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Sample records for egyptian beta-thalassemia major

  1. mRNA expression of iron regulatory genes in beta-thalassemia intermedia and beta-thalassemia major mouse models.

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    Weizer-Stern, Orly; Adamsky, Konstantin; Amariglio, Ninette; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Rechavi, Gideon

    2006-07-01

    beta-Thalassemia is an inherited anemia in which synthesis of the hemoglobin beta-chain is decreased. The excess unmatched alpha-globin chains accumulate in the growing erythroid precursors, causing their premature death (ineffective erythropoiesis). Clinical features of beta-thalassemia include variably severe anemia and iron accumulation due to increased intestinal iron absorption. The most anemic patients require regular blood transfusions, which exacerbate their iron overload and result in damage to vital organs. The hepatic peptide hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism in mammals, was recently found to be low in the urine of beta-thalassemia patients, compared with healthy controls, despite their iron overload. In our work, we measured by RQ-PCR the liver mRNA expression of hepcidin and other iron regulatory genes in beta-thalassemia major mouse model (C57Bl/6 Hbb(th3/th3)), and compared it with beta-thalassemia intermedia mouse model (C57Bl/6 Hbb(th3/+)) and control mice. We found decreased expression of hepcidin and TfR2 and increased expression of TfR1 and NGAL in the beta-thalassemia mouse models, compared with the control mice. Significant down-regulation of hepcidin expression in beta-thalassemia major, despite iron overload, might explain the increased iron absorption typically observed in thalassemia.

  2. Molecular basis of asymptomatic beta-thalassemia major in an African American individual.

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    Ballas, S K; Cai, S P; Gabuzda, T; Chehab, F F

    1997-03-17

    The beta-thalassemia syndromes are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by reduced or absent expression of the beta-globin gene. To date, over 300 beta-thalassemia alleles have been characterized in or around the beta-globin region. Thalassemia major is severe anemia necessitating chronic blood transfusions, splenectomy, iron chelation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation. Usually thalassemia major results from homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for severe betaO- and/or beta+-thalassemia mutations. Thalassemia intermedia is a clinical diagnosis that describes a symptomatic but less severe condition than beta-thalassemia major. beta-thalassemia intermedia may arise from several different combinations of alpha- and/or beta-thalassemia mutations. Heterozygous beta-thalassemia is typically characterized by a mild microcytic hypochromic anemia without any significant clinical implications. In this report, we describe a 63-year-old Africian American woman with asymptomatic homozygous beta-thalassemia, who seems to carry 2 copies of the -29 mutation in the promoter region of the beta-globin gene. Her elevated hemoglobin F level of 83% was associated with heterozygosity for the Xmn I polymorphism upstream of the Ggamma-globin gene. Southern blot analysis at the alpha-globin locus did not show any deletion that would account for the mildness of her phenotype. Therefore, homozygosity for the -29 mutation along with the Xmn I polymorphism appears to confer an extremely mild beta-thalassemia phenotype. This observation has important implications in the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling of families segregating this type of genetic defect.

  3. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

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    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of μeff=7.6 μB per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for μeff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  4. Pyogenic liver abscess in beta-thalassemia major--report of two cases.

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    Hwang, C F; Lee, C Y; Lee, P I; Chen, J M; Lli, K H; Lin, D T; Chang, M H

    1994-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess, which may lead to devastating consequences, is an uncommon medical problem in pediatrics and has generally been reported in compromised hosts. This article describes two patients with beta-thalassemia major and hemochromatosis complicated by Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess. One of the patients had severe complications, including subphrenic abscess, pleural effusion and meningitis. To present knowledge, the occurrence of K. pneumoniae liver abscess in patients with beta-thalassemia major has never before been reported in the literature.

  5. Beta Thalassemia

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    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  6. Human parvovirus B19 in patients with beta thalassemia major from Tehran, Iran

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    Arabzadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Alizadeh, Farideh; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Karimi, Gharib; Farahmand, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Background Due to the tropism of human parvovirus B19 to erythroid progenitor cells, infection in patients with an underlying hemolytic disorder such as beta-thalassemia major leads to suppression of erythrocyte formation, referred to as transient aplasia crisis (TAC), which may be life-threatening. We investigated the prevalence of parvovirus B19 among patients with beta thalassemia major attending the Zafar Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood samples and parvovirus B19 genotypes in plasma samples of patients with thalassemia major. The population consisted of 150 patients with beta-thalassemia major who attended the Zafar clinic in Tehran. Specimens were studied using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Results The prevalence of parvovirus B19 in our study population was 4%. Of 150 patients with thalassemia, six (4%) were positive for B19 DNA. There was no significant correlation between blood transfusion frequency and B19 DNA positivity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of human parvovirus B19 revealed genotype I in these six patients. Conclusion In this study, acute B19 infections were detected in patients with beta thalassemia major. Screening of such high-risk groups can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection; thus, screening is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease-prevention measures.

  7. Levels of Beta-2 Microglobulin and Cystatin C in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients

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    Ayse Kacar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thalassemia is accepted to be the most common genetic disease in the world. This study was performed to establish whether there was a glomerular renal damage, which was usually a less mentioned subject in patients with Beta Thalassemia Major, and to compare urea, creatinine and creatinine clearance with early indicators of kidney damage as Cystatin-C and %u03B2-2 microglobulin as on determining the glomerular damage. Material and Method: This study was prospectively performed in patients, who were regularly followed in the children hematology outpatient clinic with a diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Major. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between urea and levels of creatinine clearance and Cystatin-C. There was a statistically negative relationship between creatinine and creatinine clearance at an advanced level as 53.7% (p: 0.002, p

  8. Prognostic factors in bone marrow transplantation for beta thalassemia major: experiences from Iran.

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    Ghavamzadeh, A; Nasseri, P; Eshraghian, M R; Jahani, M; Baybordi, I; Nateghi, J; Khodabandeh, A; Sadjadi, A R; Mohyeddin, M; Khademi, Y

    1998-12-01

    This study concerns the effects of several pre-transplant features on outcome for patients with beta thalassemia major who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Seventy patients with beta thalassemia major underwent bone marrow transplantation during the period 1991-1997 in Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The survival and rejection curves levelled off at 8 and 18 months after transplantation at 82.6% and 11.4%, respectively. Pre-transplant clinical features (age, serum ferritin, portal fibrosis, hepatomegaly and quality of chelation therapy) were examined for their effects on survival and recurrence of thalassemia in this group of patients who were less than 16 years old. Increasing age, presence of portal fibrosis and increasing serum ferritin were significantly associated with reduced probability of survival (P = 0.0047, P = 0.016 and P = 0.024, respectively). Hepatomegaly and inadequate pre-transplant chelation therapy which were documented as poor prognostic factors in previous studies, were not evaluable in this study. We also showed the benefits of transplanting more than 5.5 x 10(8)/kg cells in this group of patients with no increase in complications.

  9. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

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    Karimi, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Hematology Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karimim@sums.ac.ir; Rasekhi, A.R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rasekhia@sums.ac.ir; Rasekh, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Rasekhm@sums.ac.ir; Nabavizadeh, S.A. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: nabavia@gmail.com; Assadsangabi, R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: assadsangabi@yahoo.com; Amirhakimi, G.H. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: amirhakimig@sums.ac.ir

    2009-06-15

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  10. A Comparison of Quality of Life between Adolescences with Beta Thalassemia Major and their Healthy Peers

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    Shahram Baraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The chronic genetic blood disorder, thalassemia, affects Quality of life (QOL negatively. Regarding this, if adolescences with thalassemia are treated well, they will grow into an adult who will have a good potential for participating in society. Objectives: to determine the strongest predictor of QOL, compare QOL between the adolescents with beta-type major and their peers in Abadan city. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study; the population consisted of 65 beta thalassemia major patients and 65  healthy peers with the same ages as the witness group. The data collection tools included SF-36 questionnaire and a questionnaire for demographic information. Data analysis was performed using independent t-test, correlation and linear regression by SPSS-16. Results The results of the study revealed that there is a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the average quality of life between the two groups of the study. On the other hand, the results showed that there was a meaningful relation between different aspects of life quality and family history of thalassemia            (P< 0.05. Also, there was a negative correlation between quality of life and the frequency of blood transfusion per year (P< 0.05. Conclusion Adolescences with beta thalassemia major do not have a desirable quality of life, therefore, this fact shows the necessity of serious reforming in various fields of health care, treatment, family, social and financial support, and rehabilitation that need more attention from health care policymakers.

  11. Psychological Aspects in Young Adults with Beta-Thalassemia Major, control group

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    S. H. Hosseini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Beta-thalassemia major (TM, a chronic, genetically determined hematological disorder, has received little investigation on the psychological aspects of the disease and the psychosocial adjustment of patients with this anemia. In the present study, the aim was to explore the nature of psychopathology according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease in TM patients compared with demographically matched healthy persons.Materials and Methods: A controlled anterograde cohort study was conducted at the Thalassemia Unit of Boo-Ali Hospital from June 2003 to November 2005 in Sari, Iran. Psychological aspects were evaluated by the Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised questionnaire. Information on relevant demographic characteristics, school performance, severity and complications of the disease was collected by one of the investigators who had created the questionnaire.Results: 125 persons with TM completed the questionnaires and were compared with 125 controls and 250 totally. The mean age of the participants was 18.51± 2.0 years and with a range of 15-25 years. 132 (52.8% were female with equal family status, social and economic status. Patients group reported a significantly lower level of marital status (P<0.01, education level (P<0.0001, school performance (P<0.0001. TM patients were found to have significantly more psychiatric disorders than the control subjects with GSI: 1.16 ± 0.47 vs. 1.01 ± 0.6; (P<0.03, PSD: 54.99 ± 12.59 vs. 46.42 ± 18.76 (P<0.0001, and PSDI 2.02±1.02 vs 2.45 ± 2.22 (P<0.05. We recorded significant changes in the mean scores of somatization (P<0.0001, interpersonal sensitivity (P<0.0001, depression (P<0.003, anxiety (P<0.05 and psychoticism (P<0.03 in the TM patients as compared to the control subjects.Conclusion: These findings show that beta-thalassemia major patients are at risk for psychiatric symptomatology and need appropriate psychiatric

  12. BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY ASPECT

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    Mohamed Bejaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia major (TM remains to be one of the major health problems particularly in developing countries. Tunisia is a part of the Mediterranean countries mostly affected by this disease which is highly concentrated in small towns in families with low-income earners. The main objectives of this study are to provide a description of the demographic, clinical features and transfusion-related complications in patients with TM living in Tunisia. A standardized questionnaire was sent to clinicians throughout 33 different medical institutions caring for thalassemic patients. 391 transfusion dependant thalassemic patients with a median age of 10.7 years (range 3 months- 31 years were included in the study.The majority were originated from the north west of the country .A moderate overload between 1501 and 2500ng/ml was found in 61patients, while 81 patients (26.9% had ferritin level more than 2500 ng/ml and greater than 5000ng/ml in 21 patients (6.9%. 51 patients died from complications related to their disease. Heart failure was the main cause of death. The incidence of cardiac, endocrine, and infectious complications will be reviewed. Preventive measures such as health education, carrier screening and premarital screening remain the best ways for lowering the incidence of these diseases, which might be reflected in financial saving, social benefits and health benefits.

  13. Abdominal Ultrasonographic Findings in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients in North of Iran

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    R. Abdi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: High prevalence of tha-lassemia in the North of Iran is a major challenge of medical practitioners in this area. To investigate the prevalence of abdominal ultrasound findings in these patients, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients (92 girls and 108 boys, all suffering from Beta thalas-semia major with a mean age of 14.5 years (ranging from 5 to 34 years were included in the study. Ab-dominal ultrasound examination was performed by two radiologists between 2001 and 2005 to detect sonographic findings in these patients. Results: Hepatomegaly was presented in 75% of these patients and splenomegaly was detected in 46% of them while 45% of cases had undergone splenec-tomy. Total incidence of gall bladder stone formation was 14% (15.5% in females and 11.9% in males and it had a direct correlation with the patients’ age. Lymphadenopathy of portohepatic and celiac area was detected in 138 (68% patients. In 4 patients ul-trasound revealed portal vein thrombosis whereas in the other 4 cases, splenic extramedullary hematopoi-esis was detected. Conclusion: This study revealed that a remarkable portion of patients had developed these complica-tions. Authors suggest ultrasound to be a part of rou-tine examinations in beta thalassemia major patients who receive multiple transfusions.

  14. Prevalence of Heart Failure in the Cases of Beta-thalassemia Major; Two Years Follow-Up

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    Atooshe Rohani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Heart failure (HF is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the cases of Beta-thalassemia major. The purpose of this study was to estimate HF prevalence in these patients and to assess the survivability of those who were treated with intensive chelating therapy. Design and methods: This cross sectional study included 72 beta-thalassemia major cases, the mean age at the time of referral was 15.7±6.2 years (range 6-35 years and were followed in a prospective 2 year study. A self-reporting symptom questionnaire was administered, a 12-lead ECG was taken and an echocardiography was obtained from all participants. Echocardiography was performed at 6 month intervals or when a new symptom developed. Results: Risk factors (except for iron overload in the study population were hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. The male to female ratio was0.75.Twelve patients had left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction and 57,79% had LV diastolic dysfunction whereas 11,15% had RV failure. Fifty-nine (81% patients had cardiac disease of which diastolic dysfunction was the most common manifestation .Those with systolic dysfunction were older at presentation (22 ± 6 years versus 31 ± 4 years; P <0.001, and had the highest mean serum ferritin level (3,355 ± 1241 ng/mL versus 6,397 ± 1,613 ng/mL; P <0.001. The 2 year survival rate in patients with beta thalassemia in this study was 98%. Conclusions: Diastolic dysfunction is highly prevalent in even asymptomatic beta-thalassemia major patients. The high prevalence of diastolic dysfunction is indicative of a significant amount of the population who are at a high risk for HF

  15. Beta thalassemia major: The effect of age on glomerular filtration rate

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    Majid Malaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a common hereditary hemoglobinopathy disorder that affects many organs in the body. Estimation of kidney function is important, as it is the vital organ that plays the major role in the elimination of accumulated iron as well as the chelating drugs that have to be used as therapy. Sixty- three patients aged 1-29 years, with a mean ± SD of 14 ± 6.7 years, affected with beta- thalassemia major in Tabriz Children′s Hospital were evaluated for their renal function on the basis of their age, serum iron, serum ferritin and serum creatinine levels along with two methods of estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR; by Schwartz method for those under 18 years old and using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula for those who were 18 years and above. Elevation of serum creatinine denoting renal dysfunction was not seen in our patients, but hyperfiltration was a common finding. An increasing GFR was observed, which corresponded to age, but no relationships were seen between serum iron, serum ferritin, regular blood transfusion, chelating therapy to GFR.

  16. The pancreas in {beta}-thalassemia major: MR imaging features and correlation with iron stores and glucose disturbunces

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    Papakonstantinou, Olympia [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Attikon Hospital, 2nd Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Ladis, Vasilios; Kostaridou, Stavroula; Berdousi, Helen; Kattamis, Christos [Thalassemia Unit, University of Athens, ' ' Aghia Sophia' ' Children' s Hospital, Athens (Greece); Maris, Thomas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-06-15

    The study aims at describing the MR features of pancreas in beta-thalassemia major, investigating the relations between MR findings and glucose disturbances and between hepatic and pancreatic siderosis. Signal intensity ratios of the pancreas and liver to right paraspinous muscle (P/M, L/M) were retrospectively assessed on abdominal MR imaging studies of 31 transfusion-dependent patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing quantification of hepatic siderosis and 10 healthy controls, using T1- (120/4/90), intermediate in and out of phase - (120/2.7, 4/20), and T2*-(120/15/20) weighted GRE sequences. Using the signal drop of the liver and pancreas on opposed phase images, we recorded serum ferritin and results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Decreased L/M and P/M on at least the T2* sequence were noticed in 31/31 and 30/31 patients, respectively, but no correlation between P/M and L/M was found. Patients with pathologic OGTT displayed a higher degree of hepatic siderosis (p < 0.04) and signal drop of pancreas on opposed phase imaging (p < 0.025), implying fatty replacement of pancreas. P/M was neither correlated with glucose disturbances nor serum ferritin. Iron deposition in the pancreas cannot be predicted by the degree of hepatic siderosis in beta-thalassemia major. Fatty replacement of the pancreas is common and may be associated with glucose disturbances. (orig.)

  17. Hepatic iron overload and fibrosis in patients with beta thalassemia major after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A pilot study.

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    Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Kamalian, Naser; Sedighi, Nahid; Azimi, Parisima

    2015-04-01

    Currently, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for patients with beta-thalassemia major, but liver iron overload in these patients will not decrease and hepatic fibrosis may still progress despite successful HSCT. Liver biopsy samples were taken from 14 patients (Out of 25 patients) who underwent HSCT. All patients met three criteria: negative HCV antibody, liver fibrosis in samples before HSCT and lack of regular treatment for iron overload after HSCT (Because patients did not consent to phlebotomy or they had not regular follow-up). We evaluated liver fibrosis and liver iron overload by a semi quantitative method, Perls' Prussian blue staining, before and after HSCT. HSCT was successful in all the patients. Liver iron overload did not change after transplant (P=0.61), but hepatic fibrosis progressed after transplant (P=0.01). In patients with beta thalassemia major who previously had some degree of liver fibrosis, HSCT alone cannot reduce liver iron overload and liver fibrosis will increase. We recommend that regardless of the amount of iron overload in patients with beta thalassemia major that have shown some degree of fibrosis in their liver biopsy before transplantation, appropriate steps should be taken to reduce iron overload as soon as possible after successful transplantation.

  18. [Long-term effects of combined therapy in patients with beta-thalassemia major].

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    Bagnulo, S; Giannini, A M; Moscatelli, F; Stragapede, L; Acquafredda, A; Dammacco, A

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated therapy complications in 19 beta-thalassemia major patients (mean age from 3 years/5 months and 1 years/6 months) who were followed at II Pediatric Department-University of Bari. 3 out of 19 patients underwent allogenic BMT from matched related donor; 2 out of 19 underwent splenectomy. All of them were receiving hypertransfusion therapy and continuous chelation with DFO. In all patients we performed physical examination, laboratory assays, cardiac and endocrinologic function tests, serum HBV-HCV-HIV antibodies, otoscopy and audiometric test, fundus oculi, skeletal x-ray. 1 out of 19 patients, who was under 15, had a slight dilatation of left ventricle and arythmia. All patients were HBsAb positive. 4/19 patients were HCV Ab positive (ELISA test) with an increase in ALT-AST serum levels since at least 6 months. In 3 of them we assessed RIBA test, always positive. 3 of them underwent liver biopsy (1 iron overload 2 chronic active hepatitis). All patients were HIV Ab negative. 4/15 patients revealed low GH levels after Arginina test. 13 pre-pubescent patients had normal results with GNRH test but lower results after FSH test. 1 pubescent patient had gonadotropic hypophyseal deficit. 4 patients had subclinic hypothiroidism. We couldn't find any sequelas in bone-eyes-ears. Hypertransfusion therapy, chelation, profilaxis of infections improved length and quality of life in thalassemic patients. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism remains a serious sequela and we think it needs to be treated.

  19. Resolution of alloimmunization and refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a multi-transfused beta-thalassemia major patient

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    Joseph Philip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent autosomal disorders, which affect more than 400,000 newborn per year worldwide. In India, the carrier rate of beta-thalassemia varies from 3-17%. The overall rate of alloimmunization in thalassemia patients has been reported to be 5-30% in the world, which is mostly contributed by the alloimmunization to minor blood group antigen. Among Asians, the incidence of red cell alloimmunization is 22%. The recommended treatment for beta-thalassemia major is regular blood transfusion every 3 to 4 weeks. The development of anti-red cell antibodies (alloantibodies and/or autoantibodies can significantly complicate transfusion therapy. Alloantibodies are commonly associated with red cell hemolysis. Red cell autoantibodies appear less frequently, but they can result in clinical hemolysis called autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, and in difficulty in cross-matching blood. Patients with autoantibodies may have a higher transfusion rate and often require immunosuppressive drugs or alternative treatments including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg and rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.

  20. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in Iranian patients with beta thalassemia major.

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    Bastani, Mohammad-Navid; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Ebrahimi, Mojtaba; Garshasebi, Saba; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) is a new pathological form of chronic hepatitis virus (HCV) infection characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) specimens and the absence of HCV RNA and anti-HCV antibodies (Abs) in plasma samples. β-thalassemia major is a hereditary recessive blood disease with deficiency in the hemoglobin beta chain. Thalassemic patients need blood transfusion therapy; repeated blood transfusion increases the risk of viral blood-borne infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OCI in Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major. From February 2015 to November 2015, a total of 147 Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV genomic RNA in the specimens was amplified by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-UTR. The HCV genotypes of the positive specimens were tested using the RFLP assay. To confirm the HCV genotypes, the 5'-UTR fragment was amplified and cloned into the pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector and then sequenced. Out of 147 patients, 106 (72.1 %) were negative for anti-HCV Abs and HCV RNA. HCV RNA was found in PBMC specimens of six (5.7 %) patients, from a total of 106 patients with undetectable plasma HCV RNA and anti-HCV Abs. Therefore, six out of 106 patients had OCI. HCV genotyping revealed that three patients were infected with HCV subtype 1b, two patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, and one patient was infected with HCV subtype 1a. These results revealed that Iranian patients with beta-thalassemia major might have OCI. Therefore, it seems that the design of a study to identify this infection in patients with β-thalassemia major would provide valuable information.

  1. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

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    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  2. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

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    Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Bhandari, Sunil; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Panjwani, Vinodh; Daar, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX) side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia. Methods A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female) with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period. Results Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s) in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline), feeling unwell (2), severe diarrhea (1), pregnancy (1), death unrelated to chelator (2) and rise in serum transaminases (2). Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013). Conclusion Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23599881

  3. The Corellation Between Serum Ferritin and Cardiac Troponin I in Major Beta Thalassemia Children

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    Muhammad Ali Shodikin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Major beta thalassemia (MBT is a hereditary disease which synthesies defects in beta chains of haemoglobin, it is causes red blood cell destruction and the symptoms of anemia. Red blood cell destruction, frequent blood transfusion and low adherence to routine use of iron chelator lead to iron accumulation in the heart, liver and endocrine organs. Accumulation of iron in the myocard can lead acute myocardial infarction. One of cardiac markers that had been used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction was cardiac troponin I (cTnI. The aim of this research is find the correlation between serum ferritin levels and cTnI in MBT children. A descriptive analytic research was conducted using a cross sectional design. The subjects were divided into 2 groups, the MBT group and the control group. In both groups, the serum ferritin and cTnI levels ere evaluated. Data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson correlation test. Eleven children in the MBT group and 11 children in the control group were involved in this study. In the MBT group, the mean of serum ferritin and cTnI levels were 4292.5 µg/L and 0.20 ng/mL respectively. The mean of serum ferritin levels in the MBT group were higher than in the control and statistically significant (p= 0.0004. The mean of serum ferritin levels in the MBT group were higher than in the control and statistically significant (p= 0.0004. The mean of serum cTnI in the MBT group were higher than in the control, but statistically not significant (p= 0.82. In the MBT group, there was a weak corellation between serum ferritin and cTnI levels (r= 0.34.

  4. The "lively" cytokines network in beta-Thalassemia Major-related osteoporosis.

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    Morabito, Nunziata; Russo, Giuseppina T; Gaudio, Agostino; Lasco, Antonino; Catalano, Antonio; Morini, Elisa; Franchina, Fabio; Maisano, Domenica; La Rosa, Mariangela; Plota, Maria; Crifò, Adolfa; Meo, Anna; Frisina, Nicola

    2007-06-01

    Osteoporosis affects approximately 40-50% of adult patients with beta-Thalassemia Major (beta TM). Recent data have implicated an altered modulation of the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) system in the pathogenesis of beta TM-osteoporosis. OPG/RANKL system acts downstream from IL-1 alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha and it may be the final actor mediating the effects of these cytokines on the regulation of both postmenopausal and metabolic bone resorption. However, to date, there are no data on circulating levels of these pro-resorptive cytokines in beta TM patients. We investigated the potential relationships among these cytokines, several markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in beta TM patients. IL-1 alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, OPG and RANKL serum levels, hemato-urinary bone remodeling markers and bone mineral density (BMD) at L2L4 and femoral neck as well as erythropoietin (EPO), 17beta-estradiol, and free-testosterone levels were measured in 30 well treated beta TM patients and in 20 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and BMI with the patients. beta TM patients showed an altered bone turnover, with increased deoxypyridinoline (D-PYR) levels (P<0.0001), decreased osteocalcin (BGP) concentrations (<0.0001) and significantly lower lumbar (P=0.001) and femoral (P<0.05) BMD values as compared to controls. Circulating levels of IL-1 alpha (P<0.0001), TNF-alpha (P<0.0001) and IL-6 (P<0.05) were all increased in beta TM patients as compared with controls. In beta TM patients, IL-1 alpha was significantly related with D-PYR (r=0.5; P<0.05), RANKL (r=0.7; P=0.03) and IL-6 (r=0.3; P=0.006); IL-6 was also significantly correlated with D-PYR (r=0.5; P<0.05) and EPO levels (r=0.3; P=0.03); TNF-alpha showed a negative correlation with L2L4 BMD (r=-0.4; P<0.05). Our data demonstrate, for the first time, an association between increased circulating levels of pro-resorptive cytokines and an altered bone turnover in beta TM

  5. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  6. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions beta thalassemia beta thalassemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  7. Detection of Left Ventricular Regional Function in Asymptomatic Children with beta-Thalassemia Major by Longitudinal Strain and Strain Rate Imaging

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    Ali Bay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiac failure due to iron overload remains the most common cause of death in patients with beta-thalassemia major. This study aimed to evaluate myocardial function in children with beta-thalassemia major using standard echocardiography technique and strain rate imaging. Materials and Methods: Conventional echocardiographic analysis, tissue velocity imaging, and strain/strain rate imaging of the left ventricle were evaluated in 48 children with beta thalassemia major (19 girls, 29 boys; 8.39±4.05 years and 22 healthy children (11 girls, 11 boys; 8±3.72 years. Results: Conventional echocardiographic examinations revealed that beta-thalassemia patients had larger left ventricular end-systolic diameter, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, left ventricular mass index, and mitral early/late diastolic flow velocity ratio (p<0.05. Strain and strain rate imaging study of the basal lateral wall of the left ventricle was higher in patients than in controls, at p=0.035 and p=0.008, respectively. Conclusion: We found that superior systolic strain and strain rate imaging of the left ventricle indicated the presence of regional systolic function in the left ventricular wall. We suggest that left ventricle volume and mass index parameters might be more sensitive than the other conventional and strain/strain rate imaging parameters during childhood. However, the adulthood strain and strain rate imaging values may be lower than controls, exceeding the critical level of iron overload.

  8. Comparative Sero-Prevalence Investigation of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients, Referred to Taleghani Center, Gorgan, Iran

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    Hedayat Mofidi SM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Recurrent Abdominal Pain (RAP syndrome is acommon disorder, especially in children with beta thalassemia major. Thesepatients are predisposed to heart diseases which are caused byhemochromatosis (Iron overload, resulting in sudden death. Because of therole of Helico bacter pylori in causing abdominal pain and peptic ulcer, and inincreasing the risk or exacerbating of heart diseases, it can be important in betathalassemia major. This study aimed at determining the frequency of anti-H.pylori class IgA in patients suffered from beta thalassemia major.Material and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic Study, 132 betathalassemia major Patients and 135 healthy cases were matched by age, sexand ethnic as a control group. The sera were separated from clot in firstSeroepidemiology and along with the filled questionnaires sent toImmunology-hematology Laboratory of paramedical school, in which thesamples were tested by ELISA method with Diagnostic kit for anti-H.pyloriIgA and IgG classes detection. We analyzed the Data by chi square andIndependent T and Fisher tests.Results: the results show that the difference between the anti-H.pylori classIgA in case (22.7% and control group (17.8% is not significant (P=0.6, Butit is significant between anti-H.pylori IgG class, 81.8% for cases and 54.8%for controls (P<0.001.Conclusion: Based on the results, the rate of anti-H.P IgA class in case is1.131 times more than control group, which is not significant. On the otherhand , the rate of anti-H.P IgG is 1.478 times more than control group which issignificant.Key words: Thalassemia, Helicobacter pylori, Gorgan, Sero epidemiology

  9. Prevalence and Intensity of Depression in Mothers of Children with Beta-Thalassemia Major In Talghani Hospital of Gorgan, Iran

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    Nargesbeygom Mirbehbahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a chronic disease that it leads to psychological and social problems for parents. Mothers are at markedly increased risk of suffering from psychological distress and depression because they usually take on a considerable part of extra care that their children need.This study was designed to determine prevalence and intensity of depression in mothers with a thalassemic child. Material and Methods: In this cross – sectional study, 65 mothers of children with thalassemia major (case group and 65 mothers of children without thalassemia major (control group were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (v 16.0 for windows. Results: Prevalence of depression was significantly higher in case group than that in control group (84.6%vs. 56.9%, p <0.05. Moderate depression had a highest prevalence in the both groups (33.4% in case group and 30.8% in control group. Prevalence of severe depression in case group was markedly higher than that in control group (29.2% vs. 3.1% p<0.05. There was a significant difference between intensity of depression in mothers of case group that had another child with beta-thalassemia major (p<0.05. Conclusion: Mothers of children with thalassemia major are vulnerable to depression. They need psychosocial support to promote their health.

  10. Adrenal glands in beta-thalassemia major: magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and correlation with iron stores

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    Drakonaki, Eleni; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Maris, Thomas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece); Vasiliadou, Artemis [Aghios Georgios Hospital of Chania, Thalassemia Unit, Chania (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion, Thalassemia Unit, Heraklion (Greece)

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed at describing the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of the adrenal glands in beta-thalassemic patients and at investigating the relation between adrenal and hepatic siderosis. Adrenal signal intensity (SI) was retrospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 35 patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing quantification of hepatic siderosis and 12 healthy controls, using T1- (120/4/90), intermediate - (120/4/20), and T2*- (120/15/20) weighted GRE sequences. Adrenal SI was graded as grade 0 (normal SI on all sequences), grade 1 (hypointensity on T2* alone), or grade 2 (hypointensity on at least T2*). Adrenal size was measured in the thalassemic patients and compared with normative data. Liver-to-muscle (L/M) SI ratios, expressing hepatic siderosis, were estimated on each sequence. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Adrenal hypointensity (grades 1 and 2) was noted in 24/35 (68.6%) patients. L/M ratios correlated significantly with adrenal SI in all sequences. Patients with grade 1 and grade 2 adrenal SI had significantly decreased L/M ratios compared with grade 0. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with L/M values but not with adrenal SI. Adrenal size was within normal limits. Diffuse hypointensity in normal-sized adrenals is a common MR finding in beta-thalassemic patients and correlates with the degree of hepatic siderosis. (orig.)

  11. Beta-thalassemia

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    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  12. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  13. Bone marrow changes in beta-thalassemia major: quantitative MR imaging findings and correlation with iron stores

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    Drakonaki, Eleni E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Radiology Department, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Maris, Thomas G. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion General Hospital, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the MR imaging features of bone marrow in beta-thalassemia major and investigate their relation to ferritin, liver and spleen siderosis. Spinal bone marrow was prospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 40 transfused beta-thalassemic patients and 15 controls using T1-w, Pd, T2*-w Gradient Echo (GRE) and T1-w turbo Spin Echo (TSE) sequences. Signal intensity (SI) ratios of liver, spleen and bone marrow to paraspinous muscles (L/M, S/M, B/M respectively) and the respective T2 relaxation rates (1/T2) were calculated. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Bone marrow hypointensity in at least T2*-w GRE sequence was noted in 29/40 (72.5%) patients. Eleven/40 patients exhibited normal B/M on all MR sequences. Five/40 patients had normal B/M and low L/M. B/M correlated with L/M in T1-w TSE sequence only (r = 0.471, p = 0.05). B/M correlated with S/M and mean ferritin values in all sequences (r > 0.489, p < 0.01 and r > - 0.496, p < 0.03 respectively). Marrow 1/T2 did not correlate with ferritin values or liver and spleen 1/T2. B/M in transfused beta-thalassemic patients is related to splenic siderosis and ferritin levels. Although marrow is usually hypointense, it may occasionally display normal SI coexisting with liver hypointensity, a pattern typical of primary hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  14. Spatial repolarization heterogeneity detected by magnetocardiography correlates with cardiac iron overload and adverse cardiac events in beta-thalassemia major.

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    Chun-An Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major (TM are at risk for myocardial iron overload and cardiac complications. Spatial repolarization heterogeneity is known to be elevated in patients with certain cardiac diseases, but little is known in TM patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spatial repolarization heterogeneity in patients with TM, and to investigate the relationships between spatial repolarization heterogeneity, cardiac iron load, and adverse cardiac events. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty patients with TM and 55 control subjects received 64-channel magnetocardiography (MCG to determine spatial repolarization heterogeneity, which was evaluated by a smoothness index of QTc (SI-QTc, a standard deviation of QTc (SD-QTc, and a QTc dispersion. Left ventricular function and myocardial T2* values were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Patients with TM had significantly greater SI-QTc, SD-QTc, and QTc dispersion compared to the control subjects (all p values<0.001. Spatial repolarization heterogeneity was even more pronounced in patients with significant iron overload (T2*<20 ms, n = 20 compared to those with normal T2* (all p values<0.001. Loge cardiac T2* correlated with SI-QTc (r = -0.609, p<0.001, SD-QTc (r = -0.572, p<0.001, and QTc dispersion (r = -0.622, p<0.001, while all these indices had no relationship with measurements of the left ventricular geometry or function. At the time of study, 10 patients had either heart failure or arrhythmia. All 3 indices of repolarization heterogeneity were related to the presence of adverse cardiac events, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ranged between 0.79 and 0.86, similar to that of cardiac T2*. CONCLUSIONS: Multichannel MCG demonstrated that patients with TM had increased spatial repolarization heterogeneity, which is related to myocardial iron load and adverse cardiac events.

  15. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had their spleens removed. Slower growth rates. The anemia resulting from beta thalassemia can cause children to grow more slowly and also can lead ... boost production of new red blood cells. Some children with moderate anemia may require an occasional blood transfusion , particularly after ...

  16. Renal tubular dysfunction in pediatric patients with beta-thalassemia major

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    Ali Ahmadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction in children with β-thalassemia (β-T major, we studied the glomerular and tubular function in 140 children with β-T major and compared them to a healthy control group at our center from May 2007 to April 2008. Fresh first morning samples were collected from each patient and analyzed for sodium, potassium, calcium (Ca, protein, uric acid (UA, creatinine (Cr, urine osmolality and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG activity. Blood samples were also collected for complete blood count, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, fasting blood sugar, serum creatinine (SCr, electrolytes, and ferritin before transfusion. Among the study patients, 72 were males, and the mean age was 11.5 (ranging 7-16 years. SCr levels were all within normal limits and all of them had normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR. The mean UNAG was 17.8 IU/L in the study patients (normal 0.15-11.5 IU/L and 3.2 IU/L in the control group (P 0.21 (P = 0.006. Nine (6.4% thalassemic patients with a mean age of 12 years had proteinuria (Upr/UCr > 0.2. Sixty-nine (49.3% out of the 140 patients and 45 (65.2% of the patients having UNAG had uricosuria also (UUA/UCr > 0.26. Ten (7% patients had microscopic hematuria and 10 (7% patients with a mean age of 13.5 years had glucosuria or diabetes mellitus. We conclude that tubular dysfunction is a relative common complication of the β-T major; UNAG and its index are the best to detect renal tubular dysfunction in these patients. Currently, periodic measurement of UCa/UCr and UUA/UCr ratios as well as urinalysis are recommended.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THYROID FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH BETA - THALASSEMIA MAJOR AND ITS CORRELATION WITH SERUM FERRITIN AND TRANSFUSION INDEX

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    Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Beta - thalassemia syndromes are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by reduced or absent beta globin chain synthesis , resulting in transfusion dependent severe anemia , leading to iron overload , resulting in hypothyroidism as the most common endocrine problem. OBJECTIVE : There is lack of information about frequency of hypothyroidism in thalassemic patients in ce ntral part of India , so this was undertaken to determine the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients suffering from homozygous ß - thalassemia and to study its correlation with serum ferritin and transfusion index. METHOD : This descriptive study included 60 diagnosed thalassemia major patients aged 2 - 18 years. Demographic data as well as history of blood transfusion , from which transfusion index was estimated , was taken. Serum total T3 , T4 and TSH by sandwich ELISA method using Eliscan kit , serum ferritin lev el by sandwich ELISA method using Accu - bind kit were measured from fasting blood sample. Hypothyroidism was defined by a TSH level >6.4μIU/ml. RESULTS: Study of the thyroid panel among all 60 patients showed a mean TSH level of 4.65±2.41 μIU/ml. Mean total T3 and total T4 levels were 1.35±0.48 ng/ml and 7.4±1.93 μg/dl respectively. Mean serum ferritin level was 557.25±198.66 ng/dl. Hypothyroidism was detected in 14 (23.33% out of 60 β thalassemia patients. Out of these , compensated hypothyroid (normal T3 a nd T4 with raised TSH was seen in 9 patients (15% and decompensated hypothyroid (Decrease T3 or T4 and Raised TSH was seen in 5 patients (8.33%. There was significant positive correlation of TSH levels with serum ferritin levels , age and transfusion in dex. However total T3 and total T4 did not show any correlation with serum ferritin levels , age or transfusion index. CONCLUSION : Hypothyroidism , are more common in second decade of life. Early recognition and hence prevention of these complications will d efinitely help to

  18. Antioxidant status in beta thalassemia major: A single-center study

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    Faiza Waseem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homozygous β thalassemia may lead to a marked reduction or absence of normal β chain production and accumulation of unpaired alpha-globin chains. A crucial component in the oxidant susceptibility of the thalassemic RBC is the release of heme and iron from the excessive, unpaired α-globin chains. This release can initiate self-amplifying redox reactions, which deplete the cellular reduction potential (e.g., GSH, oxidize additional hemoglobin and accelerate RBC destruction. Furthermore, β-thalassemia patients are under continuous blood transfusion, which, although life-saving, leads to an iron overload with a resultant increase in non-transferrin-bound iron that may cause greater tissue toxicity than iron in other forms. Iron-induced oxidative stress is known to be one of the most important factors determining cell injury in thalassemic patients. Therefore, we designed this study to obtain a comprehensive picture of the iron overload, antioxidant status and cell damage in β thalassemia major patients undergoing regular blood transfusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 diagnosed patients of β thalassemia major and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Estimation of hemoglobin, hematocrit, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD,vitamin E, serum ferritin, total and direct bilirubin, AST and ALT was carried out. Results: The levels of vitamin E, antioxidant enzymes GPX and SOD were significantly lowered in β thalassemic patients as compared with the control group (P<0.001. Serum total and direct bilirubin, AST and ALT were significantly elevated in thalassemic subjects as compared with the control group, indicating liver cell damage. Conclusion: Thus, our findings indicate that thalassemics are in a state of enhanced oxidative stress and that the administration of selective antioxidants would represent a promising approach toward counteracting oxidative damage and its deleterious

  19. The Correlation between Troponin and Ferritin Serum Levels in the Patients with Major Beta-Thalassemia

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    Iraj Shahramian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy whose most common complication is cardiac involvement which ends up in these patients’ death. Since troponin is a sensitive and specific marker for the detection of microinfarct, we studied the relationship between troponin and ferritin serum levels for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement in these patients. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 80 patients, including 40 patients with major thalassemia and normal echocardiography and 40 healthy volunteers ranging from 6 months to 16 years old. All the children were examined and the eligible children who were not infected with known heart disease, iron deficiency anemia, kidney disease, diabetes, fever, and systemic diseases were enrolled into the study after obtaining written informed consents from their parents. At 8:00 A.M. before breakfast, 5cc blood was drawn from these children. After collecting the samples, ferritin and troponin serum levels were evaluated using ELISA and electro- kymonolonsense methods, respectively. The gathered data were analyzed through the SPSS statistical software (v. 20 and T-test. Besides, P value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The study results revealed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean of the serum levels of troponin (P=0.045 and ferritin (P=0.001. In this study, no significant correlation was observed between serum troponin and ferritin levels and age and BMI in the two groups. Also, no significant relationship was found between serum troponin level and sex (P=0.264. Conclusions: In microinfarct, troponin increases independent of ferritin; therefore, it can be used for early detection of cardiac involvement in thalassemia patients to determine the sub-clinical effects.

  20. Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidants in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients

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    Abbasali Keshtkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients. Methods:This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day and vitamin E (400mg/day supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and body mass index (BMI were measured at the beginning and the end of the study. Findings:Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively. Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001. Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively. Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001. Conclusion:Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage.

  1. Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidants in Beta thalassemia major Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammadreza; Aboomardani, Maryam; Rafraf, Maryam; Arefhosseini, Seyed-Rafie; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Joshaghani, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Objective In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients. Methods This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day) and vitamin E (400mg/day) supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control) group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the beginning and the end of the study. Findings Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively). Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001). Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively). Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001). Conclusion Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage. PMID:23056757

  2. Evaluation of Myocardial Performance Index(Mpi in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients at the Ali Asghar Hospital , Zahedan , Iran

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    R Sohrevardi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Patients with major thalassemia need recurrent transfusions and if not treated are at risk of heart dysfunction. Heart tissue could be abnormal in patients who use desferral continously due to iron deposits , fibrosis , hypertrophy and side effects of chronic anemia. Cardiac involvement is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in major thalassemics, so we decided to improve early diagnosis of cardiac involvement by measuring myocardial performance index( MPI . Method & Materials : This case-control study was performed from April 2003 to December 2003 at the Ali-Asghar pediatrics hospital, Zahedan, Iran. MPI of both ventricles was measured by Doppler echocardiography in 48 patients with major thalassemia aged between 10-18 years and compared with 48 age , sex-matched controls. Patients had no abnormality in physical examination , chest x-ray and ECG and echocardiography did not show heart failure. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels was measured in all patients before echocardiography. Results: Mean age of patients was 12.3±2.4 years and that in the control group was 12.7±2years . Right ventricle isovolumetric relaxation time (RVIRT (107 ± 14 vs 94 ±14 , p0.05 and LVICT (31 ± 13 vs 21 ± 15 , p0.05 in the two groups. Finally, RVMPI (0.59 ± 0.12 Vs 0.46 ± 0.12 , p<0.001 was increased in 87% of patients and LVMPI (0.49 ± 0.12 Vs 0.41± 0.09 , p0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that RVMPI and LVMPI increase in major thalassemia patients that indicates systolic and diastolic dysfunction and RVMPI increases more than LVMPI. On the other hand, MPI has a direct correlation with serum ferritin . On the basis of this study ,we suggest MPI measurement in serial echocardiography in asymptomatic major thalassemia patients.

  3. Evaluating the Correlation between Serum NT-proBNP Level and Diastolic Dysfunction Severity in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients

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    Behzad Alizadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP is a sensitive biomarker for the detection of asymptomatic left ventricular (LV dysfunction. Since β-thalassemia major patients suffer from early diastolic dysfunction due to iron deposition of chronic blood transfusion, we tried to evaluate the correlation between the serum NT-proBNP level and the severity of LV diastolic dysfunction determined by echocardiography in these patients. Methods: Fifty β-thalassemia major patients with normal LV systolic function were studied by tissue Doppler echocardiography, and blood samples were taken at the same time to measure the serum NT-proBNP level. Using flow velocity through the mitral valve on the tissue velocity of the mitral annulus in early ventricular filling (E/E' as an LV diastolic function indicator, the patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 no diastolic dysfunction (E/E' < 8, group 2 suspected diastolic dysfunction (E/E' = 8-15, and group 3 documented diastolic dysfunction (E/E' >15. Other variables assessed included sex, age, method of chelator therapy, and mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels for the past 2 years.Results: According to the echocardiographic findings of all the 50 patients (29 male and 21 female with an age range of 11-35 years (mean = 17.98 y, 46% were classified in group 1, 54% in group 2, and none in group 3. The NT-proBNP level was 1070 ± 566 ng/mL in group 1 and 974 ± 515 ng/mL in group 2. The t-test showed no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in the NT-proBNP level (p value = 0.536. Conclusions: Due to specific conditions in thalassemia major patients, the correlation between the serum NT-proBNP level and the severity of diastolic dysfunction seems to be not meaningful.

  4. Evaluating the Correlation between Serum NT-proBNP Level and Diastolic Dysfunction Severity in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients

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    Alizadeh, Behzad; Badiee, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Mohajery, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a sensitive biomarker for the detection of asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Since β-thalassemia major patients suffer from early diastolic dysfunction due to iron deposition of chronic blood transfusion, we tried to evaluate the correlation between the serum NT-proBNP level and the severity of LV diastolic dysfunction determined by echocardiography in these patients. Methods: Fifty β-thalassemia major patients with normal LV systolic function were studied by tissue Doppler echocardiography, and blood samples were taken at the same time to measure the serum NT-proBNP level. Using flow velocity through the mitral valve on the tissue velocity of the mitral annulus in early ventricular filling (E/E') as an LV diastolic function indicator, the patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1) no diastolic dysfunction (E/E' 15). Other variables assessed included sex, age, method of chelator therapy, and mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels for the past 2 years. Results: According to the echocardiographic findings of all the 50 patients (29 male and 21 female) with an age range of 11-35 years (mean = 17.98 y), 46% were classified in group 1, 54% in group 2, and none in group 3. The NT-proBNP level was 1070 ± 566 ng/mL in group 1 and 974 ± 515 ng/mL in group 2. The t-test showed no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in the NT-proBNP level (p value = 0.536). Conclusion: Due to specific conditions in thalassemia major patients, the correlation between the serum NT-proBNP level and the severity of diastolic dysfunction seems to be not meaningful. PMID:27928257

  5. Effects of the anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand denusomab on beta thalassemia major-induced osteoporosis

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    Mohamed A Yassin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis represents the second most common cause of endocrinopathy in patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM. Some drugs proved effective to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily essential for osteoclastogenesis. The efficacy and safety of denosumab in BTM-induced osteoporosis has not been tested. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-RANKL on the biochemical and radiological parameters of bone mineralization in patients with BTM-induced osteoporosis. Design: The study population was selected using the random sampling method from the patient′s database of our thalassemia clinic. Transfusion-dependent BTM patients above 18 years with no history of treatment with bisphosphonates were randomly selected. Bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (LS and right femoral neck (FN were measured by dual energy X-ray absorption (DEXA scan using a calibrated method. Independent factors likely to be associated with low bone mass were determined and included in the analysis to ascertain possible associations. Patients and Methods: We studied 30 patients with BTM-induced osteoporosis as per World Health Organization criteria (T Score of less than − 1.0 being defined as osteopenic and a T Score of less than − 2.5 being referred as osteoporotic. 19 males and 11 females aged between 18 and 32 years, with full pubertal development (Tanner′s stage 5 at the time of the study. Their mean serum ferritin concentration was 3557 ng ± 1488 ng/ml. Every patient underwent DEXA scan as a baseline and after 12 months of denosumab therapy. Biochemical evaluation including serum concentrations of creatinine, Na, K, calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, bone specific alkaline phosphatase and type 1 collagen carboxy telopetide (ICCT using enzyme

  6. Sustained improvements in myocardial T2* over 2 years in severely iron-overloaded patients with beta thalassemia major treated with deferasirox or deferoxamine.

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    Pennell, Dudley J; Porter, John B; Piga, Antonio; Lai, Yong-Rong; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Elalfy, Mohsen; Yesilipek, Akif; Kilinç, Yurdanur; Habr, Dany; Musallam, Khaled M; Shen, Junwu; Aydinok, Yesim

    2015-02-01

    Long-term controlled studies are needed to inform on the clinical benefit of chelation therapy for myocardial iron removal in transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients. In a 1-year nonrandomized extension to the CORDELIA study, data collected from patients with myocardial siderosis provided additional information on deferasirox or deferoxamine (DFO) efficacy and safety. Myocardial (m)T2* increased from baseline 11.6 to 15.9 ms in patients receiving deferasirox for 24 months (n = 74; geometric mean [Gmean ] ratio of month 24/baseline 1.38 [95% confidence interval 1.28, 1.49]) and from 10.8 to 14.2 ms in those receiving DFO (n = 29; Gmean ratio 1.33 [1.13, 1.55]; P = 0.93 between groups). Improved mT2* with deferasirox was evident across all subgroups evaluated irrespective of baseline myocardial (mT2* < 10 vs. ≥ 10 ms) or liver (LIC <15 vs. ≥15 mg Fe/g dw) iron burden. Mean LVEF was stable and remained within normal limits with deferasirox or DFO. Liver iron concentration decreased from high baseline values of 30.6 ± 18.0 to 14.4 ± 16.6 mg Fe/g dw at month 24 in deferasirox patients and from 36.8 ± 15.6 to 11.0 ± 12.1 mg Fe/g dw in DFO patients. The long-term safety profile of deferasirox or DFO was consistent with previous reports; serious drug-related AEs were reported in 6.8% of deferasirox and 6.9% of DFO patients. Continued treatment of severely iron-overloaded beta thalassemia patients with deferasirox or DFO led to sustained improvements in myocardial iron irrespective of high or low baseline myocardial or liver iron burden, in parallel with substantial improvements in liver iron (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00600938).

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with minor beta thalassemia and its related factors: a cross-sectional study

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    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Hasanzadeh, Ali; Mashrouteh, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic disorders, hypertension and lipid profile alterations are of a lower prevalence in patients with minor beta thalassemia. On the other hand, nowadays, metabolic syndrome is considered as one of the major risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with minor beta thalassemia. Methods In this case-control study, body length, weight and waist circumference, ...

  8. Molecular analysis of beta-globin gene mutations among Thai beta-thalassemia children: results from a single center study

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    Boonyawat B

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Boonchai Boonyawat,1 Chalinee Monsereenusorn,2 Chanchai Traivaree2 1Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders in Thailand. Clinical phenotype ranges from silent carrier to clinically manifested conditions including severe beta-thalassemia major and mild beta-thalassemia intermedia. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in pediatric patients who were followed-up in Phramongkutklao Hospital. Patients and methods: Eighty unrelated beta-thalassemia patients were enrolled in this study including 57 with beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E, eight with homozygous beta-thalassemia, and 15 with heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Mutation analysis was performed by multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (M-ARMS, direct DNA sequencing of beta-globin gene, and gap polymerase chain reaction for 3.4 kb deletion detection, respectively. Results: A total of 13 different beta-thalassemia mutations were identified among 88 alleles. The most common mutation was codon 41/42 (-TCTT (37.5%, followed by codon 17 (A>T (26.1%, IVS-I-5 (G>C (8%, IVS-II-654 (C>T (6.8%, IVS-I-1 (G>T (4.5%, and codon 71/72 (+A (2.3%, and all these six common mutations (85.2% were detected by M-ARMS. Six uncommon mutations (10.2% were identified by DNA sequencing including 4.5% for codon 35 (C>A and 1.1% initiation codon mutation (ATG>AGG, codon 15 (G>A, codon 19 (A>G, codon 27/28 (+C, and codon 123/124/125 (-ACCCCACC, respectively. The 3.4 kb deletion was detected at 4.5%. The most common genotype of beta-thalassemia major patients was codon 41/42 (-TCTT/codon 26 (G>A or betaE accounting for 40%. Conclusion: All of the beta-thalassemia alleles have been characterized by

  9. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

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    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  10. Intracranial Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Beta-Thalassemia

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    Karki, Bivek; Xu, Yi Kai; Wu, Yuan Kui [Nan fang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tamrakar, Karuna [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-15

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) represents tumor-like proliferation of hemopoietic tissue which complicates chronic hemoglobinopathy. Intracranial EMH is an extremely rare occurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a precise diagnosis. It is essential to distinguish EMH from other extradural central nervous system tumors, because treatment and prognosis are totally different. Herein, we report the imaging findings of beta-thalassemia in a 13-year-old boy complaining of weakness of left side of the body and gait disturbance; CT and MRI revealed an extradural mass in the right temporoparietal region.

  11. Renal tubular dysfunction with nephrocalcinosis in a patient with beta thalassemia minor

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    Prabahar Murugesan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a hereditary anemia resulting from defect in hemoglobin production. Beta thalassemia is due to impaired production of beta globin chains, leading to a relative excess of alpha globin chains. The term beta thalassemia minor is used to describe heterozygotes, who carry one normal beta globin allele and one beta thalassemic allele. The vast majority of these patients are asymptomatic. However, a variety of renal tubular abnormalities including hypercalciuria, hypo-magnesemia with renal magnesium wasting, decreased tubular absorption of phosphorus, hypo-uricemia with renal uric acid wasting, renal glycosuria and tubular proteinuria have been described even in patients with beta thalassemia minor. We here in report a 24-year old female patient who was found to have thalassemia minor and nephrocalcinosis with evidence of renal tubular dysfunction. Investigations revealed normal renal function, hypercalciuria, reduced tubular reabsorption of phos-phorus, hypomagnesemia and renal magnesium wasting. Screening for aminoaciduria was found to be negative. An acid loading test revealed normal urinary acidification. Ultrasonogram of the abdomen revealed nephrocalcinosis and splenomegaly. Detailed work up for anemia showed normal white cell and platelet count while peripheral smear showed microcytic hypochromic anemia with few target cells. Hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed hemoglobin A of 92%, hemoglobin A2 of 6.2% and hemo-globin F of 1.8% consistent with beta thalassemia minor. Her parental screening was normal. A diag-nosis of beta thalassemia minor with renal tubular dysfunction was made and the patient was started on thiazide diuretics to reduce hypercalciuria and advised regular follow-up.

  12. Progress toward the genetic treatment of the beta-thalassemias.

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    Sadelain, Michel; Lisowski, Leszek; Samakoglu, Selda; Rivella, Stefano; May, Chad; Riviere, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    The beta-thalassemias are congenital anemias that are caused by mutations that reduce or abolish expression of the beta-globin gene. They can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, but this therapeutic option is not available to most patients. The transfer of a regulated beta-globin gene in autologous HSCs is a highly attractive alternative treatment. This strategy, which is simple in principle, raises major challenges in terms of controlling expression of the globin transgene, which ideally should be erythroid specific, differentiation- and stage-restricted, elevated, position independent, and sustained over time. Using lentiviral vectors, May et al. demonstrated in 2000 that an optimized combination of proximal and distal transcriptional control elements permits lineage-specific and elevated beta-globin expression, resulting in therapeutic hemoglobin production and correction of anemia in beta-thalassemic mice. Several groups have by now replicated and extended these findings to various mouse models of severe hemoglobinopathies, thus fueling enthusiasm for a potential treatment of beta-thalassemia based on globin gene transfer. Current investigation focuses on safety issues and the need for improved vector production methodologies. The safe implementation of stem cell-based gene therapy requires the prevention of the formation of replication-competent viral genomes and minimization of the risk of insertional oncogenesis. Importantly, globin vectors, in which transcriptional activity is highly restricted, have a lesser risk of activating oncogenes in hematopoietic progenitors than non-tissue-specific vectors, by virtue of their late-stage erythroid specificity. As such, they provide a general paradigm for improving vector safety in stem cell-based gene therapy.

  13. Management of beta-thalassemia-associated osteoporosis.

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    Giusti, Andrea; Pinto, Valeria; Forni, Gian Luca; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Beta-Thalassemia-associated osteoporosis is a multifactorial and complex condition. Different acquired and genetic factors are involved in its pathogenesis. These factors produce an imbalance in bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoblast activity and increasing osteoclast function, leading to bone loss and increased fracture risk. The management of patients presenting with thalassemia-associated osteoporosis should consist of the implementation of general measures and the prescription of a specific pharmacological agent, with the aim of reducing fracture risk and preventing disability and deterioration of quality of life. General measures include control of anemia, adequate chelation therapy, healthy nutrition and lifestyle, regular exercise, adequate management of comorbid conditions, hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypogonadism, and vitamin D supplementation/therapy. Among the pharmacological agents currently available for the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density, to reduce bone turnover, and to decrease bone/back pain in patients with thalassemia-associated osteoporosis, with a good profile of safety and tolerability. On the other hand, there are limited experiences with other pharmacological agents (e.g., denosumab or teriparatide). The complexity of this condition presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and underscores the importance of a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor subjects in Iran

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    Karimi, Mehran [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Karimim@sums.ac.ir; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahmtan, Mehdi [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafard, Alireza [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashid, Murtaza [Hemostasis and Thrombosis Unit, Hematology Research Center, school of Medicine, Shiraz University of medical sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary blood disorder in the world. Iran is located on the thalassemic belt and there is a high prevalence of the hepatosplenomegaly in beta thalassemia minor patients which is reported to be very variable. The goal of this research was to study the frequency of these signs in the cases with beta thalassemia minor patients in Iran. Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine cases that referred to center for pre-marriage tests were divided into two groups according to their MCV, MCH, and HbA2 (beta thalassemia minor cases and control groups). Liver and spleen sizes were determined by ultrasonographic method and the two groups were compared with each other. Results: Average spleen volumes in case and control groups were 163.48 {+-} 133.97 and 126.29 {+-} 53.98 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Average spleen lengths in case and control groups were 10.71 {+-} 1.52 and 10.60 {+-} 5.4 cm, respectively. Conclusion: In the regions with high frequency of beta thalassemia, in case of finding large spleen size in the ultrasonography, a probable harmless differential diagnosis will be beta thalassemia minor that is not indicative of any serious disease. Volumetric measurement of spleen is more reliable for detection of splenomegaly in these patients.

  15. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

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    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  16. Hepcidin and Hfe in iron overload in beta-thalassemia.

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    Gardenghi, Sara; Ramos, Pedro; Follenzi, Antonia; Rao, Niva; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A; Giardina, Patricia J; Grady, Robert W; Rivella, Stefano

    2010-08-01

    Hepcidin (HAMP) negatively regulates iron absorption, degrading the iron exporter ferroportin at the level of enterocytes and macrophages. We showed that mice with beta-thalassemia intermedia (th3/+) have increased anemia and iron overload. However, their hepcidin expression is relatively low compared to their iron burden. We also showed that the iron metabolism gene Hfe is down-regulated in concert with hepcidin in th3/+ mice. These observations suggest that low hepcidin levels are responsible for abnormal iron absorption in thalassemic mice and that down-regulation of Hfe might be involved in the pathway that controls hepcidin synthesis in beta-thalassemia. Therefore, these studies suggest that increasing hepcidin and/or Hfe expression could be a strategy to reduces iron overload in these animals. The goal of this paper is to review recent findings that correlate hepcidin, Hfe, and iron metabolism in beta-thalassemia and to discuss potential novel therapeutic approaches based on these recent discoveries.

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes

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    Luciana de Souza Ondei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have evaluated the oxidant and antioxidant status of thalassemia patients but most focused mainly on the severe and intermediate states of the disease. Moreover, the oxidative status has not been evaluated for the different beta-thalassemia mutations. Objective: To evaluate lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in relation to serum iron and ferritin in beta thalassemia resulting from two different mutations (CD39 and IVS-I-110 compared to individuals without beta-thalassemia. Methods: One hundred and thirty subjects were studied, including 49 who were heterozygous for beta-thalassemia and 81 controls. Blood samples were subjected to screening tests for hemoglobin. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm mutations for beta-thalassemia, an analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive species was used to determine lipid peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity evaluations were performed. The heterozygous beta-thalassemia group was also evaluated for serum iron and ferritin status. Results: Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (486.24 ± 119.64 ng/mL and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (2.23 ± 0.11 mM/L were higher in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes compared to controls (260.86 ± 92.40 ng/mL and 2.12 ± 0.10 mM/L, respectively; p-value < 0.01. Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species values were observed in subjects with the CD39 mutation compared with those with the IVS-I-110 mutation (529.94 ± 115.60 ng/mL and 453.39 ± 121.10 ng/mL, respectively; p-value = 0.04. However, average Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were similar for both mutations (2.20 ± 0.08 mM/L and 2.23 ± 0.12 mM/L, respectively; p-value = 0.39. There was no influence of serum iron and ferritin levels on thiobarbituric acid reactive species and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values. Conclusion: This study shows an increase of oxidative stress and

  18. Ineffective erythropoiesis in beta-thalassemia is characterized by increased iron absorption mediated by down-regulation of hepcidin and up-regulation of ferroportin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardenghi, Sara; Marongiu, Maria F; Ramos, Pedro; Guy, Ella; Breda, Laura; Chadburn, Amy; Liu, YiFang; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A; Breuer, William; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Wrighting, Diedra M; Andrews, Nancy C; de Sousa, Maria; Giardina, Patricia J; Grady, Robert W; Rivella, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Progressive iron overload is the most salient and ultimately fatal complication of beta-thalassemia. However, little is known about the relationship among ineffective erythropoiesis (IE), the role of iron-regulatory genes, and tissue iron distribution in beta-thalassemia. We analyzed tissue iron content and iron-regulatory gene expression in the liver, duodenum, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and heart of mice up to 1 year old that exhibit levels of iron overload and anemia consistent with both beta-thalassemia intermedia (th3/+) and major (th3/th3). Here we show, for the first time, that tissue and cellular iron distribution are abnormal and different in th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, and that transfusion therapy can rescue mice affected by beta-thalassemia major and modify both the absorption and distribution of iron. Our study reveals that the degree of IE dictates tissue iron distribution and that IE and iron content regulate hepcidin (Hamp1) and other iron-regulatory genes such as Hfe and Cebpa. In young th3/+ and th3/th3 mice, low Hamp1 levels are responsible for increased iron absorption. However, in 1-year-old th3/+ animals, Hamp1 levels rise and it is rather the increase of ferroportin (Fpn1) that sustains iron accumulation, thus revealing a fundamental role of this iron transporter in the iron overload of beta-thalassemia.

  19. The liver in patients with [beta]-thalassemia major. Determination of iron concentration with Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Il fegato dei pazienti affetti da [beta]-talassemia major. Determinazione della concentrazione di ferro con Risonanza Magnetica

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    Midiri, M. (Bari, Policlinico Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia); Gallo, C.; Finazzo, M. (Palermo, Policlinico Univ. ' P. Giaccone' (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia ' Pietro Cignolini' )

    The paper investigates the clinical usefulness of liver MRI in a large multicenter study because the control of iron concentration (LIC) is crucial in thalassemia major (TM) prognosis and conflicting results have been reported in small and heterogeneous groups of patients using MRI, the only very common non-invasive procedure. One hundred and eight consecutive TM patients, selected according to a specific protocol, were included in the study. This study shows that LIC can be calculated as a function of SIR. A validation study is necessary before introducing this prediction rule in clinical practice.

  20. COMBINED USE OF ERYTHROCYTE ZINC PROTOPORPHYRINE AND MCV: DIFFERENTIATION OF BETA THALASSEMIA FROM IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

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    H KHOSHAMOOZ

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the prevalence of beta thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia in Irana need for an accurate, quick, inexpensive and simple method for differential diagnosis between these two disorders is felt. In this study the value of zpp measurement as a tool to distinguish iron deficiency from heterozygous beta thalassemia in microcrystal patients was evaluated. Methods: In this study on 140 persons with microcytosis, the hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum iron, TIBC and serum ferritin and protoporphyrine relating to zinc (ZPP were measured. Results: ZPP had been increased in all iron deficient patients and in 53 percent of Heterozygote beta thalassemia patients. Using combination of MCV and ZPP in iron deficient anemic patients and heterozygote beta thalassemia show the 99 percent accuaracy in differentiation of these two disorders. Discussion: According to the results, this method has better accuracy than red blood cells formulation in the screening programs for beta thalassemia and iron defficiency anemia.

  1. X-ray scattering signatures of {beta}-thalassemia

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    Desouky, Omar S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Elshemey, Wael M. [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: waelelshemey@yahoo.com; Selim, Nabila S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt)

    2009-08-11

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm{sup -1}, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; {beta}-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of {beta}-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm{sup -1}, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  2. THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF PULSED WAVE TISSUE DOPPLER IMAGING IN ASYMPTOMATIC BETA- THALASSEMIA MAJOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS ; RELATION TO CHEMICAL BIOMARKERS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION AND IRON OVERLOAD .

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    Seham Ragab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among  β-halassaemia major (TM  patients.  Once  heart failure becomes overt , it will be  difficult to reverse . Objectives: To investigate non overt cardiac dysfunctions  in TM patients using  pulsed wave Tissue Doppler  Imaging (TD I and its relation to the iron overload and brain natruritic peptide (BNP. Methods: Thorough  clinical , conventional echo and  pulsed  wave TDI  parameters were compared between  asymtomatic 25 β-TM  patients  and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP  levels were assayed by  ELISA .  Results: TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E wave and  non significant other conventional echo  parameters. Pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in the form of significant higher  isovolumetric contraction time (ICT , ejection time ( E T and  isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT with significantly lower  mitral annulus  early diastolic velocity E` (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65 ,P= 0.003  in patients compared to  controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls.  Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions.  Patients with E/E` ≥ 8 had  significant higher  serum ferritin  and plasma BNP levels compared to those with E/E` ratio < 8 without difference in Hb levels .Conclusion:  Pulsed wave TDI  is an  important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP .

  3. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

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    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  4. THE IMPACT OF IRON DEFICIENCY ON HBA2 LEVEL IN BETA THALASSEMIA MINOR IN SULAIMANI NORTHEASTERN IRAQ

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    Awaz Ahmed Kamal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: HbA2 plays a key role in screening programs for beta thalassemia because a small increase in this fraction is the most important marker of beta thalassemia heterozygous carriers. The potential impact of coincident iron deficiency on HbA2 based identification of beta thalassemia minor is worrisome issue for screening laboratories, this is especially true for resource-constrained settings where iron deficiency is wide spread and molecular confirmatory tests for borderline HbA2 values may be unavailable. Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency on HbA2 level in order to improve the detection of beta thalassemia trait with or without iron deficiency in our population. Materials and Method: In this study 145 individuals were enrolled including normal controls (50, beta thalassemia minor (50 and coincident beta thalassemia with iron deficiency cases (45. Complete blood count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and HbA2 with HbF estimation were done for every individual. Result: The mean HbA2 level was (2.4± 0.4 in control, (5.2 ± 0.9 in beta thalassemia minor and 5.1± 0.9 in coincident iron deficiency with beta thalassemia minors. All hematological parameters were significantly lower in beta thalassemia minor and coincident iron deficiency with beta thalassemia minor in comparison to the control group .Mean HbA2 level did not show a significant difference in thalassemia minor (5.2±0.9 when compared with the mean HbA2 levels in coincidentiron deficiency with beta thalassemia minor. Conclusion: The presence of iron deficiency did not preclude the detection of beta thalassemia minor in our population

  5. 地拉罗司治疗重型β-地中海贫血铁过载的三年临床试验研究%A 3-year clinical trial of deferasirox in heavily iron-overloaded patients with Beta-thalassemia major

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    刘容容; 赖永榕; 马劼; 张新华; 罗建明; 李辉萍; 梁金清; 李喆; 王明月; 苏鹏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in heavily iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia major. Methods A single arm, open-label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in the treatment for 23 patients with beta-thalassemia major and heavily iron-overloaded in 3 years follow-up. Results The 23 patients never received regular chelation before enrolling this trial [the mean baseline of serum ferritin was (5433.96 ± 2873.90) μg/L]. In this trial, a deferasirox dose of 20 mg·kg-1·d-1 could stabilize serum ferritin levles,while of ≥30mg·d-1 reduced the levels and achieved negative iron balance. There were no serious adverse events related to the drug.Most common adverse events were mild increases of liver enzyme and serum creatinine levels. Overall, 23 patients could tolerate the drug on schedule and all completed the trial. Conclusion As a new oral iron chelator, deferasirox has a significant efficacy for the treatment of iron overload. The effectiveness is dependent on the courses of treatment and the dose of deferasirox. The single-dose used is safe and tolerated, so deferasirox can remarkably improve life quality of patients.%目的 评价新型口服铁螯合剂--地拉罗司治疗重型β-地中海贫血(β-地贫)患者铁过载的疗效及安全性.方法 采用单组、开放试验设计,观察23例重型β-地贫铁过载患者3年随访中地拉罗司的疗效及安全性.结果 入组的23例重型β-地贫患者治疗前均未规则使用铁螫合剂,铁过载状况严重[血清铁蛋白平均基线值为(5433.96±2873.90)μg/L].20 mg·kg-1·d-1的地拉罗司能维持患者铁过载处于平衡状态,治疗前后血清铁蛋白水平无显著性变化;随治疗时间的延长,服药剂量的增加,≥30 mg·kg-1·d-1的地拉罗司能使患者铁过载达到负平衡状态,治疗前后比较血清铁蛋白水平差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).3年随访中未出现地拉罗

  6. THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF COMBINED THERAPY WITH DEFERASIROX AND SILYMARIN ON IRON OVERLOAD IN CHILDREN WITH BETA THALASSEMIA

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    adel abd elhaleim hagag

    2013-11-01

    Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 children with beta thalassemia major under follow-up at Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University Hospital having serum ferritin level more than 1000 ng/ml and was divided in two groups. Group IA: Received oral Deferasirox (Exjade and silymarin for 6 months. Group IB: Received oral Deferasirox (Exjade and placebo for 6 months and 20 healthy children serving as a control group in the period between April 2011 and August 2012 and was performed after approval from research ethical committee center in Tanta University Hospital and obtaining an informed written parental consent from all participants in this research. Results: Serum ferritin levels were markedly decreased in group IA cases compared with group IB (P= 0.001. Conclusion: From this study we concluded that, silymarin in combination with Exjade can be safely used in treatment of iron-loaded thalassemic patients as it showed good iron chelation with no sign of toxicity. Recommendations: Extensive multicenter studies in large number of patients with longer duration of follow up and more advanced methods of assessment of iron status is recommended to clarify the exact role of silymarin in reduction of iron over load in children with beta thalassemia.

  7. Globin gene transfer for treatment of the beta-thalassemias and sickle cell disease.

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    Sadelain, Michel; Rivella, Stefano; Lisowski, Leszek; Samakoglu, Selda; Rivière, Isabelle

    2004-09-01

    The beta-thalassemias and sickle cell disease are severe congenital anemias that are caused by mutations that alter the production of the beta chain of hemoglobin. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is curative, but this therapeutic option is not available to the majority of patients. The transfer of a functional globin gene in autologous HCSs thus represents a highly attractive alternative treatment. This strategy, simple in principle, raises major challenges in terms of controlling the expression of the globin transgene, which ideally should be erythroid specific, differentiation-stage restricted, elevated, position independent, and sustained over time. Using lentiviral vectors, we have demonstrated that an optimised combination of proximal and distal transcriptional control elements permits lineage-specific, elevated expression of the beta-globin gene, resulting in therapeutic hemoglobin production and correction of anemia in beta-thalassemic mice. Several groups have now confirmed and extended these findings in various mouse models of severe hemoglobinopathies, thus generating enthusiasm for a genetic treatment based on globin gene transfer. Furthermore, globin vectors represent a general paradigm for the regulation of transgene function and the improvement of vector safety by restricting transgene expression to the differentiated progeny within a single lineage, thereby reducing the risk of activating oncogenes in hematopoietic progenitors. Here we review the principles underlying the genesis of regulated vectors for stem cell therapy.

  8. Could Heterozygous Beta Thalassemia Provide Protection Against Multiple Sclerosis?

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    Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozcan, Muhammed Emin; Halac, Gulistan; Gultepe, Ilhami; Celik, Kenan; Sekin, Yahya; Eser, Elif Ece; Burhan, Sebnem; Cetin, Guven; Uysal, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterozygous beta thalassemia (HBT) has been proposed to increase the risk of developing autoimmune disease. Our aim in this study was to examine the prevalence of HBT among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Material/Methods HBT frequency was investigated in our MS group (243 patients with MS). Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE) was carried out if MS patients had a mean corpuscular volume of (MCV) <80 fL and a mean corpuscular hemoglobin level of (MCH) <27 pg/L according to a complete blood count (CBC). If MCV was lower than 80 fL, MCH was lower than 27 pg/L, and Hemoglobin A2 equal to or higher than 3.5%, a diagnosis of HBT was established. The frequency of patients with HBT in our MS patient group was statistically compared with the prevalence of HBT in the city of Istanbul, where our MS patients lived. Results The HBT prevalence was 0.823% (2 patients) in the MS patient group. The prevalence of HBT in Istanbul has been reported to be 4.5%. According to the z-test, the HBT prevalence in our MS patient group was significantly lower than that in Istanbul (Z=6.3611, two-sided p value <0.0001, 95% confidence interval of prevalence of HBT in our MS patient group: 0.000998–0.029413). Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis at the outset of study, the reduced HBT prevalence in the MS group compared to HBT frequency in the city of Istanbul might indicate that HBT is protective against MS. PMID:27941710

  9. Spinal cord compression in {beta}-thalassemia: follow-up after radiotherapy

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    Fonseca, Silvana Fahel da; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Cancado, Rodolfo Delfini; Nakadakare, Fernando; Segreto, Roberto; Kerbauy, Jose [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    1998-12-01

    Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis is a well-described bu rare syndrome encountered in several hematologic disorders, including {beta}-thalassemia. We report a case of a patient with intermediate {beta}-thalassemia and crural paraparesis due to spinal cord compression by a paravertebral extramedullary mass. She was successfully treated with low-dose radiotherapy and transfusions. After splenectomy, she was regularly followed up for over four years without transfusion or recurrence of spinal cord compression. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should be investigated in patients with hematologic disorders and spinal cord symptoms. The rapid recognition and treatment with radiotherapy can dramatically alleviate symptoms. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the children with beta-thalassemia in terms of their self-concept, behavioral, and parental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçn, Siddika Songül; Durmuşoğlu-Sendoğdu, Mine; Gümrük, Fatma; Unal, Selma; Karg, Eda; Tuğrul, Belma

    2007-08-01

    This study was planned to explore the self-concept, behavioral, and parental attitudes of the children with beta-thalassemia major, and the factors that affect them. The study was undertaken between January and June 2004 at the Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital, Pediatric Hematology Unit, Ankara and 43 voluntary children with beta-thalassemia major on regular blood transfusion and iron chelation treatment between the ages of 5.0 and 18.0 years were included into the study. Age, sex, birth order, school performance, hemoglobin value, serum ferritin levels, associated illness, splenectomy status, presence of thalassemic sibling or relatives, death of thalassemic relatives, place of residence, maternal and paternal education were recorded. Parental Attitude Research Instrument, Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist were applied. Higher educated mothers have lower overprotection (P=0.009), parental discordance (P=0.044), and discipline scores (P=0.002) than lower educated mothers. In cases with death of thalassemic relatives, democratic/equality attitude scores were decreased (P=0.034). With stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, splenectomy, good school achievement, absence of death of thalassemic relatives, and serum ferritin levels were found to increase Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale; however, total behavior problem score was found to decrease with increasing age, splenectomy and decreasing overprotection subscale of Parental Attitude Research Instrument scores. The self-esteem and behavior problems of children with thalassemia depended not only on the variables related exclusively to the child (age, school achievement) and the illness-associated conditions (splenectomy, serum ferritin levels) but also on the parental attitude (overprotection).

  11. Iron metabolism in heterozygotes for hemoglobin E (HbE), alpha-thalassemia1, or beta-thalassemia and in compound heterozygotes for HbE/ beta-thalassemia

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    M.B. Zimmermann; Fucharoen, S; Winichagoon, P.; Sirankapracha, P.; Zeder, C.; Gowachirapant, S.; Judprasong, K.; Tanno, T.; Miller, J. L.; Hurrell, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite large populations carrying traits for thalassemia in countries implementing universal iron fortification, there are few data on the absorption and utilization of iron in these persons. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether iron absorption or utilization (or both) in women heterozygous for beta-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia 1, or hemoglobin E (HbE) differed from that in control subjects and compound HbE/beta-thalassemia heterozygotes. DESIGN: In Thai women (n = 103), re...

  12. Genetic therapy for beta-thalassemia: from the bench to the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Paritha; Malik, Punam

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder with mutations in the β-globin gene that reduce or abolish β-globin protein production. Patients with β-thalassemia major (Cooley's anemia) become severely anemic by 6 to 18 months of age, and are transfusion dependent for life, while those with thalassemia intermedia, a less-severe form of thalassemia, are intermittently or rarely transfused. An allogeneically matched bone marrow transplant is curative, although it is restricted to those with matched donors. Gene therapy holds the promise of "fixing" one's own bone marrow cells by transferring the normal β-globin or γ-globin gene into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to permanently produce normal red blood cells. Requirements for effective gene transfer for the treatment of β-thalassemia are regulated, erythroid-specific, consistent, and high-level β-globin or γ-globin expression. Gamma retroviral vectors have had great success with immune-deficiency disorders, but due to vector-associated limitations, they have limited utility in hemoglobinopathies. Lentivirus vectors, on the other hand, have now been shown in several studies to correct mouse and animal models of thalassemia. The immediate challenges of the field as it moves toward clinical trials are to optimize gene transfer and engraftment of a high proportion of genetically modified HSCs and to minimize the adverse consequences that can result from random integration of vectors into the genome by improving current vector design or developing novel vectors. This article discusses the current state of the art in gene therapy for β-thalassemia and some of the challenges it faces in human trials.

  13. Prevalence and hematological characteristics of beta-thalassemia trait in Gaziantep urban area, Turkey.

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    Gurbak, Mehmet; Sivasli, Ercan; Coskun, Yavuz; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Ergin, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in the Mediterranean region and studies have shown that the prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait is high in the southern part of Turkey. Gaziantep is a city located near this region and, therefore, the authors investigated the prevalence and hematological characteristics of the beta-thalassemia traits in primary school students in Gaziantep. Sixty primary schools were selected from a list of all primary schools using a systematic sampling method. Data were collected by a face-to-face questionnaire. Osmotic fragility testing (OFT) using single-tube 0.36% NaCl solution was used for the screening of beta-thalassemia. Students who were positive in regard to OFT went through a series of testing, including a complete blood count, serum ferritin levels, serum iron, and hemoglobin electroforesis. Chi-square test was used in statistical analysis. Of the 2439 students enrolled to the study from the selected 60 classrooms, 1353 (55.5%) were male and 1086 (44.5%) were female. The OFT was positive in 115 (4.7%) of the participants. CEA and confirmatory HPLC results of the students who were positive OFT indicated that 70 (60.8%) had normal results, 33(28.7%) showed high HbA2 levels, 7 (6.1%) showed high HbA2 and HbF levels, 5(5.2%) showed high HbA2 and Fe-deficiency anemia, and none showed increased HbF levels. The overall prevalence of beta-thalassemia trait was 1.84%. No gender differentials and highest rates among the Kahramanmaras (3.5%) and Sanliurfa (1.7%) born students were the other significant findings of this study. Implementation of a routine carrier-screening program offering genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and selective termination of affected fetuses would be a wise approach to eliminate this disease from the region.

  14. [Neonatal expression of beta-thalassemia trait associated with hereditary spherocytosis in two monozygotic twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamouda, H; Mahjoub, B; Soua, H; Laradi, S; Miled, A; Sfar, M T

    2017-02-01

    The beta-thalassemia trait is a heterozygous beta-thalassemia characterized by a partial deficiency of the synthesis of beta-globin chains of hemoglobin. It is usually asymptomatic and the diagnosis is often made on the occasion of the completion of a systematic blood count or a family survey. Clinical expression during the neonatal period is impossible and its association with hereditary spherocytosis is common. We report two monozygotic twins who, on the 3rd day of life, presented intense jaundice, unconjugated bilirubin associated with anemia, without hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory tests found nonimmune hemolytic anemia with microcytosis and hypochromia justifying iterative blood transfusions. The etiological investigation found heterozygous beta-thalassemia associated with hereditary spherocytosis. The family investigation and molecular analysis objectified the beta-thalassemic mutation IVS1nt110 (G→A) in the heterozygous state in the twins, the father, the mother, and in one of the two brothers. With any nonimmune hemolytic anemia in newborns, the etiological investigation should be systematic for early diagnosis and to plan appropriate treatment.

  15. Rare association between two genetic conditions: turner syndrome and beta thalassemia minor

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    Dorina STOICANESCU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare disorders are defined as diseases, including those of genetic origin, which are life-threatening or chronically debilitating, which are of such low prevalence that special combined efforts are needed to address them. We present a case with a rare association between two genetic conditions: Turner phenotype and beta thalassemia minor. Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that is characterized by the absence of all or part of a second sex chromosome in some or all cells. This condition occurs in 1 in 2,500 to 3,000 girls. The physical features include webbing of the neck, short stature, delayed growth of the skeleton, broad chest, cardivascular abnormalities and gonadal dysgenesis. Women with this disorder are usually infertile due to ovarian failure. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the cytogenetic and by FISH analysis, which revealed the presence of only one X chromosome. Treatment may include human growth hormone and estrogen replacement therapy. On the other hand, thalassemias are genetic conditions that result from imbalance in the normal coordinated synthesis of the globin subunits that make up the hemoglobin tetramer, leading to decreased and defective production of hemoglobin. Beta thalassemia syndromes are hereditary disorders characterized by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of beta-globin chains. Beta thalassemia is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Thalassemia minor usually presents as an asymptomatic mild microcytic anemia, but our case also had splenomegaly and required splenectomy.

  16. Valores de ferritina sérica em beta talassemia heterozigota Serum ferritin levels in beta thalassemia carrier

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    Isabeth F. Estevão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A low iron level, the commonest nutritional deficiency in the world, is a public health problem in developing countries. On the other hand, an excessive amount of iron is toxic, causing several organic dysfunctions, such as diabetes, cirrhosis, endocrinopathies and heart disease. Researchers have reported an association of iron overload with beta-thalassemia. The aim of this paper was to compare the serum ferritin levels of women with the beta-thalassemia trait. The results of serologic tests of 137 women of childbearing age were analyzed; 63 had the beta-thalassemia trait and 74 had Hb AA. In the beta-thalassemia carriers, the median ferritin value was 51.90 ng/mL and in the non-carriers 31.60 ng/mL (p = 0.0052. Levels of less than 20 and above 150 ng/mL were observed in 28% and 3% of the non-carriers and in 16% and 11% of the carriers, respectively. With these results it is possible to conclude that women in the reproductive age with the beta-thalassemia trait present higher ferritin levels in the northeastern region of São Paulo State. Further studies are necessary to clarify possible genetic and/or environment factors which interfere in iron absorption.

  17. Iron metabolism and ineffective erythropoiesis in beta-thalassemia mouse models.

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    Ramos, Pedro; Melchiori, Luca; Gardenghi, Sara; Van-Roijen, Nico; Grady, Robert W; Ginzburg, Yelena; Rivella, Stefano

    2010-08-01

    beta-thalassemia is a disease associated with decreased beta-globin production leading to anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and iron overload. New mechanisms associated with modulation of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism have recently been discovered in thalassemic mice, improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. These discoveries have the potential to be translated into clinically-relevant therapeutic options to reduce ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload. A new generation of therapies based on limiting ineffective erythropoiesis, iron absorption, and the correction of iron maldistribution could be on the way, possibly complementing and improving the current standard of patient care.

  18. Exploring the role of hepcidin, an antimicrobial and iron regulatory peptide, in increased iron absorption in beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Laura; Gardenghi, Sara; Guy, Ella; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A; Weizer-Stern, Orly; Adamsky, Konstantin; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Giardina, Patricia J; Grady, Robert W; Rivella, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    To develop new treatments for beta-thalassemia, it is essential to identify the genes involved in the relevant pathophysiological processes. Iron metabolism in thalassemia mice being investigated, focusing on the expression of a gene called hepcidin (Hamp), which is expressed in the liver and whose product (Hamp) is secreted into the bloodstream. In mice, iron overload leads to overexpression of Hamp, while Hamp-knockout mice suffer from hemochromatosis. The aim of this study is to investigate Hamp in the mouse model of beta-thalassemia and to address the potential gene transfer of Hamp to prevent abnormal iron absorption.

  19. Molecular Identification Of Sicilian (deltabeta) Degrees-thalassemia Associated With Beta-thalassemia And Hemoglobin S In Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two unrelated Brazilian families with an association of the Sicilian form of (deltabeta) degrees -thalassemia with hemoglobin S and beta-thalassemia. Direct sequencing of the beta-globin gene showed only the hemoglobin S mutation in patient 1 and the beta-thalassemia IVS1-110 in patient 2. The other allele was deleted in both patients and PCR of DNA samples of the breakpoint region of both patients showed a band of approximately 1,150 ...

  20. Beta-thalassemia mutations in Rome. A high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele in subjects of latium origin.

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    Massa, A; Cianciulli, P; Cianetti, L; Iazzone, R; Cenci, A; Sorrentino, F; Franco, G; Pecci, G; Papa, G; Peschle, C

    1994-01-01

    We studied the molecular bases of beta-thalassemia in Rome, a city centrally located in Latium, which is a region with a low incidence of beta-carriers. People also come to Rome from other regions for specific or prenatal diagnostic assessment. Only 11 patients (20%) out of 62 characterized beta-thalassemia subjects were of Latium family origin. They presented five mutations with an uncommonly high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele, that was found in homozygosis in 4 unrelated patients from a southeastern area in the province of Frosinone. These data may indicate a founder effect.

  1. beta-Thalassemia: HiJAKing Ineffective Erythropoiesis and Iron Overload.

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    Melchiori, Luca; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    beta-thalassemia encompasses a group of monogenic diseases that have in common defective synthesis of beta-globin. The defects involved are extremely heterogeneous and give rise to a large phenotypic spectrum, with patients that are almost asymptomatic to cases in which regular blood transfusions are required to sustain life. As a result of the inefficient synthesis of beta-globin, the patients suffer from chronic anemia due to a process called ineffective erythropoiesis (IE). The sequelae of IE lead to extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) with massive splenomegaly and dramatic iron overload, which in turn is responsible for many of the secondary pathologies observed in thalassemic patients. The processes are intimately linked such that an ideal therapeutic approach should address all of the complications. Although beta-thalassemia is one of the first monogenic diseases to be described and represents a global health problem, only recently has the scientific community started to focus on the real molecular mechanisms that underlie this disease, opening new and exciting therapeutic perspectives for thalassemic patients worldwide.

  2. Decreased differentiation of erythroid cells exacerbates ineffective erythropoiesis in beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libani, Ilaria V; Guy, Ella C; Melchiori, Luca; Schiro, Raffaella; Ramos, Pedro; Breda, Laura; Scholzen, Thomas; Chadburn, Amy; Liu, YiFang; Kernbach, Margrit; Baron-Lühr, Bettina; Porotto, Matteo; de Sousa, Maria; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A; Hood, John D; Cappellini, M Domenica; Giardina, Patricia J; Grady, Robert W; Gerdes, Johannes; Rivella, Stefano

    2008-08-01

    In beta-thalassemia, the mechanism driving ineffective erythropoiesis (IE) is insufficiently understood. We analyzed mice affected by beta-thalassemia and observed, unexpectedly, a relatively small increase in apoptosis of their erythroid cells compared with healthy mice. Therefore, we sought to determine whether IE could also be characterized by limited erythroid cell differentiation. In thalassemic mice, we observed that a greater than normal percentage of erythroid cells was in S-phase, exhibiting an erythroblast-like morphology. Thalassemic cells were associated with expression of cell cycle-promoting genes such as EpoR, Jak2, Cyclin-A, Cdk2, and Ki-67 and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-X(L). The cells also differentiated less than normal erythroid ones in vitro. To investigate whether Jak2 could be responsible for the limited cell differentiation, we administered a Jak2 inhibitor, TG101209, to healthy and thalassemic mice. Exposure to TG101209 dramatically decreased the spleen size but also affected anemia. Although our data do not exclude a role for apoptosis in IE, we propose that expansion of the erythroid pool followed by limited cell differentiation exacerbates IE in thalassemia. In addition, these results suggest that use of Jak2 inhibitors has the potential to profoundly change the management of this disorder.

  3. Approaches to management of beta-thalassemia intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Maakaron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia intermedia is a genetically diverse group of diseases that is the result of an imbalance in the production of the alpha and beta chains with ensuing chronic hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, and iron overload.Resulting complications include bone changes, hypercoagulability, and end-organ damage due to iron overload. This decade has witnessed major breakthroughs in the management of thalassemia. In this article, we examine these novelties in therapy including iron chelation therapy, stem cell transplant, and gene therapy.Iron chelation therapy has been revolutionized with the advent of deferasirox, a once-daily oral iron chelator, that has been shown to be safe and efficacious.Gene therapy was also at the core of this revolution with the discovery of novel gene elements and viral vectors allowing for better control and improved outcomes.

  4. Molecular mechanisms associated with increased fetal hemoglobin G gamma-type in part-aboriginal family with beta thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motum, P I; Lammi, A; Trent, R J

    1989-07-01

    A part-Aboriginal family with beta thalassemia and raised hemoglobin F (HbF) was studied at the molecular level to determine if there were identifiable gene changes associated with increased production of HbF. Two beta thalassemia heterozygotes aged eight years and 18 months had raised HbF levels of 2.9% and 22% respectively. HbF was predominantly G gamma in composition. Five family members were typed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) using nine restriction enzymes and five DNA probes specific for the beta globin cluster on chromosome 11. RFLPs were combined to construct haplotypes for the beta thalassemia and the high HbF defects. A beta globin subhaplotype comprising only 5' RFLP markers (-(+)-(+) +) co-segregated with the high HbF determinant. This has previously been associated with increased G gamma expression in beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. An additional Xmnl RFLP 5' to the G gamma gene, which has been described in individuals with elevated G gamma expression, was also demonstrated in those family members with increased G gamma levels. In this study both the 5' beta globin subhaplotype (-(+)-(+) +) and the Xmnl/gamma RFLP are present in the one family but the relative contributions of each cannot be determined.

  5. Role of alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein in normal erythropoiesis and beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mitchell J; Zhou, Suiping; Feng, Liang; Gell, David A; Mackay, Joel P; Shi, Yigong; Gow, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis is coordinated by homeostatic mechanisms to limit the accumulation of free alpha or beta subunits, which are cytotoxic. Alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) is an abundant erythroid protein that specifically binds free alphaHb, stabilizes its structure, and limits its ability to participate in chemical reactions that generate reactive oxygen species. Gene ablation studies in mice demonstrate that AHSP is required for normal erythropoiesis. AHSP-null erythrocytes are short-lived, contain Hb precipitates, and exhibit signs of oxidative damage. Loss of AHSP exacerbates beta-thalassemia in mice, indicating that altered AHSP expression or function could modify thalassemia phenotypes in humans, a topic that is beginning to be explored in clinical studies. We used biochemical, spectroscopic, and crystallographic methods to examine how AHSP stabilizes alphaHb. AHSP binds the G and H helices of alphaHb on a surface that largely overlaps with the alpha1-beta1 interface of HbA. This result explains previous findings that betaHb can competitively displace AHSP from alphaHb to form HbA tetramer. Remarkably, binding of AHSP to oxygenated alphaHb induces dramatic conformational changes and converts the heme-bound iron to an oxidized hemichrome state in which all six coordinate positions are occupied. This structure limits the reactivity of heme iron, providing a mechanism by which AHSP stabilizes alphaHb. These findings suggest a biochemical pathway through which AHSP might participate in normal Hb synthesis and modulate the severity of thalassemias. Moreover, understanding how AHSP stabilizes alphaHb provides a theoretical basis for new strategies to inhibit the damaging effects of free alphaHb that accumulates in beta-thalassemia.

  6. Common haplotype dependency of high G gamma-globin gene expression and high Hb F levels in beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Labie, D; Pagnier, J.; Lapoumeroulie, C; Rouabhi, F; Dunda-Belkhodja, O; Chardin, P; Beldjord, C; Wajcman, H; Fabry, M E; Nagel, R L

    1985-01-01

    We have studied 42 homozygous beta-thalassemia patients from Algeria and 34 sickle cell anemia patients from Senegal and Benin, determining the relationship between haplotypes, Hb F, and G gamma-globin/A gamma-globin ratios. Populations selected have a high frequency of haplotype homozygotes because of consanguinity (Algeria) and geographic homogeneity (West Africa). We find in beta-thalassemia patients, that haplotype IX in haplotypic homozygotes and heterozygotes, haplotype III in heterozyg...

  7. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  8. Characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in patients from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zama Messala Luna da Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 unrelated individuals were studied for characterization as either heterozygous or homozygous for beta-thalassemia. Molecular analysis was done by PCR/RFLP to detect the mutations most commonly associated with beta-thalassemia (β0IVS-I-1, β+IVS-I-6, and β039. In the patients who showed none of these mutations, the beta-globin genes were sequenced. Of the 31 heterozygous patients, 13 (41.9% had the β+IVS-I-6 mutation, 15 (48.4% the β0IVS-I-1 mutation, 2 (6.5% the β+IVS-I-110 mutation and 1 (3.2% the β+IVS-I-5 mutation. IVS-I-6 was detected in the four homozygotes. The mutation in codon 39, often found in previous studies in Brazil, was not detected in the present case. This is the first study aiming at identifying mutations that determine beta-thalassemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  9. Isospora solimanae sp. nov. from the Egyptian hoopoe (Upupa epops major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A K

    1992-12-01

    Isospora solimanae (sp. nov.) is recorded for the first time infecting the Egyptian hoopoe (Upupa epops major). Unsporulated as well as sporulated oocysts were studied, photographed and compared with other isosporan infections of related birds. Site of infection and invasion limits were determined among naturally infected hoopoes and represented diagramatically. The rate of infection was congruent to 37.5%, and its severity considered to be non-pathogenic, since no remarkable lesions were observed. No extra-intestinal site of parasite development was recorded.

  10. beta-thalassaemia major hos børn og unge i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Anne; Main, Katharina Maria; Scheibel, Elma

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Beta-thalassemia major occurs with increasing frequency among Danish children as a result of immigration. The aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence of beta-thalassemia major in Denmark, analyse the treatment and organ functions, and identify areas for an improved treatment...... strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During 1998-99 all Danish pediatric departments were contacted for identification of children aged 0-18 years with beta-thalassemia major. Blood transfusions and chelation therapy were registered, and for Eastern Denmark clinical, endocrine, cardiac, and serologic parameters...... were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-six children had beta-thalassemia major. Out of these, 20 received blood transfusions, and 17 patients were chelated. Eight patients were not chelated owing to previous bone marrow transplantation, treatment with hydroxyurea or ferritin

  11. Cell and Gene Therapy for the Beta-Thalassemias: Advances and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Riviere, Isabelle; Boulad, Farid; Sadelain, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The beta-thalassemias are inherited anemias caused by mutations that severely reduce or abolish expression of the beta-globin gene. Like sickle cell disease, a related beta-globin gene disorder, they are ideal candidates for performing a genetic correction in patient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The most advanced approach utilizes complex lentiviral vectors encoding the human β-globin gene, as first reported by May et al. in 2000. Considerable progress toward the clinical implementation of this approach has been made in the past five years, based on effective CD34+ cell mobilization and improved lentiviral vector manufacturing. Four trials have been initiated in the United States and Europe. Of 16 evaluable subjects, 6 have achieved transfusion independence. One of them developed a durable clonal expansion, which regressed after several years without transformation. Although globin lentiviral vectors have so far proven to be safe, this occurrence suggests that powerful insulators with robust enhancer-blocking activity will further enhance this approach. The combined discovery of Bcl11a-mediated γ-globin gene silencing and advances in gene editing are the foundations for another gene therapy approach, which aims to reactivate fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production. Its clinical translation will hinge on the safety and efficiency of gene targeting in true HSCs and the induction of sufficient levels of HbF to achieve transfusion independence. Altogether, the progress achieved over the past 15 years bodes well for finding a genetic cure for severe globin disorders in the next decade.

  12. New strategies to target iron metabolism for the treatment of beta thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidou, Paraskevi Rea; Casu, Carla; Rivella, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and a fundamental component of enzymes and other proteins that participate in a wide range of biological processes. As the human body has no mechanisms to eliminate the excess of iron, its metabolism needs to be tightly controlled in order to avoid all the sequelae associated with high iron levels. Iron overload is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in beta thalassemia. The master regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin, is chronically repressed in this disorder, leading to increased intestinal iron absorption and consequent iron overload. Many groups have focused on obtaining a better understanding of the pathways involved in iron regulation. New molecules have recently been synthesized and used in animal models of dysregulated iron metabolism, demonstrating their ability to target and reduce iron load. Antisense oligonucleotides, as well as lipid nanoparticle-formulated small interfering RNAs and minihepcidins peptides, are novel agents that have already proved to be efficient in modulating iron metabolism in mouse models and are therefore promising candidates for the treatment of patients affected by iron disorders.

  13. 广西重型β地中海贫血HBS1L-MYB基因多态性与胎儿血红蛋白的相关性研究%Correlation between HBS1L-MYB polymorphism and fetal hemoglobin in beta-thalassemia major in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春蓝; 刘容容; 赖永榕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism of HBS1L-MYB genes ( rs35959442, rs4895441,rs9399137) and fetal hemoglobin(HbF) in patients with β-thalassemia major.Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms of HBS1L-MYB genes ( rs35959442, rs4895441, rs9399137 ) were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RELP) and DNA sequencing among 64 β-thalassemia major patients(case group) and 64 normal individuals(control group).Their association with HbF level was analyzed.Results The G allele frequencies of rs4895441 and rs35959442 loci of HBS1L-MYB gene in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group(P0.05).rs4895441 and rs35959442 loci positively correlated with HbF level (P0.0167).Conclusion HBS1L-MYB polymorphism correlates with HbF level in patients withβ-thalassemia major in Guangxi.The rs4895441 and rs35959442 mutations might contribute to increasing the HbF level.%目的:研究HBS1L-MYB基因rs35959442、rs4895441和rs9399137位点多态性与胎儿血红蛋白( HbF)的相关性。方法通过聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性,DNA测序技术检测广西籍64例重型β地中海贫血患者(病例组)及64例健康对照组HBS1L-MYB基因rs35959442、rs4895441和rs9399137位点多态性,并分析它们与HbF水平的相关性。结果病例组HBS1L-MYB基因rs4895441和rs35959442位点G等位基因频率均明显高于健康对照组(P<0.05),而两组rs9399137位点等位基因频率及基因型分布比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。 rs4895441位点、rs35959442位点与HbF水平呈正相关关系(P<0.0167),rs9399137位点与HbF无相关关系(P>0.0167)。结论广西重型地中海贫血HBS1L-MYB基因多态性与HbF水平有关,rs35959442和rs4895441位点基因突变可能有助于提高HbF的水平。

  14. Marcadores eletrocardiográficos para detecção precoce de doença cardíaca em pacientes com talassemia beta maior Electrocardiographic markers for the early detection of cardiac disease in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Nisli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente a dispersão da onda P (DOP em pacientes com talassemia beta maior (β-TM e indivíduos saudáveis (controles para a detecção precoce do risco de arritmias. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e uma crianças com β-TM, com idades entre 4 e 19 anos, e 74 crianças saudáveis (grupo controle foram submetidas a exame eletrocardiográfico e ecocardiograma transtorácico de rotina para avaliação cardíaca. A DOP foi calculada como a diferença entre as durações máxima e mínima da onda P. RESULTADOS: Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo de estudo e o grupo controle no pico de velocidade do fluxo transmitral no início da diástole (E e na razão E/fluxo transmitral tardio (A. A duração máxima da onda P e a DOP foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com β-TM do que nos indivíduos controles. CONCLUSÕES: O aumento da DOP em nossos pacientes com β-TM pode estar relacionado à depressão na condução intra-atrial, devido à dilatação atrial, e ao aumento da atividade simpática. Estes pacientes devem ser acompanhados atentamente devido à possibilidade de ocorrência de arritmias com risco de vida.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate P-wave dispersion (PWD in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM and healthy control subjects for the early prediction of arrhythmia risk. METHODS: Eighty-one children with β-TM, aged 4-19 years, and 74 healthy children (control group underwent routine electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography for cardiac evaluation. PWD was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between study and control groups in peak early (E mitral inflow velocity and E/late (A velocity ratio. Maximum P-wave duration and PWD were found to be significantly higher in β-TM patients than in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Increased PWD in our β-TM patients might be related

  15. 重型β地中海贫血患者BCL11A表达水平及其与临床表现的相关性分析%Expression of BCL11 A in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major and Its Correlation with Clinic Manifestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓林; 林万华; 方素萍; 陈希玲; 张天郎; 罗瑞贵; 李静; 吴志奎; 张新华

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重型β地中海贫血患者( thalassemia major,TM)BCL11A表达特点及其与临床表现的关系.方法 正常人和TM患者各24例,分离外周血单个核细胞,实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction,qRT-PCR)法检测BCL11A、γ基因mRNA表达水平,同时检测血常规血红蛋白(hemoglobin,Hb)、血红蛋白分析仪检测胎儿血红蛋白(fetal hemoglobin,HbF),并行相关性检验.结果 TM患者的HbF、γmRNA水平显著高于正常人群(13.7%±13.6% vs 0.28%±0.15%,P<0.001;2479%±279% vs 10.61%±0.41%,P<0.001),2组BCL11A基因mRNA水平无统计学差异(0.73%±0.26% vs 0.77%±0.22%,P=0.590).TM患者中25%(6例)的患者HbF正常,与HbF升高者比较,其γmRNA水平要低(62.10%±16.49%vs 3285.2%±2792.2%,P<0.001),但BCL11A mRNA水平无统计学差异(0.78%±0.21% vs 0.72%±(0.28%,P=0.704).TM患者BCL11A mRNA水平与首次输血年龄无显著相关(r=0.201,P=0.345).结论 BCL11A不参与TM患者的γ基因的开放和HbF代偿性增加.%Objective To investigate the expression of BCL11A in patients with thalassemia major (TM) and its correlation with clinic manifestation. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated from 24 TM patients and 24 normal persons, BCL11A and γ mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Hemoglobin level and HbF percentage were detected by blood routine analysis and hemoglobin analysis. Results Compared with normal control, HbF level and y mRNA level in TM patients were increased significantly (HbF; 13. 7% ± 13.6% vs0.28%±0. 15%.P<0.001, y mRNA:2479% ± 279% vs 10.61% ± 0. 41 %, P<0.001). BCLllA mRNA level was not significantly different between two groups (0. 73% ± 0. 26% us (). 77% ± 0. 22%, P = 0. 590). Six TM patients (25%) had normal HbF levels. Compared with patients having increased HbF levels, patients with normal HbF levels had

  16. Better differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia from beta-thalassemia trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Rahim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA and beta-thalassemia trait (ß-TT are the most common forms of microcytic anemia. This study was conducted to compare the validity of various discrimination indices in differentiating β-TT from IDA by calculating their sensitivity, specificity and Youden's index.Methods: Totally 323 subjects (173 children and 150 adults with microcytic anemia were involved in this study. We calculated 10 discrimination indices in all patients with IDA and β-TT. We divided the patients into two different groups as younger or older than 10 years. Results: None of the indices showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the patients older than 10 years, and in the patients younger than 10 years, only Shine & Lal index showed sensitivity close to 90% and specificity of 100%. The most accurate discriminative index for patients younger than 10 years was Shine & Lal and for those older than 10 years it was RDW index. According to Youden's index, Shine & Lal and RBC count showed the greatest diagnostic value in patients younger than 10 years and RDW and RBC count indices in those older than 10 years. Conclusion: None of the indices was completely sensitive and specific in differentiation between β-TT and IDA. Mean and median mean cell Hb density (MCHD were very close to normal values in both IDA and β-TT patients, but in the case of mean density of Hb/liter (MDHL, we found that the mean and median were significantly higher than normal values in β-TT and lower than normal values in IDA patients. In our study, Youden's index of RBC and Shine & Lal were the highest and most reliable indices in differentiating β-TT from IDA in the patients younger than 10 years. For patients older than 10 years, the most reliable discrimination indices were RBC and RDW.

  17. Beta-thalassemia and beta[A] globin gene haplotypes in Mexican mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Arámbula, A R; Bustos, R; Casas-Castañeda, M; Gutiérrez, E; Perea, F J; Thein, S L; Ibarra, B

    1997-04-01

    B-globin haplotypes of 20 beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) and 87 beta(A) Mexican mestizo chromosomes were analyzed to ascertain the origin of the beta-thal alleles and the frequencies and distribution of the beta(A) haplotypes among northwestern Mexican mestizos. Sixteen beta-thal chromosomes carried six Mediterranean alleles [five codon 39 C-->T; two IVS1:1 G-->A; two IVS1:5 G-->A; three IVS1:110 G(A; one codon 11 (-T) and three (deltabeta)zero-thal]; the remaining four were linked to three rare alleles (two -28 A-->C and one each: -87 C-->T and initiation codon ATG-->GTG). Among the 87 beta(A) chromosomes, 17 different 5' haplotypes with frequencies for 1, 3, 2 and 5 of 39.0%, 17. 2%, 9.2% and 6.9%, respectively, were observed. The beta-haplotype analysis showed that 13 out of 16 Mediterranean chromosomes could easily be explained by gene migration; however, one codon 39 associated with haplotype 4 (----+ +-), one IVS1:1 with haplotype 1(+----++) and one IVS1:5 G-->A, may represent separate mutational events. Analysis of the rare alleles showed that the -28 A-->C mutation was associated with the commonest beta(A) haplotype in Mexican mestizos, Mediterraneans and the total world population; therefore an independent origin cannot be ruled out. The -87 C-->T and initiation codon ATG-->GTG were found with beta-haplotypes different from the reported ones, suggesting an indigenous origin.

  18. Metabolic and endocrinologic complications in beta-thalassemia major: a multicenter study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Reza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of transfusion and chelation therapy has dramatically extended the life expectancy of thalassemic patients. The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of prominent thalassemia complications. Methods Two hundred twenty patients entered the study. Physicians collected demographic and anthropometric data and the history of therapies as well as menstrual histories. Patients have been examined to determine their pubertal status. Serum levels of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphate, iPTH were measured. Thyroid function was assessed by T3, T4 and TSH. Zinc and copper in serum were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Bone mineral density (BMD measurements at lumbar and femoral regions have been done using dual x-ray absorptiometry. The dietary calcium, zinc and copper intakes were estimated by food-frequency questionnaires. Results Short stature was seen in 39.3% of our patients. Hypogonadism was seen in 22.9% of boys and 12.2% of girls. Hypoparathyroidism and primary hypothyroidism was present in 7.6% and 7.7% of the patients. About 13 % of patients had more than one endocrine complication with mean serum ferritin of 1678 ± 955 micrograms/lit. Prevalence of lumbar osteoporosis and osteopenia were 50.7% and 39.4%. Femoral osteoporosis and osteopenia were present in 10.8% and 36.9% of the patients. Lumbar BMD abnormalities were associated with duration of chelation therapy. Low serum zinc and copper was observed in 79.6% and 68% of the study population respectively. Serum zinc showed significant association with lumbar but not femoral BMD. In 37.2% of patients serum levels of 25(OH D below 23 nmol/l were detected. Conclusion High prevalence of complications among our thalassemics signifies the importance of more detailed studies along with therapeutic interventions.

  19. An intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis in a 34-year-old man with beta thalassemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabesh Homayoun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Extramedullary hematopoiesis occurs in approximately 15% of cases of thalassemia. Intracranial deposits of extramedullary hematopoiesis are an extremely rare compensatory process in intermediate and severe thalassemia. Case presentation We present an unusual case of an intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis with a choroid plexus origin in a 34-year-old Caucasian man with beta thalassemia intermedia, who presented with the complaints of chronic headache and rapid progressive visual loss. Conclusion An intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis, although extremely rare, should be considered as a potential ancillary diagnosis in any thalassemic patient and therefore appropriate studies should be performed to investigate the probable intracranial ectopic marrow before any surgical intervention.

  20. Detection of four beta-thalassemia point mutations in Iranians using a PCR-ELISA genotyping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Pooria; Forouzandeh, Mehdi; Eshraghi, Naser; Ghalami, Mostafa; Safa, Majid; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad-Reza

    2008-04-01

    Development of molecular techniques with analytical capability of mutation detection can realize the medical diagnosis of diseases and improve people's health. beta-Thalassemia is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders in Iran and using a simple and rapid test in laboratories for the mass screening and prenatal diagnosis is essential. Here, we described a simple method for rapid detection of four common beta-thalassemia point mutations in Iranians (IVS-II-1 (G-->A), IVS-I-5 (G-->C), FSC 8/9 (+G), IVS-I-110 (G-->A)) using a PCR-ELISA genotyping system. After DNA isolation from whole blood, a segment of beta-globin gene was amplified by DIG-labeling PCR. The DIG-labeled PCR amplicons were denatured and added to biotinylated normal probe (for normal gene allele) and mutant probe (for mutant gene allele). The hybrids were detected by colorimetric ELISA method. The optical densities obtained using normal and mutant probes with heterozygous PCR products were very similar. The optical densities obtained using mutant probes were higher than normal probes with homozygous PCR products. In vice versa, the optical densities obtained using normal probes were higher than mutant probes with normal PCR products. All the results demonstrated that the PCR-ELISA has similar specificity in comparison to the amplification refractory mutation system.

  1. Successful treatment of murine beta-thalassemia intermedia by transfer of the human beta-globin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Chad; Rivella, Stefano; Chadburn, Amy; Sadelain, Michel

    2002-03-15

    The beta-thalassemias are caused by more than 200 mutations that reduce or abolish beta-globin production. The severity of the resulting anemia can lead to lifelong transfusion dependency. A genetic treatment based on globin gene transfer would require that transgene expression be erythroid specific, elevated, and sustained over time. We report here that long-term synthesis of chimeric hemoglobin (mualpha(2):hubeta(A)(2)) could be achieved in mice with beta-thalassemia intermedia following engraftment with bone marrow cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding the human beta-globin gene. In the absence of any posttransduction selection, the treated chimeras exhibit durably increased hemoglobin levels without diminution over 40 weeks. Ineffective erythropoiesis and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) regress, as reflected by normalization of spleen size, architecture, hematopoietic colony formation, and disappearance of liver EMH. These findings establish that a sustained increase of 3 to 4 g/dL hemoglobin is sufficient to correct ineffective erythropoiesis. Hepatic iron accumulation is markedly decreased in 1-year-old chimeras, indicating persistent protection from secondary organ damage. These results demonstrate for the first time that viral-mediated globin gene transfer in hematopoietic stem cells effectively treats a severe hemoglobin disorder.

  2. Heterozygous beta-thalassemia and homozygous H63D hemochromatosis in a child: an 18-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniero, Roberto; Tardivo, Irene; Roetto, Antonella; De Gobbi, Marco

    2005-03-01

    At age of 3.2 years routine blood analysis showed the presence of a beta-thalassemic trait with unexpected high level of serum iron and high transferrin saturation. Hematological follow-up confirmed the moderate degree of anemia and persisting high levels of iron indices throughout the years with a progressive increase of serum ferritin. At the age of 19 years the patient was diagnosed homozygous for HC63D HFE. The patient referred by us confirm the possibility of precocious alteration of iron indices in patients with heterozygosity for beta-thalassemia inherited together with HFE mutations. This observation suggests that any children with thalassemic trait with increased transferrin saturation and/or serum ferritin might be investigated for the presence of the hemocromatosis genes in order to detect the disease before any clinical manifestation and even before organ iron loading.

  3. Perfil de beta talassemia heterozigota obtido a partir de análise data mining em banco de dados The profile of beta thalassemia obtained by data mining analysis in a database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. B. Domingos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the phenotypic expression of heterozygous beta thalassemia reflect the formation of different populations. To better understand the profile of heterozygous beta-thalassemia of the Brazilian population, we aimed at establishing parameters to direct the diagnosis of carriers and calculate the frequency from information stored in an electronic database. Using a Data Mining tool, we evaluated information on 10,960 blood samples deposited in a relational database. Over the years, improved diagnostic technology has facilitated the elucidation of suspected beta thalassemia heterozygote cases with an average frequency of 3.5% of referred cases. We also found that the Brazilian beta thalassemia trait has classic increases of Hb A2 and Hb F (60%, mainly caused by mutations in beta zero thalassemia, especially in the southeast of the country.

  4. Extraosseous radiotracer uptake on bone scan in beta-thalassemia: report of one case; Fixation extraosseuse du radiotraceur lors de la realisation d'une scintigraphie du squelette chez un patient atteint de beta-thalassemie: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezguez, M.; Nouira, M.; Sfar, R.; Chatti, K.; Ben Fradj, M.; Ben Ali, K.; Ajmi, S.; Essabbah, H. [CHU Sahloul, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Sousse (Tunisia); Zrour, S. [EPS F. Bourguiba, Service de Rhumatologie, Monastir (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    Red blood cell transfusion, main therapeutic modality of beta-thalassemia, leads to iron overload which may perturb several metabolic ways. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the uptake abnormalities observed on bone scan of thalassaemic patients and to discuss mechanisms of extraosseous accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in this pathology. We report a 16-year-old child suffering from beta-thalassemia major undergoing transfusion therapy. A bone scan was indicated to look for osseous infection. This study revealed a little skeletal uptake and abnormal liver, splenic and renal accumulation. A repeat bone scan, performed three weeks later showed a better skeletal uptake which enabled the discovery of focal abnormalities and made the diagnostic easier. The effect of iron overload on radiopharmaceuticals uptake in bone scan is known since 1975. Dissociation of {sup 99m}Tc from the carrier ligand due to the presence of iron excess seems the most plausible hypothesis. Free {sup 99m}Tc can be bound to other tissular substrates which can explain extraosseous uptake. The normally available pool for bone is reduced and then the skeletal uptake decreased. This report limits considerably the sensitivity of the bone scan. A well-led iron chelation and eventually the use of diuretic drug may guarantee a better quality of bone scan images. (authors)

  5. Factor V G1691A (Leiden is a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients

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    Tawhida Y. Abdel Ghaffar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Budd-Chiari syndrome is a multifactorial disease in which several prothrombotic disorders may predispose patients to the development of thrombosis at this uncommon location (hepatic veins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of inherited thrombophilia in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients.Materials and Methods: The study included 47 Budd-Chiari syndrome patients (20 children and 27 adults. Genotyping of Factor V G1691A (Leiden, prothrombin G20210A (PT, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were performed using real-time PCR and fluorescence melting curve detection analysis.Results: Factor V Leiden was observed in 29 patients (61.7%. It is the only factor that caused Budd-Chiari syndrome in 18 of the patients and in 5 of the patients with inferior vena cava involvement. Myeloproliferative disease was noted in 12 (25.5% patients, antiphospholipid syndrome in 5 (10.6%, and Behcet’s disease in 3 (6.4%. Interestingly, 3 of the children with Budd-Chiari syndrome had lipid storage disease.Conclusion: Factor V Leiden was a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients, which may have been related to the high frequency of this mutation in the study region. Factor V Leiden was also a strong thrombophilic factor and the leading cause of inferior vena cava thrombosis in these patients. Lipid storage disease should be included as a risk factor for Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  6. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in children with Beta-thalassemia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Karimi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Growth retardation in children with b-thalassemia major is multifactorial. Some etiologies described for this condition are hemochromatosis, disturbed growth hormone (GH / insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1 axis, undernutrition and hypermetabolism. It has also been proven that growth retardation is present in b-thalassemia major children despite regular transfusion and chelation. Our aim was to evaluate the level of IGF-1 in b-thalassemia minor subjects and compare it with that in healthy children. Material and Methods: Fifty children aged 6 months to 15 years with b-thalassemia minor (32 males, 18 females and 50 age- and sex-matched normal healthy children were selected. Medical history was taken and complete physical examination was done in each case; IGF-1 level was checked in all cases. This study was done in Shiraz, southern Iran, during 2005.Results: IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in b-thalassemia minor children than normal children (P = 0.015. This result demonstrates that some etiologies of growth failure in b-thalassemia major other than those described to date can exist, which may be shared with b-thalassemia minor in feature or may be transformed by genes that are either expressed or not.Conclusion: We conclude that in addition to that observed in b-thalassemia major, IGF-1 level is also decreased in b-thalassemia minor, and these two may have similar etiologies.

  8. Study of Serum Haptoglobin Level and its Relation to Erythropoietic Activity in Beta Thalassemia Children

    OpenAIRE

    Seham M. Ragab; Safan, Manal A.; Badr, Eman A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum haptoglobin (Hp) is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state. Objective We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods Twenty two β-thalassemia major (TM),20 β-thalassemia intermedia (TI) children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered. Serum ferritin, Hp and transfe...

  9. Imaging findings in a child with calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome after bone marrow transplant for beta thalassemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Arnold, Staci D.; Bhatia, Monica; Dastgir, Jahannaz [Columbia University Medical Center, Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome is an entity recognized in patients on immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation. Diagnosis is characterized by onset of pain beginning in the setting of an elevated calcineurin-inhibitor trough level. Reducing the medication dose relieves symptoms. Imaging findings can be nonspecific, including bone marrow edema and periosteal reaction. We present the unique case of calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome in a child and review the imaging findings. (orig.)

  10. The molecular basis of beta-thalassemia intermedia in southern China: genotypic heterogeneity and phenotypic diversity

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    Sun Manna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical syndrome of thalassemia intermedia (TI results from the β-globin genotypes in combination with factors to produce fetal haemoglobin (HbF and/or co-inheritance of α-thalassemia. However, very little is currently known of the molecular basis of Chinese TI patients. Methods We systematically analyzed and characterized β-globin genotypes, α-thalassemia determinants, and known primary genetic modifiers linked to the production of HbF and the aggravation of α/β imbalance in 117 Chinese TI patients. Genotype-phenotype correlations were analyzed based on retrospective clinical observations. Results A total of 117 TI patients were divided into two major groups, namely heterozygous β-thalassemia (n = 20 in which 14 were characterized as having a mild TI with the Hb levels of 68-95 g/L except for five co-inherited αααanti-3.7 triplication and one carried a dominant mutation; and β-thalassemia homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for β-thalassemia and other β-globin defects in which the β+-thalassemia mutation was the most common (49/97, hemoglobin E (HbE variants was second (27/97, and deletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH or δβ-thalassemia was third (11/97. Two novel mutations, Term CD+32(A→C and Cap+39(C→T, have been detected. Conclusions Chinese TI patients showed considerable heterogeneity, both phenotypically and genotypically. The clinical outcomes of our TI patients were mostly explained by the genotypes linked to the β- and α-globin gene cluster. However, for a group of 14 patients (13 β0/βN and 1 β+/βN with known heterozygous mutations of β-thalassemia and three with homozygous β-thalassemia (β0/β0, the existence of other causative genetic determinants is remaining to be molecularly defined.

  11. STUDY OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTIVITY IN BETA THALASSEMIA CHILDREN .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ragab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background  :Serum haptoglobin (Hp is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state.  Objective: We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods: Twenty  two β-thalassemia major (TM ,20 β-thalassemia  intermedia (TI children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered . Serum ferritin , Hp  and transferrin receptor  levels (sTfR  (by ELISA , alanine aminotransferase (ALT and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST  (by colorimetric method were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus  (HCV  were done by PCR. Results:  The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl , 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl  and 122  ± 18.5(mg/dl   for TM ,TI and the controls respectively . Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001  with significant lower level in TM compared to TI  children ( P= 0.034  .Significant inverse correlations were  found between serum Hp and sTfR levels in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI as well as among HCV infected children. STfR   was the only significant independent predictor for  serum Hp level (t= -5.585 , P<0.0001 . Among  HCV infected patients , no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases  .Conclusion:  Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated   well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of  sTfR without significant relation  HCV infection . Large sample  multicenter studies are  recommended.

  12. Major histocompatibility complex variation in insular populations of the Egyptian vulture: inferences about the roles of genetic drift and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Rosa; Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Lemus, Jesus A; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, Jose A

    2011-06-01

    Insular populations have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists because of their morphological and ecological peculiarities with respect to their mainland counterparts. Founder effects and genetic drift are known to distribute neutral genetic variability in these demes. However, elucidating whether these evolutionary forces have also shaped adaptive variation is crucial to evaluate the real impact of reduced genetic variation in small populations. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are classical examples of evolutionarily relevant loci because of their well-known role in pathogen confrontation and clearance. In this study, we aim to disentangle the partial roles of genetic drift and natural selection in the spatial distribution of MHC variation in insular populations. To this end, we integrate the study of neutral (22 microsatellites and one mtDNA locus) and MHC class II variation in one mainland (Iberia) and two insular populations (Fuerteventura and Menorca) of the endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Overall, the distribution of the frequencies of individual MHC alleles (n=17 alleles from two class II B loci) does not significantly depart from neutral expectations, which indicates a prominent role for genetic drift over selection. However, our results point towards an interesting co-evolution of gene duplicates that maintains different pairs of divergent alleles in strong linkage disequilibrium on islands. We hypothesize that the co-evolution of genes may counteract the loss of genetic diversity in insular demes, maximize antigen recognition capabilities when gene diversity is reduced, and promote the co-segregation of the most efficient allele combinations to cope with local pathogen communities.

  13. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight) predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight). Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products. SUMMARY This research proposed a good example for the rapid identification of major constituents in complex systems such as herbs using sensitive, accurate and specific method coupling HPLC with DAD and MS, which facilitate the clarification of phytochemical composition of herbal medicine for better understanding of their nature and

  14. Hemoglobina C em homozigose e interação com talassemia beta Homozygous hemoglobin C and its interaction with beta thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Angulo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hemoglobina C (Hb C é originária do oeste da África e é detectada por migração lenta na eletroforese alcalina em acetato de celulose. Consiste na mutação do gene da globina beta no códon 6 (GAG-AAG, resultando na substituição do sexto aminoácido da cadeia beta da hemoglobina humana, o ácido glutâmico, pelo aminoácido lisina. A cromatografia de alto desempenho (HPLC separa completamente as frações C e A2, permitindo caracterizar a presença da interação com talassemia beta. Esta entidade (Hb CC, em homozigoze é considerada benigna em relação à doença falciforme, já que a falcização não faz parte de sua fisiopatologia. A raridade do diagnóstico C homozigoto e C talassemia beta nos pacientes portadores de hemoglobinopatias nos alertou para a necessidade de se conhecer melhor e estudar aspectos clínicos e hematológicos dos casos dessa mutação em homozigose e na interação com a talassemia beta no ambulatório de anemias do Centro Regional de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.Hemoglobin C (Hb C originated in the west of Africa and is detected by alkaline electrophoresis by slow migration in cellulose acetate. It consists of a mutation of the beta globin gene in codon 6 (GAG-AAG, resulting in a substitution of glutamic acid, the sixth amino acid of the beta string of the human hemoglobin, for lysine. High performance chromatography (HPLC separates the C and A2 fractions completely, allowing the characterization of the presence of interactions with thalassemia beta. This entity (Hb CC is considered benign in respect to sickle cell disease, as sickle cells are not part of its physiopathology. The rarity of the diagnosis of homozygous C and beta thalassemia in patients with hemoglobinopathies showed the necessity of studying clinical and hematologic aspects of the cases of this mutation in homozygosis carriers and the interaction with beta thalassemia in the anemias clinic of the Regional Blood

  15. Identification and quantification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Ibrahim Owis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight. Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products.

  16. Evaluating the role of indirect bilirubin, urobilinogen and Shine AND Lal index as an alternative screening tool for beta thalassemia minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridham A. Khanderia

    2015-06-01

    Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 (n=100 subjects in blood bank, department of pathology, government medical college Rajkot, Gujarat, India. In first group 50 subjects (Thalassemia minor were selected while in second group 50 (n2=50 normal individuals from hospital staff were selected. Complete-haemogram, serum-direct, indirect and total bilirubin, urine urobilinogen and their sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: Of the 50 cases in test group, 41 had higher Indirect Bilirubin level (>0.7 mg/dl, 35 had high urobilinogen level (>1 mg/dl. In control group out of 50 cases, 3 had high indirect bilirubin levels, 4 had high urobilinogen levels. Indirect-bilirubin had sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 94%. Urobilinogen showed sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 92%. Conclusion: Indirect bilirubin and urine-urobilinogen is a valuable, cost-effective screening test for beta-thalassemia-trait with sensitivity and specificity comparable to RBC indices. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 730-737

  17. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Fermo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary xerocytosis (HX is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy.

  18. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy. PMID:28367341

  19. A multicenter prospective study on the risk of acquiring liver disease in anti-hepatitis C virus negative patients affected from homozygous beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, D; Zanella, A; Farma, E; De Mattei, C; Bosoni, P; Zappa, M; Picone, A; Mozzi, F; Rebulla, P; Cappellini, M D; Allain, J P; Sirchia, G

    1998-11-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis has been recently reduced, transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients may still develop liver disease due to viral infection or iron overload. We assessed the frequency and causes of liver dysfunction in a cohort of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) negative thalassemics. Of 1,481 thalassemics enrolled in 31 centers, 219 (14.8%) tested anti-HCV- by second-generation assays; 181 completed a 3-year follow-up program consisting of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) measurement at each transfusion and anti-HCV determination by third-generation enzyme-immunoassay (EIA-3) at the end of study. Serum ferritin levels were determined at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Ten patients were anti-HCV+ by EIA-3 at the end of follow-up. Of them, seven were already positive in 1992 to 1993 when the initial sera were retested by EIA-3, one tested indeterminate by confirmatory assay, and two had true seroconversion (incidence, 4. 27/1,000 person years; risk of infection, 1/7,100 blood units, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 in 2,000-1 in 71,000 units). At baseline, 67 of 174 thalassemics had abnormal ALT. Of those with normal ALT, seven subsequently developed at least one episode of moderate ALT increase (incidence, 24.6/1,000 person-years). All of the 20 patients with ferritin values >/=3,000 ng/mL had clinically relevant ALT abnormalities, as compared with 53 of 151 with <3,000 ng/mL (P < .005). Hepatic dysfunction is still frequent in thalassemics. Although it is mainly attributable to siderosis and primary HCV infection, the role of undiscovered transmissible agents cannot be excluded.

  20. Comparing prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Beta Thalassemia Trait in microcytic and non-microcytic blood donors: suggested algorithm for donor screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of microcytosis in donors and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA and Beta-Thalassemia trait (BTT in microcytic and non-microcytic donors has not been studied in India. The present study aims at finding the same. Materials and Methods: Initially 925 donor samples were evaluated on cell-counter. Of these, 50 were found to be microcytic. These were subjected to Ferritin and HbA2 determination. Subsequently, an additional 51, age-and-sex matched non-microcytic donor samples were selected to serve as controls. These were subjected to the same tests. Results: The prevalence of microcytosis was 5.4% (50/925. Among the microcytic donors, 52% were IDA, 36% BTT, 8% both, and 4% none. In case of non-microcytic donors 29.4% were IDA, 3.9% BTT, and 66.7% none. Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of IDA and BTT in blood donors and a higher probability of finding these in the microcytic samples. This prompted authors to suggest an algorithm for screening of blood donors for IDA and BTT. The algorithm recommends doing an hemogram on all donor samples, routinely. Ferritin could be done only in microcytic samples. At levels lower than15 ng/ml, it is diagnosed as IDA, and therefore, HPLC is performed only for non-IDA samples with Ferritin levels higher than 15 ng/ml. By employing this algorithm, a substantial number of IDA and BTT could be diagnosed while keeping the number of Ferritin tests small and the number of HPLC tests even smaller and thus making it cost efficient.

  1. beta-thalassaemia major hos børn og unge i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Anne; Main, Katharina Maria; Scheibel, Elma;

    2002-01-01

    strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During 1998-99 all Danish pediatric departments were contacted for identification of children aged 0-18 years with beta-thalassemia major. Blood transfusions and chelation therapy were registered, and for Eastern Denmark clinical, endocrine, cardiac, and serologic parameters....... An earlier and more effective iron chelation therapy together with improved patient support may reduce growth disturbances and endocrine and cardiac late effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Dec-2...

  2. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    SOLIMAN, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The rece...

  3. Identification of low frequency anti-erythrocyte antibodies in chronically transfused patient with beta-thalassemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rúbia Magalhães Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rate of erythrocyte alloimmunization in tranfusion-dependent patients can reach 50%, although the frequency of clinically relevant antibodies in transfused patients is not fully known, it is estimated that about 1% of patients are sensitized to each unit of transfused RBCs. The aim of this study is to report the case of  an 11-year-old girl with ?-thalassemia major, chronically transfused, which was detected in pre-transfusion protocol, the presence of two rare anti-erythrocyte antibodies: anti-Colton b (anti-Cob and anti-Lutheran 14 (anti-Lu14. To survey the clinical and laboratory patient history, research records filed in the archives of the university hospital in which the patient is monitored system was performed. The phenotyping erythrocyte in multitransfused patients is essential to decrease the risk of complications due to alloimmunization and estimate the availability of compatible blood. Thus, the report of this case may contribute to increase knowledge about of the real frequency of uncommon anti-erythrocyte antibodies in thalassemic patients.

  4. Community genetics and health approaches for bringing awareness in tribals for the prevention of beta-thalassemia in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir S. Balgir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Beta (β thalassemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterized by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of β-globin chains. In the homozygous state, β-thalassemia (i.e., thalassemia major causes severe transfusion-dependent anemia. Inherited β-thalassemia syndromes cause high degree of hemolytic anemia, recurrent fever, clinical jaundice, frequent infections, bossing of cheek bones, growth retardation, splenomegaly, etc. and are responsible for high infant morbidity, mortality and fetal wastage in India. The victims include the infants, growing children, adolescent girls, pregnant women and a large chunk of ignorant people. In view of heavy genetic load, frequent requirement of blood transfusions, high cost of treatment and management, physical trauma, and mental and psychological harassment to the patients and their families, it has been realized that preventive community health and genetics approach is the most suitable for India. After carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and genetic couselling are the important options for couples at high risk for β-thalassemia. A prerequisite for successful prevention and intervention approach in India is the health education, bringing public awareness, sensitization, and community screening for the identification of heterozygotes or carriers in the concerned community. Some suggestions for the prevention of β-thalassemia in the vulnerable communities of India have been over emphasized for amelioration.β地中海贫血综合症是一簇遗传性异常,其特点是β球蛋白链接合处基因缺失。β地贫(或重型地贫)在纯和状态下导致严重的输液依赖型贫血症。遗传性的β地贫综合症引起严重的溶血性贫血、回归热、显性黄疸、常见感染、疼痛危象、颊骨浮肿、生长迟缓、脾肿大等症状,这导致在印度出现婴儿高发病率、死亡率和胎儿夭折。其受害人群包括婴儿、发

  5. Nonsense-mediated decay mechanism is a possible modifying factor of clinical outcome in nonsense cd39 beta thalassemia genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Renda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD is a surveillance system to prevent the synthesis of non-functional proteins. In β-thalassemia, NMD may have a role in clinical outcome. An example of premature translation stop codons appearing for the first time is the β-globin cd39 mutation; when homozygous, this results in a severe phenotype. The aim of this study was to determine whether the homozygous nonsense cd39 may have a milder phenotype in comparison with IVS1,nt110/cd39 genotype. Genotypes have been identified from a cohort of 568 patients affected by β-thalassemia. These genotypes were compared with those found in 577 affected fetuses detected among 2292 prenatal diagnoses. The nine most common genotypes, each with an incidence rate of 1.5% or over, and together accounting for 80% of genotype frequencies, underwent statistical analysis. Genotype prevalence was calculated within the overall group. Results are expressed as proportions with 95% confidence intervals; P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. A binomial distribution was assumed for each group; z-tests were used to compare genotype frequencies observed in the patient group with frequencies in the affected fetus group. In the absence of selecting factors, prevalence of these two genotypes was compared between a cohort of 568 β-thalassemia patients (PTS and 577 affected fetuses (FOET detected during the same period. IVS1,nt110/cd39 was significantly more prevalent in FOET than PTS (P<0.0001, while there was no significant difference in prevalence of cd39/cd39 in FOET compared with PTS (P=0.524. These results suggest a cd39 genotype NMD mechanism may be associated with improved clinical outcomes in thalassemia major. 无义介导的mRNA 降解(NMD) 是一种预防非功能性蛋白质合成的监控系统。在β地中海贫血中,NMD可能对临床结果有影响。第一次出现的过早终止密码子(PTC)为β珠蛋白cd39突变;若为纯合

  6. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: Does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Efremidis, Stavros C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21.7 years) the liver/fat ratio (L/F), the pituitary/fat ratio (P/F), the liver and pituitary T2 relaxation times were evaluated, by using a multiecho spin-echo sequence. Serum ferritin levels were measured and an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed. The L/F, the P/F and pituitary T2 showed a good correlation with serum ferritin (r=-0.55, r=-0.55 and r=-0.53, respectively; p<0.01). Liver T2 did not show significant correlation with serum ferritin. The variability of L/F explained only the 10.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F. When ferritin was added to the model it predicted only the 26.85% and the 30.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F, respectively. The P/F and pituitary T2 were lower in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (group 1) compared with those without pituitary dysfunction (group 2). No significant differences of L/F were found between the two groups. Hepatic iron overload evaluated by MR is a poor predictor of pituitary siderosis. The MR studies of the pituitary gland might be necessary to evaluate the pituitary iron overload. (orig.)

  7. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  8. Moebius syndrome with macular hyperpigmentation, skeletal anomalies, and hypoplasia of pectoralis major muscle in an Egyptian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 4 month old female infant, 3rd in order of birth of the first cousin consanguineous parents. The patient has congenital right facial nerve palsy, with asymmetry of facial expression during crying and difficulty in swallowing. Associated anomalies include abnormal facial features, bilateral finger anomalies, bilateral talipes equinovarus, kyphoscoliosis, hypotonia, high frequency hearing loss. Bilateral macular hyperpigmentation was detected in our patient on fundus examination which was not reported previously in Moebius syndrome cases. In addition there is hypoplasia of the right pectoralis major muscle.

  9. Mutation analysis of beta thalassemia gene in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西壮族自治区β-地中海贫血基因突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 范歆; 何升; 唐燕青; 陈秋丽; 郑陈光

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析广西壮族自治区(简称广西)常见、罕见类型β-地中海贫血(简称地贫)基因突变的发生情况,为减少漏诊、误诊提供临床帮助.方法 2010年1月至2013年12月,选取在广西妇幼保健院就诊及转诊的可疑地贫患者42 770例,其中男性20 740例,女性22 030例.年龄范围在1个月~ 54岁.所有患者进行血常规,血红蛋白电泳,血清铁、铁蛋白筛查;筛查阳性患者通过反向点杂交(RDB)进行基因诊断;筛查阳性但基因诊断常见基因未发现突变位点的患者进行β珠蛋白基因扩增并测序.结果 42 770名可疑地贫患者中,共确诊地贫患者28 101例,其中β-地贫患者10 891例,包括β-地贫纯合子49例,杂合子10 718例,双重 杂合子124例;患者进行β珠蛋白基因扩增并测序后,发现14种南方常见类型地贫,7种罕见β-地贫突变类型,罕见地贫检出率为17.949%(7/39).结论 广西地区β-地贫突变类型复杂多样;常规地贫基因检测正常但有地贫表型的患者,应对其进行罕见地贫的检测,减少漏诊,以便更好地为临床开展地贫诊断提供帮助.%Objective To investigate the occurrence of regular and rare types of beta thalassemia in Guangxi,and to reduce the misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.Methods Between Jan 2010 and Dec 2013,42 770 patients (20 740 males and 22 030 females,one month to fifty-four years old) from Maternal and Child Healthy Hospital of Guangxi,who were suspected with thalassemia were involved in this study.All these patients were went through the following screening tests:routine blood cell count,hemoglobin electrophoresis test,and serum iron and ferritin tests.Positive patients in the screening test would be taken gene diagnosis with regular reverse dot blot (RDB) method; negative patients in gene diagnosis but positive in the screening test would be under the test of beta globin gene sequencing.Results Totally 28 101 patients were confirmed with thalassemia from 42

  10. Egyptian Mythological Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Kristoffer Blach

    by the native priesthood, much of which has only been published in recent years. As part of this corpus of texts, the ancient Egyptian mythological manuals offer a unique perspective on how the Egyptian priesthood structured and interpreted Egyptian myths. The thesis looks at the different interpretative...... techniques used in the Tebtunis Mythological Manual (Second century CE) and the Mythological Manual of the Delta (Sixth century BCE) and the place of these manuals within the larger corpus of priestly scholarly literature from ancient Egypt. To organize the wealth of local myths the manuals use model...

  11. Total Antioxidant Status in Patients with Major β-Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Koochakzadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Beta-thalassemia major is an autosomal recessive disease causing severe and hemolytic anemia, which begins about 2-6 months after birth. Iron overload, which arises from recurrent transfusion and ineffective erythropoiesis, can enhance oxidative stress in thalassemic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum total antioxidant capacity of patients with ß-Thalassemia major. Methods:Sixty six Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major and 66 age-gender matched controls were evaluated for serum total antioxidant status (TAS, uric acid (UA, bilirubin and albumin. In addition, serum ferritin and transaminases were recorded in these subjects. Findings: Significant increases of TAS, UA, and bilirubin were observed in the patient group, compared with the control group (P<0.01. Mean TAS and bilirubin in male patients was higher than in females (P=0.005 and P=0.008, respectively. There was also direct correlation between TAS and albumin (P<0.001, bilirubin (P<0.001 and UA (P=0.002. Conclusion: Endogenous antioxidants such as ferritin, UA and bilirubin can result in increased level of TAS in the patients with Beta-thalassemia major. Compensatory excess of TAS to oxidative stress could also be the reason for difference between our findings and previous studies.

  12. Developmental effect of the XmnI site on Ggamma-globin gene expression among newborn Hb F-Malta-I [Ggamma117(G19)His-->Arg, CAT-->CGT] heterozygotes and adult beta+ -Thalassemia homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulis, Svetlana; Scerri, Christian A; Wismayer, Pierre Schembri; Galdies, Ruth; Wettinger, Stephanie Bezzina; Felice, Alex E

    2007-01-01

    Hb F-Malta-I [Ggamma117(19)His-->Arg, CAT-->CGT] is a stable and benign variant of Hb F found in 1.8% of Maltese newborn. We studied 120 Hb F-Malta-I heterozygotes and four Hb F-Malta-I homozygotes. The mean proportion of Ggamma-F-Malta-I in Hb F was 0.26 +/- 0.03 for the Hb F-Malta-I heterozygotes and 0.58 +/- 0.06 for the Hb F-Malta-I homozygotes. The Hb F-Malta-I allele was shown to occur on a background of the common Mediterranean haplotype Va [+ + - - - - - + + -]. Furthermore, the common Mediterranean haplotypes Va, IIIb [- + + + - + + + + -], I [+ + - - - - - + + +] and II [- + - + + - + + + +] accounted for most (66.2%) of the wild-type alleles among the tested Hb F-Malta-I heterozygotes. Different genotypes at the 5' epsilon HincII, Ggamma and Agamma HindIII, and 3'psibeta HincII sites (but not at the 5' Ggamma XmnI site) were found to be linked to significant variations in the proportion of Ggamma-F-Malta-I and Ggamma-globins in the Hb F of newborn Hb F-Malta-I heterozygotes. Moreover, the 5' Ggamma XmnI site was found to be associated with variations in Hb F and Ggamma-globin levels in a population of adult Maltese beta-thalassemia (thal) homozygotes. This implies that a determinant linked to the XmnI site which effects Ggamma-globin gene expression is active in anemic adults but not in normal infants.

  13. Multiple transfused thalassemia major: Ocular manifestations in a hospital-based population

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    Taneja Rashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the ocular manifestations in multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major patients and assess the ocular side-effects of iron chelating agents. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, 45 multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major children between six months and 21 years of age were enrolled and assigned groups according to the treatment regimens suggested. Group A received only blood transfusions, Group B blood transfusions with subcutaneous desferrioxamine, Group C blood transfusions with desferrioxamine and oral deferriprone and Group D blood transfusions with deferriprone. Ocular status at the time of enrolment was documented. Subjects were observed quarterly for one year for changes in ocular status arising due to the disease process and due to iron chelation therapy. Children with hemoglobinopathies other than beta-thalassemia major, congenital ocular anomalies and anemia due to other causes were excluded. Results: Ocular involvement was observed in 58% of patients. Lenticular opacities were the most common ocular finding (44%, followed by decreased visual acuity (33%. An increased occurrence of ocular changes was observed with increase of serum ferritin and serum iron levels as well as with higher number of blood transfusions received. Desferrioxamine seemed to have a protective influence on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling. Occurrence of lenticular opacities and RPE degeneration correlated positively with use of desferrioxamine and deferriprone respectively. Follow-up of patients for one year did not reveal any change in ocular status. Conclusion: Regular ocular examinations can aid in preventing, delaying or ameliorating the ocular complications of thalassemia.

  14. Go Long or Short in Pyramids? News from the Egyptian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Massa; Andreas Billmeier

    2007-01-01

    Similar to other emerging economies, the Egyptian stock market has recently experienced a remarkable run-up but also a major downturn. This paper analyzes the stock market from two angles. First, it compares the performance of the major stock price index with its underlying fundamentals. Second, it explores the relationship between the Egyptian and other stock markets. The paper finds that (i) there is some evidence against a stable relationship between the Egyptian index and its fundamental ...

  15. Interação entre Hb C [beta6(A3Glu>Lys] e IVS II-654 (C>T beta-talassemia no Brasil Hb C [beta6(A3Glu>Lys] and IVS II - 654 (C>T beta thalassemia interaction in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Bonini-Domingos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemias are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by a microcytic hypochromic anemia and an imbalance in the synthesis of the globin-chains. Hb C is the second most frequently variant of hemoglobin found in Brazil. The laboratory diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies, including thalassemias, is growing in importance, particularly because of an increasing requirement for neonatal diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobins. Screening tests were carried out using alkaline and acid electrophoresis, globin-chain analysis by cellulose acetate in alkaline pH, isoelectric focusing and HPLC. The molecular characterization was made by PCR-ASO for Hb C and beta thalassemia mutants. Large-scale screening and discriminative methodologies must provide information about the hemoglobin polymorphisms in Brazilian population. HPLC is a powerful tool in these cases. Molecular characterization is important to genetic counseling and clinical management, in particular for the Brazilian population that have an intense racial admixture, with great variability of hemoglobins. In this paper an association between Hb C and beta thalassemia (IVS-II-654 in a black family from Brazil was described.

  16. Sit Like an Egyptian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The topic of Egypt is one that students are naturally intrigued and enthusiastic about. In this article, fifth graders create mosaic and mixed-media collaged chairs in their visual arts class as part of their overall study of the art and culture of ancient Egypt. The idea was to embellish a contemporary chair with Egyptian colors, themes, and…

  17. Print like an Egyptian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisensee, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    Describes a relief printmaking unit for sixth graders with the objective of decorating the inside of a pyramid. Ancient Egyptian imagery was used to help students become familiar with the style. Students designed and printed linoleum prints in different colors. They then critiqued their work and made their selection for the pyramid. (KM)

  18. High prevalence of alpha- and beta-thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns in East Malaysia: challenges in providing effective health care for an indigenous group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne; Lee, Ping-Chin; Wee, Yong-Chui; Tan, Kim-Lian; Mahali, Noor Fadzlin; George, Elizabeth; Chua, Kek-Heng

    2010-01-01

    Thalassemia can lead to severe transfusion-dependent anemia, and it is the most common genetic disorder in Malaysia. This paper aims to determine the prevalence of thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns, the largest indigenous group in Sabah, East Malaysia. α- and β-thalassemia were confirmed in 33.6% and 12.8%, of the individuals studied respectively. The high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns indicates that thalassemia screening, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis should be included as part of their healthcare system. This preliminary paper serves as a baseline for further investigations into the health and genetic defects of the major indigenous population in Sabah, East Malaysia.

  19. High Prevalence of Alpha- and Beta-Thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns in East Malaysia: Challenges in Providing Effective Health Care for an Indigenous Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ai Mary Anne Tan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia can lead to severe transfusion-dependent anemia, and it is the most common genetic disorder in Malaysia. This paper aims to determine the prevalence of thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns, the largest indigenous group in Sabah, East Malaysia. α- and β-thalassemia were confirmed in 33.6% and 12.8%, of the individuals studied respectively. The high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia in the Kadazandusuns indicates that thalassemia screening, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis should be included as part of their healthcare system. This preliminary paper serves as a baseline for further investigations into the health and genetic defects of the major indigenous population in Sabah, East Malaysia.

  20. Effects of beta-thalassemia minor on the efficacy of erythropoietin in hemodialysis patients%β地中海贫血对血液透析患者使用重组人促红细胞生成素疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 张虹; 傅君舟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of beta - thalassemia minor on the efficacy of erythropoietin to ameliorate anemia in hemodialysis patients. Methods The hemodialysis patients with beta - thalassemia minor ( thalasse-mic group ) and the matched hemodialysis patients without beta - thalassemia minor ( control group ) were initially treated with erythropoietin [ 120 ~ 150 IU/( kg · week ) ] subcutaneous injection for three months. After three months of treatment , a high dose of erythropoietin [ 200 ~ 250 IU/( kg · week ) ] was applied for followed three months, if the hemoglobin levels less than 110 g/L in thalassemic group. Results There was no significant difference revealed in baseline hemoglobin level and therapeutic erythropoietin dose between thalassemic group and control group. However, the hemoglobin level of patients in thalassemic group was significantly lower than that in control group at each ends of the three months ( P 0.05),但每月末地贫组血红蛋白水平明显比对照组低(P<0.01);3个月后,对照组患者贫血基本纠正,而地贫组患者血红蛋白水平虽比治疗前有所改善(P<0.01),但贫血未能纠正.后3个月地贫组患者使用大剂量rHuEPO治疗,血红蛋白水平从第1月末开始明显上升(P<0.01),并持续至第3月末,患者贫血得以纠正;期间除引起患者血压升高外未出现不可控制的恶性高血压、内瘘堵塞等严重并发症.结论 β地中海贫血会影响血透患者使用rHuEPO改善贫血的疗效,大剂量rHuEPO能纠正伴β地中海贫血的血透患者贫血.

  1. Serum ferritin levels, socio-demographic factors and desferrioxamine therapy in multi-transfused thalassemia major patients at a government tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan

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    Rehman Anis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta thalassemia is the most frequent genetic disorder of haemoglobin synthesis in Pakistan. Recurrent transfusions lead to iron-overload manifested by increased serum Ferritin levels, for which chelation therapy is required. Findings The study was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency unit of Civil Hospital Karachi after ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Seventy nine cases of beta thalassemia major were included after a written consent. The care takers were interviewed for the socio-demographic variables and the use of Desferrioxamine therapy, after which a blood sample was drawn to assess the serum Ferritin level. SPSS 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Of the seventy-nine patients included in the study, 46 (58.2% were males while 33 (41.8% were females. The mean age was 10.8 (± 4.5 years with the dominant age group (46.2% being 10 to 14 years. In 62 (78.8% cases, the care taker education was below the tenth grade. The mean serum Ferritin level in our study were 4236.5 ng/ml and showed a directly proportional relationship with age. Desferrioxamine was used by patients in 46 (58.2% cases with monthly house hold income significant factor to the use of therapy. Conclusions The mean serum Ferritin levels are approximately ten times higher than the normal recommended levels for normal individuals, with two-fifths of the patients not receiving iron chelation therapy at all. Use of iron chelation therapy and titrating the dose according to the need can significantly lower the iron load reducing the risk of iron-overload related complications leading to a better quality of life and improving survival in Pakistani beta thalassemia major patients. Conflicts of Interest: None

  2. Mosaic segmental uniparental isodisomy and progressive clonal selection: a common mechanism of late onset β-thalassemia major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Cornelis L.; Refaldi, Chiara; Giambona, Antonino; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A. L.; Hoffer, Mariëtte J. V.; Pijpe, Jeroen; De Knijff, Peter; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Maggio, Aurelio; Cappellini, Maria D.; Giordano, Piero C.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic DNA of 3 patients, born as healthy carriers and developing a late-onset severe transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major was studied by high-density genome wide SNP array analysis. A mosaic loss of heterozygosity for almost the entire 11p was found, not attributable to deletions but involving mosaicism for segmental paternal isodisomy of 11p. Mitotic recombination leading to mosaic segmental uniparental isodisomy on chromosome 11p in multiple tissues has been described as a molecular disease mechanism for a subset of sporadic Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome cases. A similar mechanism also seems to be involved in causing late-onset disease in carriers of recessive mutations in other genes located in 11p, such as late-onset beta-thalassemia major and sickle cell disease. We suggest that the loss of maternally imprinted IGF-2 and H19 genes may account for the selective advantage of hematopoietic cells containing this segmental paternal isodisomy of 11p carrying the β-thalassemia mutation. PMID:22983591

  3. Evaluation of the Green Egyptian Pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gamal Ammar

    2012-12-01

    The research concluded to the need of developing the Egyptian pyramid system through studying more global systems, in addition to the need to benefit from the Egyptian experience stock of solutions and environmental treatments in ancient architecture.

  4. Gerzeh, a prehistoric Egyptian meteorite

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D.; Grady, Monica; Tyldesley, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the earliest examples of iron used by man was discovered in a prehistoric Egyptian cemetery. The site of Gerzeh, 40 miles south of Cairo, was excavated in 1911-1912, over 300 graves dat-ing from around 3300 BCE were discovered [1]. A few of the graves contained rare and precious materials such as gold and lapis lazuli. Two graves, Tombs 67 and 133, were also found to contain iron beads; at the time of excavation these examples of Egyptian pre-dynastic culture were considered to be the ...

  5. Migrant remittances and the balance of payments: the Egyptian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-sakka, M I

    1987-01-01

    The economic impact on the Egyptian economy and balance of payments of remittances from Egyptians working abroad is analyzed. The results indicate that the overall effect on the Egyptian economy is positive. (SUMMARY IN ARA)

  6. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  7. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  8. An Egyptianizing relief from Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    From the very first announcement of the theme of this congress it was evident that the "Egyptianizing" phenomenon would be one of the most recurring topics in the diverse contributions, especially those concerned with cultural aspects, such as art and religion, outside Egypt itself. It would be presumptuous of me, therefore, and futile, even to try to define the phenomenon. At this stage I would only wish to emphasize the distinction between a) the more ancient version of the "...

  9. The identification of beta-thalassemia mutants in Brazilians with high Hb F levels Identificação de mutantes de beta talassemia em grupo de indivíduos com Hb Fetal aumentada da população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. A. Zamaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders which represent a public health problem, with significant morbidity, in countries where the prevalence is high. This study aimed at identifying molecular abnormalities that might explain the laboratorial profile obtained using electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography in a group of individuals without signs or clinical symptoms of anemia. Five different mutations for beta-thalassemia were found using PCR-ASO: three cases with CD 6 (-A, one CD 39, one IVI I-6, one -87 (mutations originating in the Mediterranean region and one IVS II-654 (mutation originating in Asia. This is the first time that the CD 6 (-A, -87 and IVS II-654 mutations have been described in the Brazilian population.As hemoglobinopatias são um grupo de afecções genéticas que representam problema de saúde pública em muitos países em que sua incidência é alta, com significativa morbidade. Objetivamos identificar defeitos moleculares que pudessem explicar o perfil laboratorial obtido por eletroforese e HPLC com Hb F elevada, em um grupo de indivíduos adultos sem sinais ou sintomas de anemia. Encontramos cinco diferentes mutações que originam beta talassemia por PCR-ASO: três casos com CD 6 (-A, um CD 39, um IVS 1-5, um -87 todas de origem mediterrânea, e um IVS II-654 de origem asiática. As mutações CD 6 (-A, -87 e IVS II-654 foram descritas pela primeira vez na população brasileira.

  10. Extraordinarily Egyptian Jewelry Fit for a Pharaoh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Berniece

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for sixth-grade students in which the students study the Egyptians' jewelry techniques and designs and create their own amulets. Provides background information on the importance of life after death to the Egyptians and how religion influenced the designing of their amulets. Describes the jewelry-making procedure. (CMK)

  11. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

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    Jonathan S Towner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1% bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

  12. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Carroll, Serena A Reeder; Comer, James A; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L; Formenty, Pierre B H; Albarino, Cesar G; Miller, David M; Reed, Zachary D; Kayiwa, John T; Mills, James N; Cannon, Deborah L; Greer, Patricia W; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2009-07-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

  13. Study on effectiveness of transfusion program in thalassemia major patients receiving multiple blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India

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    Shah Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which may be associated with dangers like iron overload and contraction of infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg which ultimately curtail their life span. On the other hand, inadequate transfusions lead to severe anemia and general fatigue and debility. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 142 beta-thalassemia major patients aged 3 years or more receiving regular blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India from 1 April 2009 to 30 June 2009. The clinical data and laboratory results were subsequently analyzed. Results: Of the 142 patients, 76 (53.5% were undertransfused (mean Hb <10 gm%. 96 (67% of the patients were taking some form of chelation therapy but out of them only 2 (2% were adequately chelated (S. ferritin <1000 ng/ml. 5 (3.5% of the patients were known diabetics on insulin therapy. 103 (72% of the patients were retarded in terms of growth. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs such as HCV, HIV, and HBsAg was respectively 45%, 2%, and 2%, with the prevalence of HCV being significantly more than the general population. The HCV prevalence showed positive correlation with the age of the patients and with the total no of blood transfusions received. As many as 15% (6 out of 40 children who were born on or after 2002 were HCV positive despite the blood they received being subjected to screening for HCV. Conclusions: The study suggests the need to step up the transfusions to achieve hemoglobin goal of 10 gm% (as per the moderate transfusion regimen and also to institute urgent and effective chelation measures with the aim of keeping serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml to avoid the systemic effects of iron overload. In addition, strict monitoring of the children for endocrinopathy and other systemic effects of iron overload should be done. Rigid implementation of quality control measures for the

  14. Detection of a major gene for heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin after accounting for genetic modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, S.L.; Weatherall, D.J. (Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Sampietro, M.; Rohde, K.; Rochette, J.; Lathrop, G.M.; Demenais, F.

    1994-02-01

    [open quotes]Heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin[close quotes] (HPFH) is the term used to describe the genetically determined persistence of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) production into adult life, in the absence of any related hematological disorder. Whereas some forms are caused by mutations in the [beta]-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11, others segregate independently. While the latter are of particular interest with respect to the regulation of globin gene switching, it has not been possible to determine their chromosomal location, mainly because their mode of inheritance is not clear, but also because several other factors are known to modify Hb F production. The authors have examined a large Asian Indian pedigree which includes individuals with heterocellular HPFH associated with [beta]-thalassemia and/or [alpha]-thalassemia. Segregation analysis was conducted on the HPFH trait FC, defined to be the percentage of Hb F-containing cells (F-cells), using the class D regressive model. The results provide evidence for the presence of a major gene, dominant or codominant, which controls the FC values with residual familial correlations. The major gene was detected when the effects of genetic modifiers, notably [beta]-thalassemia and the XmnI-[sup G][gamma] polymorphism, are accounted for in this analysis. Linkage with the [beta]-globin gene cluster is excluded. The transmission of the FC values in this pedigree is informative enough to allow detection of linkage with an appropriate marker(s). The analytical approach outlined in this study, using simple regression to allow for genetic modifiers and thus allowing the mode of inheritance of a trait to be dissected out, may be useful as a model for segregation and linkage analyses of other complex phenotypes. 39 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Obesity in Egyptian School Adolescents

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    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the relationship between high blood pressure (HBP and obesity in Egyptian adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1500 adolescents (11–19 years in Alexandria, Egypt, was conducted. Resting BP was measured and measurements were categorized using the 2004 fourth report on blood pressure screening recommendations. Additional measures included height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences. Obesity was determined based on BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR indicators. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association between BP and obesity. Results. Prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 5.7% and 4.0%, respectively. Obesity was seen in 34.6%, 16.1%, 4.5%, and 16.7% according to BMI, WHR, WC, and WHtR, respectively. Adjusting for confounders, HBP was significantly associated with overall obesity based on BMI (OR=2.18, 95%, CI=1.38-3.44 and central obesity based on WC (OR=3.14, 95%, CI=1.67-5.94. Conclusion. Both overall obesity and central obesity were significant predictors of HBP in Egyptian adolescents.

  16. Evaluation of Endocrine Complications in Patients with Thalassemia Major

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    Birol Baytan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Multiple blood transfusions in beta thalassemia patients causes iron overload in various tissues including endocrine glands thereby leading to multiple endocrine dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine complications seen in beta thalassemia patients followed-up in outpatient clinics of Pediatric Hematology Division of Uludag University Faculty of Medicine. Materials and Methods: The files of patients with thalassemia major followed-up in outpatient clinics of Pediatric Hematology Division of Uludag University Faculty of Medicine from January 1976 to August 2008 were retrospectively evaluated for endocrine disorders. All patients had a detailed physical examination including palpation of thyroid gland and pubertal staging. Endocrine evaluation was performed in the Division of Pediatric Endocrinology.Results: A total of 44 [20 female (45.5%; 24 male (54.5%; and mean chronological age 13.54±7.32 (2.75-35.2 years] patients were evaluated. The ratios of patients with endocrine dysfunction were 27.2 % and 90.9%, respectively, when we exclude or include those with osteoporosis/osteopenia or growth failure other than growth hormone deficiency. Of all patients, 27 (61.3% had osteoporosis, 17 (38.6% had growth retardation, 11 (25% had osteopenia, 6 (13.6% had hypogonadism, 3 (6.8% had hypothyroidism, 2 (4.5% had hypoparathyroidism, 1 (2.3 had growth hormone deficiency, and 1 (2.3 had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Mean ferritin levels and monthly transfusion numbers were 1976.15±1494.75 ng/ml and 1.46±0.34, respectively. There were no significant association between ferritin levels, monthly transfusion needs, and endocrine dysfunctions studied. Endocrine dysfunctions did not differ significantly amongst those having different chelating agents. The ratio of patients with growth retardations in 10 to 19-age-group was significantly higher than those in 0 to 9-age-group (30.6% vs 8.3%; p=0.049. Conclusion: Patients with

  17. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.

  18. Egyptian Agriculture in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, C; Hillel, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to perform a proper, integrated assessment of potential climate change impacts on Egypt it was necessary to accurately identify important and impending issues and problems which are and will be facing the Egyptian agriculture sector into the next century. To this aim, two experts in the fields of Agronomy and Irrigated Agriculture in the Middle East were asked to travel to Egypt in order to assess the current state of Egyptian agriculture and pose possible questions and scenarios tha...

  19. The Archaeology of Egyptian Monasticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Louise

    The study of Egyptian monasticism has traditionally relied heavily on the rich corpus of textual sources, while the archaeological remains have been secondary to our understanding of monastic life. This imbalance has resulted in a situation where questions pertinent to the physical remains...... of monasteries ha ve largely remained unanswered. Based on first - hand archaeological material from the White Monastery federation and comparative material obtained through archaeological reports, the thesis addresses Egypt ian Monasticism in the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Islamic period......, by examining three main themes through seven chapters. These themes are: 1. the relationship between the archaeological and textual sources pertinent to the White Monastery; 2. the diachronic development of the White Monastery and the process es that caused its abandonment; 3. the economy of the White...

  20. Lipid profile in Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease

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    M. Mohsen Ibrahim

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is common among Egyptians with CAD. Lipid profile was influenced by age, gender, type of CAD, but not by the presence of HT. The high prevalence rate of risk factors particularly among young Egyptians is remarkable and can explain the epidemic of CAD among Egyptians.

  1. Hemoglobin Interlaken in combination with beta thalassemia trait

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    Mara J. Ojeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare a1 globin gene variant (Hb Interlaken found in a 63-year-old woman of Italian ancestry living in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The variant, a missense mutation at cd15 (GGT → GAT causing a Gly →Asp amino acid substitution and also known as Hb J Oxford, was found in combination with the common thalassemia trait cd 39 (C→T. The clinical picture of the patient was that of a b-thalassemia trait. 我们曾报道在阿根廷布宜诺斯艾利斯一名63岁意大利血统的妇女体内发现罕有的1珠蛋白基因(因特拉肯血红蛋白)变体。研究发现该变体是导致Gly → Asp氨基酸置的错义突变,也称为Hb J Oxford,与常见的地中海贫血性症cd 39 (C → T)有关。该患者临床症状与乙型地中海贫血特征相同。

  2. A preclinical approach for gene therapy of beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Laura; Kleinert, Dorothy A; Casu, Carla; Casula, Laura; Cartegni, Luca; Fibach, Eitan; Mancini, Irene; Giardina, Patricia J; Gambari, Roberto; Rivella, Stefano

    2010-08-01

    Lentiviral-mediated beta-globin gene transfer successfully treated beta-thalassemic mice. Based on this result, clinical trials were initiated. To date, however, no study has investigated the efficacy of gene therapy in relation to the nature of the different beta-globin mutations found in patients. Most mutations can be classified as beta(0) or beta(+), based on the amount of beta-globin protein produced. Therefore, we propose that a screening in vitro is necessary to verify the efficacy of gene transfer prior to treatment of individual patients. We used a two-phase liquid culture system to expand and differentiate erythroid progenitor cells (ErPCs) transduced with lentiviral vectors. We propose the use of this system to test the efficiency of lentiviral vectors carrying the human beta-globin gene, to correct the phenotype of ErPCs from patients preparing for gene therapy. This new approach might have profound implications for designing gene therapy and for understanding the genotype/phenotype variability observed in Cooley's anemia patients.

  3. Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.

  4. Documentation of BRUSII used on Egyptian data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    The BRUSII model and its use on Egyptian data are documented in this report. A Master Plan for wind development in Egypt is a part of the project, Demonstration and Development of Technology and Planning in the Wind Energy Sector in Egypt. The Master Plan work is has been carried out in cooperation...... to the Danish energy plan 2000. The model has been adapted to suit Egyptian conditions, but elements originating from the Danish energy system are still present. Thus the model could be used to examine a system including a demand for heating. All 20 spreadsheets of the model are documented, regarding their main...

  5. ICT BASED TELEMEDICINE FOR THE EGYPTIAN SOCIETY

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    Hafez A. Fouad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The One of the most challenging problems that encounter the Egyptian society is the lack of significant health care in the rural areas. This problem leads to more severe problems that face the society; the patients from the different rural areas needs to travel to the Egyptian capital where the most experienced physicians are available. This will make overhead not only on the patient budget but on the country budget since the focus on the capital makes a severe traffic problem which threaten most of the economic sectors. The telemedicine is considered one of the most important solutions that could mitigate the accumulated problems of lack of experienced physicians in the Egyptian rural areas. The application of the telemedicine encounters several challenges in Egypt; the lack in the experience in dealing with the telemedicine in these areas and the problem of insufficient medical experts that could fulfil the gab. In this paper, a new ICT-based telemedicine system is proposed to serve the Egyptian society. The portal is already released and snapshots are included

  6. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.

  7. A Syntactic Study of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal-Eldin, Saad M.

    This syntactic analysis of Egyptian colloquial Arabic is based on the author's dialect which he designates as educated Cairene. This study offers a phonological as well as morphological background for the grammar of this particular dialect. The basic syntactic approach used is immediate constituent analysis. String analysis and transformational…

  8. Hair-offerings: an enigmatic Egyptian custom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Tassie

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptians did not record the reasons that lay behind the offering of hair. Using an holistic approach, which combines both ethnographic and ethnohistoric evidence, insights may be gained into the ancient remains of these rituals and practices.

  9. ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF NASAL INDEX OF EGYPTIANS

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    Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width were measured using vernier caliper. Then, nasal index was determined for each subject. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 290 subjects, 144 males and 146 females, aged 1 month– 65 years, were enrolled in the study. The study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology, appearing after the age 20 years. The mean nasal index in the investigated adults was 68.01; in males and females was 71.46 and 64.56, respectively. Conclusions: The dominant nasal type in Egyptians was in-between mesorrhine "medium" and leptorrhine "narrow" nose. Forensic and anthropological research, as well as cosmetic and reconstructive surgery may benefit from age- and sex- based data of the study.

  10. Egyptian plant species as new ozone indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Samia A; Laurence, J A

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O3). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O3 levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O3 than the universally used O3-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O3 injury symptoms faster and at lower 03 concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O3 response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (Pnet). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O3. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in 03 tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between g(s), restriction of O3 and CO2 influx into the mesophyll tissues, and Pnet. Changes in Pnet seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in g(s).

  11. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

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    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  12. Investigating the use of Egyptian blue in Roman Egyptian portraits and panels from Tebtunis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.

  13. Evaluation of genetic bases and diversity of Egyptian wheat cultivars released during the last 50 years using coefficient of parentage

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    Bhoja R. Basnet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning the genetic diversity of any crop species provides insight into the strength of an applied breeding program and directs future breeding strategies aimed at long-term genetic gain and minimized genetic vulnerability. The number and abundance of ancestral parents present in the pedigree of crop cultivars can provide an average estimation of the depth of the genetic base of the overall crop improvement program. The objectives of this study were to estimate (1 the genetic similarity among 33 Egyptian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars and different eras of release (1947-2004 and productivity groups based on COP values, and (2 the relative genetic contribution and abundance of ancestral parents from different geographical origins to the total gene pool of Egyptian wheat cultivars. Broad genetic diversity was observed among 33 Egyptian cultivars with average COP value of 0.11 and large numbers of ancestral parents (155 landraces traced to 31 countries. The genetic base ranged from very low in pre 1960’s cultivars such as ‘Giza 139’ (with only 3 landraces in the background to very high in modern cultivars such as ‘Gemmeiza-7’ (with 73 landraces in the background. ‘Hindi-62’, ‘Red Fife’, ‘Hard Red Calcutta’ and ‘Akagomughi’ were the major ancestors with 6, 5, 4, and 4% of total genetic contribution to the Egyptian wheat gene pool, respectively. Egypt, United States of America, Kenya and Ukraine were the major source countries with 16, 11, 9 and 7% of total genetic contribution to this gene pool, respectively. Though Marquis-Thatcher germplasm from North America has the greatest influence on overall Egyptian cultivars, Mexican-based sources of dwarfing and high yield, derived from ancestors such as ‘Akagomughi’ and ‘Daruma’ and exploited by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT, were very prominent in Egyptian cultivars post 1970’s.

  14. Laboratory assessment of iron status and reticulocyte parameters in differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and heterozygous beta-thalassemia Avaliação laboratorial do estado do ferro e parâmetros reticulocitários no diagnóstico diferencial da anemia ferropriva e beta-talassemia heterozigótica

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    Gisélia A.F.M. de Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The soluble form of transferrin receptor (sTfR has been pointed as a useful parameter to assess the iron status and erythropoiesis activity. Immature reticulocytes present high concentration of membrane transferrin receptor. We tested the correlation between sTfR and reticulocyte parameters in iron deficiency anemia (IDA and heterozygous beta-thalassemia (hetero beta-thal patients. Laboratory parameters related to iron status and reticulocytes were studied in order to establish their clinical value to distinguish both anemias. Material and Methods: Reticulocyte measurements were obtained using a semi-automated analyzer and serum concentration of sTfR was determined by an immunoenzymatic technique. Forty-nine IDA and 43 hetero beta-thal patients were studied. Results: Reticulocyte count and sTfR values were significantly higher in IDA than in hetero beta-thal group, but the best parameter to distinguish both anemias was sTfR index, obtained by the ratio sTfR/ferritin level. Transport compartment was better evaluated by transferrin dosage than by transferrin iron binding capacity (TIBC determination. The association of serum iron with transferrin measurements (transferrin index improved the accuracy of the transferrin test. Discussion: The correlation between highly immature reticulocytes and sTfR level was observed only in IDA group, suggesting that cellular iron deprivation is the main responsible factor for up regulation of the sTfR synthesis in immature red blood cells. High sTfR values in hetero beta-thal patients reflect a degree of ineffective erythropoiesis in this hemoglobinopathy. Conclusion: We concluded that sTfR, ferritin and transferrin measurements are useful and precise parameters to discriminate IDA from hetero beta-thal patients.Introdução: A forma solúvel do receptor da transferrina (sTfR tem sido indicada como um parâmetro útil na avaliação do estado do ferro e da atividade eritropoiética. Reticul

  15. Circulation pattern of the Egyptian Mediterranean waters during winter and summer seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Said, M.A. (M Abdullah); Eid, F. M. [فهمي محمدعيد

    1994-01-01

    The water circulation of the Egyptian Mediterranean waters was computed during winter and summer seasons using the dynamic method. The reference level was set at the 1000db surface. The results showed that the surface circulation is dominated by the Atlantic water inflow along the North African coast and by two major gyres, the Mersa Matruth anticyclonic gyre and El-Arish cyclonic gyre. The results showed a seasonal reversal of El-Arish gyre, being cyclonic in winter and anticyclonic in summe...

  16. Mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed Egyptian swift).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu

    2015-06-01

    The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  17. Ranking of delay factors in construction projects after Egyptian revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time is one of the major considerations throughout project management life cycle and can be regarded as one of the most important parameters of a project and the driving force of project success. Time delay is a very frequent phenomenon and is almost associated with nearly all constructing projects. However, little effort has been made to curtail the phenomenon, this research work attempts to identify, investigate, and rank factors perceived to affect delays in the Egyptian construction projects with respect to their relative importance so as to proffer possible ways of coping with this phenomenon. To achieve this objective, researcher invited practitioners and experts, comprising a statistically representative sample to participate in a structured questionnaire survey. Brain storming was taken into consideration, through which a number of delay factors were identified in construction projects. Totally, ninety-nine (99 factors were short-listed to be made part of the questionnaire survey and were identified and categorized into nine (9 major categories. The survey was conducted with experts and representatives from private, public, and local general construction firms. The data were analyzed using Relative Importance Index (RII, ranking and simple percentages. Ranking of factors and categories was demonstrated according to their importance level on delay, especially after 25/1/2011 (Egyptian revolution. According to the case study results, the most contributing factors and categories (those need attention to delays were discussed, and some recommendations were made in order to minimize and control delays in construction projects. Also, this paper can serve as a guide for all construction parties with effective management in construction projects to achieve a competitive level of quality and a time effective project.

  18. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants.

  19. Egyptian plant species as new ozone indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madkour, S.A.; Laurence, J.A

    2002-12-01

    Of more than 30 species of plants from Egypt screened for sensitivity to ozone, four were found to be suitable for use as bioindicators. - The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O{sub 3}). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O{sub 3} levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O{sub 3} than the universally used O{sub 3}-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O{sub 3} injury symptoms faster and at lower O{sub 3} concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O{sub 3} response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) and net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation (P{sub net}). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O{sub 3}. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in O{sub 3} tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between g{sub s}, restriction of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} influx into the mesophyll tissues, and P{sub net}. Changes in P{sub net} seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in g{sub s}.

  20. Curse of schistosomiasis on Egyptian liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by a trematode blood fluke of the genus schistosoma that belongs to the schistosomatidae family.The ancient Egyptians contracted the disease more than 4 000 years ago.It was recognized through haematuria,the main sign of urinary bilharziasis was recorded in the Kahun papyrus 1900 B.C.as"a-a-a" disease[1].

  1. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram M. Fateen

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.

  2. [The medical literature of the Egyptian campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever, Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its pathologies are skimmed.

  3. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira Erfan Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS. They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH. Materials and Methods: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS method. Results: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. Conclusion: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy.

  4. Area-based conservation: The strengths and weaknesses of the Egyptian emerging experience in area-based conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman G. Abdel Tawab

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in securing and sustaining the townscape and urban values of the historic environment has escalated as a response to the writings of intellectuals, such as Kevin Lynch and Gordon Cullen. Such interest has been construed by the governments’ introduction of statutory tools allowing them the right to designate urban areas within the boundaries of which the historic environment can be provided a statutory protection. The earliest European attempt to introduce such tools has been the Dutch establishment of the model of conservation areas known as “Protected Town and Village Views” in 1961. In 1962, the renowned Malraux Act has officially established the French similar model of protected areas known as “Secteurs Sauvegardés”. The introduction of such tools has marked the emergence of what has been later called area-based conservation. In Egypt, the enactment of the Act No. 119, in 2008, and the establishment of the model of protected areas known as “Areas Enjoying a Distinctive Value”, seem to have marked the emergence of the Egyptian official experience in area-based conservation. The main aim of this study was to preview the key features of the Egyptian emerging experience in area-based conservation and to unveil its strengths and weaknesses. The study approached the issue by means of a comparative analysis conducted among a group of adopted case studies. The adopted case studies included the British, the Dutch, the Egyptian, the French, the Irish and the Maltese experiences in area-based conservation, in addition to the international institutions’ experiences. The findings indicated that adopting the centralized approach to designate the Egyptian “Areas Enjoying a Distinctive Value” seems to be the major weakness of the Egyptian experience. The findings suggest the further boosting of the role of the Egyptian local authorities in the management of such designated areas.

  5. The Sine-Egyptian Joint Business Council Business Forum Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On December 25, Chairman Wan Jifei led the Chinese business delegation attending the Sino-Egyptian Joint Business Council Business Forum co-hosted by the CCPIT and the Sino-Egyptian Business Council in Cairo, Egypt. Chinese vice Premier Li Keqiang who was on a visit to Egypt attended the forum and addressed the opening ceremony.

  6. Egyptian Art Institutions and Art Education from 1908 to 1951

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study of Egyptian aesthetics interprets the historical and political context of artistic discourse in the early twentieth century. In a period marked by intense struggle between landlords and rural laborers during the Depression and World War II, the author compares the rise of the Egyptian Surrealists, from the late 1930s, and the…

  7. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian ores and industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of iron ore samples and first industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples from each kind were irradiated for a 48 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 4x1012 n/(cm2.s) in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-PP-1. Also the pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) attached to the reactor in Inshass, was used to measure the elements of short-life time.The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given.

  8. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroo, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M

    2001-03-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/cm2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The gamma-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  9. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M

    2001-03-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The {gamma}-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  10. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian ores and industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srror, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of iron ore samples and first industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples from each kind were irradiated for a 48 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/(cm2.s) in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also the Pneumatic irradiation Rabbit system (PIRS) attached to the reactor in Inshass, was used to measure the elements of short-life time. The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given.

  11. Serological study on parvovirus B19 infection in multitransfused thalassemia major patients and its transmission through donor units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Janak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human parvovirus B19 (B19 virus is a newly recognized agent for transfusion transmitted diseases. Beta-thalassemia major patients receive a hypertransfusion regimen, hence, are prone to acquire B19 infection; moreover, B19 escapes viral inactivation methods and donor units are not tested for B19, but there are just a couple of studies globally and none from the Asian continent. Hence, a study was designed to find the frequency of B19 infection and its transmission in multitransfused thalassemia patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety multitransfused beta-thalassemia major (thalassemia patients, 32 controls (age, sex matched without any history of transfusion were enrolled. Besides the donor units were tested in B19 un-infected patients. B19 specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera were analyzed by ELISA (in-house, using B19 VPI and VP2 recombinant and purified antigens; additionally HBsAg and anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies were tested for coexisting infections. Results: Seventy-three (81% thalassemia patients tested positive for anti-B19 IgG antibodies as compared to seven (21% in the controls group (P < 0.01, while anti-B19 IgM antibodies were detected in 37 (41.1% compared to two (6.2% in the controls (P < 0.01. Mean age of the thalassemia patient was eight years (range 2 - 18 years and B19 infection was highest in the six-to-ten year range. Seropositivity increased with the number of transfusions. Two of the four HBsAg positive and five of the seven anti-HCV IgM antibody-positive patients also had anti-B19 IgM. After a six-month follow-up, four (25% of the 16 seronegative patients seroconverted and anti-B19 IgM antibodies were detected in their donor units. Conclusions: Most of multitransfused thalassemics were B19 seropositive or had anti-B19 IgM; in the remaining uninfected group, B19 got transmitted through infected / IgM-positive donor units.

  12. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  13. Determinants of the Egyptian labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, M; Metwally, M

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to summarize the pattern of Egyptian migration to Arab oil-producing countries (AOPC), to review some factors that are important determinants of labor movement based on theory, and to empirically model the migration rate to AOPC and to Saudi Arabia. Factors are differentiated as to their relative importance. Push factors are the low wages, high inflation rate, and high population density in Egypt; pull factors are higher wages. It is predicted that an increase in income from destination countries has a significant positive impact on the migration rate. An increase in population density stimulates migration. An increase in inflation acts to increase out-migration with a 2-year lag, which accommodates departure preparation. Egypt's experience with labor migration is described for the pre-oil boom, and the post-oil boom. Several estimates of labor migration are given. Government policy toward migration is positive. Theory postulates migration to be determined by differences in the availability of labor, labor rewards between destination and origin, and the cost of migration. In the empirical model, push factors are population density, the current inflation rate, and the ratio of income/capita in AOPC to Egypt. The results indicate that the ratio of income/capita had a strong pull impact and population density had a strong push impact. The inflation rate has a positive impact with a lag estimated at 2 years. Prior to the Camp David Accord, there was a significant decrease in the number of Egyptian migrants due to political tension. The findings support the classical theory of factor mobility. The consequences of migration on the Egyptian economy have been adverse. Future models should disaggregate data because chronic shortages exist in some parts of the labor market. Manpower needs assessment would be helpful for policy makers.

  14. John Vetch and the Egyptian ophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feibel, R M

    1983-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars from 1798-1815, severe epidemics of keratoconjunctivitis affected the military and civilian populations of Western Europe. This disease was known as the Egyptian ophthalmia because it was first described in troops stationed in Egypt. Most physicians believed this condition was not infectious, but caused by various climatological factors. John Vetch, a British physician, emphasized that this disease was spread by direct conveyance of pus from the diseased to the healthy eye. His insistence that the ophthalmia was contagious, and his suggestions for prevention and treatment were milestones in the history of ophthalmology.

  15. Antibacterial activity of selected Egyptian ethnomedicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashait, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the antimicrobial activity of plants and their metabolites due to the challenge of growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the antibacterial activities of plant extracts used as ethnomedicinal in Egypt. Methodology and Results: Investigations were carried out to assess the antibacterial efficiency of 11 plant extracts used as ethnopharmacological among Egyptian native people against infectious diseases. Crude methanol, ethanol,chloroform, hexane, acetone and aqueous extract of plants were tested for antibacterial activity in vitro against ten bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion method test. Discs were impregnated with 2 mg/mL of different solvent extracts. Among all the crude extracts, the methanol extract showed the highest activity than other extracts. P. harmala and S. officinalis exhibited highest antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria while the remainingplants extracts showed less activity. All the plant extracts showed no significant effect against the Bordetella bronchisepta ATCC 4617 except the extracts of M. fragrans and L. sativum. E. coli is the most sensitive microorganism tested, with the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL in the presence of the plant extract of P. harmala and S. officinalis.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Results obtained herein, may suggest that the ethnomedicinal Egyptian plants possess antimicrobial activity and therefore, they can be used in biotechnological fields as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  16. The Objectives of the Egyptian Space Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    : The aim of the Egyptsat series is to build on the experience gained from these missions to extend Egypt's space effort into scientific research and to expand its role in educational, agricultural and other development fields. The Egyptian Space Programme envisages that Egypt will be able to join the space age through the gradual establishment of the facilities needed for the manufacture of small research and remote sensing satellites, by acquiring appropriate technological knowledge and capabilities, and by building up the necessary infrastructure to enable the country to design and manufacture its own small satellites. Included in this overall vision would be the capacity to utilize space technologies And applications to serve the national development plans and contribute to the development of scientific and technological research in Egypt, as well as to the establishment of a scientific and research base for advanced industries in Egypt. To hasten the achievement of some or all of these objectives, it will be necessary to: • Transfer advanced space technologies in communication, computers, programs, optics, sensors, new materials, command and control, and energy into the domain of the Egyptian scientific community. • Utilize space technologies and apply these to the country's development plans. • Acquire national capabilities in space technology disciplines. Establish scientific and industrial base in advanced technology fields. • Enhance our human resource capabilities for space sciences fields. • Promote cooperation between the country's research and industrial centres in order to bring about successful project within the national space programme.

  17. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  18. PROPAGANDA IN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN TEXTS:AN ATTEMPT AT DEFINITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter; Beylage; IHAC

    2002-01-01

    In Egyptology dealing with both historical and literary texts often raises thequestion of their political intention.The almost fixed plot of the "Knigsnovelle”and the“annals,"typical forms of recording Egyptian history,seems to reflect therigid Egyptian view of history anchored in ideology.The historical course ofevents,what we may call“reality,”is less significant than the course postulated

  19. Polarized Discourse in the Egyptian News: Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb . The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside presidential palace and the issuing of the Egyptian draft constitution. The analysis of these reports is conducted within the framework of Critical Disc...

  20. Ægypticisme, ægyptomani. Egyptian revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2001-01-01

    To see Egypticism as merely a variety of neo-classicism sems too restrictive when one realizes the extent to which Western civilization has been inspired by Egypt. The interchangeability of terms covering that inspiration is confusing, so an attempt has been made to standardize them. The results...... are often contrary to what the ancients themselves would have understood or condoned. Practical considerations of form or a perenial sense of aesthetics, rather than Egyptian prototypes, may be behind much that looks Egyptian....

  1. Assessing Egyptian Public Support for Security Crackdowns in the Sinai

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    64 It was not clear if the Palestin - ian Red Crescent Society was able to cross the border to pick up the supplies, or if the Egyptian military...Bedouins who tradi- tionally have been marginalized in Egyptian society . They have a reputation in mainland Egypt as a sort of lawless and rootless...several mini-wars between the Hamas and Israel in 2008. Who actually dug the tunnels remains somewhat unclear ( Palestin - ians or Bedouin), but

  2. Genetic drift evolution under vaccination pressure among H5N1 Egyptian isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi Manal A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 is a major avian pathogen that intensively affects the poultry industry in Egypt even in spite of the adoption of vaccination strategy. Antigenic drift is among the strategies the influenza virus uses to escape the immune system that might develop due to the pressure of extensive vaccination. H5N1 mutates in an intensified manner and is considered a potential candidate for the possible next pandemic with all the catastrophic consequences such an eventuality will entail. Methods H5N1 was isolated from the pooled organ samples of four different affected flocks in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE. A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed to the haemagglutingin and neuraminidase. Sequencing of the full length haemagglutingin was performed. Sequence analyses of the isolated strains were performed and compared to all available H5N1 from Egyptian human and avian strains in the flu database. Changes in the different amino acid that may be related to virus virulence, receptor affinity and epitope configuration were assigned and matched with all available Egyptian strains in the flu database. Results One out of the four strains was found to be related to the B2 Egyptian lineage, 2 were related to A1 lineage and the 4th was related to A2 lineage. Comparing data obtained from the current study by other available Egyptian H5N1 sequences remarkably demonstrates that amino acid changes in the immune escape variants are remarkably restricted to a limited number of locations on the HA molecule during antigenic drift. Molecular diversity in the HA gene, in relevance to different epitopes, were not found to follow a regular trend, suggesting abrupt cumulative sequence mutations. However a number of amino acids were found to be subjected to high mutation pressure. Conclusion The current data provides a comprehensive view of HA gene evolution among H5N1 subtype viruses in

  3. Monitoring of pollution in Egyptian Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of the Egyptian Red Sea water pollution by oil was studied to assess the general pattern of oil pollutants and to evaluate the hydrocarbon origin (anthropogenic, petrogenic or biogenic with emphasis on the poly aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water. The oil extracted from the samples was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the concentrations and distribution of aliphatic and alicyclic n-alkanes. Results obtained indicate that most of the organic species present in water samples consist of petrogenic hydrocarbons with additional biogenic types. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique was used to study the poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs fingerprints of the studied water samples. The results obtained indicate the presence of PAHs of both pyrogenic and petrogenic origins.

  4. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  5. Evaluation of Iron Deposition in the Adrenal Glands of β Thalassemia Major Patients Using 3-Tesla MRI

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    Guzelbey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM patients need blood transfusions, which result in iron deposition. To regulate chelation therapy, iron load has to be measured. With MRI, the amount of signal loss and T2* decay time shortening are used for iron quantification. Objectives The aim was to measure adrenal iron load with T2* relaxometry using MRI, and to compare it with liver and cardiac iron and serum ferritin, and to find out whether adrenal iron could be predicted from those parameters. Patients and Methods Between October 2014 and March 2015, MRI was performed in 21 patients with β-TM, recieving blood transfusions and chelation therapy. The control group (n = 11 included healthy volunteers with no known history of adrenal, hematologic, chronic disease, and blood transfusion. Results Among patients, there was no significant correlation between plasma ferritin and adrenal T2*. Significant difference was detected among T2* values of adrenals between the patient and control groups. There was no significant correlation between adrenal gland and liver T2* in β-TM patients, moderate correlation was detected between adrenal T2* and cardiac T2*. Conclusion Adrenal iron in β-TM can be reliably measured in 3 Tesla MRI. The results highlight the absence of correlation between adrenal iron deposition both with serum ferritin and hepatic iron.

  6. Leptin, insulin and thyroid hormones in a cohort of Egyptian obese Down syndrome children: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Yahia Sohier; EL-farahaty Reham M; El-Hawary Amany K; El-hussiny Mona A; Abdel-maseih Hanaa; El-Dahtory Faeza; El-Gilany Abdel-Hady

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. It is commonly observed in Down syndrome individuals than in the general population. The reason for increased risk of obesity in DS is unclear. The current study was designed to clarify differences in some obesity- related hormones in a group of prepubertal Down syndrome children. Methods Thirty six Egyptian children with Down syndrome were enrolled in this study, divided according to their body mass index (BMI) into 23 obese an...

  7. Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread

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    Cornelia M. Witthöft

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF.Methods: Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined.Results: Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 µg/100 g DM (dry matter. The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 µg/100 g DM compared with 30 µg/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF.Conclusion: Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 µg.

  8. Non-deletion mutations in Egyptian patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

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    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The relative higher frequency of duplication mutations in Egyptian patients with DMD may indicate that MLPA and not PCR should be preferred for molecular testing of Egyptian patients with DMD.

  9. Establishing RDCS in CO MESA: Egyptian exporters' perspectives

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    Islam El-Nakib

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of supply chains has been significant in strengtheningthe competitiveness of interna tiona[ trade among countries.Regional Distribution Centres (RDCs are among the remarkabledrivers of any international trade supply chains. The Egyptianexports face severe competition in the international marketwhich has led the Egyptian government to join regional tradeblocks such as the Common Market for Eastern and SouthernAfrica (COMESA for the aim of establishing export channelsto new markets. Therefore, applying the concept of RDCs wasexamined to enhance the performance of Egyptian exportswhich are facing high competition in the EU, US, and Asianmarkets. Thus, the purpose of this research is to study the associatedaspects to this area of interest based on a survey whichhas targeted the Egyptian exporters who are directly dealingwith the CO MESA to cover several issues regarding the tradebetween Egypt and CO MESA. Moreover, this survey has alsoincluded the analysis of the reasons that make the CO MESAprefer other international products rather than the Egyptianproducts, and the attitudes towards the proposed selection ofEgypt's RDCs in COMESA. In addition, this survey is alsoidentifying the main features of the Egyptian exports comparedwith the foreign exports in COMESA and the recommendedaction to be taken towards the establishment of the EgyptianRDCs in CO MESA.

  10. Social media in the 2011 Egyptian uprising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brym, Robert; Godbout, Melissa; Hoffbauer, Andreas; Menard, Gabe; Zhang, Tony Huiquan

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses Gallup poll data to assess two narratives that have crystallized around the 2011 Egyptian uprising: (1) New electronic communications media constituted an important and independent cause of the protests in so far as they enhanced the capacity of demonstrators to extend protest networks, express outrage, organize events, and warn comrades of real-time threats. (2) Net of other factors, new electronic communications media played a relatively minor role in the uprising because they are low-cost, low-risk means of involvement that attract many sympathetic onlookers who are not prepared to engage in high-risk activism. Examining the independent effects of a host of factors associated with high-risk movement activism, the paper concludes that using some new electronic communications media was associated with being a demonstrator. However, grievances, structural availability, and network connections were more important than was the use of new electronic communications media in distinguishing demonstrators from sympathetic onlookers. Thus, although both narratives have some validity, they must both be qualified.

  11. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazard assessment of Egyptian oil ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hesham; Sadeek, Sadeek; Mahmoud, Abu Rehab; Diab, Hanan; Zaky, Doaa

    2016-08-01

    Oil fly and boiler ash samples were collected from the four major Egyptian power plants in order to determine their natural radioactivity. Secular equilibrium between (238)U and (232)Th and their decay products is significantly disturbed in oil ash samples. The (226)Ra/(238)U ratios were between 440 and 1993 with an average value of 801, indicating that the concentrations of daughters (226)Ra were very high compared to the parent (238)U in the oil ash samples. While, the average ratios for (210)Pb/(226)Ra in most samples were 1.19 ± 0.05, indicating a secular equilibrium in the (226)Ra-(210)Pb sub series. The natural radioactivity due to (238)U and (232)Th was found to be negligible. While the activity concentrations of (226)Ra ranged from 3205 to 12,320 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 9284 Bq kg(-1), (210)Pb ranged from 5960 to 13,930 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 11,513 Bq kg(-1). The results are compared with the reported data from other countries. The average value of radium equivalent activity was 9308 ± 2729 Bq kg(-1), while the external and internal hazard indexes were found to be 25 ± 7 and 50 ± 15, respectively. All the studied radiological parameters were higher than the recommended limit by the IAEA in all ash samples.

  12. MENDELIAN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MYCOBACTERIAL DISEASE IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN

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    Nermeen Galal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis remains a major health problem in developing countries especially with the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD is a rare disorder with impaired immunity against mycobacterial pathogens. Reported MSMD etiologies highlight the crucial role of the Interferon gamma /Interleukin 12 (IFN-g/ IL-12 axis and the phagocyte respiratory burst axis. Purpose: Screen patients with possible presentations for MSMD. Methods: Patients with disseminated BCG infection following vaccination, atypical mycobacterial infections or recurrent tuberculosis infections were recruited from the Primary Immune Deficiency Clinic at Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital, Egypt and immune and genetic laboratory investigations were conducted at Human Genetic of Infectious Diseases laboratory in Necker Medical School, France from 2005-2009. IFN-g level in patient’s plasma as well as mutations in the eight previously identified MSMD-causing genes were explored. Results: Nine cases from eight (unrelated kindreds were evaluated in detail. We detected a high level of IFN-g in plasma in one patient. Through Sanger sequencing, a homozygous mutation in the IFNGR1 gene at position 485 corresponding to an amino acid change from serine to phenylalanine (S485F, was detected in this patient. Conclusion: We report the first identified cases of MSMD among Egyptian patients, including in particular a new IFNGR1 mutation underlying IFN-gR1 deficiency. The eight remaining patients need to be explored further. These findings have implications regarding the compulsory Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination policy in Egypt, especially given the high consanguinity rate. Keywords: Interferon gamma axis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG, consanguinity

  13. MENDELIAN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MYCOBACTERIAL DISEASE IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN

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    Nermeen Galal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Tuberculosis remains a major health problem in developing countries especially with the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD is a rare disorder with impaired immunity against mycobacterial pathogens. Reported MSMD etiologies highlight the crucial role of the Interferon gamma /Interleukin 12 (IFN-g/ IL-12 axis and the phagocyte respiratory burst axis.

    Purpose: Screen patients with possible presentations for MSMD.

    Methods: Patients with disseminated BCG infection following vaccination, atypical mycobacterial infections or recurrent tuberculosis infections were recruited from the Primary Immune Deficiency Clinic at Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital, Egypt and immune and genetic laboratory investigations were conducted at Human Genetic of Infectious Diseases laboratory in Necker Medical School, France from 2005-2009. IFN-g level in patient’s plasma as well as mutations in the eight previously identified MSMD-causing genes were explored.

    Results: Nine cases from eight (unrelated kindreds were evaluated in detail. We detected a high level of IFN-g in plasma in one patient. Through Sanger sequencing, a homozygous mutation in the IFNGR1 gene at position 485 corresponding to an amino acid change from serine to phenylalanine (S485F, was detected in this patient.

    Conclusion: We report the first identified cases of MSMD among Egyptian patients, including in particular a new IFNGR1 mutation underlying IFN-gR1 deficiency. The eight remaining patients need to be explored further. These findings have implications regarding the compulsory Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccination policy in Egypt, especially given the high consanguinity rate.

    Keywords: Interferon gamma axis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG, consanguinity

  14. Malignant tumors in an ancient Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, A; Rohrbach, H; Szeimies, U; Hagedorn, H G; Haas, C J; Weyss, C; Bachmeier, B; Nerlich, A G

    1999-01-01

    Since it is still an open debate whether malignant tumors are mainly influenced by environmental factors, the frequency of such malignant tumors in historic populations with different living conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of malignant tumors affecting bone tissue in a population of mumrnies and skeletons, which had been excavated from the large necropolis of Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. Our study material comprised a series of at least 415 individuals (thereof 325 adults) dating from approx. 1500-500 B.C. All individuals had been mummified, but were severely damaged and partially broken by grave robbers, so that often only parts of the mummies/skeletons were available for investigation. The available specimens were subjected to careful macroscopic examination, while isolated findings were radiologically analyzed. Using this approach, we identified at least 4 cases showing malignant tumors affecting the skeleton. In two cases, multiple mixed osteolytic-osteoblastic lesions suggested multiple metastases from carcinomas. Two further individuals presented with multiple osteolyses (vertebra, pelvis, skull) most suggestive of multiple myeloma. The observation of at least 4 cases of malignant tumors with osseous manifestation in a series of 325 adult individuals provides clear evidence that malignant tumors were not a rare event in the ancient Egyptian study population, particularly when the limitations of a study of tumors manifested only in osseous remnants are taken into consideration. A calculation of the age- and sex-adjusted tumor frequency in our material in comparison with a recent model for such a material by Waldron (1996) indicates that the rate of malignant tumors with bone affection in our series is higher than in an English population from 1901-1905, although lower than in a comparable present day population. This clearly indicates that important factors affecting malignant tumors were effective even

  15. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ⩽ 26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P > 0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure.

  16. Cryoglobulinaemia in Egyptian Patients with Extrahepatic Cutaneous Manifestations of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

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    Doaa Salah Hegab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C is a global major health problem with extremely variable extrahepatic manifestations. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC shows a striking association with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, and it is sometimes asymptomatic. The skin is a frequently involved target organ in MC. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of cryoglobulinaemia in a sample of Egyptian patients with cutaneous manifestations of chronic HCV infection and to correlate its presence with clinical criteria and liver function tests. Methods. One hundred and eighteen patients with skin manifestations of chronic compensated hepatitis C were included. Venous blood was tested for liver function tests and serum cryoglobulins. Results. Twelve patients (10.169% were positive for serum cryoglobulins (2 with pruritus, 4 with vasculitic lesions, 3 with livedo reticularis, one with oral lichen, one with chronic urticaria, and another with Schamberg’s disease. Vasculitic lesions and livedo reticularis of the legs showed higher prevalence in cryoglobulin-positive than in cryoglobulin-negative patients. Presence of serum cryoglobulins did not relate to patients’ demographic or laboratory findings. Conclusions. Fortunately, MC is not markedly prevalent among Egyptians with cutaneous lesions of chronic hepatitis C, and cryopositivity was commonly, but not exclusively, detected with cutaneous vasculitis and livedo reticularis. Laboratory testing for cryoglobulins in every HCV patient is advisable for earlier MC detection and management.

  17. Cryoglobulinaemia in Egyptian Patients with Extrahepatic Cutaneous Manifestations of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegab, Doaa Salah; Sweilam, Mohammed Abd El Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C is a global major health problem with extremely variable extrahepatic manifestations. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) shows a striking association with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and it is sometimes asymptomatic. The skin is a frequently involved target organ in MC. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of cryoglobulinaemia in a sample of Egyptian patients with cutaneous manifestations of chronic HCV infection and to correlate its presence with clinical criteria and liver function tests. Methods. One hundred and eighteen patients with skin manifestations of chronic compensated hepatitis C were included. Venous blood was tested for liver function tests and serum cryoglobulins. Results. Twelve patients (10.169%) were positive for serum cryoglobulins (2 with pruritus, 4 with vasculitic lesions, 3 with livedo reticularis, one with oral lichen, one with chronic urticaria, and another with Schamberg's disease). Vasculitic lesions and livedo reticularis of the legs showed higher prevalence in cryoglobulin-positive than in cryoglobulin-negative patients. Presence of serum cryoglobulins did not relate to patients' demographic or laboratory findings. Conclusions. Fortunately, MC is not markedly prevalent among Egyptians with cutaneous lesions of chronic hepatitis C, and cryopositivity was commonly, but not exclusively, detected with cutaneous vasculitis and livedo reticularis. Laboratory testing for cryoglobulins in every HCV patient is advisable for earlier MC detection and management.

  18. Hydration Deficit in 9- to 11-Year-Old Egyptian Children

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    Zaghloul Gouda MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children who drink too little to meet their daily water requirements are likely to become dehydrated, and even mild dehydration can negatively affect health. This is even more important in Middle-Eastern countries where high temperatures increase the risk of dehydration. We assessed morning hydration status in a sample of 519 Egyptian schoolchildren (9-11 years old. Methods. Children completed a questionnaire on breakfast intakes and collected a urine sample after breakfast. Breakfast food and fluid nutritional composition was analyzed and urine osmolality was measured using osmometry. Results. The mean urine osmolality of children was 814 mOsmol/kg: >800 mOsmol/kg (57% and >1000 mOsmol/kg (24.7%. Furthermore, the results showed that a total water intake of less than 400 mL was associated with a significant higher risk of dehydration. Surprisingly, 63% of the children skipped breakfast. Conclusions. The results showed that a majority of Egyptian schoolchildren arrive at school with a hydration deficit. These results highlight the fact that there is a need to educate schoolchildren about the importance of having a breakfast and adequate hydration.

  19. Pictorial Metaphor in Selected Egyptian Newspapers Cartoons during the 25th of January 2011 Egyptian Revolution.

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    Ghada Abdel Aziz Ashmawi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor is persuasive in having cognitive, emotional and aesthetic effect. It has been argued that any visual representation can be considered a metaphor if it represents a metaphoric thought. Chartris-Black’s Critical Metaphor Analysis and Forceville’s model of pictorial metaphor are both used to analyze the data under investigation. Chateris-Black’s Critical Metaphor Analysis is used based on the idea that the use of metaphors helps in conveying the underlying ideologies of the writers. Moreover, Forceville’s model of pictorial metaphor aims at investigating various types of pictorial metaphor in different genres. The political cartoons investigated in this study are drawn from three independent newspapers: Al Dastour, Al Masry Al Youm and Al Youm AL Sabea during the 25th of January 2011 Egyptian Revolution. This study aims at exploring how metaphors are expressed in the visual mode, more specifically in newspapers cartoons, tracing the use of pictorial metaphor in selected independent newspapers cartoons during the eighteen days of the 25th of January 2011 Egyptian revolution, and finally, identifying the cartoonists’ underlying ideological motivations and their attitudes to the revolution, which ultimately direct the audience’s ideology. The results of this study suggest that Chateris-Black’s Critical Metaphor Analysis can be applied not only on the textual level, but also on the semiotic and pictorial ones. In addition, metaphors are frequently used in political cartoons to evoke strong emotive effect and reinforce ideologies to achieve persuasion. Keywords: Pictorial Metaphor, Critical Metaphor Analysis, political cartoon

  20. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…

  1. Shifting Pedagogical Space: Egyptian Educators Use of Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson; Finholt-Daniel, Matt; Sales, Greg; Flora, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on exploring the outcomes of an e-learning initiative in Egypt. Researchers conducted training with 17 Egyptian educators on how to build, maintain, and teach using Moodle, an online content management system. The researchers evaluated the outputs of the training using the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) in an effort to assess…

  2. Polarized Discourse in the Egyptian News: Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb. The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside…

  3. Language Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment: An Egyptian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Atta

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates the assessment conceptions of both pre-service and in-service English teachers within a high-stakes, test-driven context in Egypt. For this purpose, 170 Egyptian pre-service and in-service teachers completed an assessment conceptions questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis were employed to answer…

  4. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  5. The Case for (Social) Entrepreneurship Education in Egyptian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, David A.; Ibrahim, Nagwa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000…

  6. Space and protest: A tale of two Egyptian squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, A.A.; Van Nes, A.; Salheen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Protests and revolts take place in public space. How they can be controlled or how protests develop depend on the physical layout of the built environment. This study reveals the relationship between urban space and protest for two Egyptian squares: Tahrir Square and Rabaa Al-Adawiya in Cairo. For a

  7. Strategic Leadership and Its Application in Egyptian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany R. Alalfy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Today's universities operate in a climate of great change, along with increased responsibilities and accountability from Internal and external customers. This has resulted in calls for a new kind of leadership working to help the university to improve educational services and face more challenges, called strategic leadership, at the university level. Aim of study defining of Egyptian leadership universities pattern of modern leadership styles, named as Strategic leadership (concept, objectives, roles, requirements, and application obstacles. Relate to the suffering of the Egyptian universities of many problems that limit their efficiency and effectiveness. This led to the need to search for new approaches as strategic leadership for eliminate of these problems. The study used a descriptive approach for its suitability for the nature of the study. The study found multiple reasons for the application of strategic leadership style in Egyptian universities as a result of  the problems the leaderships of the Egyptian universities suffer from  which limits its efficiency and effectiveness. Study recommended starting applying this pattern quickly after all the positive results it achieved in many universities.   

  8. Egyptian Film: Gender and Class Violence Three Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jabbar A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the level of physical and verbal violence by gender and social class in Egyptian films in three cycles: romantic musicals and melodramas; war and political genres; and drug and gangster films. Concludes that the outrageous level of violence does not accurately reflect the real society. (Contains 20 references.) (LRW)

  9. Student Involvement in the Egyptian Quality Assurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elassy, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the extent and the quality of student involvement in the quality assurance process (QAP) in Egyptian higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: In this study, two qualitative methods were used to explore the extent and the quality of student involvement; these were focus groups…

  10. New terpenes from the Egyptian soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Ahmed; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Alhammady, Montaser A; Ohta, Shinji; Paré, Paul W; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F

    2014-04-02

    Chemical investigations of the Egyptian soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi have led to the isolation of compounds 1-3 as well as the previously reported marine cembranoid diterpene sarcophine (4). Structures were elucidated by comprehensive NMR and HRMS experimentation. Isolated compounds were in vitro assayed for cytotoxic activity against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines.

  11. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  12. English Majors' Errors in Translating Arabic Endophora: Analysis and Remedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2007-01-01

    Egyptian English majors in the faculty of Education, South Valley University tend to mistranslate the plural inanimate Arabic pronoun with the singular inanimate English pronoun. A diagnostic test was designed to analyze this error. Results showed that a large number of students (first year and fourth year students) make this error, that the error…

  13. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma by Egyptian physicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar; M; Hassany; Ehab; F; Abdou; Moustafa; Mohamed; El; Taher; Afaf; Adel; Abdeltwab; Hubert; E; Blum

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the practice of Egyptian physicians in screening patients for hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). METHODS: The study included 154 physicians from all over Egypt caring for patients at risk for HCC. The study was based on a questionnaire with 20 items. Each questionnaire consisted of two parts:(1) personal information regarding the physician(name, age, specialty and type of health care setting); and(2) professional experience in the care of patients at risk for HCC development(screening, knowledge about the cause and natural course of liver diseases and HCC risk). RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of doctors with an MD degree, 48% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma and 40% of doctors with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery certificate considered the hepatitis C virus(HCV) genotype as risk factor for HCC development(P < 0.05). Ninety percent of physicians specialized in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 67% of physicians in other specialties advise patients to undergo screening for HCV and hepatitis B virus infection as well as liver cirrhosis(P < 0.05). Eighty-six percent of doctors in University Hospitals and 69% of Ministry of Health(MOH) doctors consider HCV infection as the leading cause of HCC in Egypt(P < 0.05). Seventy-two percent of doctors with an MD degree, 55% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma, 56% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate, 74% of doctors in University Hospitals and 46% of MOH hospital doctors consider abdominal ultrasonography as the most important investigation in HCC screening(P < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of physicians in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 37% of physicians in other specialties recommend as HCC screening interval of 3 mo(P < 0.05). Seventy-one percent of doctors with an MD degree, 50% of doctors with a master degree or diploma and 60% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate follow the same recommendation.CONCLUSION: In Egypt, physicians

  14. Striking presence of Egyptian blue identified in a painting by Giovanni Battista Benvenuto from 1524.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn; Sanyova, Jana; Rask, Vibeke; Sargent, Maria Louise; Therkildsen, Rikke Hoberg

    2011-09-01

    Egyptian blue has been identified in a painting from 1524 by the Italian artist Ortolano Ferrarese (Giovanni Battista Benvenuto). Egyptian blue is the oldest known synthetic pigment, invented by the Egyptians in the fourth dynasty (2613-2494 BC) of the Old Kingdom and extensively used throughout Antiquity. From about 1000 A.D., it disappeared from the historical record and was only reinvented in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The discovery of Egyptian blue in Ortolano Ferrarese's painting from 1524 shows that Egyptian blue was in fact available in the period from which it is normally considered not to exist. The identification of Egyptian blue is based on optical microscopy supported by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and visual light photon-induced spectroscopy, and finally confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy.

  15. Evaluation of the Mechanical Durability of the Egyptian Machine Readable Booklet Passport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud Yosri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Egyptian booklet Machine Readable Passport/ MRP has been issued and its security and informative standard quality levels were proved in a research published in 2011. Here the durability profiles of the Egyptian MRP have been evaluated. Seven mechanical durability tests were applied on the Egyptian MRP. Such tests are specified in the International Civil Aviation Organization / ICAO standard requirements documents. These seven very severe durability tests resulted in that the Egyptian MRP has achieved better & higher results than the values detected in ICAO-Doc N0232: Durability of Machine Readable Passports - Version: 3.2. Hence, this research had proved the complete conformance between the Egyptian MRP mechanical durability profiles to the international requirements. The Egyptian booklet MRP doesn’t need any obligatory modification concerning its mechanical durability profiles.

  16. THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS’ BOTTOM LINES IN THE EMERGING EGYPTIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the value relevance of the bottom lines of the financial statements in the Egyptian context after the inception of the new version of Egyptian Accounting Standards of 2006. Considering the tradition accounting value of conservatism and the firm size, the price and return models are operationalized using a sample of the most actively traded companies on the Egyptian Stock Market in the period from 2007-2009. Three important conclusions captured from th...

  17. Rezension zu: Emily Teeter (Hg.), Before the pyramids. The origins of Egyptian civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Köpp-Junk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Rezension zu: Emily Teeter (Hg.), Before the Pyramids. The Origins of Egyptian Civilization. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Museum Publications 33 (Chicago 2011)

  18. Evaluation of Diet Quality of Egyptian Children and Adolescents using Healthy Eating Index

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    Mervat A. Esmail ­ Wafaa M.A.Saleh ­Nebal A.R.Aboul Ella ­ Asmaa M. Abd

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthful eating is essential for development and well-being. Some dietary patterns are associated with 4 of the 10 leading causes of death (coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Major improvements in the health of the public can, therefore, be made by improving people's dietary patterns. The U.S. department of Agriculture has developed an index, called the Healthy Eating Index (HEI that was updated in the year 2002. It is based on different aspects of a healthful diet; the Index is designed to provide a measure of overall dietary quality, and the compliance with specific Dietary Guidelines recommendations. The aim of our study is to use the healthy eating index to assess the diet quality of a representative sample of the Egyptian children and adolescents and to examine the association between body mass index and caloric intake of the studied sample. Materials & Methods: This study is a part of National Egyptian survey, Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases. The Healthy Eating Index was applied with slight modifications to measure how well the studied Egyptian students' diet conforms to recommended healthy eating pattern. The data were based on representative sample (2145 of children and adolescents (10 -18 years in 7 governorates from. One day of dietary intake data (24 hours recall was collected, during an in-person interview. The Healthy Eating Index measures how well the studied children and adolescents' diets conform to the American Dietary Guidelines recommendations and the Food Guide Pyramid applied in our country. Ten dietary components have been identified and the overall Index has a total possible score ranging from zero to 100. Results: Our results showed that the average Healthy Eating Index score was 59.1 out of a possible 100 and it ranged from 20 to 86, Only 0.5 percent of the students had Healthy Eating scores above 80; while 16.9 percent of them

  19. All-directional developments for the Egyptian gas; Developpement tous azimuts pour le gaz egyptien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-04-01

    Since several years, several major discoveries of natural gas have been made in Egypt. Egypt aims at doubling the volume of its oil and gas reserves using exploration and development investments of about 10 G USD during the 6 forthcoming years. Proven gas reserves are estimated to 55 Tpc while probable reserves reach about 120 Tpc. The main part of these reserves correspond to new discoveries made in the Mediterranean offshore, the Nile delta, and in the western desert. The natural gas demand has rapidly grown up in Egypt with the progressive substitution of petroleum-fueled power plants by gas-fueled ones. Several gas pipelines and LNG projects are in progress for the export of the Egyptian gas towards Jordan, Syria, Spain and some other European countries. (J.S.)

  20. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children's Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2016-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children.

  1. Egyptian Activism against Female Genital Cutting as Catachrestic Claiming

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    An Van Raemdonck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with questions of the politics of location in knowledge and norm production within the context of Egyptian feminist activism for abandoning female genital cutting practices. It seeks to determine underlying schemes of international campaigning discourse and analyzes how these predicate and complicate Egyptian postcolonial activism. It draws on a broad literature study in addition to fieldwork in Cairo consisting of in-depth interviews with activists and policy makers. My focus is on the national Task Force against FGM from 1994 until 1999 and its subsequent cooptation by the National Council of Childhood and Motherhood. I argue through the concept of catachresis that location matters in setting the terms of anti-FGC discourse and its relation to religion.

  2. Polarized Discourse in the Egyptian News: Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

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    Mohammed Mahmoud Issa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb . The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside presidential palace and the issuing of the Egyptian draft constitution. The analysis of these reports is conducted within the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis. The features of the ideologies of polarized discourse are traced through: Quotation patterns and Labeling. The study concludes with a discussion of how both websites establish a dichotomy of we versus them. In addition, the reports of each website marginalize the other through what is termed as ' Absent News'.

  3. Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Kate

    2000-11-01

    The ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated, although we know that they were built approximately around the middle of the third millennium BC. The chronologies of this period have been reconstructed from surviving lists of kings and the lengths of their reigns, but the lists are rare, seldom complete and contain known inconsistencies and errors. As a result, the existing chronologies for that period (the Old Kingdom) can be considered accurate only to about +/-100 years, a figure that radiocarbon dating cannot at present improve. Here I use trends in the orientation of Old Kingdom pyramids to demonstrate that the Egyptians aligned them to north by using the simultaneous transit of two circumpolar stars. Modelling the precession of these stars yields a date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramid that is accurate to +/-5 yr, thereby providing an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronologies.

  4. Egyptian imprints on Geto-Dacian magical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Several characteristics of Egyptian culture and civilization could be identified in prehistoric and ancient historic Geto-Dacian territories, belonging to modern Romania (Fig. 1). From early times, magic, religion and philosophy have been part of pre-scientific medicine. Therefore these aspects are to be tackled when speaking of medicine in mythological or legendary ages. Progress of ancient Geto-Dacian medicine was principally ascribed to the interface of local civilizations with ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Such connections were well documented and understood in historic times and were mainly based on texts of renowned Greek and Roman historians. Egyptian impact upon Dacia, -the ancient name of today's Romania-, was often explained in terms of indirect Greek- or Roman-mediated influences.The Greek and then the Roman colonies on the Black sea shore, together with later Roman colonies in Dacia Felix, founded in the heart of Transylvania, enabled access for Romania to Mediterranean cultures, including that of Egypt.

  5. Associations between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbheiry, Abd-Elraqeep; Emam, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among a sample of 817 Egyptian adolescents (408 males and 409 females). Using 15 subscales from the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS-long form) we assessed prevalence rates of a number of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial disorders. Additionally, we investigated whether there are gender differences in psychopathology among Egyptian adolescents and to what extent can psychosocial problems predict specific personality disorders. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that the participants experienced higher levels of PD, AV, and BD. Gender differences were found in certain personality disorders as well as in externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems. A number of externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems were highly predictive of specific personality disorders.

  6. Characterization of α-cypermethrin Exposure in Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37)...

  7. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  8. ASTRONOMICAL ALGORITHMS OF EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS SLOPES AND THEIR MODULES DIVIDER

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulfotouh, Hossam M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to show the astronomical design principles that are encoded in the geometrical forms of the largest five pyramids of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, in Giza and Dahshur plateaus, based on using the pyramids’ design-modules that are mentioned in the so-called Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. It shows the astronomical algorithms for quantifying the slopes of pyramids, with reference to specific range of earth’s axial tilt, within spherical co-ordinates system. Besid...

  9. HOW EGYPTIAN CONTRACTING COMPANIES TRANSLATE PROJECTS' QUALITY TO PROJECTS' PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Said SHAWKY HOZIEN; REFAAT HASSAN ABDEL-RAZEK; ADEL AHMED EL-KORDI; SHAFIK SHAWKY KHOURY

    2011-01-01

    A model for continuous quality improvement for Egyptian contracting projects’ (CQIM) is developed through the extensive reviewing of the Total Quality Management (TQM), Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)literature, preceding researches, consensus opinions of managers and experts of the construction industry and the quality management system (ISO 9000). This model comprises of 13 main factors divided into 9 CQI constructs and 4 Indices, the Indices are broken down to 46 practical measures, w...

  10. Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis of ancient Egyptian pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, John G.; Zhu, Wenjun

    1986-02-01

    Ten pieces of Egyptian pottery ware and eleven silt samples collected at Hierakonopolis (Nile River, Egypt) were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Three Nile silt samples and three pottery sherds were test fired and refired in an oxidized atmosphere up to 1100°C. Changes of the Mössbauer parameters depend upon the firing temperatures as well as the firing atmosphere. Three kinds of pottery were studied: Plum Red Ware, Straw Tempered Ware, and Orange Ware.

  11. Egyptian Foreign Policy after the 25 January Revolution: What Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    policies can be contained by pragmatic action, 15. SUBJECT TERMS Egypt, Foreign Policy. Middle East. 25 January 2012 Egyptian Revolution. Gamal Nasser...British foreign policy and strategic goals. After the 1952 Free Officer’s Coup, Gamal Nasser assumed leadership of Egypt. His personal vision and Pan...dynastic transfer of power to Gamal Mubarak, a son without a military background. Not that the military might disagree with a hereditary transfer, as long

  12. Wintering of Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus in Sicily: new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Vittorio, M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus in continental Europe are usually migratory, travelling from their breeding grounds to wintering areas in the sub-Saharan Sahel region. In Sicily, there are currently six breeding pairs of this species, but there are few reports about their presence in winter. We report the sighting of one young and two adults in Sicily during the 2015-2016 winter season.

  13. New Terpenes from the Egyptian Soft Coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi

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    Ahmed Elkhateeb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigations of the Egyptian soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi have led to the isolation of compounds 1–3 as well as the previously reported marine cembranoid diterpene sarcophine (4. Structures were elucidated by comprehensive NMR and HRMS experimentation. Isolated compounds were in vitro assayed for cytotoxic activity against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 cell lines.

  14. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

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    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  15. The Media and the Making of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

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    Amr Osman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available While views may differ on the factors that made the 2011 Egyptian revolution possible, the role of mass media will remain undisputable. The Internet-based social networks caught the Mubarak regime by surprise, and the popular disillusionment with the ‘national’ media led the public to turn to private newspapers and satellite channels for keeping pace with the events. This paper examines the role of specific media during the 18 days of the 2011 Egyptian revolution – from 25 January to 11 February, 2011 – which we have divided into four parts. It discusses how these media contributed to the unfolding of events, conceptualized the protests and the demands of the public, and presented the actors that participated in or opposed the revolution. These points are addressed by discussing the content of the Facebook pages of the Sixth of April Movement and We Are All Khalid Said, as well as that of a private Egyptian newspaper, al-Shuruq, and the state-run newspaper al-Ahram.

  16. Study of ocular manifestations in children of thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Dhara K. Gosai; K. M. Mehariya; Jigarkumar B. Gosai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Purpose of current study was to study the ocular manifestations in beta-thalassemia major patients and assess the ocular side-effects of iron chelating agents. Methods: Cross sectional study included 45 beta Thalassemia major patients from age group of 6months to 12 years were taken. Full medical history, thorough physical examinations were done to all patients groups, and ophthalmological examination to determine the prevalence of ocular manifestations for all patient groups a...

  17. Finding out egyptian gods' secret using analytical chemistry: biomedical properties of egyptian black makeup revealed by amperometry at single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, Issa; Arbault, Stéphane; Walter, Philippe; Amatore, Christian

    2010-01-15

    Lead-based compounds were used during antiquity as both pigments and medicines in the formulation of makeup materials. Chemical analysis of cosmetics samples found in Egyptians tombs and the reconstitution of ancient recipes as reported by Greco-Roman authors have shown that two non-natural lead chlorides (laurionite Pb(OH)Cl and phosgenite Pb(2)Cl(2)CO(3)) were purposely synthesized and were used as fine powders in makeup and eye lotions. According to ancient Egyptian manuscripts, these were essential remedies for treating eye illness and skin ailments. This conclusion seems amazing because today we focus only on the well-recognized toxicity of lead salts. Here, using ultramicroelectrodes, we obtain new insights into the biochemical interactions between lead(II) ions and cells, which support the ancient medical use of sparingly soluble lead compounds. Submicromolar concentrations of Pb(2+) ions are shown to be sufficient for eliciting specific oxidative stress responses of keratinocytes. These consist essentially of an overproduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO degrees ). Owing to the biological role of NO degrees in stimulating nonspecific immunological defenses, one may argue that these lead compounds were deliberately manufactured and used in ancient Egyptian formulations to prevent and treat eye illnesses by promoting the action of immune cells.

  18. A six-year sleep lab experience in an Egyptian University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Yousif

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Sleep medicine in Egypt is still lagging behind the developed world, awareness of sleep disorders among Egyptian physicians should be increased. Diabetes, HTN, IHD and COPD are the commonest predisposing factors for OSA among Egyptians especially snorers, obese and overweight patients.

  19. The Problem of the Pyramid or Egyptian Mathematics from a Postmodern Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We consider Egyptian mathematics from a postmodern perspective, by which we mean suspending judgement as to strict correctness in order to appreciate the genuine mathematical insights which they did have in the context in which they were working. In particular we show that the skill which the Egyptians possessed of obtaining the general case from…

  20. Higher Education and Some Upper Egyptian Women's Negotiation of Self-Autonomy at Work and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Halawany, Hanan Salah El-Deen

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to compare the effect of higher education on some Upper Egyptian women's practice of self autonomy at both work and home. The most important revelation this research makes is the fact that although no one can deny the importance and significance of higher education to Upper Egyptian women, yet it failed to challenge the…

  1. Genetic characterization of Egyptian and Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2015-06-01

    The matrix of pairwise differences among breeds was used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. This analysis showed that the Italian breeds are clearly separated from the Egyptian breeds; moreover the Egyptian Barki breed is separated from Ossimi and Rahmani.

  2. On improvement in ejection fraction with iron chelation in thalassemia major and the risk of future heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter JP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trials of iron chelator regimens have increased the treatment options for cardiac siderosis in beta-thalassemia major (TM patients. Treatment effects with improved left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (EF have been observed in patients without overt heart failure, but it is unclear whether these changes are clinically meaningful. Methods This retrospective study of a UK database of TM patients modelled the change in EF between serial scans measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to the relative risk (RR of future development of heart failure over 1 year. Patients were divided into 2 strata by baseline LVEF of 56-62% (below normal for TM and 63-70% (lower half of the normal range for TM. Results A total of 315 patients with 754 CMR scans were analyzed. A 1% absolute increase in EF from baseline was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of future development of heart failure for both the lower EF stratum (EF 56-62%, RR 0.818, p Conclusion These data show that during treatment with iron chelators for cardiac siderosis, small increases in LVEF in TM patients are associated with a significantly reduced risk of the development of heart failure. Thus the iron chelator induced improvements in LVEF of 2.6% to 3.1% that have been observed in randomized controlled trials, are associated with risk reductions of 25.5% to 46.4% for the development of heart failure over 12 months, which is clinically meaningful. In cardiac iron overload, heart mitochondrial dysfunction and its relief by iron chelation may underlie the changes in LV function.

  3. Absorption of sugars in the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus): a paradox explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Christopher R; McWhorter, Todd J; Korine, Carmi; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Pinshow, Berry; Karasov, William H

    2007-05-01

    Two decades ago D. J. Keegan reported results on Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus, Megachiroptera) that were strangely at odds with the prevailing understanding of how glucose is absorbed in the mammalian intestine. Keegan's in vitro tests for glucose transport against a concentration gradient and with phloridzin inhibition in fruit bat intestine were all negative, although he used several different tissue preparations and had positive control results with laboratory rats. Because glucose absorption by fruit bats is nonetheless efficient, Keegan postulated that the rapid glucose absorption from the fruit bat intestine is not through the enterocytes, but must occur via spaces between the cells. Thus, we hypothesized that absorption of water-soluble compounds that are not actively transported would be extensive in these bats, and would decline with increasing molecular mass in accord with sieve-like paracellular absorption. We did not presume from Keegan's studies that there is no Na(+)-coupled, mediated sugar transport in these bats, and our study was not designed to rule it out, but rather to quantify the level of possible non-mediated absorption. Using a standard pharmacokinetic technique, we fed, or injected intraperitonealy, the metabolically inert carbohydrates L-rhamnose (molecular mass=164 Da) and cellobiose (molecular mass=342 Da), which are absorbed by paracellular uptake, and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose), a D-glucose analog that is absorbed via both mediated (active) and paracellular uptake. As predicted, the bioavailability of paracellular probes declined with increasing molecular mass (rhamnose, 62+/-4%; cellobiose, 22+/-4%) and was significantly higher in bats than has been reported for rats and other mammals. In addition, fractional absorption of 3OMd-glucose was high (91+/-2%). We estimated that Egyptian fruit bats rely on passive, paracellular absorption for the majority of their glucose absorption (at least 55% of 3OMD

  4. ASPECTS OF OBSTACLES FOR APPLYING ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN FIRMS

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    Petru STEFEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following investigation aims to determine the aspects of obstacles for applying Activity Based Costing (ABC system in the Egyptian case and the significant differences among the effects of such obstacles . The Study used the survey method to describe and analyze the obstacles in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. This survey used the number of 392 questionnaires that were used throughout the total of 23 Egyptian manufacturing firms, during the first half of 2013. Finally, the study found some influencing obstacles for applying this system (ABC and there were significant differences among the aspects of obstacles for applying ABC system in the Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  5. The Traditional Egyptian Antecedents of Graeco-Roman Post-Mortem Ascent

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    Eliezer Gonzalez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the greater antiquity of Egyptian civilisation, when we refer to Egyptian and Graeco-Roman cultures, we are generally referring to cultures that were contiguous, and the profound impact that Egyptian ideas had upon the Graeco-Roman world cannot be denied. In key respects, Egyptian views of the afterlife foreshadowed Graeco-Roman, Jewish, and early Christian conceptions, particularly in terms of the motif of post-mortem ascent. Although the channels of transmission have been lost in antiquity, the motif may still be sketched clearly enough in both cultures to suggest that Egypt was an important source for its expression. After some methodological considerations, this essay will trace the motif of ascent as it was manifested in Graeco-Roman culture, and then analyze the nature of the ancient Egyptian evidence in order to suggest the existence of key elements of this same motif from the earliest times in ancient Egypt.

  6. Susceptibility of Iraqi fresh water snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F

    1979-01-01

    A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain.

  7. Premature epiphyseal fusion and extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colavita, N.; Orazi, C.; Danza, S.M.; Falappa, P.G.; Fabbri, R.

    1987-10-01

    The main skeletal abnormalities in ..beta..-thalassemia are widening of medullary spaces, rarefaction of bone trabeculae, thinning of cortical bone, and perpendicular periosteal spiculation. Premature epiphyseal fusion (PEF) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) are found, though more rarely. The incidence of PEF and EH in 64 patients affected by ..beta..-thalassemia is reported. The different incidence of such complications in thalassemia major and intermedia is reported, and a possible correlation with transfusion regimen is also considered.

  8. Prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction in beta thalassemia minor in shiraz

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    Ali Moradi Nakhodcheri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background & objective: β-Thalassemia minor is an asymptomatic hereditary disease. The first study on the relation of renal tubular dysfunction and β-thalassemia minor was performed in 2002 but those studies seem inadequate.The main goal of this study is through evaluation of renal tubular function in 100 patients with thalassemia minor. Materials & Methods: 100 patients with β- thalassemia which confirmed by hemoglobin electrophoresis and CBC as well as RBC indices were studied.14 out of 100 cases exit because of Urinary Tract Infection, diabetes mellitus or hypertension.Complete chemistry profile was performed on serum and urine of all reminder 86 patients (46 female and 40 male. Patients classified into two groups: β-thalassemia minor with anemia and without anemia. Another control group include 50 healthy individuals also considered.Then data analyzed by proper statistical methods. Results: 20 out of 86 reminder cases e.g. 24% showed at least one index of renal tubular dysfunction.58% of patients was been anemic and 42% non anemic. The most prominent tubular dysfunction was seen in a 29 years old lady with glucosuria and without anemia. conclusion: β-Thalassemia minor is common in Iran specially in Fars province. This study revealed significant renal tubular dysfunction in patient with β-thalassemia minor. So it is necessary to check out thalassemic patients for renal function tests periodically. Key words: β-thalassemia, minor,renal tubular dysfunction

  9. Prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in multitransfused patients with beta-thalassemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Siagris; Chryssoula Labropoulou-Karatza; Alexandra Kouraklis-Symeonidis; Irini Konstantinidou; Myrto Christofidou; Ioannis Starakis; Alexandra Lekkou; Christos Papadimitriou; Alexandros Blikas; Nicholas Zoumbos

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To detect the prevalence of anti-HAV IgG antibodies in adult multitransfused beta-thalassemic patients.METHODS:We studied 182 adult beta-thalassemic patients and 209 controls matched for age and sex from the same geographic area,at the same time.Anti-HAV IgG antibodies,viral markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV)and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were evaluated.RESULTS:Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected more frequently in thalassemic patients(133/182;73.1%)than in healthy controls(38/209;18.2%,P<0.0005).When we retrospectively evaluated the prevalence of anti-HAV IgG antibodies in 176/182(96.7%)thalassemic patients,whose medical history was available for the previous ten years,it was found that 83(47.2%)of them were continuously anti-HAV IgG positive,16(9.1%)acquired anti-HAV IgG antibody during the previous ten years,49 (27.8%) presented anti-HAV positivity intermittently and 28 (15.9%) were anti-HAV negative continuously.CONCLUSION:Multitransfused adult beta-thalassemic patients present higher frequency of anti-HAY IgG antibodies than normal population of the same geographic area.This difference is difficult to explain,but it can be attributed to the higher vulnerability .of thalassemics to HAV infection and to passive transfer of anti-HAV antibodies by blood transfusions.

  10. Prevalence of anti HCV infection in patients with beta-thalassemia in Isfahan-Iran

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    Behrooz Ataei

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings revealed that blood transfusion was the main risk factors for HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients. Therefore, more blood donor screening programs and effective screening techniques are needed to prevent transmission of HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients.

  11. Macrophages support pathological erythropoiesis in Polycythemia Vera and Beta-Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Pedro; Casu, Carla; Gardenghi, Sara; Breda, Laura; Crielaard, Bart J.; Guy, Ella; Marongiu, Maria Franca; Gupta, Ritama; Levine, Ross L.; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Van Rooijen, Nico; Ghaffari, Saghi; Grady, Robert W.; Giardina, Patricia J.; Rivella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of erythropoiesis is achieved by integration of distinct signals. Among these, macrophages are emerging as erythropoietin-complementary regulators of erythroid development, particularly under stress conditions. We investigated the contribution of macrophages for physiological and pathological conditions of enhanced erythropoiesis. We utilized mouse models of induced anemia, Polycythemia vera and β-thalassemia in which macrophages were chemically depleted. Our data indicate that macrophages contribute decisively for recovery from induced anemia as well as the pathological progression of Polycythemia vera and β-thalassemia by modulating erythroid proliferation and differentiation. We validated these observations in primary human cultures, showing a critical direct impact of macrophages on proliferation and enucleation of erythroblasts from healthy individuals and Polycythemia vera or β-thalassemic patients. In summary, we identify a new mechanism that we named “Stress Erythropoiesis Macrophage-supporting Activity” (SEMA) that contributes to the pathophysiology of these disorders and will have critical scientific and therapeutic implications in the near future. PMID:23502961

  12. A prospective study on TT virus infection in transfusion-dependent patients with beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, D; Lin, Y H; De Mattei, C; Liu, J K; Farma, E; Ramaswamy, L; Zanella, A; Lee, H; Rebulla, P; Allain, J P; Sirchia, G; Chen, B

    1999-03-01

    A novel DNA virus designated TT virus (TTV) has been reported to be involved in the development of posttransfusion non-A-C hepatitis. We evaluated the frequency and natural course of TTV infection in a cohort of transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients in a 3-year follow-up study. Ninety-three serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody-negative patients (median age of 8 years; range, 0 to 25) from eight centers were studied. Of them, 34 (37%) had an abnormal alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) baseline pattern, and the other 12 (13%) showed ALT flare-ups during the follow-up. TTV DNA in patient sera collected at the time of enrollment and at the end of follow-up was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In parallel, serum samples from 100 healthy blood donors were also tested. At baseline, 87 patient sera (93.5%) tested positive for the TTV DNA. Of these TTV DNA-positive patients, 84 (96.5%) remained viremic at the end of the study period. Of the 6 TTV DNA-negative patients, 3 acquired TTV infection during follow-up. However, no definite relation was observed between the results of TTV DNA determination and ALT patterns. TTV viremia was also detectable in 22% of blood donors. In conclusion, TTV infection is frequent and persistent among Italian transfusion-dependent patients. The high rate of viremia observed in healthy donors indicates that the parenteral route is not the only mode of TTV spread.

  13. Mithramycin encapsulated in polymeric micelles by microfluidic technology as novel therapeutic protocol for beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capretto L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo Capretto1, Stefania Mazzitelli2, Eleonora Brognara2, Ilaria Lampronti2, Dario Carugo1, Martyn Hill1, Xunli Zhang1, Roberto Gambari2, Claudio Nastruzzi31Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, ItalyAbstract: This report shows that the DNA-binding drug, mithramycin, can be efficiently encapsulated in polymeric micelles (PM-MTH, based on Pluronic® block copolymers, by a new microfluidic approach. The effect of different production parameters has been investigated for their effect on PM-MTH characteristics. The compared analysis of PM-MTH produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures revealed that microfluidics provides a useful platform for the production of PM-MTH with improved controllability, reproducibility, smaller size, and polydispersity. Finally, an investigation of the effects of PM-MTH, produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures, on the erythroid differentiation of both human erythroleukemia and human erythroid precursor cells is reported. It is demonstrated that PM-MTH exhibited a slightly lower toxicity and more pronounced differentiative activity when compared to the free drug. In addition, PM-MTH were able to upregulate preferentially γ-globin messenger ribonucleic acid production and to increase fetal hemoglobin (HbF accumulation, the percentage of HbF-containing cells, and their HbF content without stimulating α-globin gene expression, which is responsible for the clinical symptoms of ß-thalassemia. These results represent an important first step toward a potential clinical application, since an increase in HbF could alleviate the symptoms underlying ß-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. In conclusion, this report suggests that PM-MTH produced by microfluidic approach warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic protocol for ß-thalassemia.Keywords: microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip, design of experiments, erythroid differentiation, human erythroid precursor cells

  14. Phenotypic expression of hemoglobin A2 in beta-thalassemia trait with iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, N; Sikka, M; Sharma, S; Rusia, U

    1998-09-01

    Iron status was estimated in 463 heterozygous beta-thalassemics to delineate the effect of iron deficiency on the expression of hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) in these patients. One hundred and twenty-six (27.2%) patients with the trait were iron deficient. These iron-deficient patients had a significantly (p 3.5%) in all but one heterozygote investigated. Mean HbA2/cell was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in BTT patients with iron deficiency than in patients without iron deficiency. The presence of iron deficiency did not preclude the detection of BTT in this population. The effect of iron deficiency in BTT was apparent as a significant lowering of the Hb concentration and an increased prevalence of anemia. Iron therapy is warranted for BTT patients with iron-deficiency traits and would help to significantly raise their Hb concentration. The elevation of HbA2 was striking and could be used with reliability in making the diagnosis of BTT even in the presence of iron deficiency.

  15. HAEMOGLOBIN E/ BETA - THALASSEMIA: A CASE REPORT FROM UPPER ASSAM, INDIA

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    Anju Barhai Teli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report here a patient from upper Assam region of India with Hb E / β thalassemia disease, whose father belongs to the tea garden community and mother is Assamese where Hb E is very common. The patient was suffering from severe anaemia and hepatosplenomegaly. After examination two units of blood transfusion and folic acid course were given to the patient. Patient was finally treated with c helation therapy

  16. The Association between Myocardial Iron Load and Ventricular Repolarization Parameters in Asymptomatic Beta-Thalassemia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kayrak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated impaired ventricular repolarization in patients with β-TM. However, the effect of iron overload with cardiac T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on cardiac repolarization remains unclear yet. We aimed to examine relationship between repolarization parameters and iron loading using cardiac T2* MRI in asymptomatic β-TM patients. Twenty-two β-TM patients and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled to the study. From the 12-lead surface electrocardiography, regional and transmyocardial repolarization parameters were evaluated manually by two experienced cardiologists. All patients were also undergone MRI for cardiac T2* evaluation. Cardiac T2* score <20 msec was considered as iron overload status. Of the QT parameters, QT duration, corrected QT interval, and QT peak duration were significantly longer in the β-TM group compared to the healthy controls. Tp−Te and Tp−Te dispersions were also significantly prolonged in β-TM group compared to healthy controls. (Tp-Te/QT was similar between groups. There was no correlation between repolarization parameters and cardiac T2* MRI values. In conclusion, although repolarization parameters were prolonged in asymptomatic β-TM patients compared with control, we could not find any relation between ECG findings and cardiac iron load.

  17. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  18. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value.

  19. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A

    2003-02-01

    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value.

  20. Inclinations of Egyptian pyramids and finding of the divine essence

    OpenAIRE

    GRIGORIEV STANISLAV ARKADIEVICH

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is discovery of astronomical reasons in orientation of slopes of Egyptian pyramids used as tombs for pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. The article contains results of statistical analysis of change in inclination of slopes of the pyramids (3rd 2nd millennia BC) depending on time of their building. The first year of the corresponding pharaoh’s reign has been accepted, as usually it is considered that building of pyramids ones started during either the first or second year of ...

  1. The facial reconstruction of an Ancient Egyptian Queen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Bill; Eremin, Katherine; Shortland, Andrew; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2002-12-01

    The National Museums of Scotland Mummy Project has provided important new information about a burial excavated in Egypt. This has resulted in the facial reconstruction of a woman who was probably a queen at Thebes ca. 1570-1520 BCE. There are strong suggestions from the grave goods and her diet that this woman may have been ethnically Nubian rather than Egyptian. However, it is not yet possible to establish her ethnic identity for sure, so a definitive reconstruction of her appearance in life remains elusive.

  2. Taxonomic status and origin of the Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mónica; Bos, Arthur R; Hoath, Richard; Schembri, Patrick J; Lymberakis, Petros; Cento, Michele; Ghawar, Wissem; Ozkurt, Sakir O; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Merilä, Juha; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) is a small mustelid with a distribution restricted to the lower Nile Valley and the Nile Delta. Traditionally considered a subspecies of the least weasel (M. nivalis), it is currently recognized as a separate species based on morphology. Here we present the first genetic assessment of the taxonomic status of the Egyptian weasel by comparing mitochondrial DNA (Cytochrome b gene and control region) sequences to those of least weasels from the western Palearctic, with a focus on the Mediterranean region. Our results provide no evidence to support the view that the Egyptian weasel is genetically distinct from the least weasel, as we found that, for both Cytochrome b and control region, haplotypes were shared between the two taxa. Specifically, the Cytochrome b and control region haplotypes detected in the Egyptian weasel were also present in M. nivalis from Turkey and Malta, two populations genetically analysed here for the first time. Our results suggest that the Egyptian weasel is distinct from the least weasel populations currently living in the Maghreb, which were inferred to be the result of an earlier colonization of North Africa, but the genetic data alone do not allow us to determine whether the Egyptian weasel is native or introduced. Nevertheless, the observed genetic patterns, together with the weasel fossil record in Israel and the unique commensal lifestyle of the Egyptian weasel, are consistent with the hypothesis that the Egyptian population is a relict of past range expansion from the Levant into Egypt. We suggest that the large size and characteristic sexual dimorphism of the Egyptian weasel are likely to represent ecotypic variation, but genomic studies are required to clarify the extent of its functional genetic divergence.

  3. Atypical pathogens in community acquired pneumonia of Egyptian children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deraz TE; El Sahriggy SA; Shaheen MA; Motawea AA; Gomaa HE; Fawzy SH; Mohamed AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Diagnosis of atypical pathogens as an aetiology for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)in chil-dren is a challenge world wide.The aim of this study was to detect the frequency of atypical pathogens as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)in Egyptian children.Methods:From 50 children (with age ranged from 2 months to 1 2 years)hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia;respiratory sputum samples were collected by induction or spontaneously.All samples were subjected to conventional cultures and Polymer-ase Chain Reaction(PCR)technique DNA extraction for identification of Mycoplasma,Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila.Results:A definite pathogen was identified in 78% of the studied children;30%typical bacteria,8% candida albicans and atypical bacteria in 40% of the pneumonic children.Chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated from 26% of the children while Mycoplasma pneumoniae was isolated from 1 4%, whereas Legionella pneumophilla was not isolated at all.Conclusion:Atypical pathogens are evident as a po-tential aetiology for community-acquired pneumonia in (1 3.3%)of young and (80%)of older Egyptian chil-dren.

  4. Egyptian FGM policy fails to prevent girl's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-06

    The form of female genital mutilation (FGM) predominantly practiced throughout Egypt consists of the surgical removal of the clitoris and often the inner labia. The practice reduces the level of a woman's sexual sensation and causes pain, psychological trauma, and the risk of infection and hemorrhage. An estimated 80% of Egyptian girls undergo the procedure. Egypt's Ministry of Health in 1994 decided to permit only doctors in government hospitals to perform FGM. This policy was adopted in an effort to make safer what was considered to be an inevitable practice. However, the policy was revoked in October 1995 after women's rights and health advocates criticized it as a government endorsement of FGM. An 11-year-old Nile Delta girl died July 12, 1996, as a result of FGM. The Health Ministry subsequently banned all registered health professionals from performing FGM. Two months later, on August 24, a 14-year-old girl died from hemorrhaging shortly after undergoing FGM. These recent deaths challenge the effectiveness of Egypt's new attempts to prevent FGM. Barbers and midwives in Egypt perform thousands of mutilations annually. While they are theoretically subject to criminal penalties for performing surgery without a license, the laws are rarely enforced. Furthermore, despite existing regulations, no provision in the Egyptian penal code criminalizes FGM.

  5. Penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, M E; Almohsen, A E-R M; El Shahid, A R; Abd Al-Sameaa, M T; Mostafa, T

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22-40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12-19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7-3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths.

  6. Causes of chronic kidney disease in Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Safouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few published reports on the causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD in Egyptian children. We reviewed the records of 1018 (males 56.7%, age ranged from 1 to 19 years Egyptian patients suffering from CKD and followed-up at the pediatric nephrology units (outpatient clinics and dialysis units of 11 universities over a period of two years. The mean of the estimated glomerular filtration rate was 12.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Children with CKD stage I and stage II comprised 4.4% of the studied group, while those with stage III, IV and V comprised 19.7%, 18.3% and 57.6%, respectively. The most common single cause of CKD was obstructive uropathy (21.7%, followed by primary glomerulonephritis (15.3%, reflux/urinary tract infection (14.6%, aplasia/hypoplasia (9.8% and familial/metabolic diseases (6.8%; unknown causes accounted for 20.6% of the cases. Of the 587 patients who had reached end-stage renal disease, 93.5% was treated with hemodialysis and only 6.5% were treated with peritoneal dialysis.

  7. Environmental education in an Egyptian university: The role of teacher educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueli, Solafa

    Drawing on a holistic critical paradigm of ecological sustainability, this study examined the role of teacher educators in environmental education in the Faculty of Education of one Egyptian university. The study sought to critically and collaboratively explore with a sample of six teacher educators their answers, perceptions and perspectives in relation to their knowledge and understanding of environmental problems in local/global contexts and their meanings of curriculum and pedagogical practices for fostering environmental education in their teacher education programs. The participants generally demonstrated a considerable amount of knowledge of the environmental realities and problems facing Egypt encompassing air, water and solid waste sectors. Their views concurred with national and official studies identifying these issues as the most pressing environmental problems in the country. The exploration of the institutional, social and cultural causes and developmental and/or global causes of environmental problems in Egypt led us to articulate different themes relating environmental crisis in Egypt to different issues. These issues included poverty, education, religion and development. One of the major findings of the study was the participants' view that development was the major contributor to the environmental crisis in Egypt. They all stressed that, in its pursuit of economic growth, the government did not pay due attention to the environmental costs. Sharing perspectives from a critical paradigm of ecological sustainability, the participants felt that the government needed to clearly address the economic and ecological dimensions of development. In addition, a few participants affirmed that development is the thread that ties all the different factors together bringing into the conversations other dimensions of development like the social, values, and political dimensions. Addressing the future dimension of development, all of them expressed the need for a

  8. An investigation into the ancient Egyptian cultural influences on the Yorubas of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many cultural practices that connect ancient Egyptians to the Yorubas and the new interpretation of the Oduduwa legend suggests that the Yorubas have originated or are influenced mainly by the Egyptians. The attestation of Egypt as the main influencer of the Yoruba culture made Egypt significant in the study of the history of the Yoruba people. Some writers are beginning to think that the ancient Egyptians were responsible for introducing and spreading many cultures amongst the Yorubas. As more Yorubas are tracing their origins and the origins of their culture to ancient Egypt, this research investigates whether the Egyptians were the originators and the main spreaders of the afterlife culture in Yorubaland.

  9. Intellectuals and the People: Portrayals of the Rebel in the 2011 Egyptian Uprising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Šabasevičiūtė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Apart from attempts to account for the massive support provided by Egyptian writers to President Abd al-Fatah al-Sisi, the 25th of January uprising was rarely explored from the standpoint of Egyptian intellectuals. Yet, during the uprising, some did take an active part in the events, such as forging an image of the revolution and its actors through opinion columns. However, by promoting what became an iconic image of the Egyptian protester—middle class youth, peacefully seeking liberty and rights—they drew on the same discourses as those adopted by their counterparts in the semi-official press: the belief that the uprising threatened to unleash the oppressed masses who would embark on the destruction of the State. This article attempts to shed light on the conditions associated with the 25th of January revolution by exploring op-eds published in several Egyptian private dailies during the first years of the uprising.

  10. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

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    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  11. Demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of seronegative spondyloarthritis Egyptian patients: A rheumatology clinic experience in Mansoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdelsalam

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of Egyptian SpA patients are comparable to those from other countries except for the lower prevalence of extra-articular manifestations.

  12. Association of Interleukin 27 gene polymorphism and risk of Hepatitis B viral infection in Egyptian population

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    Yasser B.M. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggested that polymorphisms in the IL-27 gene may not contribute to HBV susceptibility. Further studies with large sample size should be conducted to validate these results in Egyptian population.

  13. Thyroid dysfunction among type 2 diabetic female Egyptian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elebrashy IN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim N Elebrashy,1 Amr El Meligi,1 Laila Rashed,2 Randa F Salam,1 Elham Youssef,1 Shaimaa A Fathy1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes, and Endocrinology, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Purpose: High prevalence of thyroid disorders is more common in type 1 diabetes compared to type 2 diabetes, due to associated autoimmunity. Hypothyroidism is the most common disorder. The objective was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among type 2 diabetic Egyptian females and to find the correlation between metabolic syndrome components and autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. Materials and methods: The study included 62 type 2 diabetic Egyptian females and 27 sex- and age-matched controls. All patients in the study were subjected to anthropometric measures, including HbA1c, lipid profile, serum uric acid, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO, antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg, and thyroid ultrasound. Results: Hypothyroidism was found in 45.2% of patients (5.49±3.37 µIU/mL versus 11.1% of controls (1.79±1.21 µIU/mL (P<0.001. Anti-TPO was found in 75.8% (347.15±244.87 IU/mL of patients versus 7.4% (32.89±33.26 IU/mL of controls (P<0.001. Anti-Tg was found in 61.3% (508.03±369.16 IU/mL of patients versus 0 (51.26±35.53 IU/mL controls (P<0.001. A significant positive correlation was found between TSH and antithyroid antibodies (anti-Tg, anti-TPO; P=0.002 and P=0.043, respectively and between TSH and thyroid-gland volume (P=0.002 in diabetic patients. No correlation was found between any components of metabolic syndrome and thyroid antibodies in diabetic patients. Conclusion: Autoimmune thyroid disease is more common in Egyptian women with type 2 diabetes than nondiabetic women, and thus points to a role of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Keywords: autoimmune thyroid dysfunction, TSH, anti-TPO, anti

  14. A bleaching earth from egyptian local deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Kinawy, Omayma S.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the bleaching of vegetable oils using activated clays collected from some deposits in Egypt as compared to Tonsil FF currently used by local oil industry. The comparison was made; not only on the basis of the decolourising power of the earth, but also on the basis of its effects on the oil acidity, formation of the oil peroxides and the decomposition rate of the formed peroxides to aldehydes and ketones during the bleaching process. The activation of the collected earth samples was made using 4N HCl, 6N HCl and 30 % H2SO4. The bleaching tests of the activated samples were performed using the major four oil types processed in Egypt being cottonseed, sunflower, soybean and palm oils. In addition to the laboratory-evaluation tests, the performance of the activated samples, which showed promise on the lab-scale have been also tested on an industrial scale. The industrial application has proved that the activated local earth's can be successfully used as bleaching earth of local oils. Thus it can be used as a substitute of the varieties currently imported and used by the local oil sector.La presente investigación trata de la decoloración de aceites vegetales usando tierras activadas obtenidas de yacimientos egipcios, comparándola con el Tonsil FF usado normalmente en la industria oleícola local. La comparación se realizó, no sólo sobre la base del poder decolorante de la tierra, sino también sobre la base de sus efectos en la acidez del aceite, la formación de peróxidos y la velocidad de descomposición de los peróxidos formados en aldehidos y cetonas durante el proceso de decoloración. La activación de las muestras de tierras recogidas se hizo utilizando ClH 4N, ClH 6N y H2SO4 30 %. Los tests de decoloración de las muestras activadas se llevaron a cabo usando los cuatro tipos mayoritarios de aceites procesados en Egipto: aceite de semilla de algodón, de girasol, de soja y de palma. Además de los

  15. Synchrotron radiation analysis on ancient Egyptian vitreous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamahana, Kyoko [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Lecture of Egyptian Archaeology

    2000-07-01

    Ancient Egyptian vitreous materials, namely faience and glass, share the same elemental composition. But they appear to have originated separately. Faience objects appear as early as the Predynastic period, and glass was introduced from Mesopotamia during the New Kingdom. These faience and glass objects were not of daily use, rather they were regarded as religious symbols or luxury status goods. Most of the products were coloured blue, but we see an increased use of other colours during the New Kingdom (c.1550-1069BC). This tendency corresponds to the period of both territorial and political expansion of Egypt. A non-destructive SR-XRF experiment at SPring-8 was conducted last winter, aiming to determine the regional trait of elemental composition by examining the pattern and ratio of rare earth elements. As a result, we could observe some distinctive rare earth elements that may indicate regional variation. (author)

  16. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  17. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.torrisi@unime.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caridi, F.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Mondio, G.; Serafino, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia ed Ingegneria Elettronica dell' Universita di Messina, Salita Sperone, 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E.D. [Dipartimento di Lettere e Filosofia dell' Universita di Messina, Polo Universitario dell' Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Paniz, E.; Salici, A. [Carabinieri, Reparto Investigazioni Scientifiche, S.S. 114, Km. 6, 400 Tremestieri, Messina (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  18. Gluten Sensitivity among Egyptian Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Alameey, Inas R.; Ahmed, Hanaa H.; Tawfik, Sawsan M.; Hassaballa, Fawzia; Gawad, Ayman M. Abdel; Eltahlawy, Eman

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common feature in infants with congenital heart disease. AIM: This study was designed to evaluate age-dependent serum levels of antigliadin antibodies among malnourished Egyptian infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) and gastrointestinal symptoms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This case-control study conducted on 60 infants with established congenital heart disease. They were subdivided into cyanotic and acyanotic groups, and each group includes 30 patients compared with thirty apparently healthy infants of matched age, sex, and social class. Serum antigliadin antibodies levels were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: The mean age of introduction of cereals in the diet and appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms were six months. On comparison with controls, patients showed highly significant higher serum levels of antigliadin antibodies (P Gluten containing foods should never be introduced before the end of the six months. PMID:28293318

  19. Touch-free in situ investigation of ancient Egyptian pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Taniguchi, K.; Nomura, S.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Iskander, N.; Zaghloul, B.

    Some of the pigments painted on the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (ca. 2000B.C.) exhibited at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and on the walls of the Tomb of Userhat (ca. 1450B.C.), a rock-cut tomb in Thebes, Egypt, were investigated in situ using both a convenient home-made hand-held type of X-ray diffractometer and a commercial X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a complementary way under touch-free conditions. CaCO3.3MgCO3 (huntite) was found in the white-painted parts of these two ancient monuments. An arsenic (As)-bearing phase was detected in the yellow-painted parts of the latter monument. The occurrence of huntite in Egypt has not been reported previously.

  20. HOW EGYPTIAN CONTRACTING COMPANIES TRANSLATE PROJECTS' QUALITY TO PROJECTS' PERFORMANCE

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    Said SHAWKY HOZIEN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A model for continuous quality improvement for Egyptian contracting projects’ (CQIM is developed through the extensive reviewing of the Total Quality Management (TQM, Continuous Quality Improvement (CQIliterature, preceding researches, consensus opinions of managers and experts of the construction industry and the quality management system (ISO 9000. This model comprises of 13 main factors divided into 9 CQI constructs and 4 Indices, the Indices are broken down to 46 practical measures, while the CQI constructs are further divided into 58 sub-factors consisting of 231 practical requirements, all targeting the evaluation and improvement of the overall project performance (OPP . This model assists its users to assess their points of weaknesses and strengths, by setting-up a road map for improvement, utilizing a guided framework. This model is used as a benchmarking tool to achieve the goal of this research “Projects' Continuous Quality Improvement”.

  1. Physical Deterioration of Egyptian Limestone Affected by Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second in a series of experiments that describe the chemical, physical and thermal properties of archaeological limestone affected by salt and saline water in Egypt. This research aims to study the aggressive physical effects of different types of salts dominated in saline water and their different mechanisms on the acceleration of weathering processes that affect Egyptian limestone. It presents a multidisciplinary approach to characterize, at both micro/macro scales, the behavior of a limestone widely used as a construction material in most of Egyptian monuments when interacting with some types of salt solutions of various concentrations. A systematic optical, morphological, physical and mechanical analysis of the fresh and weathered stone samples were used to evaluate different characteristics through using scientific some techniques such as optical microscope (OP and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In addition to the using of some special computer programs that were used to define different physical and mechanical properties such as weight changes, bulk density, total porosity, water uptake, water content, thermal dilatation and abrasion resistant. The results proved that all investigated samples were gradually affected by the types of salinity paths and salt concentrations. These results will serve as a database for the future comparison of long term behavior of stones before and after the planned conservation of the entire area. So, it is pertinent to device some scientific methods and interventions to reduce all factors of salt effects and removing their harmful aspects from historic fabric of the archaeological buildings through some scientific recommendations

  2. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

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    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi

  3. Complement component 3: characterization and association with mastitis resistance in Egyptian water buffalo and cattle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NERMIN EL-HALAWANY; ABD-EL-MONSIF A. SHAWKY; AHMED F. M. AL-TOHAMY; LAMEES HEGAZY; HAMDY ABDEL-SHAFY; MAGDY A. ABDEL-LATIF; YASSER A. GHAZI; CHRISTIANE NEUHOFF; DESSIE SALILEW-WONDIM; KARL SCHELLANDER

    2017-03-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland that leads to reduced milk production and change in milk composition. Complement component C3 plays a major role as a central molecule of the complement cascade involving in killing ofmicroorganisms, either directly or in cooperation with phagocytic cells. C3 cDNA were isolated, from Egyptian buffalo and cattle, sequenced and characterized. The C3 cDNA sequences of buffalo and cattle consist of 5025 and 5019 bp, respectively. Buffalo and cattle C3 cDNAs share 99% of sequence identity with each other. The 4986 bp open reading frame in buffalo encodes a putative protein of 1661 amino acids—as in cattle—and includes all the functional domains. Further, analysis of the C3 cDNA sequences detected six novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in buffalo and three novel SNPs in cattle.The association analysis of the detected SNPs with milk somatic cell score as an indicator of mastitis revealed that the most significant association in buffalo was found in the C>A substitution (ss: 1752816097) in exon 27, whereas in cattle it was in the C>T substitution (ss: 1752816085) in exon 12. Our findings provide preliminary information about the contribution of C3 polymorphisms to mastitis resistance in buffalo and cattle.

  4. Early results of sarcomeric gene screening from the Egyptian National BA-HCM Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh; Azer, Remon S; Saber-Ayad, Maha; Ayad, Maha S; Moharem-Elgamal, Sarah; Magdy, Gehan; Elguindy, Ahmed; Cecchi, Franco; Olivotto, Iacopo; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2013-02-01

    The present study comprised sarcomeric genotyping of the three most commonly involved sarcomeric genes: MYBPC3, MYH7, and TNNT2 in 192 unrelated Egyptian hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) index patients. Mutations were detected in 40 % of cases. Presence of positive family history was significantly (p=0.002) associated with a higher genetic positive yield (49/78, 62.8 %). The majority of the detected mutations in the three sarcomeric genes were novel (40/62, 65 %) and mostly private (47/62, 77 %). Single nucleotide substitution was the most frequently detected mutation type (51/62, 82 %). Over three quarters of these substitutions (21/27, 78 %) involved CpG dinucleotide sites and resulted from C>T or G>A transition in the three analyzed genes, highlighting the significance of CpG high mutability within the sarcomeric genes examined. This study could aid in global comparative studies in different ethnic populations and constitutes an important step in the evolution of the integrated clinical, translational, and basic science HCM program.

  5. Screening of Dystrophin Gene Deletions in Egyptian Patients with DMD/BMD Muscular Dystrophies

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    Laila K. Effat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD are allelic disorders caused by mutations within the dystrophin gene. Our study has identified 100 Egyptian families collected from the Human Genetics Clinic, National Research Center, Cairo. All cases were subjected to complete clinical evaluation pedigree analysis, electromyography studies, estimation of serum creatine phosphokinase enzyme (CPK levels and DNA analysis. Multiplex PCR using 18 pairs of specific primers were used for screening of deletion mutations within the dystrophin gene. A frequency of 55% among the families. Sixty per cent of detected deletions involved multiple exons spanning the major or the minor hot spot of the dystrophin gene. The remainder 40% which mainly involved exon 45. Comparing these findings with frequencies of other countries it was found that our figures fall within the reported range of 40%– for deletions. The distribution of deletions in our study and other different studies was variable and specific ethnic differences do not apparently account for specific deletions. In addition this study concluded that employment of the 18 exon analysis is a cost effective and a highly accurate (97% to launch a nationwide program.

  6. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

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    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L. skins (6.5%, w/v was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized enzyme preparation was free of any ochra or aflatoxins. The optimum conditions for the partially purified enzyme form were 2 mg/mL and 1% (w/v enzyme protein and substrate (citrus pectin concentrations, reaction pH and temperature of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The results presented the low cost onion skins waste as the major substrate for the fungal pectinase production and its subsequent use in perfect fruit (apple, lemon and orange juices clarification with remarkable stability during and after this process, which certainly enhance fruit juices processing in the tropics.

  7. The Identity Process in Times of Rupture: Narratives From the Egyptian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hassan Awad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011 revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contexts and how they create alternative social relations as they engage in prefigurative politics. The findings shed light on how ruptures trigger a process of reflexivity, adaptive learning, and sense-making that facilitates coping and the reconstruction of a positive identity after ruptures. It also suggests that the narration of the experience of rupture through storytelling creates a heightened sense of agency in individuals’ ability to create new meanings of their world in spite of the socio-cultural and political constraints. This study presents narratives as an informing methodological resource that connects identity process with social representations and emphasizes the value of storytelling as an integral part of the adaptation process.

  8. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur

  9. Allele frequencies of the human platelet antigen-1 in the Egyptian population

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    Han Kyudong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human platelet alloantigen system HPA-1 in the Egyptian population was examined by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the allele frequency of HPA-1a and -1b in healthy Egyptian individuals and compare these with the international literature. Human platelet antigen (HPA systems are associated with alloimmunization and organ transplantation rejection as well as the development of cardiovascular disease. Of the various HPA systems, HPA-1 specifically has been considered to be the most important antigenic system implicated in the Caucasian population. No study has yet examined this system in the Egyptian populations, however. We therefore investigated the allele frequency of the HPA-1 system in the Egyptian population. Findings To determine the allele frequency of the HPA-1a and -1b, we tested genomic DNAs from 206 healthy, unrelated Egyptian individuals using PCR-SSP. Our results showed that the 1a/1a genotype was the most predominant (59.22% followed by 1a/1b (34.95% and 1b/1b (5.83% with allele frequencies for 1a and 1b of 0.77 and 0.23, respectively, in the population. Conclusion As compared with other geographic groups, a relatively high allele frequency of the HPA-1b in the Egyptian population may indicate a higher risk of alloimmunization. This study is the first to investigate the allele frequency of the HPA-1 system in the Egyptian population and serves as an outline for future clinical research associated with platelet disorders in this group.

  10. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  11. Hegemony for Beginners: Egyptian Activity in the Southern Levant during the Second Half of the Fourth Millennium B.C

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    Branislav Anđelković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After a modest start in the mid-20th century, thousands of Protodynastic Egyptian objects have been unearthed and identified as such in the Southern Levant, including serekh-signs of several Dynasty 0 (Narmer, "Double Falcon", Ny-Hor, IryHor, Ka, and 1st Dynasty (Hor Aha pharaohs. The explanatory models presented so far fail to integrate the totality of the archaeologically manifested parameters, especially considering the impact of the last fifteen years of finds and their contextual and other analysis, into the proper semiotic matrix. The conundrum of Egyptian activity in the Southern Levant displays, at the same time, features of a small-scale trading partner, a colonizer, and a suzerain. Egyptian pottery of local origin provides an indication of a south-north flow of the Egyptian daily-life repertoire of pottery types, or rather their contents, between the Egyptian-related sites, that clearly demonstrates an Egyptian distribution system operating on an intra-regional level in the Early Bronze IB Southern Levant. The ‘Egyptian phenomenon’ is far from being unique since reestablishment of a similar geopolitical pattern, only on a considerably greater scale, can be recognized during the New Kingdom – the Egyptian province in Asia.

  12. Characterization of α-cypermethrin exposure in Egyptian agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Steven T; Lein, Pamela J; Farahat, Fayssal M; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B; Olson, James R

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6-10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2',2'-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3-93.96nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09-90.94nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7-11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM.

  13. Mutations in Transglutaminase 1 Gene in Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis in Egyptian Families

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    R. M. Shawky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI is a rare heterogeneous keratinization disorder of the skin. It is clinically divided into 2 subtypes, lamellar ichthyosis (LI and congenital ichthyosiformis erythroderma (CIE. We investigated forty-three ARCI Egyptian individuals in 16 severe LI, and 10 CIE families. We identified 5 alleles in two Egyptian families as having intron-5/exon-6 splice acceptor mutation recognized by the MspI restriction endonuclease. This promoted to a frequency of 9.6% for this mutation (5 splice-mutation alleles/52 alleles tested. We extended our previous dataset to update the detection of R142H mutation in 4 CIE Egyptian families and one LI phenotype (frequency of 28.8%; 15/52, whereas we still had no R141H among our Egyptian population. There was no correlation between phenotype and genotype in our study. Surprisingly, the mutant alleles detected in intron-5 acceptor splice-site were associated with the other extreme of CIE phenotypes rather than the severe LI form. We clearly demonstrated that the ARCI Egyptian families in Upper Egypt was ethnically pure and had a tendency not to be a hybrid with other populations in Lower Egypt, Delta zone and Cairo city.

  14. Unique Features of Germline Variation in Five Egyptian Familial Breast Cancer Families Revealed by Exome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong C.; Soliman, Amr S.; Cui, Jian; Ramadan, Mohamed; Hablas, Ahmed; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Hussien, Nehal; Ahmed, Ola; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman Nabawy; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic predisposition increases the risk of familial breast cancer. Recent studies indicate that genetic predisposition for familial breast cancer can be ethnic-specific. However, current knowledge of genetic predisposition for the disease is predominantly derived from Western populations. Using this existing information as the sole reference to judge the predisposition in non-Western populations is not adequate and can potentially lead to misdiagnosis. Efforts are required to collect genetic predisposition from non-Western populations. The Egyptian population has high genetic variations in reflecting its divergent ethnic origins, and incident rate of familial breast cancer in Egypt is also higher than the rate in many other populations. Using whole exome sequencing, we investigated genetic predisposition in five Egyptian familial breast cancer families. No pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other classical breast cancer-predisposition genes were present in these five families. Comparison of the genetic variants with those in Caucasian familial breast cancer showed that variants in the Egyptian families were more variable and heterogeneous than the variants in Caucasian families. Multiple damaging variants in genes of different functional categories were identified either in a single family or shared between families. Our study demonstrates that genetic predisposition in Egyptian breast cancer families may differ from those in other disease populations, and supports a comprehensive screening of local disease families to determine the genetic predisposition in Egyptian familial breast cancer. PMID:28076423

  15. Journalism and Literature in the Egyptian Revolution of 1882

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    José Maurício Saldanha Álvarez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the news reports written by the Portuguese novelist and journalist Eça de Queirós about the crisis in 1881-1882 that resulted in the bombing of Alexandria, Egypt, by a British fleet. First, following Barbie Zelizer, we examine the communication of this historical event by analyzing how the news reports covering the event were written, taking into account the literary form commonly used during the period. For Zelizer, figures could not be trusted, and the plot and storyline were preferable. Second, as proposed by Hallin and Mancini, we analyze media practices during the period and compare the practices of the British and Luso-Brazilian print media. Eça appropriated information broadcasts by British journalists and reformulated them for his readers, emphasizing the key issues that lurked beneath the events of 1881-1882. Third, we analyze how the Egyptian army and Colonel Arabi went from being demonized to a position of heroes in modern Egypt through reports by the Brazilian periodical Gazeta de Noticias that were published in 1882 in Rio de Janeiro and were considered the culmination of its journalistic activities.

  16. Behaviour of uranium during processing of Egyptian monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rehim, A.M. [Alexandria Univ., Shallalat, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    The present work deals with the study of the behaviour of uranium during alkaline processing of Egyptian monazite, followed by selective separation of thorium and uranium from lanthanides by leaching of the hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate solutions. This method is based on the dissolution of thorium and uranium hydroxides in ammonium carbonate solutions in the form of soluble ammonium thorium and uranyl carbonate complexes, while the lanthanides hydroxides form sparingly soluble double carbonates. The obtained carbonate solutions, containing carbonate complexes of thorium and uranium are decomposed with steam in steel autoclaves. Uranium is completely recovered with thorium (99.7%) by alkaline processing of monazite concentrate in ball mill autoclaves at 150{sup 0}C during 2.5 hours. The selective carbonate autoclave processing of hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions show that high recovery of uranium (94.7%) with complete recovery of thorium (99.4%) and their separation from lanthanides are attained at 70-80{sup o}C, pressure 5-10 atm during 1h. The decomposition of carbonate complexes of thorium and uranium is favourably carried out in autoclaves at 120{sup o}C and steam pressure 2 atm during 10 min. Uranium is nearly completely recovered (98.4%) with thorium (99.8%) in the thorium concentrate produced. Meanwhile, the recovery of lanthanides is low and does not exceed 1.1%. The produced thorium concentrate contains 67.8% Th and 4.6% U. (author)

  17. Improvement of Egyptian vacuum distillates by urea dewaxing

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    Ehssan M.R. Nassef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dewaxing of paraffinic lube stocks is an essential step in the production of lubricants to improve the operability of machines especially in winter. The present work deals with study of the urea dewaxing process of two types of Egyptian vacuum distillates. The effect of different compositions of methanol to water saturated with urea and yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index, viscosity, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced from the two types of distillates (I and II were evaluated. The operating conditions of the urea adduct formation with n-paraffins using methanol to water mixture achieved the best pour point at −3.88 °C from an initial temperature of 4.4 °C for distillate I at (25/75 methanol to water. At the same ratio of methanol to water the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.865 to 0.867, with viscosity index of 80. Percent yield of 50% for oil and percent wax of 50% were obtained. Results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. Experiments were carried out at room temperature.

  18. Recent study of Hymenolepis nana infection in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, H M; el Shimi, S; Sarwat, M A; Fawzy, A F; el Sorougy, A O

    1991-04-01

    Survey on 1800 children was conducted to detect the prevalence of H. nana infection in Egyptian children, by direct smear and concentration techniques. The incidence of infection was found to be 16%. Two hundred cases of them were subjected to full clinical history, thorough physical examination and anthropometric assessment. Different clinical manifestations were found in 84% of cases. Delayed growth manifested by decrease of the body weight below the third percentile was found in 62% of cases, in addition to marked affection of the body, height, head circumference, midarm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness in 16%, 10%, 32% and 28% of cases respectively. Trials on these 200 cases were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of "Praziquantel" in comparison with "Mebendazole". Praziquantel gave significant higher cure rates, being 91.1% and 97.7% after 2 and 4 weeks respectively, compared to Mebendazole which gave cure rates of 50% and 59%. Both drugs were well tolerated and have no side effects, however Praziquantel was given as a single dose, and so have the advantage of being more effective, easily administered, safe with higher cure rate.

  19. Radiological responses of different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gamal, A., E-mail: ayman_elgamal@yahoo.co [Department of Oceanography, Coastal Research Institute, National Water Research Center, 15 Elpharaana St., Elshallalat, Postal code 21514, Alexandria (Egypt); Rashad, M. [Land and Water Technologies Department, Arid Land Cultivation and Development Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research, Burg El-Arab, Alexandria (Egypt); Ghatass, Z. [Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this study was to identify gamma self-absorption correction factors for different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments. Self-absorption corrections based on direct transmission through different thicknesses of the most dominant sediment species have been tested against point sources with gamma-ray energies of {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co with 2% uncertainties. Black sand samples from the Rashid branch of the Nile River quantitatively absorbed the low energy of {sup 241}Am through a thickness of 5 cm. In decreasing order of gamma energy self-absorption of {sup 241}Am, the samples under investigation ranked black sand, Matrouh sand, Sidi Gaber sand, shells, Salloum sand, and clay. Empirical self-absorption correction formulas were also deduced. Chemical analyses such as pH, CaCO{sub 3}, total dissolved solids, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and total Fe{sup 2+} have been carried out for the sediments. The relationships between self absorption corrections and the other chemical parameters of the sediments were also examined.

  20. Clinical features of avian influenza in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Maamoun Mohamad; Khatab, Adel Mahmoud; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; Amer, Wegdan Ahmad Fouad

    2012-08-01

    The clinical manifestations associated with H5N1 infection in humans range from asymptomatic infection to mild upper respiratory illness, severe pneumonia, and multiple organ failure. The ratio of symptomatic cases to asymptomatic cases is not known, because it is not possible to precisely define the number of asymptomatic cases. A total of 97 cases suffering from avian flu were suspected based on history taking, demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological investigations. The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count), coagulation profile, renal and liver function tests. H5N1 influenza virus was diagnosed thorough PCR technique. Changes in arterial blood gases and repeated chest X-rays were reported frequently. All patients were given specific antiviral therapy (oseltamivir). The study described the clinical picture and laboratory results of 81 confirmed avian influenza human cases in an Egyptian hospital (Abassia chest hospital), and reviewed the avian influenza current situation covering from March 2006 to June 2009 with very high pick in the first half of 2009. The significant apparent symptoms were fever as initial and main symptom (93.75%), followed by shortness of breathing (73%), cough (66.6%), muscle & joint pain (60%) and sore throat (40%).

  1. Mining of Egyptian Missions Data for Shaping New Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Mohamed ElFangary

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews data mining applications of students' databases in educational institutions. Data mining techniques that predict and improve students' retention rates and success is presented. Moreover, the Missions Administration at the Ministry of Higher Education in Egypt and previous analysis done on the missions databases is described. The paper further describes the methodology used for analyzing the database for the ministry of higher education in Egypt. The process starts by extracting a subset of data including the missioners and the mission’s data, countries, specialties, departure and arrival dates and finally the extension requests from the missioners. These data were extracted into a data warehouse for the analysis purpose. The used model discovered the best and the worst countries for student mission. A detailed analysis discovered the best and the worst specialties in the previously discovered countries.Moreover, the analysis revealed the effect of the marital status on the mission of students in foreign countries. A visual display using a chart was used to express the information to business users. This model may help in achieving effective decision making in the reallocation of Egyptian students to other countries.

  2. Reproductive hazards of lead exposure among urban Egyptian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zohairy, E A; Youssef, A F; Abul-Nasr, S M; Fahmy, I M; Salem, D; Kahil, A K; Madkour, M K

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-five urban Egyptian males, aged 20-40, were assigned to two main groups to study the effects of their exposure to lead (Pb). Group I, infertile men (INF, n = 30), was divided into environmentally exposed (INF-E, n = 15) and environmentally and occupationally exposed (INF-EO, n = 15). A matching group (II) of fertile men (F, n = 25) was divided into fertile, environmentally exposed (F-E, n = 10), which was the control group, and fertile, environmentally and occupationally exposed (F-EO, n = 15). Semen parameters (i.e., count, morphology, motility, and volume), blood and semen Pb levels, and reproductive hormonal indices (i.e., serum testosterone, FSH, and LH) were measured in all subjects. Lead levels were always higher in blood than semen. Semen lead levels were significantly higher in all groups vs. the control (F-E) group. While no changes were observed in testosterone levels across groups, variable effects on LH and FSH levels were observed. Infertile-EO subjects showed a definite pattern of impaired semen parameters in comparison with infertile-E. No abnormalities were detected in hematologic, hepatic or renal function.

  3. Assessment of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Egyptian cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahi, S M

    2004-05-01

    The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays an important role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in local cement types from different Egyptian factories has been measured using a shielded HPGe detector. The average values obtained for 238U, 232Th, and 40K activity concentrations in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. On the basis of the hazard index and the radium equivalent concentration, it can be shown that the natural radioactivity of cement samples is not greater than the values permitted in the established standards in other countries. A solid-state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The effective radium content and the exhalation rate are found to vary from 12.75 to 38.52 Bq kg(-1) and 61.19 to 181.39 Bq m(-2) d(-1), respectively.

  4. Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption in Egyptian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser H. Zaied

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has been predicted to be a new driver of economic growth for developing countries. The SME sector plays a significant role in its contribution to the national economy in terms of the wealth created and the number of people employed. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Egypt represent the greatest share of the productive units of the Egyptian economy and the current national policy directions address ways and means of developing the capacities of SMEs. Many factors could be responsible for the low usage of e-commerce among the SMEs in Egypt. In order to determine the factors that promote the adoption of e-commerce, SMEs adopters and non-adopters of e-commerce were asked to indicate the factors inhibiting the adoption of e-commerce. The results show that technical barriers are the most important barriers followed by legal and regulatory barriers, whereas lack of Internet security is the highest barrier that inhibit the implementation of e-commerce in SMEs in Egypt followed by limited use of Internet banking and web portals by SMEs. Also, findings implied that more efforts are needed to help and encourage SMEs in Egypt to speed up e-commerce adoption, particularly the more advanced applications.

  5. Count like an egyptian a hands-on introduction to ancient mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, David

    2014-01-01

    The mathematics of ancient Egypt was fundamentally different from our math today. Contrary to what people might think, it wasn't a primitive forerunner of modern mathematics. In fact, it can't be understood using our current computational methods. Count Like an Egyptian provides a fun, hands-on introduction to the intuitive and often-surprising art of ancient Egyptian math. David Reimer guides you step-by-step through addition, subtraction, multiplication, and more. He even shows you how fractions and decimals may have been calculated-they technically didn't exist in the land of the pharaohs.

  6. D-dimer assay in Egyptian patients with Gaucher disease: correlation with bone and lung involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Eman M; Tantawy, Azza A G; Adly, Amira A M; Kader, Hossam A; Ismail, Eman A R

    2011-04-01

    Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal storage disorder. Bone and lung involvement are two major causes of morbidity in this disease. D-dimer is a reliable indicator of active microvascular thrombosis, even in patients without overt hypercoagulation. This study aimed to assess D-dimer levels in Gaucher disease, correlating this marker to clinical characteristics and radiological parameters to investigate its role as a potential predictor for the occurrence and severity of skeletal and pulmonary manifestations. The study population consisted of 56 Egyptian patients with Gaucher disease, 36 had type 1 Gaucher disease (64.3%) and 20 had type 3 Gaucher disease (35.7%). Thirty healthy individuals were enrolled as a control group. D-dimer levels were significantly higher in all patients with Gaucher disease compared with controls (P < 0.001). Patients with type 3 showed significantly higher D-dimer concentrations compared with type 1 (P < 0.001). Pulmonary involvement was present in a significant proportion among type 3 Gaucher patients (P < 0.05), whereas bone changes were present in a higher percentage in type 1 compared with type 3 Gaucher patients. D-dimers were significantly higher in patients with abnormal MRI findings of the long bones and in those with ground glass appearance on high-resolution computerized tomography of the chest compared with patients with normal radiology (P < 0.001). Splenectomized patients displayed significantly higher D-dimer levels compared with nonsplenectomized patients (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that D-dimer is significantly elevated in Gaucher disease, particularly type 3, and may be considered as a potential marker of risk prediction of bone and lung involvement that could be used to monitor treatment response.

  7. Latex Hypersensitivity among Allergic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Sayed, Shereen S.; Zaki, Rehab M.; Salama, Mervat A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns and allergic reactions to latex may be serious and fatal. Purpose. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of latex hypersensitivity in a group of allergic Egyptian infants and children and its relation to the history provided by the patients or caregivers. Methods. We consecutively enrolled 400 patients with physician diagnosed allergic diseases. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for the site and duration of allergy, history suggestive of latex allergy, family history of allergy, and skin prick testing (SPT) using a commercial latex extract. Results. The study revealed that 16/400 (4%) patients had positive SPT; 11 of them only had positive history of sensitivity to latex. Positive latex SPT was reported in 3.4% (11/326) of patients with bronchial asthma, 5.9% (7/118) of patients with skin allergy, and 4.5% (2/44) of patients with allergic rhinitis. SPT was positive in 7.4% (4/54) of patients with concomitant respiratory and skin allergy. Latex SPT was more specific than sensitive (97.69% and 77.77%, resp.) with a negative predictive value of 99.47%. Conclusion. Although underrecognized, latex is an important allergen in the pediatric age group with a sensitization frequency of 4% among allergic children. It was observed to be especially associated with multiple allergic diseases coexisting in the same patient. Pediatric allergologists should educate their patients on latex allergy and encourage the use of latex-free products. PMID:25505988

  8. Prognostic Impact of Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1 Gene Mutations in Egyptian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Zidan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Somatic mutations of the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1, which alter the subcellular localization of the product, are the most frequent mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and prognostic impact of NPM1 gene mutations in adult AML patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP were used to screen 55 AML patients for mutations of NPM1 gene. RESULTS: NPM1 mutations were found in 12 (21.8% of 55 patients, significantly associated with higher total leukocytie count, marrow blast percentage (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively, and M5 subtype (p<0.001. Patients with NPM1 mutations had significantly higher complete remission rates (p=0.003 and a trend to lower rates of mortality, relapse and refractory disease (p=0.28, p=0.45 and p=0.08, respectively. Survival analysis showed significantly longer disease-free survival (mean 18.635±1.229 versus 11.041±1.250 months, p=0.044 and overall survival (mean 19.810±1.624 versus 12.063±1.244 months, p=0.041 in patients with NPM1 mutations compared with those without. Multivariate analyses confirmed NPM1 mutation as a significant independent predictor for disease-free survival (HR=0.066, p=0.001 and overall survival (HR=0.125, p=0.002. CONCLUSION: NPM1 mutation is a prognostic factor for a favorable outcome in Egyptian population. This finding is of major clinical importance since it strongly suggests that NPM1 mutations may allow one to divide the heterogeneous patient group of AML into prognostically different subgroups.

  9. Sociodemographic factors responsible for blindness in diabetic Egyptian patients

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    Abueleinen KGI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Khaled Gamal Ibraheem Abueleinen1, Hany El-Mekawey1, Yasser Sayed Saif2, Amr Khafagy1, Hoda Ibrahim Rizk3, Eman M Eltahlawy41Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 3Department of Public Health, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Public Health and Community Medicine National Research Center, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate factors behind the delay in diagnosis and treatment among Egyptian patients who present with complicated diabetic retinopathy.Methods: Observational cross-sectional study of diabetic patients with advanced diabetic retinopathy. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire to assess the impact of several sociodemographic factors.Results: A total of 397 patients agreed to take the questionnaire. Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage was the most common ocular complication and was found in 359 patients (90.4%. A total of 158 (39.8% patients knew that diabetes mellitus can be sight threatening, while 240 (60.2% were not aware until they developed sight threatening complication. A total of 179 patients (45.1% had early retirement because of visual loss related to diabetes mellitus. Multivariate logistic regression has shown that education, internist, contact with other patients, and media were respectively significant in predicting the awareness of patients about the sight-threatening effect of diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion: Patient education regarding diabetes and diabetic eye disease is essential for early detection and compliance with treatment. Illiteracy has a significant impact on development of sight-threatening diabetic complications. The internist is the first line of prophylaxis. Media has to participate more in patient education.Keywords: blindness, education, laser photocoagulation, macular edema, vitreous hemorrhage

  10. Growth assessment in Egyptian infants and children with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ei-Deeb, Marwa T; Hamid, Dalia H Abdel

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the various growth parameters among patients presenting with chronic diarrhea and highlight the most common causes of chronic diarrhea among a sample of Egyptian infants and children. This cross-sectional study included 146 patients with chronic diarrhea. They were 87 males and 59 females, with age ranging between 2 and 198 months and a mean age of 27.3 +/- 34.5 months. Each patient was subjected to medical history taking including age of onset and duration of diarrhea, consistency of stools, presence of blood and mucus, vomiting with or without hematemesis, fever, allergic manifestations and family history of atopy. Dietetic history included milk feeding during the first 6 months and age of weaning and age of introduction of cow's milk products. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height and weight for height were assessed and z-scores were calculated using software WHO anthro v3.2.2. Laboratory investigations included stool analysis and culture, CBC and all other investigations necessary for diagnosis of the definite cause including RAST for specific IgE against cow's milk proteins, serology for celiac disease (anti-gliadin and anti tTG), Breath hydrogen test, endoscopy (colonoscopy or esophago-gastrodudenoscopy) and histopathologic assessment of endoscopic biopsies. CMA was diagnosed on basis of withdrawal and open re-challenge technique. Causes included chronic infections (40.4%), CMA (34.9%), celiac disease (10.3%), inflammatory bowel disease (6.8%) and lactose intolerance (3.4%). Rare causes were chronic non-specific diarrhea (1.3%), cystic fibrosis (0.7%), post-surgery short bowel syndrome (0.7%), neuroblastoma (0.7%) and IBS (0.7%).78.7% of patients enrolled in the study had a low WFA z-score (Infants with CMA had the lowest mean value of WFH z-score (-2.26 +/- 1.78).

  11. Biological Assay of Toxoplasma gondii Egyptian Mutton Isolates

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    N.A. Hassanain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutton signifies one of the most prevalent sources for human toxoplasmosis. However, sheep serological assays don't categorize the virulent strains initiating antibodies, so the biological bioassay of Egyptian mutton isolates with reference to their pathogenicity in both mice and kittens were done in this study for indicating to how extent their zoonotic bio-hazard. A total number of 280 of each sheep blood and tissue samples were collected during slaughtering at Cairo abattoir, Egypt. Sera assayed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT and immunosorbant assay (ELISA and their corresponding mutton samples were microscopically examined after pepsin digestion for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection. The sero-positive percent of the naturally infected sheep was 50.4 and 61.4 by LAT and ELISA, respectively, 47.9% of samples were confirmedly positive in both LAT and ELISA results. The microscopical examination revealed that only 28 out of 134 (20.9% of the confirmed sero-positive animals by both tests were found harboring T. gondii tissue cysts in their mutton samples, while high percentage of confirmed sero-positve animals (79.1% (106 out of 134 were biologically tissue cysts free mutton. Biological typing of the 28 T. gondii sheep isolates with reference to mice and kittens' bioassay indicated that 10.7, 50, 21.4 and 17.9% were type I, II, III and avirulent strains, respectively. The high T. gondii infection rate resulted in this study concludes that the feeding of under cooked mutton is a bad health habit as a source for human toxoplasmosis moreover; the T. gondii virulent strains obtained by mutton bioassay indicated that not all sero-positive sheep are connecting zoonotic bio-hazard through their mutton strains.

  12. Thyroid disorders associated with alopecia areata in Egyptian patients

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    Ola A Bakry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alopecia areata (AA is a common form of localized, non-scarring hair loss. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear, but the role of autoimmunity is strongly suggested. AA is commonly associated with various autoimmune disorders; the most frequent among them is autoimmune thyroid disorders. Aim: To determine whether AA is associated with thyroid autoimmunity or thyroid function abnormalities in Egyptian patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects with AA (37 males and 13 females without clinical evidence of thyroid disorders were selected from Dermatology Outpatient Clinic, Menoufiya University Hospital, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt, during the period from June 2009 to February 2010. They were divided into 3 groups according to severity of AA. Fifty age and sex-matched healthy volunteers (35 males and 15 females were selected as a control group. Every case and control were subjected to history taking, complete general and dermatological examination. Venous blood samples were taken from cases and controls after taking their consents for measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T3, freeT4 and detection of Anti-thyroglobulin Antibody (Tg-Ab and Anti-thyroid Peroxidase Antibody (TPO-Ab. Results: Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 16% of cases. There were statistically significant differences between cases and controls regarding levels of TSH, free T3 and free T4. There were significant differences between cases and controls regarding the presence of Tg-Ab and TPO-Ab. Conclusions: Every patient with AA should be screened for thyroid functions and presence of thyroid autoantibodies even in absence of clinical manifestations suggestive of thyroid affection.

  13. CARDIAC FUNCTION AND IRON CHELATION IN THALASSEMIA MAJOR AND INTERMEDIA: A REVIEW OF THE UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND APPROACH TO CHELATION MANAGEMENT

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    Athanasios Aessopos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and one of the main causes of morbidity in beta-thalassemia. Patients with homozygous thalassemia may have either a severe phenotype which is usually transfusion dependent or a milder form that is thalassemia intermedia.  The two main factors that determine cardiac disease in homozygous β thalassemia are the high output state that results from chronic tissue hypoxia, hypoxia-induced compensatory reactions and iron overload.  The high output state playing a major role in thalassaemia intermedia and the iron load being more significant in the major form. Arrhythmias, vascular involvement that leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance and an increased systemic vascular stiffness and valvular abnormalities also contribute to the cardiac dysfunction in varying degrees according to the severity of the phenotype.  Endocrine abnormalities, infections, renal function and medications can also play a role in the overall cardiac function.  For thalassaemia major, regular and adequate blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy are the mainstays of management. The approach to thalassaemia intermedia, today, is aimed at monitoring for complications and initiating, timely, regular transfusions and/or iron chelation therapy.  Once the patients are on transfusions, then they should be managed in the same way as the thalassaemia major patients.  If cardiac manifestations of dysfunction are present in either form of thalassaemia, high pre transfusion Hb levels need to be maintained in order to reduce cardiac output and appropriate intensive chelation therapy needs to be instituted.  In general recommendations on chelation, today, are usually made according to the Cardiac Magnetic Resonance findings, if available.  With the advances in the latter technology and the ability to tailor chelation therapy according to the MRI findings as well as the availability of three iron chelators, together with

  14. The Egyptian Press: An Historical View of Its Importance in Political Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John

    This report traces the development of the Egyptian press, from its origin with the arrival of the first printing press in 1789 to the present free press policies of Anwar Sadat. Because political struggle and social reform have accompanied the educational and cultural progress of Egypt, the news publications have traditionally been utilitarian.…

  15. Exploring Egyptian EFL Students' Learning Styles and Satisfaction with Web-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliweh, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand on the incorporation of web-based materials into Egyptian higher educational institutions, this study examined students' learning styles, satisfaction with online learning, and the relationships between these two variables and students' gender. The study was conducted on 51 EFL college students (24 males and 27…

  16. School-Based Management: An Approach to Decision-Making Quality in Egyptian General Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmelegy, Reda Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The current research aims at clarifying how school-based management (SBM) can contribute to achieve the decision-making quality in Egyptian general secondary schools and determine the requirements of quality decision-making. It depends on the descriptive method in order to acknowledge the basics of the SBM and its relationship with the quality of…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    This annotated bibliography of Egyptian publications on education contains 108 entries. Publications include journal articles, books, and government documents. The following educational topics are covered: adult education, teaching Arabic language, art education, audiovisual aids, teaching civics, formation of committees, secondary school courses…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    This selective annotated bibliography of Egyptian publications on education contains 126 entries on 55 topics. Publications include journal articles, books, and government documents published during 1976 or late 1975. Among the 55 topics are the following: adult education, agricultural schools, art education, child upbringing, compulsory…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    The selective annotated bibliography of Egyptian educational publications contains 109 entries on 42 topics. Included are journal articles, books, and government documents published during 1976. Content includes the following topics: adult education, art education, audiovisual aids, care for distinguished students, educational planning,…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    The annotated bibliography identifies 134 selected educational materials from Egypt published during 1977. The materials are drawn from Egyptian newspapers, journals, government publications, and university research reports. The entries are organized into 54 categories, including Art Education, Arabic Language, Commercial Schools, Curricula,…

  1. Genetic Drift. The ancient Egyptian dwarfs of the Walters Art Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2010-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians left an impressive artistic legacy documenting many aspects of their society including the existence of dwarfs as highly valued members. In previous publications in the Journal, I discussed dwarfs and skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt. In this study, I examined the ancient Egyptian representations of dwarfs of the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland. One of the highlights of the collection is a group of five ivory figurines from Predynastic Times (pre 3500-3100 BCE) depicting a couple, a man with a child, and two females. Representations from other periods include ordinary as well as dwarf deities. The dwarf gods, Bes and Ptah, are frequently depicted holding or biting snakes or standing on crocodiles symbolizing their ability to ward off dangers. A couple of statuettes from the Greco-Roman Period that, in contrast to earlier Egyptian Periods, depict harsh physical anomalies, twisted bodies, and facial pain. The artistic impression can be interpreted as either tragic or humorous. The grotesque depiction of dwarfs during the Greco-Roman Period in ancient Egypt is believed to be due to a greater infusion of Hellenistic influence. This study provides a microcosm of the legacy of dwarfs in ancient Egypt and supports the premise that dwarfs were accepted and integrated in the ancient Egyptian society, and with a few exceptions, their disorder was not depicted as a physical handicap.

  2. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    One hundred seventy entries on 69 topics are contained in the selective annotated bibliography of Egyptian publications on education. Included are journal articles, books, and government documents published during 1976. Content includes the following topics: Arabic language, art education, civics, commercial schools, comparative education,…

  3. Selected Bibliography of Egyptian Educational Materials, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    This annotated bibliography lists 135 selected educational materials from Egypt covering the period 1976-1977. The materials are drawn from a variety of Egyptian newspapers, journals, government publications, and university research reports. The entries are organized into 55 categories, including Adolescence; Adult Education; Art Education; Basic…

  4. Placentation in the Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica (Chiroptera: Nycteridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J;

    2009-01-01

    Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteri...

  5. Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain Btm27, an Egyptian Isolate Highly Toxic to Cotton Leafworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Brigida; Chen, Yue; Koenig, Sara S. K.; El-Helow, Ehab R.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a potent microbial control agent against insect pests. Here, we present the draft genome of the Egyptian strain Btm27 that shows high toxicity toward the cotton leafworm. The genome contains three insecticidal genes cry1Ac9, cry2Ab1, and vip3V that have been implicated in conferring toxicity toward lepidoptera. PMID:25977430

  6. Experimental Inoculation of Egyptian Rousette Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus with Viruses of the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E.B. Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus is a natural reservoir for marburgviruses and a consistent source of virus spillover to humans. Cumulative evidence suggests various bat species may also transmit ebolaviruses. We investigated the susceptibility of Egyptian rousettes to each of the five known ebolaviruses (Sudan, Ebola, Bundibugyo, Taï Forest, and Reston, and compared findings with Marburg virus. In a pilot study, groups of four juvenile bats were inoculated with one of the ebolaviruses or Marburg virus. In ebolavirus groups, viral RNA tissue distribution was limited, and no bat became viremic. Sudan viral RNA was slightly more widespread, spurring a second, 15-day Sudan virus serial euthanasia study. Low levels of Sudan viral RNA disseminated to multiple tissues at early time points, but there was no viremia or shedding. In contrast, Marburg virus RNA was widely disseminated, with viremia, oral and rectal shedding, and antigen in spleen and liver. This is the first experimental infection study comparing tissue tropism, viral shedding, and clinical and pathologic effects of six different filoviruses in the Egyptian rousette, a known marburgvirus reservoir. Our results suggest Egyptian rousettes are unlikely sources for ebolaviruses in nature, and support a possible single filovirus—single reservoir host relationship.

  7. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

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    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL 1822

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    Bambang Iswanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish (Clarias gariepinus strain introduced to Indonesia has not been extensively explored yet, especially the red strain. Previous studies suggested that at the same body length, body weight of the red strain was higher and it was more rotund than that of the normal (black ones. These differences need to be further investigated to find out which parts of the body mainly contributed to shape the differences. The present study was carried out to explore morphological differences of the red strain of Egyptian African catfish compared to the black strain through morphometric and meristic characterizations. Meristic and morphometric characterizations in the present study were carried out following standard method for morphological characterization of Clarias catfish. The fish samples consisted of each 35 red and black table-sized fish samples resulted from inbred and outbred spawnings. Results of the morphometric and meristic analysis in the present study revealed that the red strain of Egyptian African catfish resulted from inbred spawning of red strain brooders was morphologically different from that of either parental fishes or the black strains. At the same body length, head of the red strain was bigger (wider and longer than other strains, and its body was stumpy (more rotund and shorter than other strains, deviated from those normal characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish. Its meristic characters were also differed from those of other strains, assigned by reduced dorsal and anal fin rays number.

  9. Web Usage Mining Analysis of Federated Search Tools for Egyptian Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled A.; Hassan, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the behaviour of the Egyptian scholars while accessing electronic resources through two federated search tools. The main purpose of this article is to provide guidance for federated search tool technicians and support teams about user issues, including the need for training. Design/methodology/approach: Log…

  10. Egyptian Workers and "Their" Intellectuals: The Dialectical Pedagogy of the Mahalla Strike Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Brecht

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the development of the Egyptian workers' movement in the face of the 25 January Revolution through the notion of dialectical pedagogy. This Gramscian concept is extended by a Vygotskyan analysis of the reciprocal learning processes, which stimulate a proletarian activity system to overcome its economic-corporate predicament.…

  11. More than a Facebook revolution: Social movements and social media in the Egyptian Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Barón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Public opinion leaders and activists characterized the Egyptian “Arab Spring” of January 2011 as a “Facebook Revolution”. They highlight the intrinsic power of social media as an influencing factor for social change. Undeniably, social media played important roles in that revolution process. However, these roles cannot be disconnected from the socio-political contexts. This paper discusses the use of social media, particularly of Facebook, by the April 6th Youth Movement (A6YM, a decisive actor of the Egyptian protests. It is based on the analysis of two Egyptian newspapers and one American newspaper, between 2008 and 2011. We propose that a social media provided alternative mechanisms for political expression and organization, b social media contributed to the genesis and consolidation of the A6YM and to the establishment of youth political identities, and c the combination of “bits and streets” amplified not just the movement’s mobilization but the degree of opposition experienced by the Egyptian regime.

  12. Studies on the s_dm.t=f verb form in Classical Egyptian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonhoven, Ludovicus Martinus Johannes

    1997-01-01

    This study is devoted to some synchronic aspects of the sDm.t=f verb form, primarily its meaning and uses in Classical Egyptian. In the introduction some attention is paid to the history of the studies of the form and its origin, an aspect which will receive no further consideration. In accordance w

  13. Comparison of Egyptian and Canadian Children on a Picture Apperception Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbopoulos, Anastasia; Fisharah, Fatmah; Clark, James M.; El-Khatib, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Individualism-collectivism theory predicted that Egyptian and Canadian children's performance would differ on relevant scales of the Robert Apperception Test for Children (RATC). Findings validated cross-cultural use of the RATC and demonstrated that the increasingly general theory of collectivism allowed meaningful predictions about personality…

  14. THE MEANING OF EGYPTIAN ART%古埃及的艺术之语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕

    2003-01-01

    @@ No single interpretation1 will suffice2 to explain the meaning of Egyptian art. Its purposes were varied, and the ideals it was supposed to represent changed with the shifting tendencies of political and social history. In general, it expressed the aspirations3 of a collectivized national life.

  15. The Flipped Classroom Model to Develop Egyptian EFL Students' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Samah Zakareya

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of the flipped classroom model on Egyptian EFL students' listening comprehension. A one-group pre-posttest design was adopted. Thirty-four 3rd-year EFL students at the Faculty of Education, Suez University, were pretested on listening comprehension before the experiment and then posttested after…

  16. LAPTM4B Gene Expression And Polymorphism As Diagnostic Markers Of Breast Cancer In Egyptian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Olfat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between LAPTM4B gene polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer among Egyptian female patients. Also, measurement was done of its serum level to evaluate its significance as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer.

  17. Synergetic effect of Egyptian propolis in immunization of BALB/c mice against bovine cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Mohamed Kandil

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Egyptian propolis could increase the level of protection against experimental challenge infection with T. saginata eggs when administered simultaneously with immunization. Furthermore, it could enhance the production of antibodies to immunized antigen and decrease the alteration in liver and kidney functions.

  18. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2010-01-01

    P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care reci

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging features of hip disorders in an Egyptian pediatric population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragab, Y.; Nabih, M.; Kamal, A.A.; Abd-Allah, M.A.; El-Refai, R.; Emad, Y.; El-Nagger, A.; El-Shaarawy, N.; Rasker, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Hip disorders in a pediatric population are a diagnostic challenge. The aim of the study is to assess the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of non-traumatic hip disorders in a series of Egyptian patients and to review the literature on the most common hip conditions. Seventy

  20. Walk Like an Egyptian: A Serious, Pervasive Mobile Game for Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Fatema Mohsen; Abdennadher, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Walk like An Egyptian is a location-based, mobile native game developed for tourists. The game provides information for tourists about the touristic places, motivates nationals to visit their historical sights and increase their cultural heritage awareness enabling them to explore the past and connect with it. At the same time, the game allows to…

  1. Sources of L2 Writing Apprehension: A Study of Egyptian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of apprehension cause students to have writing difficulties. This study attempted to identify the sources of Egyptian university students' English writing apprehension. The study made use of both quantitative and qualitative data. The scores of 57 students on a writing apprehension scale were compared to their scores on another scale…

  2. Saudi-Egyptian Relations: the Political and Military Dimensions of Saudi Financial Flows to Egypt,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    For this Egyptian economisat Dr. (;alal Amin has cT’npared CODE witI, tht, Cais.ec de la Dette Publique established bv Khedive Ismail in 1876...Arab economic measures agreed to at the Baghdad summit conference in March 1979, were, in his opinion "not intended to affect relations between the

  3. The impact on the Netherlands of the Egyptian greenhouse vegetable chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This report forms part of a broader analysis of the competitiveness of Dutch tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers on the European market. It describes elements of Porter's competitiveness analysis for the Egyptian horticultural sector. Within this framework, it presents an analysis of the domestic demand

  4. Caries experience of Egyptian adolescents: does the atraumatic restorative treatment approach offer a solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobarak, E.H.; Shabayek, M.M.; Mulder, J.; Reda, A.H.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries amongst Egyptian adolescents and the prevalence of carious lesions treatable through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using a convenient sample procedure, two secondary schools with a dental

  5. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  6. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  7. Genetic drift. The ancient Egyptian dwarfs of the pyramids: the high official and the female worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira; Sarry El Din, Azza Mohamed; El Shafy El Banna, Rokia Abd; El Samie Kandeel, Wafaa Abd; Lachman, Ralph

    2011-08-01

    The existence of dwarfism is amply documented in ancient Egypt due to the rich biological and artistic legacies. In previous articles published in this journal, I discussed the roles of people with skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egyptian civilization. In this article I, along with my Egyptian and American colleagues, describe two skeletons of dwarfs that date to 2700-2184 BCE and were unearthed from a funerary complex near the Great Pyramids in Giza. The first skeleton belongs to a high official, Per-ni-ankh-w, who died between 45 and 50 years of age. His statue is on display in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. The second skeleton belongs to a pregnant female worker found with a fetus in situ. Her estimated age at death was 25-30 years. She most likely died during childbirth due to a small pelvic outlet as supported by her narrow sacrum. The fetal bones appear normal. Radiological examination of both skeletons confirmed the clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia. Ancient Egyptians concerned themselves with the search for spiritual fulfillment through the tradition of moral teachings. Amenemope, a wise man who lived during the reign of Amenhotep III (1391-1354 BCE), advocated respect toward individuals with disabilities: Do not jeer at a blind man nor tease a dwarf, Neither interfere with the condition of a cripple. Do not taunt a man who is in the hand of God, Nor scowl at him if he errs. In summary, artistic, biological, and written resources indicate that dwarfs were well integrated in ancient Egyptian society.

  8. Detection of the submerged topography along the Egyptian Red Sea Coast using bathymetry and GIS-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawad Badawy Moawad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A long time ago the Red Sea was only known by small-scale bathymetric, magnetic anomaly maps and a few seismic reflection or refraction profiles. Therefore, detection of the major submerged coastal features was unattainable. This study is based on the integration of different data sets of topography and bathymetry (e.g. the global bathymetry data set, the SRTM DTED® 2, the soviet military topographic maps of scale 1:200.000 and the US army topographic maps of scale 1:250.000 to reveal the main submarine landforms that marked the continental shelf and its related slopes along the Egyptian Red Sea Coast from latitude 27°43′N to the Egyptian-Sudanese border at latitude 22°00′N. The study deduced that the continental shelf is noticeably influenced by the surface fault system extending eastward into the main Red Sea depression, showing the continental edge mostly like a fault-scarp of ∼60° anticlockwise fault plane. Sea ridges and subbasins were distinguished at the lower toe of the continental slope, which seem to be a result of a regional fold system. Two sea peaks of extinct volcanoes were recognized. Two types of submarine canyons were recognized as deep incised Messinian canyons and shallow canyons. The deep incised canyons (∼500 m bsl carve the continental edge with remarkable steep walls. They might be formed as a result of the Messinian event (∼5.59 Ma. The shallow canyons are mostly developed during the Pleistocene lower sea level (∼90–130 m bsl where the major wadis cut their water courses through the continental shelf. Some individual submerged deltas were identified, showing a close relationship with the present-day drainage system, although they were supposed to be produced by an ancestor drainage system. Notable submarine terraces were recognized at depths 20–25, 50–75, and 100–120 m bsl that are in agreement with the generalized global curve of sea-level rise since the LGM (∼23–18 ka bp. It is

  9. Socioeconomic dynamics of water quality in the Egyptian Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Maheen; Nisar, Zainab; Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River remains the most important source of freshwater for Egypt as it accounts for nearly all of the country's drinking and irrigation water. About 95% of the total population is accounted to live along the Banks of the Nile(1). Therefore, water quality deterioration in addition to general natural scarcity of water in the region(2) is the main driver for carrying out this study. What further aggravates this issue is the water conflict in the Blue Nile region. The study evaluates different water quality parameters and their concentrations in the Egyptian Nile; further assessing the temporal dynamics of water quality in the area with (a) the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)(3) and (b) the Jevons Paradox (JP)(4) in order to identify water quality improvements or degradations using selected socioeconomic variables(5). For this purpose various environmental indicators including BOD, COD, DO, Phosphorus and TDS were plotted against different economic variables including Population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Annual Fresh Water Withdrawal and Improved Water Source. Mathematically, this was expressed by 2nd and 3rd degree polynomial regressions generating the EKC and JP respectively. The basic goal of the regression analysis is to model and highlight the dynamic trend of water quality indicators in relation to their established permissible limits, which will allow the identification of optimal future water quality policies. The results clearly indicate that the dependency of water quality indicators on socioeconomic variables differs for every indicator; while COD was above the permissible limits in all the cases despite of its decreasing trend in each case, BOD and phosphate signified increasing concentrations for the future, if they continue to follow the present trend. This could be an indication of rebound effect explained by the Jevons Paradox i.e. water quality deterioration after its improvement, either due to increase of population or intensification

  10. Predictors of postpartum depression in a sample of Egyptian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh ES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El-Sayed Saleh,1 Wafaa El-Bahei,1 Mohamed Adel El-Hadidy,1 Abdelhady Zayed21Psychiatric Department, 2Gynecological and Obstetric Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansura University, Mansoura, EgyptIntroduction: Postpartum depression (PPD represents a considerable health problem affecting women and their families. The aims of this study were to: (a compare female patients with PPD to normal controls with regard to some biopsychosocial variables, (b correlate between the severity of PPD and some clinical and biological variables, and (c to predict some risk factors for PPD.Method: Sixty female patients with PPD were compared with 60 healthy postpartum females (control group. Patient and controls were subjected to: (1 a complete psychiatric and obstetric examination, (2 psychometric studies using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Fahmy and El-Sherbini's Social Classification Scale for Egyptian socioeconomic classification and Horowitz et al's Impact of Event Scale, (3 quantities of thyroid hormone (T3, cortisol hormone, and estrogen were assessed.Results: There were high statistical differences between PPD females and controls as regard psychosocial stressors, level of (estradiol, thyroxin [T3], and cortisol, marital status, residence, parity, method of delivery, complicated puerperium, positive history of premenstrual tension syndrome and baby variables (eg, unwelcomed, with a negative attitude of parents toward the baby, underweight, female, artificially feeding, unhealthy baby. While there were moderate statistical differences in attitude toward spouse and social support and mild statistical difference in socioeconomic status between them. Severity of depression is positively highly correlated with onset of depression, psychosocial stress, levels of T3 and cortisol. However, severity of depression is negatively high when correlated with socioeconomic status. Stepwise linear regression indicated that PPD was significantly

  11. On the astronomical orientation of the IV dynasty Egyptian pyramids and the dating of the second Giza pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Magli, Giulio

    2003-01-01

    The data on the astronomical orientation of the IV dynasty Egyptian pyramids are re-analyzed and it is shown that such data suggest an inverse chronology between the `first` and the `second` Giza pyramid.

  12. Evaluation of hemoglobinopathy screening results of a six year period in Turkey '

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    Seçil Gunher Arıca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hemoglobinopathies are autosomal recessive inherited diseases more commonly seen in Mediterranean countries. Hereditary blood diseases including B-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are important health problems. In our study we aimed to analyze the results of the premarital hemoglobinopathy screening test for a 6 years period in Hatay region. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised the couples attending to the Mother and Child Health Care Center in Hatay for premarital hemoglobinopathy screening from 2004 to 2009. Hemoglobin chain analyses of 87.830 couples were evaluated. RESULTS: 175.660 people were screened at total. The prevalence of beta thalassemia trait, sickle cell anemia trait, sickle cell anemia, beta thalassemia major, beta-thalassemia intermedia, alpha-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia trait was found as 13.921 (7,9%, 6.074 (3,4%, 631 (0.35%, 132 (0.07%, 118 (0.06%, 9 (0.005%, 150 (0.08% respectively. 72 newborns with beta-thalassemia were diagnosed as a result of the marriage of the carrier couples in 6 years. Conclusions: Hatay is a high risk region for beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia trait. In countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program and counseling is needed to decrease the prevalence.

  13. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of diarrhea associated with enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative and diffuse-adherent Escherichia coli in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salwa F; Shaheen, Hind I; Abdel-Messih, Ibrahim Adib; Mostafa, Manal; Putnam, Shannon D; Kamal, Karim A; Sayed, Abdel Nasser El; Frenck, Robert W; Sanders, John W; Klena, John D; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    A total of 220 enteroadherent Escherichia coli were identified from 729 Egyptian children with diarrhea using the HEp-2 adherence assay. Enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC = 38) was common among children DAEC = 109) induced diarrheal episodes of short duration, and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC = 73) induced mild non-persistent diarrhea. These results suggest that EPEC is associated with infantile diarrhea in Egyptian children.

  14. The European system and the Egyptian question 1827-1841 : a study in the theory of balance of power

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Sattar El Badri, Mohammed

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 289-295. This work aims at explaining the events of the Egyptian Question through the tools of balance of power theory. It is the main hypothesis of this work that the Egyptian Question affected the balance of power in Europe, i.e. Equilibrium, and therefore, was subjecte...

  15. Iron metabolism in heterozygotes for hemoglobin E (HbE), alpha-thalassemia1, or beta-thalassemia and in compound heterozygotes for HbE/ beta-thalassemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Fucharoen, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Sirankapracha, P.; Zeder, C.; Gowachirapant, S.; Judprasong, K.; Tanno, T.; Miller, J.L.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite large populations carrying traits for thalassemia in countries implementing universal iron fortification, there are few data on the absorption and utilization of iron in these persons. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether iron absorption or utilization (or both) in women hete

  16. Chemical, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of Some Egyptian Soft Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Ghada, Z. A. A., 2*Alia, M. H., 3**Soha, Al-S., 4*Magdy, N. A., and 5*Mohammed, F. S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products is considered the most complete foodstuff that provide human either infants or adults with most of their vital needs. Milk and cheese have high nutritive value due to its high content of protein, fat, minerals especially calcium (Ca2+ & phosphorous, and vitamins. Two hundred samples produced and sold in Egypt during 2001-2003 were collected from allover the country. The cheese samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. Samples were microbiologically tested for total aerobic bacterial count (TABC, Colifrm, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, mould and yeast, salmonella and shigella, and listeria species. Protein, fat, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, lactose, Calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P and Ca/P were evaluated. The analysis showed that total aerobic bacterial count did not exceed 1.4X105±1.7X105 cells/gm, which is close to what allowed by the Standard Egyptian Guidelines (2001 and 47.5 % of the tested cheese are free from coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. Ninety-eight and half percent, 97 %, 97 % and 91.5 % of the tested cheese (kareish, feta, thalaga, double cream respectively, either made in plant or home or farmers' cheese sample have zero Staphylococcus aureus count or mould and yeast; or salmonella and shigella, or listeria species respectively, i. e. free from them. Double cream cheese has the lowest protein content (7.79±0.78 gm% while kareish cheese has the highest protein content (19.99±1.32 gm%, but for fat content the opposite is true, double cream cheese have the highest fat content (24.56±1.78 gm% while kareish cheese have the lowest fat content (3.87±0.97 gm %. Feta cheese has high ash content while kareish cheese has the highest moisture content with the lowest ash content (68.97±1.86 & 1.81±0.47 gm% respectively. Lactose content varies widely from 1.50±0.26 (double cream cheese to 3.25±0.50 (feta cheese. Kareish cheese has higher content of calcium and

  17. Hb Wilde and Hb Patagonia: two novel elongated beta-globin variants causing dominant beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheps, Karen G; Hasenahuer, Marcia A; Parisi, Gustavo; Fornasari, María S; Pennesi, Sandra P; Erramouspe, Beatriz; Basack, Felisa N; Veber, Ernesto S; Aversa, Luis; Elena, Graciela; Varela, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    We describe here the molecular and hematological characteristics of novel frameshift mutations in exon 2 of the HBB gene (in heterozygous state) found in two Argentinean pediatric patients with dominant β-thalassemia-like features. In Hb Wilde, HBB:c.270_273delTGAG(p.Glu90Cysfs*67), we detected the deletion of the third base of the codon 89 (T) and the codon 90 (GAG), whereas in Hb Patagonia, HBB:c.296_297dupGT(p.Asp99Trpfs*59), the frameshift mutation was due to a duplication of a 'GT' dinucleotide after the second base of codon 98 (GTG). The Hb Patagonia and Hb Wilde mutations would result in elongated β-globin chains with modified C-terminal sequences and a total of 155 and 157 amino acids residues, respectively. Based on bioinformatics and structural analysis, as well as protein modeling, we predict that the elongated β-globins would affect the formation of the αβ dimers and their stability, which would further support the mechanism for the observed clinical features in both patients.

  18. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Stella Lazarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA and β-thalassemia trait (BTT, in which oxidative stress (OxS has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT in patients with IDA (10 or BTT (21, to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β0 or β+ and to compare it with normal subjects (67. Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21 of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10 of those with IDA. No significant difference (p=0,245 was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p=0,000. In β0 and β+ groups, no significant difference (p=0,359 was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types.

  19. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β0 or β+) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In β0 and β+ groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  20. [Anomalies of the masticatory apparatus in beta-thalassemia. The present status after transfusion and iron-chelating therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C; Andraghetti, D; Gamberini, M R

    1994-04-01

    Fifty-four homozygous beta-thalassemic patients (26 men and 28 women) aged 7 to 24 years, who had been treated with high transfusion regimen (Hb levels = 9-10 g/dl) and chelation therapy (desferrioxamine, 35-50 mg/kg), underwent clinical and radiographic investigations. This study was aimed at assessing the clinical and radiographic changes in the stomatognathic system (teeth, mandible and maxilla, occlusion relationship and dental bases). All patients underwent orthopantomography and teleradiography of the skull, in the lateral view. Twenty thalassemic patients (13 men and 7 women) of the same age but treated with low transfusion regimes (Hb levels = 5-6 g/dl) were examined as a control group. Our results indicate that: 1) in the control group, osteopenia is the specific lesion of anemia, in both the alveolar process and the mandible, following marrow expansion. Consequently, diastema of incisors and several types of malocclusion follow--i.e., overjet, anterior open-bite and crossbite, nearly all of them associated with II dental and skeletal patterns of Angle's classification. 2) In adequately transfused patients, no lesions are observed in 55% of cases, in both the teeth and the facial skeleton. This means that current treatment methods can prevent bone abnormalities, especially if transfusions begin at birth. Nevertheless, osteopenia of the mandible (31.4%) and dental and/or skeletal malocclusions (40.7%) remain in many cases, because of persistent marrow expansion, which usually follows incorrect treatment. 3) General dental diseases--e.g., caries, paradentosis, gingivitis, etc.--affect both populations with the same incidence.

  1. Masked deficit of vitamin B12 in the patient with heterozygous beta-thalassemia and spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic, Ernest; Bilic, Ervina; Zagar, Marija; Juric, Stjepan

    2004-12-01

    The spinal cord, brain, optic nerves and peripheral nerves may be affected by vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin B12 also causes megaloblastic anaemia, meaning that the red blood cells are usually larger than normal. In this paper we report a 16-year old girl who was referred to us for the evaluation of mild paraparesis and paresthesias marked by tingling "pins and needles" feelings and general weakness. The patient, her parents and sisters were on a strict vegan diet, which made us believe that vitamin B12 deficiency may be the possible cause of the neurologic clinical manifestations. The serum level of vitamin B12 was low, but there was no macrocytosis in the routine blood examination. The electrophoresis of haemoglobin was pathologic, there was 3.7% of HbA2 and 11.6% of HbF (heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia). When megaloblastic anaemia occurs in combination with a condition that gives rise to microcytic anaemia, many megaloblastic features may be masked. Instead of being macrocytic, the anaemia could be normocytic or even microcytic. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a diagnosis that must not be overlooked. This case report turns the light on the fact that increased MCV is a hallmark in vitamin B12 deficiency, but it is not an obligatory sign.

  2. THE GENIUS LOCI AT THE GREAT TEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL: HERMENEUTIC READING IN THE ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN TEMPLES OF RAMSES II IN NUBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ramzy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologists have long wondered about the Temple of Abu Simbel: its location within the Nubian territory far from major Egyptian cities, and its unique design. Utilizing the hermeneutic process of understanding the whole from the parts and then situating the whole within a bigger whole (context, this study is a trial to arrive at a better interpretation of this monument. Drawing on the characteristic analysis of the temple's Genius Loci as developed by Norberg-Schulz, as well as on Heidegger's anticipatory fore-structures, the study goes on to show that both of the location and the unique structure of the temple were the outcome of political and conceptual aspects of the period, more than being a religious tradition. Reaching this conclusion, another goal had been achieved, where the validity of hermeneutic analyses as a useful tool for discovering new dimensions about historical monuments and archaeological sites had been attested.

  3. Biodegradation ability and catabolic genes of petroleum-degrading Sphingomonas koreensis strain ASU-06 isolated from Egyptian oily soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Mawad, Asmaa M M; Mostafa, Yasser M; Shoreit, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are serious pollutants and health hazards. In this study, 15 PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from Egyptian oily soil. Among them, one Gram-negative strain (ASU-06) was selected and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of petroleum compounds were investigated. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ASU-06 to published sequences in GenBank database as well as phylogenetic analysis identified ASU-06 as Sphingomonas koreensis. Strain ASU-06 degraded 100, 99, 98, and 92.7% of 100 mg/L naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene within 15 days, respectively. When these PAHs present in a mixed form, the enhancement phenomenon appeared, particularly in the degradation of pyrene, whereas the degradation rate was 98.6% within the period. This is the first report showing the degradation of different PAHs by this species. PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes alkB, alkB1, nahAc, C12O, and C23O suggested that ASU-06 might possess genes for aliphatic and PAHs degradation, while PAH-RHDαGP gene was not detected. Production of biosurfactants and increasing cell-surface hydrophobicity were investigated. GC/MS analysis of intermediate metabolites of studied PAHs concluded that this strain utilized these compounds via two main pathways, and phthalate was the major constant product that appeared in each day of the degradation period.

  4. Biodegradation Ability and Catabolic Genes of Petroleum-Degrading Sphingomonas koreensis Strain ASU-06 Isolated from Egyptian Oily Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Latif Hesham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are serious pollutants and health hazards. In this study, 15 PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from Egyptian oily soil. Among them, one Gram-negative strain (ASU-06 was selected and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of petroleum compounds were investigated. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ASU-06 to published sequences in GenBank database as well as phylogenetic analysis identified ASU-06 as Sphingomonas koreensis. Strain ASU-06 degraded 100, 99, 98, and 92.7% of 100 mg/L naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene within 15 days, respectively. When these PAHs present in a mixed form, the enhancement phenomenon appeared, particularly in the degradation of pyrene, whereas the degradation rate was 98.6% within the period. This is the first report showing the degradation of different PAHs by this species. PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes alkB, alkB1, nahAc, C12O, and C23O suggested that ASU-06 might possess genes for aliphatic and PAHs degradation, while PAH-RHDαGP gene was not detected. Production of biosurfactants and increasing cell-surface hydrophobicity were investigated. GC/MS analysis of intermediate metabolites of studied PAHs concluded that this strain utilized these compounds via two main pathways, and phthalate was the major constant product that appeared in each day of the degradation period.

  5. The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ancient Egyptian Population from Baharia Oasis, the Greco Roman Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokia Abd ElShafy Soliman El-Banna*, , Azza Mohamed Sarry El-Din*, Fatma Ahmed Eid**, Walaa Yousef Mohamed Ali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be the most common nutritional deficiency and also one of the most common undiagnosed medical conditions in the world. Vitamin D is naturally present only in minor amounts in most foods; the great majority is synthesized by the action of ultraviolet light on chemical precursors in the skin. The manifestation of vitamin D deficiency in sub adults is referred to as rickets, and in adults, osteomalacia . Rickets and osteomalacia are the sub adult and adult expressions of a disease in which the underlying problem is a failure to mineralize bone protein (osteoid. The most common cause of this disease is a physiological deficiency in vitamin D. The associated problems include deformed bones. Material and Methods: This study aimed to investigate the skeletal remains of ancient Egyptians from Baharia Oasis population for lesions indicative of vitamin D deficiency (rickets and osteomalacia. The material consisted of 1075 commingled bones (38 sub adults and1037 adults. They were recovered from Baharia oasis. Results: The results showed that, there was no evidence of rickets in sub adult group. The prevalence of osteomalacia in adult Baharia populations was 7.4% ; all were adult males. This result could indicate that this population was subjected to sunlight all over the year and their diet was rich of calcium and phosphorus. Conclusion: These few cases that were found may be due to mechanical stress during wine and textile production.

  6. Patterns of Nutrition and Dietary Supplements Use in Young Egyptian Athletes: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Safaa; El Koofy, Nehal; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of basic and sport nutrition as well as perspectives of young Egyptian athletes. Structured interview survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about basic and sport nutrition was administered to adolescent athletes recruited from 4 sport clubs and 2 fitness centers in Greater Cairo governorate. A total of 358 participants aged 13-18 years completed questionnaires. Basic nutrition knowledge was reasonable in almost all domains except fast food. Fixed breakfast (78.5%), home meals (lunch, 70.7%), and healthy snacks (55.8%) were the most positive features of the basic dietary pattern. More than 70% perceived themselves as knowledgeable about sport nutrition. The prevalence rate of sport supplement intake was (48.9%, n = 175), predominantly sport drinks (66.9%) and creatine (54.3%). Coaches were the primary source of sport nutrition information. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 77/175) reported supplement consumption during competition seasons only. Better physical appearance and enhancement of athletic performance were the major motivations for supplement intake. These findings indicate the necessity of a comprehensive nutrition education program targeting not only athletes and parents, but also coaching staff, health trainers and all sport team officials.

  7. Age distribution, polyps and rectal cancer in the Egyptian population-based cancer registry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darlene Veruttipong; Amr S Soliman; Samuel F Gilbert; Taylor S Blachley; Ahmed Hablas; Mohamed Ramadan; Laura S Rozek; Ibrahim A Seifeldin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To describe the clinical and epidemiologic profiles of the disease and to compare the findings with those generated from the previous hospital-based studies.METHODS:The Gharbiah cancer registry is the only population-based cancer registry in Egypt since 1998.We analyzed the data of all colorectal cancer patients included in the registry for the period of 1999-2007.All medical records of the 1364 patients diagnosed in Gharbiah during the study period were retrieved and the following information abstracted:age,residence,diagnosis date,grade,stage,topology,clinical characteristics,and histology variables.Egyptian census data for 1996 and 2006 were used to provide the general population's statistics on age,sex,residence and other related demographic factors.In addition to age-and sex-specific incidence rate analyses,we analyze the data to explore the incidence distribution by rural-urban differences among the 8 districts of the province.We also compared the incidence rates of Gharbiah to the rates of the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data of the United States.RESULTS:Over the 9 year-period,1364 colorectal cancer cases were included.The disease incidence under age 40 years was relatively high (1.3/105) while the incidence in the age groups 40 and over was very low (12.0/105,19.4/105 and 21.2/105 in the age groups 40-59 years,60-69 years and > 70 years,respectively).The vast majority of tumors (97.2%) had no polyps and 37.2% of the patients presented with primary lesions in the rectum.Colorectal cancer was more common in patients from urban (55%) than rural (45%) areas.Regional differences in colon and rectal cancer incidence in the 8 districts of the study province may refleet different etiologic patterns in this population.The registry data of Egypt shows a slightly higher incidence of colorectal cancer than the United States in subjects under age 40 years.The results also shows significantly lower incidence of colorectal cancer in

  8. Identifications of ancient Egyptian royal mummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, M E; Bouwman, A S; Rühli, F J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, ancient Egyptian Royal mummies have drawn the attention both of the general public and scientists. Many royal mummies from the New Kingdom have survived. The discoveries of the bodies of these ancient rulers have always sparked much attention, yet not all identifications are clear even nowadays. This study presents a meta-analysis to demonstrate the difficulties in identifying ancient Egyptian royal mummies. Various methods and pitfalls in the identification of the Pharaohs are reassessed since new scientific methods can be used, such as ancient DNA-profiling and CT-scanning. While the ancestors of Tutankhamun have been identified, some identities are still highly controversial (e.g., the mystery of the KV-55 skeleton, recently most likely identified as the genetic father of Tutankhamun). The meta-analysis confirms the suggested identity of some mummies (e.g., Amenhotep III, Thutmosis IV, and Queen Tjye).

  9. Introducing E-Government in Developing Countries Analysis of Egyptian e-Government Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elaswad, Othoman; Jensen, Christian D.

    2016-01-01

    and skills, citizen's behaviours, digital infrastructure and legislation, but also common to many other developing countries. Our analysis of the Egyptian e-Government services indicates that the security requirements and principle of equal access are not fully met, which illustrates the difficulty...... identification and remote authentication in developing countries, such as the North Africa Countries (NAC), where a relatively large proportion of citizens are illiterate. Therefore, the design of a national IDM system in a NAC must explicitly consider illiteracy to allow this group of citizens to benefit from...... services that guarantee equal access to online services and an inclusive society. The study identifies strengths and weaknesses of the Egyptian e-Government and IDM services, which we believe are common to most NAC, since the NAC are quite similar in terms of social culture, citizen's education level...

  10. A Novel Loss-of-Sclerostin Function Mutation in a First Egyptian Family with Sclerosteosis

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    Alaaeldin Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosteosis is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by increased bone density. Mutations in SOST gene coding for sclerostin are linked to sclerosteosis. Two Egyptian brothers with sclerosteosis and their apparently normal consanguineous parents were included in this study. Clinical evaluation and genomic sequencing of the SOST gene were performed followed by in silico analysis of the resulting variation. A novel homozygous frameshift mutation in the SOST gene, characterized as one nucleotide cytosine insertion that led to premature stop codon and loss of functional sclerostin, was identified in the two affected brothers. Their parents were heterozygous for the same mutation. To our knowledge this is the first Egyptian study of sclerosteosis and SOST gene causing mutation.

  11. Study of serum syndecan-1 levels in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Naglaa Abd Elrahman; Lotfy, Hala Mohamed; Farag, Yomna Mohamed; Mahfouz, Rasha Hossam El-Din; Shahin, Rasha Mohamad Hosny

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the serum levels of Syndecan-1 in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients and to study any possible associations with disease activity, renal activity and organ damage. Serum level of Syndecan-1 was assessed in 60 Egyptian JSLE patients and 30 apparently healthy age and gender matched children using ELISA. SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K), renal SLEDAI-2K, renal activity score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index were assessed for all patients. Serum SDC-1 levels were higher in patients with JSLE than in healthy controls (p<0.001) and were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K (p<0.001), with renal SLEDAI score (p=0.008) and renal activity score (p=0.04). So, Syndecan-1 might be used as a marker for disease activity and renal activity in JSLE patients.

  12. On the ocean circulation off the Egyptian coast determined from steric height distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, F. M.; Said, M. A.

    On the basis of the hydrostatic equation, the total steric departures from mean sea level (for a water column of 1000 m depth) were calculated for the Mediterranean water off the Egyptian coast during winter and summer seasons. From the total steric height distribution over the investigated area, the geostrophic currents were determined. The results of this study reveal that the steric departures show a seasonal trend being low in winter and high in summer. This is in phase with the eastern Mediterranean sea-level changes. The currents off the Egyptian coast are considered an extension of the North African Current flowing to the east. The general circulation pattern was characterized by appearance of an anticyclonic gyre off Mersa Matruh in the central region around longitude 28°E during both seasons.

  13. Congenital hydrocephalus in an Egyptian baby with trisomy 18: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Metwalley Kotb A; Farghalley Hekma S; Abd-Elsayed Alaa A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Trisomy 18 is the second most common autosomal trisomy after Down syndrome (trisomy 21). A variety of anomalies of the central nervous system are observed in cases of trisomy 18. The association between trisomy 18 and congenital hydrocephalus is very rare. Case presentation A 4-month-old male Egyptian baby boy was referred to Assiut University hospital for evaluation of his large-sized head. The initial clinical examination revealed facial dysmorphism including a promine...

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism in Egyptian cattle insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 gene

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    Othman E. Othman

    2014-12-01

    It is concluded that the IGFBP-3/HaeIII polymorphism may be utilized as a good marker for genetic differentiation between cattle animals for different body functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, immunity and energy balance. The nucleotide sequences of Egyptian cattle IGFBP-3 A and C alleles were submitted to GenBank with the accession numbers KF899893 and KF899894, respectively.

  15. Pollen types of the Egyptian species of tribe Lactuceae (subfamily Cichorioideae-Compositae)

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, A.K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Pollen morphology of forty six Egyptian species representing twenty three genera of the tribe Lactuceae was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Seven pollen types were recognized: Geropogon pollen type, Koelpinia pollen type, Lactuca pollen type, Launaea pollen type, Rhagadiolus pollen type, Scolymus pollen type and Scorzonera pollen type. Descriptions, a key, light microscope (LM) and scaning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of each pollen type are provided.

  16. Morphology, topography and cytoarchitectonics of the otic ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurkowski, A; Kuder, T; Nowak, E; Kuchinka, J

    2001-01-01

    Using the thiocholine method of Koelle and Friedenwald and histological techniques, the otic ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest) was studied. The ganglion was found to be a single oval cluster of neurocytes, situated at the medial and posterior surface of the mandibular nerve just above the maxillary artery. The ganglion is composed of typical ganglionic neurons in compact arrangement without a thick connective-tissue capsule.

  17. Morphology, topography and cytoarchitectonics of the pterygopalatine ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurkowski, Aleksander; Kuder, Tadeusz; Nowak, Elzbieta; Kuchinka, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    Using the thiocholine method of Koelle and Friedenwald and histological techniques the pterygopalatine ganglion in Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus, Desmarest) was studied. The ganglion was found to be a single irregular cluster of neurocytes, situated on the medial surface of the maxillary nerve. The ganglion is composed of oval, elliptical and sometimes fusiform ganglionic neurones in compact arrangement without a thick connective-tissue capsule.

  18. Uric Acid Metabolism in a Sample of Egyptian Hypertensive Patients With Normal Kidney Function

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Afifi, ¹ Iman Sarhan¹, Magdy El Sharkawy¹, Mostafa Kamel¹, Waleed Anwar ¹,

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with hypertension. Also, it is well known to coincide with the metabolic syndrome but is still not recognized as a risk factor. So, we aimed to evaluate hyperuricemia among a sample of hypertensive Egyptians with normal renal function.Methods: this study was performed on 303 hypertensive patients aged 30-69 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the level of uric acid: group 1 composed of 168 hypertensive hyperuricemic patient ...

  19. Effect of selected natural dyes in reduction on colour changes of Egyptian linen textiles by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar

    2007-07-01

    Linen is the most historical Egyptian textile fibre liable to fungal deterioration. Fungal deterioration of dyed linen textiles may appear as undesirable different stains. In order to success in removing of fungal stains from biodeteriorated historical Egyptian dyed linen textiles, it is necessary to understand the nature and causes of these stains, hence their subsequent removal. So this paper aims to investigate the effect of fungi on dyed linen textiles. In this study linen textile samples were experimentally dyed by two different dyes, blue one as an example to vat dye and yellow one as an example to direct dye. This work is done on two of the most important dyes (Turmeric and indigo), which were popular in most of historical periods in Egypt. Dyed linen samples were experimentally biodegraded by thirty different fungal strains isolated previously from historical Egyptian linen samples. The produced change in colours of the biodeteriorated samples was detected visually. Also, the change in reflection spectra and colour differences produced to dyed linen textiles after fungal deterioration, were assessed and evaluated by using spectrophotometer. This study reported that most of tested fungi contribute to discoloration of all tested dyed linen samples. These results indicate that most of stains on historical Egyptian dyed linen textiles, may be fungal stains. The results confirm that undyed linen textiles more liable to fungal biodeterioration than dyed ones. Also the results show that yellow dyed linen textiles are more susceptible to fungal deterioration than blue dyed linen textiles. The obtained results show that Alternaria tenuissima, Chaetomium globosum, Chaetomium sp., Penicillium raistrickii, P. soppi, P. asperum, P. citrinum, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. fischeri, A. nidulans, A. terreus and A. niger, had showed the maximum colour changes of the deteriorated yellow dyed linen samples. The results also show that Alternaria tenuissima, Chaetomium sp

  20. Sea-level change and projected future flooding along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Future sea-level changes along the Mediterranean Egyptian coast (southern Levantine sub-basin) are projected using satellite altimetry data and model simulations. Twenty-one years (1993–2013) of satellite altimetry data, represented by dynamic topography (DT), are examined in light of tide-gauge observations. Current DT changes are examined with respect to five atmospheric/oceanic factors. The qualities of three realizations of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model are examin...

  1. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Viral Antibody in Transfused and Nontransfused Egyptian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    community-acquired (sporadic) alence in young children, particularly from North infections in the absence of non-hepatitis B ( HBV ) Africa. Findings from...with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carci- nontransfused Egyptian children. noma, respectively, although prevalence among HBsAg-positive patients with...Johansson H, Nordenfeldt E. 1991. Antibody Financial support: This study was supported by U.S. to a hepatitis C virus related protein among pa- Naval

  2. The Database of Egyptian Building Envelopes (DEBE): A database for building energy simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Shady; Wanas, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a part of an ongoing research that aims to describe the influence of building constructions on energy consumption through a survey that is conducted in Cairo and its surrounding residential neighbourhoods. An inventory of the selected neighbourhoods envelope constructions and their characteristics is described in accordance with the new Egyptian energy standard for residential buildings. After thorough screening and classification, the constructions are digitalized and uploa...

  3. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby NM

    2016-01-01

    Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and asc...

  4. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  5. Characterization of Ancient Egyptian Wall Paintings, the Excavations of Cairo University at Saqqara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein MAREY MAHMOUD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at characterizing some Egyptian wall paintings discovered during the excavations of Cairo University (since 1988 and recently in 2005 at Saqqara area in the south of Cairo. There, a number of tombs dating back to the 19th dynasty (c.1293–1185 BC were discovered. The walls of these tombs are carved with bass and raised reliefs and painted with different colours. The characterization of the wall paintings was done by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (backscattered electron mode, BSE equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS, micro XRF spectrometry (µ-XRF, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The analysis of the examined samples indicated that the blue pigment is Egyptian blue (Cuprorivaite, the green pigment is Egyptian green, the red pigment is red ochre, and the yellow pigment is a blended layer of yellow ochre and orpiment (As2S3. The results will help in providing an image concerning some painting materials used during the new Kingdom in ancient Egypt

  6. APPLICATION OF THE GAP TECHNIQUE IN MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY IN EGYPTIAN FEDERATION KARATE

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    Khalil Samira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the gap between the administration and the beneficiaries of the quality of the service in the federation and sport regions of Karate. The sample of this study was chosen randomly between the members of the board of directors of the Federation and regions, the coaches , referees and players registered in theEgyptian Federation of Karate whose numbers are (149. The sample of the study was classified into two beneficiary classes. The first beneficiary class is coaches and referees whose number are (70 persons and their administration is the members of the board of directors of the Federation and its regions whose number are (14persons. The second class is the players whose number are (65 players and their administration is the members ofthe board of directors of the Federation and its regions the referees and coaches' number are (84 persons. This study used a questionnaire (SERVQUAL to measure the quality of the service. Results pointed to a negative gap between the expectations of the beneficiaries of the excellent service level and the perceptions of the administrations of these expectations.These results refer to the weakness of administration ability in the Egyptian Federation of Karate to know the needs and desires of beneficiaries from (coaches-referees- players of the quality level in the service provided to them. The existence of a relative gap between the perceptions of the beneficiaries of the service actually provided and the administration of the qualities of the service actually provided, therefore itrefers to the decline the motive level of the administration of Egyptian Federation of Karate to provide the service to the beneficiaries in a form that conforms with what the administration already decided for the specifications. The existence of a negative gap between the expectations of the beneficiaries of the level of theexcellent service and its perception of the actual performance of this service refers to

  7. Application of DNA (RAPD and ultrastructure to detect the effect of cadmium stress in Egyptian clover and Sudan grass plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Aly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn recent years, several plant species have been used as bioindicators to evaluate the toxicity of environmental contaminants on vegetal organisms. In this study, Egyptian clover and Sudan grass seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd concentration levels (0.0, 25, 50 and 100 µM in MS media to analyze growth responses, Cd accumulation in the shoots and roots of plantlets, proline contents, chlorophylls content and MDA levels of both plantlets. As well as RAPD analysis and leaves ultrastructure were detected.ResultsThe results showed that there was a significant decrease in root and shoot lengths, Chl a, Chl b, total Chl and carotenoids contents for both Egyptian clover and Sudan grass. However, there was a significant increase in Cd accumulation, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. The genetic variation between Egyptian clover and Sudan grass were evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR markers to establish specific DNA markers associated with Cd stress. The results of transimssion electron microscopy (TEM showed a clear disorder in the Cd treated Egyptian clover and Sudan grass seedlings.ConclusionIn conclusion, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructure changes in Egyptian clover and Sudan grass could be used as a useful biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of Cd stress on plants. However, it is necessary to be further confirmed and optimized in the future research.

  8. An Examination of Learning Style Preferences among Egyptian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sywelem, Mohamed; Dahawy, Bayoumi; Wang, Chih-husan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine teacher students' learning style preferences and to examine the extent gender, seniority and academic major affect the students' preferences. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  9. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C AMONG EGYPTIAN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE AND THE ROLE OF IL28B GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN SPONTANEOUS VIRAL CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaia Mohammed Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major health problem in Egypt with its prevalence estimated to be 14.7% among general population in 2008. Patients receiving frequent blood transfusions like sickle cell disease (SCD are more exposed to the risk of acquiring HCV. IL28B gene polymorphisms have been associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HCV infection among children with SCD and to study the relation between IL28B gene polymorphisms and spontaneous HCV clearance. Methods: Seventy SCD patients were screened for HCV antibody. HCV positive patients were tested for the level of HCV RNA using quantitative real time PCR. IL28B polymorphisms (rs 12979860 SNP and rs 12980275 SNP were detected using Taqman QRT-PCR and sequence specific primers PCR respectively. Results: Sixteen patients (23% were HCV antibody positive, 9 of them (56.3% had undetectable HCV RNA in serum and 7 (43.7% had persistent viremia. Genotypes CC/CT/TT of rs12979860 were found in 30 (42.9%, 29 (41.4% and 11 (15.7% and rs12980275 AA/AG/GG were found in 8 (11.4%, 59 (84.3% and 3 (4.3%.  There was no significant difference in the frequency of IL28B (rs 12979860 and rs12980275 genotypes among HCV patients who cleared the virus and those with persistent viremia (p=0.308 and 0.724 respectively.  Conclusion: Egyptian SCD patients have high prevalence of HCV. Muti-transfused patients still exposed to a risk of transmission of HCV. IL28B gene polymorphisms are not associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in this cohort of Egyptian children with SCD.

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis C among Egyptian Children with Sickle Cell Disease and the Role of IL28b Gene Polymorphisms in Spontaneous Viral Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Somaia Mohammed; El-Ghamrawy, Mona Kamal; Gouda, Heba; Khorshied, Mervat; El-Salam Ahmed, Dina Abd; Shiba, Hala

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem in Egypt with its prevalence estimated to be 14.7% among the general population in 2008. Patients receiving frequent blood transfusions like those with sickle cell disease (SCD) are more exposed to the risk of acquiring HCV. IL28B gene polymorphisms have been associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HCV infection among children with SCD and to investigate the relation between IL28B gene polymorphisms and spontaneous HCV clearance. Methods Seventy SCD patients were screened for HCV antibody. HCV-positive patients were tested for the level of HCV RNA using quantitative real-time PCR. IL28B polymorphisms (rs 12979860 SNP and rs 12980275 SNP) were detected using TaqMan QRT-PCR and sequence-specific primers PCR respectively. Results Sixteen patients (23%) were HCV antibody positive, 9 of them (56.3%) had undetectable HCV RNA in serum, and 7 (43.7%) had persistent viremia. Genotypes CC/CT/TT of rs12979860 were found in 30 (42.9%), 29 (41.4%) and 11 (15.7%) patients and rs12980275 AA/AG/GG were found in 8 (11.4%), 59 (84.3%) and 3 (4.3%) patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of IL28B (rs 12979860 and rs12980275) genotypes among HCV patients who cleared the virus and those with persistent viremia (p=0.308 and 0.724 respectively). Conclusion Egyptian SCD patients have a high prevalence of HCV. Multi-transfused patients still exposed to the risk of transmission of HCV. IL28B gene polymorphismsare not associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in this cohort of Egyptian children with SCD. PMID:26740868

  11. Types of thalassemia among patients attending a large university clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, E; Li, H J; Fei, Y J; Reese, A L; Baysal, E; Cepreganova, B; Wilson, J B; Gu, L H; Nechtman, J F; Stoming, T A

    1992-01-01

    We have identified the beta-thalassemia mutations in 59 patients with thalassemia major and 47 patients with Hb E-beta-thalassemia, and the deletional and nondeletional alpha-thalassemia determinants in 23 out of 24 patients with Hb H disease. All persons were attending the Haematology Clinic at the National University of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Most patients (76) were of Malay descent, while 52 patients were Chinese, and two came from elsewhere. The most frequently occurring beta-thalassemia alleles among the Malay patients were IVS-I-5 (G----C) and G----A at codon 26 (Hb E), while a few others were present at lower frequencies. The Chinese patients carried the mutation characteristic for Chinese [mainly codons 41/42 (-TTCT) and IVS-II-654 (C----T)]; Malay mutations were not observed among Chinese and Chinese mutations were virtually absent in the Malay patients. The large group of patients with Hb E-beta-thalassemia and different beta-thalassemia alleles offered the opportunity of comparing hematological data; information obtained for patients with Hb E-beta-thalassemia living in other countries was included in this comparison. Twenty-three patients with Hb H disease carried the Southeast Asian (SEA) alpha-thalassemia-1 deletion; 13 had the alpha CS alpha (Constant Spring) nondeletional alpha-thalassemia-2 determinant, while the deletional alpha-thalassemia-2 (-3.7 or -4.2 kb) was present in 10 subjects. The --/alpha CS alpha condition appeared to be the most severe with higher Hb H values. Both deletional and nondeletional types of alpha-thalassemia-2 were seen among Malay and Chinese patients.

  12. Interleukin-10.rs1800896 and Interleukin-18.rs1946518 gene polymorphisms could not predict the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection in Egyptian patients treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraheem, Wedad M; Hassuna, Noha A; Abuloyoun, Sahar M; Abdel Ghany, Hend M; Rizk, Hazem A; Abdelwahab, Sayed F

    2016-09-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the interleukin (IL)-28B gene was used as a major predictor of the response to treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Data examining the role of IL-10 and IL-18 gene polymorphisms among HCV genotype 4 (G4)-infected Egyptians in response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy are limited. This study investigated the impact of SNP at IL-10.rs1800896 (at position -1082) and IL-18.rs1946518 genes (at position -607) on the response to PEG-IFN/RBV therapy in HCV-infected Egyptians. This study was carried out on 100 HCV patients treated with PEG-IFN plus RBV and 100 healthy controls. The HCV patients included 50 treatment non-responders (NR) and 50 subjects with sustained virologic response (SVR). Genomic DNA from venous blood of subjects was extracted and IL-10.rs1800896 and IL-18.rs1946518 genotypes were determined using allele-specific amplification and SYBR Green real-time PCR. Linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs was estimated using Haploview software. The frequency of the IL-10.rs1800896 AA, AG and GG genotypes among non-responders were 16 %, 70 % and 14 % while among SVR subjects, the frequency was 34 %, 60 % and 6 %, respectively (p=0.073). On the other hand, the frequency of the IL-18.rs1946518 AA, AC and CC genotypes among non-responders was 14 %, 50 % and 36 %, respectively, while among responders, these frequencies were 28 %, 44 % and 28 %, (p = 0.220). Both markers were in linkage equilibrium (D' = 0.23; r (2) = 0.052). SNPs in the IL-10.rs1800896 and IL-18.rs1946518 genes could not predict the outcome of HCV infection in Egyptians treated with PEG-IFN/RBV.

  13. Contribution of protein Z gene single-nucleotide polymorphism to systemic lupus erythematosus in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousry, Sherif M; Shahin, Rasha M H; El Refai, Rasha M

    2016-09-01

    Protein Z has been reported to exert an important role in inhibiting coagulation. Polymorphisms in the protein Z gene (PROZ) may affect protein Z levels and thus play a role in thrombosis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of protein Z gene G79A polymorphism in Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We studied the distribution of the protein Z gene (rs17882561) (G79A) single-nucleotide polymorphism by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 100 Egyptian patients with SLE and 100 age, sex, and ethnically matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of the genotypes between SLE patients and the control group in our study (P = 0.103). But a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the alleles between SLE patients and controls was observed (P = 0.024). Also a significant association was detected between protein Z genotypes (and also A allele) and thrombosis, which is one of the manifestations of SLE (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, we observed a significant association between the protein Z AA and GA genotypes (and also A allele) and the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (P = 0.016 and P = 0.004, respectively). The minor A allele of the G79A polymorphism in the protein Z gene might contribute to the genetic susceptibility of SLE in Egyptian patients. Also, an influence for this polymorphism on some of the disease manifestations has been elucidated, so protein Z G79A AG/AA may be a risk factor for thrombosis.

  14. The development of the skull of the Egyptian Cobra Naja h. haje (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae.

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    Eraqi R Khannoon

    Full Text Available The study of craniofacial development is important in understanding the ontogenetic processes behind morphological diversity. A complete morphological description of the embryonic skull development of the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje, is lacking and there has been little comparative discussion of skull development either among elapid snakes or between them and other snakes.We present a description of skull development through a full sequence of developmental stages of the Egyptian cobra, and compare it to other snakes. Associated soft tissues of the head are noted where relevant. The first visible ossification centres are in the supratemporal, prearticular and surangular, with slight ossification visible in parts of the maxilla, prefrontal, and dentary. Epiotic centres of ossification are present in the supraoccipital, and the body of the supraoccipital forms from the tectum posterior not the tectum synoticum. The venom glands are visible as distinct bodies as early at stage 5 and enlarge later to extend from the otic capsule to the maxilla level with the anterior margin of the eye. The gland becomes more prominent shortly before hatching, concomitant with the development of the fangs. The tongue shows incipient forking at stage 5, and becomes fully bifid at stage 6.We present the first detailed staging series of cranial development for the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje. This is one of the first studies since the classical works of G. de Beer and W. Parker that provides a detailed description of cranial development in an advanced snake species. It allows us to correct errors and misinterpretations in previous accounts which were based on a small sample of specimens of uncertain age. Our results highlight potentially significant variation in supraoccipital formation among squamates and the need for further research in this area.

  15. Deciphering Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Towards a New Strategy for Navigation in Museums

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    Jaime Duque-Domingo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel strategy to decipher fragments of Egyptian cartouches identifying the hieroglyphs of which they are composed. A cartouche is a drawing, usually inside an oval, that encloses a group of hieroglyphs representing the name of a monarch. Aiming to identify these drawings, the proposed method is based on several techniques frequently used in computer vision and consists of three main stages: first, a picture of the cartouche is taken as input and its contour is localized. In the second stage, each hieroglyph is individually extracted and identified. Finally, the cartouche is interpreted: the sequence of the hieroglyphs is established according to a previously generated benchmark. This sequence corresponds to the name of the king. Although this method was initially conceived to deal with both high and low relief writing in stone, it can be also applied to painted hieroglyphs. This approach is not affected by variable lighting conditions, or the intensity and the completeness of the objects. This proposal has been tested on images obtained from the Abydos King List and other Egyptian monuments and archaeological excavations. The promising results give new possibilities to recognize hieroglyphs, opening a new way to decipher longer texts and inscriptions, being particularly useful in museums and Egyptian environments. Additionally, devices used for acquiring visual information from cartouches (i.e., smartphones, can be part of a navigation system for museums where users are located in indoor environments by means of the combination of WiFi Positioning Systems (WPS and depth cameras, as unveiled at the end of the document.

  16. Epidemiological aspects of Budd-Chiari in Egyptian patients: A single-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Sakr; Eman Barakat; Sara Abdelhakam; Hany Dabbous; Said Yousuf; Mohamed Shaker; Ahmed Eldorry

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To describe the socio-demographic features, eti ology, and risk factors for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) in Egyptian patients.METHODS: Ninety-four Egyptian patients with con firmed primary Budd-Chiari syndrome were presented to the Budd-Chiari Study Group (BCSG) and admitted to the Tropical Medicine Department of Ain Shams University Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Complete clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations, including a thrombophilia workup and full radiological assessment, were per formed to determine underlying disease etiologies.RESULTS: BCS was chronic in 79.8% of patients, acute or subacute in 19.1%, and fulminant in 1.1%. Factor V Leiden mutation (FVLM) was the most com mon etiological cause of disease (53.1%), followed by mutation of the gene encoding methylene tetra hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (51.6%). Current or recent hormonal treatment was documented in 15.5% of females, and BCS associated with pregnancy was present in 17.2% of females. Etiology could not be de termined in 8.5% of patients. Males had significantly higher rates of MTHFR gene mutation and Behget' s disease, and females had significantly higher rates of secondary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. A highly significant positive relationship was evident between the presence of Behget's disease and inferior vena caval occlusion, either alone or combined with occlusion of the hepatic veins (P < 0.0001).CONCLUSION: FVLM is the most common disease etiology and MTHFR the second most common in Egyptian BCS patients. BCS etiology tends to vary with geographic region.

  17. Public policy and medical tourism: ethical implications for the Egyptian health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Egypt's medical tourism industry has been experiencing tremendous growth. However, Egypt continues to lack the necessary investment in its public health system to effectively care for its population. Current policy and the emergence of medical tourism have led to unequal health care access, resulting in high a prevalence of infectious diseases and lack of resources for its most vulnerable populations. As a new Egyptian government emerges, it is important for policymakers to understand the critical issues and ethical concerns of existing health policy. This understanding may be used to propose new policy that more effectively allocates to care for Egypt's population.

  18. Ancient Egyptian Ma�at or Old Testament deed-consequence nexus as predecessors of ubuntu?

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    Gerlinde Baumann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ancient Egyptian concept of Ma�at shows some analogies to the concept of ubuntu. Both concepts seem to presuppose that people in a given society are willing to act for each other. In Bible exegesis, the concept of Ma�at has attracted interest in connection with the Old Testament deed-consequence nexus (i.e. good consequences follow good deeds. The article looks at significant parallels between ubuntu, Ma�at and the deed-consequence nexus. Its aim is to outline questions that have been discussed in the context of those two ancient concepts and that could be helpful for future research on ubuntu.

  19. The induction of neoplastic lesions by aflatoxin-B1 in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A

    1988-01-01

    The carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin-B1, the metabolic product of the mold Aspergillus flavus (a commonly occurring contaminant of groundnuts and other foodstuffs), was tested using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Injecting the toads with aflatoxin-B1 at a dose level of 0.01 mg/50 g body wt in 1 ml corn oil once a week for 15 weeks induced hepatocellular carcinomas in 19% of the experimental toads. Four toads developed tumors in the kidney due to metastases from the primary hepatocellular carcinomas.

  20. Lead isotope systematics of some igneous rocks from the Egyptian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, J. G.; Dixon, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    Lead isotope data on whole-rock samples and two feldspar separates for a variety of Pan-African (late Precambrian) igneous rocks for the Egyptian Shield are presented. It is pointed out that the eastern desert of Egypt is a Late Precambrian shield characterized by the widespread occurrence of granitic plutons. The lead isotope ratios may be used to delineate boundaries between Late Precambrian oceanic and continental environments in northeastern Africa. The samples belong to three groups. These groups are related to a younger plutonic sequence of granites and adamellites, a plutonic group consisting of older tonalites to granodiorites, and the Dokhan volcanic suite.

  1. Processing of Egyptian boiler-ash for extraction of vanadium and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A M

    2002-01-01

    Proposed technique in this investigation is given for vanadium and nickel enrichment in the Egyptian boiler ash. Among the various concepts for recovery of vanadium and nickel from boiler ash, the pyro-metallurgical approach is technically feasible, but is not cost-effective from an operational economy standpoint. Another technically viable process which, however, needs further development and presented in this investigation, is the hydrometallurgical processing that involves acid leaching under oxygen pressure of ground ash, followed by electrolytic separation of nickel from sulphate solution and vanadium is then neutralized and precipitated by adjustment the pH value and calcined to produce V2O5.

  2. The Egyptian Islamic Group’s Critique of Al-Qaeda’s Interpretation of Jihad

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    Paul Kamolnick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A specific branch of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-jihad regulates the waging of the jihad of the sword (jihad bis saif. In this article, a detailed exposition is presented of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s (IG; Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya use of fiqh al jihad against Al-Qaeda. The present author’s ‘jihad-realist’ approach is first briefly described; the IG’s critique of AQ systematically outlined; and in conclusion, implications are derived for counter-radicalisation strategies.

  3. Aliens in Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A check-list of Erythrean fish with new records

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    Y. HALIM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical role of the Suez Canal as a pathway for migrations between the Red sea and the Mediterranean is recalled. A check-list of 42 immigrant Erythrean fish in Egyptian Mediterranean waters is given. The list comprises four new records. 17 of the immigrant species are commercially exploited, whereas 15 are known from single records. While the Erythrean fish as invasive species are beneficial to local fisheries, in our view, they do not have an important impact upon the ecosystem.

  4. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail; Heba I. Abo-Elmagd; Manal M. Housseiny

    2016-01-01

    The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L.) skins (6.5%, w/v) was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF) cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized ...

  5. Genetic characterization of Egyptian and Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Othman E. Othman; Lorraine Pariset; Esraa A. Balabel; Marco Marioti

    2015-01-01

    A 721-bp fragment from 15,541 to 16,261 bp (NC_001941.1) of the mtDNA control region from different Egyptian and Italian sheep breeds was amplified. The PCR products were purified and sequenced. From the amplified fragment of 721-bp, a region of 423 bp after excluding a central region rich in tandem repeats was analyzed. Within all tested breeds, the haplotype diversity and average number of pairwise differences were 0.97571 and 7.01484, respectively. The genetic distances (D) and the aver...

  6. The golden section, secrets of the Egyptian civilization and harmony mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakhov, Alexey [International Club of the Golden Section, 6 McCreary Trail, Bolton, Ont., L7E 2C8 (Canada)]. E-mail: goldenmuseum@rogers.com

    2006-10-15

    The main goal of the present article is to consider the harmony mathematics from the point of view of the sacral geometry and to show how it can be used in this field. We also consider some secrets of the Egyptian civilization that have relation to the golden section and platonic solids. Briefly, this is considered to be the main concepts involved in harmony mathematics and its application to the sacral geometry. (Religiousness of a scientist is in his enthusiastic worship for laws of harmony. Albert Einstein)

  7. Genetic distance and heterogenecity between quasispecies is a critical predictor to IFN response in Egyptian patients with HCV genotype-4

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    Fouad Inas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV is one of the major health problems in Egypt, where it is highly prevalent. Genotype 4 is the most common genotype of HCV and its response to treatment is still a controversy. Methods HCV genotype 4 quasispecies diversity within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR was studied in a series of 22 native Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus with no previous treatment who satisfied all NIH criteria for combined treatment of pegylated IFN and ribavirine and was correlated with the outcome of treatment. The study also included 7 control patients with no antiviral treatment. HCV sequencing was done using the TRUGENE HCV 5-NC genotyping kit. Results At the 48th week of treatment, 15 patients (68% showed virological response. Whereas HCV-RNA was still detected in 7 patients (32% in this period; of those, 6 experienced a partial virological response followed by viral breakthrough during treatment. Only one patient did not show any virological or chemical response. The four females included in this study were all responders. There was a significant correlation between the response rate and lower fibrosis (p = 0.026 as well as the total number of mutation spots (including all the insertions, deletions, transitions and transversions (p = 0.007, p = 0.035. Conclusion Patients who responded to interferon treatment had statistically significant less number in both transitions (p = 0.007 and the genetic distances between the quasispecies (p = 0.035. So, viral genetic complexity and variability may play a role in the response to IFN treatment. The consensus alignment of all three groups revealed no characteristic pattern among the three groups. However, the G to A transitions at 160 was observed among non responders who need further study to confirm this observation.

  8. Sorption-desorption of imidacloprid onto a lacustrine Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Mahrous M; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Koskinen, William C

    2015-01-01

    Sorption-desorption of the insecticide imidacloprid 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine onto a lacustrine sandy clay loam Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid (HA) fractions was investigated in 24-h batch equilibrium experiments. Imidacloprid (IMDA) sorption-desorption isotherms onto the three sorbents were found to belong to a non-linear L-type and were best described by the Freundlich model. The value of the IMDA adsorption distribution coefficient, Kd(ads), varied according to its initial concentration and was ranged 40-84 for HA, 14-58 for clay and 1.85-4.15 for bulk soil. Freundlich sorption coefficient, Kf(ads), values were 63.0, 39.7 and 4.0 for HA, clay and bulk soil, respectively. The normalized soil Koc value for imidacloprid sorption was ∼800 indicating its slight mobility in soils. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were indicated by 1/n(ads) values imidacloprid sorption process with all tested sorbents. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) values indicated a spontaneous and physicosorption process for IMDA and a more favorable sorption to HA than clay and soil. In conclusion, although the humic acid fraction showed the highest capacity and affinity for imidacloprid sorption, the clay fraction contributed to approximately 95% of soil-sorbed insecticide. Clay and humic acid fractions were found to be the major two factors controlling IMDA sorption in soils. The slight mobility of IMDA in soils and the hysteresis phenomenon associated with the irreversibility of its sorption onto, mainly, clay and organic matter of soils make its leachability unlikely to occur.

  9. Leptin, insulin and thyroid hormones in a cohort of Egyptian obese Down syndrome children: a comparative study

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    Yahia Sohier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. It is commonly observed in Down syndrome individuals than in the general population. The reason for increased risk of obesity in DS is unclear. The current study was designed to clarify differences in some obesity- related hormones in a group of prepubertal Down syndrome children. Methods Thirty six Egyptian children with Down syndrome were enrolled in this study, divided according to their body mass index (BMI into 23 obese and13 non obese. Another group of 43 non Down children were recruited, they were divided according to their BMI into 20 patients having simple obesity and 23 non obese, as control groups. Fasting blood samples were collected for estimation of fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin, leptin, free thyroxin (FT4, thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH and creatine kinase (CK. Insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostasis Model Assessment method (HOMA-IR. The ratio of leptin to BMI (LEP/BMI was used as an index of leptin resistance. Results Median values of FBG, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in Down versus non Down groups, while median values of leptin and leptin resistance were non-significantly different among Down versus non Down groups. Median TSH values were non- significantly different between obese Down and obese non Down. Although the median values of TSH and FT4 were within normal range in Down groups, four cases of subclinical hypothyroidism were encountered. Leptin levels were correlated with insulin and IR but not with TSH in Down groups. Conclusion Increased circulating leptin, a marker of leptin resistance in obese children with Down syndrome seems to be similar to that in children with simple obesity. Elevated FBG and insulin in obese Down children highlights the presence of early IR. Associated myopathy evidenced by mildly elevated CK levels could be an added factor for obesity in such group of patients.

  10. Non-destructive and in situ analysis of Egyptian wall paintings by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence portable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pages-Camagna, S.; Laval, E.; Vigears, D.; Duran, A. [Palais du Louvre, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Paris (France)

    2010-09-15

    The concurrence and complementarities of obtained images under various wavelengths and the elemental and structural analyses provided by XRF and XRD, using portable non-invasive systems, have allowed for obtaining accurate data about the employed pictorial technique in two Egyptian wall paintings dating from the New Kingdom. Thus, compounds such as Egyptian blue, Egyptian green, goethite, jarosite, hematite, calcite, anhydrite or huntite have been detected in the paintings. The performance of the measurements by the different techniques and its contribution to the knowledge of the materials are discussed. They notably give a clue on the origin of arsenic compounds, unexpectedly detected in some decors. (orig.)

  11. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources.

  12. Anatomical and histological data on the ciliary ganglion in the Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus Desmarest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Elzbieta; Kuder, Tadeusz; Szczurkowski, Aleksander; Kuchinka, Jacek

    2004-08-01

    The morphology and topography of the ciliary ganglion in the Egyptian spiny mouse were studied with use of histochemical and histological techniques. The ciliary ganglion of the Egyptian spiny mouse consisted of between 3 and 4 agglomerations of nerve cells. The largest was situated at the point where the ventral branch of the oculomotor nerve divides into two branches. The next two smaller aggregations were located on the superior and lateral surfaces of the optic nerve where it crossed the oculomotor nerve. From the main agglomerations of neurocytes arose between 3 and 4 intensively stained postganglionic cholinergic fibres. These followed the optic nerve to the eyeball. On the cross-sections of these bundles small agglomerations of neurocytes were observed. These decreased in size to only 2 or 3 cells towards the sclera. The ganglionic neurocytes in the largest ganglion varied from 15 to 30 microm in diameter. They were distributed uniformly over the whole surface of the sections. All the ganglia had connective capsules.

  13. The Lexical Knowledge and Avoidance of Phrasal Verbs: The Case of Egyptian Learners of English

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    Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in different parts of the world have highlighted that phrasal verbs constitute a learning difficulty for English language learners despite their confirmed significance and high productivity in English. Proposed explanations include cross-linguistic differences, the complex nature of phrasal verbs, low language proficiency and psychological factors. The present study examines this difficulty among an Arabic-speaking population of Egyptian undergraduates in a foreign language context. To this end, a total of 407 Egyptian undergraduates in a private English-medium university completed a paraphrase task, two gap-filling tasks and a survey. The results confirm the difficulty highlighted in earlier studies, particularly at the production level. The results also show that the under-representation of phrasal verbs in the participants’ production can be interpreted in terms of cross-linguistic differences, passive learning for comprehension and limited language exposure. The study thus supports a multi-faceted model for the explanation of the limited use of phrasal verbs by English language learners, and calls for a revision of the English language teaching programs in Egypt.  Keywords: phrasal verbs, lexical knowledge, avoidance, vocabulary studies, contrastive linguistics

  14. Stripping the boss: the powerful role of humor in the Egyptian Revolution 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Mohamed M; Frerichs, Sabine

    2013-12-01

    The Egyptian Revolution 2011 has shaken the Arab world and stirred up Middle-East politics. Moreover, it caused a rush in political science and the neighboring disciplines, which had not predicted an event like this and now have troubles explaining it. While many things can be learned from the popular uprising, and from the limitations of previous scholarship, our focus will be on a moral resource, which has occasionally been noticed, but not sufficiently explored: the role of humor in keeping up the spirit of the Revolution. For 18 days, protestors persevered at Liberation Square in Central Cairo, the epicenter of resistance; at times a few dozens, at times hundreds of thousands. What they did was to fight the terror of the regime, which reached absurd peaks during those days, with humor-successfully. We offer a social-functionalist account of the uprising, which includes behavioral as well as cultural levels of analysis, and illuminates how humorous means helped to achieve deadly serious goals. By reconstructing how Egyptians laughed themselves into democracy, we outline a social psychology of resistance, which uses humor both as a sword and a shield.

  15. Talus measurements as a diagnostic tool for sexual dimorphism in Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-elaleem, Shereen Abd-elhakim; Abd-elhameed, Mostafa; Ewis, Ashraf Abd-elazeem

    2012-02-01

    Measurements of talus have been shown to be sexually dimorphic in South African blacks and whites and Prehistoric New Zealand Polynesians. Since several studies have demonstrated that discriminant function equations used to determine the sex of a skeleton are population specific, the purpose of the present study was to derive similar equation for the tali of Egyptians. The sample consisted of 110 tali (67 male & 43 female) whose age at death ranged between 20 and 60 years. The tali were obtained from Anatomy departments of Minia and Cairo Universities and also from Forensic Medicine department of Justice Office in Minia governates - Egypt. Twelve measurements were taken for every talus. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. All measurements showed significant sexual differences (P < 0.05) except calcaneus articular surface width and navicular articular surfaced width. Talar length was found to be the most sexual dimorphic (90.9%). Combination of talar length, talar width and neck width gave a percentage of accuracy of 85.5%. Finally, it is concluded that the talus of Egyptian population is useful for sex estimation.

  16. Analysis of oxidative stress status, catalase and catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphisms in Egyptian vitiligo patients.

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    Dina A Mehaney

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin. Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the probable events involved in vitiligo pathogenesis possibly contributing to melanocyte destruction. Evidence indicates that certain genes including those involved in oxidative stress and melanin synthesis are crucial for development of vitiligo. This study evaluates the oxidative stress status, the role of catalase (CAT and catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms in the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptians. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA levels as well as CAT exon 9 T/C and COMT 158 G/A polymorphisms were determined in 89 patients and 90 age and sex-matched controls. Our results showed significantly lower TAC along with higher MDA levels in vitiligo patients compared with controls. Meanwhile, genotype and allele distributions of CAT and COMT polymorphisms in cases were not significantly different from those of controls. Moreover, we found no association between both polymorphisms and vitiligo susceptibility. In conclusion, the enhanced oxidative stress with the lack of association between CAT and COMT polymorphisms and susceptibility to vitiligo in our patients suggest that mutations in other genes related to the oxidative pathway might contribute to the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptian population.

  17. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus in egyptian patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Samar Samir; Nasr, Aml S; El Zanaty, Taher; El Rawi, Rasha Sayed; Mattar, Mervat M

    2012-01-01

    Background. Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) was identified as a new form of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), characterized by undetectable HCV antibodies and HCV RNA in serum, while HCV RNA is detectable in liver and peripheral blood cells only. Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of OCI in Egyptian patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) and to compare its prevalence with that of HCV in those patients. Subjects and Methods. The current study included 100 subjects, 50 of them were newly diagnosed cases having different lymphoproliferative disorders (patients group), and 50 were apparently healthy volunteers (controls group). HCV antibodies were detected by ELISA, HCV RNA was detected in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), and HCV genotype was detected by INNO-LiPA. Results. OCI was detected in 20% of patients group, compared to only 4% OCI in controls group. HCV was detected in 26% of patients group with a slightly higher prevalence. There was a male predominance in both HCV and OCI. All HCV positive patients were genotype 4. Conclusion. Our data revealed occurrence of occult HCV infection in Egyptian LPD patients at a prevalence of 20% compared to 26% of HCV.

  18. Prevalence of Occult Hepatitis C Virus in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disorders

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    Samar Samir Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI was identified as a new form of Hepatitis C virus (HCV, characterized by undetectable HCV antibodies and HCV RNA in serum, while HCV RNA is detectable in liver and peripheral blood cells only. Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of OCI in Egyptian patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs and to compare its prevalence with that of HCV in those patients. Subjects and Methods. The current study included 100 subjects, 50 of them were newly diagnosed cases having different lymphoproliferative disorders (patients group, and 50 were apparently healthy volunteers (controls group. HCV antibodies were detected by ELISA, HCV RNA was detected in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR, and HCV genotype was detected by INNO-LiPA. Results. OCI was detected in 20% of patients group, compared to only 4% OCI in controls group. HCV was detected in 26% of patients group with a slightly higher prevalence. There was a male predominance in both HCV and OCI. All HCV positive patients were genotype 4. Conclusion. Our data revealed occurrence of occult HCV infection in Egyptian LPD patients at a prevalence of 20% compared to 26% of HCV.

  19. Combined FT-Raman spectroscopic and mass spectrometric study of ancient Egyptian sarcophagal fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Stern, Ben; Villar, Susana E Jorge; David, A Rosalie

    2007-02-01

    The application of combined Raman spectroscopic and GC-MS analytical techniques for the characterisation of organic varnish residues from Egyptian Dynastic funerary sarcophagal and cartonnage fragments from the Graeco-Roman period, ca. 2200 BP, is described. The nondestructive use of Raman spectroscopy was initially employed to derive information about the specific location of organic material on the specimens, which were then targeted in specific areas using minimal sampling for GC-MS analysis. In the case of the sarcophagal fragment, a degraded yellow-brown surface treatment was identified as a Pistacia spp. resin; this provides additional evidence for the use of this resin, which has previously been identified in Canaanite transport amphorae, varnishes and "incense" bowls in an Egyptian Late Bronze Age archaeological context. The cartonnage fragment also contained an organic coating for which the Raman spectrum indicated a degradation that was too severe to facilitate identification, but the GC-MS data revealed that it was composed of a complex mixture of fatty acid residues. The combined use of GC-MS and Raman spectroscopy for the characterisation of organic materials in an archaeological context is advocated for minimisation of sampling and restriction to specifically identified targets for museum archival specimens.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic hepatitis C virus infection in Egyptian children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MS El-Raziky; H El-Karaksy; M El-Hawary; G Esmat; AM Abouzied; N El-Koofy; N Mohsen; S Mansour; A Shaheen; M Abdel Hamid

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To identify the prevalence,risk factors and manifestations of asymptomatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Egyptian children.METHODS:Children at the age of 1-9 years were screened for HCV antibodies and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Every child with elevated ALT and/or detectable HCV antibodies was tested for HCV RNA by RT-PCR and compared with two negative controls for risk factors and signs and symptoms of liver disease.RESULTS:We screened 1042 children,six of them had elevated ALT,negative HCV antibody and positive RNA,likely representing acute hepatitis C cases. Fifteen children were HCV seropositive,5 of them were HCV RNA positive. Asymptomatic HCV infection was present in 2.02% (positive results for either HCV antibodies or HCV-RNA or both). Symptoms such as diarrhea,abdominal pain,history of fatigue and school absence because of illness and risk factors such as dental care were significantly more common among HCV positive cases than among controls. None of the HCV positive children was diagnosed as having signs of advanced liver disease upon clinical or ultrasonographic examination.CONCLUSION:Asymptomatic HCV infection is detectable in 2.02% Egyptian children.

  1. CAG repeat length in androgen receptor gene and male infertility in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Y M; Shahin, D; Elkholy, A A-M; Mosbah, A; Badawy, W

    2012-02-01

    The CAG repeat and its association with infertility has been debatable. Therefore, this study was planned to assess the distribution of CAG repeat expansion in Egyptian patients and to investigate its association with male infertility. Forty-five infertile men were eligible for the study in addition to 20 aged-matched fertile males as control. Semen analysis, scrotal sonography, assay of serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH), and determination of the CAG repeat number within exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene were carried out. Statistically significant difference was found between infertile and control groups regarding sperm count, sperm motility, serum FSH level and CAG repeats (P CAG repeats (P = 1.0) was found between oligozoospermic and asthenospermic groups; negative correlation was found between CAG repeat length and sperm count, and a positive correlation was found between CAG repeat length and serum FSH (P CAG repeat may be associated with lower AR function with derangement of sperm production, and this may contribute to male infertility in Egyptian men.

  2. Consultation for Small-Sized Penis in the Egyptian Males: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Nader

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in adult Egyptian males consulting for small-sized penis (SSP) and describe their demographics and andrological profile. A case control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of patients (n = 239) seeking advice for SSP and a control group (n = 59). This included sociodemographics, other andrological complaints, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], penopubic or total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states and the size of the prepubic fatty pad. The results reported that most patients were single, students, and smokers and had not completed a university education. Several patients reported falsely premature ejaculation (PE), penile curvature (PC), and small-sized testes. Most penile dimensions of the patients (mean, cm) were significantly lower than those of the controls, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.4 vs. 8.05, p = .008; CF: 8.7 vs. 8.98, p = .026) or erect state (PL: 11.8 vs. 13, p = .000; TL: 14.2 vs. 15, p = .000; CF: 11.3 vs. 11.8, p = .003). However, no patient presented with a pendulous penile length <4 cm in flaccid or <7 cm in erect state. In conclusion, Egyptian men consulting for SSP did not have true small organs, but their penile dimensions were slightly smaller than those of men without such complaint. The proper sexual education program is highly advisable in these situations to avoid the myths and misconceptions about sexuality.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 in Egyptian patients with systemic lupus eythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, R M; Alrefaey, S A; Bassyouni, I H; Ashour, M E; Raouf, A A

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease. Cytokine gene polymorphisms play an important role in SLE. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the associations between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their susceptibility to SLE and the implications for plasma levels. We genotyped IL-6-174G/C (rs1800795) using mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and IL-10-1082G/A (rs1800896) and -819C/T (rs1800871) using sequence specific primer polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) in 100 Egyptian patients and 119 controls. The plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was significant increase in the frequency of IL-6 (-174) GG genotype (P IL-10 (-1082G/A) GG (P IL-10 (P IL-10 gene polymorphisms in SLE patients. In conclusion, our preliminary study indicated that both GG genotype and G allele of IL-6 (-174G/C) could be considered as risk factors for SLE. In addition, the polymorphisms at IL-10 (-1082 G/G and AA) may play a role in SLE susceptibility in Egyptian patients. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR EGYPTIAN ARABIC PHONE CONVERSATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Romanenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with description of several speech recognition systems for the Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. The research is based on the CALLHOME Egyptian corpus. The description of both systems, classic: based on Hidden Markov and Gaussian Mixture Models, and state-of-the-art: deep neural network acoustic models is given. We have demonstrated the contribution from the usage of speaker-dependent bottleneck features; for their extraction three extractors based on neural networks were trained. For their training three datasets in several languageswere used:Russian, English and differentArabic dialects.We have studied the possibility of application of a small Modern Standard Arabic (MSA corpus to derive phonetic transcriptions. The experiments have shown that application of the extractor obtained on the basis of the Russian dataset enables to increase significantly the quality of the Arabic speech recognition. We have also stated that the usage of phonetic transcriptions based on modern standard Arabic decreases recognition quality. Nevertheless, system operation results remain applicable in practice. In addition, we have carried out the study of obtained models application for the keywords searching problem solution. The systems obtained demonstrate good results as compared to those published before. Some ways to improve speech recognition are offered.

  5. Essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants as antioxidant and novel anticancer agents in human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, M. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of tumor growth using extracts from aromatic plants are rapidly emerging as important new drug candidates for cancer therapy. The cytotoxicity and in vitro anticancer evaluation of the essential oils from thyme, juniper and clove has been assessed against five different human cancer cell lines (liver HepG2, breast MCF-7, prostate PC3, colon HCT116 and lung A549. A GC/MS analysis revealed that α-pinene, thymol and eugenol are the major components of Egyptian juniper, thyme and clove oils with concentrations of 31.19%, 79.15% and 82.71%, respectively. Strong antioxidant profiles of all the oils are revealed in vitro by DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that clove oil was similarly potent to the reference drug, doxorubicin in prostate, colon and lung cell lines. Thyme oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in breast and lung cell lines while juniper oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in all the tested cancer cell lines except prostate cancer. In conclusion, the essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants can be used as good candidates for novel therapeutic strategies for cancer as they possess significant anticancer activity.Los inhibidores de crecimiento de tumores usando extractos de plantas aromáticas están emergiendo con rapidez como nuevos e importantes medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer. La citotoxicidad y la acción anticancerígena in vitro de aceites esenciales de tomillo, enebro y clavo han sido evaluadas en cinco líneas celulares de cáncer humano (hígado HepG2, mama MCF-7, próstata PC3, colon HCT116 y pulmón A549. Los análisis de GC/MS mostraron que α-pineno, timol y eugenol son los principales componentes de los aceites egipcios de enebro, tomillo y clavo, con concentraciones de 31,19%, 79,15% y 82,71%, respectivamente. Se demuestra, mediante ensayos in vitro de blanqueo de DPPH y β-caroteno, el enérgico perfil antioxidante de todos los aceites. Los resultados

  6. The Egyptian Web Logs as an Information Resource with a Special Indication to Library and Librarian's Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayma' Ismael Abbas Ismael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An article is discussing The Egyptian Web Logs ,library blogs and librarian's blogs at the world wide web as one of information electronic sources so this article is answering on some questions. what is conception of blogs?, What is historic development and origin of blogs?, What are reasons to fame and spread blogs between internet employees ?, what is blogging software to create blog?, what is directory and search engine of blogs?, what is characteristics of successful blogs? and concentrates on Egyptian weblogs, what is the most famous Egyptian blogs in the world wide web ? and refer to relationship between the Egyptian weblogs and policy. and special indication to blogs in library and information science which include library blogs and librarian's blogs. this article also is answering on some questions about library blogs and librarian's blogs. what is meaning of library blogs and librarian's blogs? what is purposes and aims of library blogs and librarian's blogs? what is directory of library blogs and librarian's blogs? Are there sorts of library blogs and librarian's blogs? and What are examples of library blogs and librarian's blogs available at the world wide?. to give overview about this electronic source at all its parts.

  7. "IREP EN KEMET" Wine of Ancient Egypt: Documenting the Viticulture and Winemaking Scenes in the Egyptian Tombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Jané, M. R.; Fonseca, S.; Ibrahim, M.

    2013-07-01

    Presented are the research objectives of the project "Irep en Kemet", Wine of Ancient Egypt, and the content of the project's website. This research aims at documenting the complete corpus of wine in ancient Egypt and analysing the data (iconography, textual sources and artefacts) to unveil the importance of the ancient Egyptian wine culture legacy in the Mediterranean region. At this stage, a bibliographical researchable database relevant to wine, viticulture and winemaking in the ancient Egypt has been completed, with 197 entries including articles, books, chapters in book, academic thesis (PhD and MA), essay, abstracts, on-line articles and websites. Moreover, a scene-detail database for the viticulture and winemaking scenes in the Egyptian private tombs has been recorded with 97 entries, some of them unpublished, and the collected data is under study. The titles of the tombs' owners and the texts related to the scenes will be also recorded. A photographic survey of the graves containing images related with viticulture and winemaking will be carried out in order to have the most accurate information on the location and stage of conservation of those images. Our main goal is to provide scholars with a complete, comprehensive archaeological and bibliographical database for the scenes of viticulture and winemaking depicted in the Egyptian private tombs throughout the ancient Egyptian history. The project's website (http://www.wineofancientegypt.com) will include all the collected data, the study and analysis, the project's history and team members, publications as well as the results of our research.

  8. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan [CID (CDIC), Biological Organic Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author).

  9. The association of polymorphic sites in some genes with type 1 diabetes mellitus in a sample of Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Kafoury

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The IL-18 SNP-137 G>C (rs#187238, VDR SNP-Fok1 T>A (rs#2228570, and the SNP-1123 C>G (rs#2488457 in PTPN22 gene may have an effect on the occurrence of T1DM in Egyptian children. Further large-scale, population-based, case-control studies are needed.

  10. A new species of Neyraia Joyeux et Timon-David, 1934 (Cestoda: Dilepididae) from the Egyptian wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, A; Lewis, J; Ahmed, S E

    1994-08-01

    A new species of the genus Neyraia Joyeux et Timon-David, 1934 is described from Egyptian wild birds; Neyraia epops from the hoopoe Upupa epops. The new species is compared and with the other related species of the genus. The erection of the new species was based primarily on differences in the number of testes and number of the rostellar hooks.

  11. Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction for Developing Speaking Proficiency and Reducing Speaking Anxiety of Egyptian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sakka, Samah Mohammed Fahim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching some self-regulated strategies to Egyptian university students on improving their speaking proficiency and reducing their speaking anxiety. The design of the study was a one group pre-posttest quasi experimental design. Forty 3rd- year EFL university students were selected to form the…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Egyptian School Nurses' Attitudes and Experiences toward Sex and Relationship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Shewikar; Hayter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    School nurses play a vital role in the promotion of sexual health. However, there is very limited evidence of how school nurses experience this topic in an Islamic cultural setting. Using an exploratory qualitative design, 13 in-depth interviews were conducted with Egyptian school nurses. Data were subject to thematic analysis. Four themes emerged…

  13. Natural radioactivity and chemical concentrations in Egyptian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rafat M; Khalil, F A; El Fayoumi, M A K

    2011-02-01

    Measurements of natural radioactivity in drinking water have been performed in many parts of the world, mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. A study of the radionuclide and chemical components in groundwater from Beni Suef Governate, Egypt has been carried out. Fifty water samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectroscopy to determine the 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K concentrations; major elements, pH, alkalinity, and conductivity were also measured. The specific activity values ranged from 0.008 to 0.040 Bq/l for 226Ra, from 0.003 to 0.019 Bq/l for 232Th, and from 0.025 to 0.344 Bq/l for 40K. The annual ingestions of these radionuclides, using local consumption rates (average over the whole population) of 1.5 l day(-1), were estimated to be 8.59, 4.86, and 83.47 Bq year(-1) for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The estimated values and weighted means of these radionuclides compare well with the world average. The estimated effective doses from drinking water were found to be 2.4 μSv year(-1) (226Ra), 1.1 μSv year(-1) (232Th), and 0.51 μSv year(-1) (40K). Contribution of these radionuclides to the committed effective dose from 1 year consumption of drinking water is estimated to be only 4%.

  14. Dominique-Jean Larrey, chief surgeon of the French Army with Napoleon in Egypt: notes and observations on Larrey's medical memoirs based on the Egyptian campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary Mendenhall

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Dominique-Jean Larrey wrote memoirs of 12 diseases he encountered while serving as chief surgeon of the French army during Napoleon's Egyptian campaign. He describes symptoms and treatments, evaluates remedies used by the Egyptians, and the effects of the climate. Of interest are his original though misguided explanations of causes of sickness or complications from wounds as well as descriptions of medications--now known to be dangerous--but all balanced by his common sense and efforts to ameliorate suffering.

  15. Morphometric study of sacral hiatus in adult human Egyptian sacra: Their significance in caudal epidural anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reliability and success of caudal epidural anesthesia depends on anatomic variations of sacral hiatus (SH as observed by various authors. SH is an important landmark during caudal epidural block (CEB.The purpose of the present study was to clarify the morphometric characteristics of the SH in human Egyptian dry sacra and pelvic radiographs and identification of nearest ony landmarks to permit correct and uncomplicated caudal epidural accesses. Methods: The present study was done on 46 human adult Egyptian dry sacra. The maximum height, midventral curved length, and maximum breadth of each sacrum were measured and sacral and curvature indices were calculated. According to sacral indices, sacra were divided into 2 groups (22 male and 24 female sacra. SH was evaluated in each sacrum according to its shape, level of its apex, and base according to sacral and coccygeal vertebrae, length, anteroposterior (AP diameter at its apex, and transverse width at its base. Linear distances were measured between the apex of SH and second sacral foramina, right and left superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the 2 superolateral sacral crests also was measured. Results: The most common types of SH were the inverted U and inverted V (in male and inverted V and dumbbell shaped (in female. Absent SH was observed in male group only. The most common location of SH apex was at the level of S4 in all groups of dry sacra and S3 in all groups of lumbosacral spine radiographs, whereas S5 was the common level of its base. The mean SH length, transverse width of its base, and AP diameter of its apex were 2.1±0.80, 1.7±0.26, and 0.48±0.19 cm. Female sacra showed narrower SH apex than male. The distance between the S2 foramen and the apex of the SH was 4.1±1.14, 3.67±1.21, and 4.48±1.01 cm in total, female and male sacra, respectively. Conclusion: Sacrum and SH showed morphometric variations in adult Egyptians. The equilateral triangle is an

  16. The ancient Egyptian civilization: maximum and minimum in coincidence with solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.

    It is proved from the last 22 years observations of the total solar irradiance (TSI) from space by artificial satellites, that TSI shows negative correlation with the solar activity (sunspots, flares, and 10.7cm Radio emissions) from day to day, but shows positive correlations with the same activity from year to year (on the base of the annual average for each of them). Also, the solar constant, which estimated fromth ground stations for beam solar radiations observations during the 20 century indicate coincidence with the phases of the 11- year cycles. It is known from sunspot observations (250 years) , and from C14 analysis, that there are another long-term cycles for the solar activity larger than 11-year cycle. The variability of the total solar irradiance affecting on the climate, and the Nile flooding, where there is a periodicities in the Nile flooding similar to that of solar activity, from the analysis of about 1300 years of the Nile level observations atth Cairo. The secular variations of the Nile levels, regularly measured from the 7 toth 15 century A.D., clearly correlate with the solar variations, which suggests evidence for solar influence on the climatic changes in the East African tropics The civilization of the ancient Egyptian was highly correlated with the Nile flooding , where the river Nile was and still yet, the source of the life in the Valley and Delta inside high dry desert area. The study depends on long -time historical data for Carbon 14 (more than five thousands years), and chronical scanning for all the elements of the ancient Egyptian civilization starting from the firs t dynasty to the twenty six dynasty. The result shows coincidence between the ancient Egyptian civilization and solar activity. For example, the period of pyramids building, which is one of the Brilliant periods, is corresponding to maximum solar activity, where the periods of occupation of Egypt by Foreign Peoples corresponding to minimum solar activity. The decline

  17. Brain aging in normal Egyptians: cognition, education, personality, genetic and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Osamah; Madkour, Obsis; Elwan, Fadia; Mostafa, Mervat; Abbas Helmy, Azza; Abdel-Naseer, Maged; Abdel Shafy, Sanaa; El Faiuomy, Nervana

    2003-07-15

    Studying the cognitive and immunological changes that occur in old age as well as genetic function have been considered an important subject to differentiate between normal brain aging and early dementia especially Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to stress on age-related neuropsychological and electrophysiological (P(300)) changes in normal Egyptian subjects, to throw light on the value of genetic (Apo-E(4) genotype) and immunological markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) in the serum] as tools used in early detection of cognitive decline in cerebral aging. Ninety-four normal Egyptian subjects (below and above 60 years) were submitted to the following: (1) neuropsychological tests for testing memory, perception, psychomotor performance and attention, (2) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality traits, (3) event-related potential study (P(300), latency and amplitude), (4) genetic test for detection of Apolipoprotein E genotype and (5) immunological studies including detection of the level of IL-6 and ICAM-1 in serum. There was a significant impairment of memory, psychomotor performance and perception in elderly subjects particularly males and subjects with low level of education. Regarding personality, significantly high scores were obtained in neuroticism scale of EPQ in elderly subjects. Apo-E(3)/E(3) was the most common genotype encountered in Egyptian subjects (49.1%). It was found that subjects with Apo-E(4) genotype did significantly worse in scores of intentional memory test (sensory memory) when compared with other genotypes. Statistically significant impairment in attention and sensory memory was found in subjects with high IL-6 level. This could not be detected in subjects with high ICAM-1 level. In conclusion, advancing age and lower levels of education are considered risk factors for cognitive decline in normal brain aging. Neuropsychological tests remain as the highly sensitive tools

  18. Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ashker, Maged R

    2011-06-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK horses with overt clinical signs and plasma CK >100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p stress in renal injury associated with severe rhabdomyolysis in horses. It is suggested that exaggeration of oxidative stress associated with increased muscle membrane leakage plays a key role in acute kidney injury in Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis.

  19. THE REVOLUTION AND THE MILITARY. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EGYPTIAN AND IRAQI REVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Alexandru CUCUT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to assess the role the military plays in revolutions. The first part of the study focuses on the manner in which the competing theories of revolutions try to explain and accommodate the military’s participation in revolutions, attempting to show that the limits of these theoretical enterprises call for a renewed research into the subject at hand. The second part of the paper tries to build a conceptual model, starting from the hypotheses of Charles Tilly, Samuel Huntington and Mehran Kamrava, tested on two particular cases – that of the 1958 Egyptian Revolution and that of the 1958 Iraqi Revolution that can better account for the military’s participation in revolutions and explain when does the military become a revolutionary force and what are the characteristics of revolutions in which the military plays a key-role.

  20. Lack of Marburg Virus Transmission From Experimentally Infected to Susceptible In-Contact Egyptian Fruit Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Fenton, Karla A; Graves, Kerry; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Moolla, Naazneen; Leman, Patricia; Weyer, Jacqueline; Storm, Nadia; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Markotter, Wanda; Odendaal, Lieza; Clift, Sarah J; Geisbert, Thomas W; Hale, Martin J; Kemp, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were inoculated subcutaneously (n = 22) with Marburg virus (MARV). No deaths, overt signs of morbidity, or gross lesions was identified, but microscopic pathological changes were seen in the liver of infected bats. The virus was detected in 15 different tissues and plasma but only sporadically in mucosal swab samples, urine, and fecal samples. Neither seroconversion nor viremia could be demonstrated in any of the in-contact susceptible bats (n = 14) up to 42 days after exposure to infected bats. In bats rechallenged (n = 4) on day 48 after infection, there was no viremia, and the virus could not be isolated from any of the tissues tested. This study confirmed that infection profiles are consistent with MARV replication in a reservoir host but failed to demonstrate MARV transmission through direct physical contact or indirectly via air. Bats develop strong protective immunity after infection with MARV.

  1. Modelling filovirus maintenance in nature by experimental transmission of Marburg virus between Egyptian rousette bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Amy J.; Amman, Brian R.; Jones, Megan E. B.; Sealy, Tara K.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Spengler, Jessica R.; Martin, Brock E.; Coleman-McCray, Jo Ann D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2017-01-01

    The Egyptian rousette bat (ERB) is a natural reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV); however, the mechanisms by which MARV is transmitted bat-to-bat and to other animals are unclear. Here we co-house MARV-inoculated donor ERBs with naive contact ERBs. MARV shedding is detected in oral, rectal and urine specimens from inoculated bats from 5–19 days post infection. Simultaneously, MARV is detected in oral specimens from contact bats, indicating oral exposure to the virus. In the late study phase, we provide evidence that MARV can be horizontally transmitted from inoculated to contact ERBs by finding MARV RNA in blood and oral specimens from contact bats, followed by MARV IgG antibodies in these same bats. This study demonstrates that MARV can be horizontally transmitted from inoculated to contact ERBs, thereby providing a model for filovirus maintenance in its natural reservoir host and a potential mechanism for virus spillover to other animals. PMID:28194016

  2. Oral shedding of Marburg virus in experimentally infected Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amman, Brian R; Jones, Megan E B; Sealy, Tara K; Uebelhoer, Luke S; Schuh, Amy J; Bird, Brian H; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2015-01-01

    Marburg virus (Marburg marburgvirus; MARV) causes sporadic outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in Africa. The Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) has been identified as a natural reservoir based most-recently on the repeated isolation of MARV directly from bats caught at two locations in southwestern Uganda where miners and tourists separately contracted MHF from 2007-08. Despite learning much about the ecology of MARV through extensive field investigations, there remained unanswered questions such as determining the primary routes of virus shedding and the severity of disease, if any, caused by MARV in infected bats. To answer these questions and others, we experimentally infected captive-bred R. aegyptiacus with MARV under high (biosafety level 4) containment. These experiments have shown infection profiles consistent with R. aegyptiacus being a bona fide natural reservoir host for MARV and demonstrated routes of viral shedding capable of infecting humans and other animals.

  3. [The effects of manpower emigration on income distribution and consumption models in the Egyptian economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Fadil, M

    1985-01-01

    This work analyzes the effects of emigration from Egypt on the distribution of income and the consumption model of the Egyptian economy. The increasing role of remittances as a principal source of household income has disturbed the old division of income among socioeconomic groups. It is difficult to estimate the volume of remittances with any precision because of the variety of ways in which they can be made. Official statistics tend to underestimate their value by ignoring black market transactions, remittances of merchandise, and other forms. An estimate was made of the value of remittances in 1980 taking account of wage levels of 5 different types of workers in the principal employing countries, their average propensities to save, and the employment structure of migrants by socioprofessional groups. The average educational level of emigrants appears to have declined somewhat between 1972-78. Average monthly income for emigrants was estimated to range from 792 Egyptian pounds for technical and professional workers to 252 for unskilled workers and the propensity to save was estimated to range from 40% for technical and scientific workers to 15% for unskilled workers. The total income remitted in 1980 in millions of Egyptian pounds was estimated at 912 for 240,000 technical and scienfific workers, 739 for 360,000 intermediate level workers, 415 for 300,000 artisans and workers, 60 for 60,000 chauffeurs, and 109 for 240,000 unskilled workers. Although remittances have elevated the per capita income of the low income groups, their impact has been diminished by severe inflationary pressures which have led to a decline in living levels and a less complete satisfaction of basic needs. Salary levels of construction workers were 7-9 times higher in Egyptian pounds in 1977 in 3 countries of immigration than in Egypt, while they were 7-10 times higher in 4 countries for university professors. Remittances are used by families receiving them for subsistence or investment

  4. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment

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    Mahmoud Elhariri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%. Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment.

  5. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  6. A RISK-AWARE BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT REFERENCE MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION IN AN EGYPTIAN UNIVERSITY

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    Mohamed H. Haggag

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the environmental pressures on organizations, the demand on Business Process Management (BPM automation suites has increased. This led to the arising need for managing process-related risks. Therefore the management of risks in business processes has been the subject of many researches during the past few years. However, most of these researches focused mainly on one or two stages of the BPM life cycle and introduced a support for it. This paper aims to provide a reference model for Risk-Aware BPM which addresses the whole stages of the BPM life cycle, as well as some current techniques are listed for the implementation of this model. Additionally, a case study for a business process in an Egyptian university is introduced, in order to apply this model in real-world environment. The results will be analyzed and concluded.

  7. Genotype characterization of occult hepatitis B virus strains among Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishk, R; Atta, H Aboul; Ragheb, M; Kamel, M; Metwally, L; Nemr, N

    2014-03-13

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection combined with occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been associated with increased risk of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection among Egyptian chronic HCV patients, the genotype and occurrence of surface gene mutations of HBV and the impact of co-infection on early response to treatment. The study enrolled 162 chronic HCV patients from Ismailia Fever Hospital, Egypt, who were HBV surface antigen-negative. All patients were given clinical assessment and biochemical, histological and virological examinations. HBV-DNA was detectable in sera from 3 patients out of the 40 patients who were positive for hepatitis B core antibody. These 3 patients were responsive to combination therapy at treatment week 12; only 1 of them had discontinued therapy by week 24. HBV genotype D was the only detectable genotype in those patients, with absence of "a" determinant mutations among those isolates.

  8. Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-11-01

    Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables.

  9. 3-D reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mummy using X-ray computer tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, C; Hughes, S W; Whittaker, D K; Taylor, J; Davis, R; Spencer, A J; Tonge, K; Sofat, A

    1994-12-01

    Computer tomography has been used to image and reconstruct in 3-D an Egyptian mummy from the collection of the British Museum. This study of Tjentmutengebtiu, a priestess from the 22nd dynasty (945-715 BC) revealed invaluable information of a scientific, Egyptological and palaeopathological nature without mutilation and destruction of the painted cartonnage case or linen wrappings. Precise details on the removal of the brain through the nasal cavity and the viscera from the abdominal cavity were obtained. The nature and composition of the false eyes were investigated. The detailed analysis of the teeth provided a much closer approximation of age at death. The identification of materials used for the various amulets including that of the figures placed in the viscera was graphically demonstrated using this technique.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of thermally aged Egyptian linen dyed with organic natural dyestuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, N.; El-Gaoudy, H.; Varella, E.; Kovala-Demertzi, D.

    2013-08-01

    A number of organic natural dyestuffs used in dyeing in ancient times, i.e. indigo, madder, turmeric, henna, cochineal, saffron and safflower, have been used to colour Egyptian fabrics based on linen. Their physicochemical properties have been evaluated on thermally aged linen samples. The aged dyed linen samples were thoroughly examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile strength and elongation measurements. It was found that, in the molecular level, dyes interact mainly with the cellulose compounds of the aged linen while in the macroscopic level tensile and elongation parameters are altered. Tensile strength is positively related to the dye treatment while elongation depends specifically on the type of the dye used. Results converge that the dyed textiles did indeed play a role as protecting agents affecting strength and reducing thermal deterioration.

  11. Do Egyptian university students eat more or eat less when perceiving stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; El Ansari, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most studies of stress and food choice found that individuals experiencing periods of stress over-ate food items they would customarily avoid, and that they ate these foods to feel better. This study examined perceived stress and food intake behavior of undergraduate university students...... in Egypt. We assessed students’ levels of stress and correlated it with their consumption of a range of food groups. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted among undergraduates in Egypt (N=3.271: response rate: 90%). The questionnaire contained a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ...... vegetables score) than with others (sweet, cookies and snacks score). Increased perceived stress was associated with decreased food intake, and the association was more pronounced in males than in females, suggesting that this sample of Egyptian students ate less across all the food groups we examined when...

  12. External and internal exposure to natural radiations inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M. [National Institute for Standard, Radiation Measurements Department, P.O. Box 136 Giza code no. 12211 (Egypt)]. E-mail: abo_elmgd@hotmail.com; Metwally, S.M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Elmongy, S.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Safety, Cairo (Egypt); Salama, E. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); El-Fiki, S.A. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    Some ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara are closed for visit to undergo fixation processes. The workers inside these tombs exposed to natural radiations from natural Gamma emitters (external exposure) and inhale unknown radon doses (internal exposure) for long periods. The external exposure in all studied tombs is lower than the maximum recommended action level. The internal exposure in terms of annual effective dose in the south tomb is equal to 28.83mSv/year which highly exceed the recommended level (3-10mSv/year). In this tomb, the external exposure is equal to 21.43{mu}Sv/year. This reflects the hazards of radon over the other natural radiations in the closed area. Among the workers inside the studied tombs, the expected morality is equal to 0.0033%, 0.0199% and 0.0724% for the south entrance of Zoser pyramid, the Serapeum tomb, and the south tomb respectively. ctively.

  13. Nonlinear Monetary Policy Rules: An Essay in the Comparative Study on Egyptian and Tunisian Central Banks

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    Yosra Baaziz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of monetary authorities in Tunisia and Egypt, in response to changes in macroeconomic variables over time based on LSTR model. In this sense, we estimate Taylor-type equations for short-term interest rate in Tunisia and Egypt using quarterly data covering the period 1998.Q4–2013.Q2. We find strong evidence that the real decision-making process followed by these central banks varies from one central bank to another and that it exhibits nonlinear patterns that better capture special events and unexpected contingencies i.e., the terrorist attack in the US in September 2001, the global financial crisis in 2008, and the effect of political instability with the onset of the revolution. Additionally, the presence of asymmetries in the reaction function of the Tunisian and Egyptian Bank requires disconnection from their automatic pilot rules and use of judgement to make decisions.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers.

  15. History of cardiac anatomy: a comprehensive review from the Egyptians to today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Youssef, Pamela; Gielecki, Jerzy; Walocha, Jerzy; Natsis, Kostantinos; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-04-01

    The nature, function, and anatomy of the heart have been extensively studied since 3500 B.C. Greek and Egyptian science developed a basic understanding of the heart, although this was primarily related to religious beliefs. During the Hippocratic era, Hippocrates and his colleagues developed a more scientific and less religious understanding of the cardiovascular system. The post-Hippocratic era was characterized by more advanced descriptions of the location, structure, and function of the heart. The Alexandrian, Roman, Medieval Islamic, and European eras included turning points in the history of cardiac anatomy. Subsequently, after the structure and function of the heart were established, its connection with the lungs was investigated. Description of the pulmonary circulation was followed by the discovery of the conductive system and innervation of the heart.

  16. Coquetting Females versus Males of Manners: Critical Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Street Songs

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    Mai Samir El-Falaky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study explores gender differences and the role of the ideological background in portraying the roles of the males and the females. Socio-economic statuses affect the description of gender differences and this is proclaimed within the analysis of a recent phenomenon of poor quality street songs. The study represents a detailed description of male and female relationship, so as to spot the light on the literary and societal implications of this newly propagated genre. The study analyses two common songs spreading among commoners distorting the woman’s image predefined in the Egyptian culture. Negative cultural and societal conceptions are explicitly mentioned about the relation between males and females. Keywords: gender, media representation, discourse analysis

  17. Enlightening the past: analytical proof for the use of Pistacia exudates in ancient Egyptian embalming resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tim M; Gradl, Manuela; Welte, Beatrix; Metzger, Michael; Pusch, Carsten M; Albert, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, isomasticadienonic and masticadienonic acid through the consolidation of NMR and GC/MS analysis. Differences in the observed triterpenoid fingerprints between mummy specimens suggest that more than one plant species served as the triterpenoid resin source. Analysis of the triterpenoid acids of ancient embalming resin samples in the form of their methyl- and trimethylsilyl esters is compared. In addition we show a simple way to differentiate between residues of mastic from its use as incense during embalming or from direct mastic application in the embalming resin.

  18. The Representation of Women in Street Songs: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Mahraganat

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    Mai Samir El-Falaky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the representation of male and female gender identities in Egyptian street songs called Mahraganat. The study discusses the issue with reference to two common songs spreading among young commoners. Since the songs are written by writers who descend from low-standard social group, the analysis exhibits both cultural and societal notions related to how males and females are portrayed in such kind of music. This study attempts to describe how males describe their social group in comparison to the social group to which the women belong. It, thus, constructs the social identity of males and females through the lyrics of this new genre of music.  The findings from such an analysis answer the question about such genre within its social context and the ideologies by which it is dominated reflecting the discursive construction representation of gender and sexual identity. Keywords: gender, identity construction, genre, ideologies

  19. Characteristics of autism spectrum disorders in a sample of egyptian and saudi patients: transcultural cross sectional study

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    Hussein Hanan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a biological disorder with clearly defined phenomenology. Studies from the Middle East on this topic have been particularly rare. Little is known about the influence of culture on clinical features, presentations and management of autism. The current study was done to compare characteristics of autism in two groups of Egyptian as well as Saudi children. Methods The sample included 48 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. They were recruited from the Okasha Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were grouped into an Egyptian group (n = 20 and a Saudi group (n = 28. They were assessed both clinically and psychometrically using the GARS, the Vineland adaptive behavioral scale, and the Stanford Binnet IQ test. Results Typical autism was more prevalent than atypical autism in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical variables like regression, hyperactivity, epilepsy or mental retardation. Delayed language development was significantly higher in the Egyptian group while delay in all developmental milestones was more significant in the Saudi group. The Vineland communication subscale showed more significant severe and profound communication defects in the Saudi group while the Gilliam developmental subscale showed significantly more average scores in the Egyptian group. Both groups differed significantly such that the age of noticing abnormality was younger in the Saudi group. The age at diagnosis and at the commencement of intervention was lower in the Egyptian group. The Saudi group showed a higher percentage of missing examinations, older birth order and significantly higher preference to drug treatment, while the Egyptian group showed a high preference to behavioral and phoniatric therapies, higher paternal and maternal education, higher employment among parents and higher family

  20. Angiotensin converting enzyme DD genotype is associated with development of rheumatic heart disease in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed-Mofeed Fawaz; Abdelaziz, Nada Abdelmohsen Mohamed; Boghdady, Ahmed Mohamed; Ahmed, Hydi; Abu Elfadl, Essam Mohamed; Ismail, Mohamed Ali

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism was previously studied in some cardiovascular diseases. There are only few studies which investigated this polymorphism in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The results of these investigations are inconsistent. Furthermore, gene polymorphism distribution is different in various ethnic populations. We conducted this study to demonstrate this gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with RHD. Leukocytes DNA was extracted from 139 patients with RHD and 79 healthy control children. After amplification by the PCR, the products were separated by electrophoresis in 6% polyacrylamide gel and visualized after ethidium bromide staining with UV light. The PCR product is a 190-bp fragment in the absence of the insertion (D allele) and a 490-bp fragment in the presence of the insertion (I allele). Gene polymorphism was as follows: DD gene when lane contains only 190-bp fragment, II gene when lane contains only 490-bp fragment and ID gene when lane contains both fragments. We found that gene polymorphism in both control and patients groups followed the following order of distribution from highest to lowest: ID, II, DD gene. The frequency in control group was 49.4, 36.7, and 13.9%, respectively. In patients groups, the gene frequency was 42.5, 30.9, and 26.6%, respectively. DD gene frequency differs significantly between the two groups. We concluded that patients with RHD have a higher ACE-DD genotype than normal control. ACE-DD genotype may be a risk factor for RHD in Egyptian children.

  1. Egyptian Pancratium maritimum L. flowers as a source of anti-Alzheimer’s agents

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    Maha Mohamed Soltan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE has been reported to be implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD. One of the encouraged strategies to fight AD is the plant-derived inhibitors. Amaryllidaceae species are enriched source of alkaloids. The inhibitory properties of roots and bulbs of Pancratium maritimum L. against AChE have been previously reported. In the present study, the flowers of the wild Egyptian P. maritimum were subjected to screening assays to evaluate its potency as inhibitor to AChE. Besides, its antioxidant and cytotoxic properties were also addressed. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of P. maritimum; total extract and its alkaloid mixture were examined using Ellman’s assay. The direct antioxidant examination was carried out using DPPH assay whereas the indirect was monitored by the ability to protect Hepa1c1c7 cells against the induced cytotoxicity produced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP. The cytotoxic effect of the total extract and crude alkaloid mixture was evaluated against the human liver hepatoma cell line (HepG2. P. maritimum flowers showed significant inhibitory activity against AChE. The potency of the alkaloid mixture, representing 5.0% of the flowers weight (IC50; 22.02 ± 0.59 μg/ml was about fourfold of its total extract (IC50; 97.67 ± 4.06 μg/ml. The total extract was able to protect about 33.4% of Hepa1c1c7 against the induced intoxication that carried by TBHP rather than the alkaloid mixture. Weak antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were recorded by both examined samples. Flowers of the Egyptian P. maritimum L. could be an enriched source of AChE inhibitors.

  2. Hypoparathyroidism in an Egyptian child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. It is reported to be present in one in eight million and is characterized by severe growth failure, early loss of hair, lipodystrophy, scleroderma, decreased joint mobility, osteolysis, early atherosclerosis and facial features that resemble those of an aged person. Apart from diabetes mellitus, there are no reported abnormalities of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary or adrenal function. Here, we report the case of a 10-year-old Egyptian child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and hypoparathyroidism. Case presentation A 10-year-old Egyptian boy was referred to our institution for an evaluation of recurrent attacks of muscle cramps, paresthesia of his fingertips and perioral numbness of two months duration. On examination, we found dilated veins present over his scalp with alopecia and frontal bossing, a beaked nose, thin lips, protruding ears, a high pitched voice with sparse hair over his eyebrows and eyelashes and micrognathia but normal dentition. His eyes appeared prominent and our patient appeared to have poor sexual development. A provisional diagnosis of progeria was made, which was confirmed by molecular genetics study. Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs were positive. He had low total calcium (5.4 mg/dL), low ionized calcium (2.3 mg/dL), raised serum phosphate (7.2 mg/dL), raised alkaline phosphatase (118 U/L) and low intact parathyroid hormone (1.2 pg/mL) levels. He was started on oral calcium salt and vitamin D; his symptoms improved with the treatment and his serum calcium, urinary calcium and alkaline phosphates level were monitored every three months to ensure adequacy of therapy and to avoid hypercalcemia. Conclusion Routine checking of serum calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone will help in the early detection of hypoparathyrodism among children with progeria. PMID:22251708

  3. Lack of association of Vitamin D Binding Protein Polymorphisms in Egyptian Children with Type 1 Diabetes

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    Moushira Mahmoud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D is a polygenic autoimmune disease. Vitamin D is a potent modulator of the immune system and has been implicated in T1D pathogenesis and prevention. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP is the main systemic transporter of vitamin D and is essential for its cellular endocytosis. Two frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in exon 11 of the VDBP gene, result in amino acid variants: (rs7041 GAT→GAG substitution replaces aspartic acid by glutamic acid in codon 416; and (rs4588 ACG→AAG substitution in codon 420 leads to an exchange of threonine for lysine. These VDBP variants lead to differences in the affinity for vitamin D.Objective: The objective was to evaluate the association of these 2 VDBP gene SNPs with T1D in Egyptian children.Material and Method: Unrelated 59 children with T1D and 65 healthy controls were included in this study. The sequence of VDBP exon 11, which contains both examined SNPs, was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP.Results: The frequency of Asp/Glu alleles, at codon 416, was 35.6/64.4% in T1D patients and 44.6/55.4% in controls (P=0.15. At codon 420 the frequency of Thr/Lys alleles were 88.1/11.9% and 87.7/12.3% (P=0.91, respectively. Distributions of genotypes at both loci, and the common haplotypes constructed by them, were also very similar in both groups (P> 0.05.Conclusion: DNA polymorphisms in the VDBP gene are not associated with T1D in Egyptian children.. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 111-5

  4. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

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    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  5. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

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    Sherin Elsheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ on these abilities. Design: Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1 and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6. Results: Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001, Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01, Narrative Memory (p<0.001 and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05 and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01. Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions: Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.

  6. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF FOOD BORNE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION IN SOME EGYPTIAN FOOD food

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    Samy Selim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of food borne bacterial contamination in some Egyptian food. Total viable bacteria and total coliform bacteriawere isolated from different sources of food; carbohydrates (bread, flour and basbousa, vegetables (outer and inner tissues of potato and outer and inner tissues of cucumber and proteins (mincedmeat, cheese and milk. The study resulted in maximum value of total viable bacteria found in outer tissue of potato 68X104±1.0, while the minimum value found in inner tissues of potato andcucumber. The study resulted in total coliform was maximum value in minced meat 6.4X103±0.3. Basbousa and inner tissue of potato and cucumber were free from coliforms. The ability of isolatesto producing proteolytic enzymes was tested, we found that 326 isolate (63.92% from all isolates had this ability, thus we selected most 2 potent proteolytic isolates. The two isolates were identifiedas Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. The identification confirmed by microlog 34.20 system and 16SrRNA for two isolates and the same result was founded. Sensitivity tested for the most potentproteolytic species to 12 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy. The results showed that all species were sensitive to most of antibiotics, except B. cereus which was strongly susceptible to azteronam and ceftazidim. The data showed that raw meat, cooked food products, and raw milk were most commonly contaminated with foodborne pathogens and many pathogens were resistant to different antibiotics. The study provided useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to consumers, which has significant public health impact.

  7. Interferon regulatory factor 5 gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A; Mossad, Y M; Nasef, N; Eid, R

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased expression of interferon-inducible genes is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is one of the transcription factors regulating interferon and was proved to be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE in different populations. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between polymorphisms of the IRF5 gene and SLE susceptibility in a cohort of Egyptian children and to investigate their association with clinico-pathological features, especially lupus nephritis. Subjects and methods Typing of interferon regulatory factor 5 rs10954213, rs2004640 and rs2280714 polymorphisms were done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for 100 children with SLE and 100 matched healthy controls. Results Children with SLE had more frequent T allele and TT genotype of rs2004640 ( Pc = 0.003 and 0.024, respectively) compared to controls. Patients with nephritis had more frequent T allele of rs2004640 compared to controls ( Pc = 0.003). However the allele and genotype frequencies of the three studied polymorphisms did not show any difference in patients with nephritis in comparison to those without nephritis. Haplotype GTA of rs10954213, rs2004640 and rs2280714, respectively, was more frequent in lupus patients in comparison to controls ( p = 0.01) while the haplotype GGG was more frequent in controls than lupus patients ( p = 0.011). Conclusion The rs2004640 T allele and TT genotype and GTA haplotype of rs rs10954213, rs2004640, and rs2280714, respectively, can be considered as risk factors for the development of SLE. The presence of the rs2004640 T allele increases the risk of nephritis development in Egyptian children with SLE.

  8. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

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    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  9. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.) steers.

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    Goudah, Ayman; Abd El-Aty, Abd El-Aty M; Regmi, Nanda L; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shimoda, Minoru; Shim, Jae-Han

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin (MAR) following intravenous (iv) and intramuscular (im) administration of a 2.0 mg/kg body weight dosage to five healthy Egyptian buffalo steers. A cross-over design was used with a washout period of 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 5,10,15, and 20 min and at 0.5,0.75,1,2,4,6,8,10,12,24,30 and 48 hours after marbofloxacin administration. The serum marbofloxacin concentrations were quantitated using a modified agar diffusion bioassay method. Marbofloxacin exhibited a relatively high volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss = 1.77 Lkg), which suggests good tissue penetration, and a total body clearance (Cltot) of 0.18 L/kgxh,which is associated with a long elimination half-life (tl/2beta = 7.52 h). Marbofloxacin was rapidly absorbed at a dosage of 2.0 mg/kg after im administration with an observed maximum serum concentration (Cmax) value of 2.004 microg/mL obtained at a time to peak concentration (tmax) of 0.5 h, and an absolute bioavailability (F %) of 86.79 +/- 5.53 %. The protein-binding ranged from 22 to 24.6 % with an average of 23.4 %. In conclusion, single iv and im administered doses of marbofloxacin were well tolerated by Egyptian buffalo steers. A dosage of 2 mg/kg body weight might not be enough to treat infections caused by bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at or above 0.2 microg/mL, based on the calculated area under the inhibitory concentration (AUIC).

  10. Improper Narratives: Egyptian Personal Blogs and the Arabic Notion of Adab

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    Teresa Pepe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years several international scholars have started to move beyond the social and political effect of blogging to define blogs in terms of literary writing (See Fitzpatrick, 2006; Himmer 2004; Van Dijk, 2004. Also in the Arab world, the fact that several blogs have been turned into books and have had considerable success, has provoked a debate over the literary status of blogs: while some critics hail them as a new literary experiment, others claim that they do not have the legitimacy to be included in the category of adab (literature. This has perhaps to do with the fact that in the Arab world (as elsewhere printed books enjoy more prestige; but also with the fact that the Arab notion of adab is gradually coinciding, though still differing from the European notion of “literature”, and this defines the boundaries of the literary field. In other words, to claim that a work is “literary” because it has aspects of “literariness”, does not wholly correspond to saying that it is adabī, i.e. “literary” for Arab critics. In this article I will discuss aspects of literariness and adab-icity by means of an analysis of the blog al-Kanabah al-Ḥamrā (The Red Sofa, written by the Egyptian Bilāl Ḥusnī. The blog has been reviewed in several Egyptian newspapers and literary websites as “an interactive fiction” or a “adabī/literary and visual blog”. However, its style, contents and materiality challenge both our notion of “literature” and the Arab concept of adab.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging features of hip disorders in an Egyptian pediatric population

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    Y. Ragab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hip disorders in a pediatric population are a diagnostic challenge. The aim of the study is to assess the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the evaluation of non-traumatic hip disorders in a series of Egyptian patients and to review the literature on the most common hip conditions. Seventy two consecutive patients [40 males (55.6% and 32 females (44.4] with acute onset of hip complaints unrelated to trauma or falls were recruited. All patients underwent an initial full clinical assessment and blood tests as well as contrast enhanced MRI of both hips. The most common diagnosis in this group of Egyptian patients was transient synovitis in 29 (40.3% cases, followed by seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy syndrome in 8 (11.1%, septic arthritis in 10 (13.9%, tuberculous arthritis in 4 (5.6%, sickle-cell disease in 7 (9.7%, complicated with septic arthritis in 3 (4.2%, transient bone marrow edema (BME in 3 (4.2%, osteomyelitis in 2 (2.8%, osteosarcoma in 2 (2.8%, sciatic nerve injury in 1 (1.4%, leukemia with BME in 1 (1.4%, coxa vara of both hips and L5/S1 facet joint ankylosis in 1 (1.4%, and a benign bone cyst in 1 (1.4%. MRI studies showed hip effusion in a total of 51 patients (70.8%, joint space narrowing in 9 (12.5%, and BME in 15(20.8%. MRI is a sensitive tool for assessing hip disorders in a pediatric population and can play an important role in both diagnosis and management of different hip disorders, irrespective of the underlying pathology.

  12. Consumptive hypothyroidism in an Egyptian baby with benign neonatal hemangiomatosis: a case report

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    Metwalley Kotb Abbass

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Benign neonatal hemangiomatosis is a condition in which multiple cutaneous hemangiomas appear at birth or shortly thereafter; visceral complications are absent. Here, we report a case of a consumption hypothyroidism in an Egyptian baby with benign neonatal hemangiomatosis. Case presentation An 8-month-old Egyptian boy with benign neonatal hemangiomatosis was referred to our institution for evaluation of developmental delay. Initial examination revealed a quiet baby who was able to sit only with support. He had hypotonia, a large anterior fontanelle, puffy eyes, cold extremities, hypothermia, bradycardia, and abdominal distension. An examination of his skin revealed more than 100 dome-shaped red-purple cutaneous hemangiomas that varied in size from 5 to 10mm on the back, the abdomen and the extremities without mucus membrane involvement. He had low serum free thyroxine concentration and triiodothyronine levels and high thyroid-stimulating hormone and reverse-triiodothyronine levels. A work-up that involved appropriate imaging ruled out visceral involvement. Based on the above mentioned data, a diagnosis of consumptive hypothyroidism due to benign neonatal hemangiomatosis was made. He was started on oral thyroid medication which was gradually increased to 90μg L-thyroxine daily (15μg/kg/day. After three months of treatment, he was able to sit alone without support and he had normal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and serum free thyroxine. Conclusion Thyroid function should be assessed periodically in babies with benign neonatal hemangiomatosis, especially if symptoms of hypothyroidism appear or the size and number of hemangiomatosis increase rapidly. Moreover, high doses of L-thyroxine may be needed to achieve euthyroidism during the infancy.

  13. Vitamin D status in Egyptian patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Garf, Kamal El; Marzouk, Huda; Farag, Yomna; Rasheed, Laila; Garf, Ayman El

    2015-09-01

    There are scanty data on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relation to disease activity among patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JoSLE) in the Middle East and North Africa, an area known to be endemic for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. The aim of this study was, therefore, to study vitamin D status and its relation to disease activity and parameters in Egyptian patients with JoSLE. Serum levels of 25(OH) D3 in 70 JoSLE patients were compared to 40 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls. The 25(OH) D3 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Information regarding the medical history, clinical symptoms, and signs was registered at the time of serum sampling. Disease activity of SLE was evaluated according to the SLEDAI score. The mean level of serum 25(OH) D3 was 12 ± 3.7 in JoSLE patients compared to 21 ± 3.5 ng/mL in normal controls (p 30 ng/mL. There was no significant correlation between serum levels of 25(OH) D3 and the demographic data, medication used, and some laboratory data of patients with JoSLE. Disease activity score in our patients was insignificantly correlated with serum levels of 25(OH) D3. In spite of vitamin D supplementation in Egyptian JoSLE patients and the presence of vitamin D insufficiency in the control group, there are still significantly lower levels of vitamin D in JoSLE compared to normal controls.

  14. Visual function of Egyptian children with low vision and the demographic determinants

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    El Byoumi Boshra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine whether the LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire (LVP-FVQ could be used to assess self-reported visual function and quality of visual life in Egyptian school aged children. Materials and Methods: The LVP-FVQ was used to assess the quality of visual function in school-age children. All subjects were students at the time of assessment. Subjects underwent a visual function assessment that included distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision and visual field examination where possible. Data analysis were for both descriptive and inference statistics. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty children aged 11.28 ± 3.5 years (range, 5 years to 18 years with moderate-to-severe visual impairment most of their lives were enrolled. Twenty-two subjects (44% had albinism, 18 (36% subjects had hereditary retinal dystrophy, 6 (12% subjects had cone dystrophy, 2 (4% subjects had bilateral amblyopia and 2 (4% subjects had congenital coloboma without other disabilities. The four most difficult tasks were related to the following daily activities alluded to in the questionnaire such as reading a textbook at arms length, copying from the blackboard, seeing somebody across the road and identifying colors. There was no statistically significant association between the demographic variables and the level of visual functioning, sex, age, type of school, family history or consanguinity (P > 0.05 for all variables. Conclusion: LVP-FVQ can be used to screen Egyptian children with visual impairment. Input and integration of the parents and the school teachers to evaluate the child s behavior at home and the school is essential to developing a balanced questionnaire.

  15. Familial glucocorticoid deficiency presenting with generalized hyperpigmentation in an Egyptian child: a case report

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    Metwalley Kotb A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Familial glucocorticoid deficiency, or hereditary unresponsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone, is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency in the absence of mineralocorticoid deficiency. It may present in infancy or early childhood with hyperpigmentation, failure to thrive, recurrent infections, hypoglycemic attacks and convulsions that may result in coma or death. Here, we report the case of an 18-month-old Egyptian boy with familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Case presentation An 18-month-old Egyptian boy was referred to our institution for evaluation of generalized hyperpigmentation of the body associated with recurrent convulsions; one of his siblings, who had died at the age of nine months, also had generalized hyperpigmentation of the body. The initial clinical examination revealed generalized symmetrical deep hyperpigmentation of the body as well as hypotonia, normal blood pressure and normal male genitalia. He had low blood glucose and cortisol levels, normal aldosterone and high adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. Based on the above mentioned data, a provisional diagnosis of familial glucocorticoid deficiency was made, which was confirmed by a molecular genetics study. Oral hydrocortisone treatment at a dose of 10 mg/m2/day was started. The child was followed up after two months of treatment; the hyperpigmentation has lessened in comparison with his initial presentation and his blood sugar and cortisol levels were normalized. Conclusion Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is a rare, treatable disease that can be easily missed due to nonspecific presentations. The consequences of delayed diagnosis and treatment are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.

  16. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

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    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  17. Scenes from the past: multidetector CT of Egyptian mummies of the Redpath Museum.

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    Wade, Andrew D; Garvin, Gregory J; Hurnanen, Jaana H; Williams, Licd Lana; Lawson, Barbara; Nelson, Andrew J; Tampieri, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    As a nondestructive method of historical and anthropologic inquiry, imaging has played an important role in mummy studies over the past several decades. Recent technologic advances have made multidetector computed tomography (CT) an especially useful means for deepening the present understanding of ancient cultures by examining preserved human remains. In April 2011, three ancient Egyptian human mummies from the Redpath Museum of McGill University were examined with 320-section multidetector CT as part of the IMPACT Radiological Mummy Database project headquartered at the University of Western Ontario. Whole-body scanning was performed with a section thickness of 0.5 mm and a peak voltage of 120 kVp, and the raw CT datasets were postprocessed by using smooth body and high-resolution bone convolution filters. Two of the mummies were scanned at different energy levels (80 and 135 keV). The high-resolution CT scans revealed the details of mummification and allowed observations about the socioeconomic and health status of the human subjects based on both the mummification technique used and the appearance of the remains, particularly the bones and teeth. The paleopathologic information obtained from the scans confirmed some findings in studies performed in the same mummies in the late 19th and 20th centuries. The CT scans also demonstrated a high degree of variability in Egyptian mortuary practice, variability that is not generally recognized in the literature. Unusual features that were observed included a relatively uncommon retained heart in mummy RM2718, retained lungs in a mummy from which the heart had been extracted (RM2720), and a cartonnage plaque placed over the left abdomen of a mummy that had been eviscerated transperineally (RM2717).

  18. Synergetic effect of Egyptian propolis in immunization of BALB/c mice against bovine cysticercosis

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    Omnia; Mohamed; Kandil; Somia; Ayesh; Nassar; Soad; Mohamed; Nasr; Hatem; Abdel; Mawgoud; Shalaby; Seham; Hendawy; Faragalla; Mohamed; El; Moghazy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the synergetic effect of an ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis in immunization of BALB/c mice with Taenia saginata(T. saginata) crude antigen against bovine cysticercosis, with reference to its effects on liver and kidney functions.Methods: Sixty female mice BALB/c strain weighing 20 to 25 g and 6-8 weeks old were randomly allocated into six groups of ten mice each. Mice in groups 1 and 2(G1 and G2) were immunized intraperitoneally with 100 μg of T. saginata crude antigen in 100 μL phosphate buffer saline emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant. Besides, the mice in G2 were administered with propolis extract simultaneously with immunization. Control mice were either administered with propolis extract(G3) or injected with the same volume of phosphate buffer saline emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant(G4). The mice in G5 were non-immunized infected control while, those in G6 were non-immunized non-infected control. Two weeks after the last immunization, each mouse was challenged intraperitoneally with 5 000 oncospheres except those of G6. Ethanolic extract of propolis was prepared at a dose 50 mg/kg body weight.Results: After 24 weeks of challenge, the mice in G2 showed the highest level of protection(100%), with no cyst being detected rather than mice in G1(33.3% protection). Additionally,the ELISA results, in this study, showed higher antibody titer in G2 with reduction the alteration in liver and kidney functions compared to G1.Conclusions: Egyptian propolis could increase the level of protection against experimental challenge infection with T. saginata eggs when administered simultaneously with immunization. Furthermore, it could enhance the production of antibodies to immunized antigen and decrease the alteration in liver and kidney functions.

  19. Hypoparathyroidism in an Egyptian child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: a case report

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    Kalil Kotb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. It is reported to be present in one in eight million and is characterized by severe growth failure, early loss of hair, lipodystrophy, scleroderma, decreased joint mobility, osteolysis, early atherosclerosis and facial features that resemble those of an aged person. Apart from diabetes mellitus, there are no reported abnormalities of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary or adrenal function. Here, we report the case of a 10-year-old Egyptian child with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and hypoparathyroidism. Case presentation A 10-year-old Egyptian boy was referred to our institution for an evaluation of recurrent attacks of muscle cramps, paresthesia of his fingertips and perioral numbness of two months duration. On examination, we found dilated veins present over his scalp with alopecia and frontal bossing, a beaked nose, thin lips, protruding ears, a high pitched voice with sparse hair over his eyebrows and eyelashes and micrognathia but normal dentition. His eyes appeared prominent and our patient appeared to have poor sexual development. A provisional diagnosis of progeria was made, which was confirmed by molecular genetics study. Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs were positive. He had low total calcium (5.4 mg/dL, low ionized calcium (2.3 mg/dL, raised serum phosphate (7.2 mg/dL, raised alkaline phosphatase (118 U/L and low intact parathyroid hormone (1.2 pg/mL levels. He was started on oral calcium salt and vitamin D; his symptoms improved with the treatment and his serum calcium, urinary calcium and alkaline phosphates level were monitored every three months to ensure adequacy of therapy and to avoid hypercalcemia. Conclusion Routine checking of serum calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone will help in the early detection of hypoparathyrodism among children with progeria.

  20. Barriers to breast cancer screening among a sample of Egyptian females

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    Heba M. Mamdouh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer (BC is usually diagnosed in late stages in countries with limited resources. Early detection of BC is likely to improve the outcome of the disease for women in these areas. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the possible personal, economic, and systems barriers to BC screening in a sample of Egyptian women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in family health centers representing the seven districts of Alexandria governorate, Egypt. A total of 612 women were randomly selected from the chosen centers. Results: In this sample of Egyptian women, the most frequently identified potential barriers to BC screening were the following: 81.8% would not seek care until they were ill, 77% were unwilling to have a mammogram until it was recommended by the doctor, 71.4% blamed the, lack of privacy, 69.2% thought that medical checkups were not worthwhile, and 64.6% blamed the cost of services. The study further revealed that women of lower education, women in the lower income category, women who did not do paid work, those who had poor knowledge of the risks of BC, and women with no family history of BC were more likely to perceive different screening barriers compared with their counterparts. Conclusion: Many potential personal, economic, and health system barriers were identified. Addressing these barriers by increasing the awareness of BC and dealing with the misconceptions that the women have can help the policy makers to design more culturally relevant strategies to motivate women to utilize screening services.