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Sample records for egypt jordan syria

  1. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  2. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  4. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and

  6. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  7. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...

  8. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  9. Socioeconomic differences in smoking in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine: A cross-sectional analysis of national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Jawad, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The association between education and wealth, as fundamental determinants of health, and smoking is well-established. Yet, social inequalities have received little attention in the expanding field of tobacco research in the Arab region. In this study, we examine inequalities in cigarette smoking by education and wealth in four Arab countries. Utilizing the most recently available population-level data sets (Syria 2009 PAPFAM, Jordan 2012 DHS, Palestine 2010 Family Health Survey, and Lebanon 2004 PAPFAM), we tested the association between cigarette smoking and education and wealth-controlling for age, marital status, and region of residence-for each country, and among men and women depending on data availability. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Arab men is high- 51.3% in Syria, 39.7% in Palestine, and 42.1% in Lebanon; among women, prevalence is 8.4% in Syria, 10.9% in Jordan, and 24.3% Lebanon. Cigarette smoking shows the expected patterns inequalities by education among men in Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, and among women in Jordan and Lebanon. On the other hand, wealth does not show a clear pattern in its association with cigarette smoking and, in some cases (men in Palestine and women in Syria) the behavioral risk is higher among the wealthiest. Available data from 2004-2012 show that cigarette smoking among men and women in the four Arab countries is predominant among those with limited access to education as a fundamental cause. The weak or absent negative association between wealth and cigarette smoking suggests that access to material resources does not precipitate a reduction in the consumption of tobacco.

  10. Socioeconomic differences in smoking in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine: A cross-sectional analysis of national surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Jawad, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The association between education and wealth, as fundamental determinants of health, and smoking is well-established. Yet, social inequalities have received little attention in the expanding field of tobacco research in the Arab region. In this study, we examine inequalities in cigarette smoking by education and wealth in four Arab countries. Methods Utilizing the most recently available population-level data sets (Syria 2009 PAPFAM, Jordan 2012 DHS, Palestine 2010 Family Health ...

  11. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in chi...

  12. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.

  13. Catastrophic Economic Consequences of Healthcare Payments: Effects on Poverty Estimates in Egypt, Jordan, and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shoukry Rashad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare payments could drive households with no health insurance coverage into financial catastrophe, which might lead them to cut spending on necessities, sell assets, or use credit. In extreme cases, healthcare payments could have devastating consequences on the household economic status that would push them into extreme poverty. Using nationally representative surveys from three Arab countries, namely, Egypt, Jordan, and Palestine, this paper examines the incidence, intensity and distribution of catastrophic health payments, and assesses the poverty impact of out-of-pocket health payments (OOP. The OOP for healthcare were considered catastrophic if it exceeded 10% of a household’s total expenditure or 40% of non-food expenditure. The poverty impact was evaluated using poverty head counts and poverty gaps before and after OOP. Results show that OOP exacerbate households’ living severely in Egypt, pushing more than one-fifth of the population into a financial catastrophe and 3% into extreme poverty in 2011. However, in Jordan and Palestine, the disruptive impact of OOP remains modest over time. In the three countries, the catastrophic health payment is the problem of the better off households. Poverty alleviation policies should help reduce the reliance on OOP to finance healthcare. Moving toward universal health coverage could also be a promising option to protect households from the catastrophic economic consequences of health care payments.

  14. Cancer in refugees in Jordan and Syria between 2009 and 2012: challenges and the way forward in humanitarian emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of non-communicable diseases such as cancer in refugees is neglected in low-income and middle-income countries, but is of increasing importance because the number of refugees is growing. The UNHCR, through exceptional care committees (ECCs), has developed standard operating procedures to address expensive medical treatment for refugees in host countries, to decide on eligibility and amount of payment. We present data from funding applications for cancer treatments for refugees in Jordan between 2010 and 2012, and in Syria between 2009 and 2011. Cancer in refugees causes a substantial burden on the health systems of the host countries. Recommendations to improve prevention and treatment include improvement of health systems through standard operating procedures and innovative financing schemes, balance of primary and emergency care with expensive referral care, development of electronic cancer registries, and securement of sustainable funding sources. Analysis of cancer care in low-income refugee settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is needed to inform future responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Arab-Levantine personality structure: A psycholexical study of modern standard Arabic in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinoun, Pia; Daouk-Öyry, Lina; Choueiri, Lina; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2018-06-01

    The debate of whether personality traits are universal or culture-specific has been informed by psycholexical (or lexical) studies conducted in tens of languages and cultures. We contribute to this debate through a series of studies in which we investigated personality descriptors in Modern Standard Arabic, the variety of Arabic that is presumably common to about 26 countries and native to more than 200 million people. We identified an appropriate source of personality descriptors, extracted them, and systematically reduced them to 167 personality traits that are common, are not redundant with each other, and are familiar and commonly understood in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank (Palestinian territories). We then analyzed self- and peer ratings (N = 806) and identified a six-factor solution comprising Morality (I), Conscientiousness (II), Positive Emotionality (III), Dominance (IV), Agreeableness/Righteousness (V), and Emotional Stability (VI) without replicating an Openness factor. The factors were narrower or broader variants of factors found in the Big Five and HEXACO models. Conceptual and methodological considerations may have impacted the factor structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A cross sectional study of maternal 'near-miss' cases in major public hospitals in Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashour, Hyam; Saad-Haddad, Ghada; DeJong, Jocelyn; Ramadan, Mohammed Cherine; Hassan, Sahar; Breebaart, Miral; Wick, Laura; Hassanein, Nevine; Kharouf, Mayada

    2015-11-13

    The maternal near-miss approach has been increasingly used as a tool to evaluate and improve the quality of care in maternal health. We report findings from the formative stage of a World Health Organization (WHO) funded implementation research study that was undertaken to collect primary data at the facility level on the prevalence, characteristics, and management of maternal near-miss cases in four major public referral hospitals - one each in Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria. We conducted a cross sectional study of maternal near-miss cases in the four contexts beginning in 2011, where we collected data on severe maternal morbidity in the four study hospitals, using the WHO form (Individual Form HRP A65661). In each hospital, a research team including trained hospital healthcare providers carried out the data collection. A total of 9,063 live birth deliveries were reported during the data collection period across the four settings, with a total of 77 cases of severe maternal outcomes (71 maternal near-miss cases and 6 maternal deaths). Higher indices for the maternal mortality index were found in both Al Galaa hospital, in Egypt (8.6%) and Dar Al Tawleed hospital in Syria (14.3%), being large referral hospitals, compared to Ramallah hospital in Palestine and Rafik Hariri University hospital in Lebanon. Compared to the WHO's Multicountry Survey using the same data collection tool, our study's mortality indices are higher than the index of 5.6% among countries with a moderate maternal mortality ratio in the WHO Survey. Overall, haemorrhage-related complications were the most frequent conditions among maternal near-miss cases across the four study hospitals. In all hospitals, coagulation dysfunctions (76.1%) were the most prevalent dysfunction among maternal near-miss cases, followed by cardiovascular dysfunctions. The coverage of key evidence-based interventions among women experiencing a near-miss was either universal or very high in the study hospitals

  17. Effect of culture on acceptance of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries: case study of Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlani, Mohannad; Clarke, Malcolm

    2013-04-01

    We investigated issues that affect the use and adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries, taking the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic as case studies. Our study is based on interviews with key stakeholders (including doctors, technicians, engineers, and decision makers) and questionnaires administered to key stakeholders (including patients), ensuring opinion was gained from people from a full range of backgrounds and roles in the healthcare system. We found doctor and patient resistance was a major issue preventing the adoption of telemedicine in both countries, followed by poor infrastructure, lack of funding, and lack of information technology training. Our research identifies that culture is a greater issue than technical matters for the adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries. Based on our preliminary results we developed a guideline framework for each country that might be applied to telemedicine projects at the pre-implementation phase. The proposed guideline framework was validated through a return visit to the stakeholders and seeking further opinion.

  18. Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models assessed the association between refugee status and current (past-30 day) tobacco use prevalence and frequency. Prevalence estimates for current tobacco smoking were similar between Palestine refugee and non-refugee groups in Jordan (26.7 % vs. 24.0 %), Lebanon (39.4 % vs. 38.5 %), and the West Bank (39.5 % vs. 38.4 %). In Syria, Palestine refugees had nearly twice the odds of current tobacco smoking compared to non-refugees (23.2 % vs. 36.6 %, AOR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.46-2.62). Palestine refugees consumed more cigarettes per month than non-refugees in Lebanon (β 0.57, 95 % CI 0.17-0.97) and Palestine refugees consumed more waterpipe tobacco per month than non-refugees in Syria (β 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19-0.61) and the West Bank (β 0.42, 95 % CI 0.21-0.64). Current tobacco smoking prevalence is in excess of 20 % in both adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Middle Eastern countries, however Palestine refugees may smoke tobacco more frequently than non-refugees. Comparison of simple prevalence estimates may therefore mask important differences in tobacco use patterns within population groups.

  19. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  20. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... to demonstrate the emerging interdisciplinary nature in Ancient Egyptian studies and the first to suggest new avenues of approach whilst seeking to open a discussion about how the Egyptian past can be known and understood. The book engages with wider trends from the humanities, which have found currency...

  1. Jordan : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Asia, South Asia, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Syria, Yemen, Palestine, Réunion ... plan dans les structures sociales au Moyen-Orient, en particulier au Yémen, ... Sujet: POLITICAL PARTIES, POLITICAL REFORM, ISLAM, HUMAN RIGHTS, ...

  2. An annotated checklist of the Stomoxyini (Diptera: Muscidae) of the Levant with new records from Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Sinai Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Stomoxyini are obligate blood feeders and several members of the tribe, especially Stomoxys and Haematobia, are major pests of domestic livestock causing billions of U.S. dollars in damages annually. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the spec...

  3. All projects related to Egypt | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... POLITICAL REFORM, ECONOMIC REFORM, WOMEN, EMPOWERMENT, Gender ... IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is ... Asia, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait.

  4. Syria: Overview of the Humanitarian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    humanitarian workers have observed a sharp rise in gender -based crimes, including rape and sexual violence, as well as exploitation and discrimination ...threatening conditions; gender -based violence prevention and response; emergency support to refugee women and girls; mental health care; protection...immediate surrounding region, including Turkey, Lebanon , Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and other parts of North Africa. The situation is fluid and continues to

  5. SESAME in Jordan

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Gaetano; Attal, Maher; Makahleh, Firas; Shehab, Maher M; Varnasseri, Seadat

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the status of SESAME is presented. SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) is an Independent Intergovernmental Organization developed and officially established under the auspices of UNESCO. It involves at the present the following Member States: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Moreover the following States are Observer of SESAME Council: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Russian Federation, Sweden, UK and United States of America. SESAME will become a major international research center in the Middle East, located in Allan, Jordan. The machine design is based on a 2.5 GeV 3rd generation Light Source with an emittance of 26 nm.rad and 11 straights for insertion devices. The conceptual design of the accelerator complex has been frozen and the engineering design is started. The Phase I scientific program for SESAME has also been finalized and it foresees...

  6. All projects related to Egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Middle East, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, ... state-controlled religious institutions, and state-owned media - to assess the ... POLICY MAKING, MIDDLE EAST, Civil society, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

  7. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  8. IDRC in Syria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICARDA has improved barley, lentil, and faba beans; enhanced the nutrition and productivity of goats and sheep; rehabil- ... farm water management. ... been a long-time advocate of research ... management in Syria, and on new areas.

  9. Marriage crisis in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, B A

    1980-01-01

    The author examines some of the changing characteristics of marriage in Syria, including the deferment of age at first marriage and abstinence from marriage. Data are from the 1970 census and other official sources. Factors affecting these trends are discussed

  10. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in Egypt and the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Karimat

    2009-03-01

    Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.

  11. Country profile: Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    A relatively minor oil exporter on Middle Eastern terms, Syria is a member of OPEC and one of the first Arab states to take control of its hydrocarbon resources from foreign domination. After a period of decline, a major discovery is opening new perspectives of Syria's future. The author describes Syria's history since it emerged from the Ottoman Empire and a period of French domination into a period of industrialization and economic development. Oil is the largest single item in the balance of payments and the leading provider of revenues for investment by the government. Since the first discoveries in the 1950s, a number of fields have become productive. The configuration of refineries makes it necessary to export crude oil and import light crude from the new discoveries, making crude oil and petroleum products the largest negative items on the balance of payments. 1 figure.

  12. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Jordan’s vulnerability increased significantly in February 1979, when Shia radicals overthrew Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran. The Iranian...give formal recognition to the PLO’s role. In an abrupt turn- about in policy, Egyptian foreign minister Ismail Fahmi respond- ed by declaring that Egypt... Fahmi , Ismail, 46 modern, 101-3, 110; government Faisal I (son of Hussein Ali Al Hashimi), spending for, 114; students studying 18, 20-23, as king of

  13. Water and Security in the Jordan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-11

    LATAKIA S, shrn BANIYAS Karm ER(ZZR g SELEMIYA Rasian -- J HOMS I. ®TADMOR D~’AM ASCUS r-’GHUTA- MZERiB P-swe1 d DAM% 100 ,1/ I".98ah n schemes ’a 01110...explain, at least in part, the superiority of the Israeli military. Israel has 11 years of compulsory education from age 5 to age 16; Jordan has 10...years of compulsory education from age 6 to age 15; and Syria has only 6 years of compulsory education, age 6 to age 1i. 1 1 While these few statistics

  14. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  15. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  16. Educated women in Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    2008-01-01

    in the work force and thus indirectly questioning the gender ideals of secular Arab nationalism. In Syria too, Islamization has occurred, as is evident from the increased numbers of young muhajabat women, the construction of new mosques and the significant growth in Islamic charity organizations. However...

  17. Reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health in conflict: a case study on Syria using Countdown indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jocelyn; Ghattas, Hala; Bashour, Hyam; Mourtada, Rima; Akik, Chaza; Reese-Masterson, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Women and children account for a disproportionate morbidity burden among conflict-affected populations, and yet they are not included in global accountability frameworks for women’s and children’s health. We use Countdown to 2015 (Millennium Development Goals) health indicators to provide an up-to-date review and analysis of the best available data on Syrian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey and internally displaced within Syria and explore data challenges in this conflict setting. Methods We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Popline and Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region Office and relevant development/humanitarian databases in all languages from January 2011 until December 2015. We met in person or emailed relevant key stakeholders in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Turkey to obtain any unpublished or missing data. We convened a meeting of experts working with these populations to discuss the results. Results The following trends were found based on available data for these populations as compared with preconflict Syria. Birth registration in Syria and in host neighbouring countries decreased and was very low in Lebanon. In Syria, the infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate increased, and coverage of antenatal care (one visit with a skilled attendant), skilled birth attendance and vaccination (except for DTP3 vaccine) declined. The number of Syrian refugee women attending more than four antenatal care visits was low in Lebanon and in non-camp settings in Jordan. Few data were available on these indicators among the internally displaced. In conflict settings such as that of Syria, coverage rates of interventions are often unknown or difficult to ascertain because of measurement challenges in accessing conflict-affected populations or to the inability to determine relevant denominators in this dynamic setting. Conclusion Research, monitoring and evaluation in humanitarian settings could better inform public health

  18. The Kurds of Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Anne Sofie

    For years the Syrian Kurds were referred to as the ‘forgotten Kurds’ since they attracted very little attention from researchers and public media. The civil war in Syria, which broke out in 2011, changed all this. Thus, the Syrian Kurds proved to be the most effective tactical allies to the Ameri......For years the Syrian Kurds were referred to as the ‘forgotten Kurds’ since they attracted very little attention from researchers and public media. The civil war in Syria, which broke out in 2011, changed all this. Thus, the Syrian Kurds proved to be the most effective tactical allies...... are divided along political lines. Some Kurds are fighting for the so-called ‘Rojava revolution’ in the autonomous Kurdish regions, others participate in the Geneva peace talks as part of the Syrian opposition, yet others act as independent actors advocating liberal democracy and human rights....

  19. Egypt : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: FOREIGN TRADE, INTERREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, TRADE FACILITATION, FINANCIAL SERVICES, TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY, TRANSPORT. Région: Egypt, Jordan, Middle East, Lebanon, Morocco, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia.

  20. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Iran contains articles on Political Science, Economics, Regional...

  1. Roles and Effects of Media in the Middle East and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mady, Ahmed M

    2005-01-01

    .... The countries included in the survey are Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain...

  2. IAEA Clarification on Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Director General Amano has been quoted in a news story as saying today that a site in Syria allegedly destroyed by Israel was a nuclear reactor under construction. The Director General did not say that the IAEA has reached the conclusion that the site was definitely a nuclear reactor. The IAEA continues to seek further information on the nature of the Dair Alzour site. (IAEA)

  3. organic agriculture in Syria : policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, Fabio M.

    2010-01-01

    The author analyses present difficulties of conventional agriculture in Syria. Market opportunities, in Syria and abroad, are illustrated. Possible actions and participatory approach are thus covered.

  4. Egypt : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... l'érosion du tissu social et sapent son développement économique potentiel. ... Région: Middle East, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain ... le pouvoir judiciaire, les institutions religieuses étatiques et les médias publics, ...

  5. First beam for the SESAME light source in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, M.

    2017-01-01

    On January 2017, 12. the third generation synchrotron SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) located at Allan in Jordan was commissioned. At first SESAME will operate with 2 beam lines: one producing infra-red light and the other X-rays. SESAME was developed under the auspices of the UNESCO. The CERN brought its know-how in the domain of accelerator technology and supplied the magnet system of the SESAME main ring. Today, SESAME members are Jordan, the Palestinian Authority, Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Pakistan and Turkey. SESAME welcomes a community of about 300 users from the region. (A.C.)

  6. Carnivores of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to outline the local occurrence and recent distribution of carnivores in Syria (Syrian Arab Republic in order to offer a starting point for future studies. The species of large dimensions, such as the Asiatic lion, the Caspian tiger, the Asiatic cheetah, and the Syrian brown bear, became extinct in historical times, the last leopard being reputed to have been killed in 1963 on the Alauwit Mountains (Al Nusyriain Mountains. The checklist of the extant Syrian carnivores amounts to 15 species, which are essentially referable to 4 canids, 5 mustelids, 4 felids – the sand catbeen reported only recently for the first time – one hyaenid, and one herpestid. The occurrence of the Blandford fox has yet to be confirmed. This paper is almost entirely the result of a series of field surveys carried out by the author mainly between 1989 and 1995, integrated by data from several subsequent reports and sightings by other authors.

  7. Energy situation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, I

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the energy problem in the world, and then studies in detail the situation in Jordan. It covers the energy supply of crude oil, refined products, and non-commercial energy; energy demand; the current pattern of energy consumption of oil and electricity; a forecast of energy demand; the government subsidy of energy; new energy resources in Jordan (oil exploration and oil shale, tar sands, radioactive minerals, and renewable energy sources including geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind). The report concludes that alternative energy sources must be developed by Jordan to meet the increased demand for energy and to reduce the dependence of Jordan on oil in the next decades.

  8. The gravity field and crustal structure of the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batayneh, A. T.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity field over the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan is dominated by large variations, ranging from -132 to +4 mGal. A study of the Bouguer anomaly map shows that the gravity field maintains a general north-northeasterly trend in the Wadi Araba-Dead Sea-Jordan Riff, Northern Highlands and Northeast Jordanian Limestone Area, while the remainder of the area shows north-northwesterly-trending gravity anomalies. Results of 2-D gravity modeling of the Bouguer gravity field indicate that the crustal thickness in Jordan is ˜ 38 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses obtained from refraction data in northern Jordan and Saudi Arabia, and from gravity data in Syria.

  9. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  10. Architectural Guide of Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Architectural and cultural guidebook for Jordan that also includes a view on the Syrian refugee situation, especially in the large UNHCR camp of Zaatari. The guide book is a preparatory study for a field trip our master studio undertook to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Fall 2016....

  11. Special Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  12. A new species of the neopterygian fish Enchodus from the Duwi Formation, Campanian, Late Cretaceous, Western Desert, central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waymon L. Holloway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neopterygian fish Enchodus was a widespread, speciose genus consisting of approximately 30 recognized species that were temporally distributed from the late Early Cretaceous through the Paleocene. Many Enchodus specimens are fragmentary cranial remains or isolated dental elements, as is the case for previously reported occurrences in Egypt. Here, we present the most complete specimen of Enchodus recovered from the Late Cretaceous of northeast Africa. The specimen was collected from the upper Campanian Duwi Formation, near the village of Tineida (Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The new species, Enchodus tineidae sp. nov., consists of right and left dentaries, a partial ectopterygoid, and other cranial bones. The size of the specimen places it into the upper body-size range for the genus. The palatine tooth, an element often useful for diagnosing Enchodus to the species level, is not preserved, but a combination of other cranial characters supports the referral of this specimen to Enchodus. In particular, the dentary preserves three symphysial rostroventral prongs and two tooth rows, the lateral of which consists of small denticles, whereas the medial row comprises large, mediolaterally-compressed teeth. The rostral-most tooth exhibits the highest crown, whereas the rest of the teeth are of lower, variable crown heights. The eight robust, caudal-most medial-row teeth are distributed in a cluster pattern never before observed in Enchodus. Additionally, the dentary and preopercle are both without dermal ornamentation, and the mandibular sensory canal is closed. Phylogenetic analysis recovers this new species as the sister species to E. dirus from North America. Along with previously described materials from Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Italy, Morocco, and Libya, this specimen represents a thirteenth species from the northwestern Tethyan geographic distribution of Enchodus.

  13. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2008-01-01

    13 meteoric stations were selected in syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the syrian or local meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.63 and that of both syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude was determined by 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14% and - 0.84%/100 m elevation respectively). The spatial variability of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content of precipitation, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern mediterranean climate type over this region. (author)

  14. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  15. Jordan Krall's speculative fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Jordan Krall is one of the most interesting writers in American speculative fiction. This article studies the way Krall redefines the tropes and frames of classical dystopian fiction and references, turning them into an idiosyncratic construction.......Jordan Krall is one of the most interesting writers in American speculative fiction. This article studies the way Krall redefines the tropes and frames of classical dystopian fiction and references, turning them into an idiosyncratic construction....

  16. INIS National Center in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hallack, R.

    2006-01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and it is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. An overview of INIS products, services, philosophy and operation is given. INIS hold a database containing over 2.5 million references increasing at approximately 85,000 references per year and a collection of full text non-conventional, or grey literature that would be hard to obtain elsewhere. In addition, the PC-based software for inputs preparation (WinFIBRE) is demonstrated. INIS national center in Syria is considered as a regional center for INIS inputs preparation. The center is responsible for selecting the relevant nuclear literature produced and published in Syria and preparing the national inputs and send them to INIS Secretariat to be included in the INIS database. The center also provides INIS services and products to users within Syria. Availability of INIS Database on CD-ROMs, which updated monthly, and the internet version, which updated weekly, and the NCL collections are also presented. Finally, translation activity of the center, such as INIS Booklet entitled Presenting INIS, and the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic were mentioned. This was an in-kind contribution from the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria to support the valuable work of the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) section and will contribute significantly the dissemination of information among the researchers and scientists in the Arab Countries. (author)

  17. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Longueville, P.

    2000-01-01

    of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

  18. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Novikov-Jordan algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhumadil'daev, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Algebras with identity $(a\\star b)\\star (c\\star d) -(a\\star d)\\star(c\\star b)$ $=(a,b,c)\\star d-(a,d,c)\\star b$ are studied. Novikov algebras under Jordan multiplication and Leibniz dual algebras satisfy this identity. If algebra with such identity has unit, then it is associative and commutative.

  20. Waqf and Madrasas in Late Medieval Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamid, Hatim

    2013-01-01

    The "madrasa" began to spread in Syria ("Bilad al-Sham") as a higher institution for religious education since the Zangid rule (521H./1127 to 569H./ 1173). During the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods, main cities of Syria were characterized by many madrasas, especially the major cities that served the political rule like, Damascus,…

  1. The Conflict in Syria: Key Issues and Consequences on the International Market of Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulică

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of August 2013, the international prices of Brent crude rose to a 17-month high ($ 117.8 /barrel as Western powers, mainly USA, readied a military strike against Syria, and traders and analysts cited concerns over stability in the Middle East. The main concern was the risk that Western intervention in Syria could prompt a wider regional conflict, given the support that Iran has provided to the regime of Syria. The attack failed to materialize, because U.S. and Russia reached an agreement with the goal of disarming Syria’s chemical weapon arsenal, and consequently the prices declined, but the risk of geopolitical and social unrest movementsAlpha is still high, so that a reactivation of geopolitical tensions in the extended area of Middle East and north Africa is anytime possible with the afferent disruptive effects on the international oil market. We tried to answer to some questions in order to clear up the background of the problem: 1 What was the real stake of the U.S. plan to intervene in Syria: the concern generated by chemical weapons or U.S. geostrategic interests in the wider Middle East? 2 Why Syria matters to oil market, given that it is not a major oil producer (as was Libya, nor is it a major transit point for oil and gas exports (as is Egypt? 3 The aftermath of a serious military action targeted against the Middle Eastern country and “qui prodest”? 4 Will Iran’s possible return to the world oil market send oil prices down, and how much?

  2. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine isotopic characteristics of precipitation, the climatic and geographical conditions affecting isotopic composition in order to obtain the input function of groundwater to evaluate the water resources.13 meteoric stations were selected in Syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the Syrian meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.62 and that of both Syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude of 18 O was about 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14 % and -0.84% /100m respectively). The spatial distribution of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern Mediterranean climate type over this region.(author)

  3. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40 ±4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  4. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syria))

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  5. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-06-04

    Jun 4, 2013 ... species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the .... barley and flax (Caminos 1997). Egyptian ..... Duke L 2008 Schistosomiasis in Ancient Egypt: The 'AAA' De- bate.

  6. Youth and social change in Jordan and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Petersen, Marie Juul

    2007-01-01

    The Middle East has recently witnessed the rise of Muslim youth movements with an activist agenda. This article shows that these movements prove particularly attractive to urban upper middle class youth for whom religious engagement is about fostering the collective good as well as about self-emp...

  7. Omnibalancing in Syria: Prospects for Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergen, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    ...; who makes decisions irrespective of domestic political considerations in Syria. This thesis challenges that conceptualization by arguing that domestic concerns are the central element in the making of Syrian foreign policy...

  8. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  9. Women negotiating peace in Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Panelists will also address women's experience of the conflict in Syria, their ... to 2011 and headed the Labour Civil First Instance Court in Damascus just before the ... civil society, and formal and informal mediation processes.

  10. Russia’s Impossible Position on Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Follebouckt, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The uprising in Syria is increasingly veering towards a full-fledged civil war, which raises legitimate fears for the stability of the Middle East as a whole and, more critically, for Russia’s credibility on the international front

  11. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  12. Jordan Isomorphisms on Nest Subalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of Jordan isomorphisms on nest subalgebras of factor von Neumann algebras. It is shown that every Jordan isomorphism ϕ between the two nest subalgebras algMβ and algMγ is either an isomorphism or an anti-isomorphism.

  13. Vertex operators and Jordan fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The construction of Lie algebras in terms of Jordan algebras generators is discussed. The key to the construction is the triality relation already incorporated into matrix products. A generalisation to Kac-Moody algebras in terms of vertex operators is proposed and may provide a clue for the construction of new representations of Kac-Moody algebras in terms of Jordan fields. (author) [pt

  14. An Overview of the Conflict in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albasoos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Syria, there is not expected to break out of the revolution of this magnitude. Most people of Syria before others did not expect that the revolution breaks out originally because the regime governs Syria in an oppressive security manner. The regime controls the situation that making it difficult of any popular movement. Political life is not existent in the country. There are no civil society organizations and trade unions are not real and not real parties or political groupings, making it difficult with the outbreak of the revolution in the country in such a dictatorship, security control, which controls everything in people's lives. So Syria was apparently outside the US and global thinking. It has been stated by some officials in America and has had their expectations outbreak of the revolution in Syria minimal because the global system was not ready to abandon the Assad regime because the regime is better for them. However, the revolution in Syria broke out, caught and swept across the country, confusing international systems that were not planning to substitute for the Syrian regime. The Syrian regime is no doubt that one of the major hubs in the region.

  15. Energy Security In Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    hesitates to put the needs of students ahead of their own interests. I also want to recognize my family. Mom and Dad , I will be forever grateful for...aforementioned Risha gas field.67 C. PETROLEUM Despite being relatively resource poor , Jordan has long relied on oil to fuel its economy. Since its...supply as late as 2012.68 Use of oil-based fuels has persisted for a multitude of reasons. Primarily, the state’s geographical placement among oil- rich

  16. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  17. Maroc : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: HUMAN RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY, DEMOCRATIZATION, CULTURAL RELATIONS ... Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia ... South Asia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Israel.

  18. All projects related to Lebanon | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic Governance in Transition ... Region: Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, United States ... Region: Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Israel.

  19. Democracy in the Arab World: Explaining the Deficit | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 sept. 2010 ... ... factors, and the impact of oil wealth and regional wars, and present a model ... Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Sudan, and the Gulf region; they build ... Policy and International Affairs at the American University of Beirut.

  20. Democracy in the Arab World: Explaining the Deficit | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-09-10

    Sep 10, 2010 ... ... factors, and the impact of oil wealth and regional wars, and present a model ... Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Sudan, and the Gulf region; they build ... Policy and International Affairs at the American University of Beirut.

  1. Syria: Reassessing U.S. Approach and Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meeks, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    Syria's support to the Iraq insurgency and Washington's inability to ameliorate the regime's behavior, or to achieve its other national interests with regard to Syria, threaten America's Middle East objectives...

  2. Syria: Land of history, civilizations and war

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As the Syrians are welcomed into Canada, it is useful to learn about where they are coming from. Syria is an ancient land with a rich history and has always been home to diverse cultures, ethnicities and religions. Palmyra was an ancient civilization that arose during the second century. Syria became part of the land of Islam in AD 640 and was a cultural, religious and artistic center. During the Middle Ages, Syria came under the control of the Crusaders and was part of the Ottoman Empire from the early fifteen hundreds until the end of the nineteenth century. During World War I it came under French influence and was recognized as an independent nation after World War II. In 1963, Hafez al-Assad led a military coup and since then, Syria has been ruled under emergency law. After al-Assad died in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad was elected President in an uncontested presidential campaign. Before the current conflict, Syria had a population of approximately 22 million people but now about half the population have been displaced internally and into neighbouring countries, including approximately four million refugees. It is estimated that 250,000 people have died during the Syrian conflict. PMID:29770036

  3. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  4. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  5. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  6. Jordan algebras versus C*- algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The axiomatic formulation of quantum mechanics and the problem of whether the observables form self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space, are discussed. The relation between C*- algebras and Jordan algebras is studied using spectral theory. (P.D.)

  7. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  8. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  9. Graded contractions of Jordan algebras and of their representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashuba, Iryna; Patera, JirI

    2003-01-01

    Contractions of Jordan algebras and Jordan superalgebras which preserve a chosen grading are defined and studied. Simultaneous grading of Jordan algebras and their representation spaces is used to develop a theory of grading, preserving contractions of representations of Jordan algebras

  10. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced mi...

  11. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  12. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  13. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC began to support research in. Egypt. Five years ... Cutting red tape for business. In Egypt ... 85% of jobs in the private sector, and. 40% of all ... sector to drive economic growth over the next ... and reducing poverty in the Middle East and.

  14. Napoleon in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  15. The Lancet Commission on Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The journal has adopted a series of global commissions that convene groups of experts for a limited time to produce thematic work aimed at improving human lives through scientific review and inquiry, and to encourage accountability for the problem under study. The Commission on Syria marks the first time a Southern ...

  16. 15 CFR 746.9 - Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Syria. 746.9 Section 746.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS EMBARGOES AND OTHER SPECIAL...

  17. Learning from Libya, Acting in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A. Buckley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international community has reached an impasse. The violence committed by Syrian President Assad's government against opposition forces, who have been calling for democratic reform, regime change, and expanded rights, has necessitated a response from the international community. This article explores various ways the international community could respond to the crisis in Syria and the consequences of each approach. It compares the current calamity in Syria to the crisis in Libya and examines the international community's response to the violence perpetrated by Qaddafi's regime. It further analyzes reports, primarily from the UN and news sources, about the ongoing predicament in Syria. The article concludes that the international community should proceed with achieving a ceasefire via dialogue but must begin by conveying newly imposed sanctions that affect the Sunni merchant class and thus threaten Assad's grip on power to make that dialogue more effective. World leaders should also identify a Syrian leader who could replace Assad, who must be removed from power because of the crimes against humanity that have been committed by his regime. Western states must accept that they will have to engage peacekeeping forces in the region to aid the transition of power in Syria.

  18. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  19. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Messerschmid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critique of the UN Economic and Social Commission for West Asia’s (ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan River Basin, as contained in its recently published Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. We argue that ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan Basin is marked by serious technical errors and a systematic bias in favour of one riparian, Israel, and against the Jordan River’s four Arab riparians. We demonstrate this in relation to ESCWA’s account of the political geography of the Jordan River Basin, which foregrounds Israel and its perspectives and narratives; in relation to hydrology, where Israel’s contribution to the basin is overstated, whilst that of Arab riparians is understated; and in relation to development and abstraction, where Israel’s transformation and use of the basin are underplayed, while Arab impacts are exaggerated. Taken together, this bundle of misrepresentations conveys the impression that it is Israel which is the main contributor to the Jordan River Basin, Arab riparians its chief exploiters. This impression is, we argue, not just false but also surprising, given that the Inventory is in the name of an organisation of Arab states. The evidence discussed here provides a striking illustration of how hegemonic hydro-political narratives are reproduced, including by actors other than basin hegemons themselves.

  20. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.N.S.

    1997-01-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  1. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, M N.S. [National Resources Authority, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Amman (Jordan)

    1997-11-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ``digital and analogue``. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in ({mu}R/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author). 8 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs.

  2. Syria’s Salafi Networks: More Local Than You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    first, a brief background of Salafism in Syria; then a look at the range of Salafists within the Syrian opposition; next, Salafi lessons from Iraq...government is proposed. Salafism in Syria Salafism has deep roots in Syria. Most modern Salafists look to the writings of four- teenth-century Syrian...approach to Salafism that is both academic and practical: willing to accommodate Muslim leaders even if they are aligned with Western and secular

  3. Pediatric nephrology practice in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Akl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of pediatric nephrology in a developing country such as Jordan is governed by social, cultural, and economic issues. The prevalence of consanguinity contributes to the emergence of rare heredofamilial disorders and congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. Epigenetic factors modify underlying genetic defect predisposing to symptomatic crystalluria. Future research should be directed at prevention.

  4. Dirac, Jordan and quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrigol, O.

    1985-01-01

    The case of two principal physicists of quantum mechanics is specially chose: Paul Dirac and Pascual Jordan. They gave a signification and an importance very different to the notion of quantum field, and in particular to the quantized matter wave one. Through their formation and motivation differences, such as they are expressed in their writings, this deep difference is tentatively understood [fr

  5. Area Handbook Series. Syria, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    elderly and those in authority, and forbidding adultery, gambling , usury, and the consumption of carrion, blood, pork, and alcohol . A Muslim stands in a...Health: Gastrointestinal ailments, trachoma, and infectious dis- eases prevalent ; considerable progress has been made in control of malaria. Severe...complete understanding of the Baath, The Ba ’th Party: A History from Its Origins to 1966. In the same genre is Patrick Seale’s The Struggle for Syria. A. L

  6. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  8. Syria: The Consolidation of the Asad Regime, 1970-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    Up to 1975-76, Syria's Hafiz al-Asad was successful in consolidating his power, securing the maintenance of his regime, and broadening his base of political power. His system started weakening in 1975 due to increased opposition stemming from Syria's intervention in the Lebanese civil war. (AM)

  9. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outb...

  10. Irregular Migration in Jordan, 1995-2007

    OpenAIRE

    AROURI, Fathi A.

    2008-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) This paper tackles the question of irregular migration in Jordan through its four main aspects. The first concerns irregular labour migrants and has been approached by using figures showing the socio-economic profile of non Jordanians working in Jordan and, additionally, unemployment in Jordan. This is done by assuming close similarities between legal and irregular labour migrants. The second is an attemp...

  11. Destination Syria : An Exploratory Study into the Daily Lives of Dutch 'Syria Travellers'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, D.; Peters, R.; Bakker, E.; Bont, de R.

    2016-01-01

    Destination Syria is an exploratory study providing insights on the daily lives of western citizens that have travelled to the area, torn by conflict to join jihadist groups like ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra. Specific attention has been paid to daily life in ISIS territories and in areas controlled by

  12. Climate Change and Political Instability in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. P.; Mohtadi, S.; Cane, M. A.; Seager, R.; Kushnir, Y.

    2013-12-01

    From 2005 to 2010, Syria experienced the most severe and persistent drought in the instrumental record, devastating the agriculture and causing widespread crop failure. A mass migration of farming families to urban peripheries followed the resulting food shortages, unemployment, and disruption of rural social structure. The addition of nearly 1.5 million drought refugees to the recent influx of Iraqi refugees greatly exacerbated conditions in the urban slums. Anger at the government's failure to respond to the drought's impacts contributed to the political unrest that began in March 2011. The recent decrease in Syrian precipitation is a combination of natural variability and long-term drying trend, and the unusual severity of the observed drought is here shown to be highly unlikely without the trend. Precipitation changes in Syria are linked to rising mean sea-level pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean, which also shows a long-term trend. Compared to the natural variability alone, the trend has made the occurrence of such a severe drought eight times more likely. There has been also a long-term warming trend in Syria, adding to the drawdown of soil moisture. No natural cause is apparent for these trends, whereas the observed drying and warming are consistent with observed increases in greenhouse gases. Furthermore, model studies show an increasingly drier and hotter future mean climate for the Eastern Mediterranean. The severity and duration of the recent Syrian drought, implicated as a cause of the current conflict, is highly likely to be a consequence of human interference in the climate system.

  13. Nutritional situation among Syrian refugees hosted in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon: cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Moazzem; Leidman, Eva; Kingori, James; Al Harun, Abdullah; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq. Surveys in Lebanon were organized in four geographical regions (North, South, Beirut/Mount Lebanon and Bekaa). In Jordan, independent surveys assessed refugees residing in Za'atri refugee camp and refugees residing among host community nationwide. In Iraq, refugees residing in Domiz refugee camp in the Kurdistan region were assessed. Data collected on children aged 6 to 59 months included anthropometric indicators, morbidity and feeding practices. In Jordan and Lebanon, data collection also included hemoglobin concentration for children and non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years, anthropometric indicators for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and household level indicators such as access to safe water and sanitation. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children 6 to 59 months of age was less than 5 % in all samples (range 0.3-4.4 %). Prevalence of acute malnutrition among women 15 to 49 years of age, defined as mid-upper arm circumference less than 23.0 cm, was also relatively low in all surveys (range 3.5-6.5 %). For both children and non-pregnant women, anemia prevalence was highest in Za'atri camp in Jordan (48.4 % and 44.8 %, respectively). Most anemia was mild or moderate; prevalence of severe anemia was less than or equal to 1.1 % in all samples of children and women. Despite the ongoing conflict, results from all surveys indicate that global acute malnutrition is relatively low in the assessed Syrian refugee populations. However, prevalence of anemia

  14. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. 31 CFR 103.188 - Special measures against Commercial Bank of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs Law Enforcement Access to Foreign Bank Records § 103.188 Special measures against Commercial Bank of Syria. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Commercial Bank of Syria means any branch, office, or subsidiary of Commercial Bank of Syria operating in Syria or in any other jurisdiction...

  16. Lebanon and Syria: between dissociation and spillover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lion Bustillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.

  17. LDC nuclear power: Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.E.S.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evolution of Egypt's nuclear program, the major factors that influenced the successive series of nuclear decisions, and the public debate over the far-reaching program attempted by the late President Anwar El-Sadat. Egypt's program is important, not only because it was the first Arab country to enter the nuclear age, but because it is an ambitious program that includes the installation of eight reactors at a time when many countries are reducing their commitment to nuclear power. Major obstacles remain in terms of human, organizational, and natural resource constraints. 68 references, 1 table

  18. Polio in Syria: Problem still not solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moujahed, Ahmad; Alahdab, Fares; Abolaban, Heba; Beletsky, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The reappearance of polio in Syria in mid-2013, 18 years after it was eliminated from the country, manifests the public health catastrophe brought on by the civil war. Among the lessons learned, this outbreak emphasizes the importance of increasing the international financial and logistical support for vaccine and immunization efforts, especially in countries suffering from conflicts. The lack of access to polio accredited laboratory or outright lack of laboratories in settings of conflict should be recognized allowing international surveillance to be strengthened by supplementing the laboratory definition with the clinical definition. In addition, it illustrates the imperative for the United Nations (UN) agencies involved in global health to be able to operate independently from governments during conflicts in order to provide adequate and efficient medical and humanitarian relief for civilians. Proper communicable disease surveillance and control, delivery of vaccinations, and other pivotal healthcare services to these areas require independence from governments and all military actors involved. Moreover, it shows the necessity to adequately support and fund the front-line nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are implementing the delivery of medical and humanitarian aid in Syria.

  19. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  20. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some current activities. In Egypt, IDRC-supported research focuses on job creation, shaping climate change adaptation, enhancing women's safety and political participation, and testing the power of social media to address sexual harassment. □ Job creation after the Arab Spring. Funding: $112,400. Duration: 2012–2013.

  1. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  2. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  3. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sheon-Young; Chang Ick-Soon; Kim Hark-Mahn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation). Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation) mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  4. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  5. Assault by burning in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadin, W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  6. Transitional Justice in Syria: Scenarios and Options | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and there has been widespread destruction to property and physical infrastructure. Syria's ... The project will provide research on key transitional justice issues, including methods to ... Syrian Center for Political and Strategic Studies SCPSS.

  7. Shaping Jihadism: How Syria Molded the Muslim Brotherhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krummrich, Seth

    2007-01-01

    In February 1982, Syrian President Assad's military and security forces surrounded, assaulted, and leveled the fourth largest city in Syria, Hama, killing between 5,000-25,000 Syrians in less than three weeks...

  8. Economic Liberalization in Syria: Prospects for Regime Stability and Democratization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Dana

    1998-01-01

    From 1985 to 1991, Syria experienced a severe economic crisis. In response, the regime of Hafiz al-Asad implemented economic reforms designed to move the Syrian economy toward free-market capitalism...

  9. A possible "grinder" from Tell Arbid, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Mindy C; Koliński, Rafał; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    2017-12-01

    Cereal grinding has been practiced in Mesopotamia since the Upper Palaeolithic. While evidence of cereal grinding is clear from the archaeological and textual records, what remains unclear is whether the activity leaves signs on the skeleton in the form of markers of occupational stress (MOS). A particular constellation of MOS (e.g., osteoarthritis, traumatic injuries, and accessory articular facets) has previously been used to infer the habitual grinding of grain. These same MOS were recently observed in the skeleton of a female discovered in the Middle Bronze Age cemetery at Tell Arbid, NE Syria. Through differential diagnosis our results suggest that it remains problematic to identify grain-processing activities from the skeleton, even when a bioarchaeological approach is carried out.

  10. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  11. Energy crises in Jordan aspect solution through adopting new policy in Jordan for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habali, S.; Maher, A.; Khadairi, G.; Ta'ani, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is a well known fact that Jordan has neither crude petroleum for usage nor crude petroleum reserves. Also, Jordan is of great needs for res (Renewable Energy Systems) applications since it depends totally in generation of its required energy on imported oil. This makes Jordan depends on other countries to supply it with oil, which in turn, depends on the world-market prices and availability of oil. This puts Jordan in real energy of RES applications simply and safely. official establishments, research centers, institutes and universities are trying to make the way as smooth as possible to reach this goal. One of these research centers is the REB at the University of Jordan established in the year 2000, to work in cooperation with KADDB. It was seen that the application of RES is in permanent increasing in Jordan through the last 10 years.(Author)

  12. Current Challenges of Organ Donation Programs in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney don...

  13. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Sadat began a policy of economically opening Egypt to the West which led to mandatory subsidy reductions on cooking fuel, rice , bread and other...by a distance from one another. The Emergency Law was not violated, but protestors could look around and see others wearing a black or white shirt...expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and

  14. Water loss in Mafraq governorate, Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Al-Oun, Salem; Hadad, Wafa; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Jordan is located in the Middle East and covers an area of 89,342 km2. The total population of Jordan is 6,508,271. Jordan is rapidly facing a severe water supply crisis due to greater demands on a finite quantity of available water. If current trends continue, it has been estimated that the country will experience a chronic water shortage by 2020. Despite these shortages, water loss in the distribution network is relatively high where it reaches 46%. Mafraq Governorate has the maximum water ...

  15. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outbreak largely involved adolescents and young adults. PMID:3260143

  16. Iraqi Refugees in Jordan: Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    OLWAN, Mohamed Y.

    2009-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Jordan has traditionally been one of the regions most welcoming countries toward Iraqis. The country received several flows of Iraqis during the last four decades, but most of Iraqis residing in Jordan fled the precarious situation prevailing in Iraq following the U.S. –led invasion of Iraq in March 2003. Jordan is not a party to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refuges or the 1967 Protocol on Refugee...

  17. Evaluation of water security in Jordan using a multi-agent, hydroeconomic model: Initial model results from the Jordan Water Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Rajsekhar, D.; Tilmant, A.; Avisse, N.; Harou, J. J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Mustafa, D.; Talozi, S.; Sigel, K.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Our work focuses on development of a multi-agent, hydroeconomic model for water policy evaluation in Jordan. Jordan ranks among the most water-scarce countries in the world, a situation exacerbated due to a recent influx of refugees escaping the ongoing civil war in neighboring Syria. The modular, multi-agent model is used to evaluate interventions for enhancing Jordan's water security, integrating biophysical modules that simulate natural and engineered phenomena with human modules that represent behavior at multiple levels of decision making. The hydrologic modules are developed using spatially-distributed groundwater and surface water models, which are translated into compact simulators for efficient integration into the multi-agent model. For the multi-agent model, we explicitly account for human agency at multiple levels of decision making, with agents representing riparian, management, supplier, and water user groups. Human agents are implemented as autonomous entities in the model that make decisions in relation to one another and in response to hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions. The integrated model is programmed in Python using Pynsim, a generalizable, open-source object-oriented software framework for modeling network-based water resource systems. The modeling time periods include historical (2006-2014) and future (present-2050) time spans. For the historical runs, the model performance is validated against historical data for several observations that reflect the interacting dynamics of both the hydrologic and human components of the system. A historical counterfactual scenario is also constructed to isolate and identify the impacts of the recent Syrian civil war and refugee crisis on Jordan's water system. For the future period, model runs are conducted to evaluate potential supply, demand, and institutional interventions over a wide range of plausible climate and socioeconomic scenarios. In addition, model sensitivity analysis is conducted

  18. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    Many Jordanians perceive formal politics in Jordan as illegitimate, corrupt and authoritarian. Thus, when searching for agents of change and reform, we have to look beyond the formal political system. In this regard, recent years have seen an increasing interest in civil society. However, this in...... the organisations' positions on a number of concepts often associated with "democratisation", namely women's rights, participation and pluralism, paying particular attention to the role of Islam......., this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...... and financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses...

  19. The economics of tobacco use in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an independent survey of tobacco use in Jordan following the methods and template of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Using data collected on cigarette use and cigarette prices, we estimated the price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan. We used a 2-part model of cigarette demand. In the first part, we estimate the impact of prices on the decision to smoke while controlling for individual demographic and environmental characteristics. Conditional on smoking, we then estimate the effect of price on the number of cigarettes smoked. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan was estimated to be -0.6. Smoking among women was found to be relatively unresponsive to price (elasticity of -0.01), whereas smoking among men was much more responsive to price (elasticity of -0.81). The price elasticity estimates suggest that significant increases in tobacco taxes are likely to be effective in reducing smoking in Jordan, particularly smoking among men.

  20. Detection and molecular characterization of tomato yellow leaf curl virus naturally infecting Lycopersicon esculentum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, M; Ratti, C; Abdel Aleem, E; Fattouh, F

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infections of tomato crops in Egypt were widely spread in 2014. Infected symptomatic tomato plants from different governorates were sampled. TYLCV strains Israel and Mild (TYLCV-IL, TYLCV-Mild) were identified by multiplex and real-time PCR. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the V1 and V2 protein genes, revealed ten TYLCV Egyptian isolates (TYLCV from TY1 to 10). Phylogenetic analysis showed their high degree of relatedness with TYLCV-IL Jordan isolate (98%). Here we have showed the complete nucleotide sequence of the TYLCV Egyptian isolate TY10, sampled from El Beheira. A high degree of similarity to other previously reported Egyptian isolates and isolates from Jordan and Japan reflect the importance of phylogenetic analysis in monitoring virus genetic diversity and possibilities for divergence of more virulent strains or genotypes.

  1. Bumper Stickers in Jordan: A Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Husam Al-Momani; Abdullah Ahmad Jaradat; Baker Mohammad Jamil Bani-Khair; Yousef Mohammad Khaled Alshaboul

    2017-01-01

    This study has set out to determine the structural patterns of bumper stickers in Jordan. This study is significant since it is the first one to approach bumper stickers structurally. The study has investigated 227 stickers, which can be considered the corpus of stickers in Jordan. The study has found that around 90% of the stickers are sentences, most of which are simple sentences expressed in the present tense. This combination of the three elements i.e. sentence, declarative and simple is ...

  2. Performance of Urban Transit in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hashem R. Al-Masaeid; Amir Shtayat

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transit has essential and active role for sustainable and balanced socio-economic and environmental development. This study investigated the performance of urban public transit services in three major cities in Jordan, including Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. Accessibility, mobility, productivity, punctuality, waiting time and comfort of public transit were investigated in the study. Data were obtained from Land Transport RegulatoryCommission of Jordan, municipalities, and ...

  3. 78 FR 43972 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Limited Syria Waiver for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (the SAA). The waiver authorizes..., agricultural production and food processing, power generation, oil and gas production, construction and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of...

  4. Kebijakan Politik Luar Negeri Arab Saudi terhadap Krisis Syria (2011-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Tjarsono, Idjang; khsan, Fadhly

    2015-01-01

    This research is intended to analyze the Saudi Arabia foreign policy toward Syria Crisis. In March 2011,Student of a School in Syria had written anti-governent slogan on their School€™s wall. Syrian Police arrested tand tortured them as punishment to the Student, this action cause Syria people movement to protest the government regime and ask for freedom and democratic transformation. In this case, Syria government tried to handle demonstration with the military action, This conflict increase...

  5. Oil in Syria between Terrorism and Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Almohamad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sale of oil and gas is one of the most important components of the Syrian economy. Unfortunately, since the discovery of these resources, the Syrian people have not benefited from the revenues earned. This study deals with the development of oil and gas production and the geographical distribution of fields, as well as production control, deterioration of production, refining and selling mechanisms, and the resulting health and environmental impacts following Islamic State’s (IS control of the majority of oilfields in Syria. Since summer 2015, IS controls 80% of the fields with a production of 65,000 barrels per day (b/d; the Assad regime controls 8% of fields with 10,000 b/d; and Kurdish forces dominate the remaining 12% with 25,000 b/d. IS depends on oil as a major source of financing for its military and civilian activities, and has also managed to set up an extensive network of middlemen in neighbouring territories and countries, with the aim of trading crude oil for cash and other resources. IS produces and exports within its areas of control and sells part of the oil to the Assad regime, and another portion to the liberated areas, as well as to Iraq and Turkey.

  6. The Thermal Waters of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, I.; Schäffer, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a recent field campaign all known natural hot spring areas of Jordan were investigated. Their hydrochemical properties including some fundamental isotopes were measured. Jordan's thermal springs can be classified into four thermal provinces (Nahr Al-Urdun, Hammamat Ma'in, Zara and Wadi Araba province), with similar hydrochemical and geologicalsettings. Thermal springs of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are situated on prominent faults. Reservoir temperature estimation with the Mg-corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometer indicates temperatures between 61 °C and 82 °C. Even taking into account the increased geothermal gradient at Dead Sea's east coast, the water's origin has to be considered mainly in deeper formations. Carbon dioxide, emitted by tertiary basalts situated close to the springs, may be responsible for gas lift. Mineralisation and δ18O-values indicate, that the spring water's origin is mostly fossil, i.e. not part of the global water cycle. It is shown, that ground water mining led to a shift within δ18O-ratio during the last 30 years due to a reduction of shallow water portion in addition to a dislocation of the catchment area. Ground water mining will impact the thermal spring productivity and quality anyway in the future. Present-day precipitation rates and catchment areas in Dead Sea region are by far not sufficient to explain relative high discharge. For the Hammamat Ma'in Province is documented, that discharge and maximal spring water temperatures are constant during the last 50 years, showing marginal seasonal oscillation and negligible influence by short-term climatic changes. The water characteristics of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are related. However, Zara waters feature systematically less ion concentration and lower temperatures due to a stronger influence of vadose water. The springs of Nahr Al-Urdun province are recharged mainly by shallow groundwater. Thus temperature and mineralisation is lower than at the springs at the Dead Sea

  7. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  8. Survey of patient dose in computed tomography in Syria 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharita, M H; Khazzam, S

    2010-09-01

    The radiation doses to patient in computed tomography (CT) in Syria have been investigated and compared with similar studies in different countries. This work surveyed 30 CT scanners from six different manufacturers distributed all over Syria. Some of the results in this paper were part of a project launched by the International Atomic Energy Agency in different regions of the world covering Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. The dose quantities covered are CT dose index (CTDI(w)), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (E) and collective dose. It was found that most CTDI(w) and DLP values were similar to the European reference levels and in line with the results of similar surveys in the world. The results were in good agreement with the UNSCEAR Report 2007. This study concluded a recommendation for national diagnostic reference level for the most common CT protocols in Syria. The results can be used as a base for future optimisation studies in the country.

  9. Current Challenges of Organ Donation Programs in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney donors and recipients with a focus upon transplants since 2003. Results: The kidney transplant rate has increased from 7 kidney transplants per million populations in 2002 to more than 17 in 2007. In the meantime, a substantial decline in the rate of kidney transplantation performed on Syrian nationals abroad was observed from 65% of all kidney transplantations in 1998 to less than 2% in 2007. Despite the prohibition to buy a kidney in Syria, vendors had found ways to sell their kidneys through disreputable brokers. Potential related donors were not inclined to donate kidneys to their relatives as long as kidneys could be bought from a non-related donor. By 2008, the percent of related donors in private sector represented only 8% of all donors, as compared to 50% in public hospitals. Consequently, in January 2008, the government of Syria issued a pronouncement restricting kidney transplantation to the public sector with a new national regulatory oversight of transplantation practices. Since this 2008 Administrative Order was promulgated, the kidney transplant rate in public hospitals has substantially increased by 55% with the establishment of new public transplant centers in the 3 largest cities in Syria. Conclusion: The recommendations of the Istanbul Declaration and the Revised Guiding Principles of the World Health Organization have yet to be implemented in Syria but the expansion of kidney transplants in the public sector is an important initial step for initiating a deceased

  10. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  11. Egypt-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2003-01-01

    .... Experience gained from Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercises proved valuable in easing coordination during the February 1991 Desert Storm operation to reverse Iraqi aggression against Kuwait. Egypt is seen by U.S...

  12. Egypt-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2005-01-01

    .... Experience gained from Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercises proved valuable in easing coordination during the February 1991 Desert Storm operation to reverse Iraqi aggression against Kuwait. Egypt is seen by U.S...

  13. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Ken' ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamashita, Yasuho [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Yoshida, Daisuke [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2017-09-15

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  14. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamashita, Yasuho; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  15. Quadratic Jordan formulation of quantum mechanics and construction of Lie (super)algebras from Jordan (super)algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, M.

    1979-05-01

    Quadratic Jordan formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of Jordan triple product is presented. This formulation extends to the case of octonionic quantum mechanics for which no Hilbert space formulation exists. Using ternary algebraic techniques we then five the constructions of the derivation, structure and Tits-Koecher (Moebius) algebras of Jordan superalgebras. (orig.) [de

  16. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  17. Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-06

    23 Appendixes Appendix A. Syrian History and Demographics...the OPCW-UN JIM, and the Secretary General appointed Virginia Gamba of Argentina to head the independent three-member panel that leads the JIM...Syrian History and Demographics Background: Syria, its People, and the Conflict The Syrian Arab Republic emerged as an independent country during the

  18. Epidemiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albache, Nizar; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2010-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considerable public health problem, but data on the prevalence and correlates of T2DM in Syria are scarce. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable estimates of the prevalence of T2DM in Syria. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in Aleppo, Syria (population 2.5 million), in 2006. The study was conducted on a random sample of 1168 subjects ≥25 years of age (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information regarding a personal history of diabetes and other risk factors was collected, followed by measurement of weight, height, and the waist:hip ratio (WHR). Of the 1168 participants, 806 provided fasting blood samples that were analyzed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c. The prevalence of T2DM based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥6.5% was 15.6% (11.2% self-reported; 5.0% diagnosed) and 14.8%, respectively. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG ≥110 and Syria. Many of those with T2DM are unaware of their disease and most have unsatisfactory control of their disease. © 2009 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, F.; Pediaditi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Syria is a country experiencing rapid change, undergoing a process of political and governance decentralisation, opening its markets to the private sector, and experiencing a rise in infrastructure development. In light of these economic growth targeted changes, knowledge of the status and capacity of the Syrian EIA system to ensure environmental protection becomes of paramount importance. Syria first introduced EIA as a Draft Decree in 1995, which was not formally adopted until 2008. To date, no structured evaluation of Syria's EIA system has been conducted, a knowledge gap addressed through this paper. The research presented herein comprises a review and comparative evaluation of Syrian legislation and procedures, to the EU EIA Directive and World Bank Operational Directive, as well as a series of interviews with Syrian stakeholders involved in EIA implementation. The investigation concluded that the new EIA provisions provide a sound legal basis. From interviews however, it was ascertained that EIA implementation faces a number of barriers such as, a lack of EIA integration into existing decision making and licensing processes and persistent exclusion of public projects from EIA. A number of recommendations are proposed, perceived necessary for the enhancement of EIA implementation in Syria.

  20. Forecasting future prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Mzayek, Fawaz; Rastam, Samer; M Fouad, Fouad; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Maziak, Wasim

    2013-05-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Estimating the future burden of diabetes is instrumental to guide the public health response to the epidemic. This study aims to project the prevalence of T2DM among adults in Syria over the period 2003-2022 by applying a modelling approach to the country's own data. Future prevalence of T2DM in Syria was estimated among adults aged 25 years and older for the period 2003-2022 using the IMPACT Diabetes Model (a discrete-state Markov model). According to our model, the prevalence of T2DM in Syria is projected to double in the period between 2003 and 2022 (from 10% to 21%). The projected increase in T2DM prevalence is higher in men (148%) than in women (93%). The increase in prevalence of T2DM is expected to be most marked in people younger than 55 years especially the 25-34 years age group. The future projections of T2DM in Syria put it amongst countries with the highest levels of T2DM worldwide. It is estimated that by 2022 approximately a fifth of the Syrian population aged 25 years and older will have T2DM.

  1. THE CIPA DATABASE FOR SAVING THE HERITAGE OF SYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Silver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA’s initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA’s strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.

  2. Civil society in Syria and Iran: activism in authoritarian contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.; Cavatorta, F.

    2013-01-01

    What are the dynamics of civic activism in authoritarian regimes? How do new social actors--many of them informal, "below the radar" groups--interact with these regimes? What mechanisms do the power elite employ to deal with societal dissidence? The authors of Civil Society in Syria and Iran explore

  3. The Cipa Database for Saving the Heritage of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Minna; Rinaudo, Fulvio; Morezzi, Emanuele; Quenda, Francesca; Moretti, Maria Laura

    2016-06-01

    CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA's initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA's strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.

  4. Nuclear knowledge dissemination in Syria: An INIS objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hallack, R.

    2009-01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and it is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. An overview of INIS products, services, philosophy and operation is given. INIS hold a database containing over 3 million references increasing at approximately 100,000 references per year and a collection of full text non-conventional, or grey literature that would be hard to obtain elsewhere. INIS national center in Syria is considered as a regional center for INIS inputs preparation. The center is responsible for selecting the relevant nuclear literature produced and published in Syria and preparing the national inputs and send them to INIS Secretariat to be included in the INIS database. The center also provides INIS services and products to users within Syria. Availability of INIS Database on CD-ROMs, which updated monthly, and the internet version, which updated weekly, and the NCL collections are also presented. Finally, translation activity of the center, such as INIS Booklet entitled Presenting INIS , INIS Database Interface, and the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic were mentioned. This was an in-kind contribution from the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria to support the valuable work of the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) section and will contribute significantly the dissemination of information among the researchers and scientists in the Arab Countries. (author)

  5. Discourses of reforms and questions of citizenship: the university in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cantini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordan, as almost all other countries in the broader Middle Eastern region, has witnessed in the last decades an impressive growth in the higher education sector, both in quantitative terms and in terms of an increased differentiation within the university system itself. Drawing from a fieldwork lasted one year and a half in Amman, between 2003 and 2005, and from subsequent periods of comparative research carried on in Egypt, in this paper I discuss the importance of the higher education system in Jordan, a small country usually taken as an example of the success of educational policies by the international agencies, and the social and political relevance the system has in its context. I explore the details of the university systems in the country, with the aim of showing, with an in-depth ethnographic analysis, how this system works, how it shapes and rebuilds the educated part of the population, and what the differences within the systems mean in the broader political and social context.

  6. CASE STUDY: Jordan — Dealing with the water deficit in Jordan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... So researchers in Jordan found a way to reuse household wastewater ... is using more water than can be replenished by rainfall and other natural sources. ... providing training in system maintenance and irrigation techniques.

  7. Communication Skills among Gifted Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarah, Yacoub Fareed

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the communication skills among gifted students in Jordan and to investigate the effect of gender and the level of students in acquiring these communication skills. A questionnaire was distributed among the sample of the study which comprised of (240) tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students from Al…

  8. CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN JORDAN: AN UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul; Ababneh, Faisal M; Khan, Md Hasinur Rahaman

    2017-08-10

    This study examined the recent level, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriage in Jordan using time-series data from the Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys (JPFHSs). According to the 2012 JPFHS, 35% of all marriages were consanguineous in Jordan in 2012. There has been a declining trend in consanguinity in the country, with the rate decreasing from a level of 57% in 1990. Most consanguineous marriage in 2012 were first cousin marriages, constituting 23% of all marriages and 66% of all consanguineous marriages. The data show that women with a lower age at marriage, older marriage cohort, larger family size, less than secondary level of education, rural place of residence, no employment, no exposure to mass media, a monogamous marriage, a husband with less than higher level of education and lower economic status, and those from the Badia region, were more likely to have a consanguineous marriage. Increasing age at marriage, level of education, urbanization and knowledge about the health consequences of consanguinity, and the ongoing socioeconomic and demographic transition in the country, will be the driving forces for further decline in consanguinity in Jordan.

  9. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  10. Geophysical survey at Tell Barri (Syria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Giovanni; Cella, Federico; Pierobon, Raffaella; Castaldo, Raffaele; Castiello, Gabriella; Fedi, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    A geophysical survey at the archaeological site of Tell Barri (Northeasterm Syria) was carried out. The Tell (Arab word for "hill") is 32 m high with a whole covered area of 37 hectares. The Tell, with its huge dimensions and with a great amount of pottery on the surface, is a precious area to study the regional history from IV mill. BC to Islamic and Medieval period. The geophysical study consisted in magnetic and electromagnetic measurements in the lower town area. The aim of this survey was to provide evidence of the presence of buried archaeological structures around an already excavated area. The wall structures in the Tell Barri are made by backed or crude clay bricks. The instrument used for the magnetic survey was an Overhauser-effect proton magnetometer (Gem GSM-19GF), in gradiometric configuration. The electromagnetic instrument used, Geonics Ltd. EM31, implements a Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Method (FDEM). It was used in vertical coils configuration, and this choice should grant a maximum theoretical investigation depth of about 6 m. Before starting the measurements on a larger scale, we conducted a magnetic and EM test profile on some already excavated, outcropping, baked bricks walls. Results were encouraging, because clear and strong magnetic and EM anomalies were recorded over the outcropping walls. However, in the survey area these structures are covered by 3 to 4 meters of clay material and the increased sensors-structures distance will reduce the anomalies amplitude. Moreover, the cover material is disseminated with bricks, basalt blocks and ceramics, all of which have relevant magnetic properties. After magnetic surveying some 50 m side square areas, we verified that unfortunately their effect resulted to be dominant with respect to the deeper wall structures, degrading too much the signal-to-noise ratio. The processing and analysis of magnetic data is however currently underway and will determine decisions about further use of this method

  11. Characterization of potato and tobacco isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus from Syria and the first report on CMV satellite RNA from potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad CHIKH ALI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV has been reported from potato production areas in Europe, USA, Japan and more frequently in regions with warm climates such as Egypt, India, Saudi Arabia and Syria. As it is considered as an uncommon virus in potato, the characterization of potato isolates of CMV is far behind those from other hosts. In addition to potato, CMV is a common virus infecting many crops in Syria, but nothing is known about its molecular characteristics. The present study aimed to characterize Syrian CMV isolates collected from potato and neighboring tobacco fields. All potato isolates of CMV (total of four co-infected potato plants with Potato virus Y (PVY which is the most frequent potato virus in Syria. According to the sequence analyses of the coat protein (CP coding region, three potato and three tobacco CMV isolates were found to be closely related regardless of the host species or geographic origin, and all belonged to the IA strain subgroup of CMV. A potato CMV isolate, PoCMV7-5, readily infected solanaceous plants in which it induced systemic infection, but was less infectious to other hosts including those of Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae. When inoculated on potato plants, PoCMV7-5 alone or with various PVY strains was able to cause local but not systemic infection in all potato cultivars inoculated. PoCMV7-5 contained heterogeneous variants of satellite RNA which varied in length due to A or/and T deletion/insertion at approximate nucleotide position 225‒240. This is the first report on CMV satellite RNA from potato.

  12. War is the Enemy of Health. Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine in War-Torn Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahloul, Mohammed Z; Monla-Hassan, Jaber; Sankari, Abdulghani; Kherallah, Mazen; Atassi, Bassel; Badr, Safwan; Abbara, Aula; Sparrow, Annie

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian crisis, now in its fifth year, has created an unprecedented strain on health services and systems due to the protracted nature of the warfare, the targeting of medics and health care infrastructure, the exodus of physicians and nurses, the shortage of medical supplies and medications, and the disruption of medical education and training. Within a few short years, the life expectancy of resident Syrians has declined by 20 years. Over the first 4 years of the conflict, more than 75,000 civilians died from injuries incurred in the violence. More than twice as many civilians, including many women and children, have died prematurely of infectious and noninfectious chronic diseases for want of adequate health care. Doctors, local administrators, and nongovernmental organizations are struggling to manage the consequences of the conflict under substandard conditions, often using unorthodox methods of health care delivery in field hospitals and remotely by telehealth communication. Much-needed medical supplies are channeled through dangerous routes across the borders from Lebanon, Jordan, and Turkey. Physicians in the United States and other western nations have helped Syrian physicians make the most of the situation by providing training on introducing innovations in technology and treatment. Portable ultrasound machines have been introduced and are being used extensively in the management of trauma and shock. This report, prepared by members of the Syrian American Medical Society, documents current needs for health care relief within Syria, focusing on pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine, and some of the efforts currently underway to meet those needs.

  13. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  14. Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A M; Sanner, B; Knoblich, K [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  15. Cultural Changes and Chronology from the Transition Late Bronze to Iron Age in Palestine: New Evidence from Tell Abu al-Kharaz, Jordan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    The 12th century BCE was a period of turmoil in the Southern Levant. The Canaanite Late Bronze Age culture - during several hundred years dominated by Egypt - received quite abruptly strong influences from the Eastern Mediterranean. The bearer of these new cultural elements, the so called Sea Peoples who included the Philistines, settled in Palestine after attacking Egypt. The changes that took place in Palestine are best reflected in the material culture which demonstrates Aegean and Cypriote elements. The exact date of their arrival in Palestine is a matter of recurrent discussion but the majority of scholars agree that it happened in the 12th century BCE. Philistine culture is usually associated with the area around today's Gaza. Nevertheless, the current excavations at Tell Abu al- Kharaz in the Transjordanian Jordan Valley provide evidence of Eastern Mediterranean/Philistine culture and a number of radiocarbon dates from first class find contexts. (author)

  16. Climate Change and Human Occupation in Denmark and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels; Jensen, Gitte; Limborg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    the main changes in human activities in the areas. It also confirms that the climatic histories of the sites are closely correlated - with strong ties to global causes of climate change. The NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) caused contrasting rainfall conditions in Denmark and Levant. Over a period of one......Classical sites for studies of human occupation and climatic changes in Denmark and Syria - have been re-examined. A detailed geological/geophysical mapping of selected sites and geochemical /palynological analysis of cores/profiles confirms that climate change has been the decisive factor behind....... The changes in human occupation in Syria and in Denmark both seems to correlate with the proxies of climate change esp. the change from Atlantic to Subboreal around 4000BC, the change from Subboreal to Subatlantic around 500 BC are marked in as well the climate record and archaeological records (monsoon...

  17. Pedagogy, Accountability, and Perceptions of Quality by Type of Higher Education in Egypt and Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Ragui; Badawy, Eslam; Krafft, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    A number of reasons have been proposed for the poor quality of higher education in the Arab world, including the poor incentive structures of public higher education institutions. The expansion of private higher education has been hailed as an important part of enhancing incentives and thus improving education quality. However, it is not clear…

  18. Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    the export of liquid petroleum gas ( LPG ) to Syria, since it is widely used by ordinary households for heating and cooking. Since new sanctions were...chemical weapons program suggests that nerve gas and mustard gas production and storage infrastructure is concentrated at facilities in and around Al...population). They inhabit agriculturally rich areas, which also contain several of Syria’s most valuable oil and natural gas fields. In an attempt to

  19. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), new record from Tartous, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali Yaseen

    2014-01-01

    The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Sun Tzu and Machiavelli in Syria: Attacking Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    known book The Prince , but also his lesser read work The Art of War (not to be confused with Sun Tzu’s The Art of War). Machiavelli understood the...Tzu located in Yurihama, Japan. Public domain photo. Right: Statue of Italian philosopher and writer Niccolo Machiavelli located in Florence... Machiavelli , juxtaposed to the normative trend the West has followed ever so ineffectually since the conflict began in Syria. Let me be clear upfront; this

  1. Modeling system for the rapid construction in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prefabrication is a manufacturing process conducted at a specialized facility, in which various materials are joined to form a component part of the final installation. Prefabrication techniques have been progressively adopted in the construction industry in various countries. The demand was at its peak in the early 1970s in Eastern and Western Europe for the construction of new towns. Worldwide, the highest precast levels in 1996 were located in Denmark (43%, the Netherlands (40%, Sweden and Germany (31%. In Asia, the precast levels in Japan and Singapore were about 15% and 8%, respectively, recently, the use of prefabrication is further encouraged to increase productivity and build ability. In Syria too, the first residential project in Damascus: the establishment of 2400 housing units in the year (77-80. Except that the rate of construction pre-cast in Syria is still not exceed 2% of Building of reinforced concrete. In order to participate in the reconstruction of Syria, after the destruction and devastation caused by the war over four years, this search evaluates successful international experiences in rapid construction technique, and modeled system that could serve the current Syrian reality. Introduction of this technology as a new method in the world of construction in Syria requires a good base, relying on the availability of the necessary raw materials and nearness of work site, as well as the need to replace old technology into modern technology, and analyzing the economic, social, environmental criteria, to make the decision about the best solution. Cost and time will form the most important indicators that will be analyzed and calculated, before the final model mode, in order to be able to use this system later in Syrian construction companies.

  2. Cheap Oil and the Impact on Rebuilding Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Syrian energy infrastructure will not be cost effective in the current oil pricing environment. I will present a quick overview of oil’s historic role...in the Syrian economy, followed by a synopsis of the current state of Syria’s oil infrastructure . An analysis of the impact of low oil prices on...similarities between countries, a specific comparison will be made to Yemen in an effort to predict the challenges that Syria will face when entering the

  3. Detection of Listeria in raw milk in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Abou-Younes, A.

    2010-01-01

    The 66 milk collected from all province of Syria, were examined for the presence of Listeria sp. using a several technique, and L. monocytogenes serotypes associated with human listeriosis were also identified in the product. The PCR based method identified 117 strains of Listeria, L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. gravi, and L. welshimeri. The API Listeria system identified 94% of the isolates whereas FTIR identification was 98% for all Listeria species. (author)

  4. The Resurgence of Al-Qaeda in Syria and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    56 According to Chris Looney, writing for Syria Comment: Its hostility towards minority groups, draconian legal system, and brutal repression of...Council on Foreign Relations, Washington, DC. Higgins , Eliot. Brown Moses blog, brown-moses.blogspot.com/. Institute for the Study of War, Washington...syrian-war/. 57. See www.joshualandis.com/blog/al-qaedas-governance-strate- gy-raqqa- chris -looney/. 58. Norman Benotman and Roisin Blake, Jabat al-Nusra

  5. Geophysical survey at archaeological sites in northeastern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mateiciucová, Inna; Milo, Peter; Tencer, Tomáš; Vlach, Marek

    2011-01-01

    From August 25 to September 4, 2008, geophysical surveys were carried out at the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron Age tell- and non-tell settlements in the Khabur region in Northeastern Syria (Syrian-Polish-Czech expedition) (Fig. 1). Four sites were prospected: Tell Arbid Abyad, Tell Arbid (West-hill), Khirbet Shane, Khirbet Bezi. The Scintrex Navmag SM-5 – Caesium Magnetometer was used for the measurement of the vertical gradient of the local magnetic field. The measurement resoluti...

  6. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  7. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  8. Patients' preferences for nurses' gender in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Alasad, Jafar A

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine patients' preferences for nurses' gender in Jordan. The public, private and university hospitals are represented by selecting one major hospital from each health sector. The sample size was 919 participants. Data were collected by a questionnaire through standardized individual interviews with patients. The findings of the study indicate that gender preferences are stronger among female patients than among male patients. Furthermore, two-thirds of female patients preferred female nurses, whereas only 3.4% preferred male nurses to care for them. In contrast, one-third of male patients' preferred male nurses, and only 10% preferred female nurses. The authors recommend that the high percentage of male nursing students need to be reconsidered by health policy-makers in Jordan.

  9. Traditional medicine in Syria: folk medicine in Aleppo governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachkar, Amal; Jaddouh, Ahmad; Elsheikh, Muhammad Salem; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The use of Traditional Arabic Medicine (TAM) for various diseases has been popular but scarcely studied in Syria. In the present study, we carried out ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research on the plants traditionally used to cure various diseases in northern Syria. The information was collected from the city and villages of the Aleppo governorate "Mohaafazah" in the north of Syria, collecting data directly on the basis of a detailed survey of inhabitants and herbalists. In this survey, we found that hundreds of plant species are still in use in TAM for the treatment of various diseases. We selected the most common 100 species, used in the treatment of more than 25 diseases. Among these plants, 53 are used for treating gastrointestinal disorders, 38 for respiratory system diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and cough, 34 for skin diseases, 21 for diabetes, 17 for kidney and urinary disorders, 16 for cardiac disorders, 14 for infertility and sexual impotency, 13 for treating liver diseases, 13 for several types of cancer, 9 for enhancing breast milk excretion, 8 for weight loss, 5 for reducing cholesterol, and three for weight gain. Plants were collected and identified: scientific Latin names, local names, the used parts of the plant, the herbal preparations and the local medical uses are described. Scientific literature concerning the activity of the investigated species is also reported and discussed according to their traditional uses.

  10. Military diplomacy and Russia’s policy in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Verbitskaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of problematic issues of the change of modern international relations system. It was found that such changes have affected the very essence of international relations: actors (the emergence of non-governmental actors, the importance of which is increasing, methods (the scope of military diplomacy has been expanded, objects (the nature of armed confl icts, both international and non-international, has been changed; the concept of international crime is determined by the danger posed to the international community. The author sets time frameworks of the changes, studies the characteristics of international system and its elements. The study focuses on the phenomenon of military diplomacy and criteria of its effectiveness. These criteria for the effectiveness of military diplomacy are applied to the Russia’s actions in Syria as part of its fi ght against international terrorism. The key documents of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic are analyzed. The research is focused on Russian measures in its war against terror in Syria. The author posits that Russia’s actions in Syria represent a model which refl ects the role of non-governmental actors in world politics, the methods used in international affairs and the specifi cs of international crimes.

  11. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Kalam, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15-18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females). Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  12. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. objective. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. materials and method. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15–18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females. Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. results. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. conclusion. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  13. Distribution of Fig Mosaic in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Ghandi H. Anfoka

    2000-01-01

    Fig mosaic (FM) is one of the most important diseases of figs in Jordan. A nationwide survey was conducted to determine the incidence and severity of this disease in trees and in seedlings propagated by cuttings in orchards and nurseries in 13 provinces and cities all over the country. Cultivars surveyed included Khdari, Mwazi, Zraki, Khartamani, Dafoori, Turki, Hamari, Esaili, Ajlouni, in addition to an Italian and a French cultivar. Disease severity varied from moderately severe...

  14. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers? awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that...

  15. Russia and Egypt: Reproachment Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mohamed Abdou Hassan Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of Egypt’s foreign policy after Muhammed Morsi’s dismissal as a result of the political crisis in July 2013. The author considers the shift in the regional balance of power and draws a special attention to political, military and economic aspects of the collaboration between Egypt and Russia.

  16. The Jordan structure of lie and Kac-Moody algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Teotonio Sobrinho, P.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    A precise relation between the structures of Lie and Jordan algebras by presenting a method of constructing one type of algebra from the other is established. The method differs in some aspects of the Tits construction and Jordan pairs. The examples of the Lie algebras associated to simple Jordan algebras M m (n ) and Clifford algebras are discussed in detail. This approach will shed light on the role of the realizations of Jordan algebras through some types of Fermi fields used in the construction of Kac-Moodey and Virasoro algebras as well as its relevance in the study of some aspects of conformal fields theories. (author)

  17. Jordan blocks and Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions associated to a double pole of the S-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.; Jauregui, A.

    2002-01-01

    An accidental degeneracy of resonances gives rise to a double pole in the scattering matrix, a double zero in the Jost function and a Jordan chain of length two of generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions of the radial Schrodinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in bound and resonant energy eigenfunctions plus a continuum of scattering wave functions ol complex wave number. In this bi orthonormal basis, any operator f (H r (l) which is a regular function of the Hamiltonian is represented by a complex matrix which is diagonal except for a Jordan block of rank two. The occurrence of a double pole in the Green's function, as well as the non-exponential time evolution of the Gamow-Jordan generalized eigenfunctions are associated to the Jordan block in the complex energy representation. (Author)

  18. Jordan First”: Tribalism, Nationalism and Legitimacy of Power in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Al Oudat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The significance of tribal identity in Jordan can be seen in the special relationship of traditional institutions with the state, which shows both the fluctuation in the concept of tribalism and how tribalism can be better understood by viewing it through the perspective of “Jordanian nationalism”. This relationship has created confusion on the local and national levels about how the state system should work through its institutions. Furthermore, the process of democratization is only a façade; Jordan is supposedly a constitutional monarchy, but in fact the king holds absolute power. The parliament’s autonomy has been minimal, in other words, the parliament is a symbol of democracy but is widely perceived as non-representative. This paper examines the regime security strategy “Jordan First” and the particularity of Jordanian identity through its relationship to the concept of a Jordanian national consensus.

  19. Egypt's fundamentalists say condoms immoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S

    1995-06-01

    The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  20. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Actions of the Government of Syria Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice... of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of...

  2. 78 FR 27299 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria...

  3. 75 FR 24777 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty...

  4. 76 FR 24791 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria... Government of Syria. To deal with this national emergency, Executive Order 13338 authorized the blocking of...

  5. 77 FR 27557 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria...

  6. : tous les projets | Page 430 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Israel. Programme: Fondements pour l'innovation. Financement total : CA$ 500,000.00. Gouvernance, réformes et islamisme au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord.

  7. : tous les projets | Page 431 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Israel. Programme: Fondements pour l'innovation. Financement total : CA$ 500,000.00. Gouvernance, réformes et islamisme au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord.

  8. All projects related to | Page 407 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-09-27

    End Date: September 27, 2010. Topic: INNOVATIONS, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, NORTH AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST, Economic and social development, AGRICULTURE. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Algeria, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Sudan. Total Funding: CA$ 83,773.00.

  9. All projects related to | Page 408 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-09-27

    End Date: September 27, 2010. Topic: INNOVATIONS, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, NORTH AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST, Economic and social development, AGRICULTURE. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Algeria, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Sudan. Total Funding: CA$ 83,773.00.

  10. Selected Economic Translations on Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-03-25

    not think it necessary to discuss in detail the premr ises and system of operation of the Council of Mutual Economia Aid, which in 1959 celebrates its...Switzerland, Turkey, South Africa, Jordan, Egypt, • Iceland, China, Mexico , Greece,, Sweden,, Israel, Austria,., . Lebanon*. Syria*, Pakistans and.the

  11. A Comparative Assessment of Higher Education Financing in Six Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Araby, Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the policies for financing higher education in six Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. It assesses the adequacy of spending on higher education, the efficiency with which resources are utilized, and the equity implications of resource allocations. Based on six detailed case studies, this…

  12. Bursting Bubbles between Sand and Sea: Teaching Dance on the Edge of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Krystel; Martin, Rosemary; Rowe, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    In July 2010, on the crest of "The Arab Spring," 28 independent dance teachers from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Malta, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon, gathered in Bodrum, Turkey, for the Symposium on Dance Education in Arabic Speaking Countries. This article reflects on the symposium experience, examining the sociopolitical…

  13. Teaching Islam and Arabic over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Chaim

    2004-01-01

    Arabic is the language of the Arab minority in Israel, the Palestinian Authority, and the neighbors of Israel (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon). Hence, learning Arabic and Arab culture is very important to promoting understanding between Arabs and Jews. The concept of using the internet to promote learning and communication between students in…

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Intended Curriculum and Its Presentation in 10th Grade Chemistry Textbooks from Seven Arabic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddoor, Rouba; Al-Amoush, Siham; Eilks, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the nature of intended secondary chemistry curricula, as they are represented by chemistry textbooks, from seven Arabic countries: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Syria. The curricula are evaluated through analysis of the officially approved 10th grade chemistry textbooks used nationwide in all…

  15. Electricity in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKie, Alan

    1999-06-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Market Private; Power politics: the role of the private sector; Resource base and power options; Finance: Putting together the deal; Regional integration private; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey Private North Africa; Algeria; Egypt Private; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia GCC and Yemen; Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Emirates; Yemen Private. (Author)

  16. All projects related to | Page 123 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this project will promote evidence-based research and analysis of Arab militaries. Topic: MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, Civil society, Democracy, POLICY MAKING. Region: Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, ...

  17. Factors in the Introduction of a New Communications Technology Into Syria and Turkey: Background Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCompte, Gare

    Syria and Turkey differ in styles of government and patterns of media use. Syria is governed by a military junta; factionalism, intolerance of opposition, and the lack of any options except the use of force to gain political power, have inhibited political stability. Syrian newspapers have low credibility and are characterized by low standards,…

  18. 78 FR 36223 - Extension and Redesignation of Syria for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... children died in military offensives, sniper fire, attacks on protests, and massacres. Children have... Postal Service. Immigration Services, Attn: TPS Syria, P.O. Box 6943, Chicago, IL 60680-6943. You are... Syria, 131 S. Dearborn 3rd Floor, Chicago, IL 60603-5517. If you were granted TPS by an Immigration...

  19. Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria. The development of civil society institutions in Syria has been largely controlled by the governing regime, never reaching the level of inclusion, participation, and pluralism needed to achieve an open and democratic society. In order for Syrians to work towards an inclusive and ...

  20. Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in the Term of Social Geograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BENEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical process between Syria and Turkey has always high tension. According to Turkey, Syria is the country,which has hosted the Turkish enemies, which causes problems in the sharing of water resources and geographically it is seen as ‘’enemy country’’ because of interfering in Turkey's territorial integrity; According to Syria, Turkey is "enemy" is because it doesn’t share water resources in a fair way and as supporters of western countries, claiming rights over their territory (Hatay. In short, for many years strained relations with Syria-Turkey relations , by signing of the Treaty of Adana in 1998, good relations has been established with unpredictable speed in a short time . Escalating positive relations between Turkey and Syria in the years 1998-2011, and relations has again strained the outbreak of the Syria Civil War in 2011, and was even worse off period before 1998. Therefore the main goal of this study "Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in terms of Social Geography" is to examine the dynamics of it. For this purpose, treaties defining the Turkey-Syria relationship, the protocols, briefings given by officials were examined. Historical background of the two countries' relations in terms of social geography has been tried to put forward in chronological order

  1. Modeling of groundwater flow for Mujib aquifer, Jordan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jordan is an arid country with very limited water resources. ... groundwater flow model to simulate the behavior of the flow system under ... decision makers and planners in selecting optimum management schemes suitable for arid and semi- arid regions. 2. Methodology ..... This work was supported by the Jordan University.

  2. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  3. Wastewater irrigation in Jordan: A mismatch in macro nutrient provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, S.; Huibers, F.P.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    By using sewage nutrients in irrigation, both the costs for nutrient removal and costs for fertilisers at the farm can be distinctly reduced. The present study describes the wastewater use scheme in the Seil Al-Zarqa and Middle Jordan Valley regions, Jordan. Through field studies, information on

  4. Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Nayef Ibrahim; Menchaca, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study explored barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning in the country of Jordan as indicated by participating stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. Jordan is a developing country in the heart of the Middle East with both tremendous opportunity as well as significant…

  5. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  6. Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassine, Nadia Belhaj

    2012-01-01

    The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...

  7. A fifth major genetic group among honeybees revealed in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Bertrand, Bénédicte; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Alburaki, Ali; Sheppard, Walter Steven; Garnery, Lionel

    2013-12-06

    Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon (n = 169) and Iraq (n = 35) based on 14 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the context of reference populations from throughout the Old World (n = 732). Our data suggest that the Syrian honeybee Apis mellifera syriaca occurs in both Syrian and Lebanese territories, with no significant genetic variability between respective populations from Syria and Lebanon. All studied populations clustered within a new fifth independent nuclear cluster, congruent with an mtDNA Z haplotype identified in a previous study. Syrian honeybee populations are not associated with Oriental lineage O, except for sporadic introgression into some populations close to the Turkish and Iraqi borders. Southern Syrian and Lebanese populations demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity compared to the northern populations. This study revealed the effects of foreign queen importations on Syrian bee populations, especially for the region of Tartus, where extensive introgression of A. m. anatolica and/or A. m. caucasica alleles were identified. The policy of creating genetic conservation centers for the Syrian subspecies should take into consideration the influence of the oriental lineage O from the northern Syrian border and the large population of genetically divergent indigenous honeybees located in southern Syria.

  8. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  9. Chemical and environmental isotopes study of precipitation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.; Abou Zakhem, B.

    2009-02-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were monitored at 12 stations distributed over the entire region in Syria for a period of 4 years from December 1999 to April 2003. Amount of precipitation and mean air temperature of rain monthly were also recorded. The conductivity of rain waters varies between 35 μ/cm in the mountainous stations and 336 μ/cm at Deir Az-Zor station. Excepted Tartous station, the mean value of Cl in the rainfall in all station is 3.8 mg/l. The seasonal variations in δ 18 O are smaller at west stations than to the east stations due to low seasonal temperature variations. All stations are characterized by water lines with slopes significantly lower than GMWL, except Bloudan, suggesting the influence of local factors on the isotopic composition of the precipitation. d-excess values decrease from 19% in the western part to 13% in the eastern part of Syria, indicating the influence of the precipitation generated by the air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea over Syria. A reliable altitude effect represent by depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.21, and -1.47, per 100 m elevation of 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively. Monthly tritium activity and seasonal variations pattern are low in the west stations than at the east stations. The weighted mean tritium values are between 3 to 9 TU during 2000-2003, and it is increasing with distance from the Syrian coast by 1 TU /100 Km. (author)

  10. Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Five workshops held in Turkey and Egypt will discuss five topics: transitional justice and judicial reform; political reform; security reform; economic reform; and reforms to health systems and education. Each of these workshops will result in policy papers offering practical recommendations about the transition process and ...

  11. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Very little information is available to IAEA on the geology and uranium potential of Syria. In 1975 a contract was awarded to Huntings Geology and Geophysics Ltd by the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources to carry out a study of the country's mineral resources with particular reference to phosphate uranium, chrome and industrial materials. The results of this survey are not known. Apart from the assumption of some possibility of uranium recovery as a by-product from phosphate production it is assumed that the Speculative Potential is likely to be less than 1000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  12. Geographical distribution of β-globin gene mutations in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hossam; Moasses, Faten; Dabboul, Amir; Mukhalalaty, Yasser; Bakoor, Ahmad Omar; Al-Achkar, Walid; Jarjour, Rami A

    2018-04-11

    Objectives β-Thalassemia disease is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene. This is considered as one of the common genetic disorders in Syria. The aim of this study was to identify the geographical distribution of the β-thalassemia mutations in Syria. Methods β-Globin gene mutations were characterized in 636 affected patients and 94 unrelated carriers using the amplification refractory mutations system-polymerase chain reaction technique and DNA sequencing. Results The study has revealed the presence of 38 β-globin gene mutations responsible for β-thalassemia in Syria. Important differences in regional distribution were observed. IVS-I.110 [G > A] (22.2%), IVS-I.1 [G > A] (17.8%), Cd 39 [C > T] (8.2%), IVS-II.1 [G > A] (7.6%), IVS-I.6 [T > C] (7.1%), Cd 8 [-AA] (6%), Cd 5 [-CT] (5.6%) and IVS-I.5 [G > C] (4.1%) were the eight predominant mutations found in our study. The coastal region had higher relative frequencies (37.9 and 22%) than other regions. A clear drift in the distribution of the third common Cd 39 [C > T] mutation in the northeast region (34.8%) to the northwest region (2.5%) was noted, while the IVS-I.5 [G > C] mutation has the highest prevalence in north regions. The IVS-I.6 [T > C] mutation had a distinct frequency in the middle region. Ten mutations -86 [C > G], -31 [A > G], -29 [A > G], 5'UTR; +22 [G > A], CAP + 1 [A > C], Codon 5/6 [-TG], IVS-I (-3) or codon 29 [C > T], IVS-I.2 [T > A], IVS-I.128 [T > G] and IVS-II.705 [T > G] were found in Syria for the first time. Conclusions These data will significantly facilitate the population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in Syrian population.

  13. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasaan, A.A.; Dann, T.F.; Brunet, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  14. Evaluation of dizziness at Jordan University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Baqi, Khader J.; Moamed, Faisal I.; Shubair, Kandil S.; Sarhan, Yusuf S.; Tawalbeh, Mohmed I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed prospectively to the dizzy patients in the Neurotology Outpatient Clinic at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan during the period 1993-2000 and to discuss the prevalence and and etiology of dizziness. Data were collected from 108 patients (52 male and 56 female) with a mean age of 45.6-years. diagnosis was made on the basis of history, physical, otolarygological and neurological examination and confirmed by relevant investigation including laboratory, radiological and audio vestibular tests. Secure diagnosis was made in 98% of patients (14% had one cause alone and 84% had multiple causes). Cardivascular disorders accounted for 31.5% of primary and 49% of secondary causes, perpheral vestibular disorders, 25% of primary and 3% of secondary causes, central vestibular disorders 17% of primary and 9% of secondary causes, metabolic endocrine 13% of primary and 38% of secondary causes and psychogenic 4.6% of primary and 6.5% of secondary causes.Our findings demonstrate that vertigo is most common subtype of dizziness (50%). Multiple causes are more prevalent in older age and single cause is more prevalent in younger age. Cardiovascular was the most common cause of dizziness followed by vestibular disorders, metabolic and cervical osteoarthritis. Vestibular disorders are primary causes and non vestibular are predominantly secondary causes of dizziness. Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and cervical causes are major secondary contributionsto dizziness. We recommend a a multi disciplinary setting and application of a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment approach without unnecessary protracted investigative schemeand installment of rehabilitatioon facilities. (author)

  15. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging experience in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadidy, Azmy M.; Jallad, Dana G.; Haroun, Azmi A.; Mahafza, Waleed S.; Ajlouni, Kamel M.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the pituitary findings as demonstrated on MRI and to compare the results with the data published in the literature. One thousand, one hundred and thirty-eight pituitary MRIs with and without intravenous contrast media (gadolinium) were performed over 6 years from 2001 to 2007 in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan. The patients were referred from various departments and were evaluated for pituitary, other sellar, and juxtasellar abnormalities. The results were compared with those in the published literature. Four hundred and eight-three normal scans were excluded from the study. The remaining 655 were abnormal, pituitary adenoma was detected in 327 (49.9%), microadenoma was present in 213 (32.5%), and macroadenoma in 114 (17.4%). Partial empty sella was seen in 157 (24%), diffuse pituitary gland enlargement in 98 (14.9%), ectopic pituitary posterior lobe in 13 (2%), and other findings in 31 (4.7%). The incidence of pituitary adenoma was equal in both genders; however, microadenoma was more common, affected a younger age group, and was predominately seen in females. The other parameters showed agreement with the published literature. (author)

  16. Bumper Stickers in Jordan: A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Al-Momani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has set out to determine the structural patterns of bumper stickers in Jordan. This study is significant since it is the first one to approach bumper stickers structurally. The study has investigated 227 stickers, which can be considered the corpus of stickers in Jordan. The study has found that around 90% of the stickers are sentences, most of which are simple sentences expressed in the present tense. This combination of the three elements i.e. sentence, declarative and simple is what facilitated the job of drivers to write their opinions, attitudes, beliefs, etc. and is what made it possible for the others i.e. drivers and pedestrians to understand the stickers. The study has also found that imperative and negative imperatives are quite common since the stickers are not addressed to the writer/driver rather to the others so as to inform them about his state, his miserable condition, his opinions, his loyalties, and his vehicle. The stickers are addressed to others to demand certain behaviors from them such as driving wisely, not challenging the sticker writer, respecting him if he is driving a truck or a lorry, etc.

  17. Jordan cells of periodic loop models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Jordan cells in transfer matrices of finite lattice models are a signature of the logarithmic character of the conformal field theories that appear in their thermodynamical limit. The transfer matrix of periodic loop models, T N , is an element of the periodic Temperley–Lieb algebra EPTL N (β,α), where N is the number of sites on a section of the cylinder, and β = −q − q −1 = 2cos λ and α the weights of contractible and non-contractible loops. The thermodynamic limit of T N is believed to describe a conformal field theory of central charge c = 1 − 6λ 2 /(π(λ − π)). The abstract element T N acts naturally on (a sum of) spaces V-tilde N d , similar to those upon which the standard modules of the (classical) Temperley–Lieb algebra act. These spaces known as sectors are labeled by the numbers of defects d and depend on a twist parameter v that keeps track of the winding of defects around the cylinder. Criteria are given for non-trivial Jordan cells of T N both between sectors with distinct defect numbers and within a given sector. (paper)

  18. Mapping sexual harassment in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-28

    Mar 28, 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at ... HarassMap's map of Cairo shows the location and type of incidents that ... HarassMap: Mapping Sexual Harassment and Violence in Egypt.

  19. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  20. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

  1. Salafis in Political Life of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Сабери Фахиме

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's world Salafism, which has evolved from insignificant and apolitical to the very influential movement is the subject of active discussion. This article discusses and analyzes the historical background, the conditions of formation and propagation of Salafi movement in Egypt. In addition, the author disclosed the role and the place of this movement in modern political life of Egypt.

  2. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  3. First indications of high slip rates on active reverse faults NW of Damascus, Syria, from observations of deformed Quaternary sediments: Implications for the partitioning of crustal deformation in the Middle Eastern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob; Daoud, Mohamad; Bridgland, David R.

    2012-05-01

    Recent research on rates of crustal shortening within the Palmyra Fold Belt (PFB) in Syria has drawn attention to the possibility that reverse faults near the city of Damascus, which adjoins the SW PFB, have significant slip rates. We infer that the Damascus Fault, directly adjacent to the city, has developed a throw of ~ 2500 m and report the discovery of the en echelon Bassimeh Fault, with a throw of ~ 1000 m, this fault being revealed by warping of the local bedrock and of a terrace, of inferred Late Pleistocene age, of the River Barada. We estimate that this set of faults became active circa 0.9 Ma, synchronous with changes to the pattern of faulting previously reported farther southwest in the northern Jordan Valley. Vertical slip rates on the Bassimeh and Damascus faults of ~ 1.1 and ~ 2.8 mm a- 1, respectively, are thus estimated. We also infer that large historical earthquakes, previously attributed to left-lateral faulting farther west on the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ), probably occurred on this set of reverse faults; these faults thus represent a significant hazard to the city of Damascus. Our observations indicate that as much as half of the northward motion of the Arabian plate, relative to the African plate, may be 'absorbed' by crustal shortening within the PFB, potentially explaining the low slip rate recently measured geodetically on the northern DSFZ in western Syria.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Some Capparis L. Species Growing in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Al- Safadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the genetic diversity and relationships among Capparis species growing in Syria using IRAP and ISSR techniques. Forty-seven samples of three Capparis species genotypes were collected from 21 different locations in Syria. The genotypes were morphologically identified based on the descriptions available in the literature. When IRAP technique was used, an average of 71.5% of the amplified fragments were polymorphic compared to 82.04% in ISSR. Morphological characterization along with the cluster and PCoA analyses of the data divided the studied genotypes into three groups. The groups included genotypes identified as Capparis spinosa L, C. sicula Duh., and C. aegyptia Lam. Based on the morphological description, molecular studies and statistical analyses of this study, C. aegyptia could be suggested as a separate species and not a varietal rank of C. spinosa(C. spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.. Two samples (Alep1 and Idl were not placed in any of the three distinctive groups, despite their closeness morphologically to C. spinosa. In PCoA analysis, sample Alep1 came between C. sicula and C. spinosa and Idl was placed between C. sicula and C. aegyptia. Although hybridization between Capparis species could occur, it was not clear from the present study if these two genotypes were hybrids.

  5. Determination of lead 210 atmospheric fluxes in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shaik Khalil, H.

    2001-01-01

    Lead 210 atmospheric fluxes were determined by collecting 51 profiles from Syrian soil during 1998. Lead 210 fluxes in Syria calculated from lead 210 inventory in soil ranged from 15 Bq.m -2 .y -1 and 407 Bq.m -2 .y -1 with an average value of 128 Bq.m -2 .y -1 . the highest fluxes were found to be in Hama area due to the Gaab fault, which is considered as a radon source in the area. In addition, fluxes were also high in most sites, which are located in Syria valleys and around the lakes. Moreover, the study has indicated that there is no linear relation between lead 210 flux values and other parameters such as annual rainfall and bulk density of the soil. On the other hand, an effect, of those two factors on lead 210 distribution with depth has been observed. In addition, the results of variable lead 210 fluxes from site to another have proved that it is necessary, in order to obtain a representative mean value of lead 210 flux obtained in this study is within the worldwide range for lead 210 flux. (Author)

  6. Syria: health in a country undergoing tragic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Bahelah, Raed; Fouad, Fouad M; Coutts, Adam; Wilcox, Meredith; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    To document the ongoing destruction as a result of the tragic events in Syria, to understand the changing health care needs and priorities of Syrians. A directed examination of the scientific literature and reports about Syria before and during the Syrian conflict, in addition to analyzing literature devoted to the relief and rebuilding efforts in crisis situations. The ongoing war has had high direct war casualty, but even higher suffering due to the destruction of health system, displacement, and the breakdown of livelihood and social fabric. Millions of Syrians either became refugees or internally displaced, and about half of the population is in urgent need for help. Access to local and international aid organizations for war-affected populations is an urgent and top priority. Syrians continue to endure one of the biggest human tragedies in modern times. The extent of the crisis has affected all aspects of Syrians' life. Understanding the multi-faceted transition of the Syrian population and how it reflects on their health profile can guide relief and rebuilding efforts' scope and priorities.

  7. Radio spectrometric survey of un-surveyed areas in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R; Jubeli, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The values and distribution of the radioelements e U, e Th, % K and Ur units in the surface geological formations of the west and south sectors of Syrian region, were estimated using carbone gamma ray spectrometric survey. The radiometric maps were prepared, as well as, many geological profiles, cross sections studied in different locations and geochemical samples were analyzed by laboratory gamma ray spectrometry and by x-ray diffractometry, the results of the all sets were compared. In general, the survey shows, low radioelement concentrations in the area, especially on basic rocks (Jabal Al-arab, Hawran) south Syria, and on ultra basic rocks (ophiolitic complex) north-west Syria, but there are some separate anomalous spots were connected with phosphate rocks, detected on cretaceous and Palaeogene age. Some times we noticed high radioelement concentrations haloes associated with fractured zones were already arise from secondary uranium mineralization, as a result of solutions movement through fissures in carbonatic and/or chalk like limestone rocks. finally, the obtained concentrations, represent a background values which has no significant importance for uranium exploration point of view. (author)

  8. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among adults in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-12-01

    This report provides the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Syria, where such data are still scarce. A population-based household survey was conducted in Aleppo (population >2.5 million), involving 1,168 subjects ≥25 years old (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information about socio-demographics, personal behavior, and other CVD risk factors was collected. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained. The prevalence of clinical risk factors of CVD (ClinRFs) was 45.6% for hypertension, 43.2% for obesity, 21.9% for hypercholesterolemia and 15.6% for diabetes. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors (BehRFs) was 82.3% for physical inactivity, 39.0% for smoking, and 33.4% for unhealthy diet. All ClinRFs increased with age, while gender was associated only with obesity and smoking. Education was associated with obesity and diabetes (P Syria have some of the world's highest prevalence of CVD risk factors. Unhealthy behaviors and social norms unfavorable to women may explain some of such risk profiles.

  9. Regulatory control in the rehabilitation of contaminated sites in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Suman, H.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this paper is concerning the regulatory control set by the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) for the contaminated sites with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in the oil industries in the northeast of Syria. These sites lie in a desert region with poor population density and low occupancy. The decision was made to use the activity concentration of 226 Ra per unit mass as a measure to identify the need for cleanup. Two limits were set for this purpose so that contamination concentration above the higher limit is defined as waste that has to be excavated from the site, while contamination concentration between the two limits can be dealt with on site. Contamination concentration below the lower limit was looked at as acceptable. Remediation plan to transfer the contaminated soil, with radium concentration over the higher limit, to an engineered disposal pit was adopted. Proper stabilisation measures and environmental monitoring programme were requested by the AECS and considered as essential parts of the remediation plan. (author)

  10. Improvement of wood quality used in Syria by irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakarji, E. H.

    2002-06-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) have been prepared with five low-grade woods, native to Syria, and with Okoume (aucoumea klaineana pierre) imported to Syria in large quantities. Three monomer systems; acrylamide, butylmethacrylate, and styrene were used. polymerization was induced at various radiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy) to study the role of radiation doses using a 60 Co gamma radiation source. Some physical properties of WPC, namely polymer loading and compression strength or tensile strength of the obtained wood polymer composites (WPC) were studied. The effect of the additives, sulfuric acid (H + ), N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), trimethyolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), urea (U), lithium nitrate (LiNo 3 ), copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and co-additives on monomer system polymerization were also investigated. Methanol, water and water/methanol mixtures were used as the swelling agents. In general, the use of additives and co-additives brought about an enhancement of tensile strength or compression strength and polymer loading of the composites. In some cases, additives also lowered the monomer concentration and the gamma radiation dose required for polymerization (author)

  11. A series of civilian fatalities during the war in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karaarslan, Bekir; Demirkıran, Dua Sümeyra; Zeren, Cem; Arslan, Muhammet Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    A considerable number of deaths due to firearm injuries have occurred during wars all over the world. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate demographic characteristics and injury properties of cases died during civil war in Syria. The postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 321 forensic deaths occurred between January and December 2012 were analyzed, retrospectively. Of the 321 forensic deaths,186 cases were injured and died in the civil war in Syria and, therefore, included in the scope of the study. Four cases died by natural causes or traffic accidents were excluded. Cases were most commonly (n=73, 39.2%) aged between 21 and 30 years, and 21.5% (n=40) of cases aged under 20 years. Of females, 68.8% (n=11) were children and young adults under 20 years of age. An overwhelming majority of deaths (n=125, 67.2%) were caused by explosive and shrapnel injuries, followed by (n=49, 26.3%) gunshot injuries related deaths. This study indicated that a significant proportion of those who died after being injured in the Syrian war were children, women and elderly people. The nature and localization of the observed injuries indicated open attacks by military forces regardless of targets being civilians and human rights violations.

  12. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  13. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, E.J.

    1989-12-01

    We examine the bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology. We compute the leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. We find that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum, at late times the nucleation rate is time independent. 21 refs

  14. Mathematical instrumentation in fourteenth-century Egypt and Syria the illustrated treatise of Najm al-Din al-Misri

    CERN Document Server

    Charette, F

    2003-01-01

    An illustrated Arabic treatise, with an English translation and detailed commentary, on the construction of over 100 various astronomical instruments, many of which are otherwise unknown to specialists. It was composed by Najm al-Din al-Misri, a rather shadowy figure, in Cairo around 1330 CE.

  15. BANGLES, BEADS AND BEDOUIN: EXCAVATING A LATE OTTOMAN CEMETERY IN JORDAN (ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany J. Walker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Transjordan witnessed significant social and economic changes in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. With the loss of agriculturally-rich territory in Europe, the Ottomans sought to make up for their economic losses by regaining control of their Arab provinces, some regions of which had been autonomous for nearly three hundred years. The application of Tanzimat legislation to the Transjordan was a success, to a large degree, in that it secured tax revenues and contributed to the general security of the region.The application of the 1858 Land Law, in which land was registered in a proprietor’s name for tax purposes, was particularly effective in transforming grazing land to productive agricultural properties. It, moreover, had a significant impact on Transjordanian society which was tribal and largely nomadic. The introduction of direct rule in the region by the Ottoman government transformed traditional tribal life, resulting in the settlement of formerly nomadic groups, the transition to an agrarian way of life, and the opening up of markets formerly inaccessible to indigenous tribal groups. A variety of urban, manufactured goods became readily available to all sectors of society throughout this frontier zone.“Bangles, Beads and Bedouin: Excavating a Late Ottoman Cemetery inJordan” considers the transformation of tribal funerary practices in the Belqa’ of central Jordan. The paper highlights the burial ground of one Transjordanian tribe, identified as the Adwan, excavated at Tall Hisban in 1998. Dated to the late nineteenth century on the basis of coins, this mass grave was one of the last of its kind, as permanent cemeteries replaced seasonal burial grounds by the early twentieth century. The composition of theburial goods indicates that members of the tribe participated in an exchange network that embraced the Red Sea, Greater Syria, and Europe.

  16. Meet EPA Scientist Jordan West, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan West, Ph.D. is an aquatic ecologist at EPA. Her areas of expertise include freshwater & marine ecology, climate change impacts and adaptation, resilience and threshold theory, environmental risk assessment, expert elicitation & stakeholder processes

  17. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  18. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayoya, J.B.

    2003-10-01

    Using the Jordan algebras method, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of Type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of V M (n, R) studied by Gelbart and Godement-Jacquet, and the case of V Herm(3, O s ) studied by Muro. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one to one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of Type H. (author)

  19. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... while the available sources of water are limited and de-. *Corresponding author. ... 186223 m3/d inflow to Asamra wastewater treatment plant. (ASTP) (Bataineh et al., ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar M, ...

  20. Genetic diversity of indigenous chicken ecotypes in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... DNA polymorphism of 4 indigenous chicken ecotypes was assessed in Jordan using random amplified ... Such technology is random amplified polymorphic DNA. (RAPD) ..... ping from genetics lab for animal and plant at MU.

  1. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using morphological and molecular markers. Mohammad S Jawarneh, Mohammad H Brake, Riyadh Muhaidat, Hussein M Migdadi, Jamil N Lahham, Ahmad Ali El-Oqlah ...

  2. Survey of Micro- and Small Enterprises in Jordan (2015) [PUBLIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Jordan Local Enterprise Support Project (LENS) conducted a survey of MSEs in 2014-2015 to better understand Jordanian enterprises and to assess the major...

  3. Jordan's algebra of a facially homogeneous autopolar cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, Jean; Iochum, Bruno

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that a Jordan-Banach algebra with predual may be canonically associated with a facially homogeneous autopolar cone. This construction generalizes the case where a trace vector exists in the cone [fr

  4. Distribution of Fig Mosaic in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Fig mosaic (FM is one of the most important diseases of figs in Jordan. A nationwide survey was conducted to determine the incidence and severity of this disease in trees and in seedlings propagated by cuttings in orchards and nurseries in 13 provinces and cities all over the country. Cultivars surveyed included Khdari, Mwazi, Zraki, Khartamani, Dafoori, Turki, Hamari, Esaili, Ajlouni, in addition to an Italian and a French cultivar. Disease severity varied from moderately severe to extremely severe with leaf malformation and fruit drop FM was found in all provinces. Incidence of FM, averaged over trees of all cultivars and all age categories, was 95.3%. Fig trees 3 years and older had the highest disease incidence, ranging from 93.3% to 100% in the different orchards. The Esaili cultivar had the lowest incidence ranging between 50% and100%, with an average of 76.5%. The highest FM incidence was on Dafoori. Of the most common cultivars, Khdari was the most susceptible. Jerash province had the highest percentage (12.5% of fig seedlings and trees in the most severe disease category. The highest percentage (27.8% of healthy fig seedlings and trees was in Irbid province. This paper reports the incidence of FM in various local and imported fig cultivars of different ages, and relates the spread of the disease to the method of fig propagation practiced in Jordan. Suggested solutions for the problem, which include the introduction of disease and pest free fig seedlings derived from tissue culture and the establishment of new rules and regulations to prevent the spread of the disease are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of dizziness at Jordan University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Baqi, Khader J; Mohammed, Faisal I; Shubair, Kandil S; Sarhan, Yusef S; Tawalbeh, Mohamed I

    2004-05-01

    This study was performed prospectively to evaluate the dizzy patients in the Neurotology Outpatient clinic at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan during the period 1993-2000 and to discuss the prevalence and etiology of dizziness. Data were collected from 108 patients (52 males and 56 females) with a mean age of 45.6-years. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history, physical, otolaryngological and neurological examination and confirmed by relevant investigation including laboratory, radiological and audio vestibular tests. Secure diagnosis were made in 98% of patients (14% had one cause alone and 84% had multiple causes). Cardiovascular disorders accounted for 31.5% of primary and 49% of secondary causes, peripheral vestibular disorders, 25% of primary and 3% of secondary causes, central vestibular disorders 17% of primary and 9% of secondary causes, metabolic endocrine 13% of primary and 38% of secondary causes, cervical osteoarthritis 5.5% of primary and 28% of secondary causes and psychogenic 4.6% of primary and 6.5% of secondary causes. Our findings demonstrate that vertigo is the most common subtype of dizziness (50%). Multiple causes are more prevalent in older age and the single cause is more prevalent in younger age. Cardiovascular was the most common cause of dizziness followed by vestibular disorders, metabolic and cervical osteoarthritis. Vestibular disorders are primary causes and non vestibular are predominantly secondary causes of dizziness. Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and cervical causes are major secondary contributors to dizziness. We recommend a multi disciplinary setting and application of a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment approach without unnecessary protracted investigative scheme and installment of rehabilitation facilities.

  6. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  7. Jordan and left derivations on locally C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Naseer

    2002-07-01

    We show that left derivations as well as Jordan derivations on locally G*-algebras are always continuous. We also obtain some noncommutative extensions of the classical Singer-Wermer theorem for locally C*-algebras: (1) Every left derivation D on a locally (7*-algebra A is identically zero. (2) Every Jordan derivation D on a locally C*-algebra A which satisfies [D(x), x]D(x]=0 for all x in A, is identically zero. (author)

  8. Nationalism in Ottoman Greater Syria 1840-1914: The Divisive Legacy of Sectarianism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francioch, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    ... for a sustainable, peaceful, and just international system of interactions between nation states. Syria and Lebanon pose some of the most challenging problems to policy makers working to achieve these conditions...

  9. Regional radiometric map of Syria, using gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Nasser, R.

    2005-01-01

    The regional radiometric gamma-ray spectrometry map of Syria, scaled 1/1000000, for surficial concentration of the total radioactivity (Ur), eU, eTh and %K was completely achieved after normalizing the airborne and carbon data sets to match each other. It worthy notice that, the anomalies found to be closely related to either phosphate and/or glauconite deposits. It is worth mentioning that throughout the survey work many scattered occurrences of secondary uranium mineralization were found as spots in some formations and phosphate rocks. Where this phenomena attributes to chemical and physical disseminating instead of accumulating the radioelements. So, that leads to a weak expectation for usual surface uranium deposits where attributed to the oxidizing condition. Then this expectation remains, as an open question requires answering through planning to subsurface prospecting. (Author)

  10. Natural radioactivity in hot and mineral waters in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Abbass, M.; Kattan, Z.

    1994-08-01

    A study of water chemistry and radioactivity of hot and mineral ground waters was conducted in Syria in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels as well as the mobility process of major radionuclides in the studied systems. The water samples were collected generally from carbonate and basaltic aquifer systems. The chemistry of groundwaters was a reflection of the rock type, while no relationship was found between the radionuclide activities and water temperatures. The increase of 222 Rn concentration in hot and mineral waters was accompanied by a similar increase of the concentration of its patent radionuclides (U t ot and 226 Ra). In parallel, the relative increase of 222 Rn concentration was correlated significantly with the presence of the large faults systems prevailing in the studied areas (Palmyrides and Great African Faults Systems). In all the cases, the radionuclide activity levels were below the maximum contaminant levels given for drinking water and health effects. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Patient doses from diagnostic radiographic examinations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M.H.; Khedr, M.; Wannus, K.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation doses received by adult patients undergoing 9 routine common types of x-ray examination in Syria covering (chest PA, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spine LAT, Urography, abdomen, pelvis and hip, head, shoulder and extremities). The study consisted of measurements for 1308 x-ray examination for patients in 26 public hospitals. The average effective dose imparted to each patient per examination was computed from measurement of dose area product for the examination and using the X-dose software, the result of the effective dose except for extremities are gradually (0.125, 1.67, 1.23, 2.7, 1.07, 0.85, 0.05 and 0.025) and the average of the DAP for extremities was 0.095 Gy.cm 2 . (author)

  12. Repeated prayers: saying the rosary in contemporary Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Mauss' seminal doctoral thesis, On Prayer [1909], captured the social character of prayer, but he sidelined the rosary as a merely mechanical prayer of repetition. This article also finds repetition at play in the rosary, as it is performed in the shrine of Our Lady of Soufanieh, Damascus, in pre......-2011 Syria. However, it argues that repetition need not be conceptualised as dulling and inhibiting for the devotee. Rather, repetition can be seen like a heartbeat: something alive and pulsating. The repetition of the prayers among the followers is seen as unforced, a voluntary response to a grace...... already bestowed upon them by the Virgin Mary and Christ. Prayers are a response to this grace and, in this sense, repetition is to be understood as re-petition. This re-petition is seen as modelling the individual in the image of the Virgin Mary and, by this, exemplifying the saintly character...

  13. Development of nursing research in Jordan (1986-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, I

    2013-12-01

    To provide an overview of nursing research in Jordan based on the topic researched, source and setting of data collection, methodology, theoretical framework used and source of funding. Nursing research contributes to nursing education, clinical practice, health policy and the establishment of nursing research priorities in Jordan to guide future research. Databases such as MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, PubMed and national sources were searched for published articles related to nursing in Jordan through a range of keywords. Articles were included in the analysis if they were published in English or Arabic through December 2012. The search resulted in the identification of 999 publications, from which 462 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The highest percentage of studies (23% of articles) focused on nursing management issues. Forty-four per cent were conducted in a hospital setting; only six studies used a nursing theory. Seventy-seven per cent of the studies were quantitative and 29.0% were funded mostly by universities. Twenty-one per cent were not directly related to improving nursing education or practice in Jordan. A Jordanian Database for nursing research was developed as a result of this review. Jordanian nurses have slowly started to build nursing research, the real nursing research work in Jordan started with the return of the first PhD graduate to Jordan in 1986. Jordanian nurses in collaboration with international colleagues were motivated to publish research and build the body of nursing knowledge. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Assessing anthropogenic impacts on limited water resources under semi-arid conditions: three-dimensional transient regional modelling in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, Tino; Magri, Fabien; Geyer, Stefan; Morandage, Shehan Tharaka; Ali Subah, H. E.; Alraggad, Marwan; Siebert, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Both increasing aridity and population growth strongly stress freshwater resources in semi-arid areas such as Jordan. The country's second largest governorate, Irbid, with over 1 million inhabitants, is already suffering from an annual water deficit of 25 million cubic meters (MCM). The population is expected to double within the next 20 years. Even without the large number of refugees from Syria, the deficit will likely increase to more then 50 MCM per year by 2035 The Governorate's exclusive resource is groundwater, abstracted by the extensive Al Arab and Kufr Asad well fields. This study presents the first three-dimensional transient regional groundwater flow model of the entire Wadi al Arab to answer important questions regarding the dynamic quality and availability of water within the catchment. Emphasis is given to the calculation and validation of the dynamic groundwater recharge, derived from a multi-proxy approach, including (1) a hydrological model covering a 30-years dataset, (2) groundwater level measurements and (3) information about springs. The model enables evaluation of the impact of abstraction on the flow regime and the groundwater budget of the resource. Sensitivity analyses of controlling parameters indicate that intense abstraction in the southern part of the Wadi al Arab system can result in critical water-level drops of 10 m at a distance of 16 km from the production wells. Moreover, modelling results suggest that observed head fluctuations are strongly controlled by anthropogenic abstraction rather than variable recharge rates due to climate changes.

  15. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...

  16. Strategic Forum. Number 285, January 2014. The Flawed Strategic Debate on Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    that the Syrian regime of 2015 and beyond will not count us among its benefactors. Niccolò Machiavelli wrote, “A prince must imitate the fox and...who_is_in_charge_of_us_syria_policy>. 60 Niccolò Machiavelli , The Prince , trans. Harvey Mansfield (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 69...very real possibility that Syria will not fulfill its chemi- cal weapons obligations under the agreement reached in late 2013. For as Machiavelli

  17. The insurgency business: the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, 2010-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Pillot, Beau L.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Islamic State (IS)--also known as Islamic State of Iraq and the Syria (ISIS)--managed to seize large swaths of territory within the sovereign countries of Iraq and Syria from 2011 to 2016. Even though its caliphate has been reduced in size and scope in 2017, the IS's entrepreneurial capability to effectively manage money, manpower, and materiel has enabled it to develop its brand as the deadliest and most widely known terrorist org...

  18. Wang Haili, The History of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Jianwei[1

    2015-01-01

    The History of Egypt is the first monograph on Egyptian history written by a single Chinese author. As a comprehensive study both in Egyptology and in Egyptian history, it represents a new level of Egyptian historical research in Chinese academia.

  19. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuhur, Sherifa

    2007-01-01

    .... Egyptian failures of governance have taken place through three eras: monarchy and the liberal experiment, the period of Arab socialism, and Egypt's reopening to the West under Presidents Sadat and Mubarak...

  20. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  1. A review of midwifery education curriculum documents in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Insaf; Leap, Nicky

    2012-12-01

    There is worldwide recognition that midwives are specialists in normal pregnancy, labour and birth and the postnatal period and that they should be educated to be primary providers of maternity care. In Jordan midwives currently have limited opportunities to fulfil this role. Since the mid-1980s, two public community colleges have offered three-year diploma midwifery education programmes in two major cities in Jordan. In 2002 the first and only four-year bachelor of midwifery education programme was established in one public university. A review to describe the design and content of midwifery education programmes in Jordan and address the question: Does the design of midwifery education programmes in Jordan encourage confidence that graduates will be competent to practise to the full capacity of the internationally defined role and scope of practice of the midwife and undertake the role of primary maternity care providers for women with low-risk pregnancies? A review of Jordanian midwifery education curriculum documents was undertaken using information and documents provided by midwifery programme coordinators. Programme coordinators in all institutions in Jordan providing midwifery education programmes. The curriculum documents reflected a medical model, with an emphasis on illness and intervention rather than preparation for the internationally defined full role and scope of practice of the midwife. This study provides a profile of midwifery education curriculum documents in Jordan with recommendations for changes that would position midwives as potential primary maternity care providers for women in Jordan who have uncomplicated pregnancies. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Syria and Iran: what next? Three potential scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Now that the United Nations resolution has been voted, the most complicated task begins: ensuring that Syria entirely and definitively gets rid of its chemical arsenal, which unfortunately has every chance of enduring. In this respect three scenarios are possible, each of which would have different repercussions for the region, notably regarding the Iranian nuclear issue, which is now being considered in a new light following Hassan Rohani's charm offensive. Yet, these consequences could also have a profound and lasting effect on the relationship between the United States and its allies. In the first scenario the agreement with Syria will be applied in a satisfactory manner, and could serve as a positive example to Iran, which might be more inclined to signing a nuclear deal. To date, Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Guide, has been wary of the ongoing negotiations, considering that it is impossible to trust the Western States whose sole objective is the downfall of the Iranian regime. Russia, buoyed by its new role in the region, would contribute in a more constructive manner to the resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue... Care must be taken, however, as Iran could just as well conclude as a result of the events of the summer of 2013, particularly from U.S. procrastination, that Western States are not willing to use force in the Middle East, and thus on the contrary draw out the negotiations without fearing the possibility of a U.S. strike. According to the second scenario, Syria will not implement the agreement, the crisis will be renewed, and will end with a Western strike, most probably without a U.N. mandate. This scenario would boost the confidence of U.S. allies in the region, who have a tendency to doubt the United States' determination to defend them. This could be seen as a warning to Iran, but the lessons that Iran would take from this scenario would undoubtedly depend on the balance of power in Tehran at the time: the moderates would push for a deal to avoid

  3. Consanguinity and genetic disorders: Profile from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamy, Hanan A.; Ajlouni, Kamel M.; Masri, Amira T.; Al-Hadidy, Azmy M.

    2007-01-01

    With 20-30% of all marriages occurring between first cousins, increasing attention in Jordan is now given to role of consanguinity in the occurrence of genetic diseases. The objective of this study is to define the specific categories of genetic disorders associated with consanguineous marriages. Etiological categories and consanguinity rates were studied among 623 families with genetic syndromes, congenital anomalies or mental retardation, or both, seen at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics for the period August 2002 to August 2006. Comparisons were made for first cousin marriage rates in the study group and that for the general population. First cousin marriages constituted 69%, 22% and 41.7% of marriages among families with autosomal recessive conditions (group 1), dominant, X-linked and chromosomal conditions (group 2) and sporadic undiagnosed conditions (group 3) respectively. The differences in the rates of the first cousin matings were highly significant when comparing known figures in the general population with group 1 and 3, but not significant with group 2. Two messages to the public and health care personnel regarding consanguinity can be derived from this study. The first message is that among genetic disorders, only autosomal recessive disorders are strongly associated with consanguinity. The second message is that approximately 30% of sporadic undiagnosed cases of mental retardation, congenital anomalies and dimorphism may have an autosomal recessive etiology with risks of recurrence in future pregnancies. (author)

  4. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  5. The impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as to whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003 to 2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near-surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa.On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria (associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  6. The impact of Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, B.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD) dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003-2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabian to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa. On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  7. The impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Bing; Ginoux, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as to whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD) dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003 to 2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near-surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa.On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria (associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria) is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  8. Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A

    2006-02-15

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.

  9. A multi-criteria optimization analysis for Jordan's energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkawi, Salaheddin; Al-Nimr, Moh'd; Azizi, Danah

    2017-01-01

    In this study Jordan's energy options were evaluated and ranked with respect to several criteria clusters including financial, technical, environmental, ecological, social, and risk assessment. The Analytical Hierarchy Process; a multi-criteria decision-making analysis, was selected to evaluate the electricity generation options for Jordan. Energy options covered in the analysis include both conventional and renewable sources. Conventional sources evaluated include Oil and Natural Gas. Renewable sources covered wind, biomass, Photovoltaic and concentrated solar systems. The study also investigated generation from nuclear energy and direct combustion of oil shale as well as demand side savings from energy efficiency measures as a resource. Results indicate that to date; conventional fuels remain Jordan's most feasible options from a technical and financial perspective. Nonetheless diversification is essential to promoting energy security as well as environmental welfare. Results indicate that Jordan's best diversification options are nuclear, oil shale, biomass, and wind energy. - Highlights: • A Multi-Criteria Optimization Analysis technique was used to compare nine electricity generation options. • Options considered included Fossil Fuel sources, Nuclear Energy , Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. • Six criteria clusters were considered: financial, technical, environmental, ecological, social, and risk assessment. • Results outline potential policy implications for diversifying Jordan's energy mix. • Conventional fuels remain integral and Oil shale, Nuclear, Biomass and Wind offer the best diversification potential.Tag as highlight.

  10. A Response to Jordan's (2004) "Explanatory Adequacy and Theories of Second Language Acquisition"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Kevin R.

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper (Jordan, Geoff Jordan takes issue with some of my claims about second language acquisition (SLA) theory. Specifically, he queries the necessity of a property theory, and he finds my discussion of explanation unsatisfactory. In this brief reply, I try to answer his criticisms. In a brief but interesting paper, Geoff Jordan (2004:…

  11. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  12. A global vision for small business in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Egypt's Ministry of Finance in Enhancing Competitiveness of SMEs in Egypt: General ... SMEPol then supported the policy formulation process, in part by providing urgently needed ... Research also focused on strategies for increasing exports.

  13. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis among school children in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazza, I.; Tarwneh, H.

    2002-01-01

    We attempted in this study, to estimate the prevalence of primarynocturnal enuresis (PNE) in children of Jordan and to examine factorsassociated with PNE. We sent questionnaires to 950 parents of children aged6-8 years, randomly selected from three primary schools in Jordan. Thequestionnaire was designed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associatedwith PNE. The response rate was 71.6%. The overall prevalence of PNE was23.8%. This prevalence declined with age from 48.9% at 7 years and 8.4% at 8years. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of PNE in Jordan is higherthan the reported from other Asian or European countries, while theassociated factors are similar. (author)

  14. Trends and Challenges for Mobile Learning in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Al-Zoubi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present state of mobile learning in Jordan isinvestigated in order to provide a meaningful direction forthe future development of university eEducation in Jordan.The strengths of mobile learning are elaborated and itscurrent status including challenging issues from theperspective of cognitive learning is addressed. An onlinesurvey was conducted to investigate the expectations andperceptions of mobile learning amongst university studentsand professors in Jordan and a number of countries in theMiddle East. Various factors that may contribute to theestablishment of mobile learning in educational institutionswere investigated and expectations concerning the impact ofmobile technologies on teaching and learning were explored.The results reflect on the fundamental needs for effectiveimplementation of mobile learning from the view ofcognitive science, instead of technological evolution.

  15. The paralytic poliomyelitis epidemic of 1978 in Jordan: epidemiological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Melnick, Joseph L.; Hatch, Milford H.; Dawod, Saleh T.

    1984-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is endemic in Jordan, but until 1978 there were no epidemics. In that year, 66 children were admitted to the Jordan University Hospital with a paralytic illness, compared with 13 in 1979 and 11 in 1980. The epidemic reached a peak in the summer and fall of 1978. While 54% of the patients had not received any vaccine, 19% had received 3 doses of oral poliovaccine; 82% of the cases were in children less than 2 years of age, and all belonged to the lower socioeconomic group. There were 28 deaths with complications of the disease. Poliovirus was isolated from 10 out of 14 rectal swab samples examined (9 with poliovirus 1, 1 with poliovirus 2), and from 4 out of 13 throat specimens from the same patients. It is concluded that as a result of improving living standards in Jordan and neighbouring countries, more epidemics may occur unless immunization efforts against poliomyelitis are intensified. PMID:6609022

  16. Kofi Annan, Syria and the Uses of Uncertainty in Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gowan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One year after Kofi Annan presented his six-point plan for ending the Syrian civil war, it can only be called a failure. But it is necessary to recall the situation facing the UN-Arab League envoy and his team in early 2012. The Syrian conflict had created serious tensions between the major powers. A Western military intervention appeared unlikely but could not be ruled out with absolute certainty. This commentary contends that Annan’s initial priority was to reduce the level of uncertainty inside and outside Syria, thereby creating a framework for political talks.  However, in lowering the level of uncertainty, Annan reduced his own leverage as the Syrian government correctly concluded that it would not be punished for failing to cooperate in good faith.  The commentary concludes that there are occasions where it is advisable for international mediators to maintain and exploit a degree of uncertainty about how a conflict may develop.

  17. Modelling the Spatial Isotope Variability of Precipitation in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, Z.; Kattaa, B. [Department of Geology, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2013-07-15

    Attempts were made to model the spatial variability of environmental isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H and {sup 3}H) compositions of precipitation in syria. Rainfall samples periodically collected on a monthly basis from 16 different stations were used for processing and demonstrating the spatial distributions of these isotopes, together with those of deuterium excess (d) values. Mathematically, the modelling process was based on applying simple polynomial models that take into consideration the effects of major geographic factors (Lon.E., Lat.N., and altitude). The modelling results of spatial distribution of stable isotopes ({sup 18}O and {sup 2}H) were generally good, as shown from the high correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} = 0.7-0.8), calculated between the observed and predicted values. In the case of deuterium excess and tritium distributions, the results were most likely approximates (R{sup 2} = 0.5-0.6). Improving the simulation of spatial isotope variability probably requires the incorporation of other local meteorological factors, such as relative air humidity, precipitation amount and vapour pressure, which are supposed to play an important role in such an arid country. (author)

  18. Chemical and environmental isotope study of precipitation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Waters from a network of rainfall collection covering mine meteorological stations distributed mainly in the western part of Syria have been assayed using chemical and environmental isotope techniques for a period of 5 months from Dec. 1989 to Apr. 1990. The chemistry of rain waters falling over the mountainous stations shows a low solute concentration (20-105 mg 1 -1 ) compared with those falling over the coastal and anterior stations (50-210 mg 1 -1 ). The rain waters was generally characterized by a high deuterium excess (d=19%) compared with that of typical global meteoric waters (d=10%). The estimated deuterium excess is lower than that for the eastern Mediterranean meteoric waters (d=22%). The altitude effect is shown up by a depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about - 0.23% and -1.65% per 100 m elevation of δ 1 8 O and δD, respectively. The spatial distribution pattern of tritium contents shows a gradual build up with increasing distance from the Syrian coast. The weighted mean tritium content in rain waters falling over the country is estimated to amount to 9.5 tritium units (TU) during the period of observation. (author)

  19. Syria: effects of conflict and sanctions on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser

    2013-06-01

    The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.

  20. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastam Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD, mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. Methods The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Results Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81% of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Conclusion Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  1. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastam, Samer; Al Ali, Radwan; Maziak, Wasim; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-09-09

    Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD), mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81%) of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  2. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Demographic aspects of unemployment in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, A A

    1979-01-01

    The extent and structure of open unemployment in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was examined. The data on unemployment in Jordan come from censuses and labor force sample surveys. The last census was conducted in 1961 and obviously cannot provide current information, but a multipurpose household survey has been conducted annually since 1972. The survey sample is a stratified multistage random sample; 3 strata are distinquished, i.e., cities, camps, and rural areas. For this survey, the unemployed are defined as those persons who are physically unable to perform work and who want work and are actively seeking work but are unemployed at present. In this analysis, those persons among the unemployed who are in the age group 12-14 are excluded. 82.3% of the unemployed in the sample were men. The total unemployment rate was 1.6%, but the rate for women was 2.8% and that for men only 1.5%. The rate for women may be overstated to an unknown extent due to underreporting of women in the labor force, yet it seems unlikely that this factor would explain all of the differences in the extent of unemployment between men and women. The cultural bias against work for women outside the home exerts an influence in making it more difficult for women to find a job, but because of this bias many women do not even enter the labor force and hence cannot be unemployed. Most of the unemployed were in the 20-24 age group and to a lesser extent in the 15-19 age group. Almost 60% of the unemployed were in these 2 age groups. Beyond these ages, the percentages of unemployed decreased regularly with age, with the age group 40-44 as a minor exception. When taking sex into account, the 1st phenomenon to be observed was the highly skewed age distribution of female unemployed who were all under age 30. Of the unemployed men, most were also young, with 34.6% in the 20-24 age group and 52.9% younger than 25 years. For married women the low unemployment rate can be explained by the fact that many

  4. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  5. Sedentary lifestyle among adults in Jordan, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi F. Sharkas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for physical and mental problems, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal diseases, and psychological stress. About 60% of the world’s population is not sufficiently physically active in leisure time or during work and social activities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of inactive Jordanian adults and describe their demographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods: The study used data from the behavioral risk factors surveillance survey conducted in Jordan in 2007. The sample size was 3654. Respondents who were physically inactive for more than 240 min daily (sleep time not included were considered to have a sedentary lifestyle. Data were analyzed with the program SPSS. Results: The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was 82.8% (2965 respondents, with a mean sedentary time of 587 min (95% confidence interval 581–594 min. Among the physically inactive adults, 52.6% were men, one third of them aged 35–44 years. Sedentary lifestyle was reported by 30% of those with a secondary level of education or above. Of those with a sedentary lifestyle, 37.6% were housewives and 37.5% were employees; 66% of them were overweight and obese. Of the physically inactive people, 2.5% had a history of heart failure and 1.3% had a history of cerebrovascular accidents; 57.2% of them tried to engage more in physical activity and almost three quarters of them were interested in improving their dietary habits. Conclusion: Most Jordanian adults have a sedentary lifestyle, which emphasizes that there is a public health problem. Many of them are attempting to lead a healthier lifestyle. Therefore, there is an urgent need to launch an applicable national plan that enables people to practice a healthier lifestyle.

  6. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay.

  7. Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and βhCG. (author)

  8. The Minnesota notes on Jordan algebras and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walcher, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains a re-edition of Max Koecher's famous Minnesota Notes. The main objects are homogeneous, but not necessarily convex, cones. They are described in terms of Jordan algebras. The central point is a correspondence between semisimple real Jordan algebras and so-called omega-domains. This leads to a construction of half-spaces which give an essential part of all bounded symmetric domains. The theory is presented in a concise manner, with only elementary prerequisites. The editors have added notes on each chapter containing an account of the relevant developments of the theory since these notes were first written.

  9. Positive projections of symmetric matrices and Jordan algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Bent; Jensen, Søren Tolver

    2013-01-01

    An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model.......An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model....

  10. When Empathy Hurts: Modelling University Students' Word of Mouth Behaviour in Public vs. Private Universities in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ali Bassam; Grigoriou, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study examines and compares word of mouth (WOM) behaviour among university students in Syria. To date, little is known about this important phenomenon which is surprising given the deregulated education market in Syria that allows for private universities to compete for students alongside public universities. Using a mixed methods research…

  11. Status of fertility control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    The concern for fertility control is not alien to the cultural and religious heritage of Egypt. Historically, Egyptian interest in fertility dates to the Pharoahs. Contraceptive recipes written at least 15-18 centuries B.C. have been found. Romans may have borrowed some of the more effective methods from Egypt when it became part of the Roman Empire as evidenced by the decline in size of aristocratic Roman families at the beginning of the Christian era. Muslim conquerors of Egypt encouraged fertility control. In the 9th century differences of opinion about the legality of contraception appeared among the interpreters of Islamic law. Some methods found in the writings of Muslim doctors as al-Razi and Avicenna still survive in the folk medicine of Egypt. In modern times use of barrier methods of contraception were encouraged by family planning organizations in Egypt. The medical profession was not deeply involved since these methods did not require much medical assistance. In 1936 a religiouss verdict declared contraception to be a lawful act of Islam. National programs in family planning in the 1960's encouraged the use of the Lippes Loop IUD. The medical problem of blood loss associated with the IUD caused anxiety because of the high incidence of anemia in the female Egyptian population. There was also a cultural limitation on the wide use of the IUD. "Spotting" due to the IUD resulted in females being ritually unclean and therefore unfit to pray or observe the Islamic fast. The Pill, initially favored caused complications due to its effect on breast milk which is the universal source of nutrition for infants in Egypt. Replacement of the Pill by depo-provera injections during the post partum period of lactation is a practical solution. Permanent sterilization is limited to females and only performed when medically indicated. Abortion is illegal and permitted only as a therapeutic measure.

  12. The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.

  13. Self-Determination Of The Kurdes In Syria: Origins, Forms And International Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.I.I. Dyurre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of self-determination of the Kurdish ethnos in Syria. Kurds are an indigenous people in this territory and for a long time lived within a single space within the Ottoman Empire. The artificial division of the Middle East into states in the interests of European powers led to ignoring the interests and rights of the Kurdish ethnos. Self-organization of Kurds in Syria occurred gradually and mainly under the influence of external factors. The first one was the political activity of Kurds in neighboring countries, the second – the assimilation efforts of the Syrian authorities. Although the Kurdish population, basically, retained its identity, half a century of assimilation policy led to the erosion of the Kurdish ethnic enclaves in the north of the country. Moreover, self-organization and political mobilization of Kurds in Syria began to be accompanied by disagreements and splits of the main political forces. Kurdish political parties sought to act as a “third force” in the course of the civil war in Syria. However, disagreements prevented this, as well as certain pressure from Western countries, which pushed the Syrian Kurds to support the moderate opposition. The power vacuum in the north of Syria was able to fill the center-left party “Democratic Union”. This political force is in contact with the official Syrian authorities and, at the same time, receives US support. Created by the efforts of the “Democratic Union” the Kurdish autonomy in the north of the country provides stability in territories with the Kurdish and mixed populations, and also performs socio-economic functions. This makes the Kurdish autonomy an important element of negotiations about the future political structure of Syria.

  14. Rapid Deployment of International Tele-Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas; Weinert, Craig

    2016-02-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country.

  15. Rapid Deployment of International Tele–Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country. PMID:26788827

  16. Renewable-energy applications in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper illustrates the main activities carried out concerning development and application of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt. Main attention is devoted to biogas technology, solar and wind energy technologies. The main constraints for implementation of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt and the activities carried out for its release are highlighted. The coordination between the Islamic and other developing countries is highly needed, to achieve marked progress in implementation of renewable energy and sustainable development. Establishment of a network for renewable energy among the Islamic countries can play an active role in these aspects. (author)

  17. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  18. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...... in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  19. Updating radiation protection regulations in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; El-Naggar, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this treatise is to present -the rational steps taken in the process of updating the Radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt. The contents of the review will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities. Furthermore, the various committees formed with responsibilities for specific issues are indicated, including the role of the Ministry of Health (MOH), and that of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA). Finally, the efforts made towards updating the radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt are highlighted. (author)

  20. TREATMENT OF FRACTURES IN ANCIENT EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Bashurov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most complete information about the medicine in Ancient Egypt two papyrus provided: a large medical papyrus of G. Ebers and papyrus about the surgery of E. Smith. Smith’s papyrus is of particular interest as it contains the information on the status of surgery in Ancient Egypt. Papyrus consists of descriptions of the clinical cases. To the present time, 48 cases have survived; it is arranged in order of location - from the head down to the feet. Orthopedic deformities were reflected in the figures on the walls of the pyramids and temples as well as the description of the mummies and archaeological finds.

  1. Women in Post-Revolutionary Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Toft; Hervik, Peter

    and in drawings. Based on the analysis of this material the reader gets insights into personal experiences, believes and opinions of a diverse group of women in terms of age, economic class, education, geography, culture, religion, ethnicity, marital status, and political orientation. The detail-rich empirical......This book addresses how identity, structures, and agency affect women’s everyday lives in post-revolutionary Egypt. The authors analyse the topic both on a macro- as well as on a micro-level. Through interviews and workshops, women around Egypt express their own experiences in dialogue, in groups...

  2. Soil Catena Properties of Daher Al- Jabal in South Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam H. M. Husein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil catena concept is a sequence of soils extends across relief positions and is developed from similar parent material. This study highlighted on the important aspects and properties of soil catena of Daher El-Jabal in Jabal Al-Arab mountainous area South eastern of Syria, by implementing pedologic study in 2010-2012. Six soil profiles have been studied along pedo-genetic transect in order to highlight the soil catena prevailing properties. The results reveal that the soil has formed from igneous basaltic parent casts, related to Neogen era, where reliefs had the key role in the developing of soil solum. Consequently, Entisols were dominated on eroded summits, Inceptisols on back slops and mountain flanks, Mollisols on depressions. Both water erosion of soil surface and leaching inside soil solum processes were responsible for variation of soil texture, as such soils showed evident of changing in particles size distribution as well as in clay content. Cation exchange capacity (CEC was less than moderate with domination of Magnesium cation. Soil trace elements were poor to somewhat poor. Soil pH values in general were low; which reflect the pedo-genic character of igneous parent material in which soil drifted from. In some cases, where soil body subjected to continuous leaching of soil bases, in particular calcium cation; soil profiles became totally freed from calcium carbonates. Accordingly soil problems related to downing of soil reaction (pH are more expected to be increasing by time. This is main reason for some physical diseases, which beginning arise on pomes fruits, particularly bitter pit.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 87-107

  3. Natural radioactivity of drinking water in the southern and middle parts of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Yassine, T.

    1998-01-01

    Water samples from 48 sites, covering the major water sources in the southern and middle parts of Syria, were collected twice and analyzed for 222 sup Rn, 226 sup Rn, 210 sup Po, and total uranium. the results obtained were generally low and comparable with those found for other countries. the highest values were found in regions around the phosphate mines in the middle part of Syria with 113 kBq m - 1 for 222 sup Rn, 350 Bq m - 1 for 226 sup Ra, 8 Bq m - 1 for 210 sup Po, and 350 Bq m - 1 for total uranium. (author). 1 Fig., 2 Tabs., 12 Refs

  4. Anthropogenic Origin of Siliceous Scoria Droplets from Pleistocene and Holocene Archeaological Sites in Northern Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Willcox, George; Barfod, Gry

    2015-01-01

    Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event. The !ndi......Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event...

  5. Sectarianism, Revolutionary Subjectivity and War in Syria - the case of the peaceful movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Events unfolding in Syria since 2011 have all too often been depicted too simply as a “sectarian war”. Against the backdrop of such accounts, this article investigates the lived revolutionary experience of Syrians active in the peaceful revolutionary movement and the local coordination committees...... of the peaceful movement not only counteract the narratives of the regime. It also offers a window into revolutionary subjectivity and ideology in Syria’s peaceful movement as part of broader social changes occurring in Syria in the context of devastating war and destruction....

  6. Syria: a waited petroleum production of 600 000 barrels per day for the end of 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the reserves of petroleum deposits and gives statistical data on the production of the main oil fields in Syria. Petroleum production has grown from 160000 barrels per day in 1984 to 515000 barrels per day in 1992 and a production at a level of 600000 barrels per day is waited in 1993. Several petroleum companies, operating in Syria, have contributed to this rise, especially Al-Furat Petroleum Company (AFPC), joint venture between Syrian Petroleum Company (SPC) and Pecten/Shell/Deminex, followed by Deiz Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), association between the french company Elf Aquitaine and SPC. 2 tabs

  7. Youth in Jordan: Transitions from Education to Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan Andrew; Constant, Louay; Glick, Peter; Grant, Audra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong economic growth during the last decade, youth unemployment in Jordan remains stubbornly high, and labor-force participation markedly low. Young women in particular face labor??market barriers in access to many career paths, and their job aspirations are often discouraged by their parents. Graduates of secondary and postsecondary…

  8. Jordan : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à produire des connaissances sur les perceptions et les ... Sujet: BRAIN, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, CANCER, THERAPY, ... Sujet: HUMAN RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY, DEMOCRATIZATION, CULTURAL RELATIONS ... Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Yemen, ...

  9. Forcible Displacement of Palestinians to Jordan: A National Security Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al

    2002-01-01

    ... into the Hasemite Kingdom of Jordan have become an issue of grave concern. The Palestinian refugee issue is a derivative of the expulsion of millions of Palestinians after the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, and after the 1967 Six-Day War...

  10. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  11. The Impacts of Heritage Tourism on Gadara, Northern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobiedat, Ammar Abdelkarim

    2014-01-01

    As the tourism industry continues to grow and the desire to visit heritage sites becomes a popular pursuit, heritage has turn into a commodity in the marketplace. This dissertation analyzes the economic, sociocultural and environmental implications of tourism in Gadara, northwest Jordan. It also elaborates on the changing force of tourism and its…

  12. The neglected health needs of older Syrian refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Lupieri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Older refugees are often a neglected population, particularly when it comes to health. In Jordan, the specific health needs of older Syrian refugees tend to be overlooked, due in part to a lack of data, institutional biases and the nature of the humanitarian response.

  13. ICTs are improving health equity in Jordan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 تشرين الأول (أكتوبر) 2013 ... To help bridge this gap, the Royal Scientific Society in Jordan (RSS) .... Last year, 16-year-old Aida made a startling discovery: as a young girl, ...

  14. Higher-order Jordan Osserman pseudo-Riemannian manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkey, Peter B; Ivanova, Raina; Zhang Tan

    2002-01-01

    We study the higher-order Jacobi operator in pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We exhibit a family of manifolds so that this operator has constant Jordan normal form on the Grassmannian of subspaces of signature (r, s) for certain values of (r, s). These pseudo-Riemannian manifolds are new and non-trivial examples of higher-order Osserman manifolds

  15. Higher-order Jordan Osserman pseudo-Riemannian manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkey, Peter B [Mathematics Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Ivanova, Raina [Mathematics Department, University of Hawaii - Hilo, 200 W Kawili St, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Zhang Tan [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Murray State University, Murray, KY 42071 (United States)

    2002-09-07

    We study the higher-order Jacobi operator in pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We exhibit a family of manifolds so that this operator has constant Jordan normal form on the Grassmannian of subspaces of signature (r, s) for certain values of (r, s). These pseudo-Riemannian manifolds are new and non-trivial examples of higher-order Osserman manifolds.

  16. Promoting Kindergarten Children's Creativity in the Classroom Environment in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dababneh, Kholoud; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating teachers' classroom practices, which either stimulate or inhibit the development of the creative environment of classrooms in Jordan, and determining the differences between practices according to educational level, experience level and type of teaching. The sample of the study consisted of 215 kindergarten…

  17. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that

  18. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Northern Jordan: Endoscopy based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Hammouri, Shadi M.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is considered the most common infection worldwide and is associated with many other disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this infection among patients undergoing endoscopy in Northern Jordan. Between November 1998 and September 2000, all patients referred from the Gastro-esophageal Clinic to the Endoscopy Unit at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Northern Jordan were enrolled in this prospective study. For each patient clinical and epidemiological data was collected and endoscopy was performed. At least 3 antral biopsies were obtained from each patient, and these were examined histologically for the presence of gastritis and stained for Helicobacter pylori using modified Giemsa stain. A total of 197 consecutive patients (113 females) with a mean age of 40.2 years (range 15-91 years) were studied. Abdominal pain was the highest presenting symptom. Gastritis 91% and esophagitis 42% were the most frequent endoscopic findings. Gastritis was documented histologically in 183 (93%) of patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 161 patients (82%), with all of these having histological gastritis. The 11 patients with gastric ulcer, compared to the 51 out of the 59 (86%) patients with duodenal ulcer, showed Helicobacter pylori in their biopsies. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Jordan is high. This study confirms that Helicobacter pylori is significantly associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer. Further studies are needed to determine the types of Helicobacter pylori strains present in Jordan. (author)

  19. Pastoralist rock art in the Black Desert of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusgaard, N.O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the current problems that exist with the rock art research of the Black Desert in Jordan and presents some preliminary field results of the author’s research on the petroglyphs. It also explore the possibilities that the rock art affords to learn more about the elusive desert

  20. Pastoralist rock art in the Black Desert of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Brusgaard, N.O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the current problems that exist with the rock art research of the Black Desert in Jordan and presents some preliminary field results of the author’s research on the petroglyphs. It also explore the possibilities that the rock art affords to learn more about the elusive desert societies and the limitations about studying rock art in archaeologically unfamiliar territories.

  1. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  2. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... improving conservation, restoration and reforestation strategies of Quercus in Jordan. Key words: Quercus spp., genetic ..... High variation leads to develop- ment of subspecies and varieties (Zohary, 1962). .... genetic diversity and differentiation of Quercus crispula in the. Chichibu Mountains, central Japan.

  3. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  4. The politics of accessing desert land in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Al Majd; Molle, Francois

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic increase of the population in Jordan, the value of land has rocketed up. Urban sprawl into semi-desert or desert areas, initially not surveyed or settled by the British and considered as state land, has brought to the surface the problematic status of those lands. Likewise, the

  5. Determinants of the Internet Islamic Banking Services Adoption in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loai Naser Mahmoud Alhawamdeh

    2017-12-01

     Implication: This researchpresents a conceptually yet empirically supported model to describe the factors influencing internet banking services and internet Islamic banking services. This research will be significant in several areas, by adding new knowledge for the academics, practitioners and organizations in general and particularly in Jordan

  6. Jordan (α,β-Derivations on Operator Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanyuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a CSL subalgebra of a von Neumann algebra acting on a Hilbert space H. It is shown that any Jordan (α,β-derivation on A is an (α,β-derivation, where α,β are any automorphisms on A. Moreover, the nth power (α,β-maps on A are investigated.

  7. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

  8. English Language Education in Jordan: Some Recent Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhabahba, Mohammad Madallh; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to map out the status of English language teaching (ELT) as practised in the Arab World and, specifically, in Jordan today. The study also aims to bring into focus significant issues that need to be addressed in ELT in the Arab World. This paper presents a review of the current status of English language education,…

  9. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  10. Practice of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe the current role played by pharmacists in delivering pharmaceutical care (PC) in community pharmacies in Jordan (current activities and practices undertaken in the community and extent of provision of PC standards), pharmacists' perspectives on PC implementation and barriers to implementing PC ...

  11. Is There a Silent Hearing Loss among Children in Jordan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaqrabawi, Wala' S.; Alshawabka, Amneh Z.; Al-Addasi, Zainab M.

    2016-01-01

    This study measured the prevalence of hearing loss among school children in Jordan. A random sample of 1649 children (990 males and 659 females) was collected from randomly chosen 40 schools in Amman. Screening was conducted between November 2010 and October 2014. Otoscopic examination, tympanometry, and audiometry were used for screening. Based…

  12. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... improving conservation, restoration and reforestation strategies of Quercus in Jordan. Key words: Quercus spp., genetic ... ciation of the Mediterranean sclerophyllous broad-leaf forests (Schiller et al., 2004a). ..... genetic diversity and differentiation of Quercus crispula in the. Chichibu Mountains, central ...

  13. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  14. Energy subsidies reform in Jordan : welfare implications of different scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Atamanov,Aziz; Jellema,Jon Robbert; Serajuddin,Umar

    2015-01-01

    As the Arab Spring unfolded and political unrest spread across the Arab world, Jordan faced an adverse economy as well. Fundamental to the economic challenge was high and rising energy prices, already heavily subsidized for consumers. With the government intent on staving off emerging political unrest through a series of measures, buffering consumers from increased energy prices being a ke...

  15. Practice of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research February 2017; 16 (2): 463-470 ... 2Royal Medical Services, Amman, 11821 Jordan, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Applied Science Private University, Amman, 11942 ... Results: 163 pharmacists agreed to participate in the study (response rate was 90.5 %). ... For example, courses of.

  16. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Elementary School Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…

  17. TIMSS and PISA Impact--The Case of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Emad; Al-Tweissi, Ahmad; Abulibdeh, Khattab

    2016-01-01

    Jordan has participated in international large-scale assessments (LSAs) since 1991 and in most of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS) as well as the Programme for International Student Assessments (PISA). After a short description of education system and policy-making context in the country, this article provides an…

  18. The Desert and the Sown Project in Northern Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerner, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The desert and sown project, which started in 1999 and continued in 2008-2009, studied the region between the settled areas east of Irbid and Ramtha and the surrounding desert at Mafraq (northern Jordan). Large parts of the material comes from the Palaeolithic period, while some smaller tells date...

  19. 3D Coupled Thermal-Hydraulic Model of the Lower Yarmouk Gorge, Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, M.; Magri, F.; Inbar, N.; Möller, P.; Raggad, M.; Rödiger, T.; Rosenthal, E.; Shentsis, I.; Siebert, C.; Volpi, G.

    2017-12-01

    It is supposed that the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG), in the Jordan Rift Valley acts as the mixing zone of two crossing flow pathways: N-S from the Hermon Mountains and from the Ajlun Dome, and E-W from Jebel al Arab Mountain in Syria (also known as Huran Plateau or Yarmouk drainage basin). As a result, several springs can be found within the gorge. These are characterized by widespread temperatures (20 - 60 °C) which indicate that, beside the complex regional flow, also ascending thermal waters control the hydrologic behavior of the LYG. Previous simulations based on a conceptual simplified 3D model (Magri et al., 2016) showed that crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the gorge or in permeable aquifers below Maastrichtian aquiclude, and additional flow fields that are induced by the N-S topographic gradients. Here we present the first 3D hydrogeological model of the entire LYG that includes structural features based on actual logs and interpreted seismic lines from both Israeli and Jordanian territories. The model distinguishes seven units from upper Eocene to the Lower Triassic, accounting for major aquifers, aquicludes and deep-cutting faults. Recharges are implemented based on the numerical representation developed by Shentsis (1990) that considers relationships between mean annual rain and topographic elevation. The model reveals that topography-driven N-S and E-W flows strongly control the location of discharge areas while the anomalous spring temperature is not necessarily linked to the presence of fault convection. Local permeability anisotropy due to aquifers folding or facies changes are features sufficient for the rising of hot fluids. Shentsis, I., 1990. Mathematical models for long-term prediction of mountainous river runoff: methods, information and results, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 35:5, 487-500 Magri, F., Möller, S., Inbar, N., Möller, P., Raggad, M., R

  20. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaaytah A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammar Almaaytah,1 Tareq L Mukattash,2 Julia Hajaj2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Objective: Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods: A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results: A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3% dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%, diarrhea (83%, and otitis media (68.4%. The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7% refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5% of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4% came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed

  1. 3D hydrogeological model of the Lower Yarmouk Gorge, Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Möller, Peter; Raggad, Marwan; Rödiger, Tino; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Shentsis, Izabela; Tzoufka, Kalliopi; Siebert, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG) lies on the eastern margin of the lower Jordan Rift Valley (JRV), bounded to the south by the Ajlun and to the north by the Golan Heights. It allows the outflow of the Yarmouk drainage basin and flow into the Jordan River, a few kilometers south of Lake Tiberias. The main aquifer system of the LYG is built mostly of Cretaceous sandstones and carbonates confined by Maastrichtian aquiclude. Fissures allow hydraulic connections between the major water-bearing formations from Quaternary to Upper Cretaceous age. It is supposed that the gorge acts as the mixing zone of two crossing flow pathways: N-S from the Hermon Mountains and from the Ajlun Dome, and E-W from Jebel al Arab Mountain in Syria (also known as Huran Plateau or Yarmouk drainage basin). As a result, several springs can be found within the gorge. These are characterized by widespread temperatures (20 - 60 °C) which indicate that, beside the complex regional flow, also ascending thermal waters control the hydrologic behavior of the LYG. Previous simulations based on a conceptual simplified 3D model (Magri et al., 2016) showed that crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the gorge or in permeable aquifers below Maastrichtian aquiclude, and additional flow fields that are induced by the N-S topographic gradients. Here we present the first 3D hydrogeological model of the entire LYG that includes structural features based on actual logs and interpreted seismic lines from both Israeli and Jordanian territories. The model distinguishes seven units from upper Eocene to the Lower Triassic, accounting for major aquifers, aquicludes and deep-cutting faults. Recharges are implemented based on the numerical representation developed by Shentsis (1990) that considers relationships between mean annual rain and topographic elevation. The model reveals that topography-driven N-S and E-W flows strongly control

  2. Multi scenario seismic hazard assessment for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Shaimaa Ismail; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; El-Eraki, Mohamed Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa within a sensitive seismotectonic location. Earthquakes are concentrated along the active tectonic boundaries of African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. The study area is characterized by northward increasing sediment thickness leading to more damage to structures in the north due to multiple reflections of seismic waves. Unfortunately, man-made constructions in Egypt were not designed to resist earthquake ground motions. So, it is important to evaluate the seismic hazard to reduce social and economic losses and preserve lives. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is used to evaluate the hazard using alternative seismotectonic models within a logic tree framework. Alternate seismotectonic models, magnitude-frequency relations, and various indigenous attenuation relationships were amended within a logic tree formulation to compute and develop the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. Hazard contour maps are constructed for peak ground acceleration as well as 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.5-, 1-, and 2-s spectral periods for 100 and 475 years return periods for ground motion on rock. The results illustrate that Egypt is characterized by very low to high seismic activity grading from the west to the eastern part of the country. The uniform hazard spectra are estimated at some important cities distributed allover Egypt. The deaggregation of seismic hazard is estimated at some cities to identify the scenario events that contribute to a selected seismic hazard level. The results of this study can be used in seismic microzonation, risk mitigation, and earthquake engineering purposes.

  3. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which

  4. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    right to govern; the more the Brotherhood charges ahead, the more it confirms the others’ belief of its monopolistic designs over power. Even if...appropriate market -reform and economic growth activities.” Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 18 according to the State

  5. Egypt | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our research support in Egypt has shifted focus with the country's changing needs. ... With support from IDRC and other partners, the university established the Alexandria Research Centre for ... stimulate technology start ups; prepare youth for in high-demand jobs in retail, hospitality, ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  6. Microsatellite analysis of Fasciola spp. in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Yasser; Amer, Said; Courtioux, Bertrand; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the topic of diversity in Fasciola population in Egypt is controversial. The present study was performed to study the genetic diversity of isolated flukes based on microsatellites markers. Fasciola worms were collected from different hosts and geographical locations in Egypt. Control samples of Fasciola hepatica from France as well as Fasciola gigantica from Cameroon were included in the study. Collected flukes were identified morphologically and subjected for analysis using four microsatellite markers. Results of microsatellite profile (FM1 and FM2) proved that both species of Fasciola are distributed in Egypt irrespective of geographical location and host. Nevertheless, the microsatellite profile of some analyzed loci (FM2 and FM3) proved that Egyptian flukes showed more alleles compared to the reference ones. Differences of microsatellite profile in Egyptian isolates than that of corresponding reference samples indicate the remarkable diversity of these isolates. The present results highlighted the utility of microsatellite profile to discriminate between Fasciola species and to elucidate the diversity within the species. To our knowledge, this is the first time to study microsatellite polymorphism in Fasciola populations in Egypt.

  7. Experience with the INES scale in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty years experience with Egypt first Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) operation, was introduced focusing on the famous events that were initiated and the procedures that were taken for their recovery or mitigation is given. Four out of seven events can be attributed to human errors, the events if classified using the INES

  8. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    exhortations to report critics of the government to the authorities; and censorship , prosecution, and attacks on journalists.” 19  Reporters Without...upon between the above-mentioned representatives.” See Agreement between the United States of America and Egypt, signed at Cairo, August 16, 1978

  9. Unprotected Palestinians in Egypt since 1948

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    £E: Egyptian pound. FMRS: Forced Migration Refugee Studies Program. GAP: ...... Generally, our research team located Palestinians by word of mouth. After finding the ...... I then applied for a tourist visa to Egypt and I got one for two weeks.

  10. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  11. Tourism in Egypt | Raslan | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  12. Optimization of the cropping pattern in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Osama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increase of population in Egypt, limited fresh water, poor maintenance and low efficiency of irrigation systems lead to a real burden on the Egyptian natural water resources. Accordingly, for Egypt, land and water resources management is considered an absolutely strategic priority. In this study, a linear optimization model is developed to maximize the net annual return from the three old regions of Egypt. Data for 28 crops in five years from 2008 to 2012 are being analyzed. The spatial variations of crops, irrigation water needs, crop yields and food requirements are incorporated in the model. The results show that there is a significant reduction in the allocated areas for onion, garlic, barley, flax, fenugreek, chickpeas, lentil and lupine since they are considered as non-strategic crops. On the other side, the allocated areas for strategic crops such as wheat, maize, clover, rice, sugar products and cotton remained almost the same to satisfy their actual food requirements. However, crops with high net returns such as tomatoes have increased substantially. The trend for the gross net benefit is decreasing and is expected to reach a lower value in year 2017. Different approaches and scenarios are analyzed. The developed model proposes a change in the cropping pattern in the old lands of Egypt to increase the gross net return without adding further any other expenses. Keywords: Cropping pattern, Linear programming, Net return, Optimization

  13. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions

  14. Another approaching storm on the desert. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, D

    1991-01-01

    Examining Egypt's health care crisis, this article discusses the political factors that have led to such a state. Although Egypt possesses considerable resources and receives vast amounts of US foreign aid, the health status of its people is poor. Infant mortality rate stands at 67/1000 live births; the poor nutritional status of children has not improved over the past 10 years; 1/3 of all children are moderately to severely stunted in growth. The author attributes these woeful conditions to the country's political and economic policies. At one time or another, Egypt has allied itself with USSR or the US, and has generally retained only the worst features of socialism and the free market. While operating as a police state, Egypt has moved towards a free market that has led to the concentration of wealth. The author points out how medical care and medical school reflect the political and economic system. The government guarantees free health care for all and a job to all medical school graduates. But doctors now have to wait 7 years to obtain a post. Many have begun practicing private medicine, and many have become corrupt. The author also singles out the country's diarrhea control program as an indication of the impending health care disaster. Though hailed as high successful, the cost has been exceptionally high, and USAID funding will soon cease. Furthermore, mothers have not been taught self-reliance, but have been made to depend on commercially produced oral rehydration packets. Despite the severity of the social problems, Egypt's security forces have so far succeeded in suppressing popular opposition. But the author does detect hopeful signs in the many active progressive groups, and in particular, in the great social accomplishments of the governor of the providence of Ismailia.

  15. Treated sewagewater use in irrigated agriculture : theoretical design of farming systems in Seil Al Zarqa and the Middle Jordan Valley in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duqqah, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of Jordan is arid and water resources are limited. This situation becomes more acute the more Jordan develops. New techniques in agriculture, industry and the domestic sector place an increasing demand upon clean and safe water. Good-quality water is hardly

  16. Uranium occurence in nature: Geophysical prospecting, and its occurence in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki

    1985-01-01

    A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Not so coarse, nor always plain - the earliest pottery of Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier P.; Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    The site of Tell Sabi Abyad in Syria offers a superb stratified sequence passing, from the aceramic (pre-pottery) to pottery-using Neolithic around 7000 BC Surprisingly the first pottery arrives fully developed with mineral tempering, burnishing and stripey decoration in painted slip. The expected,

  18. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  19. Burning Down the House: the Burnt Building V6 at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkermans, Peter M.M.G.; Brüning, Merel L.; Hammers, Neeke Mineke

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the remains of a T-shaped burnt building found in trench V6 in Operation II at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. The burnt building closely resembles the so-called Burnt Village excavated earlier at Tell Sabi Abyad in Operation I, level 6, but is slightly older. Many...

  20. In Search of a Role to Play: The EU and the War in Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by the recognition that more needs to be done, the Council of Ministers adopted a new EU Strategy for Syria on the eve of the April 2017 Brussels donor. This Overview explores the potential of, and limits to, the different roles of the EU in the pursuit of its own (constitutional) objectives

  1. Coinage and the economy of Syria-Palestine in the seventh and eighth centuries CE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2010-01-01

    Coin data from archaeological excavations can provide interesting perspectives on changing economic conditions over time, but the interpretative pitfalls are many. The presentation and analysis of coin material needs to be conducted within a wider archaeological context should historical conclusi...... conclusions be sought from the material, as the coinage of late antique and early Islamic Syria-Palestine demonstrates....

  2. The Employability Skills of Business Graduates in Syria: Do Policymakers and Employers Speak the Same Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…

  3. 76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Order 13572 of April 29, 2011 Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses..., finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of... have engaged in human rights abuses, constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...

  4. Bayesian estimation of shrubs diversity in rangelands under two management systems in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.; Singh, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of shrubs in rangelands of northern Syria is affected by the grazing management systems restricted by the increase in human and livestock populations. To describe and estimate diversity and compare the rangeland grazing management treatments, two popular indices for diversity, the

  5. 78 FR 38097 - Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...

  6. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8460] Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 AGENCY: Bureau of... Government has determined on August 2, pursuant to Section 306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons...

  7. Impact of grazing on range plant community components under arid Mediterranean climate in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Rotational grazing, full protection, continuous grazing species richness,

    species diversity, soil seed bank, Bayesian methods, Salsola vermiculata, seed

    longevity, rangeland management, Syria.

    Rangelands represent 70% of the semi-arid and arid

  8. Stratigraphy and structure of eastern Syria across the Euphrates depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaf, Tarif; Al-Saad, Damen; Gebran, Ali; Barazangi, Muawia; Best, John A.; Chaimov, Thomas A.

    1993-04-01

    A N-S crustal-scale geotransect across the northern Arabian platform in eastern Syria reveals an alternating series of basement uplifts and basins separated by predominantly transpressional fault zones above an effectively uniform crust. Four major tectonic provinces are crossed along a 325 × 100 km corridor that extends from the Iraqi border in the south to the Turkish border in the north: the Rutbah uplift, the Euphrates depression, the Abd el Aziz structural zone, and the Qamichli uplift. These features are the manifestations of reactivated pre-Cenozoic structures that responded to forces acting along nearby Arabian plate boundaries, particularly Cenozoic convergence and collision along the margins of the northern Arabian platform i.e., the Bitlis suture and the East Anatolian fault in southern Turkey and the Zagros suture in Iran and Iraq. The database for this study consists of 3000 km of industry seismic reflection data, 28 exploratory wells, and geologic and Bouguer gravity maps. The deep crustal structure and, in part, the basement geometry along this transect are inferred from two-dimensional modeling of Bouguer gravity, whereas the shallow (about 8 km) structure is constrained primarily by well and seismic data. Features of the geotransect reveal: (1) A relatively uniform crustal column approximately 37 km thick with only minor crustal thinning beneath the Euphrates. Crustal thinning may be slightly more pronounced beneath the Euphrates (about 35 km) to the southeast of the transect where the Bouguer gravity anomaly is slightly higher. (2) Along the Euphrates depression, ongoing subsidence, which began during the Late Cretaceous, resulted in the deposition of at least 3 km of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks. The structural complexity of the Paleozoic and most of the Mesozoic sedimentary sections along the transect contrasts markedly with a relatively simple, flat-lying Cenozoic section along most of the transect. A notable exception is the Abd el Aziz

  9. Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Slater, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.

  10. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  11. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan.

  12. Quality assurance and accreditation of engineering education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqlan, Faisal; Al-Araidah, Omar; Al-Hawari, Tarek

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides a study of the quality assurance and accreditation in the Jordanian higher education sector and focuses mainly on engineering education. It presents engineering education, accreditation and quality assurance in Jordan and considers the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) for a case study. The study highlights the efforts undertaken by the faculty of engineering at JUST concerning quality assurance and accreditation. Three engineering departments were accorded substantial equivalency status by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology in 2009. Various measures of quality improvement, including curricula development, laboratories improvement, computer facilities, e-learning, and other supporting services are also discussed. Further assessment of the current situation is made through two surveys, targeting engineering instructors and students. Finally, the paper draws conclusions and proposes recommendations to enhance the quality of engineering education at JUST and other Jordanian educational institutions.

  13. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board meeting, Audit and nomination and compensation committee. Furthermore, results suggest that corporate governance quality has increased over time. Thus, its ability to constrain earnings management has also increased. It is recommended to industrial and service companies to boost their compliance with corporate governance code to improve the integrity and reliability of financial reports. This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing evidence about the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan as an emerging economy.

  14. Security measures in transport of radiation source in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, Alslman [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Kaist Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Radioactive materials are used in Jordan for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, environmental science, education and research and military applications. Most of these radioactive sources used are imported, therefore trans-boundary movement is a significant factor in consideration of security measures during movement of these sources. After 11/9 2001 event, IAEA efforts began to focus and concentrate on security in transport of radioactive materials, after the emergence of risks of using these sources in terrorist activities. In 2002, Efforts were initiated by the IAEA to provide additional guidance for security in the transport of radioactive materials, based upon the new security requirements in the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. This paper reviews some of the measures relating to the transport of radioactive materials in Jordan

  15. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  16. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny; S.R.  Evett; N.F. Kandil; C.  Soriano; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt’s share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began...

  17. Franchising in the Middle East: The Example of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaman, Radwa S.

    2017-01-01

    With the largest population in the Arab Middle East and a central location between Europe and East Asia, Egypt offers one of the biggest sources of franchising markets in the world for new business opportunities. Egypt, however, does not have specialized laws regulating franchising, which results in real challenges for investors who are seeking to franchise their businesses in Egypt, along with their legal advisors. It also creates problems for the courts who must rule on disputes arising fro...

  18. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  19. Epidemiology and management of hypertension among Bedouins in Northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaddou, Hashem Y; Bateiha, Anwar M; Al-Khateeb, Mohammed S; Ajlouni, Kamel M

    2003-05-01

    To estimate the magnitude of hypertension, and its levels of awareness and control of hypertension among a community of Jordanian aborigines in Northern Jordan; and to compare the study findings with findings from other Jordanian communities. A systematic sample of 50% of all households of Qafqafa, Northern Jordan was selected and all members of the selected households were included in the study at Qafqafa Health Center, Qafqafa, Jordan. A structured questionnaire was administered to all study participants and measurement of blood pressure was performed according to a preset criteria. Data on 366 subjects included in the sample were collected during the months of April and May 2002. A total of 40 subjects or 10.9% were suffering from hypertension. Prevalence rate of hypertension was significantly lower than the 16.1% and 16.3% prevalence rates reported from other more modernized Jordanian communities. Logistic regression analysis indicated that hypertension was positively associated with masculinity, age, illiteracy, obesity, and with positive family history of hypertension. No association was detected between hypertension and each of smoking, Diabetes mellitus, and total serum cholesterol. This study showed that one-half (47.5%) of hypertensives were unaware of their diagnosis and more than one-half (57.1%) of those aware of their diagnosis did not achieve control of their hypertension. Population of the study community has significantly lower levels of hypertension than both semi-urban and recently urbanized Jordanian communities, and much of the rise in blood pressure levels is attributed to environmental factors. Moreover, hypertension management programs in Jordan are far below the optimal standards.

  20. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  1. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Yahya; Mustafa, Mairna; Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen; Mashal, Kholoud; Mohsen, Mousa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications

  2. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Jordan's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Jordan. The mission team said in its preliminary findings that Jordan's nuclear regulator, the Energy and Minerals Regulatory Commission (EMRC), faces challenges because it is a relatively new body that handles a high workload while also working to recruit, train and keep competent staff. The team also noted that a recent merger provided the regulator with more of the resources it needs to perform its duty. The team made recommendations and suggestions to the regulatory body and the Government to help them strengthen the effectiveness of Jordan's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. The main observations of the IRRS Review team comprised the following: The regulatory body, founded in 2007 and merged with other regulators in April 2014 to form EMRC, faces large challenges in terms of its regulatory workload, management system building and staff recruitment and training; The new EMRC structure and revision of the radiation and nuclear safety law represents an important opportunity to strengthen Jordan's radiation and nuclear safety infrastructure; The Government has shown commitment to radiation and nuclear safety through measures including becoming party to international conventions. It could further demonstrate its commitment by adopting a formal national policy and strategy for safety that defines the role of the Minister of Energy in relation to EMRC and protects the independence of regulatory decision-making

  3. Wishful thinking and real problems: Small modular reactors, planning constraints, and nuclear power in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ahmad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Jordan plans to import two conventional gigawatt scale nuclear reactors from Russia that are expensive and too large for Jordan's current electricity grid. Jordan efforts to establish nuclear power might become easier in some ways if the country were to construct Small Modular Reactors, which might be better suited to Jordan's financial capabilities and its smaller electrical grid capacity. But, the SMR option raises new problems, including locating sites for multiple reactors, finding water to cool these reactors, and the higher cost of electricity generation. Jordan's decision has important implications for its energy planning as well as for the market for SMRs. - Highlights: •Jordan is planning to purchase two large reactors from Russia. •Large reactors would be inappropriate to Jordan's small electricity grid. •Small modular reactors would be more appropriate to Jordan's grid, but have problems. •The market for small modular reactors will be smaller than often projected. •Jordan should consider the financial impact of building a large nuclear reactor.

  4. Assessment of Corporate Governance in Jordan: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the reality of corporate governance in Jordan. It identifies the framework of corporate governance, which has here been set into two dimensions – institutionalisations and regulations – and describes the five major principles of corporate governance. The study was carried out by interviews with key employees and the review of related laws and selected annual reports. The study found (1 basic shareholder rights were honoured in decision-making, except for large decisions such as major asset sales; (2 shareholders were not treated equitably in practice, although controllers sometimes took action and prohibited insider trading; (3 the role and rights of stakeholders in corporate governance were respected, and stakeholders had a number of legal protections, which were largely covered in Jordan's Company Law; (4 disclosure and transparency were observed to a large extent, although limited to quantity rather than quality, because Jordan has fully adopted IFRS and ISA and (5 boards largely fulfilled their responsibilities, as these are extensively defined by law and regulation.

  5. Managing energy transactions across the Kingdom of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisot, A.

    2005-08-01

    Jordan's National Electric Power Company has constructed a synchronized, countrywide enterprise energy management network to provide energy companies with independent access to metering data from shared inter-tie points across the grid. The network is expected to play a key role in helping to support business processes between market participants while also providing the tools to maintain a secure and reliable source of affordable energy for the country's 5 million residents. Limited access to natural resources has placed significant constraints on the region. A background of Jordan's deregulation of the transmission grid was provided in this article, as well as details of government proposals in the past. Falling oil prices have meant an increase in involvement of private concerns in creating a sustainable business and regulatory environment. An outline of Jordan's energy assets was also provided, as well as details of the transmission system and its partitions. Details of data loggers were presented, as well as workstation terminals. Security safeguards such as a segmented network infrastructure, data validation and multilevel user authentication ensure that all billing and operational data is secure. Issues concerning revenue accuracy were discussed. It was concluded that a reliable metering and communications infrastructure is helping to support business processes between market participants. 3 figs.

  6. Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, B.

    2004-01-01

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder the import of crude oil from neighbouring countries and of the fact that Jordan has limited fossil fuel resources, strategies to meet energy demand are being addressed and examined together with their consequences and the ways in which they could be utilised. This paper assesses for the first time, the potential of using alternative energy technologies in Jordan, including the utilisation of solar energy for water heating, for wind towers in rural areas and also for biogas production from waste. Approximately 2% of unconventional renewable energy resources are being utilised. The data and scenarios of this study were presented in a manner that would assist decision makers, funding agencies, researchers and other related parties to establish programmes that will be helpful in meeting the energy demand, while preserving the environment and maintaining sustainability. (author)

  7. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  8. An evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental policy in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Yacoub Shamaileh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the environmental policy in Jordan. The article reviews laws, measures, instruments and the implementation process and evaluates their effectiveness in banning, removing and/or reducing negative externalities in Jordan. Data was collected by administration of questionnaires distributed to all key enforcement officials working in the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, and Health. Additional sources were laws, regulations, official documents and reports issued by the government, international organizations, NGOs and media. The study shows that Jordan’s environmental policy relies solely on the command and control approach to mitigate negative externalities, while completely overlooking price-based and rights -based instruments. Such instruments are widely and increasingly employed in developed countries and have proved their efficiency and effectiveness in protecting the environment. The results of the study reveal that command and control measures are insufficient to achieve effective environmental policy and consequently are incapable of internalizing negative externalities in Jordan. The results may motivate government regulators to endorse price-based and rights-based measures, in addition to command and control measures.

  9. Prospects for the exploitation of Jordan oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O; Probert, S.D.; Badr, O.

    1997-01-01

    Oil shale is the major indigenous fossil-fuel in Jordan: its predicted reserves, of about 5·10 1 0 tonnes, should be sufficient to satisfy Jordan's energy requirements for several centuries. Jordanian oil shale has, on an average, a gross calorific value of between 5 and 7 MJ/kg, an oil yield of ∼ 10 %, and a sulfur content of approximately 3 % by weight of the raw shale (i.e. 7 to 9 % of the organic matter content). Using the oil shale as the input fuel, a multipurpose production process (i.e. retorting, electricity generation, thermal water-desalination, chemicals production as well as mineral extraction) could achieve high utilisation-factors of both its chemical and energy potentials. In the long-term, oil shale is the only indigenous energy resource that could reduce Jordan's dependence on imported crude oil and hence ease the pressure on the national economy. The conversion of oil shale into a liquid or gaseous fuel and raw materials will be of decisive importance in attempts to secure the future of energy supplies. So national efforts devoted to the exploration for, and harnessing more economically, this energy resource, while limiting the associated adverse environmental impacts, should be accelerated. (author)

  10. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  11. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment....... Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  12. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the A ir Pollution Unit w ithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  13. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  14. The demand for military spending in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...

  15. Turkish and Malaysian experiences: Lessons for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeg, Ali Abo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Egyptian uprising was triggered on January 25, 2011 after thirty years of political and economic corruption through Mubarak‟s administration. The thirst for development, political freedom, and social equality were the most significant factors behind thisuprising. There are widespread discussions on which developmental experience Egypt might adopt in the post-Mubarak era. Turkey and Malaysia are the two cases that are mostly referred to aspossible models for the Egyptian case. Th...

  16. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    contributions from Germany , Japan, and Switzerland. For more information on the MFO, see http://www.mfo.org/Default.asp?bhcp=1. Egypt: Background and...2008 Report, Egypt’s pace of business reforms and deregulation between 2006 and 2007 ranked first worldwide. In recent years, the state has...reinvigorated its privatization program by divesting shares in the state-dominated banking and insurance sectors. Additionally, the government removed import

  17. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Islamist militance has been developing in a wide variety of social and economic settings, including England, France , 6 Germany, and elsewhere. We might...political wedge between the United States and Egypt led to Nasir’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. Britain then plotted with France and Israel...than the membership, which, at the time, came from the petit bourgeoisie , or were migrants to urban areas. Shukri Mustafa, leader of TWH, was

  18. Consumer Demand for Major Foods in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Basem Fayaad; Stanley R. Johnson; Mohamed El-Khishin

    1995-01-01

    This study provides information on the structure of the consumer demand for major foods in Egypt. The information is in the form of key parameters for consumer demand systems. The modern theory of consumer behavior is the basis for estimating systems of demand equations. These systems yield estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities. The Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LAIDS) model is applied in estimating a system of demand equations for food commodities. A full demand matrix results ...

  19. The Growing Role of Trade as A Development Assistance Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-11

    about 70 percent of its product requirements, the importation of refined petrol - eum products has further exacerbated the trade-deficit problem. In the...Lesotho Panama India Portugal Malawi Uruguay Indonesia Romania Mali Malaysia Sudan Niger Nepal Tunisia Nigeria Pakistan Turkey Senegal Philippines...countries: Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia , and Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. Sudan, Somalia, and Mauritania, also Arab League countries, are in the EEC-ACP

  20. : tous les projets | Page 103 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alors que s'opèrent des transitions politiques sans précédent dans le monde arabe, le présent projet favorisera la poursuite de recherches et d'analyses fondées sur des données probantes axées sur les forces armées des pays arabes. Région: Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco. Programme: ...

  1. Jordan Reactor of Training and Research (JRTR) Licensing Process and Various Challenges of Nuclear Power Project in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banisalman, Mosab [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kuan Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In Jordan ,Prior to 2001, nuclear activities were handled as a directorate in the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in 2001, a new law of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Protection (29) was promulgated to substitute for the first law (14/1987), Under this 2001 law the Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) was established to undertake both promotion and regulation of nuclear applications in the country In July 2007, the 2001 law was modified and divided into two laws allowing the creation of two independent entities: Nuclear Energy Law (42/2007) established the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) and the Nuclear Safety, Security and Radiation Protection Law (43/2007) established the Radiation and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC) In Feb. 2008 the parliament adopted a further revision to law (42/2007 to upgrade JAEC to the level of a Commission with five commissioners reporting to the PM with the mandate to manage the nuclear program

  2. Depositional and diagenetic processes of Qa Khanna playa, North Jordan basaltic plateau, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howari, F. M.; Banat, K. M.; Abu-Salha, Y. A.

    2010-09-01

    The present study explored mineral occurrences and sediment characteristics of playas from northern Jordan and explained depositional and diagenetic processes as reflected from bulk chemistry and sedimentary structures. Mudcracks of different sizes and shape patterns, laminations, intersediment vesicles, and bioturbation pipes are the main sedimentary structures. Plagioclase, olivine, orthopyroxene, nepheline and other opaque minerals are all of detrital origin, and are derived from the basaltic bedrocks surrounding the studied playa. Evaporites are very rare; they are represented only by trace amounts of gypsum. The identified clay minerals in the clay fraction of the studied sediments, arranged according to their decreasing abundances are palygorskite, illite, kaolinite, smectite and chlorite. The elemental abundances were tied to clay, CaCO 3 and nearby igneous rocks. The type of clay minerals, the high pH values of the studied sediments, and the considerable incorporation of Mg and K in palygorskite and illite respectively, may strongly reflect a high evaporative and alkaline environment under arid to semi-arid conditions in an ephemeral lake of the Qa Khanna. Concentrations and distributions of both major and trace elements are essentially controlled by the clay mineralogy and the calcium carbonate content; Ca is mainly incorporated in the CaCO 3, which is either generated authigenically or by aeolian deposition. Fe and K are incorporated and fixed by illite under an evaporative and alkaline environment. Mg is incorporated in palygorskite while Mn is adsorbed on various clay minerals. Sr substitutes for Ca in the aeolian CaCO 3 and its presence in the studied sediments is independent of the prevailing conditions during the playa evolution. Rb substitutes for K in illite under the prevailing chemical conditions in the studied playa.

  3. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  5. Health workers and the weaponisation of health care in Syria: a preliminary inquiry for The Lancet-American University of Beirut Commission on Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Fouad M; Sparrow, Annie; Tarakji, Ahmad; Alameddine, Mohamad; El-Jardali, Fadi; Coutts, Adam P; El Arnaout, Nour; Karroum, Lama Bou; Jawad, Mohammed; Roborgh, Sophie; Abbara, Aula; Alhalabi, Fadi; AlMasri, Ibrahim; Jabbour, Samer

    2017-12-02

    The conflict in Syria presents new and unprecedented challenges that undermine the principles and practice of medical neutrality in armed conflict. With direct and repeated targeting of health workers, health facilities, and ambulances, Syria has become the most dangerous place on earth for health-care providers. The weaponisation of health care-a strategy of using people's need for health care as a weapon against them by violently depriving them of it-has translated into hundreds of health workers killed, hundreds more incarcerated or tortured, and hundreds of health facilities deliberately and systematically attacked. Evidence shows use of this strategy on an unprecedented scale by the Syrian Government and allied forces, in what human rights organisations described as a war-crime strategy, although all parties seem to have committed violations. Attacks on health care have sparked a large-scale exodus of experienced health workers. Formidable challenges face health workers who have stayed behind, and with no health care a major factor in the flight of refugees, the effect extends well beyond Syria. The international community has left these violations of international humanitarian and human rights law largely unanswered, despite their enormous consequences. There have been repudiated denunciations, but little action on bringing the perpetrators to justice. This inadequate response challenges the foundation of medical neutrality needed to sustain the operations of global health and humanitarian agencies in situations of armed conflict. In this Health Policy, we analyse the situation of health workers facing such systematic and serious violations of international humanitarian law. We describe the tremendous pressures that health workers have been under and continue to endure, and the remarkable resilience and resourcefulness they have displayed in response to this crisis. We propose policy imperatives to protect and support health workers working in armed conflict

  6. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  7. Starvation of children in Syria--sanctions and the politics of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi

    2014-01-01

    As Syria completes two years of western sanctions (2011-13), their dramatic effects on health are being highlighted with first reports of starvation deaths among children in the suburbs of Damascus. Although heavy fighting has taken place in this area, experts had predicted for some time the unworkability of sanctions for regime change, arguing that only civilians would pay the price in a country (Syria in this case) which was once well on the way to meeting the Millennium Development Goals 4 targets on reducing child mortality. In this, as in the case of other "sanctioned" countries, it is not just "civilians" but the most vulnerable among them--children, who are experiencing the tragic consequences of sanctions.

  8. Rethinking therapeutic decisions for hepatitis B infection in Syria: insights into molecular monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, Wafa; Monem, Fawza

    2012-10-19

    Hepatitis B virus patients are usually treated in Syria with alpha interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues. Genotypic viral factors causing inadequate response or relapse following initial response are not routinely investigated. This study aimed to explore and discuss local therapeutic decisions from a molecular perspective. Fifty patients with hepatitis B from Syria were tested for HBV genotyping and drug-resistance mutations by DNA sequencing. All patients had genotype D, which is characterized by relatively low response to interferon-based therapy. Drug-resistant viral mutant variants were detected in one fifth of the enrolled patients, and distributed similarly in both nucleos(t)ide analogues-naïve and -treated patients. However, nucleos(t)ide analogues-based therapy was associated with the existence of more mutations and hence increased resistance. Investigating HBV genotypes and drug-resistance mutations to support treatment decisions is critically needed for efficient therapy and patients' survival.

  9. Natural radioactivity of drinking water on the southern and middle parts of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Yassine, T.

    1998-05-01

    Water samples from 48 sites, covering the major drinking water sources in the southern and middle parts of Syria were collected twice and analyzed for 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 210 Po and total uranium. Also all samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, physical properties and Hardness. The results obtained were generally low and comparable with those found for other countries. The highest values were found in regions around the phosphate mines in the middle par of Syria with 113 Kb.m -3 for 222 Rn, 350 Bq.m -3 for 226 Ra, 8 Bq.m -3 for 210 Po and 350 Bq.m -3 for total uranium. (author). 6 tabs

  10. Perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth: an exploratory study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushaikha, Lubna; Massah, Rana

    2013-03-01

    The barriers that face fathers during childbirth are an understudied phenomenon. The objective of our study was to explore Syrian parents' perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth. A descriptive phenomenological qualitative approach based on Colaizzi's method was used with a purposive sample of 23 mothers and 14 fathers recruited from a major public maternity hospital in Syria. In our study, four themes on barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth were found: 1) sociocultural influences and rigidity; 2) being unprepared; 3) unsupportive policies and attitudes; and 4) unfavorable reactions and circumstances. Common and current sociocultural norms in Syria do not encourage fathers to be present or contribute during childbirth. Therefore, establishing culturally sensitive supportive policies and practices is a vital step toward overcoming these barriers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Syria measurements and relationship with skin cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I; Baydon, S.A.; Dawood, S.

    1994-11-01

    Seasonal variations of solar UVB (285-320) and UVA (320-400) were measured in three sites in Syria (33-37 N sup O) for two years: 1992-1993. UVB measurements were performed using polysulphone films and Robertson-Berger meter, while UVA measurements were done by NVA intensity meter. Two sets of measurements were carried out : - Maximal daily doses three times a week (every other day) - Diurnal variations from sun-rise to sun-set every two hours twice a month (every fortnight). The biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation withreference to some epidemiological data of skin cancer incidence in Syria since 1980 were discussed .(author). 36 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Threats to Security Posed by ISIS in Syria: A Human Security Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil war in Syria coupled with the attacks by ISIS, has resulted in one of the largest humanitarian crises since World War II. Although international efforts have resulted in regaining control of important cities, these military approaches have escalated and inflamed the violence of which innocent civilians bear the consequences. The continuing violence and resulting threats or insecurities negatively affect the lives, freedom, dignity and development of the people to name but a few. For that reason, the aim is to explore the applicability of a human security approach to the conflict in Syria that focuses on, among other aspects, minimising violence, mitigating the effects of the conflict, protecting people, restoring peace and eliminating the grounds that resulted in the development of these conditions in the first place.

  13. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into the... continental United States of fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... strawberries from Jordan. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Donna...

  14. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan... importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on this analysis, we... importation of fresh strawberries from Jordan. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

  15. "You Have Come a Long Way Woman": A Sparkle Slogan without Realistic Meaning for Woman Status in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudeir, Dua'a Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This research paper discusses woman status in the country of Jordan in terms of rights, equality and personal liberties, freedom of choice in particular. It argues that, although Jordan is working hard to be open to Western values and civilization; however, it lags behind when it comes to woman liberty and equality. Jordan is a patriarchal…

  16. The Occurrence of the Cicada Cicadatra persica on Apple Trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877

  17. CVD and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hani; Barakat, Hanniya; Baaj, Mohamad K

    2012-01-01

    Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally. PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates. Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years. Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.

  18. The Security Gap in Syria: Individual and Collective Security in ‘Rebel-held’ Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ali Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap, understood as the gap between security practices and objectives which have implications for individual and collective security. Practices of security can be the state apparatus, the military, and militias. The objective – safety – can refer to the safety or security of a range of collectives including the state, political parties, and ethnic groups, while individual security re...

  19. Provenance Study of Archaeological Ceramics from Syria Using XRF Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Thermoluminescence Dating

    OpenAIRE

    Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Abboud, Rana; Issa, Haissm

    2014-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and multivariate statistical methods based on radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analysis have been utilized to date and classify Syrian archaeological ceramics fragment from Tel Jamous site. 54 samples were analyzed by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence; 51 of them come from Tel Jamous archaeological site in Sahel Akkar region, Syria, which fairly represent ceramics belonging to the Middle Bronze Age (2150 to 1600 B.C.) and the remaining three samples come from Mar-T...

  20. MENUJU DIALOG ISLAM – KRISTEN: PERJUMPAAN GEREJA ORTODOKS SYRIA DENGAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Arifin

    2012-05-01

    Konflik antara Kristen dengan Islam tampil dalam sejarah agama. Karena memiliki sumber asal yang sama, kedua agama selalu terlibat dalam kontak ke­kerasan. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengkaji secara mendalam geraja orthodoks Syria dan ditemukan akan adanya akar yang sama dengan Islam. Ditemukan pula adanya paralelisasi dalam aspek teologinya, khususnya pe­laksana­an kewajiban agama. Data yang didapatkan menunjukkan arti penting dalam pengembangan dialog antara Islam dengan Kristen

  1. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the ...

  2. Differences in resource management affects drought vulnerability across the borders between Iraq, Syria, and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Eklund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Much discussion has taken place exploring a potential connection between the 2007-2009 Fertile Crescent drought and Syria's uprising-turned civil war beginning in 2011. This study takes an integrated perspective on the 2007-2009 drought in the border region of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey by looking at the meteorological, agricultural, and socioeconomic aspects of drought vulnerability. Satellite-based precipitation and vegetation data help outline the drought's spatial and temporal properties. In order to understand the context in which this drought happened, we also look at the trends in vegetation productivity between 2001 and 2015, as well as each country's different politico-economic factors affecting land and water resource management leading up to the drought. The findings show that, although the drought was severe in Syria, it was not the only country affected, nor necessarily the worst hit meteorologically. The agricultural drought lasted 2 yr in most affected areas on the Iraqi and Syrian sides, however, only 1 yr in the affected areas on the Turkish side. The vegetation trend analysis shows a striking difference between the Syrian and Turkish sides of the border. Turkey experienced a general improvement in land productivity between 2001 and 2015, whereas Iraq and Syria show a generally negative productivity trend. The fact that the decline in rainfall had different effects on crops in each of the three countries highlights the role government and private sector resource management and infrastructure play in reducing drought vulnerability. The findings of this study highlight the need for an integrated approach to research that investigates the interconnection between climate and conflict.

  3. Injuries in Aleppo, Syria; first population-based estimates and characterization of predominant types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziak Wasim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing burden of injuries worldwide, Syria and many other Arab countries still lack population-based estimates of different types of injuries. This study aims toprovide first population-based estimates of major injuries in Syria and characterize groups at increased risk. Methods An interviewer-administered population-based survey of adults 18–65 years residing in Aleppo, Syria was conducted in 2004. The study sample involved 2038 household representatives in Aleppo (45.2% men, mean age 35.3 ± 12.1, response rate 86%. We inquired about participants self-reported injuries in the past year that required medical attention as well as injuries among their household members. When reported, injuries were further assessed according to type, place, and outcome. Results Overall, there was 153 self-reported injuries in the past year (77.3 per 1000 adult respondents, 93.1 per 1000 in men and 64.4 per 1000 in women, p = 0.02. Other than gender, injuries differed by age (the older age group being least affected, and place of occurrence, as men were more likely to sustain traffic injuries and be injured outside the home. Injuries were reported among 236 household members (21.0 per 1000, and were slightly more frequent in children than adults (22.0 per 1000 for children, and 19.7 per 1000 for adults, p = 0.2. Traffic injuries, falls, and poisoning (food were by far the most common types of injury experienced by participants as well as their household members. Falls and traffic injuries seem to have caused most morbidity for the injured, while burns, although not frequently reported, were associated with an unfavorable outcome in the majority of cases. Conclusion This information provides baseline information about the burden of different injuries in Syria, and the sociodemographic factors related to them.

  4. Pepino mosaic virus, a first report of a virus infecting tomato in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV occurring in tomato plants grown in plastic greenhouses in a Mediterranean city in Syria. One tomato fruit from sixty samples tested positive for this virus by DAS-ELISA. Biotest assay, RT-PCR, and sequencing confirmed the presence of PepMV. The highest sequence identity of the Syrian isolate was with the EU-tomato strains of PepMV.

  5. Explaining Humanitarian Intervention in Libya and Non-Intervention in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    enforcement of human rights could prevent authoritarian governments from hurting their own populations. On the other hand, the violent protests in Syria...humanitarian intervention in its current form because it "reinforces authoritarianism , hard sovereignty, [and] militarization.൩ Furthermore, he asks...December 2011), p. 48. 78 Philip Cunliffe, Dangerous duties: power, paternalism and the ’responsibility to protect’, Review of International Studies (2010

  6. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Mohammed; Mohamad Fater

    2016-01-01

    Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab). Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recordi...

  7. Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elfeki, M.; Elbestawy, E.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 2445-2453 ISSN 1230-1485 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : agricultural wastes * biogas in Egypt * bioconversion * compost in Egypt * organic wastes Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016

  8. Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, (Marike) van M.E.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the VIDI 'Cultural innovation in a globalising society: Egypt in the Roman world', this research explores manifestations of Egypt in the material culture of Augustan Rome. This period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which was characterised by cultural

  9. The Antiquities Trade in Egypt 1880-1930

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Frederik Norland; Ryholt, Kim

    these objects came to be here. The book presents the first in-depth analysis of this market during its “golden age” in Egypt in the late 19th and early 20th Century. It is primarily based on the archival material of the Danish Egyptologist H. O. Lange (1863-1943) who, during two prolonged stays in Egypt (1899...

  10. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  11. The Zoril, Ictonyx striatus erythreae De Winton, 1898 in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zoril Ictonyx striatus is one of the rarest mammals of Egypt, known from only two specimens collected more than 50 years ago. The collection of two new specimens and the observation of others in the Gabal Elba area provide new data on this little-known animal in Egypt. In this paper we provide information on the ...

  12. Three New Records of Pottiaceae (Musci) from Egypt | Shabbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three taxa of Pottiacea; Barbula sardoa (Schimp.) J.P. Frahm, Didymodon ceratodentus (Müll.Hal.) Dixon and Syntrichia fragilis (Taylor) Ochyra collected from Nile Delta are new records to Egypt. This increases the number of taxa known from Egypt to 187. D. ceratodentus and S. fragilis are new records to North Africa.

  13. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  14. Evaluation of the Emergency Education Response for Syrian Refugee Children and Host Communities in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Education Response Programme (EER), launched by UNICEF, the Government of Jordan and partners in 2012, aims to provide free public formal education, as well as safe and appropriate supportive educational services, for Syrian refugee children living in Jordan. RAND's evaluation

  15. Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

    2009-01-01

    In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to cope…

  16. K-Bessel functions associated to a 3-rank Jordan algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacen Dib

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the Bessel-Muirhead system, we can express the K-Bessel function defined on a Jordan algebra as a linear combination of the J-solutions. We determine explicitly the coefficients when the rank of this Jordan algebra is three after a reduction to the rank two. The main tools are some algebraic identities developed for this occasion.

  17. His Majesty King Abdullah II of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 03: King of Jordan visited some ATLAS installations. From left to right: Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council, Luciano Maiani, Director-General of CERN, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Herwig Schopper, President of the SESAME Council and Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman.

  18. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  19. Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

  20. Humanitarian Needs Among Displaced and Female-Headed Households in Government-Controlled Areas of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily

    2017-06-01

    To identify unmet needs and assistance priorities of displaced and female-headed households in government-controlled areas of Syria. In mid-2016, we undertook a survey of accessible areas, largely urban and government-controlled, to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities. We used a cluster design with probability sampling to attain a final sample of 2405 households from 10 of 14 governorates; 31 of 65 (47.7%) districts were included that are home to 38.1% of people in need. Displaced and female-headed households were more vulnerable than nondisplaced and male-headed households in numerous sectors. Despite approximately half of surveyed households reporting receipt of humanitarian assistance in the preceding month and apparently effective targeting of assistance by vulnerability, unmet needs were nearly ubiquitous. The humanitarian situation in inaccessible areas of Syria is likely to be considerably worse; thus, findings presented here likely underestimate humanitarian needs. Efforts to expand support to Syria's most vulnerable households are desperately needed as are innovative targeting and modalities that enable more efficient and effective assistance.

  1. The effect of the Syrian crisis on organ transplantation in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bassam

    2015-04-01

    The war in Syria that started in March 2011 has destroyed much of the country's infrastructure including many hospitals. The total number of kidney transplants performed in Syria in 2010 was 385 transplants before the number gradually declined to 154 transplants in 2013, a decrease of 60%. In addition, the number of operational kidney transplant centers has decreased from 8 to 4 centers. Unrelated-donor kidney transplant decreased from 70% during the years that preceded the crisis to 47% in 2013. More than 50% of physicians and surgeons involved in kidney transplant are not practicing transplant currently in their centers. Difficulties in the provision of immunosuppressive drugs for all patients in all provinces constitute a major challenge for the health authorities and transplant patients, especially patients who cannot arrange an alternate source. The project to initiate liver transplant came to a halt because foreign trainers could not visit Syria. The autologous bone marrow transplant program continued to function, but in a smaller and irregular manner. The commitment of transplant teams despite the large challenges was, and still is, extraordinary. In conclusion, all aspects of organ transplant have been affected, paralyzing new projects and negatively affecting existing programs.

  2. The large earthquake on 29 June 1170 (Syria, Lebanon, and central southern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Bernardini, Filippo; Comastri, Alberto; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-07-01

    On 29 June 1170 a large earthquake hit a vast area in the Near Eastern Mediterranean, comprising the present-day territories of western Syria, central southern Turkey, and Lebanon. Although this was one of the strongest seismic events ever to hit Syria, so far no in-depth or specific studies have been available. Furthermore, the seismological literature (from 1979 until 2000) only elaborated a partial summary of it, mainly based solely on Arabic sources. The major effects area was very partial, making the derived seismic parameters unreliable. This earthquake is in actual fact one of the most highly documented events of the medieval Mediterranean. This is due to both the particular historical period in which it had occurred (between the second and the third Crusades) and the presence of the Latin states in the territory of Syria. Some 50 historical sources, written in eight different languages, have been analyzed: Latin (major contributions), Arabic, Syriac, Armenian, Greek, Hebrew, Vulgar French, and Italian. A critical analysis of this extraordinary body of historical information has allowed us to obtain data on the effects of the earthquake at 29 locations, 16 of which were unknown in the previous scientific literature. As regards the seismic dynamics, this study has set itself the question of whether there was just one or more than one strong earthquake. In the former case, the parameters (Me 7.7 ± 0.22, epicenter, and fault length 126.2 km) were calculated. Some hypotheses are outlined concerning the seismogenic zones involved.

  3. Schemes for photovoltaic-wind electrification in rural areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, A.; Kaadan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)

  4. First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt (Cairo, Egypt, May 21, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gara, Chloe

    This document is comprised of the papers presented at the First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt in May 2001. Participating in the symposium were representatives from the World Bank, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Children's Project, and the Academy for Educational Development. The symposium opened with an…

  5. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when

  6. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their

  7. Regulatory Body of Egypt: Practices and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.

    2016-01-01

    In past, Egypt issued the law No. 59 of year 1969 for regulating the use of ionizing radiations inside the country, this law assigns the responsibilities of Egypt Atomic Energy Authority EAEA to control reactors, open sources, and all nuclear and radiation facilities inside its premises, while the ministry of health was responsible for controlling x-ray machine, sealed sources and accelerators. In 1982 EAEA established within its structure a new regulatory body called national centre for Nuclear Safety and radiation Control NC-NSRC as a dependent regulatory body, science EAEA is the operator of reactors and many nuclear and radiation facilities. On 30 March 2010 Egypt issued a nuclear law No 7 of year 2010, followed by its executive regulation in October 2011, the new law replaced the old law 59 of year 1969, in addition, the prime minster issued a decree on march 5td 2012 of establishing an independent regulatory body reported directly to him, it has the name of Egypt Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority ENRRA, it is responsible for regulating all nuclear and radiation facilities and activities inside the country, except X-ray machines and linear accelerators for the medical uses, that still remains under the control of ministry of health. The new nuclear law defines the responsibility of the government to establish, support and determine the authorization and the responsibilities of the independent regulatory body. ENRRA is managed by a board of directors comprises from chairman, vice chairman, head of national security, interior, exterior, customs, export & import, standards, environment, justice organizations, besides two scientific experts from ENRRA. The board of council is the supreme authority of the dominant, and the conduct of ENRRA affairs, and take decisions within the framework of the national plan of Egypt, to achieve the objectives for which the ENRRA was established. ENRRA was organized from the old NC-NSRC staff into three regulatory

  8. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Jordan's healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 hospitals (15 public and four private) were selected. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose. Findings All hospitals (100 percent) had a safe water source and most (84.2 percent) had functional water sources to provide enough water for users' needs. All hospitals had appropriate and sufficient gender separated toilets in the wards and 84.2 percent had the same in outpatient settings. Overall, 84.2 percent had sufficient and functioning handwashing basins with soap and water, and 79.0 percent had sufficient showers. Healthcare waste management was appropriately practiced in all hospitals. Practical implications Jordan hospital managers achieved major achievements providing access to drinking water and improved sanitation. However, there are still areas that need improvements, such as providing toilets for patients with special needs, establishing handwashing basins with water and soap near toilets, toilet maintenance and providing sufficient trolleys for collecting hazardous waste. Efforts are needed to integrate WSH service policies with existing national policies on environmental health in health facilities, establish national standards and targets for the various healthcare facilities to increase access and improve services. Originality/value There are limited WSH data on healthcare facilities and targets for basic coverage in healthcare facilities are also lacking. A new assessment tool was developed to generate core WSH indicators and to assess WSH services in Jordan's healthcare facilities. This tool can be used by a non-WSH specialist to quickly assess healthcare facility-related WSH services and sanitary hazards in other countries. This tool identified some areas

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency among Newborns in Amman, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Lang, Ryan D.; Blevins, Meridith; Kudyba, Katherine; Lawrence, Lindsey; Davidson, Mario; Faouri, Samir; Halasa, Natasha B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in selected Middle Eastern countries, but neonatal vitamin D status is not well studied in Jordan and other nearby countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Jordanian newborns and risk factors associated with low levels. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of newborn infants who were delivered at the Al Bashir Government Hospital in Amman, Jordan, from January 31, 2010, to January 27, 2011. Heel stick blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were obtained within 96 hours of birth. Maternal dress pattern, vitamin supplementation, smoke exposure during pregnancy, mode of delivery, gestational age, and birth weight were documented. Results: Samples were obtained from 3,731 newborns. Median gestational age was 39 weeks, median birth weight was 3.1 kilograms, median maternal age was 27 years, and median newborn 25(OH)D level was 8.6nmol/L. A total of 3,512 newborns (94.1%) in this study were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L). Lower gestational age, maternal smoke exposure, and birth during winter months were associated with lower infant vitamin D levels, while vitamin D supplementation and time spent outside during pregnancy were associated with higher vitamin D levels. Conclusions: The prevalence of severely low vitamin D levels in newborn infants in Amman, Jordan, is substantial, even in newborns born during the spring and summer months. Vitamin D supplementation is needed in this population. PMID:24373276

  10. Analytic Theology as Sapiential Theology: A Response to Jordan Wessling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhoozer Kevin J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to Jordan Wessling’s paper that engages a concern I expressed about analytic theology not doing justice to the sapiential requirements of theology. I examine Wessling’s summary of my paper, conclude that his description is accurate and fair, appreciate his proposed solution, then go on to restate why I think he may not have fully allayed my concern. I suggest that analytic theology is a vital tool in the theologian’s toolkit, but that ultimately more is needed in order to interpret Scripture theologically.

  11. Safety of radiation sources and other radioactive materials in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since joining the IAEA Model Project for upgrading radiation protection infrastructure in countries of West Asia, Jordan has amended its radiation safety legislation. The Regulatory Authority is improving its inventory system for radiation sources and other radioactive materials and also its notification, registration, licensing, inspection and enforcement systems. It has established national provisions for the management of orphan sources after they have been found. The system for the control of the radiation sources and other radioactive materials entering the country has been improved by the Regulatory Authority. (author)

  12. Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian R.; Makhlouf, Issa M.; Armstrong, Howard A.

    2005-11-01

    The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan, comprise a lower and upper glacially incised palaeovalley system, occupying reactivated basement and Pan-African fault-controlled depressions. The lower palaeovalley, incised into shoreface sandstones of the pre-glacial Tubeiliyat Formation, is filled with thin glaciofluvial sandstones at the base, overlain by up to 50 m of shoreface sandstone. A prominent glaciated surface near the top of this palaeovalley-fill contains intersecting glacial striations aligned E-W and NW-SE. The upper palaeovalley-fill comprises glaciofluvial and marine sandstones, incised into the lower palaeovalley or, where this is absent, into the Tubeiliyat Formation. Southern Jordan lay close to the margin of a Late Ordovician terrestrial ice sheet in Northwest Saudi Arabia, characterised by two major ice advances. These are correlated with the lower and upper palaeovalleys in southern Jordan, interrupted by two subsidiary glacial advances during late stage filling of the lower palaeovalley when ice advanced from the west and northwest. Thus, four ice advances are now recorded from the Late Ordovician glacial record of southern Jordan. Disturbed and deformed green sandstones beneath the upper palaeovalley-fill in the Jebel Ammar area, are confined to the margins of the Hutayya graben, and have been interpreted as structureless glacial loessite or glacial rock flour. Petrographic and textural analyses of the deformed sandstones, their mapped lateral transition into undeformed Tubeiliyat marine sandstones away from the fault zone, and the presence of similar sedimentary structures to those in the pre-glacial marine Tubeiliyat Formation suggest that they are a locally deformed facies equivalent of the Tubeiliyat, not part of the younger glacial deposits. Deformation is attributed to glacially induced crustal stresses and seismic reactivation of pre-existing faults, previously weakened by epeirogenesis, triggering sediment

  13. A study of deficiencies in teamwork skills among Jordan caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araidah, Omar; Al Theeb, Nader; Bader, Mariam; Mandahawi, Nabeel

    2018-05-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the deficiencies in teamwork skills at Jordan hospitals as seen by team members. The study aims to identify training needs to improve teamwork-related soft skills of caregivers to enhance staff satisfaction and improve quality of care. Moreover, the paper provides a methodology to identify the training needs in any healthcare workplace by repeating the same questionnaire. Design/methodology/approach A self-administrated questionnaire was designed to study deficiencies in teamwork and team leadership at Jordan hospitals as seen by team members. Surveyed care providers included physicians, nursing and anesthesiologists operating in emergency departments, surgical operating rooms and intensive care units from various hospitals. Findings With a response rate of 78.8 percent, statistical analysis of collected data of opposing staff members revealed low levels of satisfaction (40.7-48 percent opposing), lack of awareness on the impact of teamwork on quality of care (15.6-22.1 percent opposing), low levels of involvement of top management (27.1-57.3 percent opposing), lack of training (52.5-69.8 percent opposing), lack of leadership skills (29.8-60 percent opposing), lack of communication (22.3-62.1 percent opposing), lack of employee involvement (37.6-50.8 percent opposing) and lack of collaboration among team members (28.6-50 percent opposing). Among the many, results illustrate the need for improving leadership skills of team leaders, improving communication and involving team members in decision making. Originality/value Several studies investigated relationships between teamwork skills and quality of care in many countries. To the authors' knowledge, no local study investigated the deficiencies of teamwork skills among Jordan caregivers and its impact on quality of care. The study provides the ground for management at Jordan hospitals and to healthcare academic departments to tailor training courses to improve teamwork

  14. Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam; Crouzel, Isabelle; Neveu, Norig

    2014-01-01

    The tourism sector accounted for 13% of GDP in 2010 and employs nearly a quarter of the workforce, placing Jordan just after Lebanon in tourism receipts as % of GDP, but far ahead of Morocco, Syria and Egypt (fig. VII.29). The bulk of tourism comes from the Arab world, mainly the Gulf, followed by Asia, Europe and the Americas (fig. VII.30). Out of the 9.5 million people who entered Jordan in 2009 (a figure that includes tourism, but also business tourism), 8 million people came from Arab cou...

  15. Results of a Nationwide Capacity Survey of Hospitals Providing Trauma Care in War-Affected Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Hariri, Mahmoud; Alnahhas, Houssam; Ludwig, Elizabeth; Allodami, Tammam; Mahameed, Bahaa; Koly, Jamal Kaby; Aldbis, Ahmed; Saqqur, Maher; Zhang, Baobao; Al-Kassem, Anas

    2016-09-01

    The Syrian civil war has resulted in large-scale devastation of Syria's health infrastructure along with widespread injuries and death from trauma. The capacity of Syrian trauma hospitals is not well characterized. Data are needed to allocate resources for trauma care to the population remaining in Syria. To identify the number of trauma hospitals operating in Syria and to delineate their capacities. From February 1 to March 31, 2015, a nationwide survey of 94 trauma hospitals was conducted inside Syria, representing a coverage rate of 69% to 93% of reported hospitals in nongovernment controlled areas. Identification and geocoding of trauma and essential surgical services in Syria. Although 86 hospitals (91%) reported capacity to perform emergency surgery, 1 in 6 hospitals (16%) reported having no inpatient ward for patients after surgery. Sixty-three hospitals (70%) could transfuse whole blood but only 7 (7.4%) could separate and bank blood products. Seventy-one hospitals (76%) had any pharmacy services. Only 10 (11%) could provide renal replacement therapy, and only 18 (20%) provided any form of rehabilitative services. Syrian hospitals are isolated, with 24 (26%) relying on smuggling routes to refer patients to other hospitals and 47 hospitals (50%) reporting domestic supply lines that were never open or open less than daily. There were 538 surgeons, 378 physicians, and 1444 nurses identified in this survey, yielding a nurse to physician ratio of 1.8:1. Only 74 hospitals (79%) reported any salary support for staff, and 84 (89%) reported material support. There is an unmet need for biomedical engineering support in Syrian trauma hospitals, with 12 fixed x-ray machines (23%), 11 portable x-ray machines (13%), 13 computed tomographic scanners (22%), 21 adult (21%) and 5 pediatric (19%) ventilators, 14 anesthesia machines (10%), and 116 oxygen cylinders (15%) not functional. No functioning computed tomographic scanners remain in Aleppo, and 95 oxygen cylinders (42

  16. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  17. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  18. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  19. Assessing Actual Visit Behavior through Antecedents of Tourists Satisfaction among International Tourists in Jordan: A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Moh’d Al Muala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordan tourism industry is facing fluctuating tourist visit provoked by dissatisfaction, high visit risk, low hotel service, or negative Jordan image. This study aims to examine the relationships between the antecedents of tourist satisfaction and actual visit behavior in tourism of Jordan, and the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction (SAT in the relationship between Jordan image (JOM, service climate (SER and actual visit behavior (ACT. A total of 850 international tourists completed a survey that were conducted at southern sites in Jordan. Using structural equation modeling (SEM technique, confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement, and the structural equation modeling techniques (Amos 6.0 were used to evaluate the casual model. Results of the study demonstrate the strong predictive power and explain of international tourists’ behavior in Jordan. The findings highlighted that the relationship between Jordan image and service climate are significant and positive on actual visit behavior.

  20. Use of remote sensing techniques for mitigation and relief action of the main disaster concerns in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalati, M.

    The main disaster concern in Syria is the Earthquakes since that Northwest of Syria is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift Afro-Arabian rift System Those areas are tectonically active and cause time to time a lot of seismically events This faulting zone system represent a unique structural feature in the Mediterranean Region The system formed initially as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate since the mid-Cenozoic The other disaster concern in Syria is Landslides whom caused significant damaging in Syria during the last decades especially in the Northwestern and Southwestern regions Landslide disasters killed some people and destroyed many mud and cement houses coastal mountains and cut off some roads few years ago It is known that many of the earthquakes and landslides that ever happened on our planet are located in active faults zones So it is of most important to obtain detailed information on regional tectonic structures The main approach of active faults survey at present is to use geological and geophysical methods such as in-situ measuring drilling and analysis of gravity and magnetic fields However because of the magnitude of the work there are still many uncertainties that we cannot figure out by traditional approaches Remote sensing has been brought forward for many years and has applications in many hazard

  1. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  2. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  3. Aid for family planning in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    A $5 million credit has been approved by the International Development Association, an affilate of the World Bank, to help finance a population project in Egypt. The project provides for the construction, equipping and furnishing of 22 general health centers, 12 polyclinics, 3 centers for training nursing teachers and 3 centers for in service training. 100 and 50 multipurpose vehicles will be provided to improve mobility of family planning services. Also included are a study on the maintenance of health facilities, 3 evaluation studies of family planning acceptors, an experimental home visiting program to inform and motivate people on family planning, and assistance in the production of health education material useful for family planning information and motivation. Simple demographic facts illustrate the seriousness of the population problem in Egypt. The current population of 35 million will be double by the year 2000 if the present 2.5% annual increase continues. This will put strains on a country whose population density quadrupled during the last century, and which stands to day at 950 persons per square kilometer of habitable land, a density rivalled by only 2 or 3 other countries in the world. The IDA credit will cover about 1/2 of the project's expense. The Egyptian government will finance the local costs. full text

  4. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah

    2016-01-01

    This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. The students' knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level.

  5. First results from the Jordan COLTRIMS imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afaneh, Feras, E-mail: afaneh@hu.edu.jo [Physics Department, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Ali, Rami; Qasem, Rajaie; Balasmeh, Naeem [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Hamasha, Safeia [Physics Department, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Dörner, Reinhard; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus has been constructed and operated cooperatively by the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory in the Physics Department at the Hashemite University, Jordan, and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Group at the 4.75 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility at the University of Jordan. This COLTRIMS imaging system allows the investigation of the dynamics of various ion impact induced atomic and molecular interactions and fragmentations. The performance of the COLTRIMS system was tested by carrying out preliminary studies of two collision systems. In the first study, electron capture processes in the He{sup 2+}–Ne collision system at 0.25 and 1.0 MeV impact energies were investigated. Significant simultaneous electron capture and target excitation has been observed for the 0.25 MeV as opposed to the 1.0 MeV impact energy. In the other study, projectile single electron loss and simultaneous single target ionization in the O{sup +}–He collision system was studied at three different projectile impact energies: 0.6, 1.45 and 2 MeV. Enhancement of the electron–electron contribution to projectile electron loss with increasing collision energy has been observed.

  6. Geospatial Techniques for Improved Water Management in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad T. Al-Bakri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows a case from Jordan where geospatial techniques were utilized for irrigation water auditing. The work was based on assessing records of groundwater abstraction in relation to irrigated areas and estimated crop water consumption in three water basins: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and Azraq. Mapping of irrigated areas and crop water requirements was carried out using remote sensing data of Landsat 8 and daily weather records. The methodology was based on visual interpretation and the unsupervised classification for remote sensing data, supported by ground surveys. Net (NCWR and gross (GCWR crop water requirements were calculated by merging crop evapotranspiration (ETc, calculated from daily weather records, with maps of irrigated crops. Gross water requirements were compared with groundwater abstractions recorded at a farm level to assess the levels of abstraction in relation to groundwater safe yield. Results showed that irrigated area and GCWR were higher than officially recorded cropped area and abstracted groundwater. The over abstraction of groundwater was estimated to range from 144% to 360% of the safe yield in the three basins. Overlaying the maps of irrigation and groundwater wells enabled the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI to detect and uncover violations and illegal practices of irrigation, in the form of unlicensed wells, incorrect metering of pumped water and water conveyance for long distances. Results from the work were utilized at s high level of decision-making and changes to the water law were made, with remote sensing data being accredited for monitoring water resources in Jordan.

  7. Pain management in Jordan: nursing students' knowledge and attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad

    Pain management requires knowledgeable and trained nurses. Because nursing students are the nurses of the future, it is important to ensure that students receive adequate education about pain management in nursing schools. The purpose of this study is to evaluate nursing students' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. A cross-sectional survey was used. The sample comprised 144 students from three nursing colleges in Jordan. Sixty-one percent were female and the average age was 21.6 years (SD 1.7). The students' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used. The rate of correct answers ranged from 11.1% to 64%. Students showed a low level of knowledge regarding pain management-the average score was just 16 (SD 5.11) out of 40. Students were weak in their knowledge of pain medications pharmacology (actions and side effects). Less than half of students (47.9%) recognised that pain may be present, even when vital signs are normal and facial expressions relaxed. Finally, students showed negative attitudes towards pain management, believing that patients should tolerate pain as much as they can before receiving opioids; almost half (48%) of students agreed that patients' pain could be managed with placebo rather than medication. In conclusion, Jordanian nursing students showed lower levels of pain knowledge compared with other nursing students around the world. This study underlines the need to include pain-management courses throughout undergraduate nursing curricula in Jordan.

  8. Mineralogy, geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic tuffs from Ataraws, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fugha, H.

    1997-01-01

    Magistracy are common in tuff and paralytic's materials of Pleistocene age in western Jordan. The dominant phases are olivine, augite, plagioclase, magnetite and ilmenite. Chemical analysis of the whole rocks samples indicate alkali olivine magma origin. Low concentration of Li and Rb in Tuff samples are used as an argument against the contamination of the basaltic magma during its journey to the surface. The Mg O and mg- values (Mg/Mg+Fe 2+ ) in samples from volcano exhibit different degrees of fractionation, which are indicated by the varying concentrations of incompatible trace elements (Ba, Rb, Sr). The thermometric evacuation of tuff formation by using pyroxenes thermometers revealed a temperature range between 1022-1083 deg. and pressure of 5-10 K bars. The low Mg-ratio (Mg/Mg+Fe 2+ ) is due to fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene in tuff samples. The variation of incompatible elements imply derivation from a peridotite source in the upper mantle with low degree of melting (<20%).The volcanic activity took place in phases corresponding to rifting sinistral displacement along the Jordan Rift. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs, 6 figs

  9. Parkinson's disease in Jordan: Barriers and motivators to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Nazzal, Mohammad; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya

    2016-10-01

    Perceived barriers to engaging in exercise in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) are becoming more defined in countries such as the UK and the US. This, however, may vary by culture and environment. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of exercise and barriers that may affect participation in people with PD from Jordan. Two focus groups and seven individual interviews were conducted with people with PD. Additionally, individual interviews were conducted with two neurologists. Conversations were digitally recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis and validated via researcher triangulation and peer checking. Most of the PD participants lacked previous participation in any disease-specific exercises. Several barriers were perceived by PD participants for such lack of participation. Barriers included difficulty of diagnosis, lack of informational support provided by neurologists, lack of referral to physiotherapy services, disease-specific issues, and setting-related issues. Neurologists indicated a number of barriers in counseling their PD patients on exercise including lack of time and lack of health system resources. Motivators to participate in future exercise included outcome expectations and family support. Findings of the study shed light into large areas of unmet needs of supporting exercise and physiotherapy for people with PD in developing countries as per Jordan. For better patient outcomes, findings of the study suggest that it is crucial to raise awareness among all PD-related stakeholders on the benefits of early referrals to physiotherapy and early engagement in exercise programs.

  10. Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Pleurotus spp. Isolates from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Aref Hasan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus is considered an important genus that belongs to the family Pleurotaceae and includes the edible King Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii. In the present study, 19 Pleurotus isolates were collected from two locations in the north of Jordan (Tell ar-Rumman and Um-Qais. The morphological characteristics among collected isolates revealed that there was a morphological similarity among the collected isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1–5.8S rDNA–ITS4 region and 28S nuclear large subunit (nLSU in the ribosomal DNA gene of the isolated stains showed that all of them share over 98% sequence similarity with P. eryngii. Genetic diversity among the collected strains was assessed using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR analysis using 18 different primer pairs. Using this approach, 141 out of 196 bands obtained were considered polymorphic and the highest percentage of polymorphism was observed using primer UBC827 (92.3% with an overall Polymorphism Information Content (PIC value of 70.56%. Cluster analysis showed that the Jordanian Pleurotus isolates fall into two main clades with a coefficient of similarity values ranging from 0.59 to 0.74 with a clear clustering based on collection sites. The results of the present study reveal that molecular techniques of ISSR and rDNA sequencing can greatly aid in classification and identification of Pleurotus spp. in Jordan.

  11. Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) Utilization Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xoubi, N.

    2013-01-01

    Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) is a 5 MW light water open pool multipurpose reactor that serves as the focal point for Jordan National Nuclear Centre, and is designed to be utilized in three main areas: Education and training, nuclear research, and radioisotopes production and other commercial and industrial services. The reactor core is composed of 18 fuel assemblies, MTR plate type 19.75% enriched uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) in aluminium matrix, and is reflected on all sides by beryllium and graphite. The reactor power is upgradable to 10 MW with a maximum thermal flux of 1.45×10 14 cm -2 s -1 , and is controlled by a Hafnium control absorber rod and B 4 C shutdown rod. The reactor is designed to include laboratories and classrooms that will support the establishment of a nuclear reactor school for educating and training students in disciplines like nuclear engineering, reactor physics, radiochemistry, nuclear technology, radiation protection, and other related scientific fields where classroom instruction and laboratory experiments will be related in a very practical and realistic manner to the actual operation of the reactor. JRTR is designed to support advanced nuclear research as well as commercial and industrial services, which can be preformed utilizing any of its 35 experimental facilities. (author)

  12. Delay in Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Helalah, Ahmad Munir; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Al-Hanaqtah, Mo'tasem; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Omari, Asim; Mubaidin, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and one of the leading causes of death for females in Jordan and many countries in the world. Studies have shown that delay in symptoms presentation, diagnosis or treatment would result in poor prognosis. There has been no published study from Jordan on delays in patient presentation, delays in diagnosis, or delays in treatment. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess these important quality indicators aiming to improve prognosis for breast cancer patients in Jordan. This project was a cross-sectional study on female breast cancer patients in Jordan. The total number of participants was 327. The proportion of patients with presentation delay, diagnosis delay, and treatment delay was 32.2%, 49.1%, or 32.4%, respectively. The main reported reasons for delay in presentation were ignorance of the nature of the problem (65.6%), limited/lack of knowledge that symptoms were suggestive of cancer diagnosis (16.7%), and misdiagnosis (16.7%). Predictors of delay and mean time for presentation, diagnosis, and treatment were identified. Our results reveal that breast cancer patients in Jordan are experiencing delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. This could justify the advanced stages at diagnosis and poor outcomes for breast cancer patients in Jordan. We recommend revising the current early detection and down-staging programs in Jordan. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Questioning the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The Impact of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…

  15. Bread, Freedom, Social Justice: The Origins of Regime Fragility in Egypt and Syria and the Arab Spring’s Implications for the Future Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-21

    that no matter how sudden or dynamic a situation appears, its emergent qualities are tethered tightly to the sociopolitical and ecological contexts...population and lower classes ballooned .35 Mubarak’s own son, Gamal, profited handsomely from the reforms of the 1990s and 2000s. By the mid-2000s...Alawite sect in particular benefited from this enfranchisement. This was especially true in the military that saw its ranks balloon with volunteers

  16. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... However, it is the effects of state policy that actually shape the living conditions and the opportunities available for refugees, and in turn influence the security repercussions they can set in motion...

  17. Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Mustafa; Daraz, Umar; Lantagne, Daniele; Saltori, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context. Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in 17 sub-districts of two governorates in opposition controlled southern Syria. During the survey, household water was tested for free chlorine residual (FCR). Descriptive statistics were calculated, and mixed effect logistic regressions were completed to determine associations between demographic and WASH variables with outcomes of FCR > 0.1 mg/L in household water and reported diarrhea in children market-available hygiene items were unaffordable. FCR > 0.1 mg/L increased from 4.1% to 27.9% over this time, with Water Safety Plan (WSP) programming strongly associated with FCR (mOR: 24.16; 95% CI: 5.93-98.5). The proportion of households with childhood diarrhea declined from 32.8% to 20.4% over this time; sanitation and hygiene access were protective against childhood diarrhea. The private sector has effectively replaced decaying infrastructure in Syria, although at high cost and uncertain quality. Allowing market forces to manage WASH services and quantity, and targeting emergency response activities on increasing affordability with well-targeted subsidies and improving water quality and regulation via WSPs can be an effective, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to guarantee water and sanitation access in protracted emergencies with local markets.

  18. Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert

    2016-07-14

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addressed. In light of the increasing challenges facing host governments and humanitarian actors to meet health needs of Syrian refugees and affected host communities, this study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Differences in household characteristics by geographic region, facility type, and sector utilized were examined using chi-square and t-test methods. Care-seeking was high with 86.1 % of households reporting an adult sought medical care the last time it was needed. Approximately half (51.5 %) of services were sought from public sector facilities, 38.7 % in private facilities, and 9.8 % in charity/NGO facilities. Among adult care seekers, 87.4 % were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 89.8 % of which obtained the medication. Overall, 51.8 % of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for the consultation or medications at the most recent visit (mean US$39.9, median US$4.2). Despite high levels of care-seeking, cost was an important barrier to health service access for Syrian refugees in Jordan. The cessation of free access to health care since the time of the survey is likely to have worsened

  19. Salinization Sources Along the Lower Jordan River Under Draught Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, R.; Shavit, U.; Segal, M.; Vengosh, A.; Farber, E.; Gavrieli, I.

    2003-12-01

    The Lower Jordan River, once a flowing freshwater river, is suffering from an ongoing reduction of discharge and water quality. The river flows between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, an aerial distance of about 105 Km. The severe reduction is caused by an excessive exploitation of its sources and diversion of sewage and agricultural drainage into the river. The extreme low flows and low water quality threaten the natural existence of the river and its potential use for agriculture. In spite of its importance, little research has been done in the river. The objectives of the study were to measure the discharge and water composition along the river and to evaluate the main sources that control its flow and chemical characteristics. The hypothesis of the study was that interaction with subsurface flows significantly affects the river flow and chemical composition. The research is based on a detailed field study, which included flow rate measurements in the river and its tributaries, water sampling and analysis and mass balance calculations of water and solutes. A portable Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used to measure velocities and bathymetry at different locations across the river sections. Due to accessibility constraints, a floating traverse construction, which enables the ADV's deployment from one bank of the river, was developed. It was found that flow rate ranges between 500-1,100 L/s in northern (upstream) sections and 300-1,650 L/s in the south. This low discharge represents a significant reduction from historical values and is lower than recent published estimations. This research represents base flows only, as the measurements were done during a period of two consecutive draught years. Calculated mass balance of water flows in the northern sections shows that the subsurface source contributes to the river around 200-670 L/s (30-80% of the river flow). Calculations of solute balance show that the subsurface flows add 20-50% of the mass of

  20. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.