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Sample records for ehitusmasinate tootja volvo

  1. 75 FR 2921 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) has applied for an exemption from the Federal requirement for a driver of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL). Volvo requests...

  2. 75 FR 8181 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) has applied for an exemption from the Federal requirement for a driver of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL). Volvo requests...

  3. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  4. Volvo-rengashuolto

    OpenAIRE

    Osterjärvi, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Insinöörityö tehtiin Volvo Finland Ab:n toimeksiantoja. Työssä käsitellään raskaan kaluston renkaita ja niiden erilaisia ominaisuuksia. Toimeksiantajan puolelta tarkoituksena oli selvittää keinoja, joilla asiakkaille voidaan tarjota Volvon uutta rengashuoltokonseptia, ja mitä asioita palvelun tarjoamisessa on otettava huomioon. Työssä on esitelty raskaan kaluston rengaskustannuksia ja rengashuollon toimenpiteet, joilla voidaan saavuttaa renkailla suurempi kilometrisuorite ja/tai saavuttaa ...

  5. 75 FR 45198 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks... requirement to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL) submitted by Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) on behalf of an employee. Volvo requested renewal of the CDL exemption for a Swedish engineer employed by...

  6. 76 FR 25761 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo... from the requirement to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL) sought by Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) on behalf of five employees. Volvo requested renewal of the CDL exemption for five Swedish...

  7. 75 FR 33662 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.'s Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks... announces its decision to grant Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.'s (Volvo) application for an exemption for two Volvo drivers to drive commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in the United States without possessing...

  8. 75 FR 35515 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Granting of Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... decision to grant Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.'s (Volvo) application for exemption to enable one of its... license (CDL) issued by one of the States. Volvo asserts that the exemption is necessary to support a...

  9. Corporate ergonomics programme at Volvo Car Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck-Ulfsfält, Ulla; Falck, Annki; Forsberg, Anette; Dahlin, Christer; Eriksson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    One of Volvo Car Corporation's core values is "Environmental Care". Volvo Cars has a tradition of attention to the work environment and has over the years developed a working environment management system, an organisational strategy for the participation of everyone, a working environment policy, standards/specifications and methods for efficient practical performance. The Production Ergonomics Project is an example of this. In order to achieve results in ergonomics one has to work comprehensively, which means working with the product, the process, the workplace, the individuals and the work organisation. The key to success is to train all categories concerned in load ergonomics and to perform methodical ergonomic work through the whole chain from design to production.

  10. Up Close and in Motion: Volvo Invents Cubist Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Compares a 1950s Ford television commercial with a 1990s Volvo commercial. Discusses three major aspects of cubist television exemplified in the Volvo commercial: the destruction of Aristotelian viewer-to-stage distance using close-ups, the flattening of Renaissance deep-background perspective using telephoto zooms, and the implementation of an…

  11. 75 FR 33663 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of renewal of exemption; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA renews Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) exemption from the Agency's requirement for certain drivers of commercial motor vehicles...

  12. 75 FR 47880 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of final disposition. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to continue in effect Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) exemption for five of its drivers to enable them to test-drive commercial...

  13. 77 FR 21446 - Safety Zone; Volvo Ocean Racing Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Volvo Ocean Racing Youth Regatta, Biscayne... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida during the Volvo Ocean... protect Volvo Ocean Racing Youth Regatta participants and the general public from hazards associated with...

  14. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of final disposition. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its final decision regarding Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) application for an exemption for Andreas Hamsten to enable him to continue to...

  15. 78 FR 76702 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for an Exemption From Volvo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...; Application for an Exemption From Volvo/Prevost LLC AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) requests public comment on an application for exemption from Volvo/ Prevost LLC (Volvo/Prevost) to allow the placement of a lane departure warning (LDW) system at the bottom...

  16. New material, process spins off from Volvo LCP 2000 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Wet extrusion is not entirely new as a method, but Jotun and Volvo have improved the reinforced plastic to an extremely high surface finish. Material and method studies for production of prototype cars; further development of the SMC (sheetmolding compound) techniques for large scale series production; and development of a new technique for series production of flat body details were discussed.

  17. The Ultimate in Flexitime: From Sweden, by Way of Volvo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    In the Volvo component plant on Koping, Sweden, an innovative system of multiple shifts and flexible working hours is offered to employees. The system meets the needs of those who are available for work at certain times and helps curtail turnover and absenteeism. (JOW)

  18. Project-Based Management Development: "The Volvo Story."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, John; Smith, Bryan

    1992-01-01

    A modular group project-based approach to management development was implemented by Volvo Concessionaires (United Kingdom) in partnership with training consultants. Ingredients of its success included top-level commitment, investment in diagnosis and tailoring, and use of company-specific case studies. (SK)

  19. Apologies and Public Relations Crises at Chrysler, Toshiba, and Volvo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearit, Keith Michael

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes the corporate apologetic discourses of three paradigmatic cases (at Chrysler, Toshiba, and Volvo) and examines the use of persuasive descriptions and strategic dissociations preferred by these corporate apologists. Shows how organizations label their wrongdoing in a way that displays sorrow but limits culpability and use dissociations to…

  20. Product-Service System Innovation in Urban Mining-A case study with Volvo CE

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Yi; Gao, Zhenqing

    2014-01-01

    Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) is one of the world's largest manufacturers of construction machines. Now they want to access a sustainability-focused mining field – urban mining. This study is to find a solution helping Volvo CE quickly access to urban mining with a Product-Service System (PSS) development concept. To do this, the authors completed surveys and several interviews with construction companies, to understand the user and customer needs. The authors also go through a...

  1. 78 FR 4193 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Volvo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; Volvo AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... on the line as standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor... standard on the MY 2014 S60 vehicle line is effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft. Volvo...

  2. Evaluation of the Volvo intelligent vehicle initiative field operational test, version 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-05

    This report presents the final results of an independent evaluation of the Volvo Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) Field Operational Test (FOT), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The intent of the overall IVI program, a m...

  3. ANALISIS PENJUALAN VOLVO COMPACTOR PADA PT. INTRACO PENTA, Tbk CABANG PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasril Tasril

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat kebijaksanaan manajemen dalam menerapkan penjualanalat berat merek Volvo  pada PT. Intraco Penta, Tbk Pekanbaru Daerah pemasaran Riau, dan untuk melihat faktor-faktor apa saja yang menyebabkan belum tercapainya realisasi penjualan alat berat merek Volvo pada PT. Intraco Penta, Tbk Pekanbaru. populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah semua perusahaan yang membeli dan menggunakan alat berat Compactor merek Volvo yang berjumlah 42 perusahaan.Teknik penggunaan sampel yang di gunakan adalah metode sensus (keseluruhan. Analisis data yang digunakan yaitu analisa secara deskriptif.Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh diketahui bahwa kurangnya promosi yang di lakukan oleh perusahaan PT. Intraco Penta, Tbk cabang Pekanbaru menyebabkan tidak tercapainya target penjualan Volvo Compactor selama periode penelitian, hal ini terlihat dari 26 responden atau 61% menyatakan tidak pernah.Abstract : This study aims to look at the management's discretion in applying heavy penjualanalat Volvo at PT. Intraco Penta, Tbk Pekanbaru Riau marketing area, and to see what factors are causing yet achieved sales of heavy equipment on the Volvo brand PT. Intraco Penta, Tbk Pekanbaru. population in this study are all companies that buy and use heavy equipment Compactor Volvo totaling 42 perusahaan.Teknik use of sample used is a method of census (overall . Analysis of the data used is descriptive analysis. Based on the results obtained known that the lack of promotion undertaken by the company PT. Intraco Penta, Tbk Pekanbaru branch caused not achieving the sales targets of Volvo Compactor during the study period, it is seen from 26 respondents or 61 % said never. Keywords : Sales, Pricing, Promotion

  4. Eesti mehed loovad Volvo tulevikku. Kire ja öötunde võtva pingutusega / Kadri Bank ; kommenteerinud Risto Vahtra, Sten Häggblom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2011-01-01

    Göteborgis töötavad autodisainerid Risto Vahtra ja Sten Häggblom osalevad Volvo seeriamudelite välis- ja sisekujunduse loomises. Volvo uuest omanikfirmast. Joonistest valmis mudeliks saamise protsess

  5. Volvo drivers' experiences with advanced crash avoidance and related technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Crash avoidance technologies can potentially prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their success depends in part on driver acceptance. Owners of 2010-2012 model Volvo vehicles with several technologies were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews were conducted in summer 2012 with 155 owners of vehicles with City Safety as a standard feature; 145 owners with an optional technology package that included adaptive cruise control, distance alert, collision warning with full auto brake (and pedestrian detection on certain models), driver alert control, and lane departure warning; and 172 owners with both City Safety and the technology package. The survey response rates were 21 percent for owners with City Safety, 30 percent for owners with the technology package, and 27 percent for owners with both. Ten percent of owners opted out before the telephone survey began, and 18 percent declined to participate when called. Despite some annoyance, most respondents always leave the systems on, although fewer do so for lane departure warning (59%). For each of the systems, at least 80 percent of respondents with the system would want it on their next vehicle. Many respondents reported safer driving habits with the systems (e.g., following less closely with adaptive cruise control, using turn signals more often with lane departure warning). Fewer respondents reported potentially unsafe behavior, such as allowing the vehicle to brake for them at least some of the time. About one third of respondents experienced autonomous braking when they believed they were at risk of crashing, and about one fifth of respondents thought it had prevented a crash. About one fifth of respondents with the technology package reported that they were confused or misunderstood which safety system had activated in their vehicle. Consistent with the results for early adopters in the previous survey of Volvo and Infiniti owners, the present survey found that driver acceptance of the technologies

  6. Volvo and Infiniti drivers' experiences with select crash avoidance technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitman, Keli A; McCartt, Anne T; Zuby, David S; Singer, Jeremiah

    2010-06-01

    Vehicle-based crash avoidance systems can potentially reduce crashes, but success depends on driver acceptance and understanding. This study gauged driver use, experience, and acceptance among early adopters of select technologies. Telephone interviews were conducted in early 2009 with 380 owners of Volvo vehicles equipped with forward collision warning with autobrake, lane departure warning, side-view assist, and/or active bi-xenon headlights and 485 owners of Infiniti vehicles with lane departure warning/prevention. Most owners kept systems turned on most of the time, especially forward collision warning with autobrake and side-view assist. The exception was lane departure prevention; many owners were unaware they had it, and the system must be activated each time the vehicle is started. Most owners reported being safer with the technologies and would want them again on their next vehicles. Perceived false or unnecessary warnings were fairly common, particularly with side-view assist. Some systems were annoying, especially lane departure warning. Many owners reported safer driving behaviors such as greater use of turn signals (lane departure warning), increased following distance (forward collision warning), and checking side mirrors more frequently (side-view assist), but some reported driving faster at night (active headlights). Despite some unnecessary or annoying warnings, most Volvo and Infiniti owners use crash avoidance systems most of the time. Among early adopters, the first requirement of effective warning systems (that owners use the technology) seems largely met. Systems requiring activation by drivers for each trip are used less often. Owner experience with the latest technologies from other automobile manufacturers should be studied, as well as for vehicles on which technologies are standard (versus optional) equipment. The effectiveness of technologies in preventing and mitigating crashes and injuries, and user acceptance of interfaces, should be

  7. Work at the Uddevalla Volvo Plant from the Perspective of the Demand-Control Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottridge, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The Uddevalla Volvo plant represents a different paradigm for automotive assembly. In parallel-flow work, self-managed work groups assemble entire automobiles with comparable productivity as conventional series-flow assembly lines. From the perspective of the demand-control model, operators at the Uddevalla plant have low physical and timing…

  8. Suur päästmisoperatsioon: Volvo päästetud, Saab mitte / Raivo Murde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murde, Raivo

    2011-01-01

    2010. a. sai Volvo uueks omanikuks Hiina firma Geely, sel aastal loodetakse Volvosid müüa 20% rohkem kui mullu. Volvot juhitakse nagu eraldiseisvat firmat, juhatus koosneb peamiselt rootslastest. Saab loodab, et Hiina valitsus kiidab heaks lepingu kahe Hiina firmaga, et müüa ja kohapeal kokku panna autosid sealse turu jaoks

  9. Collaborative Research for Sustainable Learning: The Case of Developing Innovation Capabilities at Volvo Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjesson, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to make a contribution to the stream of literature on action research by describing a longitudinal collaborative research project which evolved out of a long-term, participation partnership with Volvo Cars. The collaboration was aimed at developing innovation capabilities in the company and accumulating knowledge on how…

  10. Learning to work with interdependencies effectively: the case of the HRM forum of the suppliers teams at Volvo Cars Gent

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBRECHTS, Frank; Taillieu, Tharsi; Sips, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to profile the way in which Volvo Cars Gent (VCG) Belgium and its suppliers succeed in managing their interdependencies on HRM issues through a shared HRM collaborative, called the Suppliers Team Volvo Cars HRM forum (STVC-HRM). Design/methodology/approach - A case study approach is used to develop understanding of the critical factors that contribute to the forum's success. Findings - It was found that the critical success factors concern the way STVC-HRM...

  11. Team development and team performance. Responsibilities, responsiveness and results : A longitudinal study of teamwork at Volvo Trucks Umeå

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study of more than 150 self-managing work teams was carried out at Volvo Trucks Umea, Sweden. Data obtained by this study were used to test a model about the performance effects of team development, answering the following research questions: (1) how can the team

  12. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars' Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo's statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts.

  13. Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) Program - Final Report of the Volvo-Ford-UMTRI Project: Safety Impact Methodology for Lane Departure Warning - Method Development and Estimation of Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The Volvo-Ford-UMTRI project: Safety Impact Methodology (SIM) for Lane Departure Warning is part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) program. The project developed a basic analytical framework for e...

  14. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States : Third Series - Report No. 1 - 1977 Volvo 130 CID (2.1 Liters), F.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1977 Volvo 130 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine-operating modes. The objective of the program is...

  15. Friction and lubrication modelling in sheet metal forming simulations of the Volvo XC90 inner door

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvant, M.; Pilthammar, J.; Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Chezan, T.; Carleer, B.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    The quality of sheet metal formed parts is strongly dependent on the friction and lubrication conditions that are acting in the actual production process. Although friction is of key importance, it is currently not considered in detail in stamping simulations. This paper presents project results considering friction and lubrication modelling in stamping simulations of the Volvo XC90 inner door. For this purpose, the TriboForm software is used in combination with the AutoForm software. Validation of the simulation results is performed based on door-inner parts taken from the press line in a full-scale production run. The project results demonstrate the improved prediction accuracy of stamping simulations.

  16. Friction and lubrication modeling in sheet metal forming simulations of a Volvo XC90 inner door

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvant, M.; Pilthammar, J.; Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Chezan, T.; Carleer, B.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2016-11-01

    The quality of sheet metal formed parts is strongly dependent on the tribology, friction and lubrication conditions that are acting in the actual production process. Although friction is of key importance, it is currently not considered in detail in stamping simulations. This paper presents a selection of results considering friction and lubrication modeling in sheet metal forming simulations of the Volvo XC90 right rear door inner. For this purpose, the TriboForm software is used in combination with the AutoForm software. Validation of the simulation results is performed using door inner parts taken from the press line in a full-scale production run. The results demonstrate the improved prediction accuracy of stamping simulations by accounting for accurate friction and lubrication conditions, and the strong influence of friction conditions on both the part quality and the overall production stability.

  17. WHIPS (Volvo cars' Whiplash Protection System)-the development and real-world performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena

    2008-12-01

    Present the performance of WHIPS and identify possible next steps of soft tissue neck injury reduction potentials, based on rear-end real-world crash data. Front-seat occupants (above 14 years of age) have been analyzed regarding influencing factors on reported incidences of soft tissue neck injuries. The outcome of 1858 occupants in cars equipped with WHIPS and 663 occupants in Volvo cars of model year 1999 without WHIPS are studied with respect to WHIPS injury-reducing effect for different impact severities and injury durations. The occupants in WHIPS are further studied with respect to seating position and sitting posture, such as turned head and head-to-head restraint distance. Soft tissue neck injury risk reductions are seen for occupants in WHIPS as compared to prior Volvo cars; mean values ranging from 21 to 47% depending on impact severity and symptom duration. Sitting posture (turned head and increased backset) increases soft tissue neck injury risks. Based on the self-reported injury data, a significantly lower risk was found for occupants facing straight forward with the head in close proximity to the head restraint as compared to the risk for occupants with rotated head and a larger backset. Even though the highest risk of soft tissue neck injuries is found in higher impact severity, the large amount of soft tissue neck injuries sustained at low impact severity emphasizes the need of focusing measures for crash avoidance. This study presents the development and real-world performance of WHIPS as well as identifies situations for further focus and challenges for the next generation of soft tissue neck injury protection and prevention, including areas such as occupant posture and crash avoidance.

  18. PENGARUH PRODUCT PLACEMENT VOLVO DI DALAM FILM TWILIGHT SAGA: BREAKING DAWN PART 1 & PART 2 TERHADAP BRAND RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghygha Yunus Widya Prasetya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Movie scenes have become attractive means for many industries to present their products without enforced impression. Through careful designed product placement strategy, Twilight movie became the perfect promotional media for Volvo in promoting their products. Volvo is one of the premium automotive brands under the auspices of Indomobil. This well-known brand always put and positions their product merely for the target premium. Product placement is an example of a hybrid message or an attempt to influence audience at an affordable cost. Some benefits in advertising through product placement are a lot of audiences see the products so that the brand awareness and the products’ credibility would significantly increase. In conclusion, consumer’s behavior in recognizing and remembering a product might be affected by their vision, hearing, and admiration.

  19. Integrating ergonomics into production system development--the Volvo Powertrain case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, W Patrick; Ekman, Marianne; Winkel, Jørgen

    2009-05-01

    Understanding the barriers and assists to integrating ergonomics into production system design remains a research issue. An action research case study at Volvo Powertrain/Sweden was conducted. Researchers worked collaboratively with the firm in efforts to improve the company's ability to handle ergonomics in their daily work of improving and developing production systems. Researchers observed and reflected collectively on the change process using field notes and recordings to support their observations. Observed integration barriers included both individual level issues like life events, and organisational aspects such as communication barriers between groups or assignment of tasks to people not involved in decision-making. Observed assists included the 'political reflective navigation' (c.f. Broberg, O., Hermund, I., 2004. The OHS consultant as a 'political reflective navigator' in technological change processes. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 33 (4), 315-326) by the project owner to find new ways to overcome barriers and anchor ergonomics into the organisation. While special 'ergonomics' groups did not survive long, progress was observed in including ergonomics in regular design groups. A cross-functional workshop that fostered discussion across organisational boundaries helped shift focus from retrofitting systems to future production systems and improve engagement of engineering teams. Progress was marked by both success and setbacks and full integration appears to require more than 2 years time. It is concluded that support by senior managers should include succession planning for personnel that are key to the change effort.

  20. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  1. Gastric volvulus: A review of 38 cases Volvo gástrico: revisão de 38 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Jacob

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric volvulus is frequently an asymptomatic disease, and it is usually diagnosed during radiographic examination of the superior digestive tract. The acute form, however, can spawn serious and lethal clinical consequences. This disease is defined by the anomalous rotation of the stomach over itself, and it can be classified according to type, extension, direction, etiology, and clinical presentation. AIM: To review the records from 38 patients with gastric volvulus diagnosed in the Hospital das Clínicas of University of São Paulo between 1968 and 2001. METHODS: This is retrospective analysis of 38 patient records. It was collected from each patient: name, age of first symptom appearance, gender, main clinical findings and complementary exams, volvulus type, extension, direction, etiology, and clinical presentation, therapeutic procedures, type of surgery performed, eventual recurrence, and long-term evolution. RESULTS: It was observed that occurrences of gastric volvulus are mainly secondary (75.8%. For the majority of patients (n=33, surgery was chosen as the treatment option: chronic disease in 29 cases and acute in four. Conservative treatment was reserved only for patients with no clinical conditions to surgical treatment. Anterior gastropexy was associated to high recurrence rates. Suturing the low gastric curve to the hepatic capsule and the transverse colon to the left subphrenic space (Tanner´s operation seemed to be the technical treatment of choice for primary gastric volvulus. CONCLUSION: Treatment of gastric volvolus must be tailored according the etiology of the disease.RACIONAL: O volvo gástrico é frequentemente condição assintomática e diagnosticado em exame radiológico feito por outras causas. A forma aguda, no entanto, pode ter consequências graves e letais. Ele é definido como rotação anômala do estômago nele próprio e classificado de acordo com o tipo, extensão, direção, causa e apresenta

  2. The case of Geely acquiring Volvo Car : A study on low brand equity acquiring high brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoshu; Shi, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has studied high brand equity acquiring high brand equity or high brand equity acquiring low brand equity. However, very little research has been conducted to understand how that low brand equity acquiring high brand equity changes the low brand equity especially in China. This paper is on the case of Geely Group acquiring Volvo Car which was a typical acquisition of a high brand equity company by a low brand equity company. The aim of the paper is to verify whether thi...

  3. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States : First Series - Report No. 16 - 1975 Volvo 121 CID (2.0 Liters), F.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1975 Volvo, 2.0 liter (121 CID) engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine-operating modes. The objective of t...

  4. Marital status and cardiovascular risk in French and Swedish automotive industry workers--cross sectional results from the Renault-Volvo Coeur study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlin, L; Latscha, G; Orth-Gomér, K; Dimberg, L; Lanoiselée, C; Simon, A; Eriksson, B

    2001-04-01

    To compare the coronary risk profiles in a sample of the French and Swedish automotive industry employees who were married/cohabitant, divorced or single (never married). A cross-sectional study comparison from biological and questionnaire data between the French and Swedish samples. Occupational health departments at Renault (employees from the north-west of France) and Volvo (employees from the south-west of Sweden). Two random samples of males aged between 45 and 50 years were examined in 1993, from Renault 1000, and from Volvo 1000. Biological data including cholesterol, blood pressure as well as the Framingham risk index. Self reported information regarding marital status, smoking, exercise, alcohol habits, and work stress assessed by the Karasek method, private social support indices, and type A behaviour according to the Bortner scale. More employees were married/cohabitant and fewer divorced or single at Renault. Apart from waist/hip ratio being marginally lower in Swedish single men, compared with married and divorced, no significant difference in biological cardiac risk factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure or Framingham risk index) was seen between the subgroups from any of the two countries. Compared with married/cohabitant men, it was shown that in men living alone smoking was more prevalent at Renault and Volvo. These men also showed less type A behaviour, a lower work control and a lower work support and fewer close friends. Alcohol consumption was reported in smaller amounts for Volvo employees living alone compared with married or divorced employees. Married/cohabitant and divorced staff showed similar values regarding all measured variables when compared within each country. Employees living alone in both France (Renault) and Sweden (Volvo) automotive companies seem to have increased nontraditional cardiac risk factors pertaining to life style and social network compared with married or divorced men. These results, in combination with the

  5. Sea surface temperature (SST) and surface current data collected from the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race (VOR) from 2011-11-05 to 2012-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0130694)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Navigation, surface current, sea surface temperature, wind, and atmospheric pressure data collected by the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race...

  6. Síndrome de Chilaiditi associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide: relato de caso Chilaiditi's Syndrome with sigmoid colon volvulus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wilson Rocha Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar um caso de Síndrome de Chilaiditi associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente masculino, branco, 51 anos, admitido no Pronto-Socorro de Pelotas queixando parada da eliminação de gases e fezes, dor abdominal difusa com distensão e inapetência, aceitando somente líquido. Tem diagnóstico de retardo mental e constipação intestinal crônica. Foi realizado Rx de abdome agudo, sendo evidenciada distensão difusa de cólon, e sinais sugestivos de volvo de sigmóide com imagem de cólon transverso entre o fígado e o diafragma. O paciente foi submetido a laparotomia exploradora, sendo constatado volvo de sigmóide, megacólon difuso e interposição do cólon transverso entre o fígado e o diafragma. Procedeu-se a colectomia subtotal, com colostomia terminal em cólon ascendente e fechamento do reto remanescente, recebendo alta no 9º dia. DISCUSSÃO: A interposição do cólon entre o fígado e a cúpula diafragmática (síndrome de Chilaiditi, associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide, constitui causa rara de abdome agudo obstrutivo, embora o volvo de sigmóide seja uma das principais causas de obstrução intestinal mecânica no Brasil. Geralmente o tratamento é clínico, porém se associado a complicações o tratamento é cirúrgico.INTRODUCTION: This study aims at reporting a case of Chilaiditi Syndrome associated to sigmoid colon volvulus. CASE REPORT: Male patient, white, 51 years old, arrives at an emergency hospital in Pelotas with complaints of stoping the elimination of gases, diffuse abdominal pain, increase of abdominal volume, gradual and progressive inappetence, accepting only liquid. He is diagnosed with mental retardation and a situation of intestinal constipation. An acute abdomen Rx highlighted a diffuse colon distension, suggestive of sigmoid volvulus with tranversum colon image between the liver and the diaphragm. The patient was submitted to exploratory

  7. Life events, mood, mental strain and cardiovascular risk factors in Swedish middle-aged men. Data from the Swedish part of the Renault/Volvo Coeur Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Bengtsson, C; Dimberg, L; Kumlin, L; Eriksson, B

    1998-07-01

    The associations between life events, mood, mental strain and cardiovascular risk factors were investigated in the Renault/Volvo Coeur Study. About 1,000 men, blue-collar and white-collar workers, were asked by means of interview-administered questionnaires about life events experienced during the year preceding the screening, about mood and mental strain and about smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise habits. Blood pressure, concentration of serum lipids and blood glucose, and anthropometric measures were determined in a screening procedure. Negative life events, especially work-related, were associated with depressed mood and mental strain but not with elevation of biological risk factors such as elevated blood pressure and serum lipids. Depressed mood and mental strain were related to increased tobacco consumption in blue-collar workers and increased alcohol consumption in white-collar workers.

  8. Síndrome da dilatação volvo gástrica em cães Gastric volvulus dilatation syndrome in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Santalucia Ramos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da dilatação volvo gástrica (DVG é uma condição grave, de caráter agudo, que confere alto índice de óbito em pequenos animais. A etiologia não está completamente estabelecida e, em contrapartida, diversas possibilidades de tratamento são descritas. A DVG causa grave redução na perfusão tecidual, afetando vários órgãos, incluindo os sistemas respiratório e cardiovascular. Este estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre a patogenia desta síndrome e seu tratamento.The syndrome of gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV is a severe condition of acute character, which gives a high rate of death in small animals. The etiology is not fully established, however, several treatment options have been described. The DVG causes severe reduction in tissue perfusion, affecting many organs, including the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This study aims to conduct a comprehensive literature review of the pathogenesis of this syndrome as well as its treatment.

  9. Disainerid tahavad tootjas partnerit näha / Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tiina

    2005-01-01

    Disaineritel on oma toodetele Eestist raske leida välisturule hinnalt ja kvaliteedilt sobivat tootjat. Lisad: Tootmine ei jõua disainerite tööle järele; Eesti tootekujundus näitas end Berliinis; Pariisis näitasid eestlased e-disaini

  10. A review of 1985 Volvo Award winner in clinical science: objective assessment of spine function following industrial injury: a prospective study with comparison group and 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, James; Kim, Richard S; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2007-08-15

    It is now 2 decades since Mayer et al published their Volvo Award-winning paper entitled "Objective assessment of spine function following industrial injury: a prospective study with comparison group and one-year follow-up." Their landmark paper reported that return to work rates of patients that underwent a "functional restoration" treatment program were double that of a comparative group of patients that were denied treatment by their insurers. These results were considered extraordinary and inspired both debate and enthusiasm. Our goal is to review this landmark study, report on its strengths and weaknesses, and review the studies that have attempted to replicate this work in other settings. We also highlight its contribution to our current knowledge about the treatment of back pain and disability. The major weaknesses of the paper of Mayer et al are the possibility of selection bias in the development of their cohort of patients and the lack of a true randomized controlled study design. These factors may have inflated the rates of return to work. Regardless, their reported results were robust, and cannot be easily dismissed. During the last 20 years, this treatment model has received considerable study worldwide, and it is generally agreed that it is superior to standard care for reducing work absence in patients with chronic low back pain. Additionally, the concepts underlying functional restoration have been found to be highly relevant to patients with chronic low back pain, medical providers, and disability systems and continue to gain acceptance and integration into the care of patients throughout the industrialized world.

  11. ISO sertifikaat kuulutab tootja mainet üle maailma / Ain Alvela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvela, Ain, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. apr. lk. 24-25. ISO standardi rakendamine tagab toodangu kvaliteedi ja annab firmale usaldusväärsuse. Kommenteerib Ain Noormägi. Vt. samas: ISO 9001; ISO 14 001; Universaalne standard kohandub ettevõtte vajadustega

  12. Tootja vabanemine vastutusest puudusega tootest põhjustatud kahju korral / Margus Kingisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kingisepp, Margus, 1969-

    2012-01-01

    Tootjat vastutusest vabastavate klauslite kohaldamise eeltingimustest ja nende kohaldamissfäärist Eesti kehtivas õiguses. Euroopa Liidu tootevastutuse direktiivist (85/374/EMÜ) ja Euroopa Kohtu praktikast

  13. Frank Welvaert : ravimite tootja mõju on probleem / Frank Welvaert ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Welvaert, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Tervishoiufirma Johnson & Johnson direktor vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud Eesti meditsiinitöötajatele juhtimiskursuste korraldamisega. Eesti tervishoiusüsteemi kohta arvab ta, et tuleb haiglate arvu vähendada. Lisa: Kulutusi võiks suurendada

  14. Lõuna-Eesti suurim kaminapuude tootja on Matrix-Puit AS / Raivo Sihver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sihver, Raivo

    2007-01-01

    Firma Matrix-Puit AS annab tööd 20-30 Räpina, Mooste ja Leevaku kandi inimesele, 2006. a. toodetud ligi 300 000 50- ja 60-liitristest kaminapuude kottidest läks enamus (üle 95%) Norrasse ja Soome

  15. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  16. Volvo LCP: New materials, production methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmark, U.

    1984-01-01

    The materials and production methods developed for the prototype Light Component Project are described. The forecasting of auto industry technology as it effects engine and structural design, vehicle construction materials, and vehicle assembly is included with particular emphasis on computer aided manufacture and robotics used on an engine assembly line.

  17. Volvo gástrico agudo perfurado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Martins

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of acute gastric volvulus in a 20-year-old male, complicated by perforation near the gastroesophageal junction and generalized peritonitis. This is an uncommon and potentially lethal conditon although our patient has been handled successfully with a partial gastrectomy.

  18. ABBA, Volvo, Lindgren... ja Larsson / Urve Eslas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eslas, Urve

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Larsson, Stieg. Tüdruk, kes mängis tulega / rootsi keelest tõlkinud Kadri Papp. Tallinn : Varrak, 2009 ; Larsson, Stieg. Lohetätoveeringuga tüdruk : põnevusromaan. Tallinn : Varrak, 2009

  19. Volvo da vesícula biliar Gallbladder volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Rodrigues

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of torsion of the gallbladder is presented. This is a rare condition that occurs when it is associated with anatomical variants related to abnormal fixation of the gallbladder to the liver bed. The blood irrigation is insufficient and the gallbladder develops necrosis. The abnormal implantation occurs in 4% of the population. If the gallbladder losses its fixations to the inferior margin of the liver with the presence of a 1011.g mesocyst a torsion can occur when this gallbladder twists axially with subsequent occlusion of the blood flow. The signs and symptoms are similar to those of severe acute cholecystitis: abrupt onset of the pain and large palpable mass below the right costal margin. The ultrasound can show a very large and anteriorly floating gallbladder: In this case, the ultrasound did not show any abnormal signs, so it is usually diagnosed at laparotomy and the treatement consists of cholecystectomy. This condition should be suspected in acute abdominal pain of unknown origin.

  20. Sõltuvus jaeketist paneb tootja nööri mööda käima / Kadri Bank ; kommenteerinud Maie Niit, Veiko Pak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Tootjad süüdistavad kaubanduskette lepingute sõlmimises, millest saavad kasu ainult jaeketid, tootjaid ähvardatakse eksimuste puhul suurte trahvidega. Jaeketid ei nõustu sellega ja põhjendavad tootjatele surve avaldamist omavahelise konkurentsiga. Intervjuu Eesti Tarbijateühistute Keskühistu juhiga

  1. Design or development? Beyond the LP-STS debate; inputs from a Volvo truck case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, BS; De Witte, MC; van der Zwaan, AH

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we will show that the debate between advocates of Lean production and the socio-technical approach has concentrated too much on the design aspect of the production structure, while neglecting the development aspect of teamwork. This paper addresses the question whether it is

  2. 1987 Volvo award in basic science. The morphology of the lumbar erector spinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, J E; Bogduk, N

    1987-09-01

    The lumbar erector spinae consists of two muscles--iliocostalis lumborum and longissimus thoracis--each with distinct thoracic and lumbar parts. The thoracic parts consist of tiny muscle bellies with segmental origins from the thorax and long caudal tendons that form the erector spinae aponeurosis. The lumbar fibers arise from the lumbar accessory processes and the L1-4 transverse processes, and insert independently of the erector spinae aponeurosis into the ilium. The intrinsic lumbar fibers of the erector spinae are poorly described in the literature, and the existence of the iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum has rarely been recognized even though it constitutes a substantial portion of the total muscle mass acting directly on the lumbar vertebrae.

  3. Volvo de ceco complicado por icterícia séptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Paulo Batista

    Full Text Available Cecal volvulus is an uncommon cause of acute bowel obstruction in adults. The mechanism is torsion of the enlarged, poorly-fixed or hypermobile cecum. Patients with this condition may display highly variable clinical presentations, ranging from intermittent, self-limiting abdominal discomfort to acute abdominal pain associated with intestinal strangulation and sepsis. The treatment needs to be individualized for each case, but surgical management is required in almost every case. In the presence of gangrene or perforation of the cecum, resection and primary ileocolic anastomosis is recommended. However, in non-complicated cases detorsion and cecopexy are adequate. The authors report one case of cecal volvulus in a 55-year-old women treated with cecopexy that complicated with septic jaundice.

  4. Volvo Trucks field operational test : evaluation of advanced safety systems for heavy truck tractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-15

    The Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) was established by the United States Department of Transportation as an integral part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) program. By reducing the probability of motor vehicle collisions, the IVI wa...

  5. How thirty years of focused safety development has influenced injury outcome in volvo cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, I; Norin, H

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study points out how thirty years of focused safety development has produced a steady decrease in injury rates in car crashes, strongly influenced by a well-structured process. An important part of this process is the knowledge gained by accident research based on collection of data from real world crashes, and the feedback of this research into development work. Statistical analysis shows that the MAIS 2+ injury rate for the most recent car models has decreased by two-thirds compared to the rate for the oldest car models. Calculation of the effect of specific development steps will be given as examples.

  6. 1989 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Reproducibility of physical signs in low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombe, P F; Fairbank, J C; Cockersole, B C; Pynsent, P B

    1989-09-01

    The reproducibility between observers of physical signs in patients with low-back pain was investigated. Fifty patients were examined by two surgeons and another sample of 33 patients was examined by a surgeon and a physiotherapist. Continuous data on five signs were analyzed by Pearsons' correlation coefficient, and binary data on 54 signs were analyzed by the Kappa agreement coefficient. Reliable signs consisted of measurements of lordosis and flexion range, determination of pain on flexion and lateral bend, nearly all measurements associated with the straight leg raising test, determination of pain location in the thigh and legs, and determination of sensory changes in the legs. Signs of root tension showed better agreement when qualified with a description of where the pain was experienced. Bony tenderness was more reliable than soft tissue tenderness.

  7. Obstrução intestinal por volvo de ceco, relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Maciel

    Full Text Available Cecal volvulus (CV establishes the main appearance of the anomalies related to intestinal malrotation. Diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms compatible to intestinal obstructions and complementary examinations as: single radiography form abdomen, opaque enema, computerized tomography and colonoscopy. Therapeutics modalities include: colonoscopy reducing, cecopexy and right colectomy. This article reports a CV case giving emphasis in different diagnosis and therapeutics behaviors.

  8. 1990 Volvo Award in experimental studies. The dependence of intervertebral disc mechanical properties on physiologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, T S; Holm, S H; Hansson, T H; Spengler, D M

    1990-08-01

    In vivo creep-recovery and disc pressure measurements were performed on the lumbar spine of immature and mature swine. The creep-recovery measurements were performed using a custom materials testing apparatus designed to apply static or dynamic loads to the spine of anesthetized animals. A series of three separate experiments were performed to assess the effects of: (I) animal death, (II) graded injury to the disc anulus, and (III) respiratory mechanics on the biomechanical response of the porcine L1-L3 vertebral unit (VU). In Experiments I and II, creep rate, modulus, and viscosity parameters were computed using a three-parameter solid rheological analysis of the displacement-time response recorded during the application of a 300-N load. In Experiment III, the effects of respiratory volume and frequency changes on disc pressure were assessed in the unloaded, statically loaded, and immobilized porcine VU. Our results indicated that the adult VU tended to be stiffer, deform or creep more slowly, and had a significantly higher viscosity than the VU of immature pigs. The results of Experiment I demonstrated that the biomechanical response for the VU was significantly altered by the death of the animal; the VU of the living animal (adolescent or mature) was more compliant and deformed at a faster rate than the VU of the same animal after death. Disc injury produced changes in stiffness, viscosity, and creep rate analogous to that of aging, and on the basis of the graded injuries created in this study, it appears that a small defect in the annulus is just as deleterious as removing a large section of anular material. The results of Experiment III indicated that respiration plays an important role in the normal, in vivo mechanical and nutritional behavior of the porcine VU. Altogether, these results demonstrate that, in the absence of normal physiologic conditions, one may not be able to reliably predict the mechanical response of the lumbar spine, and suggest that standards for the testing, handling, and storage of biologic tissue should be established.

  9. Assessment of the progress of the back-pain patient 1981 Volvo Award in Clinical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, R; Hall, W; Nilsen, K H; Baker, R D; Jayson, M I

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen subjective variables reflecting the severity of back pain, the circumstances exacerbating symptoms, and the impact of the problem on life style were scored on Visual Analogue Scales. It was possible to combine the results from these assessments to provide a global subjective index. Repeated measurements by the same observer showed a high degree of reproducibility, but when performed by separate observers discrepancies arose in certain questions. By improving certain questions and standardizing their presentation to the patient, a considerable improvement in the correlation of results between observers was obtained. Objective assessments of spinal motion and straight leg raising and a global objective index showed a high degree of intraobserver reproducibility. This technique was applied to a study of relief of back pain by lumbar corsets when it was found that there was significantly greater relief of back pain by a corset with a lumbar support than one without a spinal support. We conclude that the emphasis in assessing the progress of the back-pain patient must be on the subjective parameters, and the technique developed offers a useful method for reliably assessing patients and following their progress.

  10. 1989 Volvo Award in basic science. Device-related osteoporosis with spinal instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, P C; Farey, I D; Sutterlin, C E; Gurr, K R; Warden, K E; Cunningham, B W

    1989-09-01

    An animal model of anterior and posterior column instability was developed to allow in vivo observation of bone remodeling and arthrodesis after spinal instrumentation. After an initial anterior and posterior destabilizing lesion was created at the L5-L6 vertebral levels in 42 adult beagles, various spinal reconstructive surgical procedures were performed--with or without bilateral posterolateral bone grafting, and with or without spinal instrumentation (Harrington distraction; Luque rectangular, or Cotrel-Dubousset transpedicular methods). After 6 months' postoperative observation, there was a significantly improved probability of achieving a spinal fusion if spinal instrumentation had been used (P = 0.058). Nondestructive mechanical testing after removal of all metal instrumentation in torsion, axial compression, and flexion revealed that the fusions performed in conjunction with spinal instrumentation were more rigid (P less than 0.05). Quantitative histomorphometry showed that the volumetric density of bone was significantly lower (ie, device-related osteoporosis occurred) for fused versus unfused spines; and Harrington- and Cotrel-Dubousset-instrumented dogs became more osteoporotic than the other three groups. The rigidity of spinal instrumentation led to device-related osteoporosis (stress shielding) of the vertebra. However, as the rigidity of spinal instrumentation increased, there was an increased probability of achieving a successful spinal fusion. The improved mechanical properties of spinal instrumentation on spinal arthrodesis more than compensate for the occurrence of device-related osteoporosis in the spine.

  11. The impact of mental processing and pacing on spine loading: 2002 Volvo Award in biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kermit G; Marras, William S; Heaney, Catherine A; Waters, Thomas R; Gupta, Purnendu

    2002-12-01

    The impact of various levels of mental processing and pacing (during lifting) on spine loading was monitored under laboratory conditions. To explore how mental demands and pacing influence the biomechanical response and subsequent spine loading and, to determine whether individual characteristics have a modifying role in the responses. Modern work often requires rapid physical exertions along with demands of mental processing (both psychosocial stressors). While the effect of physical workplace factors on spine loading has been widely documented, few studies have investigated the impact that interaction of psychosocial factors and individual factors has on spine loads. For this study, 60 subjects lifted boxes while completing two types of mental processing tasks: 1) series tasks with decisions occurring before the act of lifting, and 2) simultaneous tasks with decisions occurring concurrently with the lift. For both of these mental processing conditions, two intensities of mental load were evaluated: simple and complex. Task pacing was also adjusted under slow and fast conditions. Finally, individual characteristics (personality and gender) were evaluated as potential modifiers. An electromyographically assisted model evaluated the three-dimensional spine loads under the experimental conditions. Simultaneous mental processing had the largest impact on the spine loads, with the complex intensity resulting in increases of 160 N with lateral shear, 80 N with anteroposterior shear, and 700 N with compression. Increased task pace produced greater lateral shear (by 20 N), anteroposterior shear (by 60 N), and compression loads (by 410 N). Gender and personality also influenced loadings by as much as 17%. Mental processing stress acted as a catalyst for the biomechanical responses, leading to intensified spine loading. Mental stress appeared to occur as a function of time pressures on task performance and resulted in less controlled movements and increases in trunk muscle coactivation. These adjustments significantly increased spine loading. These results suggest a potential mechanism for the increase in low back pain risk resulting from psychosocial stress caused by modern work demands.

  12. Classification of age-related changes in lumbar intervertebral discs: 2002 Volvo Award in basic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Norbert; Weissbach, Sabine; Rohrbach, Helmut; Weiler, Christoph; Spratt, Kevin F; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2002-12-01

    A histologic study on age-related changes of the human lumbar intervertebral disc was conducted. To investigate comprehensively age-related temporospatial histologic changes in human lumbar intervertebral disc, and to develop a practicable and reliable classification system for age-related histologic disc alteration. No comprehensive microscopic analysis of age-related disc changes is available. There is no conceptual morphologic framework for classifying age-related disc changes as a reference basis for more sophisticated molecular biologic analyses of the causative factors of disc aging or premature aging (degeneration). A total of 180 complete sagittal lumbar motion segment slices obtained from 44 deceased individuals (fetal to 88 years of age) were analyzed with regard to 11 histologic variables for the intervertebral disc and endplate, respectively. In addition, 30 surgical specimens (3 regions each) were investigated with regard to five histologic variables. Based on the semiquantitative analyses of 20,250 histologic variable assessments, a classification system was developed and tested in terms of validity, practicability, and reliability. The classification system was applied to cadaveric and surgical disc specimens not included in the development of the classification system, and the scores were assessed by two additional independent raters. A semiquantitative analyses provided clear histologic evidence for the detrimental effect of a diminished blood supply on the endplate, resulting in the tissue breakdown beginning in the nucleus pulposus and starting in the second life decade. Significant temporospatial variations in the presence and abundance of histologic disc alterations were observed across levels, regions, macroscopic degeneration grades, and age groups. A practicable classification system for age-related histologic disc alterations was developed, resulting in moderate to excellent reliability (kappa values, 0.49-0.98) depending on the histologic variable. Application of the classification system to cadaveric and surgical specimens demonstrated a significant correlation with age ( < 0.0001) and macroscopic grade of degeneration ( < 0001). However, substantial data scatter caution against reliance on traditional macroscopic disc grading and favor a histology-based classification system as a reference standard. Histologic disc alterations can reliably be graded based on the proposed classification system providing a morphologic framework for more sophisticated molecular biologic analyses of factors leading to age-related disc changes. Diminished blood supply to the intervertebral disc in the first half of the second life decade appears to initiate tissue breakdown.

  13. 1980 Volvo award in basic science. Proteoglycans in experimental intervertebral disc degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, S J; Muir, H

    1981-01-01

    An animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration induced surgically by ventral nuclear herniation in the rabbit produces morphologic changes of disc degeneration. Histologic characteristics and proteoglycan changes have been studied at various times after herniation. After injury, there was metaplasia into fibrocartilage originating from the cells along the margins of the annular wound, with proliferation of cells changing almost the entire disc space into fibrocartilage. A vertebral osteophyte occurred through an endochondral ossification sequence. Aggregating proteoglycans had two periods of repletion in the early course of degeneration. The water content of the disc was rapidly but only transiently restored in the first two days after herniation, whilst the changes in the total proteoglycan content of the disc paralleled these changes. Hyaluronic acid content decreased rapidly after herniation, but the size of the proteoglycan monomers did not change with degeneration. It is suggested that loss of confined fluid mechanics signals an abortive repair attempt rather than that of biochemical changes in proteoglycans initiate disc degeneration.

  14. Evaluation of a laboratory health examination programme in a Swedish industry (Volvo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Bengtsson, C

    1991-04-01

    The records of 117 subjects, workers who had participated in a health examination at a Swedish industry, were studied retrospectively in order to find out which measures had been taken as a consequence of the results from the different examinations. The extensive laboratory examination programme that had been carried out seemed to be of limited value. It is concluded that the extensive examination programmes carried out in many industries should be re-evaluated more critically.

  15. Friction and lubrication modeling in sheet metal forming simulations of a Volvo XC90 inner door

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigvant, M.; Pilthammar, J.; Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J.H.; Chezan, A.R.; Carleer, B.D.; Carleer, B.D.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of sheet metal formed parts is strongly dependent on the tribology, friction and lubrication conditions that are acting in the actual production process. Although friction is of key importance, it is currently not considered in detail in stamping simulations. This paper presents a

  16. THE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT - A CASE STUDY OF TRANSPORTING VOLVO CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria P. Gerilla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of vehicles in our society is detrimental to the environment because of increased fuel usage and pollutant emissions. This paper analyze the environmental effects of transporting cars from its manufacturer to its end user. The method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA. Life cycle assessment is a method for analyzing and evaluating environmental performance of products, processes or services throughout its entire life cycle. The paper also shows the effect of changing the fuel type used in transporting the vehicles. It can be seen that from the pollutant emissions in the transport chain, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the leading pollutants, which affect the air quality in the environment. The truck is shown to be a heavy polluter in terms of its emission factors and there is not much difference between a European and an Asian country. With the use of the natural gas as an alternative fuel, emission levels can be reduced to as much as 19 % for CO2 and 16 % for NOx emissions while costs are higher in the first few years because of conversion costs, it can be said that it is worth the risk. The truck can be an environmentally adapted vehicle if its engine is converted to an alternative fuel engine like the compressed natural gas. The LCA methodology is holistic because it gives a systems analysis of the product

  17. 76 FR 45453 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... (AIAM).\\13\\ Vehicle manufacturers included: Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Honda), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (Nissan), and Volvo Car Corporation (Volvo). Bosch was the single automotive supplier that provided...

  18. Economic loss caused by GMOs in Estonia / Irene Kull, Villu Kõve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Irene, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Lepinguvälisest vastutusest, tootja vastutusest, vastutusest suurema ohu allikaga tekitatud kahju eest, geneetiliselt muundatud organismidega tekitatud kahjust, varaline kahjust, mittevaraline kahjust

  19. Kapital kapitalnogo stroitelstva / Jevgeni Ashihmin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ashihmin, Jevgeni

    2007-01-01

    Eesti suurima betoontoodete ja teraskonstruktsioonide tootja AS-i Narva Bark tegevus on suunatud tarbijate kasvava nõudluse rahuldamisele, pakkudes stabiilse kvaliteediga tooteid juba peaaegu 50 aastat

  20. 1990 Volvo Award in experimental studies. Anulus tears and intervertebral disc degeneration. An experimental study using an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, O L; Vernon-Roberts, B; Fraser, R D

    1990-08-01

    An animal model was developed to test the hypothesis that discrete peripheral tears within the anulus lead to secondary degenerative changes in other disc components. In 21 adult sheep, a cut was made in the left anterolateral anulus of three randomly selected lumbar discs. The cut was parallel and adjacent to the inferior end-plate, and had a controlled depth of 5 mm. This left the inner third of the anulus and the nucleus pulposus intact and closely reproduced the rim Lear lesion described by Schmorl. Animals were randomly allocated to different groups in relation to the length of time interval between operation and death, varying from 1 to 18 months. At death, the lumbar spine was cut into individual joint units and each disc sectioned into six parasagittal slabs. After observation of the slabs under the dissecting microscope, two of the six slabs, the one containing the anulus lesion and a contralateral, were processed for histology. The results of this study suggest that, despite the great care taken at operation to ensure that the inner anulus was left intact, progressive failure of the inner anulus was seen in all sheep and occurred in the majority of discs between 4 and 12 months after the operation. Although the outermost anulus showed the ability to heal, the defect induced by the cut led initially to deformation and bulging of the collagen bundles, and eventually to inner extension of the tear and complete failure. These findings suggest that discrete tears of the outer anulus may have a role in the formation of concentric clefts and in accelerating the development of radiating clefts. Peripheral tears of the anulus fibrosus therefore may play an important role in the degeneration of the intervertebral joint complex.

  1. Physiologic strains in the lumbar spinal ligaments. An in vitro biomechanical study 1981 Volvo Award in Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjabi, M M; Goel, V K; Takata, K

    1982-01-01

    For understanding of the mechanical causes of low-back pain, knowledge of the biomechanics of the various spinal elements is essential. In this in vitro biomechanical study, in situ behavior of spinal ligaments of the L3-4 and L4-5 functional spinal units during physiologic activities was studied in a three-stage procedure. First, 72 load-displacement curves were obtained to determine the three-dimensional flexibility characteristics of the spinal units. Second, three-dimensional morphometric measurements were made of all the spinal ligament attachment points. Finally, a mathematical model was constructed to combine the flexibility and morphometric data and compute the ligament length changes and strains as functions of various spinal movements. In flexion movement, the interspinous and supra-spinous ligaments were found to be subjected to the highest strains, followed by the capsular ligaments and the ligamentum flavum. During extension, it is the anterior longitudinal ligament that has the maximum strain. In lateral bending, the contralateral transverse ligaments carried the highest strains, while the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments were relatively unstrained. In rotation, the capsular ligaments were by far the most strained ligaments.

  2. 2000 Volvo Award winner in biomechanical studies: Monitoring in vivo implant loads with a telemeterized internal spinal fixation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlmann, A; Graichen, F; Weber, U; Bergmann, G

    2000-12-01

    Implant loads were measured in 10 patients using telemeterized internal spinal fixation devices. To determine the postoperative temporal course of implant loads. Little information exists regarding the temporal course of loads on internal spinal fixation devices. The telemeterized internal spinal fixator allows the measurement of three force components and three moments acting in the fixator. Implant loads were determined in up to 20 measuring sessions for different activities, including walking, standing, sitting, lying in the supine position, and lifting an extended leg while in the supine position. Implant loads often increased shortly after anterior interbody fusion was performed. Several patients retained the same high level even after fusion had taken place. This explains the reason why screw breakage sometimes occurs more than half a year after implantation. The time of fusion could not be pinpointed from the loading curves. The results show that fixators may be highly loaded even after fusion has occurred. A flexion bending moment acts on the implant even with the body in a relaxed lying position. This means that already shortly after the anterior procedure, the shape of the spine is not neutral and unloaded, but slightly deformed, which loads the fixators. Pedicle screw breakage more than half a year after insertion does not prove that anterior interbody fusion has not occurred.

  3. 1997 Volvo Award winner in biomechanical studies. Kinematic behavior of the porcine lumbar spine: a chronic lesion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigle, A M; Holm, S H; Hansson, T H

    1997-12-15

    Experimental models of intervertebral disc and facet joint degeneration were created in vivo in the porcine lumbar spine for studying spinal kinematics, using a dynamic technique. To quantify the changes in spinal kinematics and the stabilizing capacity of the lumbar musculature caused by chronic lesions in the intervertebral disc and facet joints. Segmental kinematics are detrimentally altered by acute injury to passive structures of the motion segment. However, stimulation of the surrounding musculature adds stability to the motion segment. The in vivo kinematics of a degenerated lumbar motion segment and the stabilizing function of the surrounding musculature have not been quantified dynamically. Forty-four pigs were used in six chronic lesions models: sham, disc anulus, disc nucleus, facet capsule, facet joint slit, and facet joint wedge. Three months after injury, an instrumented linkage was used to measure continuously the sagittal kinematics of the L3-L4 motion segment during flexion-extension, with and without stimulation of the lumbar paraspinal musculature. Flexion-extension end point and maximum ranges of motion, and hysteresis were analyzed. Significant alterations in the kinematics caused by chronic lesions were observed, particularly when using the maximum range of motion and when comparing changes in axial translation. Muscular stimulation reduced the hysteresis in the sham, facet capsule, and disc nucleus groups; however, increased hysteresis was observed in the remaining lesion groups. The kinematic behavior of motion segments with chronic lesions was established. The maximum range of motion, which must be measured using a dynamic technique, was a more sensitive parameter for identifying changes in segmental kinematics caused by chronic lesions than was the end range of motion. The lumbar musculature was less efficient overall in stabilizing the motion segment, possibly because of altered mechanisms in the neuromuscular feedback system.

  4. 1997 Volvo Award winner in basic science studies. Immunohistologic markers for age-related changes of human lumbar intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, A G; Schleicher, E D; Boos, N

    1997-12-15

    The authors performed a correlative macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical investigation on human lumbar intervertebral discs using complete motion segment slices, including all age groups and stages of degeneration. To identify markers for age-related changes of human lumbar intervertebral discs. In particular, to investigate changes in the distribution pattern of collagen Types I, II, III, IV, V, VI, IX, and X. In addition, to study posttranslational protein modification by the immunolocalization of N-(carboxylmethyl)lysine (CML), which is regarded as a biomarker for oxidative stress. Data on a correlation of age-related changes in disc morphology and disc matrix composition is sparse. So far, no comprehensive analysis considered a correlation of macroscopic, histologic, and biochemical age-related alterations using complete sections of intervertebral discs (i.e., including nucleus pulposus, anulus fibrosus, endplates, and vertebral bodies). In addition, there is need for specific markers for these disc changes to allow for a better correlation with disc function. After photodocumentation of the macroscopic appearance, 229 sagittal lumbar motion segments obtained from 47 individuals (fetal to 86 years) during routine autopsy were processed for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. All slices were investigated for histologic alterations of disc degeneration. A randomly selected subset of these specimens (n = 45) was used for a correlative analysis of interstitial collagens and molecular modifications of matrix proteins. The presence of CML-modification of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen, was observed first in the nucleus pulposus of a 13-year-old individual and increased significantly with age. In elderly people, both the nucleus pulposus and the anulus fibrosus showed extensive CML deposition. This CML deposition was accentuated in areas of macroscopic and histologic disc degeneration. After the occurrence of CML in the nucleus pulposus, we found a change in the collagen type pattern. An initial increase in nuclear collagen Types II, III, and VI staining was followed by a loss of collagen Type II, the occurrence of collagen Type I, and the persistence of high collagen Type III and VI levels, which were finally decreased again. The nuclear chondrocytes revealed significant changes in their immediate pericellular matrix, indicating phenotypic changes. Thus, exclusively in the nucleus pulposus of adolescents and young adults a significant proportion of cells positively stained for the basement membrane collagen Type IV. Collagen Type X was expressed by nuclear chondrocytes at a higher age and was associated with advanced degenerative disc alterations. The authors present the first study in which age-related changes are correlated on a macroscopic, histologic, and molecular level using complete sections of lumbar motion segments. They reconfirm the notion that disc degeneration starts as early as in the second decade of life. Therefore, only early prevention of disc damage may inhibit disc degeneration and its sequelae. Phenotypic alterations of nuclear chondrocytes as monitored by collagen Type IV in young adults with minor lesions and collagen Type X in advanced lesions indicate distinct cellular reactions, possibly as a reaction to enhanced oxidative stress. The degree of this oxidative stress is reflected by the CML-staining pattern which, in turn, indicates that the disc undergoes an accumulative stress, possibly leading to altered properties of the collagen fibrils and, thereby, tissue destruction. The deposition of CML proved to be the best marker for ongoing age-related changes in the intervertebral disc.

  5. 1989 Volvo Award in biomechanics. Mechanical recruitment of low-back muscles. Theoretical predictions and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Z; Murthy, K R; De Luca, C J

    1989-09-01

    A biomechanical model for studying lumbar muscle load sharing for a class of physical tasks that involve gravitational loading (holding weights) of the upper body in an erect posture is presented. The model assumes that the lumbar muscles balance the externally applied flexion and lateral bending moments. The concept of a 'loading plane' whose axes are the two bending moments is introduced. Any point in the plane can be viewed as a 'loading-point' describing a combination of bending moments that are applied to the body. The study of lumbar-muscle load sharing revealed loading conditions that required activation or deactivation of a particular muscle. The loading plane thus could be divided into regions of activity and inactivity for each muscle, separated by a 'switching curve.' The concept of 'switching curves' proved very useful for examining previously described physiologic assumptions on the loading conditions of particular muscle groups, and for grouping the 22 muscles described in the model into ten functional units. Electromyographic validation studies were conducted and showed a high degree of correlation between the model predictions and actual measurements for the contralateral (with respect to the load) muscles and to a lesser degree of correlation for the ipsilateral muscles.

  6. 2000 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies: Lumbar high-intensity zone and discography in subjects without low back problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, E J; Paragioudakis, S J; Khurana, S

    2000-12-01

    A prospective observational study of patients with low back pain and those without was performed. To investigate the prevalence and significance of a high-intensity zone in a group of patients asymptomatic for low back pain, but who had known risk factors for lumbar disc degeneration. This asymptomatic group was compared with a symptomatic group of patients with respect to the presence of anular high-intensity zone and the pain response with discography. Some authors have estimated the prevalence of a high-intensity zone in a group of symptomatic patients to be 86%. They have reported a strong correlation between a high-intensity zone and positive discography in patients with low back pain. Other investigators have reported evidence either supporting or discounting these findings. Patients with low back pain and those without underwent physical examination, psychometric testing, plain radiograph, magnetic resonance imaging, and discography. The presence of a high-intensity zone, anular disruption, and positive discographic pain then were compared between the two groups. There were strict inclusion criteria for both groups. A total of 109 discs in 42 patients were evaluated in the symptomatic group and compared with 143 discs in 54 patients in the asymptomatic group. The presence of a high-intensity zone was determined by a standardized criteria on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Psychometric testing also was administered to each patient before discography. Standard discography was performed on all the patients, and the pain response was recorded using a visual analog scale according to the Walsh et al criteria. The prevalence of a high-intensity zone in the patient populations was 59% in the symptomatic group and 24% in the asymptomatic group. In the symptomatic group, 33 (30.2%) of 109 discs were found to have a high-intensity zone. In the asymptomatic group, 13 of 143 discs were found to have a high-intensity zone. In the symptomatic group, 72.7% of the discs with a high-intensity zone were positive on discography, whereas 38.2% of the discs without a high-intensity zone were positive. In the asymptomatic group, 69.2% of the discs with a high-intensity zone were positive on discography, whereas 10% of the discs without a high-intensity zone were positive. In the patients with normal psychometric testing, 50% of the discs with a high-intensity zone were positive on discography, as compared with 100% positive discography results in patients with abnormal psychometric testing or chronic pain. The presence of a high-intensity zone does not reliably indicate the presence of symptomatic internal disc disruption. Although higher in symptomatic patients, the prevalence of a high-intensity zone in asymptomatic individuals with degenerative disc disease (25%) is too high for meaningful clinical use. When injected during discography, the same percentage of asymptomatic and symptomatic discs with a high-intensity zone were shown to be painful.

  7. Badania stanowiskowe instalacji HHO w układzie z silnikiem spalinowym Volvo Penta D5A T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dobrzaniecki,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań układu, składającego się z generatora HHO współpracującego z silnikiem spalinowym, wyposażonym w górniczy układ dolotowo-wylotowy. Celem badań była identyfikacja parametrów użytkowych silnika, takich jak moc i moment obrotowy oraz określenie zawartości substancji szkodliwych w spalinach. Na podstawie wyników badań dokonano analizy wpływu generatora na pracę silnika spalinowego.

  8. 1991 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Smoking and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration: an MRI study of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battié, M C; Videman, T; Gill, K; Moneta, G B; Nyman, R; Kaprio, J; Koskenvuo, M

    1991-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether disc degeneration, as assessed through magnetic resonance imaging, is greater in smokers than in nonsmokers. To control for the maximum number of potentially confounding variables, pairs of identical twins highly discordant for cigarette smoking were selected as study subjects. Data analyses revealed 18% greater mean disc degeneration scores in the lumbar spines of smokers as compared with nonsmokers. The effect was present across the entire lumbar spine, implicating a mechanism acting systemically. This investigation demonstrates the efficiency of using carefully selected controls in studying conditions of multifactorial etiology, such as disc degeneration.

  9. 1980 Volvo award winner in basic science. Nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disc. An experimental study using hydrogen washout technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, K; Whiteside, L A

    1981-01-01

    The pathways of material transfer to the intervertebral disc were studied in adult dogs by measuring diffusion of hydrogen molecules in the nucleus pulposus before and after disruption of the route through the annulus fibrosus and before and after disruption of the end-plate route. The interfaces was only in the central two-thirds of one side, caused significantly greater decrease in the rate of hydrogen washout than the disruption of the annulus route. Histologically, the bone-cartilage interface was frequently perforated by marrow cavity and vascular buds. These findings suggest that the end-plate route is a major pathway for material transfer to the intervertebral disc.

  10. 1991 Volvo Award in experimental studies. Cauda equina syndrome: neurologic recovery following immediate, early, or late decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamarter, R B; Sherman, J E; Carr, J B

    1991-09-01

    An animal model of cauda equina syndrome was developed. Neurologic recovery was analyzed following immediate, early, and delayed decompression. Five experimental groups, each containing six dogs, were studied. Compression of the cauda equina was performed in all 30 dogs following an L6-7 laminectomy. The cauda equina was constricted by 75% in each group. The first group was constricted and immediately decompressed. The remaining groups were constricted for 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 1 week, respectively, before being decompressed. Somatosensory evoked potentials were performed before and after surgery, before and immediately after decompression, and 6 weeks following decompression. Daily neurologic exams using the Tarlov grading scale were performed. At 6 weeks postdecompression, all dogs were killed, and the neural elements analyzed histologically. Following compression, all 30 dogs had significant lower extremity weakness, tail paralysis, and urinary incontinence. All dogs recovered significant motor function 6 weeks following decompression. The dogs with immediate decompression generally recovered neurologic function within 2-5 days. The dogs receiving 1-hour and 6-hour compression recovered within 5-7 days. The dogs receiving 24-hour compression remained paraparetic 5-7 days, with bladder dysfunction for 7-10 days and tail dysfunction persisting for 4 weeks. The dogs with compression for 1 week were paraparetic (Tarlov Grade 2 or 3) and incontinent during the duration of cauda equina compression. They recovered to walking by 1 week and Tarlov Grade 5 with bladder and tail control at the time of euthanasia. Immediately after compression, all five groups demonstrated at least 50% deterioration of the posterior tibial nerve evoked potential amplitudes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. 1988 Volvo award in clinical sciences. Facet joint injection in low-back pain. A prospective statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R P; Jacobs, R R; Montesano, P X

    1988-09-01

    From January 1980 through December 1984, 454 patients were evaluated with facet joint injections. All had the chief complaint of low-back pain, normal neurologic examinations and no root tension signs. Three hundred and ninety completed the protocol, which included a lumbar motion pain assessment before and after facet injection. A total of 127 variables were studied. There were 229 males and 161 females with a median age of 38. Facet joint arthrograms were performed prior to intra-articular injection of local anesthetic and cortisone. Initial mean pain relief was only 29%. Variables correlating significantly (P less than 0.05) with more postinjection pain relief were older age, prior history of low-back pain, normal gait, maximum pain on extension following forward flexion in the standing position, and the absence of leg pain, muscle spasm and aggravation of pain on Valsalva. Greatest pain relief immediately after injection was seen with lumbar extension and rotation, motions reported to stress the facet joints or aggravate pain of facet joint origin. Patients with more pain on lumbar extension and rotation as a group, however, did not get more pain relief. From this study we were not able to identify clinical facet joint syndromes or predict patients responding better to this procedure. The facet joints were not commonly the single or primary source for low-back pain in the great majority (greater than 90%) of patients studied.

  12. 1988 Volvo award in basic science. Proteoglycan synthesis in the human intervertebral disc. Variation with age, region and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, M T; Johnstone, B; O'Brien, J P

    1988-09-01

    Slices of human annulus fibrosus were cultured under conditions that controlled their hydration and prevented loss of proteoglycans from the extracellular matrix. A quantitative analysis of proteoglycan synthesis was carried out. Both the absolute rate of synthesis and the topographical variation in chondrocyte activity changed with age; the most active cells in the adult were found in the mid-annulus region, whereas in the fetal disc the cells in the inner annulus were the most active. The conditions under which the tissue was stored, and changes in hydration during culture, had considerable effects on synthesis. Pathological discs had a wide range of biological activity that reflected the heterogeneous properties of these specimens. It is suggested that this culture method provides a means of investigating the way in which the synthesis of the macromolecular components of the intervertebral disc are coordinated and subsequently incorporated into the extracellular matrix.

  13. 1987 Volvo award in clinical sciences. The perception of back pain and the role of psychophysical tests of lifting capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, J D; Foreman, T K; Baxter, C E; Brown, D

    1987-09-01

    In order to study the predictive value of pre-employment screening tests, a volunteer population of 1,741 men and 1,150 women was questioned about their experience of low-back pain (LBP) and their perception of physical exertion at work. They undertook a battery of tests, including psychophysical assessments of lifting capacity, and they were followed up by postal questionnaire after 1 year. The response rate was 88.7%. The psychophysical tests have proved to be simple and inexpensive to administer; in good hands, they are repeatable. Although psychophysical lifting capacity was less in those with previous LBP, the psychophysical strength tests were poor predictors of future LBP. But when the previous history of LBP was known, then the test results significantly enhanced the prediction.

  14. 1987 Volvo award in clinical sciences. A new clinical model for the treatment of low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, G

    1987-09-01

    Because there is increasing concern about low-back disability and its current medical management, this analysis attempts to construct a new theoretic framework for treatment. Observations of natural history and epidemiology suggest that low-back pain should be a benign, self-limiting condition, that low back-disability as opposed to pain is a relatively recent Western epidemic, and that the role of medicine in that epidemic must be critically examined. The traditional medical model of disease is contrasted with a biopsychosocial model of illness to analyze success and failure in low-back disorders. Studies of the mathematical relationship between the elements of illness in chronic low-back pain suggest that the biopsychosocial concept can be used as an operational model that explains many clinical observations. This model is used to compare rest and active rehabilitation for low-back pain. Rest is the commonest treatment prescribed after analgesics but is based on a doubtful rationale, and there is little evidence of any lasting benefit. There is, however, little doubt about the harmful effects--especially of prolonged bed rest. Conversely, there is no evidence that activity is harmful and, contrary to common belief, it does not necessarily make the pain worse. Experimental studies clearly show that controlled exercises not only restore function, reduce distress and illness behavior, and promote return to work, but actually reduce pain. Clinical studies confirm the value of active rehabilitation in practice. To achieve the goal of treating patients rather than spines, we must approach low-back disability as an illness rather than low-back pain as a purely physical disease. We must distinguish pain as a purely the symptoms and signs of distress and illness behavior from those of physical disease, and nominal from substantive diagnoses. Management must change from a negative philosophy of rest for pain to more active restoration of function. Only a new model and understanding of illness by physicians and patients alike makes real change possible.

  15. 75 FR 76518 - Volvo Trucks North America and Mack Trucks, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... comments. Comments may also be faxed to 1-202-493-2251. Comments must be written in the English language... testing due to an internal component variation in certain Meritor WABCO ABS modulator valves installed on...

  16. Extended Collective Licenses and the Nordic Experience - It’s a Hybrid but is It a Volvo or a Lemon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    in the Nordic countries since the early 1960s. Extended collective licenses are praised by the Nordic countries and met with positive interest around the world as the primary means to solve most of the copyright complications in the information society. This article evaluates extended collective licenses...

  17. Extended Collective Licenses and the Nordic Experience - It’s a Hybrid but is It a Volvo or a Lemon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An extended collective license is a legal model whereby the binding effect of a collective agreement between an organization of copyright holders and a user of copyrightable works is extended to right holders who are not members of the organization. Such models have been used for rights clearance...... in the Nordic countries since the early 1960s. Extended collective licenses are praised by the Nordic countries and met with positive interest around the world as the primary means to solve most of the copyright complications in the information society. This article evaluates extended collective licenses...... and their compatibility with international copyright norms and the perspective of transplanting the model into other jurisdictions....

  18. 77 FR 20480 - Volvo Trucks North America and Mack Trucks, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... times of noncompliant and compliant systems with and without ABS operational. The static timing tests... (low friction surface), 30 mph, Braking-in-a-curve tests (ABS operational). These tests also generally... during other stops. Link attributed the confounding results to variability in the friction level of the...

  19. Overview of the TREC 2009 Web Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    volvo </query...description> I’m looking for information on Volvo cars and trucks. </description> <subtopic number=ŕ" type="nav"> I’m looking for Volvo’s homepage...subtopic> <subtopic number=Ŗ" type="inf"> Find reviews of the Volvo XC90 SUV. </subtopic> <subtopic number=ŗ" type="inf"> Where can I find Volvo

  20. Evaluation of Systems Engineering Methods, Processes and Tools on Department of Defense and Intelligence Community Programs. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    MAY 30, 2009) B.1. DEMOGRAPHICS Organizations responding AB Volvo Océ-Technologies B.V. Advanced Micro Devices Paradigm Optics AMD Performance...National Security Space Office US Navy Nokia Corporation Volvo Nokia Siemens Networks Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden Northrop Grumman

  1. 1995 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Determinants of lumbar disc degeneration. A study relating lifetime exposures and magnetic resonance imaging findings in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battié, M C; Videman, T; Gibbons, L E; Fisher, L D; Manninen, H; Gill, K

    1995-12-15

    Retrospective cohort. To investigate the effects of lifetime exposure to commonly suspected risk factors on disc degeneration using magnetic resonance imaging, and to estimate the effects of these suspected risk factors relative to age and familial aggregation, reflecting genetic and shared environmental influences. Structural and biochemical changes associated with disc degeneration are suspected as the underlying conditions of many back-related symptoms. Little is known about the determinants of disc degeneration. Based on lifetime discordance in suspected environmental risk factors for disc degeneration, 115 male identical twin pairs were selected. An in-depth interview was conducted of occupational and leisure time physical loading, driving, and smoking. Disc degeneration was evaluated using observational and digital magnetic resonance imaging assessment methods. Heavier lifetime occupational and leisure physical loading was associated with greater disc degeneration in the upper lumbar levels (P = 0.055 - 0.001), whereas sedentary work was associated with lesser degeneration (P = 0.006). These univariate associations did not reach statistical significance in the lower lumbar region. In multivariate analyses of the upper lumbar levels, the mean job code explained 7% of the variability in observational disc degeneration scores; the addition of age explained 16%, and familial aggregation improved the model such that 77% of the variability was explained. In the lower lumbar levels, leisure time physical loading entered the multivariate model, explaining 2% of the variability. Adding age explained 9%, and familial aggregation raised the variability in disc degeneration scores explained to 43%. The present study findings suggest that disc degeneration may be explained primarily by genetic influences and by unidentified factors, which may include complex, unpredictable interactions. The particular environmental factors studied, which have been among those most widely suspected of accelerating disc degeneration, had very modest effects.

  2. 2000 Volvo Award winner in basic science studies: Exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha mimics nucleus pulposus-induced neuropathology. Molecular, histologic, and behavioral comparisons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, T; Kikuchi, S; Shubayev, V; Myers, R R

    2000-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the 17-kDa form of tumor necrosis factor-alpha is the pathophysiologic agent expressed by herniated nucleus pulposus in vivo that is primarily responsible for the histologic and behavioral manifestations of experimental sciatica associated with herniated lumbar discs. The authors determined the molecular weight and concentration of active tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat herniated disc and used exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha at the same molecular weight to study its neuropathologic effect on rat nerve root and dorsal root ganglion preparations in vivo. Expressed by herniated nucleus pulposus in culture, tumor necrosis factor-alpha causes neuropathologic injury in nerve roots and neuropathic pain states in which mechanical allodynia is seen in response to peripheral stimuli. Western blotting was used to identify the molecular weight of the operative tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein form, and measures of optical density were used for semiquantitative determination of concentration. Plastic-embedded nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion were used for neuropathologic evaluation, and von Frey stimulation was used to quantify mechanical allodynia. The 17-kDa form of tumor necrosis factor-alpha is expressed by herniated nucleus pulposus at a concentration of approximately 0.48 ng per herniated rat lumbar disc. Exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha applied in vivo to rat nerve roots produced neuropathologic changes and behavior deficits that mimicked experimental studies with herniated nucleus pulposus applied to nerve roots. The data reinforce other evidence that tumor necrosis factor-alpha is involved in mechanisms of neuropathic pain.

  3. 1990 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Lumbar spinal pathology in cadaveric material in relation to history of back pain, occupation, and physical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videman, T; Nurminen, M; Troup, J D

    1990-08-01

    The occurrence of symmetric disc degeneration, anular ruptures, end-plate defects, vertebral body osteophytosis, and facet joint osteoarthrosis was examined radiographically and osteologically in 86 male cadavers for whom occupational, physical loading, and back pain histories were obtained from the men's families. History of back pain and the parameters of spinal pathology were related to the highest and lowest degrees of physical loading. In multivariate analyses, history of back injury was related to the occurrence of symmetric disc degeneration, anular ruptures, and vertebral osteophytosis. Symmetric disc degeneration was associated with sedentary work, and vertebral osteophytosis was related to heavy work. History of back pain was related to occupational physical loading after control for the effects of the other covariates. The results indicate that the least pathology stemmed from moderate or mixed physical loading, but the least back pain was associated with sedentary work.

  4. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 to achieve posterolateral lumbar spine fusion in humans: a prospective, randomized clinical pilot trial: 2002 Volvo Award in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Scott D; Kang, James; Sandhu, Harvinder; Heller, John G

    2002-12-01

    A prospective randomized clinical study was conducted. To determine whether the dose and carrier that were successful in rhesus monkeys could induce consistent radiographic spine fusion in humans. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive bone morphogenetic protein, is successful at generating spine fusion in rabbits and rhesus monkeys. For this study, 25 patients undergoing lumbar arthrodesis were randomized (1:2:2 ratio) based on the arthrodesis technique: autograft/Texas Scottish Rite Hospital (TSRH) pedicle screw instrumentation (n = 5), rhBMP-2/TSRH (n = 11), and rhBMP-2 only without internal fixation (n = 9). On each side, 20 mg of rhBMP-2 were delivered on a carrier consisting of 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% tricalcium phosphate granules (10 cm /side). The patients had single-level disc degeneration, Grade 1 or less spondylolisthesis, mechanical low back pain with or without leg pain, and at least 6 months failure of nonoperative treatment. All 25 patients were available for follow-up evaluation (mean, 17 months; range 12-27 months). The radiographic fusion rate was 40% (2/5) in the autograft/TSRH group and 100% (20/20) with rhBMP-2 group with or without TSRH internal fixation ( = 0.004). A statistically significant improvement in Oswestry score was seen at 6 weeks in the rhBMP-2 only group (-17.6; = 0.009), and at 3 months in the rhBMP-2/TSRH group (-17.0; = 0.003), but not until 6 months in the autograft/TSRH group (-17.3; = 0.041). At the final follow-up assessment, Oswestry improvement was greatest in the rhBMP-2 only group (-28.7, < 0.001). The SF-36 Pain Index and PCS subscales showed similar changes. This pilot study is the first with at least 1 year of follow-up evaluation to demonstrate successful posterolateral spine fusion using a BMP-based bone graft substitute, with radiographs and CT scans as the determinant. Consistently, rhBMP-2 was able to induce bone in the posterolateral lumbar spine when delivered at a dose of 20 mg per side with or without the use of internal fixation. Patients with spondylolisthesis classified higher than Meyerding Grade 1 or with more than 5 mm of translational motion may still require internal fixation. Some patients did smoke during the postoperative period, and all in the rhBMP-2 groups still obtained solid fusions. Consistently, rhBMP-2 with the biphasic calcium phosphate granules induced radiographic posterolateral lumbar spine fusion with or without internal fixation in patients whose spondylolisthesis did not exceed Grade 1. Statistically greater and quicker improvement in patient-derived clinical outcome was measured in the rhBMP-2 groups.

  5. Randomized radiostereometric study comparing osteogenic protein-1 (BMP-7) and autograft bone in human noninstrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion: 2002 Volvo Award in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Ragnar; Strömqvist, Björn; Aspenberg, Per

    2002-12-01

    Randomized efficacy trial comparing two types of noninstrumented posterolateral fusion between L5 and S1 in patients with L5 spondylolysis and vertebral slip less than 50%, as evaluated by radiostereometric analysis. To determine whether osteogenic protein-1 (BMP-7) in the OP-1 Implant yields better stabilizing bony fusion than autograft bone. Animal studies of osteoinductive proteins in noninstrumented posterolateral fusions have shown high fusion rates. No similar conclusive study on humans has been performed. For this study, 20 patients were randomized to fusion with either OP-1 Implant or autograft bone from the iliac crest, 10 in each group. The patients were instructed to keep the trunk straight for 5 months after surgery with the aid of a soft lumbar brace. At surgery 0.8-mm metallic markers were positioned in L5 and the sacrum, enabling radiostereometric follow-up analysis during 1 year. The three-dimensional vertebral movements, as measured by radiostereometric analysis induced by positional change from supine posture to standing and sitting, were calculated with an accuracy of 0.5 to 0.7 mm and 0.5 degrees to 2.0 degrees. Conventional radiography was added. No significant difference was noted between the radiostereometric and radiographic results of fusion with the OP-1 Implant and fusion with autograft bone. There was a significant relation between reduced vertebral movements and better bone formation. No adverse effects of the OP-1 Implant occurred. Persistent minor pain at the iliac crest was noticed in one patient. There was no significant difference between the two fusion versions. Thus, the OP-1 Implant did not yield better stabilizing bony fusion than autograft bone.

  6. 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Basic Science Studies: Effect of nutrient supply on the viability of cells from the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, H A; Urban, J P

    2001-12-01

    Disc cell viability was analyzed in relation to nutrient supply and cellular demand in vitro in a diffusion chamber. To determine relations among nutrient supply, nutrient concentrations. and cell viability. Although a fall in nutrient supply has long been thought the cause of disc degeneration in vivo, little information exists about the effects of nutrient levels or supply on cell viability and metabolism. Isolated bovine nucleus cells were cultured in agarose gels in a diffusion chamber up to 13 days. Nutrients were supplied to the open sides of the chamber and diffused through the gel to the center, 12.5 mm away from the nutrient supply, in a configuration analogous to that of the disc in vivo. Profiles of cell viability and concentration of glycosaminoglycans across the chamber were measured in relation to cell density and medium composition. Cells remained viable across the chamber at low cell densities. However, at higher densities, cells in the center of the chamber died. The viable distance from the nutrient supply fell with an increase in cell density. Glucose was a critical nutrient. Survival was also poor at acidic pH (6.0). At 0% oxygen, disc cells survived up to 13 days with no loss of viability, but produced very little proteoglycan. The results support the idea that maximum cell density in the disc is regulated by nutritional constraints, and that a fall in nutrient supply reduces the number of viable cells in the disc and thus leads to degeneration.

  7. 1990 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. The consistency and accuracy of roentgenograms for measuring sagittal translation in the lumbar vertebral motion segment. An experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, W O; Spratt, K F; Weinstein, J; Lehmann, T R; Goel, V

    1990-08-01

    An experimental model of the L4-L5 lumbar motion segment was developed that allowed precise manipulation of sagittal translation, rotation of L5 relative to L4, tilt of L4 on L5, and control of roentgenogram quality (image clarity) by placing a water bath between the tube and the vertebral body. A series of experiments were designed to systematically assess the consistency and accuracy of sagittal translation measurements from roentgenograms of varying quality, using different measurement protocols and various rater combinations on models with varying degrees of concomitant motions (rotations and tilts). Study 1 assessed the effects of roentgenogram quality, raters, and seven measurement methods on the consistency and accuracy of evaluating translations in the sagittal plane. Results indicated very high reliabilities across roentgenogram quality, raters, and measurement. As expected, high-quality roentgenograms were more accurately evaluated than lower-quality roentgenograms. However, closer inspection of the consequences of errors in measured translations indicated surprisingly high false-positive and false-negative rates, with significant differences observed between measurement methods. Study 2 assessed the effects of concomitant motions and measurement methods on the consistency and accuracy of evaluations. Within-rater consistency and accuracy indices were remarkably high and similar across measurement methods and degrees of concomitant motions. However, important differences in the false-positive and false-negative rates were again observed. Method 2, described by Morgan and King, demonstrated the overall best performance and the least interference due to concomitant motions. Study 3 assessed the effects of raters and measurement methods on the consistency of measuring translation in clinical roentgenograms, where concomitant motion factors may be present, but not explicitly considered. Results indicated substantially lower within- and between-rater consistency estimates relative to consistencies obtained from the model, although these magnitudes were similar to those reported by others evaluating clinical roentgenograms. The implications of lower consistency estimates relative to increased false-positive and false-negative rates must be more closely examined. These studies present evidence suggesting that high consistency and accuracy indices do not ensure acceptable false-positive and false-negative rates and, thus, provide empirical evidence supporting the view that using roentgenograms as a basis for diagnosing instability often can lead to errors in classification. This is less so when observed translations are relatively large (+/- 5+ mm) on roentgenograms that are relatively clear, with little obliquity, and when concomitant motions are minimal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  8. 1995 Volvo Award in basic sciences. The use of an osteoinductive growth factor for lumbar spinal fusion. Part I: Biology of spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, S D; Schimandle, J H; Hutton, W C; Chen, M I

    1995-12-15

    The histology of lumbar intertransverse process spinal fusion was studied in an experimental model in rabbits. To qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the sequential histology of spinal fusion using a previously validated animal model. Few previous studies have described the sequential histology during the posterolateral spinal fusion healing process using autogenous bone, and a basic understanding of the biology of this repair process is lacking. Fourteen adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent single-level posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process arthrodesis with autogenous iliac bone graft. Animals were killed 1-10 weeks after surgery, and the fusion masses were analyzed histologically and quantitated using a semiautomated image analysis system. Three distinct phases of healing were identified (inflammatory, reparative, and remodeling) and occurred in sequence but in a delayed fashion in the central zone of the fusion mass compared with the outer transverse process zones. Membraneous bone formation, evident first at the ends of the fusion eminating from the decorticated transverse processes, was the predominant mechanism of healing. The central zone was somewhat different in that there was a period of endochondral bone formation during weeks 3 and 4 in this zone where cartilage formed and was converted to bone. Remodeling in the central zone had equilibrated with the transverse process zones by 10 weeks. Lumbar intertransverse process spinal fusion is a complex process from a spatial and temporal standpoint. When autogenous bone is used as the graft material, this process critically depends on a variety of factors from the decorticated host bone and exposed marrow. The persistence of a central cartilage zone may be related to some types of nonunions and deserves future investigation. This enhanced understanding of the biology of spinal fusion with autogenous bone graft will provide a foundation for optimizing the use of osteoinductive bone growth factors in this healing process.

  9. 1991 Volvo Award in basic sciences. Collagen types around the cells of the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate: an immunolocalization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S; Menage, J; Duance, V; Wotton, S; Ayad, S

    1991-09-01

    Several types of collagen are known to exist in the intervertebral disc in addition to the fibrillar collagens, Types I and II. Although they constitute only a small percentage of the total collagen content, these minor collagens may have important functions. This study was designed to investigate the presence of Types I, II, III, IV, VI, and IX collagens in the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate by immunohistochemistry, thereby establishing their location within the tissues. Types III and VI collagen have a pericellular distribution in animal and human tissue. No staining for Type IX collagen was present in normal human disc, but in rat and bovine intervertebral disc, it was also located pericellularly. These results show that cells of the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate sit in fibrous capsules, forming chondrons similar to those described in articular cartilage. In pathologic tissue the amount and distribution of the collagen types, and the organization of the pericellular capsule, differ from that seen in control material.

  10. 1980 Volvo award in biomechanics. Measurement of the distribution of axial stress on the end-plate of the vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, M; Brinckmann, P

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of axial stress on the end-plate of the vertebral body has been measured by the aid of miniature piezoelectric pressure transducers in specimens of motion segments of the human vertebral column. The results indicate that the stress distribution depends essentially on the state of degeneration of the intervertebral disc and on the relative position of the adjacent end-plates. Furthermore lumbar and thoracic motion segments show a different behaviour. The measured results relate to the problem of the stress dependent deformation of the growing vertebra, the codfish shape of the osteoporotic vertebra and to the mechanism of degeneration of the intervertebral disc.

  11. 1995 Volvo Award in basic sciences. The use of an osteoinductive growth factor for lumbar spinal fusion. Part II: Study of dose, carrier, and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, S D; Schimandle, J H; Hutton, W C

    1995-12-15

    Efficacy of a bovine-derived osteoinductive growth factor was studied in a rabbit model and in a nonhuman primate model of posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. To determine the minimum effective dose of growth factor and the influence of different carrier material on the outcome of intertransverse process lumbar fusion. Bone morphogenetic proteins and related growth factors are becoming increasingly available in purified extract or genetically engineered forms and are capable of inducing new bone formation in vivo. Osteoinductive growth factors to enhance lumbar spinal infusion have not been well studied in models of posterolateral intertransverse process fusion. Because of the diminished potential of bone regeneration in primates (including humans) compared with phylogenetically lower animals, extrapolations regarding dose and efficacy cannot be made directly from results obtained in experiments performed on phylogenetically lower animals. Experiments on non-human primates are a critical step before attempting to use these growth factors on humans. METHODS. One hundred fifteen adult New Zealand white rabbits and 10 adult rhesus macaques underwent single level posterolateral intertransverse process lumbar spinal arthrodesis to evaluate different doses and carrier materials for a bovine-derived osteoinductive bone protein extract. Rabbit fusion masses were evaluated 5 weeks after arthrodesis by manual palpation, radiography, biomechanical testing, and light microscopy. Monkey fusion masses were evaluated 12 weeks after arthrodesis by radiography and light microscopy. Successful posterolateral intertransverse process spinal fusions were achieved in the rabbit models using an osteoinductive growth factor with three different carriers (autogenous iliac bone, demineralized allogeneic bone matrix, and natural coral). There was a dose-dependent response to the osteoinductive growth factor in the rabbit model, indicating that a threshold must be overcome before bone formation is induced. The methodology for biologic enhancement of spinal fusion developed in the rabbit model transferred successfully to the rhesus monkey, where the use of the osteoinductive growth factor with a demineralized bone matrix carrier resulted in spinal fusion in 12 weeks. These experiments provide an essential building block in the understanding of the biology of spinal fusion and the use of osteoinductive growth factors to enhance a posterolateral intertransverse process spinal fusion. The achievement of posterolateral spinal fusion in the rhesus monkey using an osteoinductive growth factor is a significant step toward the biologic enhancement of spinal fusion in humans.

  12. 1995 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging, work perception, and psychosocial factors in identifying symptomatic disc herniations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, N; Rieder, R; Schade, V; Spratt, K F; Semmer, N; Aebi, M

    1995-12-15

    This was a prospective study of patients (study group) with symptomatic disc herniations and asymptomatic volunteers (control group) matched for age, sex, and work-related risk factors. To determine the prevalence of disc herniation in a matched group of asymptomatic volunteers and to access the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging, work perception, and psychosocial factors in identifying symptomatic disc herniations. Disc herniations have been reported to occur in 20-36% of asymptomatic volunteers. A valid comparison of asymptomatic individuals and patients with disc herniations has not been performed. Forty-six patients with low back pain and sciatica severe enough to require a discectomy were compared with 46 age-, sex-, and risk factor-matched (heavy lifting, twisting and bending, vibration, and sedentary activity) asymptomatic volunteers. Both groups had a complete clinical and magnetic resonance imaging examination and completed a questionnaire to assess differences in the psychosocial and work perception profiles. The prevalence and the severity of morphologic alterations (disc herniation, disc degeneration, and neural compromise) was analyzed by tow independent radiologists in a blinded fashion. Differences between both groups regarding MRI findings, work perception (occupational mental stress, intensity of concentration, job satisfaction, and job-related resignation) and psychosocial factors (anxiety, depression, self-control, social support, and marital status) were compared using multivariate techniques. Stepwise discriminating analysis was used to identify the best discriminating variables within the magnetic resonance image, work perception, and psychosocial categories in terms of the diagnostic accuracy to predict group membership (study [pain] or control [no pain] group). Matched controls had significantly more risk factors than a group of normal individuals. The present study has presented evidence that an age-, gender-, and occupational risk factors-matched group of asymptomatic patients shows a high incidence rate of disc herniations (76%). Although significantly less than the symptomatic group incidence of 96%, this represents a much higher prevalence rate than generally expected and reported in other studies of unmatched asymptomatic volunteers. Patients had more severe disc herniations (disc extrusions) than asymptomatic volunteers (35% vs. 13%). There was no significant differences regarding disc degeneration between both groups (96% vs. 85%). The only substantial morphologic difference between both groups was the presence of a neural compromise (83% vs. 22%), which was highly significant (P < 0.0001). There were significant differences between both groups regarding work perception (occupational mental stress, intensity of concentration, job satisfaction, and resignation; P < 0.027) and psychosocial factors (anxiety, depression, self-control, marital status; P < 0.0001). The best single predictor of a group membership was the extent of neural compromise. A combination of this factor with occupational mental stress, depression, and marital status was the best predictive model. With this model, the false-negative rate (potential overtreatment of disc morphology) was reduced by more than half compared with morphologic factors (nerve root compression) alone (22% vs. 11%). In an age-, sex-, and risk factor-matched group of asymptomatic individuals, disc herniation had a substantially higher prevalence (76%) than previously reported in an unmatched group. Individuals with minor disc herniations (i.e., protrusion, contained discs) are at a very high risk that their magnetic resonance images are not a causal explanation of pain because a high rate of asymptomatic subjects (63%) had comparable morphologic findings. The only highly significant difference between the study group and control group regarding morphologic fi

  13. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis: a prospective, randomized study comparing decompressive laminectomy and arthrodesis with and without spinal instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischgrund, J S; Mackay, M; Herkowitz, H N; Brower, R; Montgomery, D M; Kurz, L T

    1997-12-15

    This prospective study analyzed the influence of transpedicular instrumented on the operative treatment of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis. To determine whether the addition of transpedicular instrumented improves the clinical outcome and fusion rate of patients undergoing posterolateral fusion after decompression for spinal stenosis with concomitant degenerative spondylolisthesis. Decompression is often necessary in the treatment of symptomatic patients who have degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis. Results of recent studies demonstrated that outcomes are significantly improved if posterolateral arthrodesis is performed at the listhesed level. A meta-analysis of the literature concluded that adjunctive spinal instrumentation for this procedure can enhance the fusion rate, although the effect on clinical outcome remains uncertain. Seventy-six patients who had symptomatic spinal stenosis associated with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis were prospectively studied. All patients underwent posterior decompression with concomitant posterolateral intertransverse process arthrodesis. The patients were randomized to a segmental transpedicular instrumented or noninstrumented group. Sixty-seven patients were available for a 2-year follow-up. Clinical outcome was excellent or good in 76% of the patients in whom instrumentation was placed and in 85% of those in whom no instrumentation was placed (P = 0.45). Successful arthrodesis occurred in 82% of the instrumented cases versus 45% of the noninstrumented cases (P = 0.0015). Overall, successful fusion did not influence patient outcome (P = 0.435). In patients undergoing single-level posterolateral fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis, the use of pedicle screws may lead to a higher fusion rate, but clinical outcome shows no improvement in pain in the back and lower limbs.

  14. 1980 Volvo award in clinical sciences. Assessment of patients with low-back pain by biplanar radiographic measurement of intervertebral motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, I A; Wilder, D G; Frymoyer, J W; Pope, M H

    1981-01-01

    Abnormalities of intervertebral joint motion including hypermobility, reduced mobility, torsional abnormality, and displacement of the center of rotation have been associated with degenerative change. However, measurement of these signs in plane X-ray films is handicapped by the three-dimensional motion and geometry of the spine. This study aimed to relate three-dimensional motion of the joints to their pathological state. We have used biplanar radiography to measure intervertebral motion during voluntary movements by patients with low back pain. Primary (or intentional) and coupled motions were measured by a refined technique, along with disc shear and facet joint motion. Abnormalities were found, especially in the "coupled" motions which were related to narrowed disc space, and to proximity to previous fusions. There was asymmetry of motion specific to joints with herniated nucleus pulposus.

  15. Extended Collective Licenses and the Nordic Experience - It's a Hybrid but is it a VOLVO or a Lemon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    An extended collective license is a legal model whereby the binding effect of a collective agreement between an organization of copyright holders and a user of copyrightable works is extended to right holders who are not members of the organization. Such models have been used for rights clearance...... in the Nordic countries since the early 1960s. Extended collective licenses are praised by the Nordic countries and met with positive interest around the world as the primary means to solve most of the copyright complications in the information society. This article evaluates extended collective licenses...... and their compatibility with international copyright norms and the perspective of transplanting the model into other jurisdictions....

  16. Logitech tutvustas juubelitooteid / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 25. sept., lk. 14. Arvutite lisaseadmete tootja tõi turule kaks uut arvutihiirt: MX Revolution ja VX Revolution. Esimene neist on mõeldud laua-, teine sülearvutite kasutajatele

  17. Diplomats defend Snaige in duty row

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu soovib, et Ukraina tühistaks uued tollimaksud Euroopa Liidus valmistatud kodukaupadele. Leedu kodumasinate tootja Snaige kavatseb hakata eksportima oma tooteid just Ukrainasse ja suurendada müüki Venemaale ja Valgevenesse

  18. Baltimaad, Tšehhi ja Poola saavad tankitõrje laskemoona

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Kaitse- ja julgeolekuvarustuse tootja Saab sõlmis Euroopa Kaitseagentuuriga 13,6 mln euro väärtuses lepingu, mille alusel tarnitakse Baltiriikidesse, Poola ja Tšehhi tankitõrjerelva Carl-Gustaf laskemoona

  19. Kiibitootja AMD on võitmas turuosa suure rivaali Inteli käest / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    Arvutiprotsessorite tootja Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) näitas oma lõppenud kvartalis teenitud kasumiga, et hakkab konkurent Intelile järgi jõudma. Diagramm: Aktsia hind. Kommenteerib Peeter Teder

  20. Paranoiline ellujääja / Vello Rääk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rääk, Vello

    2004-01-01

    Ungari emigrandist USA juhtimisguruks tõusnud Andras Grofi alias Andrew S. Grove'i elust ja karjäärist, juhtimispõhimõtteist ning olulisematest saavutustest maailma suurima mikroprotsessorite tootja Intel eesotsas. Vt. samas: Intelis tormilised ajad

  1. DVD. Aare Ermel tutvustab : "Rome : The Complete First Season" / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013

    2006-01-01

    6 DVD-na on saadaval 12-osaline ajalooline kostüümidraama - seriaal Rooma impeeriumi ajast "Rooma" ("Rome"), mille tootsid aastail 2005-2006 Ameerika tootja Home Box Office (HBO) ja inglaste BBC. Levitab Home Box Office, Inc

  2. Ukrainkam vporu estonskaja moda / Taras Burnos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Burnos, Taras

    2007-01-01

    Silvano Fashion Group tütarfirma PTA Ukraina loob Ukrainas kaubandusketi PTA&Oblicie, kuhu kuuluvad kauplused, mis pakuvad Läti pesufirma Lauma, Valgevene pesufirma Milavitsa ja Eesti naisterõivaste tootja PTA Grupp toodangut

  3. О группе "AveNue" сняли фильм

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    4. novemril esilinastusus Tallinna kinos "Sõprus" kinofestivali "Eesti lood" raames muusikaline dokumentaalfilm Narva venekeelsest rokkgrupist AveNue "Võõras omade seas", režissöörid Aleksandr Kheyfets ja Karin Reinberg. Tootja Revolver Film, Eesti 2009

  4. Applied Materials taas investorite huviorbiidis / Erlend Zirk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirk, Erlend

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. nov. lk. 33. Protsessorite tootmisseadmete tootja Applied Materials on pärast 2000. aasta börsikrahhi taas investorite huviorbiiti jõudmas. Diagramm: Applied Materialsi aktsia

  5. Kõlar Hi-Waf / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Disain: Galina Burnakova. Tootja: AS Sarkop. Kõlar Hi-Waf tehti Brüsselis galeriis Creneau International toimuvale näitusele viimiseks. Galina Burnakovast, tema erialasest tegevusest. Ill.: kõlari vaade, foto sisearhtektist

  6. Tool John / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Autor Toivo Raidmets. Tootja: OÜ Toivo. Tool pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2004. a. aastapreemiate konkursil vormipreemia. Toivo Raidmetsast, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: arhitekti portreefoto, kaks tooli vaadet

  7. Vene riiklik pank noolib tublit tükki Saksa Opelis / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2009-01-01

    Kanada autoosade tootja Magna, Belgia päritolu investor RHI International ja Beijing Automotive Industries tahavad General Motorsilt osta enamusosalust Saksa autotootjas Opel. Magna, kelle pakkumises osaleb Venemaa riiklik Sberbank, soovib endale intellektuaalset omandit ja jaotusõigusi Venemaal

  8. Nokial närvilised kvartalid / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Mobiiltelefonide tootja Nokia avaldatavad majandustulemused on oluliseks indikaatoriks, kui palju on globaalne finantskriis vähendanud tarbimist ning kuidas kujuneb edasine müük. Diagramm: Nokia aktsia hind

  9. Adidas ja Nike - nina vastu nina / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Spordikaupade tootja Adidas ostab Reeboki 3 miljardi euro eest. Adidase ja Reeboki ühinemisse suhtub skeptiliselt Puma, selle tegevjuht Jochen Zeitz lükkab tagasi kuuldused Nike'i ja Puma võimaliku ühinemise kohta

  10. Imevaip kui majanduse šanss / Sulev Oll ; kommenteerinud Ants Reinumägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oll, Sulev, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Ekspordiks tootvad Eesti ettevõtted on uuel tõuslainel - teenivad kasumit ja värbavad uusi töötajaid. Vaibatootja Narma LV, metallkonstruktsioonide valmistaja OÜ Contractor, elektrimootorite komponentide tootja AS Kolmeks

  11. Sakslastele kuuluv meditsiinitehas värbab uusi töötajaid / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Saksa perekonnale kuuluv rahvusvahelise optiliste sondide ehk endoskoopide tootja Karl Stroz Video Endoscopy Tallinna ettevõte areneb jõudsalt ja kavatseb suurendada töötajate hulka sel aastal kolmandiku võrra

  12. Future of Autonomous Ground Logistics: Convoys in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-13

    expanded to Toyota, Mercedes, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Acura, Cadillac, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Jeep, Lexus, Porshe, Subaru, Volvo , and others. 17...ability to identify and anticipate human actions has led Volvo to announce an initiative to guarantee fatality‐free cars by 2020.47 Many other...Volkswagen Tiguan Self-parking.” YouTube video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xmaZ9vBW5mw (accessed February 14, 2011). 47Rebecca Boyle, “ Volvo

  13. 21st Century Truck Partnership 2013 Fall Meeting Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-14

    Weighting & Vehicle System Design) − Industry Lead: Mr. Skip Yeakel, Volvo Trucks North America The Down-select Consolidation Session consisted...Efficiency, Light- Weighting & Vehicle System Design  Mr. Sam McLaughlin, Manager, Volvo External Research North America Region with Mr. Skip Yeakel...Principal Engineer, Volvo Advanced Engineering − Vehicle Fuel Efficiency  Dr. Vivek Sujan, Technical Advisor – Advanced Systems Integration

  14. Sticky pin mounting

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja, David

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted at Volvo Arvika were pins sometimes are sticky to mount during assembly of wheel loaders. This causes problems regarding ergonomic, quality, cost and productivity. Due to deviations in tolerances, defects and errors, assemblers are forced to use equipment such as sledgehammers to mount the pins. The purpose of this study is to achieve and assembly process which meets Volvo´s criteria’s. By investigation the flows for frames at Volvo Arvika, defects and errors were disc...

  15. Right colon volvulus associated to acquired megacolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Salles Collet e Silva

    Full Text Available O volvo de colo direito é uma rara causa de obstrução intestinal em nosso meio e apresenta uma mortalidade elevada. Apresentam-se dois casos de volvo de cola direito associado ao megacolo adquirido, que apresentaram boa evolução. Discute-se a etiologia, o tratamento e as complicações.

  16. 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Effects of a media campaign on back pain beliefs and its potential influence on management of low back pain in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, R; Jolley, D; Wyatt, M

    2001-12-01

    Quasi-experimental, nonrandomized, nonequivalent, parallel group-controlled study involving before and after telephone surveys of the general population and postal surveys of general practitioners was conducted, with an adjacent state used as a control group. To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based intervention designed to alter beliefs about back pain, influence medical management, and reduce disability and workers' compensation-related costs. A multimedia campaign begun during 1997 in Victoria, Australia, positively advised patients with back pain to stay active and exercise, not to rest for prolonged periods, and to remain at work. The campaign's impact on population beliefs about back pain and fear-avoidance beliefs was measured in telephone surveys, and the effect of the campaign on the potential management of low back pain by general practitioners was assessed by eliciting their likely approach to two hypothetical scenarios in mailed surveys. Demographically identical population groups in Victoria and the control state, New South Wales, were surveyed at three times: before, during, and after intervention in Victoria. The studies were completed by 4730 individuals in the general population and 2556 general practitioners. There were large statistically significant improvements in back pain beliefs over time in Victoria (mean scores on the Back Beliefs Questionnaire, 26.5, 28.4, and 29.7), but not in New South Wales (26.3, 26.2, and 26.3, respectively). Among those who reported back pain during the previous year, fear-avoidance beliefs about physical activity improved significantly in Victoria (mean scores on the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire for physical activity, 14, 12.5, and 11.6), but not in New South Wales (13.3, 13.6, and 12.7, respectively). General practitioners in Victoria reported significant improvements over time in beliefs about back pain management, as compared with their interstate colleagues. There were statistically significant interactions between state and time for 7 of 10 responses on management of acute low back pain, and for 6 of 10 responses on management of subacute low back pain. A population-based strategy of providing positive messages about back pain improves the beliefs of the general population and general practitioners about back pain and appears to influence medical management.

  17. 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, P; Hägg, O; Wessberg, P; Nordwall, A

    2001-12-01

    A randomized controlled multicenter study with a 2-year follow-up by an independent observer. To determine whether fusion of the lower lumbar spine could reduce pain and diminish disability more effectively when compared with nonsurgical treatment in patients with severe chronic low back pain (CLBP). The reported results after fusion surgery on patients with CLBP vary considerably, and the evidence of treatment efficacy is weak in the absence of randomized controlled studies. A total of 294 patients referred to 19 spinal centers from 1992 through 1998 were randomized blindly into four treatment groups. Patients aged 25-65 years with CLBP for at least 2 years and with radiologic evidence of disc degeneration at L4-L5, L5-S1, or both were eligible to participate in the study. The surgical group (n=222) included three different fusion techniques, not analyzed separately in this study. Patients in the nonsurgical group (n=72) were treated with different kinds of physical therapy. The surgical group comprised 49.5% men, and the mean age was 43 years. The corresponding figures for the nonsurgical group were 48.6% and 44 years. The patients had suffered from low back pain for a mean of 7.8 and 8.5 years and been on sick leave due to back pain for a mean of 3.2 and 2.9 years, respectively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure pain. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire, the Million Score and the General Function Score (GFS) were used to measure disability. The Zung Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. The overall result was assessed by the patient and by an independent observer. Records from the Swedish Social Insurance were used to evaluate work disability. Patients who changed groups were included in the analyses of significance according to the intention-to-treat principle. At the 2-year follow-up 289 of 294 (98%) patients, including 25 who had changed groups, were examined. Back pain was reduced in the surgical group by 33% (64 to 43), compared with 7% (63 to 58) in the nonsurgical group (P=0.0002). Pain improved most during the first 6 months and then gradually deteriorated. Disability according to Oswestry was reduced by 25% (47 to 36) compared with 6% (48 to 46) among nonsurgical patients (P=0.015), according to Million by 28% (64 to 46) compared with 8% (66 to 60) (P=0.004), and accordingtoGFS by 31% (49 to 34) compared with 4% (48 to 46) (P=0.005). The depressive symptoms, according to Zung, were reduced by 20% (39 to 31) in the surgical group compared with 7% (39 to 36) in the nonsurgical group (P=0.123). In the surgical group 63% (122/195) rated themselves as "much better" or "better" compared with 29% (18/62) in the nonsurgical group (P<0.0001). The "net back to work rate" was significantly in favor of surgical treatment, or 36% vs. 13% (P=0.002). The early complication rate in the surgical group was 17%. Lumbar fusion in a well-informed and selected group of patients with severe CLBP can diminish pain and decrease disability more efficiently than commonly used nonsurgical treatment.

  18. 1988 Volvo award in biomechanics. The triaxial coupling of torque generation of trunk muscles during isometric exertions and the effect of fatiguing isoinertial movements on the motor output and movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnianpour, M; Nordin, M; Kahanovitz, N; Frankel, V

    1988-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that reduction of precise motor control accompanies local muscular fatigue. The effects of isodynamic fatiguing of flexion and extension trunk movements on the movement patterns and the motor output of the trunk were investigated. Twenty male subjects with no history of low-back pain for the past 6 months volunteered for the study. A triaxial dynamometer was used that simultaneously provided measurement of torque, angular position and velocity of each axis. Resistances were set independently for each axis by an interfaced computer. The subjects performed trunk flexion and extension movement against a sagittal plane resistance equal to 70% of their maximum isometric extension strength in the upright position. The minimum resistances in the coronal and transverse planes were set up at 7 Newton meters. The subjects were asked to perform trunk movement as quickly and as accurately as possible while exerting the maximum efforts until exhaustion. Analysis of variance, the MANOVA procedure with a repeated measure design, was performed among the selected parameters of the first, middle and last three repetition cycles. The selected parameters are the trunk motor output and movement patterns; the total angular excursion, range of motion, maximum and average torque and angular velocity of the trunk. All the selected parameters were significantly reduced in the sagittal plane. Subjects displayed significantly less motor control and greater range of motion in the coronal and transverse planes in performing the primary task of flexion and extension. The reduction in the functional capacity of the primary muscles performing the required task is compensated by secondary muscle groups and the spinal structure is loaded in a more injury prone pattern, as identified by finite element models. In addition it is suggested that the fatigued muscles would be less able to compensate any perturbation in the load or position of the trunk. The repetitive loading results in a weakening of the viscoelastic passive elements of the spineless structure. The loss of ability to protect these weakened passive elements makes the spine susceptible to industrial and recreational injuries.

  19. A review of the 2001 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies: lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish lumbar spine study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Brian; Katz, Jeffrey N; Kim, David H; Jenis, Louis G

    2006-01-15

    The current debate over the efficacy of lumbar fusion for low back pain has not been settled. Fritzell et al published a landmark paper entitled "Lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish lumbar spine study group." Their goal was to provide objective evidence supporting lumbar fusion. While it was well designed and important to our knowledge base, it has limitations. We set out to review their work in an unbiased yet critical manner. Our goals are to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the paper, place it in the context of current knowledge, and highlight its significance for present-day practice and research. From technical and study design perspectives, Fritzell et al were able to validate the use of lumbar fusion for the treatment of low back pain. However, their use of "usual nonoperative" care and nonspecific definition of low back pain precluded a truly genuine comparison of operative and nonoperative groups. We commend the Swedish lumbar spine study group and their remarkable efforts; they elevated the sophistication of spine research and spawned many more excellent works to help settle the ongoing controversy on the ideal treatment of low back pain.

  20. 1997 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies. The effect of pedicle screw instrumentation on functional outcome and fusion rates in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective, randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, K; Christensen, F B; Eiskjaer, S P; Hansen, E S; Fruensgaard, S; Bünger, C E

    1997-12-15

    A prospective randomized clinical study. To evaluate supplementary pedicle screw fixation (Cotrel-Dubousset) in posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. The rationale behind lumbar fusion is to eliminate pathologic motion to relieve pain. To improve fusion rates and to allow reduction, a rigid transpedicular screw fixation may be beneficial, but the positive effect of this may be counter-balanced by an increase in complications. The inclusion criteria were severe, chronic low back pain from spondylolisthesis Grades 1 and 2 or from primary or secondary degenerative segmental instability. One hundred thirty patients were randomly allocated to receive no instrumentation (n = 66) or Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation (n = 64) in posterolateral lumbar fusion. Variables were registered at the time of surgery and at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Follow-up was achieved in 97.7% of the patients. Fusion rates deduced from plain radiographs were not significantly different between instrumented and noninstrumented groups. The functional outcome assessed by the Dallas Pain Questionnaire improved significantly in both groups, and there were no significant differences in results between the two groups, except for significantly better (P < 0.06) functional outcome in relation to daily activities in the instrumented group when neural decompression had been performed. The global patients' satisfaction was 82% in the instrumented group versus 74% in the noninstrumented group (not significant). Fixation of instrumentation increased operation time, blood loss, and early reoperation rate significantly. Patients experienced only a few minor postoperative complications; none were major. Two infections appeared in the Cotrel-Dubousset group. Significant symptoms from misplacement of pedicle screws were seen in 4.8% of the instrumented patients. Lumbar posterolateral fusion with pedicle screw fixation increases the operation time, blood loss, and reoperation rate, and leads to a significant risk of nerve injury. The functional outcome improves significantly with high patient satisfaction, with or without instrumentation. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in functional outcome and fusion rate. The only gain in functional outcome from instrumentation was found in the daily activity category in patients with supplementary neural decompression. The results of this study do not justify the general use of pedicle screw fixation alone as an adjunct to posterolateral lumbar fusion.

  1. Volvo ja Ikea endine tegevjuht Göran Carstedt : Tänapäevane (personali)juhtimine peab sisaldama eeskätt looduslähedast mõtteviisi / Göran Carstedt ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carstedt, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Juhtimiskonsultant ning Organisatsioonilise Õppimise Ühingu eestvedaja ja arendaja Göran Carsedt vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtte tegevust personali tööle pühendumise parendamiseks, ettevõtte jätkusuutlikku juhtimist ja tootlikkust, majanduslanguse mõju ettevõtete personalipoliitikale, talendijuhtimist, väikeste ettevõttete ellujäämist majanduslanguse ajal, IKEA kui hea tööandja mainet ning jätkusuutlikku personaliarendajat. Lisa: Jätkusuutlik juhtimine Rootsi moodi

  2. Playtech kasvatas Kivisikust miljardäri / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    Investeerimine internetikasiinode tarkvara tootja Playtech aktsiatesse, on tõstnud Rain Kivisiku Eesti paarikümne jõukaima ettevõtja hulka. Graafik: Playtech liigub Tallinna börsiga vastuvoolu. Diagramm: Playtechi käive on jõudsalt kasvanud. Vt. samas: Internetimängurlus on väärt investeering. Kommenteerivad Joel Kukemelk ja Allan Martinson

  3. A Man as a Book on Management / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2004-01-01

    Ehitusmaterjalide tootja Maxit Estonia - konkurentsivõimelisim keskmiste tööstus- ja energeetikaettevõtete hulgas, selle tegevjuht Viktor Valkiainen. Tabel: Keskmised tööstus- ja energeetikaettevõtted. Lisa: Maxit Estonia (Optiroc) 2003. Vt. samas: Nimi Optiroc kadus ajalukku

  4. Columbia TriStar omandas "Nimed marmortahvlil" leviõigused / Kairit Tsäro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tsäro, Kairit, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Lõppes Albert Kivikase romaani "Nimed marmortahvlil" järgi tehtava mängufilmi võtteperiood. Filmi tootja Taska Productionsi koostööpartner Matila-Röhr Productions sõlmis Columbia TriStariga lepingu, mis tagab filmi levitamise Soomes

  5. Kõlaritootja hoiab omaette / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 16. veebr. lk. 12. Kvaliteetkõlarite tootja Audes LLC OÜ börsileminekule ei mõtle. Diagramm: Audese käive nelja aastaga kahekordistunud. Kommenteerib Tõnis Oja. Vt. samas: Tanel Kompus. Audese kvaliteet on aastaga tõusnud

  6. Holokaust Steven Spielbergi pilgu läbi / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2000-01-01

    Oscari võitnud dokumentaalfilm "Need viimased päevad" ("The Last Days") : režissöör James Moll : Tootja Steven Spielbergi loodud Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999. Filmi esitlusest Eesti Vabariigi Välisministeeriumis

  7. Tallinna kerkib laserplaaditehas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Laserplaatide tootja Baltic Disc AS alustas Tallinnas CD- ja DVD-tehase ehitustöid. ASist Helisalv välja kasvanud Baltic Disc AS asutati möödunud aastal, tuleval aastal planeeritakse Tallinnas toota kuni 8 miljonit CDd ja DVDd

  8. Hiiglaslike antennide sünnimaa Eesti / Kristjan Otsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Otsmann, Kristjan, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Satelliitsideantennide ja tööstusseadmete tootja Vertex Estonia AS võitis Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse konkursi Ettevõtluse Auhind 2006 ning selle raames ka Innovaatori auhinna. Tabelid: Ettevõtluse Auhind 2006 nominendid; Innovaator 2006 nominendid ja nende lühitutvustus

  9. Zepp Grafelin on koostanud kaks näitust : ...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Meriton Grand Hotel Tallinn ruumides koostöös Eiri Foto OÜ-ga koostatud näitus "SAPA fotod mai 2004" ja Radisson SAS-i konverentsikeskuses koostöös Colorlinega koostatud näitus "Vaatega linn. City with a view" Autorid Arne Maasik ja Lembit Kibur, tootja Zepp Grafelin

  10. Ärge eelistage kodumaist! / Stefan Andersson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Andersson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Autor arvab, et tarbija ülesanne on vaadata ka toote hinda ja kvaliteeti, mitte lihtsalt tootja geograafilist asukohta. Nii saame tarbijatena selliseid tootjaid, keda väärime, hind ja kvaliteet paraneb, majanduse efektiivsus kasvab. Riigi ülesanne on tagada õiglane konkurents ja reguleerida turgu

  11. AMD ja ATI kolivad kokku / Kalle Kose

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kose, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    Maailma suuruselt teise personaalarvutite protsessorite valmistaja Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) liitumisest graafikakaartide tootja ATI Technologies'iga (ATI). Vt. ka: 5 küsimust AMD-le. Küsimustele vastab AMD regiooni esindaja Stockholmis Martin Sjögren

  12. Kuidas Canon suureks kasvas / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Jaapani kaamerate ja büroomasinate tootja Canon Groupi arengust, tegevusest kolmes regioonis - USA-s, Euroopas ja Aasias ning ettevõtte pikaajalise edu põhjustest - ärifilosoofiast ning ajastatud tootearendusest. Vt. samas: Firma esialgne nimi oli Kwanon; Konkurendid koonduvad

  13. Kuidas Procter & Gamble kasvas suureks / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Maailma suurima esmatarbekaupade tootja Procter & Gamble arengust, kasvustrateegiast ja uue juhi Alan G. Lafley eesmärkidest ning tegevusest ettevõtte eesotsas. Vt. samas: Peakorter Läti asemel Eestisse?; Coca-Cola ja P&G ühisettevõte; Procter & Gamble tööstusspionaazhi kahtluse küüsis

  14. Coca-Cola : kasumi languses on süüdi Põhja-Euroopa kehv ilm / Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sormunen, Raivo, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. sept. lk. 6. Karastusjookide tootja Coca-Cola andis kasumihoiatuse. Ettevõtte majandustulemuste languse põhjustest. Diagramm: Coca-Cola aktsia aasta madalaimal tasemel. Vt. samas: Annika Matson. Coca-Cola jooksev kvartal Eestis saladus

  15. Pekingi olümpiastaadion vaimustab inimesi oma elegantse viimistlusega / Lauri Leet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leet, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Staadioni kavandas Šveitsi arhitektuuribüroo Herzog & de Meuron. Värvimistööd teostati Saksa tootja Caparoli värvidega. Ekstreemsed olud tingisid uue spetsiaalvärvi Amphibolin loomise. 2 värv. vaadet

  16. Vene energia, torujuhtmed ja tarbijate võim turul ehk Saksa-Vene energiapoliitikast / Hans Martin Sieg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sieg, Hans Martin

    2010-01-01

    Saksa Venemaa-poliitika on tekitanud Euroopa Liidus erimeelsusi eelkõige Saksamaa ning Poola ja Balti riikide vahel. Politiseeritud Nord Streami gaasijuhe. Ühtne Euroopa Liidu energiaturg võimaldaks tugevdada tarbija võimu tootja üle

  17. Eesti-Rootsi koostöös valmib kallis dokfilm Kuubal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Režissöör Michel Miglis, kes on ka bändide mänedžer, filmib Kuubas dokfilmi "Cubaton". Film räägib Kuubas levinud muusikast reggaeton. Eestipoolne tootja on Film Tower, produtsent Margus Õunapuu

  18. Norma tulemuste taga on eksport Venemaale / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2008-01-01

    Autode turvavarustuse tootja AS-i Norma teise kvartali puhaskasum oli 25,4 miljonit krooni, mis on kaks korda enam kui 2007. aasta teises kvartalis, edaspidi võib kasumit survestada terasehinna tõus. Diagramm: Norma kasum on kasvanud

  19. Konkursi "Õige otsus! 2003" võitis MicroLink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Konverentsikeskuse korraldatud konkursi "Õige otsus! 2003" tulemused. Konkursi võitis MicroLink otsusega lahkuda mittepõhitegevusalade omanikeringist, müües Delfi ja viies telekommunikatsiooniseadmete tootja SAF Tehnika börsile. Ergutusauhinnad võitsid Tallegg ja Kristiine Kasiino

  20. Soome otsib Nokiat / Hans Lõugas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõugas, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Nokia probleemiks on tema kaubamärk. Kaubamärk - idee Nokia taga - on põhjus, miks Nokiat ei peeta lipulaevaks. Nokia peab endalt küsima, kuidas oma kaubamärki tugevdada. Korea tootja LG õppetunnist

  1. BBC ja HBO taaselustasid Rooma viletsuse ja hiilguse / Brigitta Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Brigitta, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    12-osaline ajalooline kostüümidraama - seriaali Rooma impeeriumi ajast "Rooma" tootsid Ameerika tootja Home Box Office (HBO) ja inglaste BBC. Esimest osa "Varastatud kotkas" näitas HBO 28. augustil. Kolme esimese osa režissöör on Michael Apted, stsenaariumi eest vastutab Bruno Heller

  2. Uue "Shreki" hääled ikka veel leidmata / Helen Teesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teesalu, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Janno Põldmal seisab ees ameerika animafilmi "Shrek 3" dubleerimine eesti keelde. Eesti esilinastus peaks olema 8. juunil. Näitlejate häälte osadesse valimisele tootja DreamWorks Animation poolt esitatud nõuetest. Lisatud nimekiri : tegelaste hääli esitavad näitlejad originaalversioonis ja oletatavalt eestikeelses versioonis

  3. Kes meid söödab tulevikus? / Kuldar Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leis, Kuldar, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 24. sept. lk. 10. Suuremad jaeketid pakuvad oma kauplustes odavaid toidukaupu oma märgi all (private label), mis on sisse ostetud odavama hinnaga. Eesti tootjad on tootnud oma märgi all, millega kaasneb kõrge kvaliteet ja hind. Tarbijate ostujõu langedes kaotab aga kodumaine tootja

  4. Adidas suutis tulemustega üllatada / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2007-01-01

    Spordiriiete ja -tarvete tootja Adidase kasum oli teises kvartalis 104 mln eurot, mis on 27 protsenti enam kui mullu samal perioodil. Ettevõtte hinnangul tuli kasumikasv liitumisest Reebokiga. Diagramm: Adidase aktsia on viimasel ajal kõikunud 45 euro ümber

  5. Iga hetk peab teadma, mis ettevõttes toimub / Imbi Ernits-Kaljuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ernits-Kaljuste, Imbi, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Tulemusjuhtimise juurutamisest maailma juhtivas bio-innovatsiooniga tegelevas tootmisettevõttes Novozymes. Skeem: Maailma juhtiva ensüümide tootja Novozymesi kvaliteedisüsteem jälgib pidevalt üheksat näidikut. Lisa: Novozymesi tulemusjuhtimissüsteem. Vt. samas: Kaur Kivirähk. Kvaliteedisüsteemid tolmuvad riiulil

  6. Uurimiskomisjoni versiooni võit seiskaks 600 kopteri lennud / Hannes Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    Helikopteri tootja Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation ei ole nõus Copterline'i lennuõnnetuse uurimiskomisjoni versiooniga. Uurimiskomisjoni versiooni tõestamine võib tähendada kopteritootjale ligi 600 kopteri ümberehitust. Vt. samas: Kopteritehas üritab enda jaoks aega võita; Copterline sai hüvitiseks ligi 86 miljonit krooni

  7. Viktor Siilats : pole tähtis, millega tegeled, vaid kellega koos tegeled / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Auto-, video- ja kaatriärimees, Info Ettevõtete Grupi juhi Viktor Siilatsi karjäärist, partnerlusest Rootsi ajakirjaniku Andres Küngiga ning koostööst Volvo Cars Intercontinentaliga. Lisa: Viktor Siilatsi CV

  8. Acquisition and Analysis of Information Relative to the Industrial Behavior of the Major National and International Motor Vehicle Manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes data collected from 1978 to 1980 relating to the following motor vehicle companies: General Motors, Chrysler, Ford, American Motors, International Harvester, BL, Fiat, Peugeot, Renault, Saab, Volvo, Daimler-Benz, Volkswagen, BM...

  9. Tallinn eelistab osta treppidega liinibusse / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Riigihanke komisjon eelistas firmat Volvo Bus Corporation, kes pakub viit madala ja 15 kõrge esiosaga bussi. Samas jäi vaid madala esiosaga busse lubanud Scania CV AB konkursil kaotajaks. Tallinna abilinnapea Toomas Vitsuti selgitus

  10. Virtual Team Communication and Collaboration in Army and Corporate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    45 Table 4. Volvo IT Keys to Virtual Work .......................................................................56 Table 5. Radioactive...Collaborative Work Solution Center, Carole Boudiney, gives the list in Table 4 as ―keys to virtual work ‖ (Boudiney 2007). At first glance...Barrett 2006, 255-256). 56 Table 4. Volvo IT Keys to Virtual Work resolve conflicts. Source: Carole Boudiney, ―Notes on Enterprise 2.0 Case

  11. Dance with your business partners : An empirical study about what factors influence the adoption of the ITapplications between the company and its global dealers from differentcountries, and among them which factor/factors are more importantthan others.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaokun

    2010-01-01

    Date: June 2010Course: EIK 034 Master thesisAuthor: Xiaokun YangTutor: Ole LiljeforsTitle: Dance with your business partnersIntroduction: Through the web conference project of Volvo Construction Equipment(VolvoCE, www.volvoce.com), the author analyzed what factors influence theadoption of IT applications between the global company and its dealers in differentcountries, and among these factors which ones are more important than others.Research question: What factors influence the adoption of t...

  12. 10D = eesti disainer + soome firma / Ilona Gurjanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gurjanova, Ilona, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    Koostööprojektist, mille tulemusena pidi valmima kümnel eesti disaineril soome mööblitootja poolt tellitud mööbliese, mille valmistab eesti tootja. 10D disainikonkursi võitjad: I koht -Igor Volkov, lastetool "Dixi", II - Martin Pärn, istepink "Kosta", Tarmo Luisk, pehme järi "Dog", ära märgiti Ilona Gurjanova graafiliselt kujundatud kahhelkivid ja ürituse tunnusgraafika

  13. Teenistuspüstolid valikusõelal / Ants Kalev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalev, Ants

    2004-01-01

    15.-16. juunil 2004 korraldatud Maksu- ja Tolliameti töötajate uute teenistusrelvade valikukonkursile esitatud püstolimudelite Walter'i P99, Sig Sauer'i Sig PRO SP 2022 ja Heckler'i ja Koch'i P 2000 näitajate kirjeldused. Valiku tegemisel Walter'i P 99 kasuks sai määravaks tootja pakutav hind ja relvastusspetsialistide arvamus

  14. Eesti filmidele Lätist neli auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia filmifestivalil Arsenals tunnistati parimaks Balti filmiks ja võitis filmiajakirjanike ühingu FIPRESCI auhinna Katrin Lauri "Surnuaiavahi tütar". Balti võistlusprogrammi parimaks dokumentaalfilmiks tunnistati Jurõ Haštšavatski film "Lobotoomia" (tootja Baltic Film Production). Ülo Pikkovi animafilm "Keha mälu" pälvis Balti võistlusprogrammi eripreemia

  15. Eesti sai Arsenalsilt neli auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia filmifestivalil Arsenals tunnistati parimaks Balti filmiks ja võitis filmiajakirjanike ühingu FIPRESCI auhinna Katrin Lauri "Surnuaiavahi tütar". Balti võistlusprogrammi parimaks dokumentaalfilmiks tunnistati Jurõ Haštšavatski film "Lobotoomia" (tootja Baltic Film Production). Ülo Pikkovi animafilm "Keha mälu" pälvis Balti võistlusprogrammi eripreemia

  16. Non Grata Pärnus ja Mehhikos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    3. nov.-st Pärnu Muuseumi Aidas nongratalaste viimase aja loomingu näitus "Non Grata esitleb". 13.-23. X osales Academia Non Grata Mexico Citys rahvusvahelisel performance'ifestivalil "Octava Muestra International de Performance", teemaks "Utoopia". Esitleti videoprogrammi utoopiateemalistest performance'itest ja liveina Jan Bergi performance'it "Maailma tootja". 20. X avas Jan Berg Venustiano Carranza alternatiivgaleriis isiknäituse "Musta ja valge positsioonid".

  17. E-Profiil täitis unikaalse lepingu / Erki Freiberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Freiberg, Erki

    2005-01-01

    Maailma suurima naftapuurimisseadmete tootja National Oilwell Varco Inc naftamahutite tellimus Eesti ettevõttele E-Profiil suurendas firma käivet tunduvalt ning eelmise aasta kahjum võib pöörduda kasumiks. Diagramm: Eelmise aasta kahjum võib pöörduda kasumiks. Vt. samas: Dvigateli aktsiate müük on toonud uue salapärase omaniku; Dvigatelist on saanud valdusfirma. Diagramm: Salapärasel Dvigateli aktsiate ostjal 14,8% osalus

  18. Planning Combat Outposts to Maximize Population Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Uplander Volvo Wrangler Xterra Yugo Zephyr Acura BMW 15,0001 0.29 1 26 0( 5,000 0.0 27 0( 10,000 0,2 26 15,000 0 L5,000 0 15,000 0.41 0 100,000 0 1...2,000 22 Volvo 7 61.19 20100 25 Yugo 8 68.51 24 ,0 26 Zephyr 73 610.24 34 015 5,00 Table 4-3: Krasnovia - Nodes with Patrolling The nodes with...35 30 15 50 14 Nova 35 9 15 50 35 12 15 50 21 22 26 Uplander 35 6 15 50 Volvo Zephyr 85 12 0 85 Total I Table 4-10: Commander’s Risk - Nodes with COPs

  19. Tippude tipud / Robert Koistinen, Aimo Niemi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koistinen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    TM testib sportautosid: Aston Martin Vantage Special Edition, Audi RS4, Audi RS6, Audi R8 V10 FSI Plus, Bentley Continental GT V8, BMW M135i, BMW M6 Gran Coupé, Ford Fiesta ST, Ford Focus ST, Jaguar F-type V8, Kia ProCeed GT, Lamborghini Aventador, Lotus Exige S, Lotus Evora S, Mini JCW GP, Nissan Juke Nismo, Nissan GT-R 2013, Opel Astra OPC, Peugeot 208 GTI, Porsche Cayman S, Porsche 911, Carrera 4S, Volkswagen Golf GTI Performance, Volvo V40 T5, Volvo S60 T6 AWD

  20. What happens to R&D in domestic multinationals after foreign acquisition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    With foreign ownership of domestic companies becoming increasingly common, questions are mounting as to the consequences. One area of concern is the effect on research and development. This column presents new evidence from Sweden, where flagship firms such as Volvo and Saab are now foreign owned...

  1. Evaluation of the Monroe Slurry Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In early February, 2009, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) installed a Monroe Slurry : Maker on one of its 2009 Volvo Wheelers (see Photos 1 and 2). This truck was equipped with a : Henderson Utility Body. An 18 gallon per minute spoo...

  2. The Big Bang machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Cox, Brian

    2009-01-01

    "At Cern in Geneva, 10'000 scientists form all over the world have gathered to discover the secrets of the universe. We drove there in a new Volvo C30 to watch the preparations for the second switch on" (12 pages)

  3. Kodanlikud "kaubikud" / Aimo Niemi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niemi, Aimo

    2013-01-01

    TM võrdleb premium-klassi väiksemaid universaale: Audi A4 Avant 2,0 TDI Quattro Stronic ; BMW 320d A Touring ; Citroën DS5 HDi 163 So Chic AT ; Mercedes-Benz C 250 CDI Blue Efficiency 4Matic T ; Volvo V60 D4 A R-Design

  4. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the

  5. Moodsad ja võimekad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    TM võrdleb: nelikveolised universaalid: Audi A4 Allroad 2,0 TDI Quattro S tronic, Opel Insignia Country Tourer 2,0 CDTI BiTurbo 4×4 A, Peugeot 508 RXH HYbrid4, Subaru Outback 2,0 D Lineartronic, Volkswagen Passat Alltrack 2,0 TDI 4Motion DSG, Volvo XC70 D4 Momentum AWD

  6. Effect of upgraded diesel fuels and oxidation catalysts on emission properties, especially PAH and genotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Keld; Gabrielsson, Pär; Stavnsbjerg, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Test samples of two different “advanced” diesel fuels were prepared from the raw diesel of North Sea Light Gas Oil. A commercial “Ultralight” diesel fuel was used as a reference. The three fuels were tested on two engines with and without an oxidation catalyst: 1) a VOLVO 10.0 1 DI was mounted...

  7. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  8. TRESP II testing of AFS dual fuel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A dual fuel CNG and diesel system was retrofitted to a 13 L Volvo semi tractor for testing to verify the : fuel economy and CNG substitution rate. The semi tractor was tested on interstate and mountainous : highway routes with a loaded trailer. Fuel ...

  9. Transpordifirmad näevad veoautoteeninduse peamist probleemi kõrges hinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Veoautode firmateenindused vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad remonditöökodade personali koolitamist, investeeringuid remondibaasi ja personali koolitusse, klientide kaebusi remondi- ja hooldusteeninduse kohta, teenuste hinna tõstmist lähitulevikus. Vastavad Volvo, Iveco, MAN, Sisu/Renault, MercedesBenz ja Scania firmateenindused. Diagramm: Suurt rahulolematust tekitab vaid teenuse hind

  10. 77 FR 488 - Control of Emissions From New Highway Vehicles and Engines; Approval of New Scheduled Maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... for diesel-cycle motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines equipped with SCR systems.\\8\\ At that time... Diesel Corporation, Ford Motor Company, Mack Trucks Inc., PACCAR Inc., UD Trucks Corporation, and Volvo... granted certain diesel vehicle and engine manufacturers' requests for approval of emission- related...

  11. report appendix | 1-Overview | 5-Publications | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Policy on Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, 1986. This is an annual average from the total 8th Plan outlay on school education. See, for instance, Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, Volvo, No.2, p.18 (1993). Report of the Working Group constituted by the ...

  12. report appendix | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Policy on Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, 1986. This is an annual average from the total 8th Plan outlay on school education. See, for instance, Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, Volvo, No.2, p.18 (1993). Report of the Working Group constituted by the ...

  13. Trusted Truck(R) II (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Trusted Truck Program was initiated in 2003 as a joint effort by NTRCI, Volvo and UT. The vision of the Trusted Truck program is to develop a secure and "trusted" transport solution from pickup to delivery. The program's objective is to incre...

  14. Intelligent manufacturing through participation : a participative simulation environment for integral manufacturing enterprise renewal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, F.M. van

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with a 'Participative Simulation environment for Intelligent Manufacturing' (PSIM). PSIM is a software environment for use in assembly operations and it is developed and pilot-demonstrated in five companies: Volvo (Sweden), Finland Post, Fiat (Italy), Yamatake (Japan), Ford (USA).

  15. Tendentsid sisearhitektuuris : Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemiad 2004 / Maris Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kerge, Maris

    2005-01-01

    ESL aastapreemid 2004: kodu interjöör - villa Miidurannas, Katrin ja Argo Vaikla, Tiina Teng, Vaikla Disain, projekti juhtimine: Ahti Väin; ühiskondlik interjöör - SPA Hotell Georg Ots Kuressaares, Liisi Murula, Raili Paling, KOKO Arhitektid; ajalooline interjöör - Tartu Mänguasjamuuseum, Tea Tammelaan, Krista Lepland, Malle Jürgenson, Laika, Belka & Strelka; vormipreemia seeriatoode - tool "John", Toivo Raidmets, tootja OÜ Toivo; tegevuspreemia - Disaini- ja Arhitektuurigalerii asutamise ja käigushoidmise eest, Maile Grünberg. Nominentide loetelu

  16. Úlceras em megacólons chagásicos operados na urgência e eletivamente

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo-Filho,Augusto; Rocha,Ademir; De Conti,Daniel Oliveira; Ferreira,Karina Vasconcelos

    2006-01-01

    RACIONAL: O megacólon é uma doença freqüente no nosso meio e abordado na urgência pelas suas complicações como fecalomas, volvos e perfurações. As úlceras de estases nos megacólons contribuem como prováveis sítios de perfurações OBJETIVO: Comparar as freqüências de úlceras de decúbito em megacólons chagásicos operados na urgência, por volvo e fecaloma, e eletivamente, objetivando melhor conduta cirúrgica na urgência MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se os laudos de 356 exames anatomopatológicos ...

  17. Value Creation through Acquisition Strategy: A Study of Volvo’s Acquisition by Geely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Chandera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value creation on the acquisition of Volvo Car Corp by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. The acquisition of Volvo by Geely became an interesting topic to discuss since it was the first time in automotive industry that a Chinese company acquired an international company with a considerably high transaction amount. The paper examines the short term value creation using event study to calculate abnormal returns of each company’s stock during the announcement period and measuring the significance of the cumulative abnormal return. The findings are consistent with previous studies over the years which have shown that most acquisitions fail to add value for shareholders in the acquiring company. The paper discusses the broad managerial implications of the findings this paper discussion on marketing aspect after the acquisition by integrating two different brand perceptions.

  18. Value Creation through Acquisition Strategy: A Study of Volvo’s Acquisition by Geely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Chandera

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value creation on the acquisition of Volvo Car Corp by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. The acquisition of Volvo by Geely became an interesting topic to discuss since it was the first time in automotive industry that a Chinese company acquired an international company with a considerably high transaction amount. The paper examines the short term value creation using event study to calculate abnormal returns of each company’s stock during the announcement period and measuring the significance of the cumulative abnormal return. The findings are consistent with previous studies over the years which have shown that most acquisitions fail to add value for shareholders in the acquiring company. The paper discusses the broad managerial implications of the findings this paper discussion on marketing aspect after the acquisition by integrating two different brand perceptions.

  19. Om forskning og kreative miljøer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    Zeneca, Sony Ericsson, ST-Ericsson, Sony Mobile, SAAB, Volvo, Gambro osv. Krisen tvingar politikerna att agera. För dem är det en ryggmärgsreflex att lösa problem genom att skjuta till pengar. Men i det här fallet handlar det egentligen inte om brist på pengar, det handlar mer om att använda pengarna på rätt...

  20. A experiência sócio-técnica no ambiente de produção: uma discussão acerca do Volvismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gonçalves Carobrez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta a caracterização, incluindo o surgimento e declínio, do modelo de produção adotado pela Volvo em três fábricas localizadas em diferentes cidades da Suécia. Trata-se de um ensaio que, a partir de publicações nacionais e internacionais, caracteriza o que alguns autores conhecem como abordagem sócio-técnica no ambiente de produção. O termo tem origem no que é caracterizado por Aktouf (1996 como um capitalismo de estado enquanto concepção de arranjo produtivo. Assim, a partir de levantamento bibliográfico e documental, o artigo discute, inicialmente, as principais características das fábricas da Volvo na Suécia e a implantação de uma gestão sócio-técnica na organização e gerenciamento da produção. Contextualiza a preocupação social de implantação de um modelo de gerenciamento da produção existente na Suécia à época da implantação das fábricas da Volvo e a busca de uma abordagem sócio-técnica. A seguir, analisa o impacto que variáveis do cenário internacional tiveram nos experimentos e, por fim, realiza uma comparação entre indicadores de desempenho de diferentes fábricas da Volvo na Suécia e entre os modelos volvistas e toyotistas.

  1. По зимнему бездорожью на полном приводе / Велиматти Хонканен, Яри Питкаярви и Ярмо Сукава

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Хонканен, Велиматти

    2003-01-01

    Audi A4 1,8 T Quattro, BMW 325Xi, Honda HR-V 1,6i, Jaguar X-Type 3,0 V6, Mercedes-Benz E 320 4matic, Renault Scenic RX4 2,0, Škoda Octavia Combi 2,0WD, Subaru Impreza 2,0 GX, Suzuki Liana 1,6 4WD, Volvo S60 AWD

  2. Polaarjoone kangelased

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Talvetestis 20 uudisautot: Audi A3, BMW 320i, Chevrolet Volt, Citroën DS5, Fiat 500L, Ford B-Max, Honda Civic, Hyundai i30 Wagon, Kia Cee’d, Mazda6 Sport Wagon, Mercedes-Benz A-klass, Opel Mokka, Peugeot 208, Renault Clio, Seat Leon, Škoda Rapid, Toyota Auris Hybrid, Toyota GT86, Volkswagen Golf, Volvo V40

  3. From acid rain to toxic snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging acid rain problems and problems related to various airborne toxins and effects in soils are discussed by David Schindler, the Volvo Environment Prize winner, a member of the Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Alberta, Canada. A chain of events involving depletion of basic cations in soils and global warming can result ultimately in a significant threat to indigenous peoples living at high latitudes

  4. Abdome agudo em pós-operatório tardio de apendicite aguda: pode não ser bridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Castro Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As ressecções intestinais em países desenvolvidos ocorrem devido às malformações congênitas. Em países em desenvolvimento essas resseções ocorrem por causas potencialmente evitáveis, como invaginação intestinal irredutível, trauma abdominal fechado, volvo de jejuno-íleo, enterocolite necrosante, hérnia inguinal estrangulada e obstrução por bridas pós-operatórias. O volvo intestinal na infância é raro e geralmente de causas iatrogênicas causado, por exemplo, pela presença de grampos soltos a cavidade intestinal após apendicectomia laparoscópica. O volvo de jejuno-íleo pode ser secundário à isquemia nos casos de gastrosquise tratadas com silo ou mesmo pela colocação de banda gástrica pós-laparoscopia, ou ainda pela presença de lipoma mesentérico. Não foi identificado trabalho na literatura recente sobre volvo jejuno-íleo e isquemia e necrose de segmento de alça intestinal. O autores relatam um caso de abdome agudo obstrutivo em criança de 6 anos, em pós-operatório tardio (4 anos de apendicectomia aberta e cuja ressecção de segmento de Alça intestinal foi necessária nas duas oportunidades mas por motivos diferentes. Situações adversas em abdome agudo pós-operatório podem não ser por aderências intestinais, mas por situações mais graves e o cirurgião deve estar preparado para corrigir sua tática operatória.

  5. Analysis of material- & tied-up capital flow in Inbound

    OpenAIRE

    Askri, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis is performed on behalf of Volvo Group Trucks Operations Logistics Services in Eskilstuna, which is also the final part of the Master in Engineering program – Innovation, production and logistics at Mälardalen University. Logistics Services central warehouse in Eskilstuna ensures that parts are available all over the world, material is transported to the production facilities, packaging is available and vehicles are distributed to the dealers. The current need is to reduce c...

  6. IDENTIFIKASI PARAMETER OPTIMAL GAUSSIAN MIXTURE MODEL PADA IDENTIFIKASI PEMBICARA DI LINGKUNGAN BERDERAU MENGGUNAKAN RESIDU DETEKSI ENDPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Risah Prayogi

    2015-07-01

    Uji coba menggunakan lima tipe derau dengan tujuh tingkat SNR. Tipe derau yang digunakan adalah f16, hfchannel, pink, volvo, dan white. Sedangkan tingkat SNR yang digunakan adalah bersih, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5, dan 0 dB. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa metode yang diusulkan unggul pada mayoritas pembicara. Selain itu metode yang diusulkan juga unggul pada semua tipe derau dan unggul hampir pada semua tingkat SNR. Metode yang diusulkan menunjukkan rata-rata akurasi sebesar 14.69% lebih tinggi dari metode MFCC, 2.74% dari MFCC+Spectral Subtraction (SS, dan 6.4% dari MFCC+wiener.

  7. Data-driven algorithm to estimate friction in automobile engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Algorithms based on the oscillations of the engine angular rotational speed under fuel cutoff and no-load were proposed for estimation of the engine friction torque. The recursive algorithm to restore the periodic signal is used to calculate the amplitude of the engine speed signal at fuel cutoff....... The values of the friction torque in the corresponding table entries are updated at acquiring new measurements of the friction moment. A new, data-driven algorithm for table adaptation on the basis of stepwise regression was developed and verified using the six-cylinder Volvo engine....

  8. Kiire lugu / Robert Koistinen ja Aimo Niemi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koistinen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Sportautode võrdlus: Alfa Romeo Giulia Quadrifoglio, Audi R8 V10 Plus, BMW M2, Cadillac ATS-V Coupé, Ford Focus RS, Honda Civic Type R, Jaguar F-Type 3,0 V6 AWD Coupé, Lamborghini Huracan LP 580-2, Mazda MX-5 2,0 Sport, McLaren 570S, McLaren 675LT, Mercedes-AMG A 45, Mercedes-AMG C 63 S Coupé, Opel Corsa OPC, Peugeot 308 GTi, Polaris Slingshot SL, Porsche 718 Boxster S, Porsche 911 GT3 RS, Volkswagen Golf GTI Clubsport, Volvo S60 Polestar

  9. A experiência sócio-técnica no ambiente de produção: uma discussão acerca do Volvismo

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Gonçalves Carobrez; Paola Azevedo; Douglas Rafael Almeida Caixeta; Rogério da Silva Nunes

    2009-01-01

    O trabalho apresenta a caracterização, incluindo o surgimento e declínio, do modelo de produção adotado pela Volvo em três fábricas localizadas em diferentes cidades da Suécia. Trata-se de um ensaio que, a partir de publicações nacionais e internacionais, caracteriza o que alguns autores conhecem como abordagem sócio-técnica no ambiente de produção. O termo tem origem no que é caracterizado por Aktouf (1996) como um capitalismo de estado enquanto concepção de arranjo produtivo. Assim, a parti...

  10. Laiad rehvid ja lõvihääl / Jussa Nieminen, Robert Koistinen, Aimo Niemi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nieminen, Jussa

    2011-01-01

    TM võrdleb sportautosid: Alfa Romeo Giulietta Quadrifoglio Verde; Audi R8 GT Replica; Audi A1 1,4 TFSI; BMW 1. seeria M Coupé; Cadillac CTS-V Wagon; Chevrolet Camaro SS A; Citroën DS3 Racing; Ferrari 458 Italia; Hyundai Genesis Coupe; Mazda MX-5 Takara Edition; Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Edition; Mercedes-Benz CLS 63 AMG; Mini Cooper S Countryman All4; Porsche 911 Turbo S; Porsche Cayman R; Saab 9-5 2,8T Aero XWD; Škoda Fabia RS; Subaru STI Racing; Volkswagen Polo GTI; Volvo V60 T6 R-Design Polestar

  11. Moondunud tõde? / Hannu Ahonen, Velimatti Honkanen, Tapio Koisaari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ahonen, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Testis kümne auto tegelikud CO₂-näidud. Bensiiniautod: Audi A5 Coupé 1,8 TFSI ; BMW 116i ; Citroën C1 1,0i ; Dacia Sandero 1,6 Hi-Flex ; Toyota Verso-S. Diiselautod: Fiat Punto 1,3 M-Jet ; Ford Mondeo 1,6 TDCi ECOnetic ; Opel Insignia Sports Tourer 2,0 CDTI EcoFlex ; Škoda Octavia HB 1,6 TDI GreenLine ; Volvo V70 1,6D DRIVe

  12. Analysis of performance reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of car-tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko О.Р.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operational reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of vehicles, trucks Mercedes-Benz Actros 1844 LS and Volvo FH 1242, conducting international cargo transportation is performed. It is established that the equipment is reliable, which meets modern requirements, but where there is a violation of the resolution. The reason for repair work is constructive and operational factors. Distribution of efficiency and overall performance of operational reliability is retrieved. Items with more bounce are found. Common factors of violation of efficiency cars, trucks in operation, are largely different stages in warranty runs are obtained.

  13. Keskklassi meistrivõistlused / Wolfgang König, Dirk Branke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    König, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Suur test. Mõõtu võtavad 15 pereautot: Audi A4 2.0 TDI, BMW 318d, Mercedes-Benz C 200 CDI, Škoda Superb 2.0 TDI, VW Passat 2.0 TDI, Citroën C5 HDi 140, Hyundai i40 1.7 CRDi, Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi, Kia Optima 1.7 CRDi, Mazda 6 2.2 MZR-CD, Opel Insignia 2.0 CDTI, Renault Laguna dCi 150, Peugeot 508 HDi 140, Volvo S60 D3, Seat Exeo 2.0 TDI

  14. Multi-modal assessment of on-road demand of voice and manual phone calling and voice navigation entry across two embedded vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers’ visual and manual distractions with ‘infotainment’ technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual–manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox ‘one-shot’ voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory–vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers’ interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:26269281

  15. The effect of a low-speed automatic brake system estimated from real life data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A substantial part of all traffic accidents involving passenger cars are rear-end collisions and most of them occur at low speed. Auto Brake is a feature that has been launched in several passenger car models during the last few years. City Safety is a technology designed to help the driver mitigate, and in certain situations avoid, rear-end collisions at low speed by automatically braking the vehicle.Studies have been presented that predict promising benefits from these kinds of systems, but few attempts have been made to show the actual effect of Auto Brake. In this study, the effect of City Safety, a standard feature on the Volvo XC60 model, is calculated based on insurance claims data from cars in real traffic crashes in Sweden. The estimated claim frequency of rear-end frontal collisions measured in claims per 1,000 insured vehicle years was 23% lower for the City Safety equipped XC60 model than for other Volvo models without the system.

  16. Multi-modal assessment of on-road demand of voice and manual phone calling and voice navigation entry across two embedded vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne

    2016-03-01

    One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers' visual and manual distractions with 'infotainment' technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual-manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox 'one-shot' voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory-vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers' interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation.

  17. The Effect of a Low-Speed Automatic Brake System Estimated From Real Life Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A substantial part of all traffic accidents involving passenger cars are rear-end collisions and most of them occur at low speed. Auto Brake is a feature that has been launched in several passenger car models during the last few years. City Safety is a technology designed to help the driver mitigate, and in certain situations avoid, rear-end collisions at low speed by automatically braking the vehicle. Studies have been presented that predict promising benefits from these kinds of systems, but few attempts have been made to show the actual effect of Auto Brake. In this study, the effect of City Safety, a standard feature on the Volvo XC60 model, is calculated based on insurance claims data from cars in real traffic crashes in Sweden. The estimated claim frequency of rear-end frontal collisions measured in claims per 1,000 insured vehicle years was 23% lower for the City Safety equipped XC60 model than for other Volvo models without the system. PMID:23169133

  18. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  19. Diisel ON talveauto!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    TM võrdleb diiselmootoriga pereautosid: Audi A4 2,0 TDI, BMW 123d Coupé, Chrysler Sebring 2,0 CRD Touring, Fiat Bravo 1,9 JTD Dynamic, Ford Mondeo 1,8 TDCi Trend, Hyundai i30 1,6 CRDi Comfort, Kia Cee’d 1,6 CRDi EX, Mercedes-Benz C 200 CDI, Mitsubishi Lancer 2,0 DID Intense, Nissan Qashqai 4x2 1,5 dCi Acenta, Peugeot 308 Premium HDI 110 FAP, Renault Laguna Expression 1,5 dCi Eco2, Škoda Fabia 1,9 TDI Sport, Toyota Auris 1,4 D-4D Linea Sol, Volvo V70 2,0D Momentum

  20. Auto industry late followers knowledge creation through internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dušan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical changes of business environment have been caused by growing globalization at the beginning of the 21st century. Consequently, a strong network of trade and investment relationships between national economies has been established. Although it entails many risks, global business environment opens up great opportunities, as well. In order to seize these opportunities, many companies from emerging markets internationalize their business operations, and thus challenge once untouchable leaders from developed countries. Traditional theories on multinational companies cannot fully explain their motives for going abroad. Recently, the automotive industry has become a new field where the late followers from emerging markets try to challenge the leaders. This paper includes the following three case studies: Hyundai - Kia, Geely - Volvo, and Tata Motors - Jaguar Land Rover. These case studies show that although the late followers in the automotive industry use different internationalization strategies, they all perceive internationalization as a means of obtaining the lacking competencies and building up a positive reputation.

  1. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  2. Acquired non-Chagas megacolon associated with the use of psychiatric medication: case report and differential diagnosis with Chagas megacolon Megacólon adquirido não chagásico associado ao uso de medicação psiquiátrica: relato de caso e diagnóstico diferencial com megacólon chagásico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jorge Adad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of acquired megacolon in a 62-year-old man with acute abdomen due to sigmoid volvulus is reported. The case was associated with the use of psychiatric medications. The aim in this report was to emphasize the differential diagnosis with Chagas megacolon. Anatomopathological examination did not show any evidence of denervation, ganglionitis and/or myositis, and the serological test for Chagas disease was negative.Relata-se caso de megacólon adquirido, associado ao uso de medicamentos psiquiátricos, em homem de 62 anos, com abdome agudo por volvo de sigmóide, com o objetivo de destacar o diagnóstico diferencial de megacólon chagásico. O exame anátomo-patológico não evidenciou denervação, ganglionite e/ou miosite e a sorologia para doença de Chagas foi negativa.

  3. The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Christer; Gink Lövgren, Maria; Nilsson, Mats; Willstrand, Tania; Anund, Anna

    2018-02-26

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate if an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with fyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15 - 25 % while turning, and with up to 68 % in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  4. Tumor seminomatoso no diagnóstico diferencial de abdome agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Sales Bezerra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os tumores testiculares de células germinativas, o seminoma é o mais comum na população adulta. Apesar de ser o mais encontrado, o tumor seminomatoso acomete em menor frequência o trato gastrintestinal quando comparado ao não-seminoma. As manifestações metastáticas de tumores testiculares no trato gastrintestinal incluem obstrução intestinal, volvo, intussuscepção e hemorragia. O tratamento é basicamente cirúrgico, sendo indicada em alguns casos a realização de ciclos quimioterápicos. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um caso de uma manifestação incomum de um tumor testicular seminomatoso em paciente adulto com acometimento do trato gastrointestinal, que se mostrou como etiologia possível para abdome agudo inflamatório.

  5. Autod jõuluöös / Tapio Koisaari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koisaari, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Talveauto 2011: Alfa Romeo Giulietta 2,0 JTD 140 ; Audi A1 1,6 TDI 77 kW ; BMW 520dA Touring ; Chevrolet Cruze 2,0 DLT+ ; Citroën C3 HDi 90 ; Dacia Duster 1,5 dCi 110 Laureate ; Ford C-Max 1,6L TDCi Titanium ; Honda CR-Z 1,5 GT ; Hyundai ix35 1,7 CRDi ISG Comfort ; Kia Venga 1,4 CRDi Ex ; Mini Cooper D Countryman ; Mitsubishi ASX 1,8 DID 2WD Invite ; Nissan Juke 1,5 dCi Acenta ; Opel Meriva 1,7D DTC Enjoy ; Peugeot RCZ Sport 2,0 HDi ; Saab 9-5 Vector 2,0 TTiD ; Toyota Auris 1,8 HSD Linea Sol Plus ; Volkswagen Sharan Comfortline 2,0 TDI DSG ; Volvo S60 D3 Momentum

  6. Machinability of structural steels with calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pytel, S.; Zadecki, M.

    2003-01-01

    The machinability of the plain carbon and low alloy structural steels with carbon content of 0.1-0.6% is briefly discussed in the first part of the paper. In the experimental part a dependence between the addition of calcium and some changes in sulphide and oxide inclusions morphology is presented. The Volvo test for measurement of machinability index B i has been applied. Using the multiple regression methods two relationships between machinability index B i and stereological parameters of non-metallic inclusions as well as hardness of the steels have been calculated. The authors have reached the conclusion that owing to the changes in inclusion chemical composition and geometry as result of calcium addition the machinability index of the steel can be higher. (author)

  7. La gestión del conocimiento en la industria automovilística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Rivas Tovar, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objeto mostrar una breve reseña de lo que ha sido la gestión del conocimiento en la industria automotriz internacional. Se describen las experiencia de gestión dentro de las que cabe mencionar la transformación de conocimiento tácito en explícito (Honda, la socialización del conocimiento (Nissan, la creación de comunidades de práctica (Ford, la creación de los libros de conocimiento de ingeniería (Daimler Chrysler, las alianzas de aprendizaje (GM, el aprendizaje colectivo (IRIZAR España, y el sistema de agentes inteligentes (Volvo. Finalmente se describen los retos de la industria automotriz mexicana en materia de gestión del conocimiento, derivada de su proceso de apertura comercial.

  8. industria automovilística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Rivas Tovar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objeto mostrar una breve reseña de lo que ha sido la gestión del conocimiento en la industria automotriz internacional. Se describen las experiencia de gestión dentro de las que cabe mencionar la transformación de conocimiento tácito en explícito (Honda, la socialización del conocimiento (Nissan, la creación de comunidades de práctica (Ford, la creación de los libros de conocimiento de ingeniería (Daimler Chrysler, las alianzas de aprendizaje (GM, el aprendizaje colectivo (IRIZAR España, y el sistema de agentes inteligentes (Volvo. Finalmente se describen los retos de la industria automotriz mexicana en materia de gestión del conocimiento, derivada de su proceso de apertura comercial.

  9. On safety management and nuclear safety - A frame of reference for studies of safety management with examples from non-nuclear contects of relevance for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, O.; Allwin, P. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Salo, I. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    The report includes three case studies of safety management. The studies are presented as chapters, but are written in a format that makes them easy to read separately. Two of the studies cover regulators (the Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Luftfartsinspektionen) and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) and one a regulated activity/industry (a car manufacturer, Volvo Car). The introduction outlines a living system framework and relates this to concepts used in organizational management. The report concludes with some findings with potential relevance for safety management in the nuclear power domain. In the next phase of the work, the regulated counterparts of the regulators here will be investigated in addition to a fourth case study of a regulated activity/industry. (au)

  10. Konstruktion av lättvikts-gavel till bränslecell

    OpenAIRE

    Carlander, Erik; Haglund, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Examensarbetet som behandlas i rapporten har utförts i samarbete med Powercell Sweden AB samt KTH. Powercell Sweden AB är ett företag som utvecklar och säljer bränsleceller för vätgas. Deras bränsleceller är utformade och konstruerade för att sitta i mobila applikationer. Den senaste bränslecellen som utvecklas och som examensarbetet behandlar är planerad att sitta i Volvos lastbilar. Där ska de fungera som en extra energikälla och därmed kan exempelvis tomgångskörningstider minskas. I projek...

  11. Modeling and Deployment of Model-Based Decentralized Embedded Diagnosis inside Vehicles: Application to Smart Distance Keeping Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Nasri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of a fault diagnosis strategy in the Smart Distance Keeping (SDK system with a decentralized architecture is presented. The SDK system is an advanced Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system implemented in a Renault-Volvo Trucks vehicle to increase safety by overcoming some ACC limitations. One of the main differences between this new system and the classical ACC is the choice of the safe distance. This latter is the distance between the vehicle equipped with the ACC or the SDK system and the obstacle-in-front (which may be another vehicle. It is supposed fixed in the case of the ACC, while variable in the case of the SDK. The variation of this distance depends essentially on the relative velocity between the vehicle and the obstacle-in-front. The main goal of this work is to analyze measurements, issued from the SDK elements, in order to detect, to localize, and to identify some faults that may occur. Our main contribution is the proposition of a decentralized approach permitting to carry out an on-line diagnosis without computing the global model and to achieve most of the work locally avoiding huge extra diagnostic information traffic between components. After a detailed description of the SDK system, this paper explains the model-based decentralized solution and its application to the embedded diagnosis of the SDK system inside Renault-Volvo Truck with five control units connected via a CAN-bus using “Hardware in the Loop” (HIL technique. We also discuss the constraints that must be fulfilled.

  12. Úlceras em megacólons chagásicos operados na urgência e eletivamente Ulcerations in Chagas' megacolon operated at urgency and electively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Diogo-Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O megacólon é uma doença freqüente no nosso meio e abordado na urgência pelas suas complicações como fecalomas, volvos e perfurações. As úlceras de estases nos megacólons contribuem como prováveis sítios de perfurações OBJETIVO: Comparar as freqüências de úlceras de decúbito em megacólons chagásicos operados na urgência, por volvo e fecaloma, e eletivamente, objetivando melhor conduta cirúrgica na urgência MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se os laudos de 356 exames anatomopatológicos de ressecções colônicas de pacientes operados por megacólon chagásico na urgência (102 casos; 29% e eletivamente (254 casos; 71%, no período de 1980 a 2000. As indicações cirúrgicas de urgência foram atribuídas a volvo (71 casos; 69,6%, fecaloma (25 casos; 24,5%, abdome agudo perfurativo após sondagem retal ou sigmoidoscopia (6 casos; 5,9%. Compararam-se as freqüências de úlceras nos dois grupos de peças cirúrgicas, com a utilização do teste do qui-quadrado RESULTADOS: Nos laudos das peças cirúrgicas obtidas nas cirurgias de urgência, constatou-se o registro de úlceras em 26 casos (25,5%; nas peças de ressecções eletivas verificaram-se úlceras em 21 casos (8,25%. A diferença observada foi estatisticamente significante. A comparação dos grupos de volvo, fecaloma e volvo com fecaloma, em separado com o grupo das cirurgias eletivas, evidenciou diferenças significantes em relação ao volvo e ao fecaloma CONCLUSÃO: A freqüência muito maior de úlceras nos megas operados em caráter de urgência enfatiza a necessidade da ressecção imediata do cólon sigmóide, ao invés da conduta conservadora de simples colostomia descompressiva, mesmo naquelas laparotomias exploradoras em que o exame macroscópico do sigmóide não mostre sinais de necrose. Desta forma, deve-se prevenir a ocorrência de perfuração do megacólon no pós-operatório mediato, com conseqüências usualmente graves.BACKGROUD: The

  13. The effect of a 3-point harness restraint and car seat in whiplash-type lateral impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shrawan; Ferrari, Robert; Narayan, Yogesh; Jones, Troy

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen healthy volunteers were subjected to right and left lateral impacts 5.0, 6.8, 9.2, and 16.8 m/s acceleration while positioned in a Volvo car seat with lap and shoulder seat belt restraint in laboratory setting. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using a standard 3-point lap and shoulder seat belt and Volvo car seat on the response of the cervical muscles to increasing low-velocity lateral impacts. A previous study of lateral impacts in a 5-point harness restraint with head and trunk in neutral posture suggests that the burden of impact is borne primarily by the splenius capitis muscle contralateral to the direction of impact. That study, however, used a nonstandard harness for automobiles, and other studies suggest that a lap-and-shoulder seat belt may increase the risk of whiplash injury. Triaxial accelerometers recorded the acceleration of the 1) sled, 2) torso at the shoulder level, and 3) head of the participant, while bilateral electromyograms of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis were also recorded. For participants experiencing a right or left lateral impact, the muscle responses increased with increasing levels of acceleration (P trend to progressively decrease with increasing levels of acceleration. The peak head accelerations relative to the sled ranged from 2.5 to 10.6 m/s. When the impact was a right lateral impact, at the highest sled acceleration, the left splenius capitis generated 47% of its maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and the left trapezius also 46% of its MVC; the left and right sternocleidomastoid, right splenius capitis, and right trapezius generated 29% or less of their MVC. For the highest level of acceleration in a left lateral impact, the right splenius capitis generated 48% of its MVC and the right trapezius 57% of the MVC, the left and right sternocleidomastoid, left splenius capitis, and left trapezius generated 29% or less of their MVC. In both directions of impact, the

  14. Púrpura de Henoch-Schönlein com acometimento incomum de face Unusual face involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bassoli de Azevedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Púrpura de Henoch-Shönlein é uma vasculite de causa idiopática, que se caracteriza pelo depósito predominante de IgA na parede dos pequenos vasos, envolvendo tipicamente pele, intestino, articulações e glomérulo renal. O acometimento cutâneo ocorre principalmente em membros inferiores e região glútea, sendo raramente encontrado em face e membros superiores. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, com seis anos de idade, que apresentava lesões púrpuricas em região auricular, periorbital, malar, mentoniana e membros superiores, além de artralgia e volvo intestinal. Após tratamento cirúrgico e pulsoterapia com glicocorticoide, houve regressão dos sintomas, sem maiores complicações.Henoch-Schönlein Purpura is an idiopathic vasculitis characterized by deposits of immunoglobulin, mainly IgA, on the walls of small vessels, typically involving the skin, gut, joints, and renal glomeruli. Cutaneous involvement affects specially the lower limbs and buttocks, and it is seldom found on the face and upper limbs. We report the case of a 6-year old girl with purpuric lesions over the auricular, periorbital, malar, and mentonian regions and the upper limbs, arthralgia, and intestinal torsion. After surgical treatment and pulse therapy with glucocorticoids, her symptoms subsided without further complications.

  15. Investigation on effect of equivalence ratio and engine speed on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion using chemistry based CFD code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafouri Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion in a large-bore natural gas fuelled diesel engine operating under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition mode at various operating conditions is investigated in the present paper. Computational Fluid Dynamics model with integrated chemistry solver is utilized and methane is used as surrogate of natural gas fuel. Detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is used for simulation of methane combustion. The model results are validated using experimental data by Aceves, et al. (2000, conducted on the single cylinder Volvo TD100 engine operating at Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition conditions. After verification of model predictions using in-cylinder pressure histories, the effect of varying equivalence ratio and engine speed on combustion parameters of the engine is studied. Results indicate that increasing engine speed provides shorter time for combustion at the same equivalence ratio such that at higher engine speeds, with constant equivalence ratio, combustion misfires. At lower engine speed, ignition delay is shortened and combustion advances. It was observed that increasing the equivalence ratio retards the combustion due to compressive heating effect in one of the test cases at lower initial pressure. Peak pressure magnitude is increased at higher equivalence ratios due to higher energy input.

  16. The improvement of the level of the operating conditions of road trains on a basis of a qualimetry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhno V.P.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The qualimetry model of the level of the operating conditions of road trains is considered. It establishes the nomenclature of quality indicators based on the analysis of the conclusions of experts about the impact of factors on the technical condition of the road train. The appropriate values of the complex index of the level of the operating condition is determined on the basis of simulation of the level of the operating condition of Volvo tractor, reserves of improvement of quality of the maintenance on the basis of correction, forecasting frequency maintenance and effort. It has been established that the basic operational properties of road trains (economy, agility, reliability systematically depend on the parameters of the interacting components. The assessment of the technical condition of road train level is not the composition of their individual performance properties of estimates and require a systematic reflection. The developed techniques adjustments periodicity maintenance and forecasting of the actual life of the basic parts of road trains introduced on the enterprise. It is possible to reduce the unit cost of operation for one car up to 15%.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of Software Defect Prediction in an Industrial Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hryszko Jaroslaw

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Software defect prediction is a promising approach aiming to increase software quality and, as a result, development pace. Unfortunately, the cost effectiveness of software defect prediction in industrial settings is not eagerly shared by the pioneering companies. In particular, this is the first attempt to investigate the cost effectiveness of using the DePress open source software measurement framework (jointly developed by Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, and Capgemini software development company for defect prediction in commercial software projects. We explore whether defect prediction can positively impact an industrial software development project by generating profits. To meet this goal, we conducted a defect prediction and simulated potential quality assurance costs based on the best possible prediction results when using a default, non-tweaked DePress configuration, as well as the proposed Quality Assurance (QA strategy. Results of our investigation are optimistic: we estimated that quality assurance costs can be reduced by almost 30% when the proposed approach will be used, while estimated DePress usage Return on Investment (ROI is fully 73 (7300%, and Benefits Cost Ratio (BCR is 74. Such promising results, being the outcome of the presented research, have caused the acceptance of continued usage of the DePress-based software defect prediction for actual industrial projects run by Volvo Group.

  18. Multi-modal demands of a smartphone used to place calls and enter addresses during highway driving relative to two embedded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Reagan, Ian; Kidd, David; Dobres, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone. Errors were most frequent when calling contacts using the smartphone. The smartphone and MyLink allowed addresses to be entered using compound voice commands resulting in shorter eyes-off-road time compared with the menu-based Sensus but with many more errors. Driving performance and physiological measures indicated increased demand when performing secondary tasks relative to 'just driving', but were not significantly different between the smartphone and embedded systems. Practitioner Summary: The findings show that embedded system and portable device voice interfaces place fewer visual demands on the driver than manual interfaces, but they also underscore how differences in system designs can significantly affect not only the demands placed on drivers, but also the successful completion of tasks.

  19. FE-Simulation Of Hemming In The Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigvant, Mats; Mattiasson, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes and presents the most important results from a research project on FE simulation of hemming carried out at Volvo Cars Body Components and Chalmers University of Technology. In the automotive industry, hemming is used to join two sheet metal panels by bending the flange of the outer panel over the inner one. The final goal of the project was to simulate all of the hemming steps of production parts. In order to make three-dimensional simulations of hemming possible within reasonable simulation times, it is necessary to use shell elements and not solid elements. On the other hand, the radius of curvature of the outer part in the folded area is very small, normally of the same order of magnitude as the sheet thickness. This fact raises the question if shell elements are applicable in FE simulation of hemming. One part of the project was therefore a thorough investigation of the order of magnitude of the errors resulting from the use of shell elements in FE simulation of hemming. Another part of the project was devoted to three-dimensional simulations of the hemming of an automotive hood. The influence on the roll-in from several parameters, such as shell element formulation, adhesives, and anisotropy was studied. Finally, results from a forming simulation were also mapped to the flanging and hemming models in order to study the influence from the stamping of the outer panel on the roll-in

  20. Nelikvedu alt ei vea / Jussa Nieminen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nieminen, Jussa

    2016-01-01

    Võrdlustestis talveauto 2016: Audi A4 Lim. 2,0 TDI Quattro S tronic, BMW X1 xDrive20d A, Fiat 500X 2,0 140 MJet AWD AT Cross, Ford S-Max 2,0 TDCi 180 hj PowerShift Titanium AWD, Hyundai Tucson 1,6 T-GDI 7DCT Style, Kia Sportage 1,6T GT-Line 7DCT, Land Rover Discovery Sport 2,0 TD4 180 HSE A, Mazda CX-3 2,0 Skyactiv-G AWD Premium Plus AT, Mercedes-Benz GLC 250 d 4Matic, Renault Kadjar 1,6 dCi 4×4 Bose, Škoda Superb Combi 2,0 TDI SCR DSG 4×4 L&K, Ssangyong Korando D20 AWD 6AT, Subaru Levorg 1,6i GT-N CVT, Suzuki Vitara 1,4 Boosterjet 4WD S 6MT, Volvo V60 Cross Country D4 AWD Inscription A Võrdluseks esiveoline: Toyota Auris Touring Sports1,8 Hybrid e-CVT Active

  1. Large-scale application of natural gas as an engine fuel in public transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstegen, P.; Nieuwenhuis, A.; Van Schagen, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Options and bottlenecks for the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in public transportation have been inventorized and discussed. Based on interviews with representatives of transportation businesses and their umbrella organizations the demands and wishes are listed in chapter one. In chapter two several types of natural gas storage cylinders, focusing on the weight and the costs of the cylinders and the consequences for the road tax. In chapter three attention is paid to the delivery possibilities of the bus manufacturers DAF, Mercedes-Benz, Volvo and MAN. Technical specifications and data on the energy consumption, emission and other aspects are presented. In chapter three the characteristics of fastfill stations and slowfill stations are assessed for implementing problems, costs and reliability. The costs for the use of CNG in buses, as discussed in chapter five, consist of additional costs for the bus, maintenance, road tax, filling station, safety provisions, and reduced costs for the fuel. In chapter six the regulations and legislation for the use of CNG in vehicles, filling stations and storage cylinders is dealt with. In the final chapters seven and eight the necessity of introductory courses and training is briefly discussed, and an overview of current projects in the Netherlands is given. 13 figs., 14 tabs., refs

  2. On The Influence Of The Yield Locus Shape In The Simulation Of Sheet Stretch Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiasson, Kjell; Sigvant, Mats

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper results from an ongoing project at Volvo Cars and Chalmers University will be presented. The object of this project is to reduce the gap between the research frontier and the industrial practice concerning material modeling. One of the targets of the project is to identify a yield function, which can fulfill the special industrial demands concerning accuracy, easy parameter identification, and computational efficiency. Lately, some new yield functions have been presented, which seem to satisfy these demands. These yield functions belong to a group of non-quadratic yield criteria, sometimes referred to as 'the Hosford family'. These criteria are characterized by a stress exponent, which has been shown to have a strong coupling to the crystallographic structure of the material. The present paper addresses the issue of how the main parameters controlling the shape of the yield locus are influencing the material flow in sheet forming simulations. Since it is a well established fact that the shape of the yield locus has its major influence in pure stretch forming, i.e. on the right hand side of a FLD, we have chosen stretch forming with a hemispherical punch as a simple demonstration example. The M-K approach will also be used as a means to try to explain some of the observed phenomena

  3. Multi-modal demands of a smartphone used to place calls and enter addresses during highway driving relative to two embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Reagan, Ian; Kidd, David; Dobres, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is limited research on trade-offs in demand between manual and voice interfaces of embedded and portable technologies. Mehler et al. identified differences in driving performance, visual engagement and workload between two contrasting embedded vehicle system designs (Chevrolet MyLink and Volvo Sensus). The current study extends this work by comparing these embedded systems with a smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S4). None of the voice interfaces eliminated visual demand. Relative to placing calls manually, both embedded voice interfaces resulted in less eyes-off-road time than the smartphone. Errors were most frequent when calling contacts using the smartphone. The smartphone and MyLink allowed addresses to be entered using compound voice commands resulting in shorter eyes-off-road time compared with the menu-based Sensus but with many more errors. Driving performance and physiological measures indicated increased demand when performing secondary tasks relative to ‘just driving’, but were not significantly different between the smartphone and embedded systems. Practitioner Summary: The findings show that embedded system and portable device voice interfaces place fewer visual demands on the driver than manual interfaces, but they also underscore how differences in system designs can significantly affect not only the demands placed on drivers, but also the successful completion of tasks. PMID:27110964

  4. Investigation of fatigue assessments accuracy for beam weldments considering material data input and FE-mode type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorash, Yevgen; Comlekci, Tugrul; MacKenzie, Donald

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of fatigue material data and finite element types on accuracy of residual life assessments under high cycle fatigue. The bending of cross-beam connections is simulated in ANSYS Workbench for different combinations of structural member shapes made of a typical structural steel. The stress analysis of weldments with specific dimensions and loading applied is implemented using solid and shell elements. The stress results are transferred to the fatigue code nCode DesignLife for the residual life prediction. Considering the effects of mean stress using FKM approach, bending and thickness according to BS 7608:2014, fatigue life is predicted using the Volvo method and stress integration rules from ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. Three different pairs of S-N curves are considered in this work including generic seam weld curves and curves for the equivalent Japanese steel JIS G3106-SM490B. The S-N curve parameters for the steel are identified using the experimental data available from NIMS fatigue data sheets employing least square method and considering thickness and mean stress corrections. The numerical predictions are compared to the available experimental results indicating the most preferable fatigue data input, range of applicability and FE-model formulation to achieve the best accuracy.

  5. Backset-stationary and during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

  6. Opportunities for saving energy by means of cogeneration in Vegetales's Cannery of Sancti Spiritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alberto Clemente Corujo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the viability to install a system of cogeneration and to save energy at Vegetales's Cannery. The type of more convenient arrangement according to the conditions of the industry was defined. The magnitude of necessary investment, the equipment required, and also the additional quantity of diesel were determined for the correct operation of the project. It was considered the steam production and the consumptions of combustible oil and the electricity in the year 2008. As a primary motor was each engine Volvo of 3 existent generating sets. A minimal time of 4 daily hours during 300 days was calculated to work annually and they analyzed the necessary investments for expected benefits. The economic evaluation has as possitive results: a VAN of $192 646,89's and 36 %'s TIR. The cogeneration scheme more convenient is with Topping cycle. The necessary investment is about $144 000 and for having profitability it is necessary to work the same amount of hours from 6 to 10 p.m. that in the rest of a day.

  7. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided by a proper choice of the type of connection between the superstructure and the vehicle chassis. Applying the instructions of vehicle manufacturers for using appropriate connections between the truck superstructure and the vehicle chassis provides positive torsional elasticity of the vehicle. The paper gives the general recommendations of the Volvo, Mercedes and Renault transport vehicle producers for the use of particular connection types of locations as well as structural requirements for the mounting of concrete mixers, tippers and truck tanks on their vehicles. Introduction Achieving a high level of transport effectiveness depends on a number of factors. One of the most important ones is the possibility to increase the payload share in the gross vehicle weight. This share depends on the net vehicle weight, a method of coupling the truck superstructure with the chassis frame as well as on the truck superstructure construction. Realization of this requirement is of significant importance, particularly for large business systems since it results in the reduction of number of necessary vehicles, more economic fleet maintenance and the fleet capacity increase. It is also relatively easy to adapt the vehicle for the transportation of other loads, depending on user's current needs. The adaptation is correctly performed if manufacturer's recommendations are followed during the mounting of the superstructure on the chassis. This paper gives the analysis of the

  8. Avaliação ergonômica do posto de trabalho de modelos de "forwarder" e "skidder" Ergonomic evaluation of the workstation of forwarder and skidder models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fontana

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O processo de mecanização florestal no Brasil envolve, muitas vezes, o uso de máquinas adaptadas ou importadas de países com operadores com diferentes características antropométricas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo realizar a avaliação ergonômica da cabine de seis modelos de máquinas florestais utilizadas na extração de madeira (quatro "forwarders" e dois "skidders", quanto ao posicionamento de comandos e instrumentos, com base nas características antropométricas de um conjunto de operadores brasileiros. Foram estudados os seguintes tratores: "forwarders" Timberjack modelos 1210B e 1710D, Valmet 890.2 e Volvo A25C, além dos "skidders" Caterpillar 545 e Tigercat 630 B. Para avaliação do posicionamento dos órgãos de comando foram determinadas as distâncias destes mesmos a partir do Ponto de Referência do Assento nas três dimensões (x, y e z, além de uma avaliação qualitativa com os operadores dos tratores florestais em estudo, que, através de notas, manifestaram sua satisfação com relação à localização dos comandos e outras variáveis ergonômicas. A avaliação antropométrica dos operadores foi feita por duas medidas, uma em pé e outra por meio de uma cadeira especial desenvolvida pela Fundacentro, obtendo-se, a partir dela, as áreas de máximo e ótimo acesso quanto à localização dos órgãos de comando. Concluiu-se que a melhor máquina, quanto ao posicionamento de comandos, foi o "forwarder" Valmet 890.2, seguido pelo "skidder" Caterpillar 545, sendo os únicos tratores que apresentaram mais da metade dos comandos bem posicionados, 66,7 e 54,5%, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram um projeto ergonômico da disposição de comandos nas cabines dos tratores florestais não muito favorável ao conjunto de operadores brasileiros analisados.The logging mechanization process in Brazil means, most of the time, the use of adapted or imported machines from countries where the operators

  9. Engine design optimization for running on ethanol with low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjirja, S. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo- and Fluid Dynamics

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project was to optimize the Volvo AH10A245 engine design parameters for ethanol fuel with Beraid (Trade mark of the ignition improver manufactured by the Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry AB). The method used was engine testing with variation of design, performance, and other functional parameters, which affect the engine thermodynamics, and exhaust gas composition. The first design parameter, which was tested and optimized was the compression ratio, which was optimized at the ratio of 23:1. In order to prevail the fuel spray impingement, which might affect the unburned or partially burned emissions (CO), the combustion chamber was redesigned to a straight-side wall bowl in piston. Furthermore, the injector position was optimized by means of lifting or descending it few millimeters. The best emission levels was achieved with the injector lift of 1.00 mm. The inlet air temperature was optimized for lower emissions by removing the intercooler thermostat. Injector nozzles with different cross section areas of holes were tested, and the 6 holes injector nozzles with smaller cross sectional area, compared with base nozzles, were selected. The engine performance was maintained for lower engine rated speed 2000 (instead of 2200 rpm for conventional engine) and lower intermediate speed 1250 (instead of 1320 rpm for conventional engine). Such engine performance optimization was followed by the improved specific fuel consumption, and lower emissions compared with conventional speeds. The backpressure governor, desperately needed during the first phase of engine design optimization was, finally avoided. It can only be used as in the conventional diesel engine. 7 refs, 26 figs, 18 tabs, 7 appendices

  10. Injury severity assessment for car occupants in frontal impacts, using disability scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, H; Krafft, M; Korner, J; Nygren, A; Tingvall, C

    1997-01-01

    Injury classification and assessment is one of the most important fields of injury prevention. At present, injury assessment focuses primarily on the risk of fatalities, in spite of the fact that most people who are injured survive the trauma. The net result of a fatality-based approach is that safety and vehicle engineers must make decisions with an incomplete, and sometimes misleading, picture of the traffic safety problem. By applying disability scaling reflecting long-term consequences to injury data, the most significant disabling injuries can be identified. The priorities change with the level of disability used in the scaling. In this study, the risk of permanent medical disability due to different injuries was derived and linked to abbreviated injury scale (AIS) values for 24,087 different injured body regions. This material is based on insurance data. To study how the importance of different bodily injuries changes with different severity assessments in a realistic real-world injury distribution, Swedish insurance industry disability scaling was applied to 3066 cases of belted Volvo drivers involved in frontal collisions. Crash severity was included in the study by using equivalent barrier speed (EBS). When lower levels of disability are included, injuries to the neck and the extremities become the most important, while brain and skull injuries become the most prominent at higher levels of disability. The results presented in this article should be regarded as a contribution to the development of a suitable disability scaling method. The results can also be utilized to further injury research and vehicle design aimed at reducing injuries which have the most important long-term disability consequences.

  11. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Etiologia, diagnóstico e tratamento dos pacientes com abdome agudo obstrutivo atendidos na URE – CHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pierro dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Abdome agudo obstrutivo é definido como uma síndrome clínica caracterizada por um obstáculo à progressão do conteúdo do trato gastrointestinal; Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os pacientes admitidos na URE-CHS com o diagnóstico inicial de abdome agudo obstrutivo; Metodologia:No período entre setembro/2013 e junho/2014, foram avaliados consecutivamente, 30 pacientes com o diagnóstico de oclusão intestinal, sendo 20 homense 10 mulherescom a média de idade de 49 anos; Resultados: A radiografia do abdome foi realizada em todos os pacientes. O tratamento consistiu na correção dos distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos e quando houve persistência dos sinais, foi realizada a laparotomia diagnóstica. Destes, 4 se recuperaram com o tratamento clínico, 1 foi submetido a retirada de fecaloma. Os outros 25 foram encaminhados para o tratamento cirúrgico. A média do tempo decorrido entre a admissão e a cirurgia foi de 33 horas; Conclusões: Dos submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico, 2 apresentaram isquemia mesentérica e 23 obstrução mecânica, destes, 12obstruídos por neoplasias, 9 por hérnias incisionais encarceradas, 1 por bridas e 1 por volvo de sigmóide. Nospacientes estudados, encontramos 7 óbitos. Com base nesses dados, foi proposto um protocolo de atendimento para esses pacientes.

  13. On the Role of Chemical Kinetics Modeling in the LES of Premixed Bluff Body and Backward-Facing Step Combustors

    KAUST Repository

    Chakroun, Nadim W.

    2017-01-05

    Recirculating flows in the wake of a bluff body, behind a sudden expansion or down-stream of a swirler, are pivotal for anchoring a flame and expanding the stability range. The size and structure of these recirculation zones and the accurate prediction of the length of these zones is a very important characteristic that computational simulations should have. Large eddy simulation (LES) techniques with an appropriate combustion model and reaction mechanism afford a balance between computational complexity and predictive accuracy. In this study, propane/air mixtures were simulated in a bluff-body stabilized combustor based on the Volvo test case and also in a backward-facing step combustor. The main goal is to investigate the role of the chemical mechanism and the accuracy of estimating the extinction strain rate on the prediction of important ow features such as recirculation zones. Two 2-step mechanisms were employed, one which gave reasonable extinction strain rates and another modi ed 2-step mechanism where it grossly over-predicted the values. This modified mechanism under-predicted recirculation zone lengths compared to the original mechanism and had worse agreement with experiments in both geometries. While the recirculation zone lengths predicted by both reduced mechanisms in the step combustor scale linearly with the extinction strain rate, the scaling curves do not match experimental results as none of the simpli ed mechanisms produce extinction strain rates that are consistent with those predicted by the comprehensive mechanisms. We conclude that it is very important that a chemical mechanism is able to correctly predict extinction strain rates if it is to be used in CFD simulations.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  15. Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in generic ways instead of in the way most appropriate to their individual strategies. The fact is, the prevailing approaches to CSR are so disconnected from strategy as to obscure many great opportunities for companies to benefit society. What a terrible waste. If corporations were to analyze their opportunities for social responsibility using the same frameworks that guide their core business choices, they would discover, as Whole Foods Market, Toyota, and Volvo have done, that CSR can be much more than a cost, a constraint, or a charitable deed--it can be a potent source of innovation and competitive advantage. In this article, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer propose a fundamentally new way to look at the relationship between business and society that does not treat corporate growth and social welfare as a zero-sum game. They introduce a framework that individual companies can use to identify the social consequences of their actions; to discover opportunities to benefit society and themselves by strengthening the competitive context in which they operate; to determine which CSR initiatives they should address; and to find the most effective ways of doing so. Perceiving social responsibility as an opportunity rather than as damage control or a PR campaign requires dramatically different thinking--a mind-set, the authors warn, that will become increasingly important to competitive success.

  16. The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems-A reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlund, Simon; Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle lane departure warning (LDW) and lane keeping aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA-sensitive and nonsensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year, and technical equipment; that is, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS). The data were extracted from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA) and consisted of 1,853 driver injury crashes that involved 146 LDW-equipped cars, 11 LKA-equipped cars, and 1,696 cars without LDW/LKA systems. The analysis showed a positive effect of the LDW/LKA systems in reducing lane departure crashes. The LDW/LKA systems were estimated to reduce head-on and single-vehicle injury crashes on Swedish roads with speed limits between 70 and 120 km/h and with dry or wet road surfaces (i.e., not covered by ice or snow) by 53% with a lower limit of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]). This reduction corresponded to a reduction of 30% with a lower limit of 6% (95% CI) for all head-on and single-vehicle driver injury crashes (including all speed limits and all road surface conditions). LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent; that is, head-on and single-vehicle crashes. Though these are important findings, they were based on a small data set. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e., LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers.

  17. Simulation-Driven Design Approach for Design and Optimization of Blankholder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sravan, Tatipala; Suddapalli, Nikshep R.; Johan, Pilthammar; Mats, Sigvant; Christian, Johansson

    2017-09-01

    Reliable design of stamping dies is desired for efficient and safe production. The design of stamping dies are today mostly based on casting feasibility, although it can also be based on criteria for fatigue, stiffness, safety, economy. Current work presents an approach that is built on Simulation Driven Design, enabling Design Optimization to address this issue. A structural finite element model of a stamping die, used to produce doors for Volvo V70/S80 car models, is studied. This die had developed cracks during its usage. To understand the behaviour of stress distribution in the stamping die, structural analysis of the die is conducted and critical regions with high stresses are identified. The results from structural FE-models are compared with analytical calculations pertaining to fatigue properties of the material. To arrive at an optimum design with increased stiffness and lifetime, topology and free-shape optimization are performed. In the optimization routine, identified critical regions of the die are set as design variables. Other optimization variables are set to maintain manufacturability of the resultant stamping die. Thereafter a CAD model is built based on geometrical results from topology and free-shape optimizations. Then the CAD model is subjected to structural analysis to visualize the new stress distribution. This process is iterated until a satisfactory result is obtained. The final results show reduction in stress levels by 70% with a more homogeneous distribution. Even though mass of the die is increased by 17 %, overall, a stiffer die with better lifetime is obtained. Finally, by reflecting on the entire process, a coordinated approach to handle such situations efficiently is presented.

  18. Numerical simulation of reacting and non-reacting flow in a combustion chamber; Numerisk simulering av reagerande och icke-reagerande stroemning i en braennkammare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, A.; Revstedt, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this work has been to do a preliminary study of how well numerical calculations with different turbulence models can predict the flow and temperature fields of a strongly swirling and combusting flow in an experimental combustion chamber and to see which parameters in the mathematical model are the most important. The combustion chamber on which we have done the calculations is called Validation Rig II and was designed by Volvo Aero Corporation. The main part of the study has been carried out on a non-reacting flow but some work has also been done on reacting flow. In most cases it has not been meaningful to compare the calculations with the measurements because they differ quite a lot from each other. For the non-reacting case the following investigations have been made: * How the solution differs for different turbulence models, * The solutions sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions, * How different types of leakage disturb the flow, and * The difference in results between two different CFD-codes, the commercial code CFDS-Flow3D and a code developed at the department of fluid mechanics. For the reacting cases we have studied the influence of: * one or two reaction steps, * the effects of a change in reaction rate, * the influence of thermal radiation, and * the effects of changing the boundary conditions for temperature on the walls. The results from these calculations show that the inlet turbulence intensity has very little effect on the values of the turbulent quantities as well as the velocity profiles at the outlet. Changing the turbulence model or the outlet boundary conditions gives some change in velocity profiles at the outlet but only marginal effects on the swirl number. 21 refs, 54 figs, 19 tabs

  19. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  20. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE SYSTEMS MAPPING IN THE BRAZILIAN TRUCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive business in Brazil achieved 10% of the industry revenue and 6% of the formal employment by 2008. The commercial vehicle segment concentrated so far eight truck makers that experienced their best market figures in 2008, the economy crisis in 2009, and an extraordinary recovery in 2010. Government tax reduction programs as well as special financing incentives were undoubtedly decisive to re-stimulate the business during the crisis. Positive Brazilian perspectives with the boom in the agricultural, oil and gas, mining and infrastructure activities plus the coming sports events call the attention of new players that are quickly implementing different business strategies to become part of the game. New emission regulations starting from 2012 also bring uncertainties, challenges and opportunities. With the growing globalization and market concentration it's critical for any industry understand and minimize the forces of competitive pressures. The main goal of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the academy with an alternative approach of strategic and behavioral analysis of rivalry and competition different than the five forces model of Porter. Ford, Iveco, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Scania and Volvo were assessed from 2008 to 2010 within three main performance indicators – unit sales, gross revenues and operating profits – supporting the elaboration of the competitive pressure systems mapping model of D'aveni, including a hypothetical future scenario with a new entrant and the potential impacts in the system. Main findings and results portray the asymmetrical strategic behavior of competitors and the temporary dynamic stability in the Brazilian truck industry.

  1. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  2. From prototype to product. The development of low emission natural gas- and biogas buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, M. [Strateco Development AB, Haninge (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to show the development of natural gas and bio gas buses and trucks since the termination of the `Co-Nordic GasBus Project`, to which KFB was a major contributor and one of the initiators. Sweden have some 325 heavy duty methane vehicles of which almost 100 are bio gas operated. Scania and Volvo have produced, or have orders for, 500 gas buses to 6 different countries since 1990. The Project objectives were obtained and the significantly reduced emission levels aimed for, were shown. The international bus manufacturing industry followed, and have since shown the same low levels of emissions from gas bus engines. Sweden has taken the lead in the use of bio gas, by operating nearly 100 buses and trucks. Bio gas is still an underestimated fuel when it comes to supply, as it can provide fuel for 50% of the domestic use of diesel oil. Future development need to include control systems for more stable emissions, lower weight cylinders, less costly compressors, cleaning equipment and storage cylinders as well as more fuel efficient engines that can reduce mainly the discharge of CO2, NOx and CH4 further. Societal costs, regardless of who pays, for methane operated buses is still somewhat higher compared with best use of diesel + CRT technology. As commercialization develops, it is expected that the price of the vehicle will be reduced and emissions improved. It is therefore expected that the stake holders costs will be lower then that of diesel technology in the future

  3. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their

  4. Recognising safety critical events: can automatic video processing improve naturalistic data analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozza, Marco; González, Nieves Pañeda

    2013-11-01

    New trends in research on traffic accidents include Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS). NDS are based on large scale data collection of driver, vehicle, and environment information in real world. NDS data sets have proven to be extremely valuable for the analysis of safety critical events such as crashes and near crashes. However, finding safety critical events in NDS data is often difficult and time consuming. Safety critical events are currently identified using kinematic triggers, for instance searching for deceleration below a certain threshold signifying harsh braking. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this filtering procedure, manual review of video data is currently necessary to decide whether the events identified by the triggers are actually safety critical. Such reviewing procedure is based on subjective decisions, is expensive and time consuming, and often tedious for the analysts. Furthermore, since NDS data is exponentially growing over time, this reviewing procedure may not be viable anymore in the very near future. This study tested the hypothesis that automatic processing of driver video information could increase the correct classification of safety critical events from kinematic triggers in naturalistic driving data. Review of about 400 video sequences recorded from the events, collected by 100 Volvo cars in the euroFOT project, suggested that drivers' individual reaction may be the key to recognize safety critical events. In fact, whether an event is safety critical or not often depends on the individual driver. A few algorithms, able to automatically classify driver reaction from video data, have been compared. The results presented in this paper show that the state of the art subjective review procedures to identify safety critical events from NDS can benefit from automated objective video processing. In addition, this paper discusses the major challenges in making such video analysis viable for future NDS and new potential

  5. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    presented. The developed theory is used to estimate vertical tire forces and predict tripped rollovers in situations involving road bumps, potholes, and lateral unknown force inputs. To estimate the tire-road friction coefficients at each individual tire of the vehicle, algorithms to estimate longitudinal forces and slip ratios at each tire are proposed. Subsequently, tire-road friction coefficients are obtained using recursive least squares parameter estimators that exploit the relationship between longitudinal force and slip ratio at each tire. The developed approaches are evaluated through simulations with industry standard software, CARSIM, with experimental tests on a Volvo XC90 sport utility vehicle and with experimental tests on a 1/8th scaled vehicle. The simulation and experimental results show that the developed approaches can reliably estimate the vehicle parameters and state variables needed for effective ESC and rollover prevention applications.

  6. Effectiveness of forward collision warning and autonomous emergency braking systems in reducing front-to-rear crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of forward collision warning (FCW) alone, a low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system operational at speeds up to 19mph that does not warn the driver prior to braking, and FCW with AEB that operates at higher speeds in reducing front-to-rear crashes and injuries. Poisson regression was used to compare rates of police-reported crash involvements per insured vehicle year in 22 U.S. states during 2010-2014 between passenger vehicle models with FCW alone or with AEB and the same models where the optional systems were not purchased, controlling for other factors affecting crash risk. Similar analyses compared rates between Volvo 2011-2012 model S60 and 2010-2012 model XC60 vehicles with a standard low-speed AEB system to those of other luxury midsize cars and SUVs, respectively, without the system. FCW alone, low-speed AEB, and FCW with AEB reduced rear-end striking crash involvement rates by 27%, 43%, and 50%, respectively. Rates of rear-end striking crash involvements with injuries were reduced by 20%, 45%, and 56%, respectively, by FCW alone, low-speed AEB, and FCW with AEB, and rates of rear-end striking crash involvements with third-party injuries were reduced by 18%, 44%, and 59%, respectively. Reductions in rear-end striking crashes with third-party injuries were marginally significant for FCW alone, and all other reductions were statistically significant. FCW alone and low-speed AEB reduced rates of being rear struck in rear-end crashes by 13% and 12%, respectively, but FCW with AEB increased rates of rear-end struck crash involvements by 20%. Almost 1 million U.S. police-reported rear-end crashes in 2014 and more than 400,000 injuries in such crashes could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with FCW and AEB that perform similarly as systems did for study vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Má rotação intestinal em adulto, relato de caso e revisão da literatura Adult intestinal malrotation, case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Rutilio Mendes e Ferreira de Araújo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Má rotação intestinal é entidade clínico-cirúrgica que faz parte do cotidiano do cirurgião pediátrico, mas que se torna um desafio diagnóstico quando desenvolve sintomas em adolescentes e adultos. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher deu entrada no hospital com quadro de intensa dor abdominal com três dias de evolução e piora progressiva nas últimas 24 horas. A dor apresentava piora importante após as refeições, quando era acompanhada de náuseas e vômitos. Ao exame físico apresentava-se em bom estado gera, abdômen plano, flácido, ruídos presentes, levemente doloroso à palpação de epigástrio, mas sem sinais de irritação peritoneal. Exames laboratoriais encontravam-se dentro dos limites da normalidade, bem como estudo ultrassonográfico. Não houve melhora clínica apesar do tratamento instituído e optou-se por investigação cirúrgica por tomografia sugerir má rotação intestinal. No intra-operatório observou-se todo o intestino delgado disposto para o lado direito do abdômen e o cólon para o lado esquerdo. Além disto, o jejuno proximal encontrava-se isquêmico e fazendo um volvo de 720º sobre o eixo dos vasos mesentéricos superiores. Para a correção da anomalia fez-se enterotomia do jejuno proximal, a cerca de 10 cm do ligamento de Treitz, e desconfecção do volvo, o que cursou com melhora progressiva da isquemia intestinal, permitindo que se fizesse enteroanastomose. Realizou-se ligadura do pedículo da artéria cólica média em sua origem e colectomia direita seguida de anastomose íleo-transversa látero-lateral. A paciente evolui bem. CONCLUSÃO: - A má rotação intestinal em adultos é doença de difícil diagnóstico primário, devido a não constar entre as hipóteses diagnósticas iniciais do cirurgião geral.INTRODUCTION: Intestinal malrotation is a clinical surgical entity that is present in the everyday practice of the pediatric surgeon. However, it becomes a diagnostic challenge when

  8. Emission Performance of Selected Biodiesels Fuels - VTT's Contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakko, P.; Westerholm, M.

    2000-10-15

    The target of the IEA/AMF Annex XIII 'Performance of biodiesel' was to perform an extensive analysis of exhaust emissions using biodiesel in new diesel engines. The participants of the project were Belgium, Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden, USA, and the Netherlands. The work of Annex XIII was carried out both at ORNL and at VTT. This report includes only VTT's results. A summary report of the results of both laboratories will be prepared later. The major part of the tests was carried out with a Euro 2 emission level Volvo bus engine. Tests were made without a catalyst, with an oxidation catalyst and with a CRT particulate trap. Some tests were also carried out with a medium-duty Valmet farm tractor engine and with a light-duty Audi TDI vehicle. Several test cycles were used in the tests. In addition, engine mapping tests were carried out with the Volvo and the Valmet engine. The vegetable oil esters studied were rapeseed methyl ester (RME), soy bean oil methyl ester (SME) and used vegetable oil methyl ester (UVOME). RME and SME were tested as 30% blends in European grade diesel fuel (EN590) and as neat esters. RME was also blended (30%) into Swedish Environmental Class 1 diesel fuel (RFD). The test fuel matrix also included Canadian diesel fuel blended with 10% hydrated tall oil (TO10) and an emulsion of Swedish Environmental Class 1 diesel and some 15% ethanol (EtDI). Compared to hydrocarbon fuels, the bioesters reduced CO end HC emissions in most cases. Adding 30% ester in the EN590 fuel did not affect the NOx emission significantly, whereas neat ester resulted in an increase of around 10% in the NOx emission. When 30% ester was blended into the RDF fuel, the NOx emission increased by some 5% with the bus and the tractor engine, but decreased by about 5% with the TDI vehicle. The EtDI fuel resulted in a lower NOx emission than the EN590 fuel with the bus engine, but a higher emission with the TDI vehicle. The effect of esters on the formaldehyde

  9. Síndrome do ceco móvel e as doenças gastrintestinais funcionais Mobile cecum sindrome and the functional gastrointestinal illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Monteiro dos Santos Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ceco móvel é uma variação anatômica embriológica do ceco e cólon ascendente resultante da descida incompleta desses segmentos do intestino grosso e da não fixação no peritônio da goteira parieto-cólica direita. A falta dessa fusão permite movimentação do ceco e/ou do cólon ascendente, facilitando a torção sobre seu eixo longitudinal ou a dobra medial do ceco sobre si, ficando encostado com sua borda medial à borda medial do cólon ascendente. Esse fato causa sintomas intermitentes de obstrução parcial do intestino ou, no caso de torção completa (volvo, de obstrução aguda com possível necrose do segmento envolvido. A anormalidade embriológica tem alta incidência (10 a 30% na população, contudo só tem sido mencionada por ocasião da torção completa, inadequadamente denominada de volvo do ceco-ascendente, em geral com necrose cecal. Dessa forma, a ocorrência não é das mais comuns e está citada entre as causas de obstrução intestinal aguda, perfazendo, nos adultos e nas crianças, menos do que 2% de todos os casos de obstruções intestinais, mas com a importância de destaque por causa do alto índice de morbi-mortalidade entre os pacientes afetados. O objetivo foi apresentar o ceco móvel como causa de dor abdominal intermitente, distensão, empachamento e cólica de origens obscuras em pessoas de aparência saudável, mas com uma longa história de distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais, associados à constipação e/ou diarréia, portanto, com um quadro sintomatológico sobreponível ao da síndrome do cólon irritável. Além disso, propomos um marcador anatômico para a síndrome do cólon irritável, seja o subtipo com constipação predominante, seja o da diarréia predominante ou a forma em que há alternância entre constipação e diarréia e a possibilidade de alívio daqueles sintomas com a cecopexia.Functional gastrointestinal (FGI disorders are chronic or periodic conditions characterized by

  10. Ruschita Romanian marble - 130 years of official exploitation and 130 m depth of architectural beauty around the word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetean, Valentina

    2013-04-01

    Developed in a large metamorphic area, the marble deposit from Ruschita perimeter is the most important Romanian source for ornamental stone, the old quarry being operative since 1883. The closest locality offer the commercial name also, identical with the geological one as is defined in the technical referentials and in the denomination European standard. Ruschita is also an active quarry, developed by step-by-step expansion in depth (the initial extraction reached 130 m depth), but also in the adjacent areas. The important height of the open deposit offered the possibility to the owner, MARMOSIM SA, to apply an experimental extraction method, by underground mining. It is the only Romanian place, and few in the world, where this spectacular mining element can be found for dimension stone. The extraction gallery was built starting from the lower level of the old quarry and allowed obtaining nicer and bigger blocks. The Ruschita marble is a metamorphic stone with high crystallinity and medium size of crystals (until 0.2-0.5 mm). Has the basic colour from white and grey to pink, with many intermediary nuances generally given by grey veins and less by impurities from internal structure. The stone present irregular break, sometimes following the very narrow internal discontinuities, invisible at macroscopic analyse. The main physical - mechanical characteristics are presented below: Characteristic M.U. Value Apparent density Kg/m3 2680 - 2720 Water absorption % 0.12 - 0.21 Capillarity g/m2.s0,5 0.130-0.218 Porosity % 0.30 - 0.74 Compression strength N/mm2 85 - 120 Flexural strength MPa 15-18 Rupture energy J 5 Coefficient of frost cleftness % 10 -14 Abrasion resistance - Bohme cm3/50cm2 17-18 Salt crystallization % 0.1 Nowadays, the extraction in the Ruschita area is achieved by equipments from Dazzini, Fantini, Pellegrini, Korfamann, Caterpillar, Volvo and Komatsu. The average volume of blocks is bigger than 10-12 m2. The Ruschita marble can be easily cut at size and

  11. Obstrução intestinal no idoso Intestinal obstruction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O envelhecimento da população é realidade sentida na vivência diária, levando à necessidade associada de prover cuidados médicos eletivos e de emergência a um número cada vez maior de idosos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos de pacientes idosos com obstrução intestinal atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - UNESP. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de pacientes internados no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2006. Foram estudados 50 pacientes, 24 homens e 26 mulheres, com idade média de 74,7 ± 7,4 anos, analisando-se a diferenciação entre obstrução funcional e orgânica; a freqüência das causas obstrutivas; a mortalidade; a incidência dos sinais e sintomas; e correlação laboratorial. RESULTADOS: O quadro obstrutivo intestinal teve as seguintes causas: brida (38%, câncer de colon (24%, hérnias (12%, impactacão fecal (12%, carcinomatose (10% e volvo da sigmóide (4%. A mortalidade foi de 18% associada à complicações infecciosas em todos os pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: a A distinção entre a obstrução intestinal funcional e orgânica oferece dificuldade no idoso; b o câncer do colon constitui-se em importante causa de obstrução intestinal com quadro obstrutivo já na primeira manifestação clínica desse tumor; c bridas e hérnias são igualmente importantes na etiologia da obstrução intestinal; d os sinais clínicos obstrutivos são poucos evidentes no idoso e a leucometria é mais fidedigna para este diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: Population aging is a reality that is experienced daily, leading to an associated need for providing elective and emergency medical care to an increasing number of elderly individuals. AIM: To evaluate clinical, therapeutic and developmental aspects of patients with intestinal obstruction assisted at the University Hospital of the Botucatu School of Medicine - UNESP. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of

  12. Effect of back school protocol on the referral rate of patients with low back pain to an industrial physiotherapy clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Odebiyi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Back schools are educational programmes originally developed in a work place (Volvo factory in Sweden for patients with back pain, to enable them to manage their own back problems better. ‘Back school’ was originally aimed at modifying the behaviours of patients with low back pain (LBP, with the view to prevent relapses. In an effort to encourage and stimulate the use of ‘back school’ among health workers in Nigeria, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a back school protocol in a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred and ten (110 workers of a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria,  participated in this study. A pre-test, post-test experimental design was employed. The participants were divided into two groups - office workers and factory workers for the purpose of the training in the content of the back school protocol. The ‘back school’ consisted of classroom teaching and the use of two videotapes titled “lifting technique” and “back pain”. Data on demographic information, knowledge of back structures and back care were collected using a questionnaire with closed ended questions, which was completed before, immediately after and 8 weeks after the administrations of the contents of the back school protocol (Akinpelu and Odebiyi, 2004. The records of the factory’s clinic were also reviewed for the 12-months before and 12 months after the study. The mean values of the participants’ age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI were 36.60 ± 9.10 years, 1.65 ± 0.10 m,69.13 ± 7.70 kg and 25.40 ± 3.30 kg/m2 respectively. The results showed that the 12-months prevalence of low back pain (LBP among the workers was 71%. The result also showed that over 50% of the participants never had any  information or lesson on back care, and those that had some form of information obtained it by chance. There was 23% reduction in referral for care of back pain 12 months after the administration of the back

  13. Surgical treatment of Chagas megacolon. Critical analysis of outcome in operative methods Tratamento cirúrgico do megacólon chagásico análise crítica dos resultados dos métodos operatórios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Santos Garcia

    2008-01-01

    : retossigmoidectomia anterior (52,71%, hemicolectomia esquerda (18,23%, abaixamento de cólon à Duhamel-Haddad (15,95% e colectomia total (5,98%. Das 79 laparotomias exploradoras realizadas em regime de urgência, em 53 (67,09% houve ressecção intestinal. Dentre os 430 pacientes operados, 268 (62,33% evoluíram sem recidiva e 71 (16,51% com recidiva da constipação intestinal. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Com base nos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que: a hemicolectomia esquerda, comparada às demais operações, apresentou maior recidiva da constipação intestinal; a retossigmoidectomia anterior comparada à operação de Duhamel-Haddad apresentou menor número de complicações e maior recidiva da constipação intestinal; as operações de urgência para o tratamento do volvo e do fecaloma apresentaram alta morbimortalidade, exigem resseções intestinais, estomas e reoperações.

  14. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  15. Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution. Reducing PM emissions from motor vehicles would have direct health benefits for residents of Nairobi and other SSA cities. However, further studies are required to depict the seasonal variations, include gaseous pollution aspect, and strengthen the knowledge on air quality in the region as well as improving the data base for health impact assessment. Acknowledgement This study was initiated and funded by Columbia University's Earth Institute's Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD). CSUD is a Volvo Research and Educational Foundations Center of Excellence for Future Urban Transport. International Science Programs (ISP), Uppsala University, Sweden is recognized for its research support to Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology. Additional technical support for air monitoring and analysis was provided by the Exposure Assessment Facility Core of the Center for Environmental Health in Northern Manhattan (NIEHS P30 ES09089).

  16. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  17. An evaluation of the real-world safety effect of a lane change driver support system and characteristics of lane change crashes based on insurance claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena

    2018-02-28

    Lane changes, which frequently occur when vehicles travel on major roads, may contribute to critical situations that significantly affect the traffic flow and traffic safety. Thus, knowledge of lane change situations is important for infrastructure improvements as well as for driver support systems and automated driving development projects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the crash avoidance performance of a lane change driver support system, the Blind Spot Information System (BLIS) in Volvo car models, and to describe the characteristics of lane change crashes by analyzing detailed information from insurance claim reports. An overall evaluation of the safety effect of BLIS was performed by analyzing crash rate differences in lane change situations for cars with and without the optionally mounted BLIS system based on a population of 380,000 insured vehicle years. Further, crashes in which the repair cost of the host vehicle exceeded approximately US$1,250 were selected and compared. Finally, the study examined different precrash factors and crash configurations, using in-depth insurance claims data from representative lane change crash cases including all severity levels in a population of more than 200,000 insured vehicle years. The technology did not significantly reduce the overall number of crashes when all types of lane change crashes and severity levels were considered, though a significant crash-reducing effect of 31% for BLIS cars was found when more severe crashes with a repair cost exceeding US$1,250 were analysed. Cars with the BLIS technology also have a 30% lower claim cost on average for reported lane change crashes, indicating reduced crash severity. When stratifying the data into specific situations, by collecting precrash information in a case-by-case study, the influence of BLIS was indicated to differ for the evaluated situations, although no significant results were found. For example, during general lane change maneuvers (i

  18. Seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on child-sized dummies during run-off-road events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Isabelle; Bohman, Katarina; Jakobsson, Lotta

    2017-05-29

    Run-off-road events occur frequently and can result in severe consequences. Several potential injury-causing mechanisms can be observed in the diverse types of run-off-road events. Real-world data show that different types of environments, such as rough terrain, ditch types, and whether multiple events occur, may be important contributing factors to occupant injury. Though countermeasures addressing front seat occupants have been presented, studies on rear seat occupant retention in situations such as run-off-road events are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on rear-seated child-sized anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during 2 different types of run-off-road events. The study was carried out using 2 test setups: a rig test with a vehicle rear seat mounted on a multi-axial robot simulating a road departure event into a side ditch and an in-vehicle test setup with a Volvo XC60 entering a side ditch with a grass slope, driving inside the ditch, and returning back to the road from the ditch. Potential subsequent rollovers or impacts were not included in the test setups. Three different ATDs were used. The Q6 and Q10 were seated on an integrated booster cushion and the Hybrid III (HIII) 5th percentile female was positioned directly on the seat. The seat belt retractor was equipped with a pre-pretensioner (electrical reversible retractor) with 3 force level settings. In addition, reference tests with the pre-pretensioner inactivated were run. Kinematics and the shoulder belt position were analyzed. In rig tests, the left-seated ATD was exposed to rapid inboard lateral loads relative to the vehicle. The displacement for each ATD was reduced when the pre-pretensioner was activated compared to tests when it was inactivated. Maximum inboard displacement occurred earlier in the event for all ATDs when the pre-pretensioner was activated. Shoulder belt slip-off occurred for the Q6 and Q10 in tests where the pre

  19. On Safety Management. A Frame of Reference for Studies of Safety Management with Examples From Non-Nuclear Contexts of Relevance for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka; Allwin, Pernilla

    2004-11-01

    technologies. System theories could be developed to grasp both technological non-living systems and human living-systems. It is considered a strength to be able to describe both technological and human elements and their mutual relations within a common theoretical framework. In the ongoing project we have introduced a systems perspective in which both living systems and non-living systems can be described in terms of processes and structures. In the framework it is exemplified how system concepts may be related to concepts related to organizational theory. Three different areas of operations are examined in the case studies: civil aviation, petroleum production, and car manufacturing. Two of the areas are represented by authorities: the Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority; and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The third study is represented by a car manufacturer, Volvo. In order to study the interaction between authority and company, a Swedish airline company was investigated. In each case study, a thorough description of the organizational structure, the activities and operations, and the safety management specific for each organization, is given. In the descriptions, safety management within each area is studied in relation to concepts central to the system theoretical framework. Structural aspects of the system studied, system regulation, information feedback, and detection and identification of threats to safety, are some examples of concepts that are related to keep the system stable, concepts that also are related to activities that are often labeled as central to safety management. Thus, the case studies generate both illustrative descriptions about the unique in the specific areas studied, both from an organizational and a safety perspective, and, furthermore, put this in relation to general system theoretical concepts that are possible to transfer across areas. Each of the case studies generated detailed descriptions of the organization studied, activities and

  20. CHAIRMEN'S PREFACE AND EDITORS' NOTE: Unification of Fundamental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Lars; Nilsson, Jan S.; Salomonson, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1987-01-01

    Vainshtein. We had hoped that the Nobel Symposium should be a signal for improved relations between East and West, but in this respect we failed. The Symposium was held in the small town of Marstrand, a summer resort on an island outside Göteborg. The idea was to have it relatively close to home and to show the participants perhaps the best part of the local nature. Another motive was to keep the participants semi-isolated to provide ample time for discussions. With the somewhat heavy programme we found that even so, the days were not long enough. This Symposium was the second Nobel Symposium on elementary particle physics. The first one, also organized by our group, was held in 1968. We hope and believe that the next one need not be awaited another 18 years! The Symposium was made possible by a generous grant from the Nobel Foundation. An additional grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was also essential. A grant from Nordita made it possible to invite some ten Nordic observers. We also gratefully acknowledge help with the organization of the Symposium from the city of Goteborg, the city of Kungälv, Volvo, Skandinaviska Enskilda banken, Ericsson AB and IBM Sweden. We thank all the participants for all their efforts, to come to our remote part of the world, to give excellent talks, to write up their talks astonishingly quickly and to share with us so much of their knowledge and expertise. Last but not least we are indebted to the members of the organizing committee, members of the group and the secretarial staff. Goteborg, August 1986 Editors' NoteIn these Proceedings the lectures are given in the order of their oral presentation at the Symposium. Regrettably, a few contributors could not participate (V. Gribov, A. Linde, V. Ogievetsky, M. Shifman and A. M. Polyakov). Their contributions have been placed close to the end of the Proceedings. As these authors did not have the opportunity of correcting the proofs, responsibility for printing errors must rest with

  1. On Safety Management. A Frame of Reference for Studies of Safety Management with Examples From Non-Nuclear Contexts of Relevance for Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka; Allwin, Pernilla (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2004-11-15

    technologies. System theories could be developed to grasp both technological non-living systems and human living-systems. It is considered a strength to be able to describe both technological and human elements and their mutual relations within a common theoretical framework. In the ongoing project we have introduced a systems perspective in which both living systems and non-living systems can be described in terms of processes and structures. In the framework it is exemplified how system concepts may be related to concepts related to organizational theory. Three different areas of operations are examined in the case studies: civil aviation, petroleum production, and car manufacturing. Two of the areas are represented by authorities: the Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority; and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The third study is represented by a car manufacturer, Volvo. In order to study the interaction between authority and company, a Swedish airline company was investigated. In each case study, a thorough description of the organizational structure, the activities and operations, and the safety management specific for each organization, is given. In the descriptions, safety management within each area is studied in relation to concepts central to the system theoretical framework. Structural aspects of the system studied, system regulation, information feedback, and detection and identification of threats to safety, are some examples of concepts that are related to keep the system stable, concepts that also are related to activities that are often labeled as central to safety management. Thus, the case studies generate both illustrative descriptions about the unique in the specific areas studied, both from an organizational and a safety perspective, and, furthermore, put this in relation to general system theoretical concepts that are possible to transfer across areas. Each of the case studies generated detailed descriptions of the organization studied, activities and