto al Jacinto de Agua (Eichhornia crassipes),...

  20. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MNP Henares

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3 with three treatments (constructed wetlands and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm. The means of suspended particulate material (SPM, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, P-orthophosphate (PO4-P and total phosphorus (TP of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05. The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%, TKN (33.7% and PO4-P (26.7% was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P. The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  1. Analysis of Satellite and Airborne Imagery for Detection of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Floating Macrophytes and Tracking of Aquatic Weed Control Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed an 80 percent overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  2. Monitoramento de problemas com plantas aquáticas e caracterização da qualidade de água e sedimento na UHE Mogi-Guaçu Monitoring problems with aquatic plants and characterization of water and sediment quality at UHE Mogi-Guaçu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Cavenaghi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na UHE Mogi-Guaçu, pertencente à AES Tietê S.A. Levantamento de plantas aquáticas e amostragem de água e sedimento foram realizados em julho de 2001 (estação seca, novembro de 2001 (início da estação chuvosa e março de 2002 (final da estação chuvosa. Foram feitas 846 análises de água e 516 de sedimento, avaliando-se 47 características da água e 41 do sedimento. Espécies marginais e flutuantes foram as principais infestantes do reservatório, merecendo destaque as espécies Brachiaria subquadripara, Eichornia crassipes, Polygonum lapathifolium, Panicum rivulare, Salvinia auriculata e Pistia stratiotes. A turbidez e conseqüente baixa transmissão de luz pela coluna d'água impossibilitaram o desenvolvimento de plantas submersas. Teores de fósforo e nitrogênio encontrados tanto na água quanto no sedimento mostraram-se suficientes para suportar o crescimento de plantas aquáticas. A ocorrência de plantas marginais e flutuantes estava associada ao intenso processo de sedimentação observado no reservatório.This research was carried out at the Mogi Guaçu reservoir owned by AES Tiete. Assessment of aquatic plants and water and sediment sampling were carried out in July 2001 (dry season, November 2001 (start of rainy season and March 2002 (end of rainy season. A total of 846 water and 516 sediment analyses were performed, with 47 water and 41 sediment characteristics being evaluated. Marginal and floating species were the main weeds in the reservoir, the most outstanding being Brachiaria subquadripara, Eichornia crassipes, Polygonum lapathifolium, Panicum rivulare, Salvinia auriculata and Pistia stratiotes. Turbidity and low light transmission by water column made the growth of the submerged plants impossible. Phosphorus and nitrogen concentration both in the water and sediment was adequate to support aquatic plant growth. The occurrence of marginal and floating plants was associated with the intense

  3. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju

    1988-04-01

    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  4. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  5. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came ...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Eichhornia-mediated copper oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical synthesis methods lead to absorption of several toxic chemicals on the surface that may have unde- sirable effects in the medical applications [19]. To reduce the toxicity, we have focussed our attention on green syn- thesis of nanoparticles. Currently, zinc oxide, gold, silver and copper oxide nanoparticles are ...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Eichhornia-mediated copper oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Eachanari Post,. Coimbatore 641 ... ecofriendly method for controlling these pathogens. Green- synthesized nanoparticles have an important role in con- trolling the plant infections as compared to man-made fungicides [24].

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Eichhornia-mediated copper oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The synthesized particles were highly stable, spherical in shape ...

  9. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus against Mansonia dyari larvae in phosphate lakes in Polk County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floore, Tom; Wardz, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Effective Mansonia larval control is difficult to achieve in Polk County, Florida, because the larvae attach to the root and stem mass of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). This study evaluated 2 Bacillus sphaericus larvicides as possible control products in 3 phosphate lakes in 2 areas maintained by Polk County Mosquito Control. VectoLex WDG was applied at 56 kg/km2 and 170 kg/km2 and VectoLex CG at 560 kg/km2 and 1,100 kg/km2. One lake in each site was an untreated control. Larval collections were made by collecting water lettuce plants that were shaken, washed, and processed through a series of sieves to grade larvae as early (1st, 2nd) and late (3rd, 4th) instars. Pretreatment and posttreatment collections were made in each lake. More than 3,100 larvae were collected during the study. Approximately 65% of the larvae collected were Ist/2nd instars in both areas. The higher rate of VectoLex CG reduced the larval population 63% and the higher rate of VectoLex WDG by 44%. Against the Ist/2nd instar aggregate the higher rate of VectoLex CG was more effective (69%) than the VectoLex WDG. The VectoLex CG granules appeared to remain nearer the surface and the larvae than the WDG granules. Better effectiveness might have been attained if the entire lake had been treated. In this study, VectoLex CG appeared to be more effective than VectoLex WDG.

  10. Orthoptera assemblages associated with macrophytes of floodplain lakes of the Paraná River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Capello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthoptera assemblages associated with macrophytes of floodplain lakes of the Paraná River. The Orthoptera assemblage composition varies considerably, depending on habitat type. This study examines the spatiotemporal relationship between plant diversity, hydrometric level, environmental variables and the Orthoptera richness and abundance in floodplain lakes connected permanently or temporarily with the main channel of the Paraná River. The grasshoppers were collected fortnightly (April 2006May 2007. A total of 17 species were recorded and classified according to their frequency of occurrence in constant (7, accessory (4, or accidental (6 species. In the two lakes, the greater species richness and abundance was recorded in summer, thereby coinciding with the highest water level of the Paraná River. The most significant correlation between the orthopteran richness and abundance was with the water level. The aquatic plant richness was significantly different between the lakes, but the vegetation was dominated by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. (Liliales, Pontederiaceae. The lake, which was connected permanently, presented the highest values of diversity and abundance, proving to be a more diverse assemblage. The beta diversity was higher in the temporary connected lake than in the permanently connected one. The orthopterans assemblages were different between the lakes, Cornops aquaticum and Tucayaca gracilis were the species that contributed more to the level of dissimilarity. C. aquaticum was more representative in the lake temporarily connected, while T. gracilis in the permanent connected one. The water level of the Paraná River and the connectivity of the floodplain lakes play an important role to explain the abundance and richness of their orthopteran assemblages.

  11. Water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The overall NRC program for the resolution of the water hammer issue is divided into four tasks: water hammer summary reports; revision of CP and OL review procedures; water hammer positions for operating reactors; and water hammer safety studies

  12. Mercury contents in aquatic macrophytes from two reservoirs in the Paraíba do Sul: Guandú river system, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Molisani

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study to determine the Hg content in the five most abundant aquatic macrophyte species (Elodea densa, Sagittaria montevidensis, Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes in two artificial reservoirs flooded by water diverted from the Paraíba do Sul river, SE Brazil. The potential of these species for Hg accumulation and their role in Hg transport along the river system due to macrophyte management were evaluated. Mercury concentrations were higher in free-floating than in rooted species. Roots were also richer in Hg than were leaves. Dry weight Hg concentrations in leaves and roots from all species varied from 46-246 ng.g-1 to 37-314 ng.g-1, respectively. These values are higher than those reported for uncontaminated lakes in Brazil and in other tropical areas and similar to those reported for moderately contaminated sites. Mercury concentrations can be attributed to fluvial transport from the heavily industrialized Paraíba do Sul river basin. Intensive sampling of Pistia stratiotes from two sites in the Vigário reservoir was performed to evaluate the capacity of Hg incorporation in short periods of time. The results showed a significant negative correlation between Hg content and size class of individual plants, demonstrating the importance of juveniles, fast growing plants in absorbing Hg. The foremost impact related to Hg contents in the studied area concerns the periodic removal of macrophytes for reservoir management, followed by disposal in nearby areas. This results in the mobilization of 0.52 to 1.3 Kg of Hg per year, a significant fraction of the Hg burden present in reservoir waters. Disposal of such material may result in Hg leaching to river systems, affecting the Hg transfer throughout the basin.

  13. Determination of parameters influencing methylation and demethylation in tropical lakes in Brazil and Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylander, Lars D.; Ahlgren, Ingemar; Broberg, Anders; Lantz, Peter; Tornblom, Erik; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Mauro, Jane; Markus, Meili; Guillen Montenegro, Salvador; Vammen, Katherine; Sacasa, Sarria Karla; Regnell, Olof

    2002-01-01

    Increased awareness about the toxicity of mercury (Hg) has during the latest decades resulted in reduced use of Hg in industrialised countries. Developing countries, on the contrary, have largely increased their anthropogenic Hg emissions caused by its use in gold mining, transfer of Hg emitting factories from developed countries, and increased burning of coal without appropriate flue gas cleaning. The contribution of global Hg sources and the importance of other parameters to increased Hg levels encountered in hydroelectric reservoirs and other areas after flooding is not well understood, especially not in the tropics. The aim of the present study is to increase the knowledge about Hg transformations in tropical areas. Total Hg content in water, biota, and sediment will be determined by atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry and methyl Hg content in biota by gaschromatography after extraction with acids, hydroxides, and organic solvents. Mercury methylation capacity in sediments, water, and selected biota will be determined with 203 Hg and subsequent radiological measurements of insitu incubations. Factors affecting the methylation and demethylation rates will be identified with laboratory incubations with 203 Hg at varying environmental conditions such as organic matter, pH, redox potential, conductivity, light, temperature, geochemical factors and populations of bacteria. The populations of bacteria will be determined to quantity by isotope techniques. The first experiments indicate markedly larger methylation capacity as well as bacterial production of incubated samples of Eichhornia crassipes, originating from Brazil, compared to Myriophyllum spicatum from Sweden. The results are the first step to better understand the importance of environmental parameters and bacterial production for methylation of Hg. (author)

  14. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  15. Biomasa de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae en humedales del nordeste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Irene Gallardo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de la biomasa en las poblaciones de insectos, es un factor clave para cuantificar los recursos disponibles y los flujos de energía en las redes tróficas de los ecosistemas. Cornops aquaticum es un herbívoro común en las plantas de Eichhornia en los humedales del nordeste de Argentina. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar la variación de su biomasa en relación a las distintas categorías de edades de la población de este acridio, en dos plantas huésped: Eichhornia azurea y Eichhornia crassipes. Para ello, se realizaron muestreos estándar de las poblaciones de C. aquaticum con una red entomológica de 70cm de diámetro, en dos humedales con E. azurea y E. crassipes en las provincias de Corrientes y Chaco; además, se obtuvo el peso seco de los individuos (de manera directa e indirecta y, se propuso un modelo de regresión para estimar la biomasa de C. aquaticum de manera indirecta a partir de una medida de dimensión lineal (longitud del fémur posterior. Un total de 2 307 individuos fueron recolectados y separados en distintas categorías de edades; se obtuvo su abundancia y distintas medidas de dimensión lineal. El modelo propuesto fue lnPS=lna+b*lnH (donde PS=peso seco, a y b son constantes y H=longitud del fémur posterior (R²=0.97. Las variaciones en la biomasa de las poblaciones de C. aquaticum se debieron a la abundancia relativa de cada categoría de edad y al peso seco individual de estos acridios. No hubo diferencias significativas entre la biomasa de las poblaciones de C. aquaticum obtenida por los métodos directo e indirecto en las praderas flotantes de E. azurea y E. crassipes. Este modelo facilita el cálculo de la biomasa individual y poblacional de C. aquaticum y acelera el procesamiento de un gran número de muestras. Finalmente, los valores altos de biomasa poblacional e individual de las categorías de edades (especialmente en adultos enfatizan la importancia de C. aquaticum como consumidor y como recurso

  16. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  17. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  18. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Water Safety KidsHealth / For Teens / Water Safety What's in ... drownings are tied to alcohol use. At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  19. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Water Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Water Safety What's in ... remains your best measure of protection. Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  20. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  1. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  2. Temperature range and degree of acidity growth of isolate of indigenous bacteria on fermented feed “fermege”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati; Trimulyono, G.

    2018-01-01

    Fermege is a fermented feed of ruminants, especially goats made from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Temperature range and pH need to know in making starter formula for acceleration of fermentation process at making ruminant feed made from this materials. The starter formula expired period can be extended by adjusting starter storage temperature and pH of the starter. This research was aimed to find the temperature and pH range for the growth of isolate of indigenous bacteria “fermege.” This research is an explorative research conducted by growing bacteria isolate indigenous fermege in liquid medium with various pH and incubation in various temperature. Bacterial population was calculated based on turbidity of bacterial suspension with turbidometer. The stages of this research were to isolate the bacteria present in the fermege, purify the isolates found, and then grow the isolates in a liquid medium with various pH values. The isolated bacterials were incubated at different temperature variations. The cell population density of the isolates was calculated after incubation for 24 hours. The results showed there were eight indigenous bacterial isolates. All isolates can grow in the pH range 6 and 7. Two isolates (Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus) can grow at 4°C. All isolates obtained can grow at a temperature of 30°C. Isolates Bacillus badius, B. subtilis, B. cereus, Pseudomonas stutzeri and P. diminuta can grow at 50°C. Based on research indicates that indigenous fermege bacterial isolates have the ability to grow in the neutral pH range and temperature range between 4°C and 50°C.

  3. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Research was divided between basic physiological studies of the growth and nutrient-uptake kinetics of macroscopic marine algae and the more applied problems involved in the selection of species and the development of inexpensive, non-energy intensive culture methods for growing seaweeds and freshwater plants as a biomass source for conversion to energy. Best growth of the seaweeds occurs at low (0.1 to 1.0 ..mu..molar) concentration of major nutrients, with ammonia as a nitrogen source, with rapid exchange of the culture medium (residence time of 0.05 days or less). Of 43 species of seaweeds evaluated, representatives of the large red alga genus Gracilaria appear most promising with potential yields, in a highly intensive culture system under optimal conditions, of some 129 metric dry tons per hectare per year (about half of which is organic). Non-intensive culture methods have yielded one-third to one-half that figure. Unexplained periodicity of growth and overgrowth by epiphytes remain the most critical constraint to large-scale seaweed culture. Freshwater weed species in culture include water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna minor), and Hydrilla vertecillata, with yields to date averaging 15, 4, and 8 g dry wt/m/sup 2//day, respectively. However, these plants have not yet been grown through the winter, so average annual yields are expected to be lower. In contrast to the seaweeds, the freshwater plants grow well at high nutrient concentrations and slow culture volume exchange rates (residence time ca. 20 days or more). Experiments were initiated on the recycling of digester residues from the fermentation of the freshwater and marine plants as a possible nutrient source for growth of the same species.

  4. Invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail Pseudosuccinea columella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Grabner

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI. Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96% and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%, Echinostoma caproni (2.36% and another echinostome (7.09% that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits

  5. Aquatic macrophytes of Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil: survey of species and ecological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Magela Thomaz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of the aquatic macrophytes of the Itaipu Reservoir, we identified 62 taxa in 25 families and 42 genera. The highest number taxa was observed for the emergent macrophytes (40 taxa. Reduced fluctuation in water level, increased light penetration, and sediment enrichment by nutrients and organic matter following the formation of the reservoir favored the appearance of a species-rich community of submerged macrophytes (23% of the taxa identified. The aquatic macrophytes were found mainly near the mouths of the main tributaries of the reservoir, in shallow area of depth less than 2 meters. In addition to the shallow depth, the greater nutrient input from the tributaries and relative protection from wind explained this distribution. Among the species found, Egeria najas merits mention for its occurrence in all localities sampled, with biomass values varying between 98 and 186 gDW/m². Some potential nuisance species such as Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia auriculata, and Pistia stratiotes also deserve attention, since they were also observed to be covering large areas of Itaipu Reservoir.Em um levantamento de macrófitas aquáticas realizado no reservatório de Itaipu foram identificados 62 táxons pertencentes a 25 famílias e 42 gêneros. O maior número de táxons foi representado pelas macrófitas emergentes (40 táxons. O surgimento de uma rica comunidade de espécies submersas (23% dos táxons identificados parece ter sido favorecido pelas alterações decorrentes da formação dor reservatório, tais como redução da flutuação dos níveis de água, aumento da penetração de luz e enriquecimento do sedimento em nutrientes e matéria orgânica. As macrófitas aquáticas foram registradas principalmente próximo à foz dos tributários do reservatório, em áreas rasas (profundidade inferior a 2 metros. Além da reduzida profundidade, o maior aporte de nutrientes associado à proteção do vento explicam essa distribuição. Entre

  6. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  7. Test of Multi-spectral Vegetation Index for Floating and Canopy-forming Submerged Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon Kirui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR. These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. However, the NIR absorption by water and light scattering from suspended particles reduces the practical application of such indices in aquatic vegetation studies, especially for the Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV that grows below water surface. We experimentally tested if NDVI can be used to depict canopies of aquatic plants in shallow waters. A 100-gallonoutdoor tank was lined with black pond liners, a black panel or SAV shoots were mounted on the bottom, and filled with water up to 0.5 m. We used a GER 1500 spectroradiometer to collect spectral data over floating waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and also over the tanks that contain SAV and black panel at varying water depths. The measured upwelling radiance was converted to % reflectance; and we integrated the hyperspectral reflectance to match the Red and NIR bands of three satellite sensors: Landsat 7 ETM, SPOT 5 HRG, and ASTER. NDVI values ranged 0.6-0.65 when the SAV canopy was at the water level, then they decreased linearly (slope of 0.013 NDVI/meter with water depth increases in clear water. When corrected for water attenuation using the data obtained from the black panel, the NDVI values significantly increased at all depths that we tested (0.1 – 0.5 m. Our results suggest the conventional NDVI: (1 can be used to depict SAV canopies at water surface; (2 is not a good indicator for SAV that is adapted to live underwater or other aquatic plants that are submerged during flooding even at shallow waters (0.3 m; and (3 the index values can significantly improve if information on spectral reflectance attenuation caused by water volume increases is

  8. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  10. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  11. Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology, engineering and policy. This includes: water resource development; the hydrological cycle; surface hydrology; geohydrology, hydropedology and hydrometeorology; limnology; freshwater and estuarine ecology; salinisation; treatment ...

  12. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  13. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  14. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  15. Water decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Rowell

    2004-01-01

    For 1.5 to 2.5 billion people in the world, lack of clean water is a critical issue. It is estimated that by the year 2025 there will be an additional 2.5 billion people who will live in regions already lacking sufficient clean water. In the United States today, it is estimated that 90% of citizens live within 10 mi of a body of contaminated water. Large numbers of...

  16. Water curtain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    The patented water curtain is used to eliminate gas-oil gushers and is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify operation, the water-line collector is made out of two symmetrical parts installed with the possibility of relative rotation. The collector is equipped with at least one pipe arranged in the zone of the collector and has openings for the supply of water.

  17. The influence of the Amazonian floodplain ecosystems on the trace element dynamics of the Amazon River mainstem (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, Jérôme; Barroux, Guénaël; Pinelli, Marcello; Seyler, Patrick; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast the role of riverine wetlands in the transfer of trace elements. One of the largest riverine wetlands in the world is the floodplain (várzea) of the Amazon River and its tributaries (Junk and Piedade, 1997). The central Amazon wetlands are constituted by a complex network of lakes and floodplains, named várzeas, that extend over more than 300,000 km2 (Junk, W.J., The Amazon floodplain--a sink or source for organic carbon? In Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, edited by E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, R. Herrera, SCOPE/UNEP; 267-283, 1985.) and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world due to the regular enrichment in nutrients by river waters In order to understand if the adjacent floodplain of Amazon River have a significant influence on the trace element concentrations and fluxes of the mainstem, the concentrations of selected elements (i.e., Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U) have been measured in the Amazon River water (Manacapuru Station, Amazonas State, Brazil) and in lake waters and plants (leaves) from a várzea(Ilha de Marchantaria, Amazonas State, Brazil) during different periods of the hydrological cycle. Four plant species (two perennial species: Pseudobombax munguba and Salix humboldtiana, and two annual herbaceous plants: Echinochloa polystachya and Eichhornia crassipes) were selected to represent the ecological functioning of the site. Time series obtained for dissolved Mn and Cu (River water could not be explained by tributary mixing or instream processes only. Therefore, the contribution of the waters transiting the floodplains should be considered. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the waters draining these floodplains is controlled by reactions occurring at sediment-water and plant-water interfaces. Trace elements concentrations in the plants (leaves) vary strongly with hydrological seasonality. Based on the concentration data and the biological

  18. Source Water Protection Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  19. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  20. WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  1. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  2. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge ...

  3. Water conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes water systems used in green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also outlines some calculations that can be used to design water systems in green buildings. Finally, aspects of green building...

  4. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge...... in the encounters between place-based practices and state-sponsored conservation efforts. Empirically tracing the efforts to construct the reservoir, the analytical focus of the article is on how different ways of knowing water within a particular landscape conjure and collide in the process. It is argued...... that the movement of water extends itself beyond the physical properties of the reservoir and irrigation channels as these are produced in encounters between different notions of the role of water in the landscape....

  5. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  6. Radiating water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J.; Harle, N.; Heijkers, H.; Schoene, S.

    1987-04-01

    From a nuclear power plant in operation radioactivity is continuously effusing into the environment, through the chimney, cooling waters and the loss of solid waste. In this account attention is concentrated on tritium which enters, in the form of gas and tritiated water from nuclear power plants under 'normal' operation, the aquatic environment and which, because it can not be purified from the water and because its effluences in surface waters are larger than those of other radioactive waste products, forms the largest threat for the drinking-water supply. In ch. 1 the health risks of tritium are outlined. In particular the genetic risks are insufficiently known until now. In ch. 2 the amount of tritium effluences are estimated, which appears to be many times higher than was generally accepted until now. What does this imply for the Dutch surface waters? In ch. 3 the question of the source term is discussed and in ch. 4 the source term is translated into the effects upon the aquatic environment and especially upon the drinking-water supply. In ch. 5 advisements for policies are formulated. The policy of the Dutch government until now is viewed and nuclear power is judged on the base of three starting points of radiation policy. Therein the demands are included which are inevitable in order to protect the Dutch aquatic environment from a too large radioactivity burden. 91 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  7. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  8. Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  9. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  10. Water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been technically responsible for technical assistance projects aimed at improving water management practices in the following developing Member States: Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Costa Rica, Egypt, Greece, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lebanon, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Republic of Korea, Romania, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda and Zambia. The Division has also contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of water use through the implementation of three 5-year co-ordinated research programmes. Participants from eight to 15 countries have conducted research towards a common goal of improving nuclear techniques in water-use efficiency studies and developing practices to increase the food produced from a unit of irrigation water or rainfall. In many cases this was the first time such techniques have been used in the above countries. It was thus necessary to provide expert assistance to train local counterparts in the safe and efficient use of the equipment. Training courses have also been held in more advanced countries to familiarize young scientists from developing countries with the most modern techniques in soil/water research. Results obtained through the nuclear techniques aided research programmes will, when applied in farmers' fields on irrigated land, lead to increased yields, to reduced losses of nutrients through leaching below the rooting zone, and to conserving soil through avoiding the accumulation of salts close to the soil surface. Under rainfed agriculture, research results would help controlling erosion, conserving water, and ensuring sustained production at acceptable yield levels

  11. Caracterização química das plantas aquáticas coletadas no reservatório de Salto Grande (Americana-SP Chemical characterization of aquatic plants assessed in Salto Grande reservoir (Americana-SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a constituição química das espécies de plantas aquáticas Brachiaria arrecta, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes e Salvinia auriculata - encontradas no reservatório da usina hidrelétrica de Salto Grande, em Americana-SP - de forma a fornecer subsídios para futuras avaliações sobre o comportamento da biomassa dessas espécies em local de descarte ou no próprio reservatório. As amostras de plantas foram coletadas no dia 16.4.2002, sendo desidratadas em estufa de circulação forçada de ar a 60 ºC. B. arrecta apresentou os menores teores médios de macro e micronutrientes e o maior teor médio de elementos pesados na matéria seca, em relação às demais espécies. A relação C/N das espécies E. crassipes, P. stratiotes e S. auriculata apresentou valores próximos. Não foi detectada, em nenhuma das espécies estudadas, a presença dos elementos molibdênio, prata, chumbo e mercúrio.This research aimed to describe the chemical components of the following aquatic plants: Brachiaria arrecta, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia auriculata, found in a reservoir formed by Salto Grande power plant in Americana-SP, Brazil, to provide a basis for future evaluations of the biomass behavior of these species at waste points or in the reservoir. Plant samples were collected on 04/16/2002. B. arrecta showed the lowest medium contents of macro and micronutrients and the highest medium contents of heavy metal in the dry matter, compared to the other aquatic species. The C/N relationship of E. crassipes, P. stratiotes and S. auriculata showed similar contents. Molybdenum, silver, lead and mercury were not detected in any of the species studied.

  12. Human Water Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Carter, Robert, III

    2005-01-01

    .... Total water intake incluces drinking water, water in beverages, and water in food. Daily water needs determined from fluid balance, water turnover, or consumption studies provide similar values for a given set of conditions...

  13. Water analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, J.R.; Steinheimer, T.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    This is the twenty-first biennial review of the inorganic and organic analytical chemistry of water. The format of this review differs somewhat from previous reviews in this series - the most recent of which appeared in Analytical Chemistry in April 1983. Changes in format have occurred in the presentation of material concerning review articles and the inorganic analysis of water sections. Organic analysis of water sections are organized as in previous reviews. Review articles have been compiled and tabulated in an Appendix with respect to subject, title, author(s), citation, and number of references cited. The inorganic water analysis sections are now grouped by constituent using the periodic chart; for example, alkali, alkaline earth, 1st series transition metals, etc. Within these groupings the references are roughly grouped by instrumental technique; for example, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, etc. Multiconstituent methods for determining analytes that cannot be grouped in this manner are compiled into a separate section sorted by instrumental technique. References used in preparing this review were compiled from nearly 60 major journals published during the period from October 1982 through September 1984. Conference proceedings, most foreign journals, most trade journals, and most government publications are excluded. References cited were obtained using the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts for sections on inorganic analytical chemistry, organic analytical chemistry, water, and sewage waste. Cross-references of these sections were also included. 860 references

  14. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  15. Water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Manitoba Hydro's efforts to maximize production efficiency while meeting safety and environmental concerns regarding water management were discussed. The four-step dam safety program was outlined, consisting of inspection, repairs and improvements, flooding studies, and emergency preparedness plans. An oil spill which occurred in 1995 on the Nelson River after a transformer at the Kettle Generating Station failed, was described. A boom was used to contain the oil, and a skimmer unit was used to remove oil and soot from the surface of the water. Manitoba Hydro is also conducting studies to find ways to protect the generating stations from zebra mussels, and precautions are being taken to prevent old lead-based paint from reaching the Winnipeg River. It was noted that the drought which hit northern Manitoba during the spring and summer of 1995 reduced the water supplies to the lowest levels ever recorded at the Churchill River Diversion. 2 figs

  16. Water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Manitoba Hydro`s efforts to maximize production efficiency while meeting safety and environmental concerns regarding water management were discussed. The four-step dam safety program was outlined, consisting of inspection, repairs and improvements, flooding studies, and emergency preparedness plans. An oil spill which occurred in 1995 on the Nelson River after a transformer at the Kettle Generating Station failed, was described. A boom was used to contain the oil, and a skimmer unit was used to remove oil and soot from the surface of the water. Manitoba Hydro is also conducting studies to find ways to protect the generating stations from zebra mussels, and precautions are being taken to prevent old lead-based paint from reaching the Winnipeg River. It was noted that the drought which hit northern Manitoba during the spring and summer of 1995 reduced the water supplies to the lowest levels ever recorded at the Churchill River Diversion. 2 figs.

  17. Water Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillinger, Frank H.

    1980-07-01

    Liquid water consists of a macroscopically connected, random network of hydrogen bonds, with frequent strained and broken bonds, that is continually undergoing topological reformation. Anomalous properties of water arise from the competition between relatively bulky ways of connecting molecules into local patterns characterized by strong bonds and nearly tetrahedral angles and more compact arrangements characterized by more strain and bond breakage. However, these alternatives constitute virtually a continuum of architectural possibilities rather than a discrete pair of options. The singular behavior of supercooled water near -45 degrees C and the ``hydrophobic'' attraction between nonpolar entities are due to the same underlying phenomenon, namely, the clumping tendency of relatively strain-free convex cages or polyhedra.

  18. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  19. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  20. WATER MARKETS AND DECENTRALIZED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Hearne, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water markets, cannot solve all of the water problems, but it can improve the efficiency of water allocation....

  1. Drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Centre of reference laboratories as a part of Institute of Public Health- Skopje is consisted of following laboratories: - Laboratory of Sanitary Microbiology - Laboratory for Food Quality Control - Laboratory for Water Quality Control - Laboratory for Contaminants and Eco - toxicology - Laboratory for Testing of Metals - Laboratory for Radioecology - Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation - Laboratory for Testing common use items Lab...

  2. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  3. Water Vapor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Shallow convection- 70% of the storm heights are below 6 km ... Ice water content and ice effective radius is high during break phase. Regional. Global. ♢LWC , NC liquid. - bimodal over the NAM, NAF and WNP regions single mode over the IND and EAS region. ♢Larger LWC, Nc liquid. , IWC, Er ice. - over the IND and.

  4. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, C. H.; Huang, C. S.; Cares, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas. The type habitat is flooded annually for about 6 months by the Amazon River. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. differs from the closely related species Xiphidorus yepesara Monteiro, 1976 by the larger size, by a, b, and c values, and by the rounded tail terminus. It also resembles Xiphidorus tucumanensis Chaves and Coomans, 1984, but can be distinguished by its larger size, larger a, b, and c values, more conical female tail, bilobed amphidial pouch, and the presence of a spermatheca full of sperm. PMID:19294098

  5. Study on the degradation of three aquatic weeds at the Americana-SP reservoir in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Negrisoli, E.; Corrêa, M.R.; Velini, E.D.; Bravin, L.F.; Marchi, S.R.; Cavenaghi, A.L.; Rossi, C.V.S.

    2006-01-01

    O estudo de decomposição de plantas aquáticas foi realizado na UHE de Americana-CPFL, com o objetivo de avaliar a taxa de degradação de plantas na própria água do reservatório. Foram consideradas como variáveis a profundidade (superfície, 3,5 e 7,0 m), as espécies de plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia crassipes, Brachiaria subquadripara e Pistia stratiotes) e o tipo de processamento a que estas foram submetidas (planta inteira, planta picada manualmente e com aplicação de fogo). Este estudo indico...

  6. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water…

  7. Light & Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Natividad Puig

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposal explores the Caos Theories, specifically, how applicable they are on local architectural interventions. It compiles a short study about possible variations of a same piece, in order to create difeerent ruled surfaces. Those pieces are distributed around a fractal attractor. The cores of these attractors are the ones responsible of collecting all the water flowing through the system. Once built, the project will enclose an open but covered space. Within this space, many different activities can be embraced, which allows its adaptability to each community where it?s placed. An open market will be the most common use though. It will allow selling agricultural products developed among the same community. Products irrigated with the extra water source collected by the cores of the fractal attractors.

  8. Water analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, M.J.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    The literature of analytical chemistry applied to water analysis is reviewed for the period Oct. 1972, through Sept. 1974. The material used in preparing the review comes mainly from major analytical journals and Chemical Abstracts. Many methods, including activation and radiometric, are discussed for the analyses of various elements, including Mo, U, Th, rare earths, and halides. Radioactivity and isotope analysis are also discussed. (663 references.) (U.S.)

  9. Groundwater Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Llamas; Emilio Custodio

    1999-01-01

    The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction a...

  10. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  11. Remote sensing of California estuaries: Monitoring climate change and invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulitsch, Melinda Jennifer

    The spread of invasive species and climate change are among the most serious global environmental threats. The goal of this dissertation was to link inter-annual climate change and biological invasions at a landscape scale using novel remote sensing techniques applied to the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta Estuary. I evaluated the use of hyperspectral imagery for detecting invasive aquatic species in the Delta using 3 m HyMap hyperspectral imagery. The target invasive aquatics weeds were the emergent water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the submerged Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa). Data were analyzed using linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA). The results show the weeds were mapped with a classification accuracy of 90.6% compared to 2003 sample sites and 82.6% accuracy compared to 2004 sample sites. Brazilian waterweed locations were successfully mapped but the abundances were overestimated because we did not separate it from other submerged aquatic vegatation (SAV). I evaluated 3 m HyMap imagery, from 2004, for SAV species in the Delta, including: Brazilian waterweed ( Egeria densa), Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum ), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), American pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus), fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana), and common elodea (Elodea canadensis). Data were analyzed using SMA with a classification accuracy of 84.4%. Spectral simulations of Brazilian waterweed and American pondweed show how spectral properties can change at different water depths and varying water quality. Finally I address the effect of inter-annual climate change on the estuary ecology in the San Francisco Bay by analyzing current (2002) and historical (1994-1996) Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) datasets to map salt marsh species distribution. The species in the estuary, Salicornia virginica, Spartinia foliosa, Scirpus robustus, and Distichlis spicata undergo dramatic changes in

  12. Water Technology Lecture 3: Water Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This is the third lecture in the course Water Technology dealing with water distribution. This is a PowerPoint lecture which is free to use and modify. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the course text Gray, N.F. (2017) Water Science and Technology: An Introduction, published by CRC Press, Oxford. The basis of water distribution is explored including water pipe materials, distribution systems, leakage, water quality problems, pressure issue, water hydrants, effect of floods,...

  13. Water and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    This is material of the 18th world water day in 2010 which reports current situation of water resources such as water world, in water in Korea and water dispute, water and disaster like climate change, flood, drought, historical report about drought and flood, water resources facilities in Korea, disaster management system, development and management of eco-friendly water resources, eco-friendly water resources management and river maintenance, renovating four rivers and supply and procure of safe water.

  14. Optimization of methodology by X-ray fluorescence for the metals determination in aquatic plants of the high course of the Lerma river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino P, E.

    2015-01-01

    The high course of the Lerma river has a pollution problem in its hydrological system due to discharges of urban wastewater and industrial areas; the pollutants that affect the hydrological system are metals, which are absorbed by living organisms and probably incorporated into the food chain. For this reason in this work the technique of X-ray fluorescence total reflection was applied in six species of aquatic plants that grow in the high course of the Lerma river: Arroyo Mezapa (Eichhornia crassipes, Juncus efusus, Hydrocotyle, Schoenoplectus validus) Ameyalco river (Lemna gibba) and Atarasquillo river (Berula erecta) in order to evaluate the metals concentration (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) as well as the translocation factor and bioaccumulation factor for each aquatic species. According to the results, was observed that the highest concentration of metals is located in the deeper parts; metals which present a significant concentration are Mn and Fe in the six species of aquatic plants. According to the translocation factor the species having a higher translocation of metals are: Juncus efusus in Mn (1.19 mg/L) and Zn (1.31 mg/L), Hydrocotyle (1.14 mg/L), the species Eichhornia crassipes not show translocation. For bioaccumulation factor, was observed that the most bioaccumulation of metals is found in the soluble fraction of the six species of aquatic plants, especially Fe followed of Cu and Zn. Also was considered that the Berula erecta plant had a higher bioaccumulation of metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn so it can be considered as a hyper-accumulating species of these elements. With the results can be considered that the technique of X-ray fluorescence total reflection is 95% reliable to determine the concentration of metals within the structures of the aquatic plants used for this study. (Author)

  15. Optimization of methodology by X-ray fluorescence for the metals determination in aquatic plants of the high course of the Lerma river; Optimizacion de la metodologia por fluorescencia de rayos X para la determinacion de metales en plantas acuaticas del curso alto del Rio Lerma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino P, E.

    2015-07-01

    The high course of the Lerma river has a pollution problem in its hydrological system due to discharges of urban wastewater and industrial areas; the pollutants that affect the hydrological system are metals, which are absorbed by living organisms and probably incorporated into the food chain. For this reason in this work the technique of X-ray fluorescence total reflection was applied in six species of aquatic plants that grow in the high course of the Lerma river: Arroyo Mezapa (Eichhornia crassipes, Juncus efusus, Hydrocotyle, Schoenoplectus validus) Ameyalco river (Lemna gibba) and Atarasquillo river (Berula erecta) in order to evaluate the metals concentration (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) as well as the translocation factor and bioaccumulation factor for each aquatic species. According to the results, was observed that the highest concentration of metals is located in the deeper parts; metals which present a significant concentration are Mn and Fe in the six species of aquatic plants. According to the translocation factor the species having a higher translocation of metals are: Juncus efusus in Mn (1.19 mg/L) and Zn (1.31 mg/L), Hydrocotyle (1.14 mg/L), the species Eichhornia crassipes not show translocation. For bioaccumulation factor, was observed that the most bioaccumulation of metals is found in the soluble fraction of the six species of aquatic plants, especially Fe followed of Cu and Zn. Also was considered that the Berula erecta plant had a higher bioaccumulation of metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn so it can be considered as a hyper-accumulating species of these elements. With the results can be considered that the technique of X-ray fluorescence total reflection is 95% reliable to determine the concentration of metals within the structures of the aquatic plants used for this study. (Author)

  16. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer

  17. Water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to ventilation and can be used for repair-fitting operations in a blasting-dangerous gas condition, for example, during elimination of gas-oil gushers, repair of gas-oil pipelines, equipment etc. In order to improve safety of labor, the nozzle adapters of the water collector are oriented towards each other. The collector is installed on a support with the possibility of rotating and vertical movement. The proposed screen excludes the possibility of blasting-dangerous concentrations of gases and guarantees extinguishing of the impact spark during operation of the tool.

  18. Test Plan for the Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Insects and Pathogens for Control of Water Hyacinth in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    waterhyacinth. In controlled tests, the adult insect fed slightly on Pontederia cordata and Eichhorniae azurep (Pontederiaciae) and Commelina virginica and... Pontederia cordata , but did not reproduce on this species (31). A6 It has also been tested against 50 species in Australia, and was found to reproduce only...to be native. It feeds extensively on pickerelweed ( Pontederia cordata L.), a native aquatic plant closely related to waterhyacinth, and this was

  19. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.

    1989-07-01

    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  20. Healing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátedra Tomás, María

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork in four different spas —two in Spain and two in Portugal— this paper shows the mutiple social mediations operating in water therapies in different contexts: from the local use inscribed in popular knowledge, including playful elements inserted in therapeutic practices under the illusion of a return to nature when nature itself has stopped being «natural», to others in which leisure time is an expression of an exclusive life style including a reevaluation of landscape as part of a time-bound aesthetics and as a refuge from urban stress. These different uses of water allow us to understand spas both as nature sanatoriums as well as a form of business where medical power bends to the interests of turistic enterpreneurs transformed into health advisors, linked to different conceptions not only of water but also of society itself.

    Focalizando la reflexión en cuatro balnearios diferentes —dos en España y dos en Portugal—, el artículo muestra las múltiples mediaciones sociales que operan en la terapéutica del agua en diferentes contextos: desde el uso local inserto en saberes populares, incluyendo lo lúdico en lo terapéutico que puede conectarse con la ilusión de un regreso a la naturaleza cuando ésta ya ha dejado de ser “natural”, a otros en los que el ocio es expresión de un estilo de vida exclusivo que incluye un acercamiento al paisaje como parte de la estética de una época y como refugio ante el stress urbano. Se observa así cómo estos usos del agua, que permiten concebir los balnearios bien como sanatorios de la naturaleza bien como negocios en los que el poder médico se pliega al de promotores turísticos convertidos en asesores de salud, se vinculan a concepciones diferentes no sólo del agua, sino de la sociedad misma y sus diferentes grupos.

  1. Fish associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana Lake system and Mutum River, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, E B; Da-Silva, C J

    2009-02-01

    On the left bank of the Cuibá River, one of the main tributaries of the Pantanal in Mato Grosso, are located the Chacororé and Sinhá Mariana Lakes and the Mutum River, the littoral regions of which are covered with aquatic macrophytes, dominated by the species Eichhornia crassipes and Eichhornia azurea. To examine the ichthyofauna associated with this vegetation, in the year 2003, 3510 fish were collected, distributed among 83 species, and the limnological variables verified near the macrophyte stands where they were sampled. The most abundant and richest order was the Characiformes, followed by the Gymnotiformes and Siluriformes. Analysis of similarity showed a very low, or null, index that the limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide habitat sufficiently homogeneous to give. The limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide a sufficient habitat heterogeneity to give very low, or null, index values. Thus, environmental conservation measures should be more effective in promoting the conservation of the species, given the high levels of biological diversity found in the habitats studied.

  2. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  3. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  4. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Diabetic Retinopathy Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about ...

  5. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  6. Landscape Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.

  7. Utilização de chama para controle de plantas daninhas emersas em ambiente aquático Using flame for control of emerged aquatic weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Marchi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dois estudos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de chama no controle de Eichhornia crassipes, Brachiaria subquadripara, Pistia stratiotes e Salvinia auriculata. No primeiro estudo foram utilizadas diferentes doses de chama, representadas pela quantidade de gás consumida durante a aplicação, e, no segundo, usaramse duas aplicações de chama em intervalo de 14 dias, uma aplicação seqüencial (intervalo de sete dias e aplicação única. As diferentes doses, tanto no primeiro quanto no segundo, foram comparadas com plantas que não receberam nenhum tratamento térmico. Avaliações de injúria foram realizadas aos 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 e 30 após a aplicação dos tratamentos, sendo realizadas também avaliações das biomassas secas das plantas aquáticas remanescentes em cada tratamento, ao final dos ensaios. No primeiro estudo foram observadas reduções significativas na produção da biomassa seca das espécies E. crassipes, B. subquadripara e P. stratiotes tratadas com as maiores doses referentes aos consumos de gás. Doses menores não diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha quanto à produção de biomassa seca, exceção feita para a espécie P. stratiotes. Todas as aplicações seqüenciais proporcionaram redução acima de 90% na produção da biomassa seca de E. crassipes e B. subquadripara. As aplicações seqüenciais e únicas proporcionaram reduções abaixo de 37% na produção da biomassa seca de S. auriculata. Os resultados demonstraram que existe a possibilidade de se utilizar o controle físico através da aplicação de chama como alternativa no manejo de plantas daninhas em ambientes aquáticos.Two trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of flame weeding on Eichhornia crassipes, Brachiaria subquadripara, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia auriculata. In the first trial, different doses of flame were applied, according to the amount of gas consumed during application. In the second

  8. Water SA: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology, engineering and policy. ... environmental pollution control; environmental and drinking water quality; drinking water treatment; water services, including domestic water supply and sanitation services; agricultural water; aquaculture in ...

  9. The feeding habits of the snail kite in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The feeding habits of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were observed intermittently from 1967-1980 in Florida, USA. Approximately 97% of all observed foraging bouts were over marshes having sparse emergent vegetation. The visually-hunting kite was unable to forage over floating mats of exotic water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Male kites had shorter hunting bouts than females. For still-hunting, the birds' perches ranged from 0.15-4.6 m high and captures occurred an average of 5.8 m from perches. Females were significantly more successful (70%) for course-hunting than males (48%), but I found no difference for still-hunting. Birds tended to forage throughout the day, except for occasional inactive periods by some individuals during midday. On cooler days, foraging commenced slightly later in the morning than on warmer days. Kites probably capture freshwater apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) as deep as 16 cm. Capture rates for adults generally ranged from 1.7-3.4 snails per hour. Kites usually foraged over a common hunting area, and defense of foraging sites was rare. Handling of snails, from the kite's arrival at the feeding perch unit consumption, averaged 2.7 min, with no significant difference between sexes. However, adult females were more efficient at the extraction portion of this process than were adult males. Snails were usually extracted before being brought to the nest, except in the latter part of the nestling period when some snails were extracted at or near the nest and some were brought intact. Adults feed small chicks bill to bill, and both parents generally shared equally in care of the young, except at two nests where the females did 67% or more of the feeding. Mean length of snails taken by kites was 42.8 mm (range 25.2-71.3 n=697) and mean diameter was 45.8 mm (range 27.4-82.4, n=697). The most common size classes tkaen were 30-60 mm in length and diameter. Nutritional and gross energy values were determined for apple snails. Female

  10. Water resources rata - Washington water year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, R.A.; Wiggins, W.D.; Smith, R.R.; Ruppert, G.P.; Knowles, S.M.; Renslow, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    The Washington Water-Data Report includes records for both surface and ground water in the State. The report contains discharge records for 244 stream-gaging stations, stage only records for 9 gaging stations, discharge measurements for 211 miscellaneous streamflow stations, and annual maximum discharge for 3 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; stage and(or) content records for 36 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 40 surface-water sites; water-level records for 25 observation wells; and water quality records for 11 observation wells.

  11. Atmospheric water harvester

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... ... involve condensation and precipitation. So, in order to examine the potential water in the atmosphere, atmospheric water harvester model was developed since it is one of the sustainable alternative water resources [6]. Normally, the atmosphere contains water in the form of water vapor, moisture and so ...

  12. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  13. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fs-027-01.pdf--665KB A Primer on Water Quality What is in the water? Is it safe for drinking? Can fish and ... affect water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as ...

  14. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and

  15. Contested water rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, E.J.H.; Weikard, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    In many international river basins disputes over property rights to water lead to inefficient water allocation and a waste of resources. In this paper, we examine how contested water rights impede water trade. To show this, we use a model in which property rights to water are contested because

  16. Contested water rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, Erik; Weikard, Hans Peter

    In many international river basins disputes over property rights to water lead to inefficient water allocation and a waste of resources. In this paper, we examine how contested water rights impede water trade. To show this, we use a model in which property rights to water are contested because

  17. Water-polymer interaction during water uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baukh, V.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.; Erich, S.J.F.; Ven, L.G.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Water uptake by multilayer films plays an important role in their performance. Individual layers may consist of different polymeric phases. Understanding the water uptake in such systems requires knowledge of the water distribution, its state in the polymer, and influence on the polymeric phases.

  18. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  19. Investigating Water Problems. A Water Analysis Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Charles E.

    This booklet has been prepared expressly for teachers and students who are interested in investigating the quality of water supplies. The intent is to provide technical support and background information concerning water quality factors and to give basic information on field and laboratory water testing techniques. It is assumed that the reader is…

  20. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  1. Water safety and drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR . Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

  2. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmission in Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  3. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  4. Drinking Water Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  5. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  6. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  7. Secure Water Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginsberg, M. D; Hock, V. F; Pappas, A. G

    2004-01-01

    ...) contaminants in water systems. Water security is a life safety issue. Water supply systems on military installations and forward facilities are vulnerable to both conventional, industrial and military CB agent contamination by terrorists...

  8. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  9. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  10. Hydrography - Water Bodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  11. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  12. Phytochemical Analysis of Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia Crassipessolms) of Agricultural Waste as Biosensitizer for Ferri Photoreduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rorong, Johnly Alfreds; Sudiarso, Sudiarso; Prasetya, Budi; Polii-Mandang, Jeany; Suryanto, Edi

    2012-01-01

    It has been done analysis for the total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds at eceng gondok leafs (Eichornia crassipessolms). The research was done in several stages: sample preparation, maceration extraction, evaporation. The total phenolic content analysis by Folin Ciocalteu 50%, flavonoid by chloride aluminium 2% in ethanol, and tanin by vanillin 4% solution in methanol, continued by using ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry methods. The results showed that the total phe...

  13. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  14. Sustainability and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate

  15. Water treatment technology for produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szép, Angéla; Kohlheb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of produced water are generated during oil and gas production. Produced water, as it is known in the oil industry, is briny fluid trapped in the rock of oil reservoirs. The objective of this study was to test produced waters from a Montana USA oilfield using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation. We used combined physical and chemical treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. This mobile station consists of three stages: pretreatments, membrane filtration and post treatment. Two spiral-wound membrane units were employed and the rejections of various constituents were examined. The performance of two membranes, 20 kDa weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration and a polyamide-composite reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. The mobile station effectively decreased conductivity by 98%, COD by 100% and the SAR by 2.15 mgeqv(0.5) in the produced water tested in this study. Cost analysis showed that the treatment cost of produced water is less expensive than to dispose of it by injection and this treated water may be of great value in water-poor regions. We can conclude that the mobile station provided a viable and cost-effective result to beneficial use of produced water.

  16. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  17. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  18. Water and Something Else.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougendobler, Nancy

    Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

  19. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the

  20. Computer Room Water Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bennett J.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the protection of computer rooms from water. Sources of water and potentially vulnerable areas in computer rooms are described. Water detection is then discussed, and several detection systems are detailed. Prices and manufacturers' telephone numbers for some of the systems are included. Water cleanup is also briefly considered. (MES)

  1. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  2. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  3. Managing water use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses meeting and maintaining water pollution controls while keeping up with the new regulations. The topics discussed in the article include discharge regulations, stormwater discharges, wetlands regulation, water use, water-related programs, and keeping an inventory of water pollution regulations, especially those involving pre-approvals, permits or registrations

  4. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  5. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely

  6. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  8. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  9. Human water needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Carter, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Healthy humans regulate daily water balance remarkably well across their lifespan despite changes in biological development and exposure to stressors on hydration status. Acute or chronic body water deficits result when intakes are reduced or losses increase, but day-to-day hydration is generally well maintained so long as food and fluid are readily available. Total water intake includes drinking water, water in beverages, and water in food. Daily water needs determined from fluid balance, water turnover, or consumption studies provide similar values for a given set of conditions. A daily water intake of 3.7 L for adult men and 2.7 L for adult women meets the needs of the vast majority of persons. However, strenuous physical exercise and heat stress can greatly increase daily water needs, and the individual variability between athletes can be substantial.

  10. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  11. Revealing water's secrets: deuterium depleted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, Vladyslav V; Kavitskaya, Alina A; Romanyukina, Iryna Yu; Loboda, Oleksandr A

    2013-06-17

    The anomalous properties of water have been of great interest for generations of scientists. However the impact of small amount of deuterium content which is always present in water has never been explored before. For the first time the fundamental properties of deuterium depleted (light) water at 4°C and 20°C are here presented. The obtained results show the important role of the deuterium in the properties of bulk water. At 4°C the lowest value of the kinematic viscosity (1.46 mm2/s) has been found for 96.5 ppm D/H ratio. The significant deviation in surface tension values has been observed in deuterium depleted water samples at the both temperature regimes. The experimental data provides direct evidence that density, surface tension and viscosity anomalies of water are caused by the presence of variable concentration of deuterium which leads to the formation of water clusters of different size and quantity. The investigated properties of light water reveal the origin of the water anomalies. The new theoretical model of cluster formation with account of isotope effect is proposed.

  12. Water Technology Lecture 1: Introducing Water Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Nicholas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This is a full set of PowerPoint lectures for a course in Water Technology currently given at Trinity College, University of Dublin by professor N.F. Gray. The lectures cover all aspects of water and wastewater treatment and are available for use to lecturers or those interested in the subject. The lecture series is to be used in conjunction with the new textbook ?Water Science and Technology? (4th edition) published by CRC Press in 2017. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the water indust...

  13. World Water Day 2002: Water for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture consumes about 70 per cent of the world's available water but experts say that where there are competing demands for water use, and groundwater sources have been depleted, small farmers are the first to lose their supply. As a consequence farmers are displaced from their land and the landless, who help them, are made jobless. Environmental damage to wetlands and estuaries from upstream depletion, as well as an increase of water-borne disease, also occurs.There must be more emphasis towards increasing the efficiency of water management systems and increasing water productivity, getting more crops per drop, says the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Water stress leaves women the most vulnerable. Without a ready source of water they may have to walk for several hours every day to find it, or send their children to fetch it. Child nurturing and education suffer and the water available maybe unfit for human use. The U.N. estimates that 1.2 billion people lack access to safe water and about 2.5 billion are without access to proper sanitation. The absence of safe water translates into a tremendous burden of disease, linked to gastro-intestinal infection, making it a key water associated development issue, the World Health Organization (WHO) says. 'Access to sanitation facilities is a basic human right that safeguards health and human dignity,' said Sir Richard Jolly, Chair of the Geneva-based Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSCC). 'We know from experience that clean water alone leads only to minor health improvements. Sound hygiene behaviour must be recognized as a separate issue in its own right, with adequate sanitation and clean water as supporting components.' This year, water pollution, poor sanitation and water shortages will kill over 12 million people, said Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Millions more are in bad health and trapped in poverty, said Mr. Toepfer, much of

  14. The global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives

    The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.

  15. Water, something peculiar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Some chemical and physical properties of water are discussed and compared with those of other fluids. For instance, the boiling point is much higher than one would expect considering the molecular weight of water. The heat capacity is also much higher but the viscosity is not. The dielectric constant is exceptionally high. These and other properties of water can be explained by the geometry of the water molecule and the structure of water or ice. -Author

  16. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  17. Solvation in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, H.D.; Cummings, P.T.; Karaborni, S.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the solvation structure in supercritical water composed with that in ambient water and in simple supercritical solvents. Molecular dynamics studies have been undertaken of systems that model ionic sodium and chloride, atomic argon, and molecular methanol in supercritical aqueous solutions using the simple point charge model of Berendsen for water. Because of the strong interactions between water and ions, ionic solutes are strongly attractive in supercritical water, forming large clusters of water molecules around each ion. Methanol is found to be a weakly-attractive solute in supercritical water. The cluster of excess water molecules surrounding a dissolved ion or polar molecule in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to the solvent clusters surrounding attractive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. Likewise, the deficit of water molecules surrounding a dissolved argon atom in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to that surrounding repulsive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in supercritical water was found to be about one third the number in ambient water. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule surrounding a central particle in supercritical water was only mildly affected by the identify of the central particle--atom, molecule, or ion. These results should be helpful in developing a qualitative understanding of important processes that occur in supercritical water. 29 refs., 6 figs

  18. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  19. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  20. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre

  1. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  2. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  3. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  4. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  5. Municipal water resources management: evaluation of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi depend on ...

  6. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  7. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  8. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  9. heavy metal pollution of lake victoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study reports on the optimization and calibration of the Energy. Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer installed in the. Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam. The spectrometer was subsequently utilized to determine concentrations of heavy metals in water hyacinth (Eichhornia ...

  10. The water almanac 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Water Almanac 1992 - a yearbook for the entire water field - presents contributions on current topics in water engineering and in water law and environmental law and information on FRG public authorities or institutions responsible for water resources management or water research, as well as on educational facilities in this field in the FRG, Austria and Switzerland, including independent scientific institutions. The contribution on the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident for the environment in western Europe has been analysed as a separate document for retrieval from the database. (BBR) [de

  11. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  12. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  13. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  14. Urban water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  15. Active thermochemical tables: water and water dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscic, Branko

    2013-11-21

    A new partition function for water dimer in the temperature range 200-500 K was developed by exploiting the equations of state for real water vapor, liquid water, and ice, and demonstrated to be significantly more accurate than any proposed so far in the literature. The new partition function allows the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach to be applied on the available experimental and theoretical data relating to water dimer thermochemistry, leading to accurate water dimer enthalpies of formation of -499.115 ± 0.052 kJ mol(-1) at 298.15 K and -491.075 ± 0.080 kJ mol(-1) at 0 K. With the current ATcT enthalpy of formation of the water monomer, -241.831 ± 0.026 kJ mol(-1) at 298.15 K (-238.928 kJ mol(-1) at 0 K), this leads to the dimer bond dissociation enthalpy at 298.15 K of 15.454 ± 0.074 kJ mol(-1) and a 0 K bond dissociation energy of 13.220 ± 0.096 kJ mol(-1) (1105 ± 8 cm(-1)), the latter being in perfect agreement with recent experimental and theoretical determinations. The new partition function of water dimer allows the extraction and tabulation of heat capacity, entropy, enthalpy increment, reduced Gibbs energy, enthalpy of formation, and Gibbs energy of formation. Newly developed tabulations of analogous thermochemical properties for gas-phase water monomer and for water in condensed phases are also given, allowing the computations of accurate equilibria between the dimer and monomer in the 200-500 K range of temperatures.

  16. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  17. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  18. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  19. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  20. Water Safety (Recreational)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  1. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  2. Smart Growth and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains resources that communities can use to integrate green infrastructure into streets and neighborhoods to reduce stormwater runoff, use water more efficiently, and protect water from pollution.

  3. Urban Waters Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Includes information on 14 Federal member agencies for the Urban Waters Federal Partnership and 19 designated urban waters locations and the local stakeholder groups and activities. Content was formerly at www.epa.gov/urbanwaters/

  4. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  5. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  6. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  7. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  8. Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  9. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  10. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  11. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  12. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  13. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2011-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  14. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  15. Water SA: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. This journal publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology, engineering and policy. This includes: water resource development; the hydrological cycle; surface hydrology; geohydrology, hydropedology and hydrometeorology; limnology; freshwater and estuarine ecology; ...

  16. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  17. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  18. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  19. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  20. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  1. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  2. Exploding Water Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly…

  3. Save water, save money

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  4. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  5. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  6. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Maier, Eugen; Pecnik, Rene; Holler, Gert; Eisenkoelbl, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  7. Electrically excited liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wexler, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70

  8. China's water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  9. Water treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  10. Water in environmental planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, T.; Leopold, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    The book demonstrates how a knowledge of hydrology, geomorphology, and river quality is useful in planning. A planner is defined as any specialist whose knowledge is applied to the avoidance or solution of environmental problems. Subjects covered include precipitation, ground water, surface water runoff, flooding, erosion, sediment transport, water quality, biological aspects, and esthetics. (ACR)

  11. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  12. PROPERTIES OF SWIMMING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  13. Electrically excited liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wexler, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70

  14. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  15. Water treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  16. Water Quality Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  17. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  18. Water access, water scarcity, and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukheibir, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.

  19. Biological Water or Rather Water in Biology?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 13 (2015), s. 2449-2451 ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological water * protein * interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.539, year: 2015

  20. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  1. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  2. Water: The Strangest Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2009-02-24

    Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.

  3. Water supply and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Experience is described with the operation of the water supply, the chemical water treatment systems and the unit condensate treatment at the V-2 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The technology is described which is applied to obtain raw water from the Slnava water reservoir and the respective technological system for its treatment is described. Also described are the treatment of the make-up water for the primary and secondary coolant circuits, demineralization, regeneration of ion exchange filters, neutralization of regeneration waste, sludge dewatering and the treatment of steam turbine condensates. (B.S.)

  4. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available to three logs ?4-. in a water treatment plant, a total of seven to eight log reduction in virus results. This leaves a water containing perhaps one TOlD of virus. per 1 000 litres. Shuval? ? suggests thht this is not an unimportant amount. On the basis...~~ water resources and by the direct treatment of waste water, is examined, as is the virus risk involved in the discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater into the environment. -~ VIRUSES IN RENOVATED WATERS Ethel 14. Nupen [National Institute...

  5. Cabora Bassa Fish Populations Before and During the First Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of a maximum of 38 species found one, Sarotherodon andersoni, was a new Middle Zambezi record. Lotic and shallow-water ... Soon after closure the first year-class predominated over all other age-groups; these juveniles, and small adult species, concentrated under mats of Elchhomia crassipes. One further species new ...

  6. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of volatile n-alkane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alkanes hexane to nonane on ground dried water hyacinth (E. crassipes) root biomass were studied between 40 and 70°C column temperature using inverse gas chromatography, before and after treatment of the root biomass with mineral acid ...

  7. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  8. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  9. Water harvest via dewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-07-10

    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia.

  10. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  11. Altimetry for inland water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Villadsen, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    With the globally decreasing amount of in-situ stations, satellite altimetry based water levels are an important supplement to obtain continuous time series of the worlds inland water. In this study we demonstrate two new services, that are related to inland water and altimetry. The first...... is Altimetry for inland water (AltWater), which is a new open service, that provides altimetry based time series for inland water. Currently, the service includes data from cryoSat- 2, but we intend to add other missions in future versions. The second,tsHydro, is a software package, that is implemented...... in the open source environment "R". The package enables the user to easily construct water level time series for lakes and rivers based on along-track altimetry data....

  12. The Mars water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.

  13. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  14. Altimetry for inland water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Villadsen, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    With the globally decreasing amount of in-situ stations, satellite altimetry based water levels are an important supplement to obtain continuous time series of the worlds inland water. In this study we demonstrate two new services, that are related to inland water and altimetry. The first...... in the open source environment "R". The package enables the user to easily construct water level time series for lakes and rivers based on along-track altimetry data....... is Altimetry for inland water (AltWater), which is a new open service, that provides altimetry based time series for inland water. Currently, the service includes data from cryoSat- 2, but we intend to add other missions in future versions. The second,tsHydro, is a software package, that is implemented...

  15. Heavy water pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecevic, V.; Nikolic, M.

    1963-12-01

    Continuous increase of radiation intensity was observed on all the elements in the heavy water system during first three years of RA reactor operation. The analysis of heavy water has shown the existence of radioactive cobalt. It was found that cobalt comes from stellite, cobalt based alloy which was used for coating of the heavy water pump discs in order to increase resistance to wearing. Cobalt was removed from the surfaces due to friction, and transferred by heavy water into the reactor where it has been irradiated for 29 876 MWh up to 8-15 Ci/g. Radioactive cobalt contaminated all the surfaces of aluminium and stainless steel parts. This report includes detailed description of heavy water pumps repair, exchange of stellite coated parts, decontamination of the heavy water system, distillation of heavy water [sr

  16. Richness and distribution of aquatic macrophytes in Brazilian semi-arid aquatic ecosystems Riqueza e distribuição de macrófitas aquáticas em ecossistemas aquáticos do semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzaga Henry-Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the richness and distribution of the aquatic macrophytes in the basin of the Apodi/Mossoró River, in the semi-arid region (caatinga of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; METHODS: A survey of the floristic composition of the aquatic macrophytes was made at 20 sampling stations in the basin at four seasons (August/2007, November/2007, February/2008, May/2008. Specimens of each species were collected and deposited in the Dárdano de Andrade Lima Herbarium of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido; RESULTS: We found 40 species of aquatic macrophytes, in 33 genera and 22 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Cyperaceae, and the most species-rich genera were Cyperus and Eleocharis. The most common plant form was amphibian (42.5%, followed by emergent (27.5%, free-floating (12.5%, rooted-submersed (10.0%, and floating-leaved (7.5%. The lowest richness was observed at the estuarine region (3 species, and the highest richness in the upper basin (17 species. The rooted-submersed Hydrothrix gardneri Hooker f. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. were observed in great abundance and frequency in the Santa Cruz Reservoir of Apodi, especially in areas close to cage farms of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758. The most common free-floating species were Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms., Pistia stratiotes L., and Salvinia auriculata Aubl., predominantly in stretches that run through urban centers; CONCLUSION: The species richness of aquatic macrophytes in aquatic environments of the caatinga is similar to that observed in other basins of Brazil. Because of the many dams and reservoirs in the semi-arid Northeast, inventory and monitoring of aquatic macrophytes have become essential, especially in basins that will receive water from the diversion of the São Francisco River.OBJETIVO: Nós objetivamos avaliar a riqueza e a distribuição das macrófitas aquáticas nos ambientes aqu

  17. Droplet deposition during spray and leaf pH in aquatic weed control Deposição de gotas de pulverização e pH foliar no controle de plantas daninhas aquáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumárcio Vilanova da Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of leaf surface and structures such as trichomes, stomata, cuticle, and waxes that exists among plant species can have great influence on the adherence and deposition of spray droplets, as well as on herbicide absorption. The aim of this research was to study leaf pH and to evaluate wetting areas after applications of solution surfactants on the following aquatic weeds: Enhydra anagallis, Eichhornia crassipes, Heteranthera reniformis, and Typha subulata. The aquatic weeds were grown in reservoirs containing water under open air conditions and their leaf tissues were collected when the plants reached full development (before flowering. The mean leaf pH varied between 5.50 and 7.50; E. anagallis should be pointed out for presenting the highest pH values, of 6.68 and 7.02 on the upper and lower leaf surfaces, respectively. Surface tension reduction for glyphosate alone (5.0% v v-1, glyphosate + Aterbane BR (5.0% + 0.5% v v-1, glyphosate + Silwet L-77 (5.0% + 0.05% v v-1, and surfactants alone, Aterbane BR (0.5% v v-1, and Silwet L-77 (0.05% v v-1, were, respectively: 72.1; 28.7; 23.3; 37.3, and 22.1 mN m-1.T. subulata was the aquatic species with the highest upper and lower leaf surface wetting area.A diversidade morfológica da superfície foliar existente entre as espécies de plantas e a presença de estruturas foliares como tricomas, estômatos, cutícula e ceras podem exercer grande influência na aderência e deposição das gotas de pulverização, assim como na absorção do herbicida. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar, em quatro espécies de plantas daninhas aquáticas (Enhydra anagallis, Eichhornia crassipes, Heteranthera reniformis e Typha subulata, a área de molhamento de gotas de pulverização nas superfícies foliares adaxial e abaxial, bem como o pH foliar. O experimento foi realizado em Botucatu-SP. As plantas foram cultivadas em caixas d'água sob condições de campo, e quando

  18. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  19. Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The town is witnessing rapid urban expansion with increasing demand in water use, without expansion in the existing water facilities. The research assessed water quality of selected water sources in Dutsinma town. Five (5) categories of ...

  20. Radioactivity in surface water, drinking water and sewage treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses the origin, occurrence, characteristics and behaviour of radioactive substances in waters, the use of various waters as drinking water and consequences to be drawn in the case of drinking water contamination. 1 ref. (Author)