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Sample records for ehkosistemy reki shagan

  1. Radioactive contamination of the Shagan river ecosystem components with artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, S.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Larionova, N.V.; Yakovenko, Yu.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Shagan river is the only surface waterway on the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site territory. It flows along the eastern boundary of the SNTS and is a left-bank tributary of the Irtysh river. The length of the Shagan riverbed is 275 km with an average slope 0.003, which changes considerably from one part of the riverbed to the other. Within the Balapan testing ground the length of the riverbed is about 50 km, and the slope angle is, on average, 0.002. The watershed area of the left-bank part of the testing ground, where testing wells are located, is about 900 km 2 . In 2006 during radio-ecological investigations of the SNTS aquatic environment, scientists determined contamination of the Shagan river with radioactive products of nuclear explosions. The main radioactive pollutant is tritium. Maximal tritium concentration in the river waters (40*10 4 Bq/l) was registered 4.7 km away from the Atomic lake at levels of more than 50 times higher than the maximal permissible level for drinking water. As the distance from the Atomic lake increases, tritium concentration in the Shagan waters considerably decreases, and in the place of its confluence with the Irtysh rivertritium concentration in water becomes 10 Bq/l, which is equal to MPL (maximal permissible level) used for equipment. A complex of scientific investigations including hydrogeological, hydrological and geophysical investigation showed that tritium contamination of the Shagan waters is caused by the discharge of contaminated ground waters from the testing ground Balapan. In 2007 additional investigations of the river ecosystem showed that surface waters of the river in addition to tritium contained 90 Sr, and bottom sedimentations were contaminated with 60 Co, 152 Eu, 154 Eu and 137 Cs. It should be noted that concentration of 90 Sr in water reaches the level comparable with intervention level established by NRB-99 (Radiation Safety Norms) for water and food intake. By the character of tritium and

  2. An Analysis of the Effects of Tectonic Release on Short-Period P Waves Observed from Shagan River Explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    possible effects of tectonic release on the mb values determined for underground explosions conducted at the Russian nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk ...traditionally associated with the Shagan River test site . Thus, the currently availablej4aa"do not exclude the possibility that tectonic release may be...from explosions at this test site in an attempt to identify any effects which may correlate with tectonic release and to evaluate the results of

  3. Mechanisms for surface contamination of soils and bottom sediments in the Shagan River zone within former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidarkhanov, A O; Lukashenko, S N; Lyakhova, O N; Subbotin, S B; Yakovenko, Yu Yu; Genova, S V; Aidarkhanova, A K

    2013-10-01

    The Shagan River is the only surface watercourse within the former Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS). Research in the valley of the Shagan River was carried out to study the possible migration of artificial radionuclides with surface waters over considerable distances, with the possibility these radionuclides may have entered the Irtysh River. The investigations revealed that radioactive contamination of soil was primarily caused by the first underground nuclear test with soil outburst conducted at the "Balapan" site in Borehole 1004. The surface nuclear tests carried out at the "Experimental Field" site and global fallout made insignificant contributions to contamination. The most polluted is the area in the immediate vicinity of the "Atomic" Lake crater. Contamination at the site is spatial. The total area of contamination is limited to 10-12 km from the crater piles. The ratio of plutonium isotopes was useful to determine the source of soil contamination. There was virtual absence of artificial radionuclide migration with surface waters, and possible cross-border transfer of radionuclides with the waters of Shagan and Irtysh rivers was not confirmed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ANALISIS TIPOLOGI TUTUPAN VEGETASI SEBAGAI DASAR PENYUSUNAN STRATEGI RESTORASI DI AREA IUPHHK-RE PT REKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Nurfatma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Harapan rainforest situated in South Sumatera is a restoration area of PT REKI company that highly susceptible to land conversion. The problem faced in the effort of restoration is the restorated area that is too large and has not been tested any silvicultural techniques. The condition of land cover is the basic information that could be used as a reference in the preparation of restoration strategy. The study aimed to determine the level of damage, the condition of the ecosystem, appropriate silvicultural techniques, and plant species restoration priorities. The used methods were analysis of vegetation in 4 typologies (secondary forest, old shrub, young shurb, former akasia plantations, and the analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. The results showed that the correlation between density value (y and NDVI (x was: y = -136.35+425.46x, R2 (0.89. The order of  area with the level of damage from the lowest to the highest were: the typology of secondary forest, old shurb, young shrub, and former akasia plantation, respectively. The typology of secondary forests had the highest value of diversity, richness, and evenness  (H’>3, Dmg>5, and E>0.6. Relationship between former akasia plantations typology and another tipologies was not germane (euclidean distance> 3.31, and the relationship between seedling and trees in all typologies (with the exception of former akasia plantations was  very high  (r> 0.9. Silvicultural techniques that could be done include eradicating A. mangium in the former akasia plantation and planting in the all typologies with the exception of secondary forest. The plants that could be used for restoration are Macaranga sp., K.malaccensis,  Nephelium sp., P.gutta, H.mengarawan, S.leprosula.

  5. 130EKI3ES()REKI~G/1300K ~zEVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From there he went with a column to Trichardtsfontein and took part in opera- tions in the district of Middelburg. After this he spent two months in the British military hospital at Wakkerstroom. On 31 May 1902 he was in Durban where he visited the con- centration camp at Merebank. He was dis- charged nt Pretoria on 13 ...

  6. Changes of communities of phytobenthos of Drevnica River - ecological condition assessment in space and time; Zmeny spolecenstev fytobentosu reky Drevnice - hodnoceni ekologickeho stavu v prostoru a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarova, M.; Uher, B.; Chattova, B. [Masarykova univerzita, Ustav botaniky a zoologie, 62100 Brno-Reckovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-16

    The study deals with a biological evaluation of water quality of the Drevnice River (Eastern Moravia) by a community of cyanobacteria and algae which are tied to the bottom substrate (e.g. mud, sand, stones). Phytobenthos, as this file of benthic autotrophic organisms is called, has a significant position among bioindicators of water quality for the ability to reflect environmental changes in a short time. The work consisted in monitoring changes in diversity of phytobenthos community and measurement of physicochemical parameters within one year. The aim was to find relations between the organisms and parameters and to determinate the current ecological status of the river. (authors)

  7. Letna Dinamika Pojavljanja Vodnih Ptic Na Reki Dravi Med Mariborskim Jezerom In Jezom Melje (Sv Slovenija / Yearly dynamics of waterbirds’ occurrence on the Drava River between Lake Maribor and Melje Dam (NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logar Katja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Between April 2007 and April 2008, 40 systematic waterbird counts were conducted on the Drava River between Lake Maribor and the Melje Dam (length 8.5 km, area 155 ha to determine the specific composition, abundance and seasonal dynamics of bird occurrence. Between October and May, counts were conducted every week, whereas between June and September they were carried out once every two weeks. In total, 26,803 individuals of 30 species were counted. The number of waterbirds and diversity of species were the highest from late December to late February, when more than 1,000 individuals were regularly present in the area. Waterbirds were distributed along the river unequally, with the highest number of birds present yearround in the city centre and in the first counting sector of Lake Maribor. The Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Mute Swan Cygnus olor were recorded during every count, while occurrence frequency was greater than 50% in another 10 species. Dominant species in terms of percentage composition were Mallard, Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Coot Fulica atra, Mute Swan, Pochard Aythya ferina and Tufted Duck Ay. fuligula. Mute Swan and Mallard were the only breeding waterbirds in the study area. Both the total number of waterbirds and the highest daily total in the first two counting sectors were greater between October and March 1992/93 than in our study. The decline in numbers was the greatest for Mallard, Pochard and Tufted Duck, while an increase was noted in Mute Swan and Yellow-legged / Caspian Gull Larus michahellis / cachinnans. The total number of waterbirds and the number of some species in the study area were significantly higher than expected solely based on its length compared to the length of the lowland Drava in Slovenia (125.7 km. The study area is conservationally important for Pochard, Tufted Duck and Black-headed Gull

  8. An Analysis of the Seismic Source Characteristics of Explosions in Low-Coupling Dry Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    Semipalatinsk Test Site (Shagan, Degelen and Konystan Testing Areas) and in Salt at the Former Soviet Azgir Test Site ...to be applicable to all underground nuclear explosions conducted in various hard rock media at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site , as well as...in Hard Rock at the Former Soviet Semipalatinsk Test Site (Shagan, Degelen and Konystan Testing Areas) and in Salt at the Former Soviet Azgir Test

  9. Rol' reki Rejn v formirovanii prostranstvennoj struktury jekonomiki stran Evropy (I vek do nashej jery — XIX vek [The role of the river Rhine in the formation of spatial structure of the economy of European countries (1st century BC — 19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazhdankin Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main historical stages of formation of spatial economic structure of the European countries, parts of whose territories lie within the Rhine basin. The analysis covers a protracted chronological interval from the Roman colonization until the beginning of the 20th century. The author emphasizes the role of the River Rhine in the course of territorial structure formation. This study aims to retrace the historical sequence of the formation of territorial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the periods of increased activity in the formation of spatial structural communications of the states mentioned. The author applies the historical-descriptive approach and cartographical-geographical modelling to identify the main stages of this process. The author arrives at the following conclusions. The beginning of the formation of spatial structure of economies of the Rhine basin countries dates back to the Roman period of the history of European states rather than the industrial revolution. Similarly, it is possible to assume that primitive integration processes started to develop in the region in the same period. Throughout history, the River Rhine has served as the central axis for economic structure development. The practical significance of the article lies in identifying the early — previously insufficiently studied — stages of formation of territorial economic structure in the historical and geographical context.

  10. Assessment of ichthyo-fauna condition within zone of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilov, N.Sh.; Mitrofanov, I.V.; Matmuratov, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents studies of biological factors and calculating morphological features for fish from the Uzunbulak and Shagan Rivers situated in the Semipalatinsk test site area. The conditions of fish habitat are characterized as favorable; however alteration of phenotypic features shows radiation water contamination. (author)

  11. Variability and condition of common minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus, Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) on the Semipalatinsk range and out of its influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, I.V.; Matmuratov, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of common minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) from five rivers of Irtysh and Balkhash basins were investigated. Population from the Shagan river situated inside area of Semipalatinsk Range influence. This population has normal sexual structure and high growth rate. Condition factor of all fishes is high. Population from Semipalatinsk Range has increased variability of characteristics due to increasing of stochastic part of general variability. Abnormalities of external fish morphology are not observed in this area. Asymmetry of bilateral characteristics is low. (author)

  12. Sumerian Proverbs. Glimpses of Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotammia. By Edmund I. Gordon with a chapter by Thorkild Jacobsen. (Museum Monographs. Published by The University ivrus,eum. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia 1959, 7,50. XXVI + 556 str.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Korošec

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available Stari pregovori in reki so dragocene priče ljudske modrosti in ljudskega naziranja o življenju in družbi. Posebno priljubljeni so bili na Starem vzhodu. Tako so pri Egipčanih nastali obširni "modrostni spisi". biblija ima posebno knjigo Pregovorov (Mišle Šelomo. Zelo razširjeni so pa bili tudi pri starih Sumercih. Njihovi pisarji so v mestih Nippurju, Uru (in najbrž tudi drugod sestavljali cele zbirke takih rekov. Navadno so to kratka pravila, življenjske maksime, včasih samoumevne resnice, včasih kratke, nekoliko sarkastične zgodbice.

  13. Vaba Läti ehitab / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    13.-17.04. 2007 hindas rahvusvaheline žürii Läti parimaid arhitektuuriteoseid. Parim rekonstrueeritud ehitis oli büroohoone Riias Dzirnavu tn. 68 (arhitektid Aleksejs Birjukovs, Andis Silis). Parim tööstushoone oli Ventspilsis asuv mahlakontsentraatide käitlus- ja laohoone (arhitektid Aija Kokina, Andris Kokins, Krista Strelita-Strele). Bürookategooria võiduprojektiks valiti Liepajas Zivju tn. 11/13 paiknev kontorihoone (arhitektid Diana Zalane, Artis Rokis). Parima elamu tiitli pälvis Jurmalas Jura tn. 32 asuv maja (arhitektid Janis Alksnis, Nora Saulespurena, Andris Rubenis). Eramajadest oli parim suvemaja Pavilostas (arhitekt Janis Sauka). Parima maastikuarhitektuur-väikevormi preemia said Gvido Rekis, Anita Neilande, Andris Kausenieks, Didzis Oshenieks Ventspilsi dzhungliraja eest. Sisekujunduspreemia sai originaaldisainiga ekspositsioonikapslitega Grindeksi farmaatsiatoodete näidisteruum Riias

  14. Study of Chironomidae Natural Populations of the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site Water Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimanova, K.G.; Blinov, A.G.; Kiknadze, I.I.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Seisebaev, A.T.; Rakhimbaeva, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    The open water bodies as a component of the biosphere serve as the accumulators of artificial radionuclides generated during the nuclear explosions; therefore their radioactive contamination needs to be registered. The assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination consequences for the natural populations of organisms living in water bodies is of particular importance. Chironomini (Diptera, Chironomidae) play an important role as they are a significant component of water and air biocenoses and provide the self-cleaning of water bodies and food chains of industrial fish and bird. Chironomini have been chosen to be a model for the UNESCO International Program titled 'Man and Biosphere' and are used as the biologic indicator for ecological studies of anthropogenic influence on water bodies. The study of Chironomini natural mutagenic process and its alteration due to the radioactive contamination of water bodies is of extreme scientific interest and can serve as the indicator of the scale of genetic damage of water organisms. This work presents the data on natural populations of Chironomini of former STS water bodies: Shagan Lake, Balapan Lake, the artificial water body on the Karazhyra Coal Field, the backwater near the Shagan River, Balykty col Lake, etc. The analysis of morphology and caryotype of Camptochironomus sp. S (S - larvae have been sampled from the Semipalatinsk Test Site) showed that this is a new species as compared to studied species (C. tentans, C. pallidivittatus) of Camptochironomus subfamily. The caryotype Camptochironomus sp. S differs sharply from the caryotypes of other Camptochironomus species due to its strong hetero chromatization of centromeric discs. The immediate molecular analysis of genome DNA of Camptochironomus sp. S larvae sampled from Shagan Lake was performed: the total DNA of larvae of this species was obtained, nucleonic sequences of genes of cytochrome B (Cyt B) and cytochrome I (COI) were determined using methods of

  15. Residual radioactivity in the soil of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tsukatani, Tsuneo; Katayama, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with our efforts to survey residual readioactivity in the soil sampled at teh Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and at off-site areas in Kazakhstan. The soil sampled at the hypocenter where the first Soviet nuclear explosion was carried out on 29 August 1949, and at the bank of the crater called open-quotes Bolapan,close quotes which was formed by an underground nuclear detonation on 15 January 1965 along the Shagan River. As a comparison, other soil was also sampled in the cities of Kurchatov and Almaty. These data have allowed a preliminary evaluation of the contemporary radioactive contamination of the land in and around the test site. At the first nuclear explosion site and at Bolapan, higher than background levels of 239,240 Pu with weapons-grade plutonium were detected together with fission and activation products such as 137 Cs, 60 Co, 152 Eu, and 154 Eu. 20 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Time-domain study of tectonic strain-release effects on seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.K.; Sherman, N.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tectonic strain release affects both the amplitude and phase of seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. Surface wave magnitudes are strongly affected by the component of tectonic strain release in the explosion. Amplitudes and radiation patterns of surface waves from explosions with even small tectonic components change magnitudes significantly and show a strong dependence on receiver locations. A thrust-slip source superimposed on an isotropic explosion can explain observed reversals in waveform at different azimuths and phase delays between normal and reversed Rayleigh waves. The mechanism of this reversal is due to the phase relationship between reasonable explosion and tectonic release sources. Spallation or an unusual source time function are not required. The observations of Shagan River events imply thrust-slip motion along faults in a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent with regional tectonics

  17. Residual radioactivity in the soil of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Tsukatani, T; Katayama, Y

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with our efforts to survey residual radioactivity in the soil sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and at off-site areas in Kazakhstan. The soil was sampled at the hypocenter where the first Soviet nuclear explosion was carried out on 29 August 1949, and at the bank of the crater called "Bolapan," which was formed by an underground nuclear detonation on 15 January 1965 along the Shagan River. As a comparison, other soil was also sampled in the cities of Kurchatov and Almaty. These data have allowed a preliminary evaluation of the contemporary radioactive contamination of the land in and around the test site. At the first nuclear explosion site and at Bolapan, higher than background levels of 239,240Pu with weapons-grade plutonium were detected together with fission and activation products such as 137Cs, 60Co, 152Eu, and 154Eu.

  18. "Juba õhtu on käes..." : [luuletused] / Sergei Jessenin ; tlk. Helvi Jürisson, Artur Alliksaar, Muia Veetamm, Linda Ruud, Jaan Kross, Ellen Niit, Debora Vaarandi, Venda Sõelsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jessenin, Sergei, 1895-1925

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Juba õhtu on käes..." ; "Seal, kus koit valab kapsaste vahel..." ; "Tulvavesi suitsev..." ; "Tegin oja kaldal vene..." ; "Laia taevaliua sinal..." ; "Kallis kodu! Näen kui unes..." ; "Olen karjus; minu valdus..." ; Venemaa ; Joobumus ; Hobused ; Laul koerast ; "Milleks punakuldseis põõsais nuuksed..." ; "Teispool jõge lõkkeread..." ; "Mind väsitand on kodunurk..." ; "See on mu kodu, mõtlik-hell..." ; Sinendus ; "Õhtul, kui kõik jooned nõrgemad..." ; "Homme varakult üles mind aja..." ; "Isamaja, kuhu jäid..." ; "Paljad põllud, metsaveered..." ; "Su juus on roheline..." ; "Laulud, laulud, kuhu te viite..." ; "Õnn, sina rumal! Mu aknad..." ; "Valged teed kinni tuiskab..." ; "Taas kiindumust ma vajan uut..." ; "Tiigipinnale kuldlehti liibub..." ; "Tuuled, tuuled, oo lund tooge, tuuled..." ; "Olen viimane külapoeet ma..." ; "Pole tarvis palvet, kurtmist, nuttu..." ; "Jah! Nüüd kindel on küll, et ei iial..." ; "Samasugune lihtne kui muud..." ; "Mingi troika on värava taga..." ; Kiri emale ; "Kõik me vähehaaval kaome sinna..." ; "Shagane, minu hea Shagane..." ; "Elurõõmus maailm, sinine ja lai..." ; "Koju ma ei leia teed..." ; "Sinav mai. Eha punerdav joom..." ; "Magab stepp. Koirohu tinast värskust..." ; "Meretäis sädinat õues..." ; "Elu pettus on, mis kestab päevast päeva..." ; "Mängi, lõõtspill, julgelt, mängi, lõõtspill, valju..." ; "Pole näinud ma kaunimat sinust..." ; "Laula nüüd mõnda laulukest, mida..." ; "Selle maailma kiiresti läbin..." ; "Sinistkirja pluus ja sinisilmadki..." ; "Tukub heledas kuuvalges..." ; "Küll on tuisk, tont võtaks, taevas ära kaob..." ; "Kes ma olen? Ainult unistaja..." ; "Sõber, hüvasti, mul ees on minek...". Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 821

  19. Environmental Implications of Radioactive Waste Disposal as Related to Stream Environments; Incidences du Milieu sur l'Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Voisinage des Cours d'Eau; 0412 041b 0418 042f 0414 ; Efectos de la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en las Corrientes Fluviales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Conrad P.; Goldin, Abraham S.; Friend, Albert G.; Taft, Robert A. [Sanitary Engineering Center, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1960-07-01

    hay que anadir las sustancias provenientes de la precipitacion radiactiva y las que se depositan directamente en el rio o incorporan a la corriente{sub a} traves de sus afluentes. Como las corrientes fluviales pueden utilizarse con diversos fines: para obtener agua potable, para el consumo industrial, como lugar de recreo, para la pesca, el riego o la navegacion, hay que evaluar cuidadosamente los efectos de la evacuacion en cada uno de los casos mencionados. Los criterios actualmente establecidos no proporcionan una base suficiente para determinar el limite admisible de evacuacion, a no ser que se conozcan las cantidades.de cada radionuclido ya presentes en el agua y su comportamiento al ser arrastrados por la corriente. Habra que modificar los limites admisibles de evacuacion segun estos datos y, sobre todo, segun los fines con que se utilice el rio aguas abajo del punto de descarga. Si en un rio determinado se permite la evacuacion de desechos radiactivos en diferentes puntos, habra que determinar las cantidades maximas correspondientes a cada radionuclido teniendo en cuenta la exposicion de las poblaciones situadas aguas abajo de todos los puntos de descarga. En la memoria se sugieren diversas maneras de abordar el problema de la evacuacion de desechos segun el uso que se hace de la comente aguas abajo del punto de evacuacion, y se examinan las dificultades practicas inherentes a cada una de ellas. (author) [Russian] V nastojashhee vremja ezhegodno v reki popadajut vse v bol'shem kolichestve, radioaktivnye othody. Oni idut iz mnogochislennyh laboratorij, v kotoryh ispol'zujutsja radioaktivnye materialy dlja poleznyh celej, a takzhe iz sushhestvujushhih sredstv ispol'zovanija atomnoj jenergii. K jetomu- kolichestvu, popadajushhemu neposredstvenno v reki pri uslovijah kontrolja, sleduet dobavit' eshhe i radioaktivnye materialy, kotorye javljajutsja sledstviem vypadenija i prosachivanija ili prjamye osadki, popadajushhie v reki. Poskol'ku jeti zhe reki mogut ispol

  20. Methodological aspects of creating a radiological 'passport' of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.; Smagulov, S.G.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2002-01-01

    During its existence, 456 nuclear tests were carried out at the Semipalatinsk Test Site - 30 at the ground surface, 86 in the atmosphere and 340 underground. Radioactive fallout from ground surface tests is responsible for the present radiation conditions within the 'Test Field'. The radiation situation in the Degelen Mountains is caused by 209 underground tests carried out in local tunnels. Within the former Test Site there are three large and several small zones to which general access is prohibited for public health reasons: the 'Test Field', the Degelen Mountains, lake Shagan, the rim of the lake, and the adjacent land to the north. The information and characteristics, which have to be included in radiological passport of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site, are discussed along with general information about the Semipalatinsk site, its administrative status, the population distribution throughout the territory, all the economic activities taking place within the territory, the zones and structures representing a radiation hazard, and radiohydrogeological conditions of the test site and the adjacent regions, biogenic conditions (topography, soil, vegetation), wildlife, fauna monitoring, etc. (author)

  1. Do the TTBT and JVE provide a framework for 'effective' verification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergino, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed in 1974 by Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev with both the US and USSR agreeing to adhere to the 150 kt limit of the treaty as of March 31, 1976. Yet the treaty remained non ratified for more than twelve years and during this time during the height of the Cold War, the US and USSR continued to accuse one another of violating the treaty. During late 1987, during the Nuclear Testing Talks in Geneva the Joint Verification Experiment (JVE) was discussed and then was formally announced at the Shultz/Shevardnadze meeting in December, 1987. In the course of arranging JVE Information and data for five Soviet and five US nuclear tests, were exchanged. JVE activity culminated with Kearsarge, detonated on August 17, 1988 and Shagan, detonated on September 14, 1988. JVE provided a unique opportunity for US and USSR technical experts to work together to demonstrate that effective verification of the TTBT could be achieved. The TTBT was the first treaty in which the US pursued a series of complex protocols involving additional, intrusive verification measures. These required extensive collaboration between scientific and political communities, a collaboration necessary to address the balance between the technical capabilities and requirements and the political drivers and needs. During this talk the author discusses this balance, how the balance changed with time, the drivers for change and the lessons learned, and weather there are lessons to be learned that are applicable to the development of other, future, arms control agreements

  2. Common data about region of the former Semipalatinsk test site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Region of the Semipalatinsk test site is situated on left bank shore of the Irtysh river, on joining of three regions (East Kazakstan region, Pavlodar, Karaganda) and is extended from the river to south-western direction on 180 km. Total square of the site is amount 18.5 thousand sq.km. The territory is presented by flat landscape of dry steppe and semi-desert type passing in south-western direction into hill valley changing by small hill land. There are 5 test sites on territory of the region where places of nuclear explosions were carried out. For all territory is typically presence of river valleys and lake hollows (mainly salty). Today global background from cesium-137 and strontium-90 radionuclides near Semipalatinsk city amounts in average 0,11 Ci/sq.km. By the data of ground gamma-survey radiation background is oscillating within limits of 11-25 μR/h. In the same time on the site region there are local sections of radiation contamination with very high background, in particular, in epicenter of the 'Opytnoe Pole' area is up to 15000 μR/h, on disposal area of the Balapan lake is 11000 μR/h, near dam of the Shagan reservoir is up to 7000 μR/h, near portals of some galleries of the Degelen test site is up to 20000-250000 μR/h and others. Geobotanic status of the site territory is extremely heterogeneous and it is insufficiently studied because of inaccessibility of the region for researches during long time of its activity. The 302 types higher vascular plants were defined during last four seasons of field studies, as well as 800 descriptions of biocenoses are made, 1000 herbarium specimens are gathered

  3. Teleseismic Lg of Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Explosions Recorded by the GRF (Gräfenberg) Array: Comparison with Regional Lg (BRV) and their Potential for Accurate Yield Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittenhardt, J.

    - A comparison of regional and teleseismic log rms (root-mean-square) Lg amplitude measurements have been made for 14 underground nuclear explosions from the East Kazakh test site recorded both by the BRV (Borovoye) station in Kazakhstan and the GRF (Gräfenberg) array in Germany. The log rms Lg amplitudes observed at the BRV regional station at a distance of 690km and at the teleseismic GRF array at a distance exceeding 4700km show very similar relative values (standard deviation 0.048 magnitude units) for underground explosions of different sizes at the Shagan River test site. This result as well as the comparison of BRV rms Lg magnitudes (which were calculated from the log rms amplitudes using an appropriate calibration) with magnitude determinations for P waves of global seismic networks (standard deviation 0.054 magnitude units) point to a high precision in estimating the relative source sizes of explosions from Lg-based single station data. Similar results were also obtained by other investigators (Patton, 1988; Ringdaletal., 1992) using Lg data from different stations at different distances.Additionally, GRF log rms Lg and P-coda amplitude measurements were made for a larger data set from Novaya Zemlya and East Kazakh explosions, which were supplemented with mb(Lg) amplitude measurements using a modified version of Nuttli's (1973, 1986a) method. From this test of the relative performance of the three different magnitude scales, it was found that the Lg and P-coda based magnitudes performed equally well, whereas the modified Nuttli mb(Lg) magnitudes show greater scatter when compared to the worldwide mb reference magnitudes. Whether this result indicates that the rms amplitude measurements are superior to the zero-to-peak amplitude measurement of a single cycle used for the modified Nuttli method, however, cannot be finally assessed, since the calculated mb(Lg) magnitudes are only preliminary until appropriate attenuation corrections are available for the

  4. A Comparison of Radioisotope Methods for River Flow Measurement; Comparaison de methodes radioisotopiques de mesure du debit des cours d'eau; Sravnenie radioizotopnykh metodov izmereniya rechnykh stokov; Comparacion de los metodos radioisotopicos para medir el caudal de los rios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C. G.; Smith, D. B. [Wantage Research Laboratory Atomic Energy Research Establishment Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1963-08-15

    del lecho del rio. Desde este punto de vista, el tritio posee excelentes propiedades, puesto que no es absorbido, pero es dificil de medir y no es posible seguir directamente su desplazamiento en el rio. Otros indicadores resultan mas convenientes, pero pueden sufrir adsorcion. Los autores han estudiado los grados de adsorcion del {sup 24}Na, {sup 82}Br y {sup 32}P en forma de NaHC0{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}Br y NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 3} respectivamente, que introdujeron en un mismo punto del rio junto con agua tritiada (HTO), para comparar despues las mediciones realizadas en varios lugares situados aguas abajo. Se ha visto que el EP, para el que se esperaban grandes perdidas por quimisorcion, no sirve para medir el caudal de rios cuando se emplea sin portador, aunque el error disminuye notablemente cuando se trabaj a con portador. En el caso del {sup 24}Na y del {sup 32}Br, no se observa adsorcion a distancias mucho mayores que la requerida para que la mezcla lateral sea satisfactoria si bien a una distancia de 660 m en el rio de corriente mas lenta se observo que parte del {sup 24}Na habia desaparecido. Los autores formulan algunas observaciones sobre el grado de dispersion lateral y longitudinal que tienen importancia para la aplicacion de tecnicas radioisotopicas en general a la medicion del caudal de rios. Llegan a la conclusion de que los tres metodos pueden dar resultados satisfactorios. En definitiva, los autores dan preferencia al metodo de muestreo continuo, ya que permite alcanzar una mayor precision para un consumo minimo de indicador. (author) [Russian] Metody razbavleniya, nepreryvnogo otbora prob i polnogo scheta primenyayutsya pri sravnitel'nom izuchenii radioindikatornykh metodov izmereniya stokov v rekakh Ajbehrton Bruk v Gluchestershire i Usvej Bern i Alvin Rivers - v Nortamberlehnde. EHto - tri reki s razlichnymi geologicheskimi kharakteristikami i skorostyami stokov, izmenyayushchikhsya v diagyuzone ot 2,5 l/sek do 3 m{sup 3}/sek. Pri ispol'zovanii lyubykh

  5. Perspectives of investigation and development of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Since the Semipalatinsk Test Site has been stopped and up until now, National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC RK) in cooperation with other specialist from Kazakhstan and international scientific community have accumulated large scope of information about current radiological situation at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and adjacent territories. There were revealed all important spots of radioactive contamination, identified main pathways and mechanisms for present and potential proliferation of radioactive substances. Obtained data assure us that present-day SNTS provides no negative impact on population on adjacent to the Site territories excluding people in the water basin of the river Shagan. Compliance with regulatory requirements and special rules for SNTS territory assures radiation safety at commercial activities on the Site. At the same time, the radiological situation does not remain stable; there were revealed the processes of radionuclide migration what requires regular monitoring of radiological situation at SNTS. Taking into account the scale of the Site and the variety of tests performed there, the information available about SNTS can not be completely exhaustive but enables us to propose a scientifically grounded plan for further research and practical measures aimed at remediation and reclamation of lands. implementation of such measures should return up to 80% of the lands to commercial use. SNTS is one of the world largest nuclear test sites with decisive contribution to creation and development of nuclear weapon. To considerable extent, these were works at SNTS which established nuclear parity between the superpowers one of the crucial factors in the history of human civilization in the 20 century. Also taking into account the interest to SNTS paid by international organizations, it is reasonable to initiate a procedure and recognize SNTS as a landmark including it in the UNESCO List of Cultural and Nature

  6. Character and levels of radioactive contamination of underground waters at Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, S.; Lukashenko, S.; Turchenko, Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    According to the data of RK government commission, 470 explosions have been set off at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), inclusive of 26 surface, 90 in the air and 354 underground nuclear explosions (UNE), 103 of those have been conducted in tunnels and 251 - in boreholes. Underground nuclear explosions have been conducted at STS in horizontal mines, called - 'tunnels' ('Degelen' test site) and vertical mines called 'boreholes' ('Balapan' and 'Sary-Uzen' test sites). Gopher cavities of boreholes and tunnels are in different geotechnical conditions, that eventually specify migration of radioactive products with underground waters. Central cavities of UNE in holes are located significantly below the level of distribution of underground water. High temperature remains for a long time due to presence of overlying rock mass. High temperatures contribute to formation of thermal convection. When reaching the cavity, the water heat up, dissolve chemical elements and radionuclides and return with them to the water bearing formation. In the major part of 'Balapan' site for underground water of regional basin is characterized by low concentrations of radionuclides. High concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in underground water have been found only in immediate vicinity to 'warfare' boreholes. Formation of radiation situation in the 'Balapan' test site area is also affected by local area of underground water discharge. It is located in the valley of Shagan creek, where the concentration of {sup 3}H reaches 700 kBq/l. Enter of underground water contaminated with tritium into surface water well continue. In this case it is expected that tritium concentration in discharge zone can significantly change, because this migration process depends on hydro geological factors and the amount of atmospheric precipitation. Central cavities of nuclear explosions, made in tunnels, are above the level of underground

  7. Management of Waste from the Use of Radioisotopes; Divers Aspects Resultant de l'Utilisation des Isotopes Radioactifs; 0423 0414 0410 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 041e 0422 0425 041e 0414 ; Diversos Aspectos Relacionados con los Desechos Procedentes del Empleo de Radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Lester R. [Radiation Safety Branch, Division of Licensing and Regulation, United States Atomic Energy Commission (United States)

    1960-07-01

    de desechos solubles o facilmente dispersables ; 3. La inhumacion en el suelo, en condiciones controladas, de pequenas cantidades de desechos; 4. El envio de los desechos radiactivos a las instalaciones de la Atomic Energy Commission para su almacenamiento o inhumacion; 5. El tratamiento por incineracion; 6. La evacuacion en el mar de desechos envasados. El autor examina los criterios y requisitos reglamentarios aplicables a cada metodo de evacuacion con el proposito de impedir que los desechos entren en la cadena alimentaria humana en cantidades peligrosas o afecten desfavorablemente la utilizacion del medio por el hombre. Estudia asimismo las limitaciones que se han de imponer a los tipos y metodos de evacuacion aplicados por las empresas privadas que, por su larga experiencia en Inverted-Exclamation-Mark el mantenimiento de terrenos de inhumacion o instalaciones de almacenamiento, pueden recibir autorizacion oficial para efectuar esta clase de operaciones. (author) [Russian] Budut obsuzhdeny voprosy proishozhdenija i haraktera radioaktivnyh othodov, obrazuemyh pri ispol'zovanii radioizotopov v promyshlennosti, medicine, sel'skom hozjajstve i nauchnyh issledovanijah. Budet rassmotrena svjaz' mezhdu tipami, kolichestvami i metodami ispol'zovanija radioizotopov i othodami, kotorye pri jetom obrazujutsja. Budut obsuzhdeny metody, primenjaemye dlja udalenija radioaktivnyh othodov, obrazuemyh pri ispol'zovanii radioizotopov v promyshlennosti, medicine, nauchnyh issledovanijah i sel'skom hozjajstve, na kotorye rasprostranjaetsja kontrol' Komissii po atomnoj jenergii. Jeti metody vkljuchajut: 1. Kontroliruemoe udalenie zhidkostej nizkoj koncentracii v reki i v atmosferu ; 2. Kontroliruemoe udalenie nebol'shih kolichestv rastvorjaemyh ili nahodjashhihsja v dispersionnom sostojanii produktov othoda v kanalizacionnye sistemy ; 3. Zahoronenie nebol'shih kolichestv othodov v zemlju pri kontroliruemyh uslovijah; 4. Vozvrashhenie radioaktivnyh othodov na ustanovki Komissii po

  8. Monitoring of Fresh Waters Used for Dispersal of Radioactive Wastes; Controle des Eaux Fluviales Utilisees pour la Dispersion des Dechets Radioactifs; 0418 0417 041c 0414 ; Monitoraje de las Aguas Dulces Utilizadas para la Dispersion de Desechos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ophel, I. L. [Environmental Research and Radiation Dosimetry Branch, Division of Biology and Health Physics, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1960-07-01

    otnoshenijah jeta reka predstavljaet ozero. Jeffljujent razbavljaetsja bol'shimi ob{sup e}mami nizkoaktivnoj vody, ispol'zovannoj dlja ohlazhdenija, i postupaet v reku pri koncentracii radionuklidov, ne prevyshajushhih predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii dlja rabochih. Obshhaja koncentracija beta- i gamma-radionuklidov vverh po techeniju ot zavoda sostavljaet 2 x 10{sup -8} millikjuri/millilitr i 1,6 kilometra vniz po techeniju ot zavoda ravna 3 x 10{sup -8} millikjuri/millilitr. Vzjatie prob so dna reki pokazyvaet, chto radioaktivnost' ponizhaetsja v techenie celogo rjada let nesmotrja na postojannoe dobavlenie aktivnosti, osazhdajushhejsja na kolloidal'nom kremnii, vydeljajushhemsja iz vody. Iz rechnyh organizmov chelovekom upotrebljaetsja v pishhu tol'ko krupnaja ryba. Sledy stroncija-90 byli sluchajno obnaruzheny v kostjah, no ne v mjase. Maksimal'noe soderzhanie 10{sup -3} millikjuri R{sup 32}/g obshhego vesa bylo obnaruzheno v nebol'shih okunjah. Hotja fosfor-32 sostavljaet tol'ko 0,04% obshhej radioaktivnosti jeffljuenta, on predstavljaet 75-95% vseh radionuklidov obnaruzhennyh v bol'shinstve vzjatyh na issledovanie ryb. (author)

  9. The Practice of Waste Disposal in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; Methodes Employees par l'Atomic Energy Authority du Royaume-Uni pour Eliminer les Dechets Radioactifs; 041f 041e 0420 042f 0414 041e 041a 0423 0414 ; Sistemas de Evacuacion de Desechos en la United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunster, H. J.; Wix, L. F.U. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Health and Safety Branch (United Kingdom)

    1960-07-01

    razlichnyh oblastjah. V svjazi s jetim Komissii prihoditsja reshat' voprosy udalenija razlichnyh vidov radioaktivnyh othodov v razlichnyh po harakteru rajonah. Bol'shaja chast' othodov s bol'shoj aktivnost'ju (kak v zhidkom, tak i v tverdom vide) hranitsja v special'nyh kontejnerah. Zhidkie othody s nizkoj aktivnost'ju otvodjatsja v more ili v reki, prichem kolichestvo otvodimyh othodov tshhatel'no kontrolirujutsja. Othody v tverdom vide, imejushhie nizkuju i srednjuju aktivnost', zahoronjajutsja v special'nyh rajonah v grunt ili na dne morja. V dannom dokumente rasskazyvaetsja ob ispol'zuemyh metodah udalenija othodov, privodjatsja dannye o kolichestve zhidkih i tverdyh othodov, kotorye ezhegodno udaljajutsja putem ispol'zovanija dlja jetih celej razlichnyh metodov. (author)

  10. The Public Health Problems of Nuclear Waste Disposal; L'Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs et la Sante Publique; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Problemas que Presenta para la Salud Publica la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunster, H. J. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Health and Safety Branch (United Kingdom)

    1960-07-01

    kontrolja, kotoryj svjazan s problemami ohrany zdorov'ja. Jeti rekomendacii nel'zja primenjat' neposredstvenno k udaleniju othodov, tak kak vysvobozhdennaja radioaktivnost' v redkih sluchajah okazyvaet neposredstvennoe vozdejstvie na cheloveka. Pojetomu ustanovlenie maksimal'no vozmozhnoj skorosti sbrosa trebuet znanija ne tol'ko togo, kak chelovek ispol'zuet okruzhajushhuju ego sredu, no takzhe razlichnyh processov, kotorye upravljajut povedeniem radioaktivnyh materialov v jetoj okruzhajushhej srede. V kachestve primera togo, kak reshajut jeti problemy v Soedinennom Korolevstve, v doklade rassmatrivaetsja sbros v more zhidkih othodov s nizkoj radioaktivnost'ju i kratko razbirajutsja podobnye problemy otvoda othodov v reki i zahoronenija ih v grunt ili v glubiny morej. V dokumente delaetsja vyvod, chto bez osobogo truda mozhno prodemonstrirovat' bezopasnost' bol'shinstva predlozhennyh operacij po udaleniju othodov, no neobhodimo tshhatel'noe issledovanie i kontrol' v teh sluchajah, kogda v okruzhajushhuju cheloveka sredu otvoditsja znachitel'noe kolichestvo radioaktivnyh materialov. (author)

  11. Use of radioactive tracers in studying the transport of solids in watercourses; Emploi de traceurs radioactifs pour l'etude du transport solide dans les cours d'eau; Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnykh indikatorov dlya izucheniya peremeshcheniya tverdykh chastits v vodnykh potokakh; Empleo de indicadores radiactivos para el estudio del transporte de solidos en las corrientes de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Jaeery, P; Heuzel, M [Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique de Chatou (France)

    1962-01-15

    aplicacion de los indicadores radiactivos a los estudios sobre modelos a escala reducida con el doble proposito de: a) disponer de un procedimiento de investigacion comun para los estudios efectuados sobre el terreno y en los modelos a escala reducida, con el objeto de poder controlar la fidelidad del modelo durante los ensayos de calibracion; b) aprovechar las ventajas que ofrecen los modelos a escala reducida en cuanto a facilidad de observacion y mediciones directas, para estudiar las posibilidades de mejorar el metodo de los indicadores, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la obtencion de datos cuantitativos. (author) [Russian] Natsional'naya gidravlicheskaya laboratoriya, vyrabotavshaya v sotrudnichestve s TSentrom yadernykh issledovanij v Sakle pribory i metody izucheniya dvizheniya donnykh otlozhenij pri pomoshchi metoda radioaktivnykh indikatorov, prilagaet v nastoyashchee vremya usiliya k tomu, chtoby osushchestvit' dejstvitel'no kolichestvennyj sposob issledovanij. Za poslednee vremya bylo provedeno dva opyta v prirodnykh usloviyakh v rekakh; pervyj iz nikh byl posvyashchen izucheniyu uvlecheniya gal'ki vodami Rony, a drugoj - izucheniyu peremeshcheniya peska v reke Niger. Parallel'no s poslednim opytom byli provedeny identichnye ispytaniya na makete reki Niger, sozdannom v laboratorii v SHatu. V ehtikh opytakh bylo ispol'zovano izluchenie margantsa-56 i natriya-24, vyzvannoe neposredstvennoj aktivatsiej tolchenoj kostochki abrikosa, izobrazhavshej v ispytaniyakh na makete prirodnye donnye otlozheniya Nigera. Sovmestnye usiliya laboratorii v SHatu i TSentra yadernykh issledovanij v Sakle napravleny v nastoyashchee vremya na primenenie metoda radioaktivnykh indikatorov k opytam na maketakh s dvojnoj tsel'yu: a) Vyrabotat' odinakovye metody issledovaniya v prirodnykh usloviyakh i na makete dlya proverki tochnosti maketa v stadii opytov po ehtalonirovaniyu; b) Ispol'zovat' legkost' vedeniya nablyudenij i proizvodstva neposredstvennykh izmerenij na maketakh dlya

  12. Tritium Studies in the United States. Geological Survey; Le tritium dans les etudes entreprises par le Service Geologique des Etats-Unis; Izuchenie tritiya v svyazi s geologicheskim obsledovaniem ssha; El tritio en los estudios del Servicio Geologico de los Estados Unidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlston, C W; Thatcher, L L [United States Geological Survey, Washington, DC (United States)

    1962-01-15

    'yu uluchsheniya vosproizvodimosti i otsenki koeffitsientov otdeleniya v raznoobraznykh usloviyakh. Byla vyrabotana sistema, obespechivayushchaya pri obychnoj rabote 75-protsentnoe vosstanovlenie tritiya. Glavnye proekty na mestakh predstavlyayutsya v sleduyushchem vide: 1) Issledovanie pri pomoshchi ritiya pribrezhnoj doliny N'yu-Dzhersi pokazyvaet, chto nizhe gorizonta gruntovykh vod proiskhodit rassloenie vody v zavisimosti ot ee vozrasta. 2) V dvukh razlichnykh geologicheskikh gruntakh byli proizvedeny issledovaniya dlya opredeleniya sud'by radioaktivnykh osadkov tritiya posle ispytaniya termoyadernoj bomby v 1958 godu. 3) Tritij ispol'zuetsya dlya opredeleniya vosstanovleniya vodnykh apasov v tretichnykh peschanikakh podpochvennykh plastov polupustynny h loskogorij Novoj Meksiki. 4) Proizvoditsya issledovanie soderzhaniya tritiya v podpochvennykh vodakh doliny reki Snejk v Ajdakho dlya polucheniya svedenij otnositel'no vozrasta ehtoj vody, skorosti ee techeniya i ego napravleniya. 5) Iskusstvennyj tritij ispol'zuetsya v vide indikatora dlya opredeleniya emkosti podpochvennogo vodonosnogo bassejna vblizi Karlsbada, v Novoj Meksike. (author)

  13. The Containment of Radioactive Wastes in Deep Geologic Formations; L'Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans les Formations Geologiques Profondes; 0423 0414 0414 ; Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en Formaciones Geologicas Profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, W. J. [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1960-07-01

    desechos en estado semi-solido que han de almacenarse de modo permanente. Se estima que en tales casos las formaciones geologicas profundas pueden constituir un lugar de evacuacion satisfactorio desde el punto de vista de la seguridad y de la economia. En las formaciones de arenisca resulta posible acumular grandes cantidades de desechos con un alto grado de estabilidad del confinamiento. Merced a sus cavidades intersticiales y caracteristicas de intercambio ionico, esas formaciones suelen poseer una capacidad de almacenamiento muy considerable. En principio, el sistema de evacuacion que utiliza las formaciones geologicas profundas ha de consistir en un conjunto de pozos de inyeccion por los que se introducen los desechos, y de pozos de compensacion que sirven para reducir la presion en la boca de los pozos, medir la radiactividad y dirigir el flujo de tal modo que se aproveche al maximo la capacidad de almacenamiento de la formacion. Entre los datos necesarios para proyectar un sistema de este tipo figuran las propiedades de dispersion de la formacion sus caracteristicas de intercambio ionico y las propiedades quimicas y radioquimicas de los desechos. En el Centro tecnologico experimental de la Universidad de California viene funcionando desde hace dos anos un sistema piloto de dos pozos con una capa acuifera. (author) [Russian] Obychno na predprijatijah himicheskoj obrabatyvajushhej promyshlennosti radioaktivnye othody s nizkim i srednim urovnjami aktivnosti imejut mesto v takom bol'shom kolichestve, chto ih hranenie v techenie dolgogo vremeni nerentabel'no. Vo mnogih sluchajah himicheskaja obrabotka othodov mozhet obespechit' dostatochnuju ih dezaktivizaciju dlja otvoda othodov v reki ili morja. Odnako v nekotoryh sluchajah takie metody trebujut zatrat i libo ne obespechivajut dostatochnoj dezaktivacii, libo privodjat v itoge k obrazovaniju chrezvychajno bol'shogo kolichestva polutverdyh othodov, dlja kotoryh neobhodimo obespechit' stacionarnoe hranenie. Predpolagaetsja

  14. Distribution of Aerially Applied Malathion-S{sup 35} in a Forest Ecosystem; Distribution du malathion- {sup 35}S pulverise par avion dans un ensemble ecologique forestier; Raspredelenie malationa, mechennogo S35 i raspylyaemogo s vozdukha dlya izucheniya ehkologicheskoj sistemy lesnykh massivov; Distribucion en un sistema ecologico forestal de malation- 35S pulverizado desde el aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Jr., R. H.; Peterle, T. J. [Ohio Co-Operative Wildlife Research Unit, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1963-09-15

    insecticida pulverizado. Por toma de muestras de tierra y recuento de zonas delimitadas se estudio la distribucion bajo la superficie del suelo. Las muestras de agua tomadas en arroyos intermitentes y los ensayos realizados con insectos, mamiferos, reptiles y aves indicaron la distribucion inicial y subsiguiente del insecticida y sus metabolitos en el sistema ecologico. Los estudios de la poblacion animal siguieron durante los veranos de 1961 y 1962; en el verano de 1963 se reuniran todavia algunos datos. Los resultados preliminares indican que la poblacion de insectos vuelve a la normalidad unas tres semanas despues del tratamiento; no se observo efecto alguno en los animales vertebrados de la zona tratada. (author) [Russian] Raspredelenie malationa (0,0-dimetilditiofosfat diehtilmerkaptoyantarnoj kisloty) v lesnom massive vostochnoj chasti Tsentral'nogo Ogajo, SSHA, izuchalos' vesnoj 1962 goda. Ehtot insektitsid shirokogo dejstviya byl vybran dlya izucheniya v svyazi s ego vozrastayushchej rol'yu v bor'be s mnogimi vazhnymi nasekokymi-vreditelyami listvennykh i khvojnykh lesov Soedinennykh Shtatov. Dlya rasshireniya znanij po ehkologii lesnykh massivov, a takzhe bolee polnogo ponimaniya vliyaniya insektitsidov na faunu byla ispol'zovana svoeobraznaya vozmozhnost' izucheniya ehtikh problem odnovremenno posredstvom primeneniya mechennykh izotopami insektitsidov. S{sup 35} byla vybrana vvidu nizkoj ehnergii beta-izlucheniya (0,167 Mehv) i dostatochno korotkogo perioda poluraspada (87,1 dnya). Predvaritel'noe issledovanie uchastka zemli 0,1 akra letom 1961 goda pokazalo stepen' vozmozhnogo' primeneniya v usloviyakh obshchej radiatsii, a takzhe vozmozhnost' razrabotat' podgotovitel'nye metody dlya vzyatiya prob. Letom 1961 goda byl proveden obzor fauny dvukh bassejnov reki ploshchad'yu v 20 akrov kazhdyj. V mae 1962 goda odin iz nikh byl obrabotan tekhnicheski-chistym malationom v kolichestve 2 funtov na 1 akr v smesi s ksilolom, tritonom X-155 (ehmul'gator) i vodoj. Malation