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Sample records for eggshell apex abnormalities

  1. Eggshell apex abnormalities in a free-range hen farm with mycoplasma synoviae and infectious bronchitis virus in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A farm with 3,000 free-range hens between 24 and 65 weeks of age was investigated. These hens were separated in small flocks of 400 to 700 birds, presenting 10 to 23% egg production reduction. Twenty serum samples were collected during the period of drop in egg production and three weeks later for the investigation of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, M. gallisepticum (MG and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibodies using ELISA. At the time of the second collection, egg production had resumed to normal levels; however, with 10.23% of the eggs showed eggshell abnormalities limited to the apex. Eggshell strength was significantly different between normal and those with eggshell apex abnormalities, but not other egg-quality parameters. ELISA tests showed that MS and IBV titers increased during the evaluated period. MS infection was confirmed by culture and by PCR of tracheal swabs. All samples were negative for MG by ELISA and PCR. Further studies with larger samples to ensure the occurrence of this disease in industrial layer flocks in Brazil are under way.

  2. The Evolution of the Eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ghişe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available 10 hybrid ISA Brown hens, 50 weeks old, hold single in cages and fed with combined granulated forage, were monitored for a period of 3 weeks to establish the body weight, the egg laying time, the laying interval and the length of clutches for each hen. During this time the eggs were harvested and the eggs weight, eggshells weight, the calcium, phosphorus and magnesium eggshell content were determined. When 53 weeks old, the hens were divided into 4 groups depending on the time elapsed from the last oviposition for each hen and they were slaughtered. The eggs in different stages of development were sampled and the egg weight, the eggshell weight, the calcium, phosphorus and magnesium eggshell content were determined. Depending on the egg stage formation: at 10-12 hours postoviposition the eggshell mean weight was 2.15 g, i.e. 40.49%, the mean calcium content of the eggshells was 0.37 g calcium, representing 18.97% of the calcium content of the whole eggshell. At 22-23 hours after oviposition the eggshell weight was 6.13 g, representing 98.39% of the completely formed eggshell, the calcium content of the eggshells was 2.23 g (mean value, which represents 97.38% of the whole egg mineral shell.

  3. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  4. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells.

  5. Learning Apex programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Matt

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who has some object-oriented programming experience, Learning Apex Programming is the perfect book for you. This book is most appropriate for developers who wish to gain an understanding of the Force.com platform and how to use Apex to create business applications.

  6. Petrous apex mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settanni, Flavio A.P.; Testa, Jose Ricardo Gurgel; Campos, Roberto Augusto de Carvalho; Goes Filho, Jose Francisco de; Guerrero, Andre Luiz; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Frazatto, Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    The authors discuss the difficulties in diagnosing lesions of the petrous apex. Petrous apex involvement remains silent until the disease reaches and advanced stage of development. Symptoms and signs related to these lesions are due to involvement of adjacent neurovascular structures and may be nonspecific early in the course of the disease. The diagnosis is based on a combined CT and MRI evaluation of the temporal bone region. CT and MRI findings are often sufficient for a confident preoperative differentiation and diagnosis. Characteristic imaging findings associated with their pattern of erosion and spreading can distinguish the types of expansive lesions arising from the petrous apex such as trigeminal schwannomas, cholesterol granulomas, cholesteatomas and aneurysms of the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery. However, an arteriographic evaluation should be performed if a vascular lesion is strongly suspected. (author)

  7. The fracture toughness of eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Walsh, Megan; Cullen, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The shells of avian eggs are very brittle, but how brittle? Fracture toughness, Kc is a standard measure used widely to characterise engineering materials. We devised a novel way to measure Kc and applied it to commercial hens' eggs, obtaining a value of 0.3MPa√m. This value is much lower than previous published values, which we argue are incorrect and misleading. We discuss how this exceptionally low toughness value (in comparison to that of other natural materials made from calcium carbonate) has been achieved by prevention of toughening mechanisms. Eggshell has an unusual combination of mechanical properties (low fracture toughness combined with high Young's modulus), making it ideally suited as a container for the developing chick, which must be stiff and rigid but also brittle enough to be broken when required. Further testing and analysis using the Theory of Critical Distances and Weibull probability theory allowed us to describe the effects of defects of various types: cracks, holes and notches, on the strength of whole eggs. These results are of commercial importance because many eggs break prematurely as a result of microscopic defects. This paper presents the first accurate measurements of the fracture toughness of eggshell. These results are important because eggshell is a brittle material which fails from microscopic defects, so knowledge of the fracture toughness is essential to understand its mechanical performance. The toughness value obtained is discussed in the context of other mechanical properties, of eggshell and other natural materials. This is useful for understanding how eggshell's stiffness and toughness make it ideally suited to its purpose, and the mechanisms by which toughness is achieved. The paper also contains analysis of the effect of defect type, including cracks, notches and holes, to provide a fuller picture of defect tolerance which will be useful in the egg producing industry. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by

  8. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Moreno-Azanza

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells.

  9. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells. PMID:27144767

  10. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  11. Overview of APEX Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Breuck, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The APEX telescope has a range instruments that are highly complementary to ALMA. The single pixel heterodyne receivers cover virtually all atmospheric windows from 157 GHz to above 1 THz, augmented by 7-pixel heterodyne arrays covering 280 to 950 GHz, while the bolometer arrays cover the 870, 450 and 350µm bands.

  12. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  13. New approach of eggshell mechanical properties determinantion

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    Libor Severa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach for determination of mechanical properties of hen’s eggshell. The suitability and applicability of a Berkovich indentation is discussed. The eggshells were tested in the area surrounding equator line. The deformation modes active during indentation have been examinined from the shape of load-displacement curves. According to measured dependencies, the eggshel shown an viscous-elastic deformation.The values of Young’s modulus E obtained from radial and tangential directions did not vary significantly. This fact shows on isotropic nature of eggshell structure. It was found that values of E do not significantly change neither around the cir­cum­fe­ren­ce of the equator. The values obtained within this research correspond to values reported in literature and obtained on macroscopic samples. Nanoindentation was found to be a precise and powerful tool, suitable for determining local variations of mechanical properties of eggshells.

  14. Correlates of eggshell thickness | Okereke | Global Journal of Pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study discussed the effects of age and genotype of birds and location of farm on eggshell thickness. The ultimate objective of the study is to determine the correlates of eggshell thickness which may be relevant to improve eggshell thickness. Secondary data on eggshell thickness collected from the Agricultural ...

  15. Electromechanical-conductive natural rubber doped eggshell and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main composition of eggshells is calcium carbonate (CaCO3) of high purity more than 96.35 wt% whereas the main composition of eggshell membrane is fibrous protein in terms of collagen. The best condition is addition of eggshell 40 phr (formula 3) and eggshell membrane 20 phr (formula 5) to obtain the highest ...

  16. Variability in avian eggshell colour: a comparative study of museum eggshells.

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    Phillip Cassey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exceptional diversity of coloration found in avian eggshells has long fascinated biologists and inspired a broad range of adaptive hypotheses to explain its evolution. Three main impediments to understanding the variability of eggshell appearance are: (1 the reliable quantification of the variation in eggshell colours; (2 its perception by birds themselves, and (3 its relation to avian phylogeny. Here we use an extensive museum collection to address these problems directly, and to test how diversity in eggshell coloration is distributed among different phylogenetic levels of the class Aves. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Spectrophotometric data on eggshell coloration were collected from a taxonomically representative sample of 251 bird species to determine the change in reflectance across different wavelengths and the taxonomic level where the variation resides. As many hypotheses for the evolution of eggshell coloration assume that egg colours provide a communication signal for an avian receiver, we also modelled reflectance spectra of shell coloration for the avian visual system. We found that a majority of species have eggs with similar background colour (long wavelengths but that striking differences are just as likely to occur between congeners as between members of different families. The region of greatest variability in eggshell colour among closely related species coincided with the medium-wavelength sensitive region around 500 nm. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of bird species share similar background eggshell colours, while the greatest variability among species aligns with differences along a red-brown to blue axis that most likely corresponds with variation in the presence and concentration of two tetrapyrrole pigments responsible for eggshell coloration. Additionally, our results confirm previous findings of temporal changes in museum collections, and this will be of particular concern for studies testing intraspecific

  17. Behaviour of eggshell membranes at tensile loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnková, M.J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Kumbár, V.

    46 B, December (2014), s. 44-48 ISSN 0324-1130 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tensile loading * loading rate * stress * strain strength Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.201, year: 2014

  18. The role of eggshell and underlying vitelline membrane for normal pattern formation in the early C. elegans embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenberg, Einhard; Junkersdorf, Bernd

    1992-12-01

    The embryo of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is surrounded by an inconspicuous inner vitelline membrane and a prominent outer chitinous eggshell proper. We demonstrate that the complete removal of the chitinous eggshell does not interfere with successful development to yield a normal worm. The same result can be obtained when the vitelline membrane is penetrated with laser microbeam irradiation of only the eggshell proper, gently enough to permit its resealing after a while. However, when large holes are made into the eggshell the concomitantly penetrated vitelline membrane does not reseal. While early development is quite normal under these conditions, gastrulation is defective in that gut precursor cells do not migrate in properly, eventually leading to embryonic arrest. This suggests a crucial role for pattern formation of the "micro-environment" around the embryo preserved by the intact vitelline membrane. Removing both eggshell and vitelline membrane results in a string-like arrangement of founder cells and subsequent grossly abnormal cell patterns. Our experiments support the idea that the prominent eggshell proper just functions as a mechanical protection while the thin vitelline membrane directly or indirectly serves as a necessary control element affecting the positions of cells which to begin with are determined by the orientation of the cleavage spindle.

  19. Dinosaur eggshell study using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Frankie D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Schmitt, James G

    2002-01-01

    Visualization and analysis of structural features in fossil dinosaur eggs by scanning electron microscopy augment information from traditional petrographic light microscopy. Comparison of characteristics in fossil and modern eggshells allows inferences to be made regarding dinosaur reproductive biology, physiology, and evolutionary relationships. Assessment of diagenetic alteration of primary eggshell calcite structure that occurs during fossilization provides important information necessary for taxonomic identification and paleoenvironmental interpretations.

  20. Not so colourful after all: eggshell pigments constrain avian eggshell colour space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Birds' eggshells are renowned for their striking colours and varied patterns. Although often considered exceptionally diverse, we report that avian eggshell coloration, sampled here across the full phylogenetic diversity of birds, occupies only 0.08-0.10% of the avian perceivable colour space. The concentrations of the two known tetrapyrrole eggshell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) are generally poor predictors of colour, both intra- and interspecifically. Here, we show that the constrained diversity of eggshell coloration can be accurately predicted by colour mixing models based on the relative contribution of both pigments and we demonstrate that the models' predictions can be improved by accounting for the reflectance of the eggshell's calcium carbonate matrix. The establishment of these proximate links between pigmentation and colour will enable future tests of hypotheses on the functions of perceived avian eggshell colours that depend on eggshell chemistry. More generally, colour mixing models are not limited to avian eggshell colours but apply to any natural colour. Our approach illustrates how modelling can aid the understanding of constraints on phenotypic diversity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

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    Daphne C. Fecheyr-Lippens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  2. Suitability of Ostrich eggshell for radiocarbon dating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich eggshell from archaeological sites remains largely free of more recent carbon contamination and as such is suitable material for radiocarbon dating. The carbonate fraction of the shell does, however, display an initial deficit in C14, which...

  3. The Eggshell method in a nutshell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Nool (Margreet); D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe Eggshell method was introduced by F. Henrotte as a novel magnetic force computation method. It allows computation of the force by integrating the magnetic stress tensor over a shell surrounding the body of interest. We investigate the numerical properties of this method for current

  4. Tensile Strength of the Eggshell Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnková, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2016), s. 159-164 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tesile test * loading rate * tensile strength * fracture strain Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  5. Submillimeter heterodyne arrays for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güsten, R.; Baryshev, A.; Bell, A.; Belloche, A.; Graf, U.; Hafok, H.; Heyminck, S.; Hochgürtel, S.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Kasemann, C.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Korn, A.; Krämer, I.; Leinz, C.; Lundgren, A.; Menten, K. M.; Meyer, K.; Muders, D.; Pacek, F.; Rabanus, D.; Schäfer, F.; Schilke, P.; Schneider, G.; Stutzki, J.; Wieching, G.; Wunsch, A.; Wyrowski, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on developments of submillimeter heterodyne arrays for high resolution spectroscopy with APEX. Shortly, we will operate state-of-the-art instruments in all major atmospheric windows accessible from Llano de Chajnantor. CHAMP+, a dual-color 2×7 element heterodyne array for operation in the

  6. Amorphous calcium carbonate controls avian eggshell mineralization: A new paradigm for understanding rapid eggshell calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Marie, Pauline; Nys, Yves; Hincke, Maxwell T; Gautron, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Avian eggshell mineralization is the fastest biogenic calcification process known in nature. How this is achieved while producing a highly crystalline material composed of large calcite columnar single crystals remains largely unknown. Here we report that eggshell mineral originates from the accumulation of flat disk-shaped amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles on specific organic sites on the eggshell membrane, which are rich in proteins and sulfated proteoglycans. These structures known as mammillary cores promote the nucleation and stabilization of a amorphous calcium carbonate with calcitic short range order which predetermine the calcite composition of the mature eggshell. The amorphous nature of the precursor phase was confirmed by the diffuse scattering of X-rays and electrons. The nascent calcitic short-range order of this transient mineral phase was revealed by infrared spectroscopy and HRTEM. The ACC mineral deposited around the mammillary core sites progressively transforms directly into calcite crystals without the occurrence of any intermediate phase. Ionic speciation data suggest that the uterine fluid is equilibrated with amorphous calcium carbonate, throughout the duration of eggshell mineralization process, supporting that this mineral phase is constantly forming at the shell mineralization front. On the other hand, the transient amorphous calcium carbonate mineral deposits, as well as the calcite crystals into which they are converted, form by the ordered aggregation of nanoparticles that support the rapid mineralization of the eggshell. The results of this study alter our current understanding of avian eggshell calcification and provide new insights into the genesis and formation of calcium carbonate biominerals in vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eggshell waste as catalyst: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laca, Amanda; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2017-07-15

    Agricultural wastes are some of the most emerging problems in food industries because of their disposal cost. However, it is also an opportunity for the bioeconomy society if new uses for these residual materials can be found. Eggshells, considered a hazardous waste by UE regulations, are discarded, amounting hundreds of thousands of tonnes worldwide. This egg processing waste is a valuable source material, which can be used in different fields such as fodder or fertilizer production. Additionally, this residue offers interesting characteristics to be used in other applications, like its employment as an environment-friendly catalyst. In the present review we provide a global view of eggshell waste uses as catalyst in different processes. According to reviewed researching works, a huge variety of added value products can be obtained by using this catalyst which emphasised the interest of further investigations in order to widen the possible uses of this cheap green catalyst. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oracle APEX 4.2 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Zoest, Michel

    2013-01-01

    As a Cookbook, this book enables you to create APEX web applications and to implement features with immediately usable recipes that unleash the powerful functionality of Oracle APEX 4.2. Each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and the reading of other, prior recipes is not required.It can be seen as a reference and a practical guide to APEX development.This book is aimed both at developers new to the APEX environment and at intermediate developers. More advanced developers will also gain from the information at hand.If you are new to APEX you will find recipes to start develo

  9. Determination of insoluble avian eggshell matrix proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Sedláková, Pavla; Lacinová, Kateřina; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 397, č. 1 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/0675; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : eggshell proteins * insoluble proteins * matrix proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.841, year: 2010

  10. Monitoring of eggshell breakage and eggshell strength in different production chains of consumption eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, K; Bamelis, F; Kemps, B; Kamers, B; Verhoelst, E; De Ketelaere, B; Bain, M; Decuypere, E; De Baerdemaeker, J

    2006-09-01

    We first tried to monitor the critical points for eggshell breakage in different logistic chains. Second, we examined whether there was a difference in eggshell strength among eggs produced in different housing systems. Finally, we developed a model to investigate the relation between eggshell strength and the likelihood of an egg cracking during handling and grading. Four logistic chains with different housing systems (battery cages, furnished cages, aviary, and free-range), all housing Bovans Goldline chickens in their mid-lay (45 wk), were compared. In every chain, a randomized set of 1,500 eggs was sampled, and the strength was defined. At every critical point in every logistic chain, the eggs were reexamined for breakage. The classic and furnished cage systems showed the highest percentage of breakage directly at point of lay (6.73 and 10.72%), whereas the other systems showed lower breakage (1.94% in the aviary and 1.99% in the free-range system). Further, in the logistic chain, grading and packing of the eggs generated the second highest percentage of breakage (from 1.50 to 2.65%). Breakage due to transportation ranged from 0.16 to 2.65%. There was a significant difference among the eggshell strength (shell stiffness and damping ratio) of eggs from chickens in different housing systems, showing eggs from chickens in the aviary system to be stronger than cage eggs (classic and furnished) and free-range eggs to be weaker than the other eggs. A significant correlation was found between eggshell strength and the likelihood of breakage in the production chains. In conclusion, it was first shown that, besides the laying, packing of the eggs is a critical point in the logistic chain of consumption eggs; second, the strength of the eggs in the different housing systems differed, and, finally, the eggshell stiffness and damping ratio of consumption eggs are an acceptable measure for rapid eggshell quality assessment and could provide a good predictive value for

  11. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  12. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    The least biogas yield of 10 mL was obtained in digester. C5 with 9 g of calcined eggshells additive. Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. INTRODUCTION. The energy and global warming crisis, stimulates the need for development of renewable energy worldwide. (Buasri et al., 2013).

  13. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the extent of hydrolysis was conducted. Reactor CO containing banana pulp and inoculum but with no eggshells added was used as the control, while reactors C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5 containing banana pulp and ...

  14. Effect of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different limestone particle sizes had no effect on any of the tested egg production and eggshell quality parameters. These results suggested that larger particles limestone are not necessarily essential to provide sufficient Ca2+ to laying hens for egg production and eggshell quality at end-of-lay, provided that the dietary Ca ...

  15. The microbial burden load of eggshells from different poultry rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the study revealed that eggshell samples from different poultry rearing systems (battery cage, deep litter and free-range chicken eggs) were contaminated with bacterial and fungal species of public health concern. Microbial species isolated from eggshells were Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

  16. Analysis of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Eggshell Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikšík, Ivan; Paradis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedmera, David

    2017-11-22

    The proteins and pigment of the eggshell of the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) were analysed. For proteomic analysis, various decalcification methods were used when the two main surface layers were analyzed. These layers are important for antimicrobial defense of egg (particularly the cuticle). We found 58 proteins in both layers, of which 4 were specific for the cuticle and 26 for the palisade (honeycomb) layer. Substantial differences between proteins in the eggshell of crocodile and previously described birds' eggshells exist (both in terms of quality and quantity), however, the entire proteome of Crocodilians has not been described yet. The most abundant protein was thyroglobulin. The role of determined proteins in the eggshell of the Siamese crocodile is discussed. For the first time, the presence of porphyrin pigment is reported in a crocodilian eggshell, albeit in a small amount (about 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than white avian eggs).

  17. Oracle Apex reporting tips and tricks

    CERN Document Server

    Bara, George

    2013-01-01

    Take advantage of all the exciting Reporting features of Oracle Application Express 4.2. Designed for a hands-on approach, this book contains in-depth practical guidelines from George Bara, a well-known Oracle Apex expert and blogger. From Classic to Interactive Reports, Web Services and Pdf Printing, "Oracle Apex Reporting Tips & Tricks" is a must-have for all database developers that want to make the most out of the Oracle Apex reporting engine.

  18. Oracle APEX 4.2 reporting

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    Oracle APEX 4.2 Reporting is a practical tutorial for intermediate to advanced use, with plenty of step-by-step instructions and business scenarios for understanding and implementing the ins and outs of making reports.""Oracle APEX 4.2 Reporting"" is for you if you design or develop advanced solutions in APEX or wish to know about the advanced features of APEX. If you wish to have a 360 degree view of reporting technologies or work in a complex heterogeneous enterprise, this is a must-have.

  19. Comparison of breaking strength and shell thickness as evaluators of white-faced ibis eggshell quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Bennett, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Data from a 1986 field study of white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada, were used to compare the utility of eggshell strength measurement and eggshell thickness as indicators of eggshell quality. The ibis population had a history of reproductive failure correlated with elevated egg concentrations of p,p`DDE, hereafter referred to as DDE. Eggs from 80 nests (one egg/nest) were tested for shell strength and thickness. Egg contents were analyzed for organochlorines, mercury and selenium; productivity at each nest (minus one egg) was monitored in the field. DDE-DDT concentrations in the eggs ranged from none detected (less than 0.1) to 29 ppm (wet weight). Shell thickness and shell strength were both negatively correlated with DDE (0.60, 0.61, respectively), but shell strength deteriorated at a faster rate than shell thickness. Scanning electron micrographs indicated the deterioration in strength was related to changes in ultrastructure as well as to decreased thickness. Fourteen eggs with less than 0.40 ppm DDE were used to exemplify normal control eggs. Of the eggs with higher concentrations of DDE (i.e., greater than or equal to 0.40 ppm), 11 of 66 were thinner (greater than 2 SD below 'control' mean) than normal, 11 of 59 were weaker than normal and 7 eggs were cracked so their strength could not be tested, although thickness was measured. Therefore, 17% of the eggs with greater than or equal to 0.40 ppm DDE were thinner than normal and 27% were either weaker than normal or cracked. Further, six eggs (four with greater than or equal to 15 ppm DDE) did not have abnormally thin shells, but did have abnormally weak shells. Nests with abnormal test eggs (thinner, weaker or cracked) produced fewer young than nests with normal eggs. Use of the shell strength parameter provides additional information for better evaluations of reproductive problems. The potential utility of monitoring eggshell quality goes beyond evaluating effects of

  20. Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeera Ujin; Kamran Shavarebi Ali; Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith

    2016-01-01

    This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement....

  1. Embryonic eggshell thickness erosion: A literature survey re-assessing embryo-induced eggshell thinning in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Hałupka, Lucyna

    2015-01-01

    Although eggshell thinning has been described mainly in the context of environmental pollution, it can also be the effect of reproductive changes induced by a developing embryo. On the basis of a literature survey of 25 bird species (26 published papers) we reviewed data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in three groups of birds: precocials, semi-precocials and altricials. The average EET at the equator of the eggs was 6.4% (median = 4.7%). Our review did not confirm a general prediction of elevated EET at the egg equator in precocial species: altricial birds exhibited the highest EET (average = 12.0%), followed by precocials (7.6%) and semi-precocials (4.2%). We make certain critical recommendations based on the results of this study. Studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness should examine intrinsic factors affecting shell properties of avian eggs, like thickness, which are the result of anatomical or reproductive changes. - Highlights: • We reviewed literature data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in birds. • The average EET at the equator of the eggs of 25 bird species was 6.4%. • Altricial birds exhibited the highest EET, followed by precocials and semi-precocials. • All studies on variation in eggshell thickness should take EET into consideration. - Our study emphasizes the need to consider embryo-induced eggshell thinning in studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness

  2. The Effect of Eggshell Thickness on Hatching Traits of Partridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    US Yamak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Incubation is an important factor in poultry production, particularly in species with relatively low fertility and hatchability rates. This study examined the effect of eggshell thickness on hatching traits of partridges (A. chukar. A total of 462 eggs from intensively reared partridges were separated into three groups according to eggshell thickness, which was measured ultrasonically before incubation. Hatchability, chick weight, and chick length were assessed at the end of the incubation period. Hatching times were recorded during hatching. Embryonic mortalities in unhatched eggs were classified according to mortality stage at the end of incubation. The effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability was found to be insignificant for all groups. Moreover, eggshell thickness had no significant effect on chick weight or length.

  3. Effects of ultrasonic waves on eggshell strength and hatchability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tarek shafey

    2013-03-13

    . # Corresponding author: tmshafey@ksu.edu.sa. Introduction. The handling of eggs after lay is an important factor that influences eggshell quality and consequently hatchability and chick quality (Moyle et al., 2008).

  4. Analysis of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Eggshell Proteome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedmera, David

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2018), s. 21-37 ISSN 1572-3887 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02972S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : proteins of eggshell * eggshell pigment * crocodile Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.139, year: 2016

  5. EFFECT OF EGGSHELL COLOR ON THE EGG CHARACTERISTICS AND HATCHABILITY OF GUINEA FOWL (NUMIDA MELEAGRIS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Eleroğlu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eggshell color of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris eggs on eggshell quality and hatchery results. The highest mean grey value (MGV, integrated density (ID, lightness (L* and Hue angle (H* values were obtained in eggs with lighter eggshell color. The effects of color difference (DE* value levels on egg characteristics were evaluated. Eggshell color presented different (p0.05. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, eggshell color influenced eggshell thickness and weight loss, but not hatching parameters of guinea fowl eggs. Further studies on this subject should be carried out.

  6. [Electronic Apex Locator as a dental instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S; Winocur-Arias, O; Slutzky-Goldberg, I

    2009-04-01

    Electronic Apex Locators (EAL) have become widely used in the last decade. The first apex locator was introduced in 1962, based on a constant electrical resistance (6.5 K.) between the oral mucosa and periodontal ligament. The first and second generations of EAL were inaccurate and could not detect the apex in the presence of conducting fluids. The third generation solved this problem by using two alternating frequencies and calculating the impedance between them. This provided reliable and accurate results in dry canals, or in the presence of blood, electrolytes or other fluid in the root canals, when the pulp was necrotic or when there was a perforation along the root. The Root ZX and Apit (Endex) are the most documented devices. The new fourth generation of apex locators is a diverse group: some use multifrequency currents, others use a "lookup matrix" rather than calculate the readings. Several of the newer EALs are smaller, and others connect to computers.

  7. Apex Predators Program Sportfishing Tournament Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Apex Predators Program staff have collected shark sportfishing tournamant data from the Northeast US since the 1960's. These tournaments offer a unique opportunity...

  8. Apex Predators Program Age and Growth Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Apex Predators Program staff have collected vertebral centra from sportfishing tournaments, cruises, commercial fishermen and strandings in the Northeast US since...

  9. Researching and deploying an APEX security scanning tool

    CERN Document Server

    Vali, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Most of the APEX applications have not been developed considering security in mind or were developed many years ago, as well as the old version of APEX used exposes those type of applications to a variety of potential security risks. CERN develops and uses many APEX applications, but none of the currently used tools provides a sufficient way of vulnerability scanning for such applications. The current version of APEX used in CERN is 4.2.6 whilst the latest version is 5.1. This report provides the reader with the overview on APEX and the APEX-SERT vulnerability scanning tool as well as the summary of testing the APEX-SERT tool on existing APEX applications used in CERN and the samples, created during this project. The goal of this project was to research on existing tools for vulnerability scanning of APEX applications and to deploy the tool to be used APEX developers.

  10. Improved precision with Hologic Apex software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, B; Lewiecki, E M; Sherman, M; Lu, Y; Miller, P D; Genant, H K; Shepherd, J A

    2008-11-01

    The precision of Hologic Apex v2.0 analysis software is significantly improved from Hologic Delphi v11.2 software and is comparable to GE Lunar Prodigy v7.5 software. Apex and Delphi precisions were, respectively, 1.0% vs. 1.2% (L1-L4 spine), 1.l % vs. 1.3% (total femur), 1.6% vs. 1.9% (femoral neck), and 0.7% vs. 0.9% (dual total femur). Precision of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is known to vary by manufacturer, model, and technologist. This study evaluated the precision of three analysis versions: Apex v2.0 and Delphi v11.2 (Hologic, Inc.), and Prodigy v7.5 (GE Healthcare, Inc.) independent of technologist skill. Duplicate spine and dual hip scans on 90 women were acquired on both Delphi and Prodigy DXA systems at three clinics. BMD measures were converted to standardized BMD (sBMD) units. Precision errors were described as a root-mean-square (RMS) standard deviations and RMS percent coefficients of variation across the population. Apex and Delphi values were highly correlated (r ranged from 0.90 to 0.99). Excluding the right neck, the Apex precision error was found to be 20% to 25% lower than the Delphi (spine: 1.0% versus 1.2% (p 0.1)). No statistically significant differences were found in the precision error of the Apex and Prodigy (p > 0.05) except for the right neck (2.3% versus 1.8% respectively, p = 0.03). The Apex software has significantly lower precision error compared to Delphi software with similar mean values, and similar precision to that of the Prodigy.

  11. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  12. Eggshell thickness variation in red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) from Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castilla, Aurora M.; de Aragón, Juan Martínez; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Eggshell thickness is commonly used as an indicator of habitat quality and effects of environmental pollution on avian reproduction. We present the first data available on eggshell thickness for Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa) in Spain. We compared eggshell thickness between eggs collected...

  13. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O 2 ), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10 1 -10 6 CFU/cm 2 ). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10 4 CFU/cm 2 inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO 2 mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in brown eggshell color as the hen ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaşi, A Z; Miles, R D; Balaban, M O; Portier, K M

    2007-02-01

    The color of eggshells from eggs laid by commercial-type Hy-Line brown hens 25 wk of age was studied over a period of 10 mo. Color measurements were made by a color machine vision system and were analyzed using a mixed model to calculate between and within hen variances and to investigate the effect of time on shell color. Hens laid eggs with lighter colored shells as the flock aged, as evidenced by the lightness (L*) values increasing in time. A decrease in pigmentation was associated with a decrease in the amount of redness (a*) in the eggshell. When L* and a* values were corrected for egg weight, the rate of change in the L* and a* values decreased, indicating that size of the egg was a major factor affecting the color of the eggshell. These findings quantified the observations that older hens lay lighter colored eggs due to an increase in egg size associated with no proportionate change in the quantity of pigment deposited over the shell surface. Using a 2-stage sampling analysis and the variances between and within hens, sample sizes required to estimate the color of eggshells within 5% of the true mean were calculated. Accordingly, 11 eggs would need to be collected from each of the 51 hens housed for a study of brown eggshell color using the L*, a*, and b* (yellowness) coordinates.

  15. Characteristics of global organic matrix in normal and pimpled chicken eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Song, L; Zhang, F; He, W; Linhardt, R J

    2017-10-01

    The organic matrix from normal and pimpled calcified chicken eggshells were dissociated into acid-insoluble, water-insoluble, and facultative-soluble (both acid- and water-soluble) components, to understand the influence of shell matrix on eggshell qualities. A linear correlation was shown among these 3 matrix components in normal eggshells but was not observed in pimpled eggshells. In pimpled eggshells, the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix (the total matrix, acid-insoluble matrix, water-insoluble matrix, and facultative-soluble matrix) were significantly higher than that in normal eggshells. The amounts of both total matrix and acid-insoluble matrix in individual pimpled calcified shells were high, even though their weight was much lower than a normal eggshell. In both normal and pimpled eggshells, the calcified eggshell weight and shell thickness significantly and positively correlated with the amounts of all 4 groups of matrix in an individual calcified shell. In normal eggshells, the calcified shell thickness and shell breaking strength showed no significant correlations with the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix. In normal eggshells, only the shell membrane weight significantly correlated with the constituent ratios of both acid-insoluble matrix and facultative-soluble matrix in the whole matrix. In pimpled eggshells, 3 variables (calcified shell weight, shell thickness, and breaking strength) were significantly correlated with the constituent proportions of both acid-insoluble matrix and facultative-matrix. This study suggests that mechanical properties of normal eggshells may not linearly depend on the organic matrix content in the calcified eggshells and that pimpled eggshells might result by the disequilibrium enrichment of some proteins with negative effects. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Vibration properties of the Ostrich eggshell at impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Trnka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental system has been used to generate the impact force, measure the response wave signal, and analyse the frequency spectrum for physical property of Ostrich eggshell. The effects of excitation point, detected point and impact intensity on the eggshell response to a light mechanical impact were analysed. The aim of this study consists in the evaluation of the main vibration properties which can be used for the detection of cracks in the eggshell. Four variables were investigated to determine if they are significant for classifying eggs by setting up relationship x- and y-coordinates, including the first dominant resonance frequency, the normalization average of the frequency domain, the average of the frequency domain, and the average x- and y-coordinates of the centroid for the frequency domain. The egg dynamic resonance frequency was obtained through the analysis of the dynamically measured frequency response of an egg excited by pendulum.

  17. The Effect of Eggshell Quality on Hatchability of Pure Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hatchability is affected by a variety of factors. Eggshell quality plays very important role among these factors. In thiswork we analysed eggshell quality, hatchability and embryonic mortality of pure chicken breeds New Hampshire,Oravka, Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island Red and Sussex Light. Hatchability was significantly lower (P>0.05 inSussex Light in comparison with New Hampshire. The eggshell quality for Sussex Light was significantly decreased(P>0.05 in eggshell thickness (398.73 vs. 356.07 μm and eggshell percentage compared with New Hampshire(10.36 vs. 8.79 %.

  18. Hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of snake (Naja atra) and turtle (Ocadia sinensis) eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin; Chen, Po-Yu

    2016-02-01

    After hundreds of million years of evolution, natural armors have evolved in various organisms, and has manifested in diverse forms such as eggshells, abalone shells, alligator osteoderms, turtle shells, and fish scales. Eggshells serve as multifunctional shields for successful embryogenesis, such as protection, moisture control and thermal regulation. Unlike calcareous avian eggshells which are brittle and hard, reptilians have leathery eggshells that are tough and flexible. Reptilian eggshells can withstand collision damages when laid in holes and dropped onto each other, and reduce abrasion caused by buried sand. In this study, we investigate structure and mechanical properties of eggshells of Taiwan cobra snake (Naja atra) and Chinese striped-neck turtle (Ocadia sinensis). From Acid Fuchsin Orange G (AFOG) staining and ATR-FTIR examination, we found that both eggshells are mainly composed of keratin. The mechanical properties of demineralized snake and turtle eggshells were evaluated by tensile and fracture tests and show distinctly difference. Turtle eggshells are relatively stiff and rigid, while snake eggshells behave as elastomers, which are highly extensible and reversible. The exceptional deformability (110-230% tensile strain) and toughness of snake eggshells are contributed by the wavy and random arrangement of keratin fibers as well as collagen layers. Multi-scale toughening mechanisms of snake eggshells were observed and elucidated, including crack deflection and twisting, fibers reorientation, sliding and bridging, inter-laminar shear effect, as well as the α-β phase transition of keratin. Inspirations from the structural and mechanical designs of reptilian eggshells may lead to the synthesis of tough, extensible, lightweight composites which could be further applied in the flexible devices, packaging and bio-medical fields. Amniotic eggshells serve as multifunctional shields for successful embryogenesis. The avian eggshells have been extensively

  19. Improved precision with Hologic Apex software

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, B.; Lewiecki, E. M.; Sherman, M.; Lu, Y.; Miller, P. D.; Genant, H. K.; Shepherd, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The precision of Hologic Apex v2.0 analysis software is significantly improved from Hologic Delphi v11.2 software and is comparable to GE Lunar Prodigy v7.5 software. Apex and Delphi precisions were, respectively, 1.0% vs. 1.2% (L1-L4 spine), 1.l % vs. 1.3% (total femur), 1.6% vs. 1.9% (femoral neck), and 0.7% vs. 0.9% (dual total femur). Introduction Precision of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is known to vary by manufacturer, model,...

  20. Longitudinal base to apex perfusion gradients by dipyridamole positron emission tomography indicate diffuse coronary atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yuko

    2001-01-01

    Diffuse coronary atherosclerosis is clinically important and often associated with localized stenosis but is not detected or quantified by current methods including coronary arteriography. Accordingly, I quantified the longitudinal base to apex distribution of N-13 ammonia on positron emission tomography (PET) after dipyridamole stress for 17 normal volunteers and 30 patients with abnormal coronary arteriograms. Heart images were divided into 32 short axis tomographic slices along the long axis, and each slice was divided into anterior, septal, lateral and inferior quadrant. Average relative activity for each slice in each quadrant was graphed against slice number and a third order polynomial curve was best fit to the longitudinal distribution of activity. In the patients group, average relative activity in each quadrant, except septum in mild to moderate disease group, progressively and significantly decreased from base to apex slices compared to normal group, and perfusion decreasing was more progressed in severe disease group. In 12 of the patients with one- or two-vessel disease, longitudinal base to apex perfusion gradient was observed in angiographically stenosis-free quadrant. Thus, patients with segmental coronary artery disease by arteriography have abnormal longitudinal base to apex perfusion gradients on dipyridamole PET images indicating diffuse coronary atherosclerosis. (author)

  1. Orbital apex syndrome from blunt ocular trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Neena M; Pearson, Andrew R

    2010-02-01

    Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is a rare condition due to a range of pathological processes around the optic nerve foramen and the superior orbital fissure causing characteristic functional loss. It is a rare complication of trauma and results from penetrating injuries as well as those involving bony fractures. We present a case of OAS from non-penetrating ocular trauma without bony involvement.

  2. CHAMP+ : A powerful array receiver for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemann, C.; Güsten, R.; Heyminck, S.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Philipp, S.D.; Korn, A.; Schneider, G.; Henseler, A.; Baryshev, A.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    CHAMP+, a dual-color 2 × 7 element heterodyne array for operation in the 450 ?m and 350 ?m atmospheric windows is under development. The instrument, which is currently undergoing final evaluation in the laboratories, will be deployed for commissioning at the APEX telescope in August this year. With

  3. CHAMP + : A powerful array receiver for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemann, C.; Güsten, R.; Heyminck, S.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Philipp, S. D.; Korn, A.; Schneider, G.; Henseler, A.; Baryshev, A.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    CHAMP +, a dual-color 2 × 7 element heterodyne array for operation in the 450 μm and 350 μm atmospheric windows is under development. The instrument, which is currently undergoing final evaluation in the laboratories, will be deployed for commissioning at the APEX telescope in August this year. With

  4. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  5. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from waste egg-shell by Precipitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The as-heated powders and processed powders were characterized by photomicrographic analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The influence of temperature on calcined egg-shell powder was investigated. Increasing temperature of the ...

  6. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    percentage of calcium carbonate, nearly about 94%.21. Waste eggshells have been utilized as humidity adsor- bent,22 as an adsorbent in the removal of chromium from its aqueous solution,23 and also as a low cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production,24 as a catalyst for lactose isomerization to lactulose.25 Being a natu-.

  7. Maternal influence on eggshell maculation: implications for cryptic camouflaged eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Cassey, P.; Lovell, P.G.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S.J.; Spencer, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 1 (2016), s. 303-310 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : body condition * camouflage * Coturnix coturnix japonica * eggshell maculation * Protoporphyrin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  8. Proteomic analysis of chicken eggshell cuticle membrane layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Ergang, Peter; Pácha, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, č. 29 (2014), s. 7633-7640 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mass spectrometry * bioanalyticalmethods * cuticle * chi cken proteins * insoluble proteins * eggshell Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  9. Ultrastructure of the hen eggshell and its physiological interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, P.C.M.

    1971-01-01


    Financial losses from egg breakage have increased over the years. To seek any relation with shell strength, the structure of eggshell and shell membranes were examined by light microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. They were taken from eggs laid by

  10. Ostrich eggshell as an alternative raw material for hydroxyapatite synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliman, L.B.; Gouvea, D.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of ostrich eggshell for hydroxyapatite synthesis, a biomaterial of great medical importance due to its high biocompatibility. The eggshell was used as calcium ions source due its great containing of CaCO3. For its utilization, the eggshell was calcined and the obtained oxide (CaO) was transformed into Ca(OH) 2 . Hydroxyapatite synthesis consisted in a wet precipitation reaction between Ca(OH) 2 and commercial H 3 PO 4 . The X ray Diffraction analysis has shown that the precipitated Hydroxyapatite calcined at 800°C resulted in a bifasic powder of Hydroxyapatite and β-Tricalcium Phosphate, which proves that this precipitated Hydroxyapatite was deficient in calcium. The Infrared Spectroscopy, showed the presence of CO 3 2- ions, result of carrying out the reaction in open atmosphere. By Scanning Electron Microscopy nanometric particles arranged in agglomerates were observed and Specific Surface Area measurement resulted in 11,70 m²/g. Following this procedure, the ostrich eggshell gets a technological profitable reuse also environmentally friendly, being transformed in a new product of high aggregate value. (author)

  11. Eggshell membranes as a noninvasive sampling for molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noninvasive sampling is of prime essential on conservation genetics and molecular ecology. It is particularly preferred to use in the genetic identification of individuals and genetic analysis. A simple and efficient sampling is described for molecular studies from eggshell membranes in an endemic population of Chinese ...

  12. influence of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS

    Sixty nine, individual caged Lohmann-Silver pullets, 17 weeks of age, were randomly ... Keywords: Lohmann-Silver, feed efficiency, egg weight, eggshell thickness, calcification. # Corresponding ... limestone in the acidic environment of the gizzard would provide more available ionic calcium (Ca2+) during night-time, which ...

  13. Effects of ultrasonic waves on eggshell strength and hatchability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of exposing layer-type breeder eggs before incubation to ultrasonic waves (ULT). Eggs were subjected to ULT of 117 volts at 40 kHz for up to 15 minutes. Eggshell breaking force (EBF), hatchability and chick hatching weight (CHW) of Balady breeder eggs (Trial 1), and egg ...

  14. Eggshell pigmentation in the blue tit : Male quality matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badas, E. P.; Martinez, J.; Rivero-de Aguilar, J.; Stevens, M.; van der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; Merino, S.

    Many passerines lay protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, and the degree of spotting seems to be related to female condition and environmental characteristics. However, most studies have ignored the relationship between the male's quality and eggshell pigmentation. Because ornaments can act as honest

  15. The weakening of eggshells of the laughing dove, Streptopelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggshells of Streptopelia senegalensis dating from 1899 to 1983 were studied to determine whether a change had occurred in the mass of the shells, the length section, breadth (width) section, thickness and index. A significant difference was determined in both mass and index of the more recent eggs (after 1957) ...

  16. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from its aqueous solution,23 and also as a low cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production,24 as a catalyst for lactose isomerization to lactulose.25 Being a natu- ral source of calcium, eggshell powder can serve as a good calcium supplement in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.26. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials and ...

  17. The evolution of eggshell cuticle in relation to nesting ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Avian eggs are at risk of microbial infection prior to and during incubation. A large number of defence mechanisms have evolved in response to the severe costs imposed by these infections. The eggshell's cuticle is an important component of antimicrobial defence, and its role in preventing contamination by microorganisms in domestic chickens is well known. Nanometer-scale cuticular spheres that reduce microbial attachment and penetration have recently been identified on eggs of several wild avian species. However, whether these spheres have evolved specifically for antimicrobial defence is unknown. Here, we use comparative data on eggshell cuticular structure and nesting ecology to test the hypothesis that birds nesting in habitats with higher risk of infection (e.g. wetter and warmer) are more likely to evolve cuticular nanospheres on their eggshells than those nesting in less risky habitats. We found that nanostructuring, present in 54 of 296 analysed species, is the ancestral condition of avian eggshells and has been retained more often in taxa that nest in humid infection-prone environments, suggesting that they serve critical roles in antimicrobial egg defence. PMID:27488648

  18. Vibration properties of the ostrich eggshell at impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Stoklasová, Pavla; Strnková, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2013), s. 1873-1880 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell * impact * surface displacement Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing http://acta.mendelu.cz/61/6/1873/same_authors/

  19. A 700-year record of mercury in avian eggshells of Guangjin Island, South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Liqiang; Liu Xiaodong; Sun Liguang; Chen Qianqian; Yan Hong; Liu Yi; Luo Yuhan; Huang Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ancient eggshells over the past 700 years were extracted from an ornithogenic sediment profile on Guangjin Island, South China Sea. Based on SEM and nitrogen isotope analyses, we determined that neither post-depositional processes nor seabirds' dietary changes had a large influence on eggshell Hg levels. The historical change of Hg in these eggshells was reconstructed. Eggshell Hg was a marker for past Hg deposition in marine environment. The eggshell Hg showed three small peaks at around 1300AD, 1600 AD and 1700-1750AD and rapid increase since 1800 AD. Before 1970 AD the Hg deposition in the Xisha area had global distribution characteristics, with increased Hg emissions due to global anthropogenic activities in industrial times. However, after 1970 AD, a further sharp increase up to present day occurred, implying that the Hg production center had gradually shifted from Europe and America to Asia. - Research highlights: → Eggshell Hg is a marker for past mercury deposition in marine environment. → This is a Hg record from ancient sequential eggshell samples. → The 700-year record of eggshell Hg is closely related to human activities. → Eggshell Hg suggests the increase of Hg production in Asia over the past decades. - Our work provides a potential use of ancient sequential eggshells to reconstruct past mercury deposition in marine ecosystems.

  20. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Sr in eggshells may be associated with lower hatching success of some passerine birds. - Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2-35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell

  1. Relationship between age and location of the apex beat among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of apex beat is an integral part of routine cardiovascular system examination in clinical practice. However, there is paucity of ... Apex beat location in the intercostal space was determined and distance of apex beat from the midline, midclavicular line and nipple lines were measured. The measured distances were ...

  2. Image guided surgery for petrous apex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Havenbergh, T; Koekelkoren, E; De Ridder, D; Van De Heyning, P; Verlooy, J

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate whether computer-assisted frameless stereotactic navigation in the temporal bone provides sufficient clinical application accuracy and thus a useful tool in temporal bone surgery. Two patients with petrous apex cholesterol granuloma were operated on by an epidural middle fossa approach using a Stealth/Medtronic trade mark neuronavigation system. Based on literature data optimal skin fiducial placement and registration methods were used. Intra-operative accuracy was checked using three precise anatomical landmarks. Drilling of the petrous apex bone was guided by neuronavigation. Postoperative Computed Tomography (CT) images were fused with the preoperative CT and planning. The application of image-guidance in temporal bone surgery causes no additional burden to the patient nor prolongs the operating time. The accuracy measured at the anatomical landmarks was under 2,0 mm. This is confirmed by evaluation of bone removal through image fusion of pre- and postoperative CT-scan. The clinical application of a neuronavigation system during petrous apex surgery can be regarded as useful. Using all available data on registration methods it seems possible to obtain intra-operative application accuracies of <2,0 mm. Additional cadaver work is being performed to support these data.

  3. Eggshell and Bacterial Cellulose Composite Membrane as Absorbent Material in Active Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose and eggshell composite was successfully developed. Eggshell was mixed with bacterial cellulose suspension and it was casted as a composite film. CaCO3 derived from eggshell was compared with its commercial availability. It can be noted that good dispersion of eggshell particle was prepared. Eggshell particle was irregular in shape with a variation in size. It existed in bacterial cellulose network. Characterization on composite was focused on thermal and mechanical properties. It showed that flexibility and thermal stability of composite were enhanced. No significant effect of mechanical properties was therefore observed. The thermal stability of composite was stable up to 300°C. The adsorption experiment on water and vegetable oil capacity was performed. The enhancement on adsorption was due to the existence of eggshell in bacterial cellulose composite. It exhibited the potential to be a good candidate for absorbent material in active packaging.

  4. On the identification of the eggshell elastic properties under quasistatic compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Simeonovová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the identification of the elastic properties of eggshell, i.e. the evaluation of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio is solved. The eggshell is considered as a rotational shell. The experiments on the egg compression under quasistatic loading have been conducted. During these experiments a strain on the eggshell surface has been recorded. By the mutual comparison between experimental and theoretical values of strains the influence of the elastic constants has been demonstrated.

  5. Calcium pyrophosphate powder derived from avian eggshell waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. A. Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP was prepared by a simple precipitation method using avian eggshell waste as a low-cost alternative calcium precursor source. The synthesized CPP powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results indicate that pure β-CPP nanocrystallites (Ca/P = 1.067 were successfully synthesized from avian eggshell waste. The correlation among XRD, SEM/EDS, TGA, and FTIR data is well established. The β-CPP particle exhibited spherical morphology with average crystallite size of 62.3 nm, and can be an important bioceramic for medical applications.

  6. Proteins of Insoluble Matrix of Avian (Gallus Gallus) Eggshell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedláková, Pavla; Mikulíková, Kateřina

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-8 ISSN 0300-8207 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1044; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : eggshell * avian proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2007

  7. Eggshell quality, eggshell structure and small intestinal histology in laying hens fed dietary Pantoea-6® and plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Lokaewmanee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effects of dietary Pantoea-6® (extract of fermented wheat flour with Pantoea agglomerans and plant extracts (red clover and garlic on eggshell quality and structure and intestinal histology. Sixty-six Boris Brown laying hens (30 weeks old were allotted to 3 groups, each with eleven replicates of two chickens. The control group was fed a basal diet (18% crude protein, 2850 kcal/kg ME and the other groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% Pantoea-6® (including 0.06 g/kg lipopolysaccharide and 0.1% plant extracts, respectively. There were no significant differences in laying performance and egg quality. However, these adverse effects occurred in the egg and albumen weight and eggshell breaking strength of the Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups (P<0.05. Shell weight of the Pantoea- 6® group was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05. Compared with the control, eggshell structure tended to have greater thickness in both dietary Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups. The duodenum and jejunum of both Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups showed higher values for cell area than those of the control (P<0.05. Moreover, cells on the villus tip surface were protuberated in both dietary Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups, resulting in a rough surface. This study shows that Pantoea-6® and plant extracts at a 0.1% level might have a beneficial effect on egg and albumen weight, eggshell quality and structure parameters, as well as on small intestine histological parameters.

  8. The eggshell of the almond wasp Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) - 1. Morphogenesis and fine structure of the eggshell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzaki, D G; Margaritis, L H

    1994-08-01

    The almond wasp Eurytoma amvgdali (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) feeds and oviposits exclusively in almonds and therefore is characterized as an insect of economic importance. Its meroistic polytrophic ovaries include follicles with a tri-partite configuration. The mature follicles exhibit two filaments occupying the two poles of the egg. One is the micropylar filament while the other might serve for respiration since it is likely that its flattened end layers remain outside the almond fruit. The eggshell is formed by aposition and the follicle cells, which surround the follicle until the end of oogenesis, may be responsible for protein synthesis and secretion which finally lead to the assembly of the eggshell. The eggshell comprises the thin vitelline membrane, possibly a 'wax' layer of waterproofing function, a transluscent layer which appears amorphous even at the end of choriogenesis, a granular layer, including large and small electron-dense granules, and finally a columnar layer very similar to layers found in other insect species of the same or different orders. Peroxidase is histochemicalLY found for the first time in an eggshell of the Hymenoptera order: the tranluscent layer in particular is positively stained (electron-dense). Two possible roles of this peroxidatic activity are discussed, first, in comparison to other fruit-infesting insects, we assume that elastic chorion is produced through the function of peroxidase induced bonds (resilin-type bonds), very important for avoiding premature breaking, while being oviposited through a narrow ovipositor. Second, referring to other studies, this layer can play a bactericidal role for additional embryonic protection.

  9. Egg-in-Cube: Design and Fabrication of a Novel Artificial Eggshell with Functionalized Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjing; Arai, Fumihito; Kawahara, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    An eggshell is a porous microstructure that regulates the passage of gases to allow respiration. The chick embryo and its circulatory system enclosed by the eggshell has become an important model for biomedical research such as the control of angiogenesis, cancer therapy, and drug delivery test, because the use of embryo is ethically acceptable and it is inexpensive and small. However, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels cannot be accessed freely and has poor observability because the eggshell is tough and cannot be seen through, which limits its application. In this study, a novel artificial eggshell with functionalized surface is proposed, which allows the total amount of oxygen to pass into the egg for the chick embryo culturing and has high observability and accessibility for embryo manipulation. First, a 40-mm enclosed cubic-shaped eggshell consisting of a membrane structure and a rigid frame structure is designed, and then the threshold of the membrane thickness suitable for the embryo survival is figured out according to the oxygen-permeability of the membrane structure. The designed artificial eggshell was actually fabricated by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polycarbonate (PC) in the current study. Using the fabricated eggshell, chick embryo and extra-embryonic blood vessels can be observed from multiple directions. To test the effectiveness of the design, the cubic eggshells were used to culture chick embryos and survivability was confirmed when PDMS membranes with adequate oxygen permeability were used. Since the surface of the eggshell is transparent, chick embryo tissue development could be observed during the culture period. Additionally, the chick embryo tissues could be accessed and manipulated from outside the cubic eggshell, by using mechanical tools without breakage of the eggshell. The proposed “Egg-in-Cube” with functionalized surface has great potential to serve as a promising platform for biomedical research. PMID

  10. or without eggshell's contamination that produced in Tabriz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khakpoor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic bacterial diseases are considered as the most important human infectious diseases. In this category, a disease that transfer and infect human through food has an special role. Among foods with animal origin, eggs due to their application as food ingredient in food products, like sauces, spices, ice creams and other food products that may use in half cooked or crude forms, always has the potential to transfer microbial pathogens to human. This study is about to prove that presence of remainder feces on eggshells leads the penetration of bacterial agents into egg yolk. A total of 120 daily egg samples (with and without fecal contamination were collected from henneries around Tabriz and transferred immediately to microbiology laboratory. After performing microbial examinations (using BHI Broth, BHI Agar, Blood Agar, Selenite F, Tetrationate, XLD,SS Agar,Gram Staining, Oxidase and Catalase tests, bacteria of eggshells and egg yolks has been identified. Out of 120 eggs, 15.83% bacterial contaminants were found in egg yolks samples. Among them, 73.68%  were gram negative and 26.31% were gram positive. Among gram negatives, Pseudomonas with occurrence of 8.3% and in gram positives group, Bacillus with abundance of  4.16% were the most frequent bacterias. Also in samples collected from eggshells, 99.16% of the eggs demonstrated bacterial contamination which 23.55% of positive samples were among gram negative group and 76.44% were gram positive. The most contribution of eggshell gram negative bacterias were relevant to Pseudomonas, E.coli, Proteus and Citrobacter with respectively 18.33%,10.83%,5.83% and 4.16% rations. Among gram positive bacteria that isolates form eggshell samples for the most frequent bacterias, were Bacillus, Staphylococccus, Streptococcus, Rhodococcus and Micrococcus with respectively 80.00%, 34.16%, 15%, 9.16% and 7.5% rations. Use and consumption of eggs with shells contaminated with faces in food products is a serious

  11. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  12. Embryonic eggshell thickness erosion: A literature survey re-assessing embryo-induced eggshell thinning in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Hałupka, Lucyna

    2015-10-01

    Although eggshell thinning has been described mainly in the context of environmental pollution, it can also be the effect of reproductive changes induced by a developing embryo. On the basis of a literature survey of 25 bird species (26 published papers) we reviewed data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in three groups of birds: precocials, semi-precocials and altricials. The average EET at the equator of the eggs was 6.4% (median = 4.7%). Our review did not confirm a general prediction of elevated EET at the egg equator in precocial species: altricial birds exhibited the highest EET (average = 12.0%), followed by precocials (7.6%) and semi-precocials (4.2%). We make certain critical recommendations based on the results of this study. Studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness should examine intrinsic factors affecting shell properties of avian eggs, like thickness, which are the result of anatomical or reproductive changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  14. An in-house manual for building APEX projects using ArcAPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) provides the foundation for water quality and natural resource analysis across a wide array of USDA initiatives, projects and programs. The model has been utilized in both the national Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) analysis and ...

  15. Comparative proteomics of matrix fractions between pimpled and normal chicken eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangguo; Song, Lingzi; Lu, Lizhi; Zhang, Xianfu; Zhang, Fuming; Wang, Kehua; Linhardt, Robert J

    2017-09-07

    Eggshell matrix can be dissociated into three matrix fractions: acid-insoluble matrix (M1), water-insoluble matrix (M2) and acid-water facultative-soluble matrix (M3). Matrix fractions from pimpled and normal eggshells were compared using label-free proteomic method to understand the differences among three matrix fractions and the proteins involved with eggshell quality. A total of 738 and 600 proteins were identified in the pimpled and normal calcified eggshells, respectively. Both eggshells showed a combined proteomic inventory of 769 proteins. In the same type of eggshell, a high similarity was present in the proteomes of three matrix fractions. These triply overlapped common proteins formed the predominant contributor to proteomic abundance in the matrix fractions. In each matrix fraction and between both eggshell models, normal and pimpled eggshells, a majority of the proteomes of the fractions were commonly observed. Forty-two common major proteins (iBAQ-derived abundance ≥0.095% of proteomic abundance) were identified throughout the three matrix fractions and these proteins might act as backbone constituents in chicken eggshell matrix. Finally, using 1.75-fold as up-regulated and using 0.57-fold as down-regulated cutoff values, twenty-five differential major proteins were screened and they all negatively influence and none showed any effect on eggshell quality. Overall, we uncovered the characteristics of proteomics of three eggshell matrix fractions and identified candidate proteins influencing eggshell quality. The next research on differential proteins will uncover the potential mechanisms underlying how proteins affect eggshell quality. It was reported that the proteins in an eggshell can be divided into insoluble and soluble proteins. The insoluble proteins are thought to be an inter-mineral matrix and acts as a structural framework, while the soluble proteins are thought as intra-mineral matrix that are embedded within the crystal during

  16. The Pleiades apex and its kinematical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoury, W. H.; Postnikova, E. S.; Chupina, N. V.; Vereshchagin, S. V.; Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2018-03-01

    A study of cluster characteristics and internal kinematical structure of the middle-aged Pleiades open star cluster is presented. The individual star apexes and various cluster kinematical parameters including the velocity ellipsoid parameters are determined using both Hipparcos and Gaia data. Modern astrometric parameters were taken from the Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) in combination with the Radial Velocity Experiment Fifth Data Release (DR5). The necessary set of parameters including parallaxes, proper motions and radial velocities are used for n=17 stars from Gaia DR1+RAVE DR5 and for n=19 stars from the Hipparcos catalog using SIMBAD data base. Single stars are used to improve accuracy by eliminating orbital movements. RAVE DR5 measurements were taken only for the stars with the radial velocity errors not exceeding 2 km/s. For the Pleiades stars taken from Gaia, we found mean heliocentric distance as 136.8 ± 6.4 pc, and the apex position is calculated as: A_{CP}=92°.52± 1°.72, D_{CP}=-42°.28± 2°.56 by the convergent point method and A0=95°.59± 2°.30 and D0=-50°.90± 2°.04 using AD-diagram method (n=17 in both cases). The results are compared with those obtained historically before the Gaia mission era.

  17. Geometric correction of APEX hyperspectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vreys Kristin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imagery originating from airborne sensors is nowadays widely used for the detailed characterization of land surface. The correct mapping of the pixel positions to ground locations largely contributes to the success of the applications. Accurate geometric correction, also referred to as “orthorectification”, is thus an important prerequisite which must be performed prior to using airborne imagery for evaluations like change detection, or mapping or overlaying the imagery with existing data sets or maps. A so-called “ortho-image” provides an accurate representation of the earth’s surface, having been adjusted for lens distortions, camera tilt and topographic relief. In this paper, we describe the different steps in the geometric correction process of APEX hyperspectral data, as applied in the Central Data Processing Center (CDPC at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium. APEX ortho-images are generated through direct georeferencing of the raw images, thereby making use of sensor interior and exterior orientation data, boresight calibration data and elevation data. They can be referenced to any userspecified output projection system and can be resampled to any output pixel size.

  18. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under...

  19. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study

  20. Polymorphism of the SCNN1g Gene and its Association with Eggshell Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirkhah Z

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggshell quality is the main trait to assess egg quality. Marker assisted selection can be used to improve this trait. During eggshell formation, a mass of inorganic minerals is deposited. The Sodium Channel (SCNN1 gene family plays an essential role in cation transportation and SCNN1g is a member of this gene family. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of SCNN1g gene variants and to find its associations with eggshell quality in Hy-Line breed. 100 hens were randomly selected and their eggs and blood samples were collected. DNA was extracted and purified using the phenol-chloroform method and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. GLM procedure of SAS software was used to evaluate the association of SCNN1g gene polymorphism with egg weight, specific gravity, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness. Based on the polymorphism of SCNN1g gene, three genotypes were observed including AA, AG, and GG with frequencies of 0.26, 0.57, and 0.17, respectively. Genotype only had a significant effect on eggshell strength (P < 0.05. Other traits were not significantly influenced by genotypes of this gene. Therefore, introducing this gene in marker-assisted selection programs may improve eggshell strength of Hy-Line breed.

  1. Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, W.W.M.; Solti-Bohman, L.G.; Brackmann, D.E.; Gruskin, P.

    1984-01-01

    Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex is a readily recognizable and treatable entity that is more common than previously realized. Cholesterol granuloma grows slowly in the petrous apex as a mass lesion until it produces hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and facial twitching. Twelve cases of cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex are illustrated; ten of these analyzed in detail, especially with respect to CT findings. A sharply and smoothly marginated expansile lesion in the petrous apex, isodense with plain and nonenhancing on CT, is in all probability a cholesterol granuloma. Preoperative recognition by CT is important for planning proper treatment

  2. Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex: CT diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, W.W.M.; Solti-Bohman, L.G.; Brackmann, D.E.; Gruskin, P.

    1984-12-01

    Cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex is a readily recognizable and treatable entity that is more common than previously realized. Cholesterol granuloma grows slowly in the petrous apex as a mass lesion until it produces hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and facial twitching. Twelve cases of cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex are illustrated; ten of these analyzed in detail, especially with respect to CT findings. A sharply and smoothly marginated expansile lesion in the petrous apex, isodense with plain and nonenhancing on CT, is in all probability a cholesterol granuloma. Preoperative recognition by CT is important for planning proper treatment.

  3. Eggshell thickness variation in red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) from Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castilla, Aurora M.; de Aragón, Juan Martínez; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Eggshell thickness is commonly used as an indicator of habitat quality and effects of environmental pollution on avian reproduction. We present the first data available on eggshell thickness for Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa) in Spain. We compared eggshell thickness between eggs collected...... in an agricultural area (wild eggs) and eggs from game farms (farm eggs). Wild eggs had shells significantly thicker (  = 0.32 mm, n = 74) than farm eggs (  = 0.28 mm, n = 89), despite game farm partridges being fed a diet rich in calcium and not exposed to agricultural pollutants. Eggshell thickness did not affect...... hatching success of wild partridges, and population decline observed in this species cannot be linked to reduction in egg viability due to eggshell thickness....

  4. Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution in parent and aluminum-modified eggshells: thermodynamics and kinetics, adsorption mechanism, and diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ziyan; Li, Jiuhai; Guo, Zhaobing; Guo, Qingjun; Zhu, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Parent and aluminum-modified eggshells were prepared and characterized with X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscope, respectively. Besides, phosphorus adsorptions in these two eggshells at different temperatures and solution pH were carried out to study adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics as well as the mechanisms of phosphorus adsorption and diffusion. The results indicated that high temperature was favorable for phosphorus adsorption in parent and aluminum-modified eggshells. Alkaline solution prompted phosphorus adsorption in parent eggshell, while the maximum adsorption amount was achievable at pH 4 in aluminum-modified eggshell. Adsorption isotherms of phosphorus in these eggshells could be well described by Langmuir and Freundlich models. Phosphorus adsorption amounts in aluminum-modified eggshell were markedly higher compared to those in parent eggshell. Adsorption heat indicated that phosphorus adsorption in parent eggshell was a typically physical adsorption process, while chemical adsorption mechanism of ion exchange between phosphorus and hydroxyl groups on the surface of eggshells was dominated in aluminum-modified eggshell. The time-resolved uptake curves showed phosphorus adsorption in aluminum-modified eggshell was significantly faster than that in parent eggshell. Moreover, there existed two clear steps in time-resolved uptake curves of phosphorus in parent eggshell. Based on pseudo-second order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion model, we inferred more than one process affected phosphorus adsorption. The first process was the diffusion of phosphorus through water to external surface and the opening of pore channel in the eggshells, and the second process was mainly related to intraparticle diffusion.

  5. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Atmospheric correction of APEX hyperspectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterckx Sindy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric correction plays a crucial role among the processing steps applied to remotely sensed hyperspectral data. Atmospheric correction comprises a group of procedures needed to remove atmospheric effects from observed spectra, i.e. the transformation from at-sensor radiances to at-surface radiances or reflectances. In this paper we present the different steps in the atmospheric correction process for APEX hyperspectral data as applied by the Central Data Processing Center (CDPC at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Mol, Belgium. The MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission program (MODTRAN is used to determine the source of radiation and for applying the actual atmospheric correction. As part of the overall correction process, supporting algorithms are provided in order to derive MODTRAN configuration parameters and to account for specific effects, e.g. correction for adjacency effects, haze and shadow correction, and topographic BRDF correction. The methods and theory underlying these corrections and an example of an application are presented.

  7. Towards Accurate Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Simon David [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged in hardware and software codesign activities for a number of years, indeed, it might be argued that prototyping of clusters as far back as the CPLANT machines and many large capability resources including ASCI Red and RedStorm were examples of codesigned solutions. As the research supporting our codesign activities has moved closer to investigating on-node runtime behavior a nature hunger has grown for detailed analysis of both hardware and algorithm performance from the perspective of low-level operations. The Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX) LDRD was a project concieved of addressing some of these concerns. Primarily the research was to intended to focus on generating accurate and reproducible low-level performance metrics using tools that could scale to production-class code bases. Along side this research was an advocacy and analysis role associated with evaluating tools for production use, working with leading industry vendors to develop and refine solutions required by our code teams and to directly engage with production code developers to form a context for the application analysis and a bridge to the research community within Sandia. On each of these accounts significant progress has been made, particularly, as this report will cover, in the low-level analysis of operations for important classes of algorithms. This report summarizes the development of a collection of tools under the APEX research program and leaves to other SAND and L2 milestone reports the description of codesign progress with Sandia’s production users/developers.

  8. Reproductive responses of an apex predator to changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Rebecca. Salafsky

    2015-01-01

    Apex predators are ideal subjects for evaluating the effects of changing climatic conditions on the productivity of forested landscapes, because the quality of their breeding habitat depends primarily on the availability of resources at lower trophic levels. Identifying the environmental factors that influence the reproductive output of apex predators can, therefore,...

  9. Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal drainage of petrous apex cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Georgalas C, Kania R, Guichard JP, Sauvaget E, Tran Ba Huy P, Herman. P. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for cholesterol granulomas involving the petrous apex. Clin Otolaryngol 2008; 33: 38-42. 3. Graham MD, Kemink JL, Latack JT, Kartush JM. The giant cholesterol cyst of the petrous apex: A distinct clinical entity.

  10. Microstructure, crystallography and diagenetic alteration in fossil ostrich eggshells from Upper Palaeolithic sites of Indian peninsular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonal; Bajpai, Sunil; Kumar, Giriraj; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Biominerals studies are of importance as they provide an understanding of natural evolutionary processes. In this study we have investigated the fossil ostrich eggshells using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). SEM studies demonstrated the ultrastructure of fossil eggshells and formation of calcified cuticular layer. The presence of calcified cuticle layer in eggshell is the basis for ancient DNA studies as it contains preserved biomolecules. EBSD accentuates the crystallographic structure of the ostrich eggshells with sub-micrometer resolution. It is a non-destructive tool for evaluating the extent of diagenesis in a biomineral. EBSD analysis revealed the presence of dolomite in the eggshells. This research resulted in the complete recognition of the structure of ostrich eggshells as well as the nature and extent of diagenesis in these eggshells which is vital for genetic and paleoenvironmental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase in the a......Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...... in the average thickness of eggshells over the period of 0.19% per year, corresponding to a change in eggshell thinning from 13.9% in 1972 to 7.8% in 2003. Backwards extrapolation of the data, suggests that the Greenlandic Peregrine population probably was never critically affected by DDT-induced eggshell...... thinning. By sampling eggshell fragments in many nests the spatial and temporal sample distribution was enlarged, allowing the detection of a significant long-term decrease in pollutant-induced eggshell thinning—a trend that could not have been identified if only the rarer whole, addled eggs had been...

  13. Dicofol (Kelthane?)-induced eggshell thinning in captive American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Spann, J.W.; Bunck, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Reproductive parameters of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were measured through two breeding seasons. Exposure to Kelthane? (containing no DDT-related compounds) at dietary concentrations of 0 (contro!), 1, 3, 10 and 30 ug/g (wet weight) began in late November before, and continued through, the second season. Kelthane thinned eggshells and lowered the thickness index at dietary concentrations >3 ?g/g and it reduced shell weight at >10 ?g/g when comparisons were to concurrent controls. Kelthane reduced the thickness index at >3 ug/g and it reduced shell thickness and weight at >10 ug/g when comparisons were to the same birds during the previous season. All changes were dose-related. It was not previously known that as little as 3 ug/g dicofol could cause these effects. Kestrels resembled previously studied eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) in that 10 ug/ g reduced hatchability of eggs. Both these raptors showed eggshell changes without serious effects on production of young. Available data show dicofol only equal to or less effective than DDE as a shell-thinning agent. Also, DDE may have more impact than dicofol on such critical aspects of reproduction as egg hatchability and survivability of hatchlings. Field studies of dicofol residues in food chains and of residue concentrations in eggs vs. nesting success from areas of heavy dicofol use are needed to judge this chemical's ecological impact.

  14. Fabrication of a biocomposite reinforced with hydrophilic eggshell proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, GeunHyung; Min, Taijin; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Koh, Young Ho

    2007-01-01

    Soluble eggshell proteins were used as a reinforcing material of electrospun micro/nanofibers for tissue engineering. A biocomposite composed of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) micro/nanofibers and soluble eggshell protein was fabricated with a two-step fabrication method, which is an electrospinning process followed by an air-spraying process. To achieve a stable electrospinning process, we used an auxiliary cylindrical electrode connected with a spinning nozzle. PCL biocomposite was characterized in water contact angle and mechanical properties as well as cell proliferation for its application as a tissue engineering material. It showed an improved hydrophilic characteristic compared with that of a micro/nanofiber web generated from a pure PCL solution using a typical electrospinning process. Moreover, the fabricated biocomposite had good mechanical properties compared to a typical electrospun micro/nanofiber mat. The fabricated biocomposite made human dermal fibroblasts grow better than pure PCL. From the results, the reinforced polymeric micro/nanofiber scaffold can be easily achieved with these modified processes

  15. Synthesis of nano-textured biocompatible scaffolds from chicken eggshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Waseem; Ilyas, Azhar; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Wan Yuan; Iqbal, Samir M; Kim, Young-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion, morphology and growth are influenced by surface topography at nano and micrometer scales. Nano-textured surfaces are prepared using photolithography, plasma etching and long polymer chemical etching which are cost prohibitive and require specialized equipment. This article demonstrates a simple approach to synthesize nano-textured scaffolds from chicken eggshells. Varieties of pattern are made on the eggshells like micro-needle forests and nanopores, giving very uniform nano-textures to the surfaces. The surfaces are characterized for chemical composition and crystal phase. The novel patterns are transferred to PDMS surfaces and the nano-textured PDMS surfaces are used to study the effect of texturing on human fibroblast cell growth and attachment. The effects of surface topographies, along with laminin coating on cell cultures, are also studied. We find an exciting phenomenon that the initial seeding density of the fibroblast cells affects the influence of the nano-texturing on cell growth. These nano-textured surfaces give 16 times more fibroblast growth when compared to flat PDMS surfaces. The novel nano-textured patterns also double the laminin adsorption on PDMS. (paper)

  16. Electronics for the Si detectors in APEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, P.R.; Betts, R.R.; Freer, M.

    1994-01-01

    APEX (ATLAS Positron EXperiment), a collaborative effort of ANL, FSU, MSU/NSCL, Princeton, Queen's, Rochester, Washington and Yale, is an experiment to study positron and electron production in very heavy ion collisions. The electrons and positrons are detected with two detector arrays, each consisting of 216 1 mm thick Si PIN diodes, and their energy and time-of-flight are measured. The number of detectors and limited space made it necessary to develop a system that could efficiently process and transfer signals from the detectors to the charge sensing ADC's and data readout electronics as well as monitor the condition of the detectors. The discussion will cover the electronics designed for the Si detectors, including the charge amplifier, ''Mother board'' for the charge amplifiers, 8 channel Shaper, 16 channel Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD), 16 channel Peak-to-FERA (PTF) and the integration of the CFD and PTF with Charge sensing ADC's. Function and performance of the individual modules as well as the system as a whole will be discussed

  17. Resection of the Tooth Apex with Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Tz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An “in vitro” experimental study has been carried out on 70 extracted teeth. A laser resection of the root apex has been carried out with diode laser beam with a wavelength of - 810 ± 10 nm. Sequentially a radiation with increasing power has been applied, as follows: 1,3 W, 2W, 3W, 4W, 5W, 6W, 7W, in electro surgery mode. Successful resection of the tooth apex has been performed at: 3W; 4W; 5W; 6W and 7W power. It was established that when laser resected the tooth apex carbonizes.

  18. Metastatic neuroendocrine tumor with initial presentation of orbital apex syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yu Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible etiologies of orbital apex syndrome range from inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, iatrogenic/traumatic, to vascular processes. In patients without obvious infection or systemic cancer history, judicious use of corticosteroids is a reasonable strategy. We describe a 64-year-old man who presented with orbital apex syndrome and had progressed to total visual loss in three days after admission. Radiological imaging and pathological studies were consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor with multiple metastases. We recommend that a biopsy-proven specimen is warranted in patient with orbital apex syndrome even without a cancer history.

  19. Eggshell Biliverdin and Protoporphyrin Pigments in a Songbird: Are They Derived from Erythrocytes, Blood Plasma, or the Shell Gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Boross, Nóra; Hámori, Susanne; Neuberger, Eszter; Nyiri, Zoltán

    Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments. We found no significant effects of hematocrit level or experimentally elevated anemia on intensity of eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations; therefore, we consider it less likely that eggshell pigments are derived from erythrocytes. In addition, we found no significant associations between female feces biliverdin concentration during egg laying and intensity of eggshell blue-green pigmentation, suggesting that eggshell biliverdin may not originate from the spleen or liver. We found a negative association between plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations during egg laying and eggshell brown chroma. This result suggests that an increased production of protoporphyrin in the liver, which could have elevated plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations, could inhibit eggshell protoporphyrin pigmentation, probably through affecting enzymatic activities. We suggest that both pigments are produced de novo in the shell gland in the canary, but circulating pigment levels may influence shell gland pigment synthesis, thus connecting the physiological status of the female to eggshell coloration.

  20. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  1. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1) covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes), and 2) open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds). Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity) of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1) covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs), and 2) open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids) were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment. Open nests

  2. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tanaka

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1 covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes, and 2 open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds. Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1 covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs, and 2 open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment

  3. UV, VISIBLE AND NIR SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EGGSHELLS IN THE CHARADRIIDAE FAMILY OF BIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We employed reflectance spectrophotometry to quantify color and mineral composition of eggshells from several species of the bird family Charadriidae to characterize species physiology and to distinguish nesting habitat preferences. We used a Shimadzu spectrophotometer to measur...

  4. Experimental Study on the Geometrical and Mechanical Properties of Goose Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zhang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper examined the properties of goose eggshells to determine possible areas of improvement in egg transport and storage. First, we measured goose egg sizes and performed statistical tests, and found that the major axis, minor axis, and egg-shape index presented normal distribution. Eggshell thickness first increased and then decreased from the blunt end to the sharp end. Second, the shape of individual goose eggshell was measured using a 3D scanner. Volume equation, surface equation, and contour function of goose eggshell shape were obtained, exhibiting a highly symmetrical structure. Finally, goose eggs were compressed along their major and minor axes between two plates. Breaking strength was highly dependent on the shape index. A crack was found on the force point along the major axis of each goose egg.

  5. Condition-dependent strategies of eggshell pigmentation: an experimental study of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Cassey, P.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S.J.; Spencer, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 4 (2013), s. 700-708 ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : body condition * eggshell colouration * food restriction * pigment allocation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2013

  6. Surface Free Energy Determination of APEX Photosensitive Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Gaillard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface free energy (SFE plays an important role in microfluidic device operation. Photosensitive glasses such as APEX offer numerous advantages over traditional glasses for microfluidics, yet the SFE for APEX has not been previously reported. We calculate SFE with the Owens/Wendt geometric method by using contact angles measured with the Sessile drop technique. While the total SFE for APEX is found to be similar to traditional microstructurable glasses, the polar component is lower, which is likely attributable to composition. The SFE was modified at each stage of device fabrication, but the SFE of the stock and fully processed glass was found to be approximately the same at a value of 51 mJ·m−2. APEX exhibited inconsistent wetting behavior attributable to an inhomogeneous surface chemical composition. Means to produce more consistent wetting of photosensitive glass for microfluidic applications are discussed.

  7. Eggshells as a source for occupational exposure to airborne bacteria in hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Paul; Klug, Kerstin; Jäckel, Udo

    2016-12-01

    Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, potential sources and formation of hatchery bioaerosols are rarely characterized. In this study, bacterial multiplication on fresh shell fragments from turkey hatching eggs under conditions present in a hatcher incubator was investigated. A 10 5 -fold amplification was observed both by colony count and total cell count gaining 4 × 10 7 cfu/cells per gram eggshell within 30 hr of incubation. Furthermore, the bacterial community present on eggshells was analyzed by generation of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and identification of eight isolates. RFLP analysis revealed no shift in community composition during incubation and Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus gallinarum were found as the predominant species on turkey eggshells, both have been classified as risk group 2 microorganisms (German TRBA 466). Since Enterococcus spp. were found as predominant species on turkey eggshells, contribution of this genus to bioaerosol formation was demonstrated. During different work activities with poult and eggshell handling concentrations of airborne enterococci up to 1.3 × 10 4 cfu m -3 were detected. In contrast, no enterococci were identified at a day without poult or eggshell processing. In conclusion, turkey hatching eggs carry a viable specific microflora from breeder flocks to hatcheries. After hatching of turkey poults, hatcher incubators and eggshell fragments provide appropriate conditions for excessive bacterial growth. Thus, high bacterial loads on eggshell fragments are a source of potential harmful bioaersols caused by air flows, poult activity, and handling of equipment.

  8. Role of Apex Banks: The Case of Nigerian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekundayo P. Mesagan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the role of Apex banks, with special focus on Nigeria between 1981 and 2015. Findings from the study showed that the Apex Banks have significant role to play in stimulating an economy. It is therefore suggested that monetary policy instruments like broad money supply and monetary policy rate are very effective monetary policy tools and that monetary authorities should design appropriate interest rate target that can galvanize the private sector’s interest in the economy.

  9. APEX Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Uncertainty Budget and Vicarious Validation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueni, A.; Woolliams, E.; Schlaepfer, D.; Wulf, H.

    2017-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al. 2015). Work on the sensor model and on propagated uncertainties from the laboratory to the in-flight case has been carried out extensively within the framework of EMRP (European Metrology Research Program) as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The uncertainty propagation has been implemented in the APEX Calibration Information System (Hueni et al. 2013) and the APEX Level 1 processor (Hueni et al. 2009), thus allowing the operational computation of uncertainties for any at-sensor radiance APEX imaging cube. This fosters a better understanding and aids evaluation of the results of vicarious validation using spectral ground control points stored in the spectral information system SPECCHIO (Hueni et al. 2016). The presented work ultimately benefits the production of traceable higher-level products and enables sensitivity analyses of models, e.g. 3D canopy simulations, parameterised by APEX radiances. Hueni, A., Biesemans, J., Meuleman, K., Dell'Endice, F., Schläpfer, D., et al (2009). "Structure, Components and Interfaces of the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) Processing and Archiving Facility." IEEE TGRS 47(1): 29-43. Hueni, A., Damm, A., Kneubuehler, M., Schläpfer, D. and Schaepman, M. (2016). "Field and Airborne Spectroscopy Cross-Validation - Some Considerations." IEEE JSTARS 10(3): 1117 - 1135. Hueni, A., Lenhard, K., Baumgartner, A. and Schaepman, M. (2013). "The APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment - Imaging Spectrometer) Calibration Information System." IEEE TGRS 51(11): 5169-5180. Schaepman, M., Jehle, M., Hueni, A., D'Odorico, P., Damm, A., et al (2015). "Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science applications with the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX)." Remote Sensing of Environment 158: 207-219.

  10. Comparison of the structure, crystallography and composition of eggshells of the guinea fowl and graylag goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Dauphin, Yannicke

    2016-02-01

    The structure and composition of the eggshells of two commercial species (guinea fowl and greylag goose) have been studied. Thin sections and scanning electron microcopy show the similarity of the overall structure, but the relative thickness of the layers differs in these two taxa. Atomic force microscopy shows that the different layers are composed of rounded, heterogeneous granules, the diameter of which is between 50 and 100 nm, with a thin cortex. Infrared data and thermogravimetric analyses show that both eggshells are made of calcite, but differing on the quality and quantity when the organic component is considered. Chemical maps show that chemical element distribution is not uniform within a sample, and differs between the species, but with low magnesium content. Electron back scattered diffraction confirms the eggshells are calcite, but the microtexture strongly differs between the two species. Based on the chemical-structural differences, a species-specific biological control on the biomineralization is found, despite the rapid formation of an eggshell. Overall results indicate that to estimate the quality of eggshells, such as resistance to breakage, is not a straightforward process because of the high complexity of avian eggshell biomineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Eggshell membrane-templated porous gold membranes using nanoparticles as building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, S.; Khalid, Z. M.; Hussain, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highly porous gold membrane-like structures are formed using eggshell membrane, as such and heat denatured, as a template and gold nanoparticles as building blocks. Gold nanoparticles were produced in-situ on the eggshell membranes without using additional reducing agents. The morphology and loading of gold nanoparticles can easily be controlled by adjusting the pH and thus the redox potential of eggshell membranes. Lower pH favored the formation of irregularly-shaped but dense gold macro/ nanocrystals whereas higher pH(8-9) favored the formation of fairly uniform but less dense gold nanoparticles onto the eggshell membranes. Heat treatment of eggshell membrane-gold nanoparticle composites formed at pH 8-9 led to the formation of highly porous membrane like gold while mimicking the original structure of eggshell membrane. All these materials have been thoroughly characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ISP-AES). These highly porous membrane-like gold materials may have potential applications in catalysis, biosensors, electrode materials, optically selective coatings, heat dissipation and biofiltration. (author)

  12. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  13. The role of python eggshell permeability dynamics in a respiration-hydration trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Heulin, Benoit; DeNardo, Dale F

    2010-01-01

    Parental care is taxonomically widespread because it improves developmental conditions and thus fitness of offspring. Although relatively simplistic compared with parental behaviors of other taxa, python egg-brooding behavior exemplifies parental care because it mediates a trade-off between embryonic respiration and hydration. However, because egg brooding increases gas-exchange resistance between embryonic and nest environments and because female pythons do not adjust their brooding behavior in response to the increasing metabolic requirements of developing offspring, python egg brooding imposes hypoxic costs on embryos during the late stages of incubation. We conducted a series of experiments to determine whether eggshells coadapted with brooding behavior to minimize the negative effects of developmental hypoxia. We tested the hypotheses that python eggshells (1) increase permeability over time to accommodate increasing embryonic respiration and (2) exhibit permeability plasticity in response to chronic hypoxia. Over incubation, we serially measured the atomic and structural components of Children's python (Antaresia childreni) eggshells as well as in vivo and in vitro gas exchange across eggshells. In support of our first hypothesis, A. childreni eggshells exhibited a reduced fibrous layer, became more permeable, and facilitated greater gas exchange as incubation progressed. Our second hypothesis was not supported, as incubation O(2) concentration did not affect the shells' permeabilities to O(2) and H(2)O vapor. Our results suggest that python eggshell permeability changes during incubation but that the alterations over time are fixed and independent of environmental conditions. These findings are of broad evolutionary interest because they demonstrate that, even in relatively simple parental-care models, successful parent-offspring relationships depend on adjustments made by both the parent (i.e., egg-brooding behavioral shifts) and the offspring (i

  14. Information on the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this report provides information related to the design of the Oregon State University Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) test facility. Information provided in this report have been pulled from the following information sources: Reference 1: R. Nourgaliev and et.al, "Summary Report on NGSAC (Next-Generation Safety Analysis Code) Development and Testing," Idaho National Laboratory, 2011. Note that this is report has not been released as an external report. Reference 2: O. Stevens, Characterization of the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Passive Residual Heat Removal System Heat Exchanger, Master Thesis, June 1996. Reference 3: J. Reyes, Jr., Q. Wu, and J. King, Jr., Scaling Assessment for the Design of the OSU APEX-1000 Test Facility, OSU-APEX-03001 (Rev. 0), May 2003. Reference 4: J. Reyes et al, Final Report of the NRC AP600 Research Conducted at Oregon State University, NUREG/CR-6641, July 1999. Reference 5: K. Welter et al, APEX-1000 Confirmatory Testing to Support AP1000 Design Certification (non-proprietary), NUREG-1826, August 2005.

  15. Invasive Streptococcus viridans sphenoethmoiditis leading to an orbital apex syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodily, Lance; Yu, Jenny; Sorrentino, Dante; Branstetter, Barton

    2017-12-01

    Orbital apex syndrome due to spread of infectious sinusitis is a serious disease, often with an insidious presentation with few ophthalmic signs and symptoms. Failure to recognize and treat infectious orbital apex syndrome early portends a grave prognosis, including profound, permanent visual loss and potentially death. Herein we describe a representative case and discuss the relevant aspects of prompt diagnosis and treatment. An unusual case of infectious orbital apex syndrome due to contiguous spread of Streptococcus viridans sphenoethmoiditis in a hospitalized, immunosuppressed patient with acute myelogenous leukemia is presented. Given the few clinic signs and subtle imaging findings, a delay in diagnosis occurred resulting in vision loss to light perception and internal carotid artery occlusion within the cavernous sinus. A brief literature review of orbital apex syndromes is presented. A high clinical suspicion for orbital apex syndrome must be maintained in the appropriate circumstance given the subtle clinical signs and imaging, as well as the potential devastating morbidity of the disease process. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is crucial to patient survival and preservation of vision.

  16. Bacteriological contamination, dirt, and cracks of eggshells in furnished cages and noncage systems for laying hens: An international on-farm comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de K.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Messens, W.; Heyndrickx, M.; Tuyttens, F.; Sonck, B.; Zoons, J.; Herman, L.

    2009-01-01

    For laying hens, the effects of housing system on bacterial eggshell contamination and eggshell quality is almost exclusively studied in experimental hen houses. The aim of this study was to compare eggshell hygiene and quality under commercial conditions. Six flocks of laying hens in furnished

  17. Chemical characteristics and thickness of Podocnemis expansa post-hatching eggshells (Testudines, Podocnemididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Henrique Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on chemical components of the post-hatching eggshell of reptiles may provide indicators of the quality of the diet offered to females kept in captivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the chemical characteristics of the calcareous layer, as well as the thickness of Podocnemis expansa post-hatching eggshells. Eggshell thickness was 183±1.405 µm. This value is similar to that of the eggs of other Testudines with flexible eggshells. As for the chemical composition, the following percentages were observed: nitrogen 7.983 ± 0.054; crude protein 49.91 ± 0.324; crude fat 0.068 ± 0.002; mineral matter 20.302 ± 0.807; calcium 13.374 ± 0.647; and phosphorus 0.176 ± 0.003. Knowledge on chemical composition of the eggshell may aid the nutrition of P. expansa raised in commercial facilities, once this species is an alternative and promising source of exotic meat.

  18. Freestanding eggshell membrane-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors and oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wu, Hao; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-09-14

    A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific capacitances at current densities from 1 to 20 A g(-1), with excellent capacitance retention (>90%) at 10 A g(-1) for over 10,000 cycles. When employed as an OER catalyst, this eggshell membrane-based electrode exhibits an OER onset potential of 1.53 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and a stable catalytic current density of 20 mA cm(-2) at 1.65 V vs. the RHE.

  19. Quality assurance in the egg production chain to reduce the bacterial contamination of the eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reu, K; Grijspeerdt, K; Heyndrickx, M; Uyttendaele, M; Herman, L

    2003-01-01

    Washing eggs in sterile plastic bags with diluent is an efficient sample preparation method for the determination of the bacterial contamination on eggshells. The total count of aerobic bacteria and the total count of Gramnegative bacteria on the eggshell can be used to detect critical contamination points in the egg production chain. The number of eggs to be sampled in a point of the production chain was determined on a statistical basis and fixed on 40 for non-graded eggs and on 20 for graded eggs. In two production chains, one cage production and one organic production system, critical contamination points were identified. The influence of the housing system on the bacterial contamination of the eggshell at the stable was studied. A positive correlation was found between the initial bacterial eggshell contamination and the concentration of bacteria in the air of the poultry houses. With the exception of heavily soiled shells, like shells from ground eggs, there is a poor correlation between the level of bacterial contamination and the visual eggshell contamination.

  20. Drosophila eggshell production: identification of new genes and coordination by Pxt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L Tootle

    Full Text Available Drosophila ovarian follicles complete development using a spatially and temporally controlled maturation process in which they resume meiosis and secrete a multi-layered, protective eggshell before undergoing arrest and/or ovulation. Microarray analysis revealed more than 150 genes that are expressed in a stage-specific manner during the last 24 hours of follicle development. These include all 30 previously known eggshell genes, as well as 19 new candidate chorion genes and 100 other genes likely to participate in maturation. Mutations in pxt, encoding a putative Drosophila cyclooxygenase, cause many transcripts to begin expression prematurely, and are associated with eggshell defects. Somatic activity of Pxt is required, as RNAi knockdown of pxt in the follicle cells recapitulates both the temporal expression and eggshell defects. One of the temporally regulated genes, cyp18a1, which encodes a cytochromome P450 protein mediating ecdysone turnover, is downregulated in pxt mutant follicles, and cyp18a1 mutation itself alters eggshell gene expression. These studies further define the molecular program of Drosophila follicle maturation and support the idea that it is coordinated by lipid and steroid hormonal signals.

  1. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  2. The location of protoporphyrin in the eggshell of brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R

    2013-10-01

    Protoporphyrin has been identified as the main eggshell pigment in brown-shelled eggs. However, there has been some uncertainty concerning the distribution of the pigment within the shell (and cuticle) in brown-shelled eggs. Most previous studies have suggested that the bulk of the shell pigment is deposited in the cuticle of the shell. The present study measured the levels of protoporphyrin in intact eggshells and in shells from which the cuticle had been removed, using eggs from flocks at 3 different ages. This enabled the calculation of the relative amount of protoporphyrin in the calcareous eggshell and the cuticle layer of the eggshell. The majority of the protoporphyrin pigment was located in the calcareous part of the eggshell (80-87%) with a minority contained within the cuticle (13-20%). These findings suggest that studies focused on maintenance of shell color in brown-shelled eggs need to consider the stage of egg formation at which the reduction in pigment deposition is occurring.

  3. A study on eggshell pigmentation: biliverdin in blue-shelled chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Xu, G Y; Liu, Z Z; Li, J Y; Yang, N

    2006-03-01

    Biliverdin is an important pigment in the eggshell of chickens and other avian species. Determination of the biosynthesis site for biliverdin is essential for understanding the biochemical process and genetic basis of eggshell pigmentation. Either blood or the shell gland could be the biosynthesis site of eggshell biliverdin. A segregation population with full-sib sisters genotyped Oo and oo, which laid blue-shelled eggs and light brown eggs, respectively, was constructed in a native Chinese chicken breed. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC were used to determine the biliverdin concentration in eggshells, blood, bile, excreta, and shell gland of both groups of chickens. Biliverdin content was significantly different between egg shells of blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens (P < 0.01). Blood and bile were tested 3 to 4 h before oviposition, and excreta was tested randomly. Results showed no significant difference in biliverdin concentration in blood, bile, and excreta between the 2 groups. In the shell gland, the biliverdin contents for the blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens were 8.25 +/- 2.55 and 1.29 +/- 0.12 nmol/g, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that blood is not the biosynthesis site of the shell biliverdin. Biliverdin is most likely synthesized in the shell gland and then deposited onto the eggshell of chickens.

  4. Orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurimoto T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takuji Kurimoto1, Masahiro Tonari1, Norihiko Ishizaki1, Mitsuhiro Monta2, Saori Hirata2, Hidehiro Oku1, Jun Sugasawa1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shitennoji Hospital, Osaka, JapanAbstract: We report our findings for a patient with orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Our patient was initially admitted to a neighborhood hospital because of nausea and loss of appetite of 10 days' duration. The day after hospitalization, she developed skin vesicles along the first division of the trigeminal nerve, with severe lid swelling and conjunctival injection. On suspicion of meningoencephalitis caused by varicella zoster virus, antiviral therapy with vidarabine and betamethasone was started. Seventeen days later, complete ptosis and ophthalmoplegia developed in the right eye. The light reflex in the right eye was absent and anisocoria was present, with the right pupil larger than the left. Fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images showed high intensity areas in the muscle cone, cavernous sinus, and orbital optic nerve sheath. Our patient was diagnosed with orbital apex syndrome, and because of skin vesicles in the first division of the trigeminal nerve, the orbital apex syndrome was considered to be caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus. After the patient was transferred to our hospital, prednisolone 60 mg and vidarabine antiviral therapy was started, and fever and headaches disappeared five days later. The ophthalmoplegia and optic neuritis, but not the anisocoria, gradually resolved during tapering of oral therapy. From the clinical findings and course, the cause of the orbital apex syndrome was most likely invasion of the orbital apex and cavernous sinus by the herpes virus through the trigeminal nerve ganglia.Keywords: varicella zoster virus, orbital apex syndrome, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complete ophthalmoplegia

  5. Inactivation of Salmonella on Eggshells by Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyobi; Yum, Bora; Yoon, Sung-Sik; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Rak; Myeong, Donghoon; Chang, Byungjoon; Choe, Nong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of eggs should be prevented in the poultry industry, as poultry is one of the major reservoirs of human Salmonella. ClO2 gas has been reported to be an effective disinfectant in various industry fields, particularly the food industry. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide gas on two strains of Salmonella inoculated onto eggshells under various experimental conditions including concentrations, contact time, humidity, and percentage organic matter. As a result, it was shown that chlorine dioxide gas under wet conditions was more effective in inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum compared to that under dry conditions independently of the presence of organic matter (yeast extract). Under wet conditions, a greater than 4 log reduction in bacterial populations was achieved after 30 min of exposure to ClO2 each at 20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 80 ppm against S. Enteritidis; 40 ppm and 80 ppm against S. Gallinarum. These results suggest that chlorine dioxide gas is an effective agent for controlling Salmonella, the most prevalent contaminant in the egg industry.

  6. Thiolated eggshell membranes sorb and speciate inorganic selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Chen, Ming-Li; Hu, Xian-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Wen; Wang, Jian-Hua; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-01-07

    Eggshell membranes (ESMs) provide a unique, disulfide bond-rich surface. Thioglycolate reduction was used to generate thiol (-SH) groups on the ESM surface by S-S bond cleavage. The thiol-bearing ESMs (TESMs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The fibrous network structure of the ESM is retained in the TESMs. TESMs adsorb both Se(IV) and Se(VI) but by different mechanisms: Se(VI) is retained reversibly, possibly via ionic interactions, while Se(IV) is reduced to Se(0) and deposited. We thus demonstrate speciation of selenium species, by using samples (a) as such and after prior oxidation to Se(VI), (b) preconcentration on a TESM microcolumn, (c) elution by 0.5 M HNO(3) that only elutes Se(VI) and (d) detection by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The Se(IV) amount is determined by difference. For a 1.0 mL sample, the enrichment factor was 17.2, the S/N = 3 detection limit was 0.06 μg L(-1) and the precision was 3.3% at 0.50 μg L(-1). The linear range was 0.25-2.50 μg L(-1). The procedure was validated by analyzing selenium in certified reference materials of human hair (GBW 09101) and rice (GBW 10010). We further demonstrate utility by speciation of inorganic selenium in a series of water samples.

  7. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Effect of long-term selection for egg production on eggshell quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M M; El-Dlebshany, A E; El-Deen, M Bahie; Radwan, L M; Rayan, G N

    2016-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastuctural measurements of eggshell using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail. A selection program was applied over 22 consecutive generations for higher egg production and lower broken egg percentage. The results revealed that the females of the selected line produced significantly (P < 0.01) higher egg mass compared to that of the control line. Also, the selection procedure significantly improved feed conversion ratio. The eggshells of the selected line had a higher breaking strength compared to those of the control line, although there was no difference between them in shell thickness. Significantly higher wet (P < 0.01) and dry (P < 0.05) eggshell percentages were found in the selected line. In general, the eggshells of the selected line had a lower total score (good) of ultrastructural evaluation compared to the control line. According to scanning electron microscope data, the incidence of certain structural variants was more common in eggshells of the control line suggesting poor shell strength. The incidence of alignment was more prevalent in control eggshells compared to selected ones, suggesting lower resistance to breakage. Late fusion and large interstitial spaces of the palisade layer indicating decreased resistance to fracture were observed in control eggshells. It could be concluded that the improvement eggshell quality may be caused by the long-term selection for lower cracked and broken egg rates from generation to generation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Sixth Nerve Palsy from Cholesterol Granuloma of the Petrous Apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Ségolène; Maeder, Philippe; Daniel, Roy Thomas; Kawasaki, Aki

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report a patient who had an isolated sixth nerve palsy due to a petrous apex cholesterol granuloma. The sixth nerve palsy appeared acutely and then spontaneously resolved over several months, initially suggesting a microvascular origin of the palsy. Subsequent recurrences of the palsy indicated a different pathophysiologic etiology and MRI revealed the lesion at the petrous apex. Surgical resection improved the compressive effect of the lesion at Dorello's canal and clinical improvement was observed. A relapsing-remitting sixth nerve palsy is an unusual presentation of this rare lesion.

  10. Exploring the Use of Unprocessed Waste Chicken Eggshells for UV-Protective Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Fecheyr-Lippens

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodegradation causes a steady loss of the useful physical, mechanical and optical properties of materials, necessitating their replacement over time. Because UV (Ultraviolet light is most harmful in this regard, many materials now contain UV-protective additives. However, these additives are not always effective and durable, can be expensive, and their natural extraction or synthetic production can be harmful to the environment. Here, we investigated the use of unprocessed chicken eggshells in providing UV protection to two commonly used synthetic polymers: polystyrene and nylon. We show that unprocessed chicken eggshells provide a durable and effective UV protection. Our data sets the stage for future research to find a practical way to use the large amounts of unprocessed chicken eggshell waste as novel, economically appealing and environmentally friendly UV-protective additives.

  11. The Effect of Eggshell Thickness on the Hatchability of Guinea Fowl and Pheasants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    US Yamak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Successful incubation affects the number of healthy chicks in all poultry species. This study examined the effect of eggshell thickness on the hatching rates of guinea fowl and pheasant eggs. In total, 964 guinea fowl and 1,728 pheasant eggs were used in the study. Eggshell thickness was measured directly with an ultrasound gauge. Thicknesses ranged between 0.27-0.47 mm in guinea fowl and 0.24-0.49 mm in pheasant eggs. Incubation periods were 28 days for guinea fowl and 25 days for pheasant eggs. At the end of the incubation period, unhatched eggs were broken to identify the causes of embryonic mortality. Eggs were classified as thin-, medium- and thick-shelled, and hatching rates were calculated as a function of eggshell thickness. Differences in hatching rates of guinea fowl and pheasant eggs with different shell thicknesses were not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  12. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  13. Ultrastructure and characteristics of eggshells of the olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) from Gahirmatha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G; Mohapatra, B K; Sahoo, R K; Mohanty-Hejmadi, P

    1996-01-01

    The structure of a chelonian eggshell is of prime importance for the developing embryo. It acts as a protective covering as well as mediator in the exchange of heat and water. The fresh eggshell of the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle displays a variety of structural forms in their aragonite framework. Its netted substrate, loose texture and poorly organised crystallites favour the easy exchange of air and water during its development. The shell consists mostly of calcium in carbonate form and K, Mg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Cd in traces. Ba and Sr in traces are also a feature of the thermal analysis graph. Phosphorous was not detected in the shell and its absence eliminates an earlier suggestion of it being a key factor in the development of aragonite crystals in the inorganic structure of marine turtle eggshells. Its combustion characteristics, which have not been previously reported, are recorded.

  14. Physico-mechanical and structural properties of eggshell membrane gelatin- chitosan blend edible films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Rouhi, Milad

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p< 0.05), but r......This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p... interactions introduced by the addition of chitosan to eggshell membrane gelatin as new resources could improve the films’ functional properties....

  15. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells: Nonfatal monitoring for contamination in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    90 Sr was measured in eggshells from Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) that nested on Columbia River islands up- and downstream from deactivated plutonium production reactors on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. We also measured 90 Sr in wing bones of goose carcasses. Background levels of 90 Sr were based on eggshells collected on an island upstream of the reactors. A few eggshells collected from nests on a single island downstream of the reactors had slightly higher than background levels of 90 Sr. This may have resulted from geese eating shoreline plants or crops irrigated with Columbia River water that contained 90 Sr released into the river through groundwater seepage

  16. Post-operative high dose rate vaginal apex brachytherapy in stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumbs, A.A.; Turner, B.C.; Knisely, J.P.S.; Kacinski, B.M.; Roberts, K.B.; Peschel, R.E.; Haffty, B.G.; Rutherford, T.J.; Edraki, B.; Schwartz, P.E.; Wilson, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Patients with Stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma have traditionally been treated with total abdominal hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and radiation. The reported incidence of local recurrence in surgically treated patients with FIGO Stage IA or IB endometrial adenocarcinoma is 4-10% at 2 years. Combined surgery and radiation has resulted in a reduction of recurrence to 2-6%. We report the presentation, actuarial survival, actuarial rate of local failure, salvage rate, and complications for patients undergoing high dose rate (HDR) vaginal apex brachytherapy following surgery. Materials and Methods: Between 1985 and 1994 a total of 286 patients with FIGO Stage I endometrioid uterine adenocarcinoma were treated with HDR Ir-192 vaginal apex brachytherapy alone to a total dose of 21 Gy in 3 fractions at 0.5 cm from the vaginal mucosa. The pathologic stage by treatment group was IA: 31%, IB: 68%, and IC: 1%. The histologic grade of the patient's tumors was grade 1: 69%, 2: 29%, and 3: 2% of patients. The median time from surgery to radiation was 34 days (range 14-66 days). The median follow-up for 286 patients with Stage IA (92 patients), IB (190 patients), and IC (4 patients) was respectively, 37, 35 and 40 months (2 patients lost to follow-up prior to 6 months). Results: Patients presented with vaginal bleeding (94%) or abnormal pap smear (6%) at a median age for Stage IA and IB, of 54 and 63 years, respectively (range 32-88). The 5-year overall actuarial survival rate was 94.5%. The 5-year actuarial survival rate by histologic grade was 97.5% and 91.5% for FIGO grade 1 and 2, respectively (p=.011). The 5-year actuarial survival rate by depth of myometrial invasion was 99.0% and 92.5% for Stage IA and IB, respectively (p=.029). Median overall time to failure is 19.5 months (range 10-36 months). The 5-year actuarial rate of local failure was 4.5%. The overall failure rate in our study group was 2.8% (8 patients), local failure only 1

  17. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Potential Regulatory Proteins Involved in Chicken Eggshell Brownness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqi Li

    Full Text Available Brown eggs are popular in many countries and consumers regard eggshell brownness as an important indicator of egg quality. However, the potential regulatory proteins and detailed molecular mechanisms regulating eggshell brownness have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis with iTRAQ technology in the shell gland epithelium of hens laying dark and light brown eggs to investigate the candidate proteins and molecular mechanisms underlying variation in chicken eggshell brownness. The results indicated 147 differentially expressed proteins between these two groups, among which 65 and 82 proteins were significantly up-regulated in the light and dark groups, respectively. Functional analysis indicated that in the light group, the down-regulated iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein (Iba57 would decrease the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX; furthermore, the up-regulated protein solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator, member 5 (SLC25A5 and down-regulated translocator protein (TSPO would lead to increased amounts of protoporphyrin IX transported into the mitochondria matrix to form heme with iron, which is supplied by ovotransferrin protein (TF. In other words, chickens from the light group produce less protoporphyrin IX, which is mainly used for heme synthesis. Therefore, the exported protoporphyrin IX available for eggshell deposition and brownness is reduced in the light group. The current study provides valuable information to elucidate variation of chicken eggshell brownness, and demonstrates the feasibility and sensitivity of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis in providing useful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying brown eggshell pigmentation.

  18. Microstructure and thermal change of texture of calcite crystals in ostrich eggshell Struthio camelus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, A.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, A.G.; Lozano, L.F.; Pena-Rico, M.A.; Velazquez, R.; Basiuk, V.A.; Bucio, L.

    2005-01-01

    Eggshell from ostrich Struthio camelus, pristine and thermally treated in the range from room temperature to 550 deg. C, was investigated with low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). Different zones of the eggshell were analysed, including the protein-related, non-crystalline, inner organic membrane. After the high-temperature treatment (>500 deg. C), only crystallised calcite phase was found showing two main textures depending on the shell zone and the treatment temperature. In the crystal layer of the untreated samples, nanosized calcite crystals are organized with their c crystallographic axes highly aligned normal to eggshell surface (a very sharp gaussian angular distribution, σ=0.14, was obtained by using the Rietveld method to model the preferred orientation function in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern). Elemental analysis revealed more Mg 2+ in the crystal layer than in cone layer of the eggshell. A high nitrogen content in the organic membrane is associated to a proteinaceous phase. The cone and palisade layers are composed of needle-shaped calcite crystals, which are more crystallized than in the crystal layer and in average with their c crystallographic axes oriented in all directions except for the one perpendicular to the eggshell surface. Due to the complex structure and the amorphous/crystal phase interactions, the heating at about 500 deg. C texturizes the crystals orienting them mainly along the c-axes normal to the inner eggshell surface

  19. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasso, Rebecka L., E-mail: rlb1196@uncw.edu [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Polito, Michael J. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Lynch, Heather J. [Ecology and Evolution Department, 640 Life Sciences Bldg., Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Naveen, R. [Oceanites Inc., PO Box 15259, Chevy Chase, MD 20825 (United States); Emslie, Steven D. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adelie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adelie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell {delta}{sup 15}N or {delta}{sup 13}C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three species of Pygoscelis

  20. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Polito, Michael J.; Lynch, Heather J.; Naveen, R.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adélie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adélie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell δ 15 N or δ 13 C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: ► We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. ► Three species of Pygoscelis penguins were used as biomonitors. ► Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher mercury

  1. Clumped isotope paleothermometry of eggshells as an indicator of vertebrate endothermy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, R. R.; Field, D. J.; Therrien, F.; Zelenitsky, D.; Affek, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Isotopic analyses of the calcite or aragonite shells of aquatic organisms are often used in the study of the environmental conditions in which they grow; however, this approach is less straightforward in the terrestrial realm, where environments may be more heterogeneous. In such terrestrial localities, the bioapatite of vertebrate teeth comprises the typical archival material for isotopic analyses. The calcitic eggshells of birds and other reptiles may provide suitable material for isotopic analyses that are aimed at studying their physiology and ecology. Here we apply a novel thermometer, carbonate clumped isotopes (Δ47), to test for endothermy in extinct non-avian dinosaurs in the context provided by eggs of modern reptiles and birds. These Δ47-derived temperatures should reflect the temperature of shell formation, which in endothermic animals such as birds should represent the mother's internal body temperature. In ectothermic animals, the same is true although their body temperatures are more affected by the external environment and thus Δ47 temperatures could more accurately describe local environmental temperatures during eggshell formation. Fossil eggshells represent appropriate material for reconstructing internal body temperatures of extinct non-avian dinosaurs since they mineralized within the mother's body, and fragments of eggshell are commonly recovered from dinosaur-bearing fossil deposits. The dimensions of these fragments provide sufficient material for the relatively large sample required for clumped isotope analysis (~20mg). Fossil eggshell samples from several taxa of Late Cretaceous non-avian dinosaurs were analyzed using Δ47 paleothermometry. Textural inspection was used as a first test for diagenetic alteration of the original calcite, and histological indicators were used for broad taxonomic identifications. Preliminary results of Δ47-derived body temperature estimates from eggshells are consistent with previous body temperatures

  2. Comparison of various current electronic apex locators to determine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective was to compare in vitro the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs) (DentaPort ZX [Morita Co., Tokyo, Japan], SIROEndo Pocket [Sirona Dental Systems, ... All teeth were embedded in an alginate model, and the electronic measurements were taken following the manufacturers' orientations.

  3. Accuracy of working length determination with root ZX apex locator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... The purpose of this study was to clinically compare working length (WL) determination with root ZX apex locator and radiography, and then compare them with direct visualization method ex vivo. A total of 75 maxillary central and lateral incisors were selected. Working length determination was carried out.

  4. Accuracy of working length determination with root ZX apex locator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to clinically compare working length (WL) determination with root ZX apex locator and radiography, and then compare them with direct visualization method ex vivo. A total of 75 maxillary central and lateral incisors were selected. Working length determination was carried out using radiographic ...

  5. Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal drainage of petrous apex cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex are rare lesions that pose challenging surgical decisions and approaches when attempting surgical drainage. In this article we present 2 cases of successful surgical management using an endoscopic trans-sphenoidal approach and review the requirements and considerations ...

  6. Invasive Streptococcus viridans sphenoethmoiditis leading to an orbital apex syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Bodily

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion and importance: A high clinical suspicion for orbital apex syndrome must be maintained in the appropriate circumstance given the subtle clinical signs and imaging, as well as the potential devastating morbidity of the disease process. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is crucial to patient survival and preservation of vision.

  7. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 14; Developer's Manual No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 4 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  8. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 17: Developer's Manual No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 7 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  9. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

  10. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

  11. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 16: Developer's Manual No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 6 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  13. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  14. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 13: Developer's Manual No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 3 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  15. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  16. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 11: Developer's Manual No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 1 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  17. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  18. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 2: Computer Operator's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Computer Operator's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The information in the manual is sufficiently basic…

  19. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 15: Developer's Manual No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 5 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two section, which are the same in each of…

  20. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

  1. Quantitative proteomics and bioinformatic analysis provide new insight into protein function during avian eggshell biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-01-15

    Gallus gallus eggshell is a bioceramic composed of 95% calcium carbonate in calcitic form and 3.5% extracellular organic matrix. The calcification process occurs in the uterine fluid where biomineralization follows a temporal sequence corresponding to the initiation, growth and termination stages of crystal growth. Eggshell texture and its ultrastructure are regulated by organic matrix proteins, which control mineralization process and influence the eggshell biomechanical properties. We performed proteomic qualitative analyses and identified 308 uterine fluid proteins. Quantitative analysis showed differential abundances at the three stages of shell biomineralization for 64 of them. Cluster analysis revealed a first group of proteins related to mineralization and mainly present at the onset of calcification including OVOT, OVAL, OC-17, and two novel calcium binding proteins (EDIL3, MFGE8). A second group of proteins mainly present at the initiation and termination of shell formation was potentially involved in the regulation of the activity of the uterine fluid proteins (e.g. molecular chaperones, folding proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors). OCX21, a protein highly concentrated in the fluid and the shell, belongs to this group. A third group equally represented at all stages of shell mineralization corresponded to antibacterial proteins that could protect the forming egg against microbial invasion. The calcitic avian eggshell protects the developing embryo and, moreover, ensures that the nutritious table egg remains free of pathogens. The eggshell is formed by nucleation upon a fibrous scaffold (the eggshell membranes) followed by an interaction between the growing mineral crystals and the shell organic matrix. This interaction leads to a highly ordered shell microstructure and texture which contribute to its exceptional mechanical properties. Shell mineralization occurs in three distinct phases of calcification (initiation, growth and termination), which

  2. MES buffer affects Arabidopsis root apex zonation and root growth by suppressing superoxide generation in root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eKagenishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species. MES, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8. However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone. Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in root apex.

  3. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good's buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex.

  4. Comparative Study of US Features, US-guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, and Pathology Results for Eggshell Calcified Thyroid Nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yoon Nae; Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate ultrasound (US) findings of eggshell calcified thyroid nodules associated with thyroid malignancy and the diagnostic usefulness for US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) of eggshell calcified thyroid nodules. We analyzed 36 eggshell calcified thyroid nodules in 35 patients who underwent thyroid US and US-FNAC from January to December of 2009. We compared the US findings and US-FNAC results with the pathologic results confirmed by surgery. Twenty eggshell calcified nodules were surgically removed in 19 patients, from which 8 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 hyperplasia nodules were confirmed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values, as well as accuracy for US diagnosis and US-FNAC of eggshell calcified nodules were 100% and 20%, 25% and 100%, 43.8% and 100%, 100% and 63.6%, and 55% and 66.7%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that thick peripheral hypoechoic rim and thickening of eggshell calcified nodules are significantly related to malignancy, but focal disruption of eggshell calcification is not.

  5. Estimation of genetic parameters related to eggshell strength using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Ma, M; Qu, L; Shen, M; Dou, T; Wang, K

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the changes in eggshell strength and the genetic parameters related to this trait throughout a hen's laying life using random regression. The data were collected from a crossbred population between 2011 and 2014, where the eggshell strength was determined repeatedly for 2260 hens. Using random regression models (RRMs), several Legendre polynomials were employed to estimate the fixed, direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The residual effects were treated as independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test week. The direct genetic variance was included with second-order Legendre polynomials and the permanent environment with third-order Legendre polynomials. The heritability of eggshell strength ranged from 0.26 to 0.43, the repeatability ranged between 0.47 and 0.69, and the estimated genetic correlations between test weeks was high at > 0.67. The first eigenvalue of the genetic covariance matrix accounted for about 97% of the sum of all the eigenvalues. The flexibility and statistical power of RRM suggest that this model could be an effective method to improve eggshell quality and to reduce losses due to cracked eggs in a breeding plan.

  6. Eggshell strength of an obligate brood parasite: a test of the puncture resistance hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonov, A.; Stokke, B. G.; Moksnes, A.; Kleven, O.; Honza, Marcel; Roskaft, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-18 ISSN 0340-5443 Grant - others:Research Council of Norway(NO) 151641/432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * eggshell thickness * puncture resistance * Acrocephalus * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  7. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

    2011-11-07

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos.

  8. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J; vanderWal, R

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden.

  9. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.; Van der Wal, R.

    1996-01-01

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden.

  10. Dinosaur eggshell geochemistry as an indicator of Central Asian Cretaceous paleoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, S.; Higgins, P.; Norell, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Late Cretaceous fossiliferous beds of Mongolia's Gobi Desert have yielded spectacular articulated remains of an extraordinary diversity of fossil mammals, reptiles, birds, and dinosaurs. Paleoenvironmental interpretations of the deposits at these localities have ranged from arid wind-blown dune fields to more mesic, moist environments. Among the diversity of fossils, dinosaur eggshells are commonly found at these localities and dinosaur embryos, although rare, are also encountered. Dinosaur (including modern bird) eggs are constructed of calcite (CaCO3) allowing carbon and oxygen stable isotopes to be quantified to provide information about the environment the egg-laying animals were living in. Here we show that dinosaur eggshell from the Djadokhta Formation at one locality has not been significantly altered and reflects an environment that of dry-climate adapted C3 plants and isolated, ephemeral water sources during the egg-laying season. Carbonate nodules from the same eggshell-bearing layers also independently reflects a similar environmental signal. This study represents the first geochemical analysis of dinosaur remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia and illustrates the potential of utilizing dinosaur eggshell geochemistry to reconstruct Mesozoic environments.Mean, n, standard deviation, and range for both carbon and oxygen isotope values for all materials sampled

  11. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Pytel, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 7 (2016), s. 1693-1701 ISSN 0032-5791 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg yolk * albumen * liquid whole egg * rheology * eggshell membrane Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2016 http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/

  12. Eggshell pigmentation has no evident effects on offspring viability in common kestrels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fargallo, J. A.; López-Rull, I.; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2014), s. 627-637 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biliverdin IX * egg colouration * eggshell proteins * falco tinnunculus * protoporphyrin IX Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.517, year: 2014

  13. Morphological and histochemical observations of the organic components of ostrich eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.G. Richards

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic component of the avian eggshell can be divided into 3 portions, the shell membranes, the matrix and the cuticle. These have been well characterised in the chicken but little has been published with regard to the ostrich (Struthio camelus. A number of recent studies have indicated that the cause of intra-shell embryonic deaths in the ostrich is similar to intra-shell embryonic deaths that occur in the chicken. These deaths in the chicken are associated with the loss of or damage to the waxy cuticle and other organic components of the eggshell, which is reported to be absent in the ostrich eggshell. In this study, preliminary morphological and histochemical analyses, at the level of the light and electron microscope, have characterised the various organic components of the ostrich eggshell. The results of the histochemical and electron microscopical analyses suggest that there mayonly be 1 shell membrane in this species, which could play a major role in the limitation of bacterial penetration to the embryonic chamber. The shell membrane has a distinct elemental profile as determined by EDSanalysis. The matrix is shown to decrease in mesh size from the mammillary layer to the vertical crystal layer. The closer packing of the mesh may indicate the presence of a morphologically discernible termination signal to calcification or the remnants of an evolutionary calcified cuticle. The matrix of the pores may also forma defensive barrier against bacterial invasion, which could be damaged as a result of dipping the eggs before incubation.

  14. Binding of von Willebrand factor and plasma proteins to the eggshell of Schistosoma mansoni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewalick, Saskia; Hensbergen, Paul J; Bexkens, Michiel L; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; Hokke, Cornelis H; Deelder, André M; de Groot, Philip G; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Hellemond, Jaap J

    Schistosoma mansoni eggs have to cross the endothelium and intestinal wall to leave the host and continue the life cycle. Mechanisms involved in this essential step are largely unknown. Here we describe direct binding to the S. mansoni eggshell of von Willebrand factor and other plasma proteins

  15. Using eggshell membranes as a DNA source for population genetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trimbos, Krijn Baptist; Broekman, Joyce; Kentie, Rosemarie; Musters, Cees J. M.; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of population genetic research, a faster and less invasive method of DNA sampling would allow large-scale assessments of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation with the help of volunteer observers. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of eggshell membranes as

  16. Estimating the purebred-crossbred genetic correlation for uniformity of eggshell color in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Herman; Visscher, Jeroen; Fablet, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uniformity of eggs is an important aspect for retailers because consumers prefer homogeneous products. One of these characteristics is the color of the eggshell, especially for brown eggs. Existence of a genetic component in environmental variance would enable selection for uniformity

  17. Effect of loading rate on hen´s eggshell mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Severa, L.; Nedomová, Š.; Stoklasová, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2012), s. 1-5 ISSN 1927-0887 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : eggshell * strength * elasticity * numerical simulation Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jfr/article/view/19064

  18. Microbiome assembly of avian eggshells and their potential as transgenerational carriers of maternal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, H Pieter J; Salles, Joana Falcão; Tieleman, B Irene

    2018-02-14

    The microbiome is essential for development, health and homeostasis throughout an animal's life. Yet, the origins and transmission processes governing animal microbiomes remain elusive for non-human vertebrates, oviparous vertebrates in particular. Eggs may function as transgenerational carriers of the maternal microbiome, warranting characterisation of egg microbiome assembly. Here, we investigated maternal and environmental contributions to avian eggshell microbiota in wild passerine birds: woodlark Lullula arborea and skylark Alauda arvensis. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we demonstrated in both lark species, at the population and within-nest levels, that bacterial communities of freshly laid eggs were distinct from the female cloacal microbiome. Instead, soil-borne bacteria appeared to thrive on freshly laid eggs, and eggshell microbiota composition strongly resembled maternal skin, body feather and nest material communities, sources in direct contact with laid eggs. Finally, phylogenetic structure analysis and microbial source tracking underscored species sorting from directly contacting sources rather than in vivo-transferred symbionts. The female-egg-nest system allowed an integrative assessment of avian egg microbiome assembly, revealing mixed modes of symbiont acquisition not previously documented for vertebrate eggs. Our findings illuminated egg microbiome origins, which suggested a limited potential of eggshells for transgenerational transmission, encouraging further investigation of eggshell microbiome functions in vertebrates.

  19. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  20. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, O.; Shahir, M.H.; Akhlaghi, A.; Lotfolahian, H.; Hoseini, A.; Lourens, A.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to

  1. THE EFFECT OF EGGSHELL MOSAIC TRAINING TOWARD FINE MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY (IDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diadra Finalistiani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of eggshell mosaic toward fine motor skills of children with intellectual and develompental disability. The data was collected with observation, and the analysis technique used analysis in condition and analysis between conditions. The conclusion of this research was eggshell mosaic gives effect toward the fine motor skills of the children, it was shown from fine motor skills of the children before eggshell mosaic treatment, during the treatment and after controlling, and the fine motor skills of the children was improved.

  2. Wholly Endoscopic Permeatal Removal of a Petrous Apex Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Kanzara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a petrous apex cholesteatoma which was managed with a wholly endoscopic permeatal approach. A 63-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 10-year history of right-sided facial palsy and profound deafness. On examination in our clinic, the patient had a grade VI House-Brackmann paresis, otoscopic evidence of attic cholesteatoma behind an intact drum, and extensive scarring of the face from previous facial reanimation surgery. Imaging review was suggestive of petrous apex cholesteatoma. An initial decision to manage the patient conservatively was later reviewed on account of the patient suffering recurrent epileptic seizures. A wholly endoscopic permeatal approach was used with successful outcomes. In addition to the case report we also provide a brief description of the technique and a review of the relevant literature.

  3. The Doppler paradigm and the APEX-EPOS-ORANGE quandary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The experimental detection of the sharp lines of the (e + e - ) Puzzle is viewed as a struggle against Doppler broadening. Gedanken experiments which are realistic in zeroth order of detail are analyzed to show that the ORANGE and EPOS/I geometries select narrower slices of a Doppler broadened line than spherically inclusive (APEX and EPOS/II -like) apparati. Roughly speaking, the latter require event-by-event Doppler reconstruction simply to regain an even footing with the former. This suggests that APEX' or EPOS/II's coincident pair distributions must be statistically superior to those of EPOS/I or ORANGE in order to support a comparable inference about sharp structure. Under such circumstances, independent alternative data is invaluable. Therefore, a corroboration of Sakai's 330.1 keV ( + or e - bombardments of U and Th targets could prove crucial

  4. The electrical network of maize root apex is gravity dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Elisa; Ciszak, Marzena; Comparini, Diego; Monetti, Emanuela; Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mugnai, Sergio; Baluška, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-01-15

    Investigations carried out on maize roots under microgravity and hypergravity revealed that gravity conditions have strong effects on the network of plant electrical activity. Both the duration of action potentials (APs) and their propagation velocities were significantly affected by gravity. Similarly to what was reported for animals, increased gravity forces speed-up APs and enhance synchronized electrical events also in plants. The root apex transition zone emerges as the most active, as well as the most sensitive, root region in this respect.

  5. Quantitative proteomics analysis of eggshell membrane proteins during chick embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Cristianne M M; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2016-01-01

    The avian eggshell membrane (ESM) is a meshwork made up of highly cross-linked protein fibers and it is a scaffold upon which biomineralization of the eggshell is initiated. The ESM and associated shell participates in embryonic development by providing physical and chemical protection against pathogen invasion. We performed quantitative proteomic analysis of ESM proteins on multiple days during the three phases of embryonic development. The ESMs were stripped from both fertilized and unfertilized eggs at different days of incubation, and solubilized in a novel manner using TCEP-HCl (Tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride). The changes in ESM proteins between occurred during incubation were analyzed. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that of the 12 functional protein clusters identified, protease inhibitors were present at all phases of chick development. A group of proteins involved in calcium binding and oxygen transport were only present during the second phase. Extracellular matrix, cell adhesion proteins related to the vascularization of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), antimicrobial proteins and proteins involved in the binding and transport of lipids were found in the second and third phases of development. These findings provide insight into the functionality and evolving nature of ESM associated proteins involved in chick embryonic development. The eggshell membranes (ESMs) are a fibrous scaffold that consists of highly crosslinked collagens (types I, V but mainly X), glycoproteins and CREMPs (cysteine-rich eggshell membrane proteins). The ESMs aid in the development of the chick embryo and protect it against pathogen invasion. This biopolymeric fibrous net functions as a platform for nucleation of the calcitic eggshell which provides a primary physical barrier against bacterial ingress. Comparative proteomic analyses of proteins in the ESMs from fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs showed changes in their levels which varied between the specific

  6. Unusual case of orbital apex syndrome after chalazion excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Maria; Lefatzis, Nikolaos; Papakosta, Veroniki; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis; Papathanassiou, Miltiadis

    2013-05-01

    Orbital apex syndrome represents a heterogeneous group of disorders. It involves damage to the third, fourth and sixth nerves and the ophthalmic division of the fifth cranial nerve, and results in optic neuropathy. An 80-year-old man presented to our emergency clinic with left acute visual loss and three-day history of ocular pain. His medical and ophthalmic history involved diagnosis of lung cancer and chalazion excision two weeks prior to presentation. There was total left ophthalmoplegia, vision was 'no light perception' and he had a relative afferent pupillary defect. An urgent computed tomography scan of the orbits showed sub-periosteal abscess on the lateral wall of the orbit extending to the optic canal. The muscle cone was unaffected. The diagnosis was orbital apex syndrome. He underwent urgent drainage of the abscess and Staphylococcus aureus was identified with Gram stain. He was systemically administered intravenous antibiotics and steroids. His visual acuity and ophthalmoplegia improved rapidly 12 hours after surgery. Prompt diagnosis and treatment in cases of orbital apex syndrome, especially in immunocompromised patients, is important to prevent visual and life-threatening complications. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  7. SEPIA - a new single pixel receiver at the APEX telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, V.; Lapkin, I.; Fredrixon, M.; Meledin, D.; Sundin, E.; Billade, B.; Ferm, S.-E.; Pavolotsky, A.; Rashid, H.; Strandberg, M.; Desmaris, V.; Ermakov, A.; Krause, S.; Olberg, M.; Aghdam, P.; Shafiee, S.; Bergman, P.; Beck, E. De; Olofsson, H.; Conway, J.; Breuck, C. De; Immer, K.; Yagoubov, P.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Torstensson, K.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J.-P.; Klein, T.; Boland, W.; Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Barkhof, J.; Adema, J.; Bekema, M. E.; Koops, A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. We describe the new Swedish-ESO PI Instrument for APEX (SEPIA) receiver, which was designed and built by the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD), at Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) in collaboration with ESO. It was installed and commissioned at the APEX telescope during 2015 with an ALMA Band 5 receiver channel and updated with a new frequency channel (ALMA Band 9) in February 2016. Aim. This manuscript aims to provide, for observers who use the SEPIA receiver, a reference in terms of the hardware description, optics and performance as well as the commissioning results. Methods: Out of three available receiver cartridge positions in SEPIA, the two current frequency channels, corresponding to ALMA Band 5, the RF band 158-211 GHz, and Band 9, the RF band 600-722 GHz, provide state-of-the-art dual polarization receivers. The Band 5 frequency channel uses 2SB SIS mixers with an average SSB noise temperature around 45 K with IF (intermediate frequency) band 4-8 GHz for each sideband providing total 4 × 4 GHz IF band. The Band 9 frequency channel uses DSB SIS mixers with a noise temperature of 75-125 K with IF band 4-12 GHz for each polarization. Results: Both current SEPIA receiver channels are available to all APEX observers.

  8. The effect of the egg's shape on the stress distribution in the eggshell at internal pressure loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the eggshell shape on the stress distribution under internal pressure is studied. A mathematical description of the hen's eggshell is proposed. The analytical expressions for the membrane solution are presented. Obtained results are used for the evaluation of a set of domestic hen's eggs. 28 eggs were analysed in this study. The weight of eggs ranged from 49.55 g to 61.08 g, the egg shape ranged from 72.82 % to 84.94 %, the average eggshell thickness ranged from 0.343 to 0.433 mm. The eggshell strength is given namely by the maximum values both of meridian and circumferential forces. The dependence of the meridian force maximum on the egg shape index has some tendency to increase with egg shape index. The outlined linear dependence is very weak, the coefficient of correlation is about 0.45.

  9. Avian eggshell pigments are not consistently correlated with colour measurements or egg constituents in two Turdus thrushes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassey, P.; Mikšík, Ivan; Portugal, S. J.; Maurer, G.; Ewen, J.G.; Zarate, E.; Sewell, M.A.; Karadas, F.; Grim, T.; Hauber, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 6 (2012), s. 503-512 ISSN 0908-8857 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : eggshell * pigment * colour * thrush * blackbird Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.020, year: 2012

  10. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Camille; Cassey, Phillip; Lovell, Paul G; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S James; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown) is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green) is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control) or corticosterone (treatment). We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an avian visual

  11. Habitat Characteristics and Eggshell Distribution of the Salt Marsh Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in Marshes in Subtropical Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Pat E. R.; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H.; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A.; Brown, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as...

  12. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  13. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Duval

    Full Text Available Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control or corticosterone (treatment. We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an

  14. Oviposition time, flock age, and egg position in clutch in relation to brown eggshell color in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J; Chousalkar, K

    2016-09-01

    In Australia and other parts of the world, table eggs with uniform brown eggshell color are well regarded by consumers. Brown eggshell color has been positively correlated with certain egg characteristics such as shell strength and egg specific gravity, along with specific antibacterial functions. In the current study, the effect of hen oviposition time, flock age, and egg position in-clutch on the intensity of brown eggshell color was studied in commercial laying hens. The collected eggs were processed to measure egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell color (L*a*b*), quantification of protoporphyrin IX (PP IX), and shell thickness. Hen oviposition time had a statistically significant effect (P clutch length was highly variable, ranging from 22 to 123 eggs in a single clutch. Egg position in a clutch had a significant effect on all egg quality variables measured; however, the R(2) values for each variable measured were low. The eggshell color declined to a greater extent with increasing position in a clutch for long clutches compared with short and medium clutches. In conclusion, hen oviposition time affected brown eggshell color with darker brown eggs laid early in the d and lighter colored brown eggs laid later in the morning. The intensity of brown color decreased with flock age, and egg position in-clutch had relatively little effect on brown eggshell color. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  16. Effects of embryo temperature estimation methodology on the determination of eggshell conductance values in Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs with consideration given to eggshell pigmentation variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olojede, O C; To, S D Filip; McDaniel, C D; Peebles, E D

    2017-09-01

    In a preliminary experiment, the influence of pigment color variation on the temperature readings of the shells (EST) of live embryonated Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs was tested. Prior to set, eggshell color in L*, a*, and b* coordinates were measured at the equator of each egg. Eggshell pigmentation was found not to influence EST from zero through 18 d of incubation (DOI). In a subsequent experiment, EST, as well as air cell (ACT) and cloaca (CLT) temperature measurements were used for the calculation of absolute (GH2O) and specific (gH20) eggshell conductance values for these same types of eggs. An infrared thermometer was used to determine EST from zero to 19 DOI, ACT was measured using a transponder from 12 to 19 DOI, and CLT was determined using a transponder at 4:00 PM at 19 DOI. In the 12 to 19 DOI interval, the values for GH2O as well as for gH20 that were calculated using either EST or ACT were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.99; P values based on ACT were significantly different from those based on EST. In addition, a significant difference in calculated GH2O and gH20 values resulted when ACT was used rather than when EST or CLT was used in the 10:00 AM to 10:00 PM time period at 19 DOI. In both time periods, GH2O and gH20 values calculated using ACT were significantly lower than those derived using the other 2 types of measurements. These findings suggest that although EST was not affected by shell coloration, because ACT more closely reflects embryo body temperature, it should be used to more accurately calculate the GH2O and gH20 of Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Physico-mechanical and structural properties of eggshell membrane gelatin- chitosan blend edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Rouhi, Milad; Kariminejad, Mohaddeseh; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Hasanvand, Sara

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (pfilm. The water solubility and water vapor permeability of the 50G:50Ch film decreased significantly compared to plain films (100G:0Ch and 0G:100Ch) and other composite films (pfilms; it revealed a homogenous and compact structure in 75G:25Ch and 50G:50 Ch. Also, the chemical interactions introduced by the addition of chitosan to eggshell membrane gelatin as new resources could improve the films' functional properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Characteristics of Skeletal Musculature of Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine morphodinamics of development of skeletal musculature of pheasants hatched from eggs of different eggshell colour. Four groups of pheasant eggs (dark brown, light brown, brown/green and blue/green were incubated. Samples of skeletal musculature of leg and breast were taken during the embryonic and neonatal period of development. From taken samples histological preparations were made. In pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs the smaller diameter of leg and breast muscle cells and the higher volume density of connective tissue in leg and breast muscles were recorded. It was concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had the weakest development of skeletal musculature, which can be related to structural differences of eggshell of various colour.

  19. Bio-active synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles using eggshell membrane for energy storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina Selvakumari, J.; Nishanthi, S. T.; Dhanalakshmi, J.; Ahila, M.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized tin oxide (SnO2) particles were synthesized using eggshell membrane (ESM), a natural bio-waste from the chicken eggshell. The crystallization of SnO2 into the tetragonal structure was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction and the crystallite size ranged from 13 to 40 nm. Various shapes including rod, hexagonal and spherical SnO2 nanoparticles were observed from the morphological studies. The electrochemical impedance study revealed a lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) of 8.565 Ω and the presence of a constant phase element which arised due to surface roughness and porosity. Capacitive behavior seen in the cyclic voltammetry curve of the prepared SnO2 nanoparticles, find future applications in supercapacitors.

  20. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken uterine fluid during eggshell biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken eggshell is the protective barrier of the egg. It is a biomineral composed of 95% calcium carbonate on calcitic form and 3.5% organic matrix proteins. Mineralization process occurs in uterus into the uterine fluid. This acellular fluid contains ions and organic matrix proteins precursors which are interacting with the mineral phase and control crystal growth, eggshell structure and mechanical properties. We performed a proteomic approach and identified 308 uterine fluid proteins. Gene Ontology terms enrichments were determined to investigate their potential functions. Mass spectrometry analyses were also combined to label free quantitative analysis to determine the relative abundance of 96 proteins at initiation, rapid growth phase and termination of shell calcification. Sixty four showed differential abundance according to the mineralization stage. Their potential functions have been annotated. The complete proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses are reported in Marie et al., J. Proteomics (2015 [1].

  1. Greenlandic Peregrines will have normal eggshell thickness by mid 2030’ies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Riget, Frank Farsø

    and reinterpreted data for a 43 year time span. Mean shell thickness was estimated for 184 clutches based on fragments from hatched eggs, and for 56 whole addled eggs from 44 clutches. During the period 1972-2014 there was a highly significant increasing trend in the average eggshell thickness of 0.25% per year....... This corresponds to a change in eggshell thinning from 13.9% to 3.4% in 2014 when compared to pre-DDT eggs collected in Greenland. With the current rate of change, a “normal”, pre-DDT shell thickness is predicted to be reached around year 2034. However, a few clutches are still below the critical limit. The slower...

  2. Exploring the Use of Unprocessed Waste Chicken Eggshells for UV-Protective Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Daphne Fecheyr-Lippens; Asritha Nallapaneni; Matthew D. Shawkey

    2017-01-01

    Photodegradation causes a steady loss of the useful physical, mechanical and optical properties of materials, necessitating their replacement over time. Because UV (Ultraviolet) light is most harmful in this regard, many materials now contain UV-protective additives. However, these additives are not always effective and durable, can be expensive, and their natural extraction or synthetic production can be harmful to the environment. Here, we investigated the use of unprocessed chicken eggshel...

  3. Exploring the use of unprocessed waste chicken eggshells for UV-protective applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne; Nallapaneni, Asritha; Shawkey, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Photodegradation causes a steady loss of the useful physical, mechanical and optical properties of materials, necessitating their replacement over time. Because UV (Ultraviolet) light is most harmful in this regard, many materials now contain UV-protective additives. However, these additives are not always effective and durable, can be expensive, and their natural extraction or synthetic production can be harmful to the environment. Here, we investigated the use of unprocessed chicken eggshel...

  4. Brood parasite and host eggshells undergo similar levels of decalcification during embryonic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Igic, B.; Hauber, M. E.; Moskát, C.; Grim, T.; Shawkey, M. D.; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 3 (2017), s. 165-173 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * Cuculus canorus * decalcification * eggshell thickness * embryonic development * common cuckoo * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2016

  5. Assessment of diagenetic alteration of dinosaur eggshells through petrography and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, M. V.; Eagle, R.; Eiler, J. M.; Tripati, A. K.; Ramirez, P. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Chiappe, L.; Montanari, S.; Norell, M.; Tuetken, T.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope analysis of fossil eggshells has the potential to constrain both the physiology of extinct animals and, potentially, paleoenvironmental conditions, especially when coupled with isotopic measurements of co-occurring soil carbonates. Eggshell samples from both modern vertebrates and Cretaceous Hadrosaurid, Oviraptorid, Titanosaur, Hypselosaurus, Faveoolithus, dinosaur fossils have been collected from Auca Mahuevo, Argentina and Rousett, France, amongst other locations, for geochemical analysis to determine if isotopic signatures could be used to indicate warm- or cold-bloodedness. In some locations soil carbonates were also analyzed to constrain environmental temperatures. In order to test the validity of the geochemical results, an extensive study was undertaken to establish degree of diagenetic alteration. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence characterization of the eggshells were used to assess diagenetic alteration. An empirical 1-5 point scale was used to assign each sample an alteration level, and the observations were then compared with the geochemical results. Specimens displayed a wide range of alteration states. Some of which were well preserved and others highly altered. Another group seemed to be structural intact and only under cathodoluminescence was alteration clearly observed. In the majority of samples, alteration level was found to be predictably related to geochemical results. From specimens with little evidence for diagenesis, carbonate clumped isotope signatures support high (37-40°C) body temperature for Titanosaurid dinosaurs, but potentially lower body temperatures for other taxa. If these data do, in fact, represent original eggshell growth temperatures, these results support variability in body temperature amongst Cretaceous dinosaurs and potentially are consistent with variations between adult body temperature and size — a characteristic of 'gigantothermy'.

  6. Comparison of eggshell surface sanitization technologies and impacts on consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajeeli, Morouj N; Taylor, T Matthew; Alvarado, Christine Z; Coufal, Craig D

    2016-05-01

    Shell eggs can be contaminated with many types of microorganisms, including bacterial pathogens, and thus present a risk for the transmission of foodborne disease to consumers. Currently, most United States egg processors utilize egg washing and sanitization systems to decontaminate surfaces of shell eggs prior to packaging. However, previous research has indicated that current shell egg sanitization technologies employed in the commercial egg industry may not completely eliminate bacteria from the surface of eggshells, and thus alternative egg sanitization technologies with the potential for increased microbial reductions on eggshells should be investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare the antimicrobial efficacy and consumer sensory attributes of industry-available eggshell sanitization methods (chlorine and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) applied via spray) to various alternative egg sanitization technologies. Eggs (White Leghorn hens; n=195) were obtained for evaluation of sanitizer-induced reduction in mesophilic aerobic bacteria (n=90) or inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) reduction (n=105). Sanitizing treatments evaluated in this experiment were: chlorine spray (100 ppm available chlorine), QAC spray (200 ppm), peracetic acid spray (PAA; 135 ppm) alone or in combination with ultraviolet light (UV; 254 nm), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 3.5% solution) spray in combination with UV (H2O2+UV). For enumeration of aerobic bacteria, eggs were sampled at 0, 7, and 14 days of storage at 4°C; surviving SE cells from inoculated eggs were enumerated by differential plating. Sensory trials were conducted to determine consumer liking of scrambled eggs made from eggs sanitized with chlorine, QAC, H2O2+UV, or no treatment (control). The H2O2 and UV treatment resulted in the greatest reductions in eggshell aerobic plate counts compared to other treatments throughout egg storage (Peggs represents a novel technology that could have important

  7. Effects of Eggshells Ash (ESA) on the Setting Time of Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cement-eggshells ash (CESA) paste was constituted using 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% of ESA by weight of cement. Setting time test was conducted on the CESA paste in accordance to BS 12:1991 n[1]. Results show that the addition of ESA to the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) decreases the setting time ...

  8. APEX accelerator cycle for transmutation of long-lived fission wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Botts, T.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on preliminary studies, some conclusions can be drawn concerning the Accelerator Fuel Enricher and Fission Product Exterminator (APEX). APEX-1 and APEX-2 systems can destroy TU's, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr at acceptable cost and efficiency. The principal difference between APEX-1 and APEX-2 is the in-reactor and in-circuit inventory of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Stable and low hazard wastes can be disposed of by burial. Accelerator breeders can effectively sustain a fission reactor economy indefinitely. Military waste can be blended into commercial fuel cycle for transmutation. Accelerator and target technologies appear practical and could be developed in a few years. More detailed studies are needed to better define the technical and economic features of the LAFER and APEX cycles, so that comparative assessments can be made between these cycles, as well as with other transmutation and waste disposal concepts

  9. Effects of breeder age, strain, and eggshell temperature on nutrient metabolism of broiler embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2017-06-01

    Breeder age and broiler strain influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen through yolk size and eggshell conductance, and the effects of these egg characteristics on nutrient metabolism might be influenced by eggshell temperature (EST). This study aims to determine effects of breeder age, strain, and EST on nutrient metabolism of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using four batches of in total 4,464 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500. EST of 37.8 (normal) or 38.9°C (high) was applied from incubation day 7 (E7) until hatching. Wet yolk weight was determined mainly by breeder age (P = 0.043). Energy content in yolk (P = 0.004) and albumen + yolk (P = 0.005) were higher in old flock eggs than in young flock eggs, but did not differ between broiler strains. Eggshell conductance was higher in Ross 308 eggs than in Cobb 500 eggs (P availability of oxygen could have contributed to these differences. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Eggshell thinning and residues in mallards on year after DDE exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, M.A.; Hudson, R.H.

    1974-01-01

    A group of 16 mallard hens (Anas platyrhynchos), that had been given feed containing 40 ppm ofp,p'-DDE for 96 days, laid eggs with shells averaging about 15%?20% thinner than those of ten control birds during and up to 42 days after treatment. In eight of the treated birds killed at that time, whole-body DDE residues averaged 33.1 ppm (wet weight). The other eight treated birds and ten controls were kept through the winter with no additional DDE exposure and penned separately five days for individual egg collection about three weeks after laying began in spring. At that time (nearly 11 months after DDE feeding had stopped), the treated birds laid eggs with shells averaging 7.4% thinner than control eggshells (significant at P<0.05) and their whole-body DDE residues averaged 9.6 ppm (wet weight). Variations in eggshell thickness and DDE residues were considerable among treated birds. However, regression analysis showed moderate negative correlations (r=?0.51 to ?0.62) between eggshell thickness and DDE residues in whole bodies and eggs, and strong positive correlations (r=0.73 and 0.91) between DDE residues in whole bodies and in eggs.

  11. Modified eggshell procedure via posterior approach for sclerosing thoracic disc herniation: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-Dong; Chen, Qian; Ning, Sheng-Hua; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-09-20

    Clinically, sclerosing thoracic disc herniation is a disease with high surgical risk and various complications. Eggshell procedure is a surgical method used by surgeons to treat sclerosing thoracic disc herniation. The aim of this study was to report a modified eggshell procedure to treat sclerosing thoracic disc herniation. Medical records of 25 patients with sclerosing thoracic disc herniation were collected between 2007/01 and 2010/08, including 14 males and 11 females, with an average age of 51.7 years old. Modified eggshell procedure was performed to treat the patients with sclerosing thoracic disc herniation. All patients were followed up. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score was used to evaluate the clinical outcomes. All operations were performed successfully with complication rate of 12 %. There were 2 cases of dural laceration and 1 subdural hematoma. All included patients were followed up for at least 5 years, with the median of 6 years. JOA score of preoperation was 5 (IQR = 1) while it was 8 (IQR = 2) at final follow-up, with significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test, Z = -4.891, P disc herniation in the clinical practice.

  12. Thermoluminescence properties of CaO powder obtained from chicken eggshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushana, K. R.; Lokesha, H. S.; Satyanarayana Reddy, S.; Prakash, D.; Veerabhadraswamy, M.; Bhagyalakshmi, H.; Jayaramaiah, J. R.

    2017-09-01

    Eggshell wastage has created serious problem in disposal of the food processing industry which has been triggered the thoughts of researchers to use wasted eggshells as good source of calcium. In the present work, calcium oxide (CaO) has been synthesized by combustion process in furnace (F-CaO) and microwave oven (M-CaO) using the source of chicken eggshells. The obtained F-CaO and M-CaO are characterized by XRD, SEM with EDX and thermoluminescence (TL) technique. XRD pattern of both the samples show cubic phase with crystallite size 45-52 nm. TL glow curves are recorded for various gamma radiation dose (300-4000 Gy). Two TL glows, a small peak at 424 K and stronger peak at 597 K are observed. TL response of M-CaO is 2.67 times higher than F-CaO sample. TL kinetic parameters are calculated by computerized curve deconvolution analysis (CCDA) and discussed.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite via mechanochemical method: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A. A.; Salimi, M. N.; Yusoff, A. H. M.

    2017-04-01

    The focus of bone graft properties has developed through generations, from the ability to withstand mechanical stress to the ability to integrate with the biological structure. In recent years, the use of hydroxyapatite (HA) as bone graft material in orthopedic and dental applications has been increasing. HA is a natural occuring mineral with excellent bioactivity but relatively poor mechanical properties. It constitutes 96% portion of enamel in teeth and 67% portion of bone. HA can be extracted from animal bones or fabricated from synthetic or biologic sources. In this study, eggshells were used as raw material to synthesize eggshell-derived HA (EHA) via mechanochemical method. The synthesis of EHA involved CaO, which was obtained from the calcination of eggshells, and reaction with dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrous (DCPD) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The effects of rotational speed and heat treatment temperature on EHA's characteristics were investigated. The characterization studies were carried out by using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HA powder was successfully synthesized with crystallite and particle sizes in the range of 8-47 nm and 250-550 nm respectively. It was observed from this study that the increase of milling rotational speed had increased the phase purity of EHA samples. Furthermore, the higher heating temperature of HA samples resulted in higher degree of crystallinity of HA and the appearance of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as secondary phase.

  14. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-10-13

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  15. On the Origin of Extended Resolution in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy with a Worn Tip Apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkin, Sergey Y; Stevenson, Keith J

    2018-04-05

    In this work we analyzed the effect of the atomic force microscopy probe tip apex shape on Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) potential sensitivity and spatial resolution. It was found that modification of the apex shape from spherical to planar upon thinning of the conductive coating leads to enhanced apex contribution to the total electrostatic force between the probe and the sample. The effect results in extended potential sensitivity and spatial resolution of KPFM. Experimental results were supported by calculations.

  16. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken eggshell matrix proteins during the primary events of eggshell mineralization and the active growth phase of calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken eggshell is a biomineral composed of 95% calcite calcium carbonate mineral and of 3.5% organic matrix proteins. The assembly of mineral and its structural organization is controlled by its organic matrix. In a recent study [1], we have used quantitative proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses to explore the distribution of 216 eggshell matrix proteins at four key stages of shell mineralization defined as: (1 widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC, (2 ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, (3 formation of larger calcite crystal units and (4 rapid growth of calcite as columnar structure with preferential crystal orientation. The current article detailed the quantitative analysis performed at the four stages of shell mineralization to determine the proteins which are the most abundant. Additionally, we reported the enriched GO terms and described the presence of 35 antimicrobial proteins equally distributed at all stages to keep the egg free of bacteria and of 81 proteins, the function of which could not be ascribed.

  17. Removal of Cr(III) from chrome tanning wastewater by adsorption using two natural carbonaceous materials: Eggshell and powdered marble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbas, Saliha; Mandi, Laila; Berrekhis, Fatima; Pons, Marie Noelle; Leclerc, Jean Pierre; Ouazzani, Naaila

    2016-01-15

    In the present paper, eggshell and powdered marble, two carbonaceous materials, were used to remove Cr(III) ions from a real chrome tanning wastewater. The effects of initial effluent pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied. The maximum uptake of chromium ions was obtained at pH 5.0 with the dose 20 g L(-1) and 12 g L(-1) for eggshell and powdered marble respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was reached after 14 h contact time for eggshell and only after 30 min for powdered marble. Under these conditions, almost 99% Cr(III) was removed from chrome tanning wastewater having an initial concentration of chromium of 3.21 g L(-1). Kinetic data were satisfactorily described by a pseudo-second order chemical sorption model. The equilibrium rate constant was notably greater for powdered marble than for eggshell with 1.142·10(-3) (g mg(-1) min(-1)) and 0.041·10(-3) (g mg(-1) min(-1)) respectively. The adsorption isotherm were well described by a Langmuir model and showed that the interaction of chromium with the two adsorbents surface is a localized monolayer adsorption with a smaller energy constant for the powdered marble than for eggshell (0.020 (L mg(-1)) and 0.083 (L mg(-1)) respectively). The powdered marble was able to adsorb faster a large amount of Cr (III) in comparison to eggshell. The use of a standardized lettuce seed bioassay allowed evaluating a better effectiveness of the Cr adsorption on the powdered marble, removing up to 40% of the treated effluent toxicity than by eggshell 25%. The powdered marble could be considered as an effective, low cost carbonaceous material to be used for chromium removal from tanning wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  19. UFO in the Arabidopsis inflorescence apex is required for floral-meristem identity and bract suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Shelley R; Klenz, Jennifer E; Haughn, George W

    2006-03-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene of Arabidopsis encodes an F-box protein required for the determination of floral-organ and floral-meristem identity. Mutation of UFO leads to dramatic changes in floral-organ type which are well-characterized whereas inflorescence defects are more subtle and less understood. These defects include an increase in the number of secondary inflorescences, nodes that alternate between forming flowers and secondary inflorescences, and nodes in which a single flower is subtended by a bract. Here, we show how inflorescence defects correlate with the abnormal development of floral primordia and establish a temporal requirement for UFO in this process. At the inflorescence apex of ufo mutants, newly formed primordia are initially bract-like. Expression of the floral-meristem identity genes LFY and AP1 are confined to a relatively small adaxial region of these primordia with expression of the bract-identity marker FIL observed in cells that comprise the balance of the primordia. Proliferation of cells in the adaxial region of these early primordia is delayed by several nodes such that primordia appear "chimeric" at several nodes, having visible floral and bract components. However, by late stage 2 of floral development, growth of the bract generally ceases and is overtaken by development of the floral primordium. This abnormal pattern of floral meristem development is not rescued by expression of UFO from the AP1 promoter, indicating that UFO is required prior to AP1 activation for normal development of floral primordia. We propose that UFO and LFY are jointly required in the inflorescence meristem to both promote floral meristem development and inhibit, in a non-cell autonomous manner, growth of the bract.

  20. A study on the relationship between iridium concentration in hen eggshell and iridium-enriched feed by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Gaochuang; Mao Xueying; Wang Jinchun; Lu Yali; Ouyang Hong; Zhang Zhaohui; Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    Four hens were fed by adding ammonium hexachloroiridate into their forage. After two weeks, Ir concentration in three fractions (eggshell, albumen, egg yolk) of their eggs were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Ir was present in all the three parts of the eggs. Further, the highest concentration of Ir was found in the egg yolk fraction, about 10 times higher than that in the eggshell and albumen. Moreover, the longer the Ir-containing feed was used, the higher the Ir concentration in the egg fractions was. After 4-6 day feeding, the Ir concentration became stable. The experimental results indicated that the Ir concentration was about 2-7 x 10 -10 g/g in the eggshell fraction compared to 5.6 x 10 -7 g/g in feed. Therefore, the ratio from the feed over the eggshell via gastrointestinal pathway was estimated to be about 0.08%. The new result is useful to evaluate the iridium-enriched eggshell fossils of dinosauria and to interpret the origin of the mass extinction of dinosauria at the end of Cretaceous. (author)

  1. KINETIC, ISOTHERM AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDY OF ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE-WASTEWATER SYSTEM USING MODIFIED EGGSHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Habeeb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The studies of adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetics of hydrogen sulfide-water systems on calcite-based adsorbents prepared from eggshell are undertaken. The effects of operating variables such as contact time and initial concentration on the adsorption capacity of hydrogen sulfide are investigated. The modified eggshells are characterized by using different analytical approaches such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. The batch mode adsorption process is performed at optimum removal conditions: dosage of 1 g/L, pH level of pH 6, agitation speed of 150 rpm and contact time of 14h for adsorbing hydrogen sulfide with an initial concentration of 100-500 mg/L. In the current study, the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin models are used to predict the adsorption isotherms. Our equilibrium data for hydrogen sulfide adsorption agrees well with those of the Langmuir equation. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity is 150.07 mg/g. Moreover, the kinetics of H2S adsorption by using the modified calcite of eggshell follows a pseudo-second-order model. From the current work, we have found that the calcite eggshell is a suitable adsorbent for H2S embeded inside the waste water. Most importantly, chicken eggshell is a waste and vastly available; hence, it could serve as a practical mean for H2S adsorption.

  2. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghalai, John S.; Raphael, Patrick D. [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Gao, Simon [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Hee Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Groves, Andrew K. [Department of Neuroscience, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, and Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Zuo, Jian [Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Applegate, Brian E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering.

  3. Relation of Gothic arch apex to dentist-assisted centric relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M; Dziejma, R; Goldberg, J; Ross, R; Sharry, J

    1980-07-01

    These data suggest that the widely held belief that thumb pressure can position the mandible consistently more posterior than the position indicated by the Gothic arch apex is unfounded. Furthermore, this study provides no evidence to support the contention that the dentist-assisted jaw relation is more reproducible than the relation indicated by the Gothic arch apex.

  4. Localization of the prostatic apex using CT for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaomei; Gao Xianshu; Guo Xuemei; Li Yagang; Wang Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with prostate cancer to investigate the relationship between the apex of prostate and the anatomic structures visible in CT, and to provide evidence for localizing the prostatic apex in radiation treatment planning. Methods: MRI and CT scans from 108 patients with prostate cancer were analyzed to measure the distance between the prostatic apex and the bottom of ischial tuberosities, the bottom of obturator foramen, the bottom of pubic symphysis and the bulb of the penis. The volume of prostate was calculated and the relationship between the size of the prostate and the localization of the prostatic apex was analyzed. Results: The prostatic apex is located 13.1 mm ± 3.3 mm superior to the bulb of the penis, 11.0 mm ± 5.4 mm superior to the bottom of obturator foramen, 31.3 mm ± 5.5 mm superior to the bottom of ischial tuberosities, and 7.1 mm ± 4.7 mm superior to the bottom of obturator foramen. There was no correlation between the size of prostate and the localization of the prostatic apex (R =0.07, -0.33, all P > 0.05). Conclusions: Ninety-five percent of patients had a prostatic apex that is above the bulb of the penis 6 mm, and 100% of patients had a prostatic apex that is above the bottom of obturator foramen. (authors)

  5. METRO-APEX Volume 14.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 4, Gestalt Malt Brewery. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 4 (Gestalt Malt Brewery) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion…

  6. Bacteria transport simulation using APEX model in the Toenepi watershed, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model is a distributed, continuous, daily-time step small watershed-scale hydrologic and water quality model. In this study, the newly developed fecal-derived bacteria fate and transport subroutine was applied and evalated using APEX model. The e...

  7. M.E.T.R.O.-Apex Gaming Simulation, Volume 28 (OS/360 Version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Environmental Simulation Lab.

    Operator's instructions and technical support materials needed for processing the M.E.T.R.O.-APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) game decisions on an IBM 360 computer are compiled in this volume. M.E.T.R.O.-APEX is a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities,…

  8. Coding Instructions, Worksheets, and Keypunch Sheets for M.E.T.R.O.-APEX Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Environmental Simulation Lab.

    Compiled in this resource are coding instructions, worksheets, and keypunch sheets for use in the M.E.T.R.O.-APEX simulation, described in detail in documents ED 064 530 through ED 064 550. Air Pollution Exercise (APEX) is a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial…

  9. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  11. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  12. Neonatal Apex Resection Triggers Cardiomyocyte Proliferation, Neovascularization and Functional Recovery Despite Local Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Pinto, Vasco; Rodrigues, Sílvia C; Laundos, Tiago L; Silva, Elsa D; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Silva, Ana C; Cerqueira, Rui J; Resende, Tatiana P; Pianca, Nicola; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; D'Uva, Gabriele; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua; Nascimento, Diana S

    2018-02-26

    So far, opposing outcomes have been reported following neonatal apex resection in mice, questioning the validity of this injury model to investigate regenerative mechanisms. We performed a systematic evaluation, up to 180 days after surgery, of the pathophysiological events activated upon apex resection. In response to cardiac injury, we observed increased cardiomyocyte proliferation in remote and apex regions, neovascularization, and local fibrosis. In adulthood, resected hearts remain consistently shorter and display permanent fibrotic tissue deposition in the center of the resection plane, indicating limited apex regrowth. However, thickening of the left ventricle wall, explained by an upsurge in cardiomyocyte proliferation during the initial response to injury, compensated cardiomyocyte loss and supported normal systolic function. Thus, apex resection triggers both regenerative and reparative mechanisms, endorsing this injury model for studies aimed at promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation and/or downplaying fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ex vivo accuracy of three electronic apex locators: Root ZX, Elements Diagnostic Unit and Apex Locator and ProPex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Brigante, L; Lesti, B; Somma, F

    2006-05-01

    To compare ex vivo the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs): Root ZX, Elements Diagnostic Unit and Apex Locator and ProPex. Electronic working length determination was carried out in 40 extracted teeth using an ex vivo model. After access preparation, a first operator determined the reference length (AL) for each tooth under a 30x stereomicroscope using the apical constriction as the apical landmark. All teeth were then measured with each EAL and the results obtained were compared with the corresponding AL. The AL was subtracted from the electronically determined distance. The measurements exceeding the AL were recorded as positive (long) and the measurements short of the AL were recorded as negative. Data were analyzed using the Friedman Test and Tukey multiple range test for nonparametric correlation amongst groups. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Comparing the differences between measurements obtained with the three EALs and those obtained with the stereomicroscope, the percentage of measurements within +/-0.5 mm of the AL was 97.37% (84.22% within 0.5 mm short of AL) for the Root ZX, 94.28% (88.57% within 0.5 mm short of AL) for the Elements and 100% (35.9% within 0.5 mm short of AL) for the ProPex. The mean difference between the AL and the lengths measured by the Root ZX, the Elements and the ProPex were, respectively, -0.157 +/- 0.228, -0.103 +/- 0.359 and 0.307 +/- 0.271 mm. The results of the present study confirm that the EALs determined the canal length within +/-0.5 mm from the apical constriction in the majority of cases. The majority of the ProPex readings were long.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Composite Waste Material Based Styrofoam, Baggase and Eggshell Powder for Application of Drone Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Mastariyanto; Prastiawan; Hadi, Syafrul

    2017-12-01

    The garbage issue becomes a very serious problem at the moment. Much research has been done to make waste into useful materials. One of the utilization of waste is as the basic material of composite material that can be applied in the field of engineering. Some of the wastes generated are styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell. Styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell can be applied to a composite material. Styrofoam serves as a composite binder material while the bagasse and eggshells serve as a reinforcement. Volume fraction between styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell are 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25%. The aims of research are determine the mechanical properties of composite material based waste materials from styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell. Mechanical properties tested in this study are bending strength and toughness of composite materials. The results showed bending strength of composite for each volume fraction of 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25% are 5.07 MPa, 8.45 MPa, 8.68 MPa, and 11.01 MPa, respectively. Toughness of composite materials for each volume fraction of 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25% are 0.33 J/mm2, 0.42 J/mm2, 0.75 J/mm2, and 0.75 J/mm2, respectively. Composite materials based on waste materials from styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell can be used as an alternative material for drone frames.

  15. Adsorption of iron by using hybrid Akar Putra and commercialized chicken eggshells as bio-sorbents from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Nasir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in the environment could cause harmful effects both to human health and aquatic life. Numerous remediation methods had been developed to encounter with the contamination problem prior to degrade, decrease and to purify the contaminated water at minimal concentration as low as possible. Therefore, in current study, commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells were conducted in batch experiment to testify the capabilities of bio-sorbent materials in iron (II ion removal from aqueous solution at optimized level of dosage and equilibrium contact time. The optimum condition for iron (II removal for commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells bio-sorbents reached at 0.30 g with optimum contact time of 50 minutes and 91.83% and 91.07% of removal percentage with 0.60 g at 40 minutes. The final concentration from both bio-sorbents is achieved below than drinking water guideline (0.30 mg/L, 0.1635 mg/L and 0.1785 mg/L, respectively. The isotherm adsorption results showed it fitted better in Langmuir Isotherm Model than in Freundlich Isotherm Model, however with weak bonding, which could not held onto the heavy metal ions in long time period. In brief, commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells have considerable potential in removing heavy metal in aqueous solution. The selection of the bio-sorbent materials is more favorable as it reduces dependency towards chemical usage in water treatment which could have complied with drinking water guideline that can be obtained easily, abundance in amount, cheap and biodegradable.

  16. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success.

  17. A case of radiation enteritis with perforated peritonitis caused by a piece of eggshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hirotaka; Maeda, Kazuya; Miyanaga, Tamonn; Doden, Kenji; Hattori, Masakazu; Hashizume, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The patient was a woman in her sixties who had received radiation therapy for cancer of uterine cervix 7 years earlier and had been suffering from diarrhea for these several years. The patient was seen at our emergency clinic because of a 5 hour-history of lower abdominal pain at the beginning of July 2010. An abdominal CT scan showed free air and ascites. A high density structure 1.5 cm in size was identified within the small intestine, but its relation with the perforation was obscure. Emergency operation was done with the most likely diagnosis of intestinal perforation and general peritonitis. When the lower abdomen was opened by midline incision, about 200 ml of cloudy ascites was observed and the ileum became white in color and hard resulting from the radiation therapy. A perforation was identified in the ileum about 15 cm distant from the ileocecal valve, and a 1.5-cm sized thin and hard material was palpated within the intestine at the same portion. Ilececal resection including the perforated portion was performed and functional end-to-end anastomosis was made at a grossly normal area. There was a piece of eggshell 1.5-cm in size in the perforated portion in the resected specimen. From this together with histopathologial findings, perforation of the small intestine caused by a piece of eggshell associated with radiation enteritis was finally diagnosed. Small bowel perforation must be kept in mind as a possible late complication of radiation therapy, however, no cases of small bowel perforation caused by eggshell have been reported so far. This rare case is reported here, with a review of the literature. (author)

  18. Ras1 interacts with multiple new signaling and cytoskeletal loci in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, J D; Holdcraft, R; Chevalier, B; Berg, C A

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the genes that interact with Ras signaling pathways to regulate morphogenesis. The synthesis of dorsal eggshell structures in Drosophila melanogaster requires multiple rounds of Ras signaling followed by dramatic epithelial sheet movements. We took advantage of this process to identify genes that link patterning and morphogenesis; we screened lethal mutations on the second chromosome for those that could enhance a weak Ras1 eggshell phenotype. Of 1618 lethal P-element mutations tested, 13 showed significant enhancement, resulting in forked and fused dorsal appendages. Our genetic and molecular analyses together with information from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project reveal that 11 of these lines carry mutations in previously characterized genes. Three mutations disrupt the known Ras1 cell signaling components Star, Egfr, and Blistered, while one mutation disrupts Sec61beta, implicated in ligand secretion. Seven lines represent cell signaling and cytoskeletal components that are new to the Ras1 pathway; these are Chickadee (Profilin), Tec29, Dreadlocks, POSH, Peanut, Smt3, and MESK2, a suppressor of dominant-negative Ksr. A twelfth insertion disrupts two genes, Nrk, a "neurospecific" receptor tyrosine kinase, and Tpp, which encodes a neuropeptidase. These results suggest that Ras1 signaling during oogenesis involves novel components that may be intimately associated with additional signaling processes and with the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. To determine whether these Ras1 Enhancers function upstream or downstream of the Egf receptor, four mutations were tested for their ability to suppress an activated Egfr construct (lambdatop) expressed in oogenesis exclusively in the follicle cells. Mutations in Star and l(2)43Bb had no significant effect upon the lambdatop eggshell defect whereas smt3 and dock alleles significantly suppressed the lambdatop phenotype.

  19. Carbonized eggshell membrane as a natural polysulfide reservoir for highly reversible Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Heng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-03-05

    Carbonized sucrose-coated eggshell membranes (CSEMs) consisting of natural micropores function well as a polysulfide reservoir in Li/dissolved polysulfide cells. The bottom CSEM current collector encapsulates the active material, while the upper CSEM inhibitor intercepts the migrating polysulfides. This design with CSEM allows the dissolved polysulfides to be localized and the electrochemical reactions within the cathode region to be stabilized, resulting in high discharge capacity, long-term cycle stability, and high sulfur loading. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Comparison of CE-MS and LC-MS Analyses of Avian Eggshell Matrix Proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Sedláková, Pavla; Mikulíková, Kateřina; Eckhardt, Adam; Kašička, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 67, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 89-96 ISSN 0009-5893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1044; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : eggshell proteins * CE-MS * HPLC-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.312, year: 2008

  1. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-09-15

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (G(H2O)) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell G(H2O) and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in G(H2O) has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between G(H2O) and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's λ) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the G(H2O) are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher G(H2O) to overcome this constraint and still

  2. The influence of chicken eggshell powder as a buffer on biohydrogen production from rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) with immobilized mixed culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2017-06-01

    This research observed the influence of chicken eggshell on hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) using batch method at 36 °C and pH 7. Fermentation material were varied in several types, the first type was meat and peel of oranges with VS of 59.152 g.L-1 in A, B, C, and D compositions. The second type was orange meat added with peel (OMP) with VS of 36.852 g.L-1. The immobilized ingredients used in the experiment consisted of 2 % (w/v) alginate and active carbon with the ratio of 1:1. 3.2 g chicken eggshell powder was added to the first type of material (substrates A, B, C, and D). Results showed that pH during fermentation process using chicken eggshell as a buffer was constant at 5.5; however, without the use of chicken eggshell, the pH decreased to 3.8 and increased slightly before it stayed stable at 4.0. The total amount of gas produced in sample using the chicken eggshell was 46,35 mL.mg VS-1 and in sample produced without the eggshell, it was 3,4 mL.mg VS-1. The production of hydrogen in substrate that used chicken eggshell was 1,276 mL.gVS-1 in average on the first day. Meanwhile, for the substrate with no addition of chicken eggshell, the average production of hydrogen was 0,163 mL.gVS-1. The reduction of volatile solid (VS) in sample that used chicken eggshell was 24 %, while in sample produced without addition of chicken eggshell, the reduction was 12 %. The liquid compounds (VFA) produced in the fermentation using chicken eggshell were acetic acid and butyric acid. Meanwhile, without addition of chicken eggshell, the products were acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid. This study shows that addition of chicken eggshell as a buffer effectively contributed to hydrogen production during fermentation of rotten oranges.

  3. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardona

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus, spearfish (Tetrapturus belone and swordfish (Xiphias gladius. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, blue shark (Prionace glauca, leerfish (Lichia amia, bonito (Sarda sarda, striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga, amberjack (Seriola dumerili, blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola, bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, mackerel (Scomber scombrus and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish, most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  4. Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

  5. Acute orbital apex syndrome and rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders UM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ursula M Anders,1 Elise J Taylor,1 Joseph R Martel,1–3 James B Martel1–3 1Research Center, Martel Eye Medical Group, Rancho Cordova, 2Graduate Medical Education, California Northstate University College of Medicine, Elk Grove, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Dignity Health, Carmichael, CA, USA Purpose: To demonstrate the successful clinical identification and management of rhino-orbital mucormycosis, a fungal infection with a high mortality rate. Patients and methods: A diabetic male patient with a headache and orbital apex syndrome in the right eye was examined using computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for a possible fungal infection. Endoscopic surgical resection was performed and a pathology sample was taken. Specimens were prepared with Gömöri methenamine silver and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B 400 mg daily, followed by posaconazole 400 mg twice daily. Results: CT and MRI revealed a mass of the right sphenoid spreading into the orbit, indicative of a fungal infection. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of mucormycosis. Complete recovery of eyelid and oculomotor function was achieved after 10 months of treatment, although the patient continues to suffer from irreversible blindness in the right eye due to optic nerve atrophy. He has been without signs or symptoms of recurrence. Conclusion: Patients with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis need extensive surgical and medical treatment to maximize outcomes. Success requires multidisciplinary management. Keywords: ophthalmoplegia, sixth nerve palsy, diabetes mellitus, nephrotoxicity, amphotericin B, posaconazole

  6. Assessment of tumors of the lung apex by imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, J.; Serrano, F.; Pain, M.I.; Rodriguez, F.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of MR in the preoperative staging of tumors of the lung apex and detection of local invasion of adjacent structures to determine its influence on the therapeutic approach. We obtained plain X-ray images in two planes, as well as CT and Mr images, in 12 patients with Pan coast tumor in whom there was surgical (n=8) or clinical (n=4) evidence of invasion. The objective was to assess local infiltration of brain stem and chest wall soft tissue, enveloping of the subclavian artery, substantial involvement of the brachial plexus and destruction of the vertebral body. In our series, MR was superior to the other imaging techniques in predicting the involvement of the structures surrounding the tumor. In conclusion, MR should be performed in a patient diagnosed by plain radiography as having an apical tumors to assess local tumor extension, while CT should be done to detect mediastinal lymph node involvement and distant metastases. 19 refs

  7. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens’ B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I=4.3 and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  8. Synthesis of mesh-shaped calcia partially stabilized zirconia using eggshell membrane template as filler composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Gempita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted experimentally to synthesize Calcia Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Ca-PSZ by sol-gel method using eggshell membrane template as a composite filler. The eggshell membrane was used to produce a mesh shaped structure, which hopefully can improve the mechanical properties of the composite. Ca-PSZ filler was synthesized from ZrOCl2 precursor and Ca(NO32 stabilizer with a 24 hours immersion time. Ca-PSZ of synthesis then mixed with the resin matrix to test its composite hardness. The EDS characterization results suggested that the sample contained elements of zirconia, calcium, and oxygen. Whereas, the XRD characterization identified that crystal structures that formed in the sample were nano scale tetragonal. Characterization of SEM showed Ca-PSZ with mesh structured. The average composite hardness value was 15.79 VHN. The composites with Ca-PSZ-synthesized filler could be prepared and its hardness value was higher than the composite with Ca-PSZ filler in spherical particles, but the hardness was still below the composite on the market.

  9. Comparing Aedes vigilax Eggshell Densities in Saltmarsh and Mangrove Systems with Implications for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Pat; Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan

    2014-12-12

    Aedes vigilax (Skuse), a nuisance and disease vector, is prolific in intertidal wetlands in Australia. Aedine mosquitoes oviposit directly onto substrate. The eggshells are relatively stable spatially and temporally, providing an estimate of mosquito larval production. The aims of the research were to compare, at a general level, oviposition in mangroves and saltmarshes, and to compare oviposition between different habitats within mangroves and saltmarshes. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between production in mangrove and saltmarsh overall. However, within each system there were significant differences between habitat classes, with mangrove hummocks being the most productive. All classes, except for fringing mangrove forests, produced sufficient densities of eggshells (>0.05/cc) to warrant concern. While mosquito production in mangroves is known, the significantly higher production rates in the mangrove hummock habitats had not been demonstrated. This warrants improved management strategies that both specifically target these parts of mangrove systems and, secondly, addresses the longer-term potential for mangrove hummock habitats developing in the future; such as, in response to sea level rise and mangrove encroachment into saltmarsh. A strategy to increase tidal flushing within the systems would improve water quality and mitigate adverse impacts while providing a source reduction outcome.

  10. Brownie, a gene involved in building complex respiratory devices in insect eggshells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Irles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect eggshells must combine protection for the yolk and embryo with provisions for respiration and for the entry of sperm, which are ensured by aeropyles and micropyles, respectively. Insects which oviposit the eggs in an egg-case have a double problem of respiration as gas exchange then involves two barriers. An example of this situation is found in the cockroach Blattella germanica, where the aeropyle and the micropyle are combined in a complex structure called the sponge-like body. The sponge-like body has been well described morphologically, but nothing is known about how it is built up. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a library designed to find genes expressed during late chorion formation in B. germanica, we isolated the novel sequence Bg30009 (now called Brownie, which was outstanding due to its high copy number. In the present work, we show that Brownie is expressed in the follicle cells localized in the anterior pole of the oocyte in late choriogenesis. RNA interference (RNAi of Brownie impaired correct formation of the sponge-like body and, as a result, the egg-case was also ill-formed and the eggs were not viable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results indicate that the novel gene Brownie plays a pivotal role in building up the sponge-like body. Brownie is the first reported gene involved in the construction of complex eggshell respiratory structures.

  11. A novel route for synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite from eggshell waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva Rama Krishna, D; Siddharthan, A; Seshadri, S K; Sampath Kumar, T S

    2007-09-01

    The eggshell waste has been value engineered to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) by microwave processing. To highlight the advantages of eggshell as calcium precursor in the synthesis of HA (OHA), synthetic calcium hydroxide was also used to form HA (SHA) following similar procedure and were compared with a commercially available pure HA (CHA). All the HAs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) method, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and specific surface area measurements. Nanocrystalline nature of OHA is revealed through characteristic broad peaks in XRD patterns, platelets of length 33-50 nm and width 8-14 nm in TEM micrograph and size calculations from specific surface area measurements. FT-IR spectra showed characteristic bands of HA and additionally peaks of carbonate ions. The cell parameter calculations suggest the formation of carbonated HA of B-type. The OHA exhibits superior sinterability in terms of hardness and density than both SHA and CHA may be due to larger surface area of its spherulite structure. The in vitro dissolution study shows longer stability in phosphate buffer and cell culture test using osteoblast cells establishes biocompatibility of OHA.

  12. Micro-Cracks Detection of Eggshells Based on a Magnetostrictive Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei LU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the problem that it is difficult to pick out eggs with small cracks, a novel vibrating type of eggshell cracks detection system using a magnetostrictive transducer was developed firstly. Then the acoustic signals was recorded while the transducer vibrating with the swept frequency from 1 to 14000 Hz. Thirdly, the wavelet and Burg power spectrum were used for data pretreatment and feature extraction respectively. By comparing the spectrums of intact eggs and hairline cracked eggs, the characteristic frequency of 4500~8000 Hz was found. Moreover, five feature parameters were defined for further analysis. In addition, the Support Vector Machine (SVM based classifier was applied to build the model for identifying the cracked eggs from intact eggs. The experimental results show that the useful information of the acoustic signals was enhanced significantly and the identification accuracy reaches to 100 % and 98 % for training set and testing set respectively. This paper proposes a novel method for discriminating eggshell cracks using a magnetostrictive transducer in conjunction with the signal power spectrum analysis and LIBSVM methods which results show its feasibility.

  13. Antibacterial activity of fusion from biosynthesized acidocin/silver nanoparticles and its application for eggshell decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeer Mohammed, A B; Al-Saman, Mahmoud A; Tayel, Ahmed A

    2017-09-01

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are useful to control the persistent development of pathogenic microorganisms in food and medicine fields. The bacteriocin acidocin was extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus M1 that was isolated from fermented milk, purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation, and gel filtration column chromatography using Sephadex matrix and applied as a potential antibacterial agent. The molecular weight of the purified acidocin was estimated using SDS-PAGE to be 6.6 kDa. The acidocin was compared with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), biosynthesized by Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 16404, against two bacterial strains Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Both acidocin and SNPs showed significance antibacterial effects using disc and well diffusion methods; the maximum antibacterial activity was proved against B. cereus from acidocin/SNPs composite using a ratio of 1/1 from each agent. The application of acidocin/SNPs composite as immersion solution, for disinfecting chicken eggshells, resulted in remarkable reduction in microbial load on the shells of 5.53 log 10 CFU/eggshell. Results could provide an eco-friendly approach for potential antimicrobial composites to be used in food preservation and other health protection researches. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Identification of uterine ion transporters for mineralisation precursors of the avian eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonchère Vincent

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gallus gallus, eggshell formation takes place daily in the hen uterus and requires large amounts of the ionic precursors for calcium carbonate (CaCO3. Both elements (Ca2+, HCO3- are supplied by the blood via trans-epithelial transport. Our aims were to identify genes coding for ion transporters that are upregulated in the uterine portion of the oviduct during eggshell calcification, compared to other tissues and other physiological states, and incorporate these proteins into a general model for mineral transfer across the tubular gland cells during eggshell formation. Results A total of 37 candidate ion transport genes were selected from our database of overexpressed uterine genes associated with eggshell calcification, and by analogy with mammalian transporters. Their uterine expression was compared by qRTPCR in the presence and absence of eggshell formation, and with relative expression levels in magnum (low Ca2+/HCO3- movement and duodenum (high rates of Ca2+/HCO3- trans-epithelial transfer. We identified overexpression of eleven genes related to calcium movement: the TRPV6 Ca2+ channel (basolateral uptake of Ca2+, 28 kDa calbindin (intracellular Ca2+ buffering, the endoplasmic reticulum type 2 and 3 Ca2+ pumps (ER uptake, and the inositol trisphosphate receptors type 1, 2 and 3 (ER release. Ca2+ movement across the apical membrane likely involves membrane Ca2+ pumps and Ca2+/Na+ exchangers. Our data suggests that Na+ transport involved the SCNN1 channel and the Na+/Ca2+ exchangers SLC8A1, 3 for cell uptake, the Na+/K+ ATPase for cell output. K+ uptake resulted from the Na+/K+ ATPase, and its output from the K+ channels (KCNJ2, 15, 16 and KCNMA1. We propose that the HCO3- is mainly produced from CO2 by the carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2 and that HCO3- is secreted through the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger SLC26A9. HCO3- synthesis and precipitation with Ca2+ produce two H+. Protons are absorbed via the membrane’s Ca2+ pumps ATP2B1

  15. Electronic apex locator: A comprehensive literature review — Part II: Effect of different clinical and technical conditions on electronic apex locator′s accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the effects of different clinical and technical conditions on the accuracy of electronic apex locators (EALs. Materials and Methods: "Tooth apex," "dental instrument," "odontometry," "electronic medical," and "electronic apex locator" were searched as primary identifiers via Medline/PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus data base up to 30 July 2013. Original articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. Results: Out of 402 relevant studies, 183 were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In this part, 75 studies are presented. Pulp vitality conditions and root resorption, types of files and irrigating materials do not affect an EAL′s accuracy; however, the file size and foramen diameter can affect its accuracy. Conclusions: Various clinical conditions such as the file size and foramen diameter may affect EALs′ accuracy. However, more randomized clinical trials are needed for definitive conclusion.

  16. Mineral, amino acid, and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Pakan, [No Value; Hofstede, GJH; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Veer, E; De Vries, PJF

    2000-01-01

    Chicken eggshell powder (ESP) might be an attractive source of Ca for human nutrition. To study its nutritional value, we analyzed minerals, amino acids, and hormones in commercially available Slovakian ESP. The mineral composition was compared with three Dutch ESP samples that differed in feed and

  17. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  18. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  19. Effects of breeder age, broiler strain, and eggshell temperature on development and physiological status of embryos and hatchlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker-Hensen, van den Ilona; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Souza Morita, De V.; Kemp, B.; Brand, Van Den H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeder age and broiler strain can influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen, particularly through differences in yolk size and shell conductance. We hypothesized that these egg characteristics might affect embryonic responses to changes in eggshell temperature (EST). This study aimed to

  20. Effect of eggshell temperature and a hole in the air cell on the perinatal development and physiology of layer hatchlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Vries, de S.; Anker, van den I.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of incubation conditions on layer hatchlings, an experiment was performed in which layer eggs were incubated at a normal (37.8°C) or high (38.9°C) eggshell temperature (EST) and a hole was punctured in the air cell of half of the eggs in both EST treatments from d 14 of

  1. Mercury concentrations in eggshells of the Southern Ground-Hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) and Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Jansen, Raymond; Brandao, José D D O; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2015-04-01

    In this study, wild hatched eggshells were collected from the nests of threatened Wattled Crane and South Ground-Hornbill in an attempt to determine their total Hg concentrations. A total of fourteen eggshell samples from both bird species were collected from different study areas in the Mpumlanga and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces of South Africa. The eggshells were acid digested under reflux and their total Hg concentrations were determined using cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). The observed total Hg levels for the South Ground-Hornbill samples ranged from 1.31 to 8.88 µg g(-1) dry weight (dw), except for one outlier which had an elevated 75.0 µg g(-1) dw. The levels obtained for the Wattled Crane samples were relatively high and these ranged from 14.84 to 36.37 µg g(-1) dw. Generally, all the measured total Hg concentrations for the Wattled Crane samples exceeded the estimated total Hg levels derived for eggshell which were known to cause adverse reproductive effects in avian species from previous studies. Based on these findings, it is, therefore, possible that the exposure of these birds to elevated Hg may have contributed to their present population decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of

  3. Selective label-free electrochemical impedance measurement of glycated haemoglobin on 3-aminophenylboronic acid-modified eggshell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Heiskanen, Arto; Chailapakul, Orawan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel alternative approach to long-term glycaemic monitoring using eggshell membranes (ESMs) as a new immobilising platform for the selective label-free electrochemical sensing of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a vital clinical index of the glycaemic status in diabetic individuals. Due...

  4. First light for avian embryos: eggshell thickness and pigmentation mediate variation in development and UV exposure in wild bird eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maurer, G.; Portugal, S. J.; Hauber, M. E.; Mikšík, Ivan; Russell, D. G. D.; Cassey, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 209-218 ISSN 0269-8463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding birds * eggshell colour * light transmission * nesting behaviour * pigments * ultraviolet light Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.210, year: 2015

  5. Preparation of MoO3/Al2O3 Catalysts with Sharp Eggshell Mo Distribution by Slurry Impregnation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 78, 1-4 (2002), s. 313-318 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/01/0544 Keywords : MoO3/Al2O3 catalyst * eggshell Mo catalyst * slurry impregnation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2002

  6. Application of Eggshell as a Natural Sorbent for the Removal of Reactive Red 123 Dye from Synthetic Textile Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderinasab Fatemeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dye is one of the most important pollutants in textile industrial wastewater. The scope of this study was to evaluate the feasibility application of eggshell as a sorbent for the removal of reactive red 123 dyes from synthetic wastewater. Materials and Methods: This study is an applied- experimental research which was performed in laboratory scale and in environmental chemistry laboratory of Baqiyatallah (a.s university of medical sciences. Eggshell as a sorbent was prepared in laboratory condition (20-25°C and pulverized by standard ASTM sieves. The effective size (D10 and D60 were 3 and 5.1mm, respectively and uniformity coefficient (UC was 1.7. The concentrations of dye in wastewater were 25 and 50 mg/l. Results: In this study increasing of adsorbent dose from 1 to 5 g/100ml led to increase of the adsorption efficiency from 48 to 80.7 %. The maximum adsorption took place in first 60min of reaction. With increasing the temperature up to 45°C the pollutant adsorption was increased and increasing of pH from 5 to 8 led to increase of process efficiency from 30 to 48%. Also absorption characteristics of this pollutant on eggshell accommodated with Langmuir isotherm. Conclusion: Eggshell can be used as a natural adsorbent in water and wastewater treatment. This adsorbent is an appropriate media for the treatment of textile wastewater that usually have alkaline condition and high temperature.

  7. Eggshell Appearance Does Not Signal Maternal Corticosterone Exposure in Japanese Quail: An Experimental Study with Brown-Spotted Eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Cassey, P.; Lovell, P.G.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S.J.; Spencer, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 12 (2013), e80485 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : oxidative stress * eggshell * pigments Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  8. Apex determination and detection of stellar clumps in the open cluster M 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, S. V.; Chupina, N. V.; Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Kumar, Brijesh

    2014-08-01

    We determined the cluster’s apex coordinates, studied the substructures and performed membership analysis in the central part (34‧×33‧) of the open cluster M 67. We used the individual stellar apexes method developed earlier and classical technique of proper motion diagrams in coordinate system connected with apex. The neighbour-to-neighbour distance technique was applied to detect space details. The membership list was corrected and some stars were excluded from the most probable members list. The apex coordinates have been determined as: A0=132.97° ± 0.81° and D0=11.85° ± 0.90°. The 2D-space star density field was analysed and high degree of inhomogeneity was found.

  9. Malignant Transformation of High-Grade Osteoblastoma of the Petrous Apex with Subcutaneous Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Casey T.; Morrison, Robert J.; Arts, H. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present the clinical presentation, management, and pathological findings of a patient with osteosarcoma of the petrous apex with atypical metastasis to the lower abdominal wall. Methods Retrospective review of the records of a case of osteosarcoma of the petrous apex. Results A 49-year old man with facial pain is diagnosed with a right petrous apex lesion with biopsy demonstrating high-grade osteoblastoma. Multiple attempts at en bloc resection were not curative, therefore radiation and chemotherapy was recommended after two surgical attempts. The patient subsequently developed a cutaneous, lower abdominal wall mass which demonstrated osteosarcoma. Petrous apex tumor growth progressed despite treatment until the patient expired from burden of disease. Conclusions Temporal bone osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma are both extremely rare, and can be difficult to differentiate histologically. The present case illustrates these difficulties and demonstrates the possibility of malignant conversion from high-grade osteobastoma to osteosarcoma. PMID:27304442

  10. Apex predator and the cyclic competition in a rock-paper-scissors game of three species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Filho, C. A.; Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.

    2017-06-01

    This work deals with the effects of an apex predator on the cyclic competition among three distinct species that follow the rules of the rock-paper-scissors game. The investigation develops standard stochastic simulations but is motivated by a procedure which is explained in the work. We add the apex predator as the fourth species in a system that contains three species that evolve following the standard rules of migration, reproduction, and predation, and study how the system evolves in this new environment, in comparison with the case in the absence of the apex predator. The results show that the apex predator engenders the tendency to spread uniformly in the lattice, contributing to destroy the spiral patterns, keeping biodiversity but diminishing the average size of the clusters of the species that compete cyclically.

  11. Frequency of the external resorptions of root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opačić-Galić Vanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorptions present a significant problem in endodontic therapy of the affected teeth and in dentistry in general. The objective of this study was to analyze, based on epidemiological and statistical research, the frequency of clinical incidence of pathological root resorptions in everyday practice related to localization, type of tooth, age and sex of patients. Radiographie documentation of patients treated from 1997 till 2002 at the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Stomatology in Belgrade, was used as baseline for this study. Retroalveolar radiographs of teeth with visible signs of resorptions were singled out from 15654 patients' clinical records used for this study. The external resorptions were shown as radiolucent areas localized on various outer root surfaces, followed by significant or less significant resorption of lamina dura and alveolar bone. Out of all teeth analyzed in this study, 594 (3.79% showed some kind of resorption. The external resorptions were found to be more present in the upper jaw (55.10% and molars (50.30% than in the lower jaw (44.90% and single root teeth (49.70%, but in both cases without significant statistical differences. The most frequent localization of resorptions was root apex (82.44%. In regard to age, the most frequent resorptions were recorded in patients aged between 21 and 30 years (28.40%, and the lowest incidence was found in the youngest population (5.51%. The results also showed that resorptions were more frequent among the female population (59.04% than among the male population (40.96%. Based on these results, we may conclude that the external root resorptions are not a frequent clinical phenomenon. Proper and early diagnostics of such tissue pathology is one of the basic prerequisites for successful endodontic therapy of the affected root.

  12. Synergistic effect of X-ray irradiation and sodium hypochlorite against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilms on quail eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soo-Jin; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the synergistic bactericidal effects of combined X-ray irradiation (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kGy) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm) treatment on the reduction of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 biofilms on quail eggshells. Additionally, the color change of the quail eggshells was measured by hunter color "L" (lightness), "a" (red/green), "b" (yellow/blue), and "ΔE" (total color difference). Additionally, the puncture force was tested to evaluate eggshell thickness after the combined treatments. The highest biofilm reduction values were observed as 4.6 log CFU/egg after X-ray (2.0 kGy) and NaOCl (300 ppm) treatment. Moreover, the synergistic reduction in values after combined treatment was evaluated, and the highest biofilm reduction value was 4.3 log CFU/egg by 2.0 kGy X-ray/50 ppm NaOCl (1.47 log higher than the sum of reduction values of the individual treatments). The color of the quail eggshell and puncture force were not significantly changed by combined treatments (p > 0.05 at both cases). Consequently, 2.0 kGy X-ray/50 ppm NaOCl was considered optimal for combination treatment for eliminating S. enterica ser. Typhimurium biofilms on eggshell without any color or thickness changes. Furthermore, combination treatment could be useful for improving microbiological safety in the quail egg industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: orlog@poczta.onet.pl [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań (Poland); Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew [Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Wuczyński, Andrzej [Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lower-Silesian Field Station, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wrocław (Poland); Polechoński, Ryszard [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Mazgajski, Tomasz D. [Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically.

  14. Interference of apex locator, pulp tester and diathermy on pacemaker function

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Sriman; V Prabhakar; J S Bhuvaneswaran; N Subha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three electronic apex locators (EAL), electric pulp tester (EPT) and diathermy on pacemaker function in vitro. Materials and Methods: Three EALs: Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, CA, U.S.A.), Propex (Dentsply), Mini Apex locator (SybronEndo, Anaheim, CA, USA), EPT (Parkell pulp vitality tester Farmingdale, NY, USA) and Diathermy (Neomed 250 B) were tested for any interference with one pacemaker (A medtronic kappa KVDD901-serial ...

  15. FLUID FRACTALS: LEADERSHIP AT THE APEX OF LOCAL AUTHORITY IN ENGLAND

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPATHI, SMITA

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This thesis aims to explore the complex phenomenon of leadership at the apex of democratically elected local authority in England. It makes sense of the social construction of leadership as perceived and enacted by senior appointed officers (hereinafter officers), elected members (hereinafter members) and key stakeholders – the voices from the apex and their understandings and interpretations. Design/methodology/approach: The thesis examines leadership literature through the parad...

  16. Compositional Analysis of Martian Soil: Synergism of APEX and MECA Experiments on MPS 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    The APEX (ATHENA Precursor Experiment) payload for the Mars 2001 mission will analyze soil and dust with a multispectral panoramic imager and an emission spectrometer on a mast on the lander, a Moessbauer spectrometer on the lander robotic arm (RA), and APXS measurements on the Marie Curie rover. These analytical methods will provide data on elemental abundances and mineralogy. The MECA payload on the lander will apply microscopy, AFM, wet chemistry, adhesive substrates, and electrometry to determine the shape and size of particles in the soil and dust, the presence of toxic substances, and electrostatic, magnetic, and hardness qualities of particles. The two experiments will complement one another through several interactions: (1) The panoramic imager provides the geological setting in which both APEX and MECA samples are acquired, (2) The RA provides samples to MECA from the surface and subsurface and will permit APEX analytical tools access to materials below the immediate surface, (3) Comparisons can be made between elemental analyses of the Moessbauer, IR, APXS on APEX and the wet chemistry of MECA which will define trace elements (ionic species in solution) and soil redox potential and conductivity. (4) APEX bulk compositional measurements will place MECA trace measurements in context, and similarly, MECA microscopy will provide particle size data that may correlate with compositional differences determined by the APEX instruments. Additionally, lithic fragments viewed by the MECA microscope station should correlate with mineral/rock species inferred by APEX data, (5) If APEX instruments detect quartz for example, the scratch plates of the MECA microscope stage will define if a mineral of this hardness is registered during abrasion tests. This is by no means an exhaustive list of potential interactions, but it is clear that both the sheer number of analytical techniques and their complementarity should provide an analytically powerful capability for both

  17. A case of orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Kusunoki; Kaori Kase; Katsuhisa Ikeda

    2011-01-01

    Orbital apex syndrome is commonly been thought to have a poor prognosis. Many cases of this syndrome have been reported to be caused by paranasal sinus mycosis. We encountered a very rare case (60-year-old woman) of sinusitis with orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. She had received insulin and dialysis for diabtes and diabetic nephropathy, moreover anticoagulants after heart by-pass surgery. She underwent endoscopic sinus operation and was treated with antibiotics,...

  18. Differential TOR activation and cell proliferation in Arabidopsis root and shoot apexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Cai, Wenguo; Liu, Yanlin; Li, Hui; Fu, Liwen; Liu, Zengyu; Xu, Lin; Liu, Hongtao; Xu, Tongda; Xiong, Yan

    2017-03-07

    The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals. Glucose energy signaling is sufficient to activate target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in root apexes. In contrast, both the glucose and light signals are required for TOR activation in shoot apexes. Strikingly, exogenously applied auxin is able to replace light to activate TOR in shoot apexes and promote true leaf development. A relatively low concentration of auxin in the shoot and high concentration of auxin in the root might be responsible for this distinctive light requirement in root and shoot apexes, because light is required to promote auxin biosynthesis in the shoot. Furthermore, we reveal that the small GTPase Rho-related protein 2 (ROP2) transduces light-auxin signal to activate TOR by direct interaction, which, in turn, promotes transcription factors E2Fa,b for activating cell cycle genes in shoot apexes. Consistently, constitutively activated ROP2 plants stimulate TOR in the shoot apex and cause true leaf development even without light. Together, our findings establish a pivotal hub role of TOR signaling in integrating different environmental signals to regulate distinct developmental transition and growth in the shoot and root.

  19. Accuracy of three electronic apex locators in the presence of different irrigating solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Ana Laura Pion; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Moura, Abilio Albuquerque Maranhão de; Marques, Márcia Martins; Davidowicz, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs) - Elements Diagnostic®, Root ZX® and Apex DSP® - in the presence of different irrigating solutions (0.9% saline solution and 1% sodium hypochlorite). The electronic measurements were carried out by three examiners, using twenty extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors. A size 10 K file was introduced into the root canals until reaching the 0.0 mark, and was subsequently retracted to the 1.0 mark. The ...

  20. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  1. Evolution mediates the effects of apex predation on aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C

    2013-07-22

    Ecological and evolutionary mechanisms are increasingly thought to shape local community dynamics. Here, I evaluate if the local adaptation of a meso-predator to an apex predator alters local food webs. The marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) is an apex predator that consumes both the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and shared zooplankton prey. Common garden experiments reveal that spotted salamander populations which co-occur with marbled salamanders forage more intensely than those that face other predator species. These foraging differences, in turn, alter the diversity, abundance and composition of zooplankton communities in common garden experiments and natural ponds. Locally adapted spotted salamanders exacerbate prey biomass declines associated with apex predation, but dampen the top-down effects of apex predation on prey diversity. Countergradient selection on foraging explains why locally adapted spotted salamanders exacerbate prey biomass declines. The two salamander species prefer different prey species, which explains why adapted spotted salamanders buffer changes in prey composition owing to apex predation. Results suggest that local adaptation can strongly mediate effects from apex predation on local food webs. Community ecologists might often need to consider the evolutionary history of populations to understand local diversity patterns, food web dynamics, resource gradients and their responses to disturbance.

  2. Structural evaluation and animal implantation of porous eggshell wastederived hydroxyapatite graft as bone substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudha Mathan Sakti Rahadyan Magetsari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of hydroxyapatite graft with high economically value is needed for orthopedic practice in developing countries. Eggsell waste is well known as natural substance for calcium resource. It has been used as raw material in producing hydroxyapatite. This study was conducted to synthesize porous hydroxyapatite from eggshell waste and evaluate its activity as bone substitution. The porous hydroxyapatite graft was manufactured from eggshell and sugar as a raw material using hydrothermal process. The porous eggshell waste-derived hydroxyapatite (EW-HAP graft was characterized using X ray difractometer (XRD and analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM and compared with commercial hydroxyapatite (HAP JCPDS 09-432 graft (Bangros® as standard. The porous EW-HAP graft obtained was then implanted on critically sized femoral defects surgically created in the right thigh of male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus with Bangros® as control. Radiological examination using XRD and histological examination using hematoxyline-and-eosin staining of the bone femour were performed at 28 days after implantation. The results showed that the XRD pattern for EW-HAP was likely similar with the HAP standard. However, the SEM examination showed that the pasticle size of EW-HAP graft (2.5-3 μm was higher than those HAP standard graft (1.5-2 μm. Radiographs according to the International of Limb Salvage (ISOLS radiological evaluation system between EW-HAP graft (6.1 ± 1.45 and HAP control graft (6.9 ± 2.10 was not significantly different (p>0.05. Moreover, histological examination according to Lane and Shandu scoring system between the both graft (4.0 ± 0.94 versus 4.4 ± 0.92 was also not significantly different (p>0.05. It can be concluded that the structure EW-HAP graft is similar with HAP graft standard. The both grafts have also equal outcome as bone substitution.

  3. Determination of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), a component of Nicarbazin, in Canada goose (Branta canadensis) eggshells using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Randal S; VerCauteren, Kurt; Buettgenbach, Teresa L; Johnston, John J

    2003-02-26

    A method was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography to assay 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the active ingredient in Nicarbazin, in eggshells collected from Canada geese fed a formulated feed fortified with Nicarbazin at doses of 0, 125, 250, and 500 microg/g. The method was developed using chicken eggshells fortified with DNC. The method was used to quantify DNC in both the shell-associated membranes and the calcified shell extracellular matrix. These values were compared to those obtained for a composite sample consisting of both the membranes and the calcified shell extracellular matrix. The validated method was used to quantify DNC in eggshells from geese fed fortified feed to ascertain the effect of Nicarbazin feed concentration on shell DNC concentration. DNC levels in the eggshells were highly correlated with feed dose.

  4. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  5. The APEX Quantitative Proteomics Tool: Generating protein quantitation estimates from LC-MS/MS proteomics results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Alexander I

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry (MS based label-free protein quantitation has mainly focused on analysis of ion peak heights and peptide spectral counts. Most analyses of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS data begin with an enzymatic digestion of a complex protein mixture to generate smaller peptides that can be separated and identified by an MS/MS instrument. Peptide spectral counting techniques attempt to quantify protein abundance by counting the number of detected tryptic peptides and their corresponding MS spectra. However, spectral counting is confounded by the fact that peptide physicochemical properties severely affect MS detection resulting in each peptide having a different detection probability. Lu et al. (2007 described a modified spectral counting technique, Absolute Protein Expression (APEX, which improves on basic spectral counting methods by including a correction factor for each protein (called Oi value that accounts for variable peptide detection by MS techniques. The technique uses machine learning classification to derive peptide detection probabilities that are used to predict the number of tryptic peptides expected to be detected for one molecule of a particular protein (Oi. This predicted spectral count is compared to the protein's observed MS total spectral count during APEX computation of protein abundances. Results The APEX Quantitative Proteomics Tool, introduced here, is a free open source Java application that supports the APEX protein quantitation technique. The APEX tool uses data from standard tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments and provides computational support for APEX protein abundance quantitation through a set of graphical user interfaces that partition thparameter controls for the various processing tasks. The tool also provides a Z-score analysis for identification of significant differential protein expression, a utility to assess APEX classifier performance via cross validation, and a

  6. The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Møller, A P

    2012-09-01

    Potentially, pathogenic bacteria are one of the main infective agents against which a battery of chemical and physical barriers has evolved in animals. Among these are the secretions by the exocrine uropygial gland in birds. The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells. However, uropygial gland secretions also favour the proliferation of feather mites that feed on secretions and microorganisms living on feathers that would otherwise reach eggshells during incubation if not consumed by feather mites. Therefore, at the interspecific level, uropygial gland size (as an index of volume of uropygial secretion) should be positively related to eggshell bacterial load (i.e. the risk of egg infection), whereas eggshell bacterial loads may be negatively related to abundance of feather mites eating bacteria. Here, we explore these previously untested predictions in a comparative framework using information on eggshell bacterial loads, uropygial gland size, diversity and abundance of feather mites and hatching success of 22 species of birds. The size of the uropygial gland was positively related to eggshell bacterial loads (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae), and bird species with higher diversity and abundance of feather mites harboured lower bacterial density on their eggshells (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus), in accordance with the hypothesis. Importantly, eggshell bacterial loads of mesophilic bacteria, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were negatively associated with hatching success, allowing us to interpret these interspecific relationships in a functional scenario, where both uropygial glands and mutualistic feather mites independently reduce the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria on avian fitness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Organic biowastes blend selection for composting industrial eggshell by-product: experimental and statistical mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Andrade, Sandra R; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is one of the technologies recommended for pre-treating industrial eggshells (ES) before its application in soils, for calcium recycling. However, due to the high inorganic content of ES, a mixture of biodegradable materials is required to assure a successful procedure. In this study, an adequate organic blend composition containing potato peel (PP), grass clippings (GC) and wheat straw (WS) was determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve a desired moisture content, carbon: nitrogen ratio and free air space for effective composting of ES. A blend of 56% PP, 37% GC and 7% WS was selected and tested in a self heating reactor, where 10% (w/w) of ES was incorporated. After 29 days of reactor operation, a dry matter reduction of 46% was achieved and thermophilic temperatures were maintained during 15 days, indicating that the blend selected by statistical approach was adequate for composting of ES.

  8. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da; Campos, J.B. de

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  9. Eggshell thickness and reproduction in American kestrels exposed to chronic dietary lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were randomly paired and fed 0, 10, or 50 ppm metallic lead in their diet from November 1979-May 1980. Lead levels were elevated in bones and livers of birds receiving the treated diets, particularly the 50 ppm treatment group. Differential deposition of lead was noted between males and females, with the highest levels in the females. No adverse effects were evident with respect to survival, egg laying, or initiation of incubation in any treatment group nor was fertility or eggshell thickness affected. Little or no lead was transferred to the egg contents and although lead was present in the shell, the levels were too variable for this to be considered a useful measure of exposure.

  10. Trace element composition and distribution in micron area of dinosaur eggshell fossils determined by proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youhong; Zhu Jieqing; Wang Xiaohong; Wang Yimin

    1997-01-01

    The scanning proton microprobe and micro-PIXE quantitative analysis technique have been used to determine composition and distribution of the trace elements in micron areas of dinosaur eggshell fossils from the stratum of Upper Cretaceous system at Nanxiong Basin in Guangdong Province, China. The study shows that the trace elements mainly include Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Sb, Ba and Pb in the micron area, but they present different distributions. While the elements Sr is mainly enriched in the near surface layer, others mainly reside in the near inner layer. A preliminary discussion on the reason of the dinosaur extinction is given based on the above study

  11. Trace element composition and distribution in micron area of dinosaur eggshell fossils determined by proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youhong; Zhu Jieqing; Wang Xiaohong; Wang Yimin

    1997-01-01

    The scanning proton microprobe and micro-PIXE quantitative analysis technique have been used to determine composition and distribution of the trace elements in micron areas of dinosaur eggshell fossils from the stratum of Upper Cretaceous system at Nanxiong Basin in Guangdong Province, China. The study shows that the trace elements mainly include Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Sb, Ba and Pb in the micron area, but they present different distributions. While the element Sr is mainly enriched in the near surface layer, others mainly reside in the near inner layer. A preliminary discussion on the reason of the dinosaur extinction is given based on the above study

  12. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of curcumin analogs promoted by activated chicken eggshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana, L.; Ardiansah, B.; Septiarti, A.; Bakri, R.; Kosamagi, G.

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin has been widely known as a multifunctional natural product which has many biological activities. However, the biggest limitation for the large scale application of curcumin is its poor bioavailability. This research presented a cheap, mild and efficient solvent-free synthesis of monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin via Aldol condensation using activated chicken eggshells (ACE). Dibenzalpropanone as a product of Aldol condensation was prepared by mixing benzaldehyde and acetone using a simple glass tube in the presence of ACE under ultrasound irradiation (78 % yield), while dibenzalcyclohexanone was produced from the reaction of benzaldehyde with cyclohenxanone (81 %). The products have been characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and GC-MS instruments. The FTIR spectra show a significant absorption of carbonyl group that attached to the double bond in α,β-position at 1630-1660 cm-1. The molecular cation of m/z of 234 and 274 is in agreement with the products structures.

  13. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, J.B. de, E-mail: josericardo@r-crio.com, E-mail: louro@ime.eb.br, E-mail: andrea@r-crio.com, E-mail: brantjose@gmail.com, E-mail: marceloprado@ime.eb.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  14. Bioactivity studies of calcium magnesium silicate prepared from eggshell waste by sol–gel combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the synthesis of calcium magnesium silicate (akermanite, Ca2MgSi2O7 using eggshell biowaste (as calcium source, magnesium nitrate and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as starting materials. Sol–gel combustion method was adopted to obtain calcium magnesium silicate. Citric acid was used as a fuel (reducing agent and nitrate ions present in the metal nitrates acts as an oxidizing agent during combustion process. The characterization of synthesized calcium magnesium silicate was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Calcium magnesium silicate crystallite size was observed in nano regime which can effectively mimic natural bone apatite composition. In-vitro bioactivity was investigated by immersing calcium magnesium silicate pellet in simulated body fluid (SBF for three weeks. Results show effective deposition of crystallized hydroxyapatite (HAP layer on its surface and predicting its possibilities for applications in hard tissue regeneration.

  15. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite.

  16. Eggshell membrane biomaterial as a platform for applications in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Matej

    2014-09-01

    Eggshell membrane (ESM) is a unique biomaterial, which is generally considered as waste. However, it has extraordinary properties which can be utilized in various fields and its potential applications are therefore now being widely studied. The first part of this review focuses on the chemical composition and morphology of ESM. The main areas of ESM application are discussed in the second part. These applications include its utilization as a biotemplate for the synthesis of nanoparticles; as a sorbent of heavy metals, organics, dyes, sulfonates and fluorides; as the main component of biosensors; in medicine; and various other applications. For each area of interest, a detailed literature survey is given. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  18. Nanoengineered Eggshell-Silver Tailored Copolyester Polymer Blend Film with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiimob, Boniface J; Mwinyelle, Gregory; Abdela, Woubit; Samuel, Temesgen; Jeelani, Shaik; Rangari, Vijaya K

    2017-03-08

    In this study, the reinforcement effect of different proportions of eggshell/silver (ES-Ag) nanomaterial on the structural and antimicrobial properties of 70/30 poly(butylene-co-adipate terephthalate)/polylactic acid (PBAT/PLA) immiscible blends was investigated. The ES-Ag was synthesized using a single step ball milling process and characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results confirmed the existence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the interstitial spaces of the eggshell particles. The thin films in this study were prepared using hot melt extrusion and 3D printing for mechanical and antimicrobial testing, respectively. These films were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, tensile testing, and antimicrobial analysis. It was found that the incorporation of ES-Ag (0.5-2.0% content) compromised the tensile properties of the blend, due to poor interaction between the matrix and the ES-Ag in the ternary systems, but thermal analysis revealed improvement in the onset of degradation temperature and char yield at 500 °C. Though film toughness was better than that of PLA, the strength was lower, yet synergistic to those of PBAT and PLA. In general, the PBAT/PLA/ES-Ag ternary system had properties intermediate to those of the pure polymers. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial activity of these films conducted on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis bacteria revealed that the blend composite films possessed bacteriostatic effects, due to the immobilized ES-Ag nanomaterials in the blend matrix. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis of water and food samples exposed to the films showed that Ag NPs were not released in distilled water and chicken breast after 72 and 168 h, respectively.

  19. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  20. Juniper oil improves oxidative stability and eggshell and albumin quality of quail eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, S S; Yesilbag, D; Meral, Y; Cetin, I; Biricik, H

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of juniper oil (JO) dietary supplementation on the laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of quail. 2. A total of 400 female Pharaoh quails were equally divided into 4 groups containing 100 quails (5 replicates of 20 quails each). The study included a control treatment with no diet additives, and the treatments were as follows: (group 1) 100 mg JO/kg; (group 2) 200 mg JO/kg; (group 3) 300 mg JO/kg. The experiment was carried out for 60 d. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, yolk colour, egg production, feed consumption or feed efficiency. 4. The Haugh unit was increased in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control group. Dietary fortification with JO improved eggshell thickness and breaking strength compared to the control group. Furthermore, the damaged egg ratio was significantly decreased in group 3 compared to the control. The increasing concentration of JO (200 and 300 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in egg yolk MDA concentration after 15 and 30 d of storage at 20°C. 5. It was concluded that inclusion of JO in layer diets can improve egg quality characteristics in terms of Haugh unit, eggshell thickness and breaking strength. Moreover, supplementation of JO in the diets of quail may enhance the antioxidant status of eggs, and the most effective doses of JO were 200 and 300 mg/kg.

  1. An angiogenesis platform using a cubic artificial eggshell with patterned blood vessels on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjing; Itayama, Makoto; Arai, Fumihito; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi; Kawahara, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) containing tiny blood vessels is an alternative to large animals for studies involving angiogenesis and tissue engineering. However, there is no technique to design the direction of growing blood vessels on the CAM at the microscale level for tissue engineering experiments. Here, a methodology is provided to direct blood vessel formation on the surface of a three-dimensional egg yolk using a cubic artificial eggshell with six functionalized membranes. A structure on the lateral side of the eggshell containing a straight channel and an interlinked chamber was designed, and the direction and formation area of blood vessels with blood flow was artfully defined by channels with widths of 70-2000 μm, without sharply reducing embryo viability. The relationship between the size of interlinked chamber and the induction of blood vessels was investigated to establish a theory of design. Role of negative and positive pressure in the induction of CAM with blood vessels was investigated, and air pressure change in the culture chamber was measured to demonstrate the mechanism for blood vessel induction. Histological evaluation showed that components of CAM including chorionic membrane and blood vessels were induced into the channels. Based on our design theory, blood vessels were induced into arrayed channels, and channel-specific injection and screening were realized, which demonstrated proposed applications. The platform with position- and space-controlled blood vessels is therefore a powerful tool for biomedical research, which may afford exciting applications in studies involved in local stimulation of blood vessel networks and those necessary to establish a living system with blood flow from a beating heart.

  2. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa Qiong Xu

    Full Text Available The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated with ABCG2 (up-regulated and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  3. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  4. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  5. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  7. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  8. Advances in diagnostics and molecular typing of Mycoplasma synoviae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    The increased clinical and economic relevance of M. synoviae a poultry pathogen causing arthritis and eggshell apex abnormalities and egg production drops prompted the Dutch poultry industry to launch a mandatory control and eradication programme for this mycoplasma species in 2013 This programme is

  9. European catfish (Silurus glanis) as a freshwater apex predator drives ecosystem via its diet adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejřík, Lukáš; Vejříková, Ivana; Blabolil, Petr; Eloranta, Antti P; Kočvara, Luboš; Peterka, Jiří; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Chung, Son Hoang The; Šmejkal, Marek; Kiljunen, Mikko; Čech, Martin

    2017-11-21

    Apex predators play a key role in ecosystem stability across environments but their numbers in general are decreasing. By contrast, European catfish (Silurus glanis), the European freshwater apex predator, is on the increase. However, studies concerning apex predators in freshwaters are scarce in comparison to those in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The present study combines stomach content and stable isotope analyses with diet preferences of catfish to reveal its impact on the ecosystem since stocking. Catfish niche width is extremely wide in comparison to the typical model predator, Northern pike (Esox lucius). Catfish and pike have different individual dietary specialization that results in different functional roles in coupling or compartmentalizing distinct food webs. The role of both species in the ecosystem is irreplaceable due to multiple predator effects. The impact of catfish is apparent across the entire aquatic ecosystem, but herbivores are the most affected ecological group. The key feature of catfish, and probably a common feature of apex predators in general, is utilization of several dietary strategies by individuals within a population: long-term generalism or specialization and also short-term specialization. Catfish, similar to other large-bodied apex predators, have two typical features: enormous generalism and adaptability to new prey sources.

  10. Impact of conservation areas on trophic interactions between apex predators and herbivores on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzari, Justin R; Bergseth, Brock J; Frisch, Ashley J

    2015-04-01

    Apex predators are declining at alarming rates due to exploitation by humans, but we have yet to fully discern the impacts of apex predator loss on ecosystem function. In a management context, it is critically important to clarify the role apex predators play in structuring populations of lower trophic levels. Thus, we examined the top-down influence of reef sharks (an apex predator on coral reefs) and mesopredators on large-bodied herbivores. We measured the abundance, size structure, and biomass of apex predators, mesopredators, and herbivores across fished, no-take, and no-entry management zones in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Shark abundance and mesopredator size and biomass were higher in no-entry zones than in fished and no-take zones, which indicates the viability of strictly enforced human exclusion areas as tools for the conservation of predator communities. Changes in predator populations due to protection in no-entry zones did not have a discernible influence on the density, size, or biomass of different functional groups of herbivorous fishes. The lack of a relationship between predators and herbivores suggests that top-down forces may not play a strong role in regulating large-bodied herbivorous coral reef fish populations. Given this inconsistency with traditional ecological theories of trophic cascades, trophic structures on coral reefs may need to be reassessed to enable the establishment of appropriate and effective management regimes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. The Role of APEX as a Pathfinder for AtLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2018-01-01

    Now more than 12 years in operation, the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) 12 m submillimeter telescope has significantly contributed to a wide variety of submillimeter astronomy science areas, ranging from the discoveries of new molecules to large and deep imaging of the submillimeter sky. While ALMA operation is in full swing, APEX is strengthening its role not only as pathfinder for studying large source samples and spatial scales to prepare detailed high angular resolution ALMA follow ups, but also as fast response instruments to complement new results from ALMA. Furthermore, APEX ensures southern hemisphere access for submillimeter projects complementing archival Herschel research as well as new SOFIA science. With new broadband and multipixel receivers as well as large cameras for wide-field continuum imaging, APEX will pave the way towards the science envisioned with ATLAST. In this contribution, the current status and ongoing upgrades of APEX will be discussed, with an emphasis on the importance of continuous cutting edge science and state-of-the-art instrumentation that will bridge the gap towards ATLAST.

  12. Accuracy of three electronic apex locators in the presence of different irrigating solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Pion Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs - Elements Diagnostic®, Root ZX® and Apex DSP® - in the presence of different irrigating solutions (0.9% saline solution and 1% sodium hypochlorite. The electronic measurements were carried out by three examiners, using twenty extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors. A size 10 K file was introduced into the root canals until reaching the 0.0 mark, and was subsequently retracted to the 1.0 mark. The gold standard (GS measurement was obtained by combining visual and radiographic methods, and was set 1 mm short of the apical foramen. Electronic length values closer to the GS (± 0.5 mm were considered as accurate measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were used to verify inter-examiner agreement. The comparison among the EALs was performed using the McNemar and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p 0.05, independent of the irrigating solutions used. The measurements taken with these two EALs were more accurate than those taken with Apex DSP®, regardless of the irrigating solution used (p < 0.05. It was concluded that Elements Diagnostic® and Root ZX® apex locators are able to locate the cementum-dentine junction more precisely than Apex DSP®. The presence of irrigating solutions does not interfere with the performance of the EALs.

  13. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  14. A deep-time CO2 barometer based on triple oxygen isotope compositions of dinosaurian eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Passey, B. H.; Montanari, S.; Levin, N.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical reactions in the stratosphere lead to mass independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes: oxygen exchange among O2, O3, and CO2 produces 17O-enriched O3 and CO2, and 17O-depleted O2. This effect increases with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and thus the 17O anomaly of O2, Δ17O (O2), is reflective of pCO2. Animals incorporate this signal into body water via respiration, and minerals such as bioapatite and eggshell calcite forming in equilibrium with body water can preserve the signal for millions of years. We contribute to the development of this new pCO2 barometer by developing analytical methods for high-precision triple oxygen isotope analysis of carbonates, by developing an ecophysiological model of body water triple oxygen isotopes, and by applying the method to eggshell from modern birds and late Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian) dinosaur eggshells. Our findings include the following: (1) If animal ecophysiology and climatic context are perfectly known, the sensitivity of Δ17O (body water) to atmospheric CO2 is on the order of 0.01 ‰ per 100 ppm CO2; our analytical precision is ~ 0.01 ‰, thus ultimately permitting sub -100 ppm - level pCO2 reconstructions. (2) However, the effect of ecophysiology and climate can lead to a range in Δ17O (body water) of about 0.15 ‰ for animals living under the same Δ17O (O2); this prediction, confirmed by analyses of eggshells and body water of modern birds, translates to an apparent pCO2 range of about 1500 ppm. (3) Animals that are highly dependent on unevaporated free surface water ('drinking water') and live in humid climates have Δ17O (body water) signals that mimic low pCO2, whereas animals that consume primarily evaporated water (e.g., leaf water) and living in arid environments have Δ17O (body water) signals that mimic high pCO2. (4) There is an upper limit to this 'evaporation / aridity' effect mimicking high pCO2, so Δ17O (fossil eggshell) can be modeled assuming such upper

  15. THE TREATED EGGSHELLS AS A NEW BIOSORBENT FOR ELIMINATION OF CARBARYL PESTICIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: KINETICS, THERMODYNAMICS AND ISOTHERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELHAMID BAKKA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treated eggshells (TES for removing the carbaryl pesticide from aqueous solutions was examined by biosorption process. Batch mode experiments were conducted using various parameters such as contact time, temperature, biosorbent amount, carbaryl concentration and pH. Removal efficiency of carbaryl by the TES attained 87.35 % after 60 min of contact time, using 10 mg·L-1 of pesticide and 1.5 g·L-1 of biosorbent. The results indicate that Freundlich equation is well described with the carbaryl adsorption, with correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.99. They showed that the biosorption processes were spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs energy ∆G increased with increase in temperature indicating an increase in feasibility of biosorption at low temperature. These results show that treated eggshells can be employed as an alternative to commercial adsorbents in the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions.

  16. Identification of fungal metabolites from inside Gallus gallus domesticus eggshells by non-invasively detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Cumeras, Raquel; Aksenov, Alexander A.; Pasamontes, Alberto; Fung, Alexander G.; Cianchetta, Amanda N.; Doan, Hung; Davis, R. Michael; Davis, Cristina E.

    2016-01-01

    The natural porosity of eggshells allows hen eggs to become contaminated with microbes from the nesting material and environment. Those microorganisms can later proliferate due to the humid ambient conditions while stored in refrigerators, causing a potential health hazards to the consumer. The microbes’ volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) are released by both fungi and bacteria. We studied mVOCs produced by aging-eggs likely contaminated by fungi and fresh-eggs using the non-invasive detectio...

  17. Insoluble eggshell matrix proteins - their peptide mapping and partial characterization by capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Charvátová, Jana; Eckhardt, Adam; Deyl, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2003), s. 843-852 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1467; GA ČR GA203/00/D032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : eggshell matrix protein * peptide mapping Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2003

  18. Utilization of eggshell waste as low-cost solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, N. P.; Podjojono, B.; Fujiani, R.; Nuraini

    2017-05-01

    A solid CaO-based catalyst of waste eggshell was developed for biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The waste eggshell powder was calcined in air at 90° C for 4 h to convert calcium species in the eggshells into active CaO catalysts. The characterization of CaO catalyst was done by XRD and BET analysis. The CaO catalyst was then introduced for transesterification of used cooking oil (UCO) for testing of its catalytic activity. The experiment was conducted in batch type reactor that consists of three-neck glass equipped by reflux condenser and magnetic stirrer. Before tranesterification process, the UCO was treated by coconut coir powder in order to reduce the free fatty acid content. The result showed that the catalyst was potentially use for transesterification of used cooking oil into biodiesel with relatively high yield of 75.92% was achieved at reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio UCO to methanol and catalyst amount of 65° C, 7 h, 1:15 and 6%, respectively.

  19. Biological activities of peptide concentrates obtained from hydrolysed eggshell membrane byproduct by optimisation with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Ana; Melo, Armindo; Tavares, Tânia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2016-11-09

    The increase of hen egg consumption demands profitable applications for eggshells, including their membranes, in order to minimize environmental and public health problems that could result from their accumulation. This work presents an innovative application for eggshell membranes to obtain an added-value food ingredient that combines maximized ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Firstly, the use of acetic acid 5% (v/v); and 3-mercaptopropionic acid 1.25 M enabled 63% recovery of eggshell membrane proteins. Secondly, the extracted proteins were hydrolysed by alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis, viscozyme L and protease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology experimental design. The ACE-inhibitory activity (IC 50 ) was 34.5 ± 2.1 μg mL -1 , 63.0 ± 4.2 μg mL -1 and 43.0 ± 8.5 μg mL -1 for each enzyme, respectively, and the antioxidant activity was ca. 4.0 μmol trolox equivalent mg -1 hydrolysed protein . The combination of both bioactive properties is of potential interest to control cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Micro-CT scan reveals an unexpected high-volume and interconnected pore network in a Cretaceous Sanagasta dinosaur eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenleitner, E Martín; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Foley, Matthew; Fiorelli, Lucas E; Thompson, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    The Cretaceous Sanagasta neosauropod nesting site (La Rioja, Argentina) was the first confirmed instance of extinct dinosaurs using geothermal-generated heat to incubate their eggs. The nesting strategy and hydrothermal activities at this site led to the conclusion that the surprisingly 7 mm thick-shelled eggs were adapted to harsh hydrothermal microenvironments. We used micro-CT scans in this study to obtain the first three-dimensional microcharacterization of these eggshells. Micro-CT-based analyses provide a robust assessment of gas conductance in fossil dinosaur eggshells with complex pore canal systems, allowing calculation, for the first time, of the shell conductance through its thickness. This novel approach suggests that the shell conductance could have risen during incubation to seven times more than previously estimated as the eggshell erodes. In addition, micro-CT observations reveal that the constant widening and branching of pore canals form a complex funnel-like pore canal system. Furthermore, the high density of pore canals and the presence of a lateral canal network in the shell reduce the risks of pore obstruction during the extended incubation of these eggs in a relatively highly humid and muddy nesting environment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Calcined Eggshell Waste for Mitigating Soil Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria/Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissemination and Accumulation in Bell Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Li, Xu; Schwab, Arthur P; Wan, Jinzhong; Liu, Manqiang; Tian, Da; Liu, Kuan; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Xin

    2016-07-13

    The combined accumulation of antibiotics, heavy metals, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)/antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in vegetables has become a new threat to human health. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of calcined eggshells modified by aluminum sulfate as novel agricultural wastes to impede mixed contaminants from transferring to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this work, calcined eggshell amendment mitigated mixed pollutant accumulation in bell pepper significantly, enhanced the dissipation of soil tetracycline, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, and chloramphenicol, decreased the water-soluble fractions of antibiotics, and declined the diversity of ARB/ARGs inside the vegetable. Moreover, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis detected that ARG levels in the bell pepper fruits significantly decreased to 10(-10) copies/16S copies, indicating limited risk of ARGs transferring along the food chain. Furthermore, the restoration of soil microbial biological function suggests that calcined eggshell is an environmentally friendly amendment to control the dissemination of soil ARB/ARGs in the soil-vegetable system.

  2. Optical illusions in scanning electron micrographs: the case of the eggshell of Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Klaus W; Reid, Walton; Schrauf, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed that-as is common in this family of the Hemiptera-the eggs of the green stink bug Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginatum are roughly barrel-shaped and possess at their apical pole a row of slender extensions, the aero-micropylar processes. The outer surface of the eggshell carries hexagonally arranged pits. The analysis of cross-fractured eggshells showed that the pits have slender basal extensions with transverse diaphragms. When scanning electron micrographs of the egg surface of A. marginatum are viewed upside down, the perception flips and the pits appear as elevations to all observers addressed. Thus, we are dealing with an optical illusion, which is known as the 'shape-from-shading effect'. The perceived dents remain robust to changes in the angle of recording (zero to ca. 60 degrees tilt), the magnification (ca. x100 to x1400), and the number of pits included in the micrograph (one to several hundred). When through appropriate positioning of the specimen under the electron beam, contrast is significantly reduced and the distinct shadows at the slope of the pits are eliminated, the optical illusion does not appear. It is inferred that shades provide the decisive clue that determines whether bumps or dents will be perceived. Owing to the low resolution of their compound eyes, the shape-from-shading effect on the eggshell of the bug is in all likelihood not perceived by insects.

  3. Eggshell Powder as an Adsorbent for Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaumik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new medium, eggshell powder has been developed for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. Fluoride adsorption was studied in a batch system where adsorption was found to be pH dependent with maximum removal efficiency at 6.0. The experimental data was more satisfactorily fitted with Langmuir isotherm model. The kinetics and the factor controlling adsorption process fully accepted by pseudo-second-order model were also discussed. Ea was found to be 45.98 kJmol-1 by using Arrhenius equation, indicating chemisorption nature of fluoride onto eggshell powder. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous nature and feasibility of the adsorption process with negative enthalpy (∆H0 value also supported the exothermic nature. Batch experiments were performed to study the applicability of the adsorbent by using fluoride contaminated water collected from affected areas. These results indicate that eggshell powder can be used as an effective, low-cost adsorbent to remove fluoride from aqueous solution as well as groundwater.

  4. Malignant transformation of a high-grade osteoblastoma of the petrous apex with subcutaneous metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Casey T; Morrison, Robert J; Arts, H Alexander

    2016-06-01

    We describe the clinical presentation, management, and pathologic findings in a case of osteosarcoma of the petrous apex with an atypical metastasis to the lower abdominal wall. We retrospectively reviewed the record of a 49-year-old man who was diagnosed with a right petrous apex lesion, which biopsy identified as a high-grade osteoblastoma. After two attempts at en bloc resection were not curative, radiation and chemotherapy were recommended. The patient subsequently developed a cutaneous lower abdominal mass that was diagnosed as an osteosarcoma. Meanwhile, the petrous apex tumor continued to grow despite treatment until the patient died from the burden of disease. Temporal bone osteoblastomas and osteosarcomas are both extremely rare, and they can be difficult to differentiate histologically. Our case illustrates this difficulty and demonstrates the possibility of a high-grade osteoblastoma's malignant conversion to an osteosarcoma.

  5. ASTRO APEx® and RO-ILS™ are applicable to medical malpractice in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Ricco, Anthony G; Churilla, Thomas M; Horwitz, Eric M; Den, Robert B

    2016-11-01

    To analyze malpractice trials in radiation oncology and assess how ASTRO APEx ® and RO-ILS™ apply to such cases. The Westlaw database was reviewed using PICOS/PRISMA methods. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to find factors associated with outcomes. Of 34 cases identified, external beam was used in 26 (77%). The most common factors behind malpractice were excessive toxicity (80%) and lack of informed consent (66%). ASTRO APEx pillars and ROI-LS had applicability to all but one case. Factors favoring the defendant included statute of limitations (odds ratio: 8.1; 95% CI: 1.3-50); those favoring the plaintiff included patient death (odds ratio: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94). APEx and RO-ILS are applicable to malpractice trials in radiation oncology.

  6. Pre-implant left ventricular apex position predicts risk of HeartMate II pump thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarboro, Leora T; Mehaffey, James Hunter; Hawkins, Robert B; Kron, Irving L; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kern, John A; Ghanta, Ravi K

    2017-12-01

    Thrombosis within a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a devastating complication that often necessitates device exchange. Few studies have evaluated the relationship between patient anatomy and pump thrombosis. We hypothesize that lateral displacement of the left ventricular (LV) apex increases risk for pump thrombosis. All patients who underwent primary implantation of a HeartMate II (HM2) device (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) at a single center (2009-2015) were evaluated. Operative mortalities and patients without imaging were excluded. The angle of the LV apex relative to the midline was measured on preoperative computed tomography scans by two independent surgeons. Pump thrombosis was defined as lactic dehydrogenase >700 with clinical symptoms of hemolysis or LVAD malfunction. Univariate and Cox Proportional Hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of LV apex angle on long-term freedom from pump exchange for thrombosis. Of 122 patients who met inclusion criteria for this study, 16 (13.1%) underwent exchange for presumed pump thrombosis. Of these patients, six (37.5%) required more than one exchange. Patients undergoing exchange for thrombosis had greater LV angle (43.8 ± 9.7 vs 49.5 ± 11.2, p = 0.037) with LV apex angle being a significant predictor of LVAD exchange for thrombosis (hazard ratio = 1.047, P = 0.046). Additionally, when surgeon measurements were compared there was good inter-observer reliability (Pearson Correlation = 0.89). A laterally displaced left ventricular apex correlates with a higher risk of pump thrombosis in patients undergoing HM2 implantation. LV apex angle is an easily obtained, reproducible measurement that should be considered when selecting a ventricular assist device. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chemical synthesis of bone-like carbonate hydroxyapatite from hen eggshells and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo-Dávila, J. L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHAp was synthesized from domestic hen eggshells by using three alternative wet chemical methods at room temperature. In the first method, the powdered eggshells were reacted directly with H3PO4. In the other two methods, calcium acetate was obtained in a first step by dissolving the eggshells in acetic acid. Then, calcium acetate was reacted with Na3PO4•12H2O and (NH42HPO4 in the second and third methods, respectively. The synthesized CHAp was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Fine and poorly crystallized CHAp was obtained under all experimental conditions employed. Among all synthesized materials, the one produced by the first method showed the closest resemblance to bovine bone, which was related to similar carbonate contents in both materials. In general, acicular CHAp crystals with a size ranging from 10 to 100 nm were obtained, which had an aspect ratio of ∼1/4. The morphology of the synthesized CHAp crystals was consistent with their estimated carbonate content.

    Se sintetizó carbonato-hidroxiapatita (CHAp a partir de cascarón de huevo de gallina, usando tres métodos químicos alternativos vía húmeda a temperatura ambiente. En el primer método, el cascarón pulverizado fue hecho reaccionar directamente con H3PO4. En los otros dos métodos, el primer paso fue la obtención de acetato de calcio mediante la disolución del cascarón en ácido acético. Luego, el acetato de calcio fue hecho reaccionar con Na3PO4•12H2O y (NH42HPO4 en el segundo y tercer método, respectivamente. El CHAp sintetizado fue caracterizado por difracción de rayos X (DRX, espectroscopia infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (FT-IR, microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET. Bajo todas las condiciones experimentales empleadas se obtuvo CHAp

  8. Effect of production system and flock age on eggshell and egg internal quality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Omar, Amal Saleh; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality was measured in eggs from different flocks that were reared together and then allocated to different production systems. Eggs were processed for measurements of eggshell and egg internal quality variables, scoring of ultrastructural mammillary layer features, completeness of cuticle cover, and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) quantification. There was a significant main effect (P egg weight, and egg internal quality and significant effects of flock age on most measurements. The mammillary layer ultrastructural variables showed no clear relationship with production system and flock age. However, there was a significant interaction between production system and flock age for mammillary cap, early and late fusions. Cuticle cover ([Formula: see text]), was significantly higher in barn eggs (19.20), followed by free range (17.57), and cage eggs (15.99). Completeness of cuticle cover was significantly higher in eggs from the 44 week old flock than for 64 week and 73 week old flocks. For eggshells with cuticle intact, there was a significant main effect of both production system and flock age, and significant interaction between the two, for shell reflectivity, L*a*b* values and amount of PP IX. For PP IX, when this difference was calculated for the cuticle alone, there were no statistically significant differences. In 1 g of shell with and without cuticle, there was more PP IX in cage eggs (9.49 × 10 -8 , 7.90 × 10 -8  mM) followed by free range (8.24 × 10 -8 , 6.90 × 10 -8  mM), and barn eggs (8.64 × 10 -8 , 7.28 × 10 -8  mM). Similar trends were recorded for the amount of PP IX in 1 g of cuticle, but the difference was not statistically significant. The amount of PP IX decreased significantly with increasing flock age. Comparing the cage and barn production systems at 68 week of flock age, there was no difference for the amount of PP IX in shell with or without cuticle, or in the cuticle alone. Eggs from the cage production system were darker in color

  9. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  10. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  13. PIXE analysis of metals in sludge and marine sediments in the New York Bight Apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.H.; Bauman, S.E.; Williams, E.T.; Finston, H.L.; Bond, A.H. Jr.; Lesser, P.M.S.

    1977-01-01

    PIXE analysis of acid extracts of marine muds from the N.Y. Bight apex was performed to obtain metal ratios for determining whether the origin was: a) estuarine outflow, b) dredge spoil, c) sewage sludge, or d) acid waste. Consideration of the ratios: Ti/Zn, Zn/Mn, and V/Cr, for example, lead to certain conclusions which are presented

  14. An in vitro evaluation of the accuracy of two electronic apex locators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Then, working length measurements were obtained using Root ZX and i-Root apex locator in the presence of irrigating solutions namely 0.9% saline, 3% of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine digluconate(CHX) and 17% Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA). The measurements obtained with Root ZX and ...

  15. A case of broomstick in the root canal extending beyond the apex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A periapical radiograph did not show presence of a foreign object in root canal of the fractured discoloured right maxillary central incisor. The patient denied inserting any object in the canal. The tooth was extracted and a broomstick extending by 12mm beyond the apex of the tooth and bleeding from the nose was observed.

  16. Code modernization and modularization of APEX and SWAT watershed simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and APEX (Agricultural Policy / Environmental eXtender) are respectively large and small watershed simulation models derived from EPIC Environmental Policy Integrated Climate), a field-scale agroecology simulation model. All three models are coded in FORTRAN an...

  17. Electron microscopy using the genetically encoded APEX2 tag in cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Jeffrey D; Deerinck, Thomas J; Lam, Stephanie S; Ellisman, Mark H; Ting, Alice Y

    2018-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is the premiere technique for high-resolution imaging of cellular ultrastructure. Unambiguous identification of specific proteins or cellular compartments in electron micrographs, however, remains challenging because of difficulties in delivering electron-dense contrast agents to specific subcellular targets within intact cells. We recently reported enhanced ascorbate peroxidase 2 (APEX2) as a broadly applicable genetic tag that generates EM contrast on a specific protein or subcellular compartment of interest. This protocol provides guidelines for designing and validating APEX2 fusion constructs, along with detailed instructions for cell culture, transfection, fixation, heavy-metal staining, embedding in resin, and EM imaging. Although this protocol focuses on EM in cultured mammalian cells, APEX2 is applicable to many cell types and contexts, including intact tissues and organisms, and is useful for numerous applications beyond EM, including live-cell proteomic mapping. This protocol, which describes procedures for sample preparation from cell monolayers and cell pellets, can be completed in 10 d, including time for APEX2 fusion construct validation, cell growth, and solidification of embedding resins. Notably, the only additional steps required relative to a standard EM sample preparation are cell transfection and a 2- to 45-min staining period with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:28796234

  18. 75 FR 82335 - Airworthiness Directives; APEX Aircraft Model CAP 10 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... of Design Authority, they have notified us of the unsafe condition described in the MCAI and service... information. For service information related to this AD, contact Apex Aircraft, Bureau de Navigabilit , 1..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information...

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: APEX CO and HI observations of Lupus I (Gaczkowski+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaczkowski, B.; Roccatagliata, V.; Flaischlen, S.; Kroell, D.; Krause, M. G. H. Burkert A.; Diehl, R.; Fierlinger, K.; Ngoumou, J.; Preibisch, T.

    2017-11-01

    The FITS files contain the data cubes corresponding to the 13C and C18O(3-2) lines. They were taken using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, with an angular resolution of 30" and a velocity resolution of 0.1km/s. (2 data files).

  20. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 9: Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  1. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 6: Industrialist's Manual No. 1, Shear Power Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 1, Shear Power Company is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

  3. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 10: Industrialist's Manual No. 6, Dusty Rhodes' Cement Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 6, Dusty Rhodes' Cement Company is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two…

  4. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  5. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 7: Industrialist's Manual No. 2, People's Pulp Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 2, People's Pulp Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  6. Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and Eggshell Powder (ESP) as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezdiani Mohamad, Mazizah; Mahmood, Ali A.; Min, Alicia Yik Yee; Nur Nadhira A., R.

    2018-03-01

    This study is an attempt to partially replace Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete with palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and eggshell powder (ESP). The mix proportions of POFA and ESP were varied at 10% of cement replacement and compared with OPC concrete as control specimen. The fineness of POFA is characterized by passing through 300 μm sieve and ESP by passing through 75 μm sieve. Compressive strength testing was conducted on concrete specimens to determine the optimum mix proportion of POFA and ESP. Generally the compressive strength of OPC concrete is higher compared to POFA-ESP concrete. Based on the results of POFA-ESP concrete overall, it shows that the optimum mix proportion of concrete is 6%POFA:4% ESP achieved compressive strength of 38.60 N/mm2 at 28 days. The compressive strength of OPC concrete for the same period was 42.37 N/mm2. Higher water demand in concrete is needed due to low fineness of POFA that contributing to low compressive strength of POFA-ESP concrete. However, the compressive strength and workability of the POFA-ESP concrete were within the ranges typically encountered in regular concrete mixtures indicating the viability of this replacement procedure for structural and non-structural applications.

  7. Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Hwa Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05 whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05. Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05 without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05 but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05, suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production.

  8. Chicken eggshell as biosorbent: Artificial intelligence as promising approach in optimizing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiew Peck Loo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Response Surface Methodology (RSM is the most popular approach for optimization study in various biochemical processes nowadays. Artificial Neural Network (ANN has emerged as one of the most efficient methods in empirical modeling and optimization, particularly for non-linear systems. In this study, the estimation capability of RSM and ANN models was compared in copper removal from aqueous solution. The experiments were carried out based on a 3-level and 4-variable Central Composite Design (CCD. The RSM results revealed that the relationship between the response and independent variable could be represented by the quadratic polynomial model. In the development of ANN model, the optimal configuration of the model was found to be 4-10-1. Estimated responses from both models were compared with the experimentally determined responses to determine predictive capabilities of both techniques. Comparison of two methodologies showed that the ANN model was more accurate and exhibited better generalization capability than RSM, thus indicated a clear superiority than the latter in capturing the non-linear behaviour of the adsorption process using chicken eggshell as biosorbent.

  9. Assessing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in poultry hatcheries by using hatched eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, M-R; Hsien, C-H; Yeh, C-M; Chou, S-J; Chu, C; Su, Y-C; Yu, C-Y

    2007-08-01

    Salmonella enterica causes a number of significant poultry diseases and is also a major pathogen in humans. Most poultry infected by Salmonella become carriers; infection may also be fatal, depending on the particular serovar and the age of the bird at infection. Younger birds are more susceptible to infection by Salmonella, so it is critical that hatcheries monitor birds. We developed a method to use hatched eggshell membranes (HEM) to assess contamination by Salmonella in poultry hatching cabinets and to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in a goose hatchery and rearing farm. Comparison of the Salmonella isolation rate in hatching cabinets using 3 sampling methods showed that the highest Salmonella contamination was detected in HEM, and that these results differed significantly from those obtained from fluff samples and cabinet swab samples (P chicken, and duck hatcheries. The lowest Salmonella-positive rate was found for the chicken hatchery, followed by the goose and the duck hatcheries (P hatcheries: A, B, C1, C2, D, and E. The distribution of these serogroups differed among the hatcheries. Salmonella serogroup C1 was the major serogroup found in geese, compared with serogroup B in chickens and ducks. However, Salmonella Typhimurium was dominant in 1 goose hatchery and also in geese from this hatchery that had been transferred to a farm. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis showed that Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from the farm geese with diarrhea showed significantly higher resistance to doxycycline, colistin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprin, and cephalothin than those isolated from the hatchery (P hatcheries and rearing farms.

  10. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Calcium Silicate-based Root Filling Materials Using an Open Apex Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dennis; He, Jianing; Glickman, Gerald N; Woodmansey, Karl F

    2016-04-01

    Many new calcium silicate-based root filling materials have emerged in the market; however, their performance in the orthograde obturation of an open apex has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal adaptation of ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), NeoMTA Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL), and Endosequence BC RRM-Fast Set Putty (BC RRM-FS; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) after orthograde placement in roots with open apices. Palatal roots of maxillary molars were instrumented to create divergent open apices and divided into 4 groups for orthograde obturation: ProRoot MTA, NeoMTA Plus, BC RRM-FS, and BC RRM-FS + BC Sealer. Using a scanning electron microscope, the quality of material adaptation at the anatomic apex was evaluated by 5 blinded examiners; 3 mm of the root end was sectioned, and gap distance was measured at the material-dentin interface. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation among the 4 groups at the level of the anatomic apex (P = .175). BC RRM-FS + BC Sealer had a significantly smaller gap size after 3-mm root end resection compared with the other 3 groups (P < .01). No differences were observed among the other 3 materials. All materials showed comparable marginal adaptation at the anatomic apex when used for orthograde obturation of open apices. Application of BC Sealer before the delivery of BC RRM-FS Putty enhanced the quality of adaptation coronal to the apex. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  13. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  14. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  15. The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2013-12-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 μm and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, K.; Itten, K.; Schaepman, M.

    2009-04-01

    APEX, ESA-Prodex "Airborne Prism Experiment" comprises the development of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer and has originally been designed as flexible hyperspectral mission simulator and calibrator for existing and upcoming or planned future space missions. The APEX project is co-funded by Switzerland and Belgium and built by a Belgian-Swiss industrial team under the prime RUAG Aerospace (CH), responsible for the total system and the mechanical components, OIP (Oudenaarde, BE) contributing the spectrometer, and Netcetera (Zurich, CH) being responsible for the electronics. RSL (University of Zurich, CH) acts as scientific PI together with the Co-PI VITO (Mol, BE). The APEX sensor is operating between 380 nm and 2500 nm in more than 300 freely configurable bands (up to 512 bands in full spectral mode), by means of two dispersive spectrometer channels. 1000 pixels across track and a total field of view of 28° define the ground pixel size (e.g. 2,5 m from 5000 m AGL). A stabilized platform (Leica PAV-30) reduces major geometric distortions due to aircraft instabilities while a GPS/IMU system (Applanix PosAV 410) measures continuously the sensors' position and orientation allowing direct georeferencing of the acquired data . The system is currently is phase D, the calibration and test phase, and first testflights have been performed on a Do-228 in cooperation of DLR while the acquired data is currently under evaluation. Discussions are ongoing to fly APEX on the new DLR High Altitude Research Aircraft (HALO) as well. The system is currently in phase D, the calibration and test phase, and will deliver first scientific data to users by mid 2009. The APEX processing and archiving facility (PAF) is hosted by VITO in the APEX Operations Center (AOC) at Mol, Belgium . A specific level 0-1 processing software module producing uniform, radiometrically calibrated data has been developed by RSL and is integrated into the PAF by VITO. An APEX Calibration

  17. Reduction of Salmonella enterica on the surface of eggshells by sequential treatment with aqueous chlorine dioxide and drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seonyeong; Park, Sunhyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Hoikyung, Kim; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    The synergistic effects of sequential treatments with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and drying in killing Salmonella enterica on the surface of chicken eggshells were investigated. Initial experiments were focused on comparing lethalities of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ClO2. Eggs surface-inoculated with S. enterica in chicken feces as a carrier were immersed in water, NaOCl (50 or 200 μg/mL), or ClO2 (50 or 200 μg/mL) for 1 or 5 min. For 1-min treatments, lethal activities of sanitizers were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, after treatment with ClO2 for 5 min, reductions of S. enterica were significantly greater (P≤0.05) than reductions after treatment with water or NaOCl. The effect of treatment of eggs with ClO2 or NaOCl, followed by drying at 43% relative humidity and 25 °C for 24 and 48 h, were determined. Populations of S. enterica decreased during drying, regardless of the type of sanitizer treatment. ClO2 treatment, compared to water or NaOCl treatments, resulted in additional reductions of ca. >1.3 log CFU/egg during drying. This indicates that sequential treatments with ClO2 and drying induced synergistic lethal effects against S. enterica on the surface of eggshells. These observations will be useful when selecting a sanitizer to control S. enterica on the surface of eggshells and designing an effective egg sanitization system exploiting the synergistic lethal effects of sanitizer and drying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles film and glucose oxidase-immobilized eggshell membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohari Noor Aini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate; [EMIM][Otf], ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs and eggshell membrane (ESM on a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE for determination of glucose. Glucose oxidase (GOx was covalently immobilized on eggshell membrane with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator to enhance the electron transfer capacity and to ensure stability of both the oxidized and reduced forms in the reaction of enzyme and substrate. The morphological characteristics of microstructures eggshell membranes, chitosan, GOx/ESM, GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM and GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effects of scan rate, time and pH on the response of glucose biosensors were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.5, 50 s, cyclic voltammetry showed different glucose concentrations on the range of 1 × 10−12 to 0.6 M, with a detection limit of 1 × 10−13 M. The GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM was found to be more sensitive as compared to GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT. This developed glucose biosensor detection approach has several advantages such as fast, simple and convenient method, sensitivity, low cost, eco-friendly, low concentrations and remarkable catalytic activities of current signals during glucose reaction.

  19. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  20. A comparative study on different burning method of sewage sludge ash in mortar brick with eggshell powder as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Doh Shu; Azed, Muhammad Aizat; Chin, Siew Choo

    2017-11-01

    Population growth that increase every year has led to the increasing amount of waste generated annually. The content of heavy metal Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) represent the biggest concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge waste which can be the source of pollution. Furthermore, the excessive disposal of eggshells waste to landfills may attract rats and worms due to the organic protein matrix that may pose health problem to the public. In the last decade, the demand on cement mortar brick has increased has resulted in higher cement production. However, cement plant is one of the major contributors of carbon dioxide emission. Hence, this research focuses on the production of environmental friendly cement with sewage sludge since there is occurrence of pozolonic material in Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA). From the initial finding, the major components of SSA are Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), Calcium oxide (CaO), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3), Iron (III) Oxide (Fe2O3), Sodium Oxide (Na2O), Potassium oxide (K2O), Magnesium Oxide (MgO) and Iron (II) Oxide (FeO). Sewage sludge needed to be incinerated to remove the heavy metal before it can be used as cement replacement in mortar brick production. The sewage sludge were treated using two methods namely incineration and microwave. Both types of sewage sludge were then added with eggshell powder as additive. Eggshell powder act as additive in this research due to its high content of calcium carbonate and has nearly same composition of limestone used in the production of cement. Different percentages of Eggshell Powder (ESP) (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) and 10% fixed of Microwaved Sewage Sludge Ash (MSSA) and Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash (ISSA) as optimum dosage partially replacing the cement used to test the brick mortar properties in term of compressive strength, flexural strength and also water absorption. Result showed that ISSA with 5% of ESP is the most optimum brick with highest compressive strength and flexural strength

  1. Eggshell membrane hydrolyzates activate NF-κB in vitro: possible implications for in vivo efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruff KJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kevin J Ruff,1 Paul L Durham,2 Austin O’Reilly,2 F Daniel Long1 1ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA; 2Center for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA Purpose: Eggshell membrane (ESM has been shown to contain naturally occurring bioactive components, and biological activities such as reducing proinflammatory cytokines, liver fibrosis, and joint pain in osteoarthritis sufferers have also been reported for ESM matrix as a whole. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB is a signaling protein found in the cytoplasm of nearly all human and animal cell types and is a primary regulator of immune function. The studies reported herein were designed to investigate the possible role that NF-κB activity might play in the reported biological activities of ESM. Methods: Three ESM hydrolyzates produced via fermentation, enzymatic, or chemical hydrolysis were evaluated in vitro in either human peripheral blood mononuclear cell or THP-1 (human leukemic monocyte cell cultures for NF-κB activity following 4-hour exposure. The hydrolyzates were compared with untreated control cells or cells incubated with lipopolysaccharide or ascorbic acid. The source of ESM activity was also evaluated. Results: NF-κB levels were increased above levels found in untreated cells at all three dilutions (1:100, 1:1,000, and 1:10,000 for the fermentation hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-FH (P=0.021, P=0.020, P=0.009, respectively in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The enzymatic hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-EH also produced statistically significant levels of activated NF-κB at the 1:100 and 1:1,000 dilutions (P=0.004, P=0.006, respectively but fell just shy of significance at the 1:10,000 dilution (P=0.073. Similarly, ESM-FH (P=0.021, P=0.002 and ESM-EH (P=0.007, P=0.007 activated NF-κB in THP-1 cells at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. The chemical hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-CH showed statistically

  2. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of nanopowdered eggshell-supplemented yogurt during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mijan, Mohammad; Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding nanopowdered eggshell (NPES) into yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPES on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPES-added (0.15-0.45%, wt/vol) yogurt ranged from 4.31 to 4.66 and from 6.56 × 10(8) to 8.56 × 10(8)cfu/mL, respectively, whereas these values ranged from 4.13 to 4.44 and 8.46 × 10(8) to 1.39 × 10(9), respectively, for the control samples during storage at 5 °C for 16d, which indicates a prolonged shelf-life with NPES-supplemented yogurt. Color analysis showed that the lightness (L*) and position between red and green (a*) values were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPES. However, the position between yellow and blue (b*) value significantly increased with the addition of the concentration (0.45%, wt/vol) of NPES at d 16 of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that NPES-added yogurts showed a notably less sourness score and a higher astringency score than the control. An earthy flavor was higher in 0.45% NPES-supplemented yogurt compared with the control. Based on the results obtained from the current study, the concentration (0.15 to 0.30%, wt/vol) of NPES can be used to formulate NPES-supplemented yogurt without any significant adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The eggshell of the almond wasp Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) - 2. The micropylar appendage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarani, F E; Margaritis, L H

    1994-08-01

    Micropylar apparatuses in insects are specialized regions of the eggshell through which sperm enters the oocyte. This work is an ultrastructural study and deals with the structure and morphogenesis of the micropylar appendage in the hymenopteran Eurytoma amygdali. The micropylar appendage is a 130 microm long cylindrical protrusion located at the posterior pole of the egg, unlike other insects i.e. Diptera. in which the micropylar apparatus is located at the anterior pole. In mature eggs there is a 0.4 microm wide pore (micropyle) at the tip of the appendage leading to a 6 microm wide micropylar canal. The canal contains an electron-lucent substance, it travels along the whole appendage and finally reaches the vitelline membrane of the oocyte. The vitelline membrane is covered by a wax layer and an electron-lucent layer, whereas the chorion surrounding the canal consists of a granular layer (fine and rough) and a columnar layer. The morphogenesis of the appendage starts in immature follicles: four central cells located at the posterior tip of the oocyte near the vitelline membrane, differing morphologically from the adjacent follicle cells. These central cells degenerate during early chorionic stages, thus assisting in the formation of the micropylar canal. The adjacent, peripherally located cells secrete the electron-lucent substance which fills the canal and at the same time, the fine granular layer is formed starting from the base towards the tip of the appendage. The secretion persists at late chorionic stages and results in the formation of the chorion around the micropylar canal. The extremely long (compared to other insects) micropylar appendage seems to facilitate the egg passage through the very thin and long ovipositor. The structure and morphogenesis of this appendage differs significantly from the micropylar apparatuses studied so far in other insects i.e. Diptera, and may reflect adaptational and evolutionary relationships.

  4. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of H3PO4 Concentration and Particle Size of the Eggshell Used in Laying Hens Fed on Bone and Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of H3 PO4 concentrations and particle size of eggshell used in the feed of laying hens on bone and blood profiles. Ninety-six laying hens (Isa Brown strain age 25 weeks were kept in individual battery cage and divided into 8 groups randomly. Group 1 was fed using eggshell with out H3PO4 and particle size of <1 mm (feed 1 , group 2 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 3% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 2, group 3 were fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 4% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 3, group 4 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 5% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 4, group 5 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 and particle size of <3 mm (feed 5 , group of 6 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 3% and particle size of <3 mm (feed 6, group 7 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 4 % and particle size of <3 mm (feed 7 and a group of 8 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 5% and particle size of <3 mm (feed 8. A Completely Randomized Design patterns factorial 4 x 2 x 3 was used in this research. Result of this research showed that had no interaction effect (P>0.05 between the H3PO4 concentration and particle size of eggshell on weight, volume, diameter of tibia bone and calcium and phosphorus content of the blood. The concentration of H3PO4 or particles size also had no effect (P>0.05 on all variables. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font

  6. Chordoma of the petrous apex - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Ricardo; Leal Junior, Osvaldo S.; Loureiro, Lautonio Junior; Buril, Marlus V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Chordomas are rare tumours arising from remnants of the embryologic notochord, typically at a midline position. Although 35-40% of these lesions are intracranial, these tumors answer for less than 1% of all intracranial tumors. The intracranial chordomas originate most frequently from the clival region at the midline. Nevertheless eventually may arise off the midline primarily in petrous apex or, very rarely, in paranasal sinuses. The authors report a case of histopathologically proved intracranial chordoma that arose atypical site in the petrous apex. The computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging finding were similar to those observed in midline chordomas. The computed tomographic examination revealed a well-defined soft tissue mass associated with bone destruction and foci of calcification. The magnetic resonance imaging study demonstrated a growing extra-axial formation that appeared with hypo-intensity of signal on T1-weighted images, hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and heterogeneous enhancement after paramagnetic agent injection. (author)

  7. Enhancing circular dichroism by super chiral hot spots from a chiral metasurface with apexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Teh, Bing Hong; Wang, Yue; Adamo, Giorgio; Teng, Jinghua; Sun, Handong

    2017-05-01

    Manipulating light spin (or circular polarization) is an important research field and may find broad applications from sensors, display technology, to quantum computing and communication. To this end, planar metasurfaces with larger circular dichroism are strongly demanded. However, current planar chiral metasurface structures suffer from either fabrication challenge, especially from near-infrared to visible spectrum, or insufficient circular dichroism. Here, we report a chiral metasurface composed of achiral nanoholes which allow for precisely creating apexes in the designed structure. Our investigation indicates that the apexes act as super chiral hot spots and enable the highly concentrated near-field optical chirality leading to a remarkable enhancement of circular dichroism in the far-field. A 4-fold enhancement of the circular dichroism and a strong optical activity of ˜15 degrees have been experimentally achieved. Besides the enhanced chirality, our design genuinely overcomes the nanofabrication challenge faced in existing planar chiral metasurfaces.

  8. Management of persistent periapical infection on maxillary lateral incisorby apex resection of: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Yusri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic failure can be caused by different etiology, one of them is a persistent periapical infection in the root canal system. If the endodontic convensional retreatment is difficult to be done, surgical endodontic will be recomended. Endodontic surgical can eliminate the causative agent of periradicular disease and to restore the biological condition of periodontium and functional. A 22 years old male patient came to the Dental Hospital Hasanuddin University at Tamalanrea with the chief complaint is discomfort of the left maxillary lateral incisor. Radiograph examinations showed radiolucency 4 mm of tooth 22. The diagnosis is chronic apical periodontitis.Three month after endodontic conventional, the patients complaint is settled. Extended care plan will be treated is apex resection. The purpose of this case report is to present the treatment protocol of apex resection on  the maxillary left lateral incisor.

  9. Effects of Dissolving Solutions on the Accuracy of an Electronic Apex Locator-Integrated Endodontic Handpiece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Ustun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three dissolving agents on the accuracy of an electronic apex locator- (EAL- integrated endodontic handpiece during retreatment procedures were evaluated. The true lengths (TLs of 56 extracted incisor teeth were determined visually. Twenty teeth were filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer (group A, 20 with gutta-percha and a zinc oxide/eugenol-based sealer (group B, and 16 roots were used as the control group (group C. All roots were prepared to TL. Guttasolv, Resosolv, and Endosolv E were used as the dissolving solutions. Two evaluations of the handpiece were performed: the apical accuracy during the auto reverse function (ARL and the apex locator function (EL alone. The ARL function of the handpiece gave acceptable results. There were significant differences between the EL mode measurements and the TL (P<0.05. In these comparisons, Tri Auto ZX EL mode measurements were significantly shorter than those of the TL.

  10. A case of orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Takeshi; Kase, Kaori; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2011-09-28

    Orbital apex syndrome is commonly been thought to have a poor prognosis. Many cases of this syndrome have been reported to be caused by paranasal sinus mycosis. We encountered a very rare case (60-year-old woman) of sinusitis with orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. She had received insulin and dialysis for diabtes and diabetic nephropathy, moreover anticoagulants after heart by-pass surgery. She underwent endoscopic sinus operation and was treated with antibiotics, but her loss of left vision did not improve. Recently, sinusitis cases due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reported to be a increasing. Therefore, we should consider the possibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as mycosis as infections of the sinus, especially inpatients who are immunocompromised body.

  11. A case of orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kusunoki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Orbital apex syndrome is commonly been thought to have a poor prognosis. Many cases of this syndrome have been reported to be caused by paranasal sinus mycosis. We encountered a very rare case (60-year-old woman of sinusitis with orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. She had received insulin and dialysis for diabtes and diabetic nephropathy, moreover anticoagulants after heart by-pass surgery. She underwent endoscopic sinus operation and was treated with antibiotics, but her loss of left vision did not improve. Recently, sinusitis cases due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reported to be a increasing. Therefore, we should consider the possibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as mycosis as infections of the sinus, especially inpatients who are immunocompromised body.

  12. A Numerical Study on Premixed Bluff Body Flame of Different Bluff Apex Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effects of apex angle (α on chemically reacting turbulent flow and thermal fields in a channel with a bluff body V-gutter flame holder, a numerical study has been carried out in this paper. With a basic geometry used in a previous experimental study, the apex angle was varied from 45° to 150°. Eddy dissipation concept (EDC combustion model was used for air and propane premixed flame. LES-Smagorinsky model was selected for turbulence. The gird-dependent learning and numerical model verification were done. Both nonreactive and reactive conditions were analyzed and compared. The results show that as α increases, recirculation zone becomes bigger, and Strouhal number increases a little in nonreactive cases while decreases a little in reactive cases, and the increase of α makes the flame shape wider, which will increase the chamber volume heat release ratio and enhance the flame stability.

  13. Accuracy of a fourth generation apex locator-an in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Abdullah

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The new fourth generation electronic apex locator (EAL, Elements (SybronEndo, USA has been introduced recently in the market. This study aims to investigate the accuracy of this EAL and to compare the result with a well-known apex locator, Root ZX and the radiographic technique using an in vitro model. Thirty anterior teeth with straight canals stored in 10% formalin were used. Access cavities were prepared followed by coronal flaring of the canals. Water was used as an irrigant. After the actual lengths (AL were measured, the teeth were then embedded in an alginate model. Periapical radiograph of each tooth was taken using a digital sensor and the radiographic lengths (RL were measured 0.5 mm short of the radiographic apex. Electronic tooth length measurements (EL were carried out using both EAL. Canals were then irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl and EL was taken again. Results showed that both EALs were highly accurate to within + 0.5 mm of the apical foramen, with mean differences between the AL and EL of Elements 0.23mm (SE = 0.04 and Root ZX was 0.31mm (SE = 0.05. RL was significantly less accurate compared to the readings from both EAL. No significant difference was found in the reading between both apex locators when measurements were taken in NaOCl solution. Both Elements and Propex proved to be as reliable as Root ZX. Presence of sodium hypochlorite solution did not affect the accuracy of the measurements.

  14. Evaluating Electromagnetic Interference of Communication Devices with Root ZX Mini Apex Locator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Shafieibavani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The correct determination of working length is a critical factor in the success of endodontic treatment. Nowadays, the electronic apex locators (EALs is more used because of their ease of use, high accuracy, and the uncertainty of other methods. Because EALs use the electronic method, it is likely that electromagnetic waves (EMWs affect their performance. This study aims to investigate the possibility of this interference. Materials and Methods: The visual canal length (CL of 12 maxillary incisors (Vertucci’s type I was measured with a K-file and magnifying glass. Root ZX mini apex locator is used to measure CL in the absence/presence of EMWs in both the second (2G and third generations (3G of mobile communication network at the mode of ringing and conversation at direct contact and the distances of 25 and 50 cm. Results: The mean CL at presence of EMWs in all conditions and distances (by removing the conversation with 2G at direct contact group were not significantly difference with CL and EAL and absence of investigated EMWs group (Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, P = 0.083. The indicator of EAL were unstable on apex sign at least 5 seconds for 5 teeth (41.7% of samples in conversation with 2G at the direct contact group. Conclusion: EMWs of 2G and 3G not causes malfunctions of the Root ZX mini apex locator except conversation with 2G at the direct contact.

  15. Hunger mediates apex predator's risk avoidance response in wildland-urban interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, Kevin A; Boone, Randall B; Alldredge, Mathew W

    2018-05-01

    Conflicts between large mammalian predators and humans present a challenge to conservation efforts, as these events drive human attitudes and policies concerning predator species. Unfortunately, generalities portrayed in many empirical carnivore landscape selection studies do not provide an explanation for a predator's occasional use of residential development preceding a carnivore-human conflict event. In some cases, predators may perceive residential development as a risk-reward trade-off. We examine whether state-dependent mortality risk-sensitive foraging can explain an apex carnivore's (Puma concolor) occasional utilization of residential areas. We assess whether puma balance the risk and rewards in a system characterized by a gradient of housing densities ranging from wildland to suburban. Puma GPS location data, characterized as hunting and feeding locations, were used to assess landscape variables governing hunting success and hunting site selection. Hunting site selection behaviour was then analysed conditional on indicators of hunger state. Residential development provided a high energetic reward to puma based on increases in prey availability and hunting success rates associated with increased housing density. Despite a higher energetic reward, hunting site selection analysis indicated that pumas generally avoided residential development, a landscape type attributed with higher puma mortality risk. However, when a puma experienced periods of extended hunger, risk avoidance behaviour towards housing waned. This study demonstrates that an apex carnivore faces a trade-off between acquiring energetic rewards and avoiding risks associated with human housing. Periods of hunger can help explain an apex predator's occasional use of developed landscapes and thus the rare conflicts in the wildland-urban interface. Apex carnivore movement behaviours in relation to human conflicts are best understood as a three-player community-level interaction incorporating wild

  16. EFFECTS OF LASER TREATMENT ON INTRACANAL DENTINE AND CEMENTUM AT THE ROOT APEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Mitić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser irradiation during root canal treatment is efficient but in order to prevent irreversible thermal damage to dentine, cementum and other periapical structures continuous water cooling is required. The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine and cementum at the root apex after Er:YAG laser irradiation with and without sterile saline solution irrigation. The study involved 70 intact maxillary and mandibular single-rooted and tworooted human teeth, divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In all teeth access cavity was created. For root canal irradiation, Er:YAG laser with the wavelength of 2940 nm, energy output of 140 mJ per pulse, pulse duration of 125-160 ms, pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and power of 15 W was used. Total irradiation time for each root canal was 10 seconds. The ultrastructural analysis of intracanal dentine and the cementum of the root apex was done by using scanning electron microscope (JEOL JSM-5300 Tokyo Japan. Intracanal Er:YAG laser irradiation without water cooling showed melted circumpulpal dentine with large cracks in it, whereas cementum at the root apex was thermally modified in the form of plates and cracks. Intracanal Er:YAG laser irradiation with continuous water cooling resulted in clean intracanal dentine surface without morphological changes of the cementum. The canal system irradiation is acceptable and possible only when using constant water cooling; otherwise, irreversible thermal damage to intracanal dentine and cementum at the root apex occur.

  17. Nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus with open apex: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Nidhi; Sroa, Renu B

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare malformation with a widely varied morphology. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors, and premolars. This article demonstrates rapid management of type II dens invagination with open apex and large periradicular lesion using calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament for 1-week followed by apical plug formation with mineral trioxide aggregate Plus and lateral condensation of Gutta-percha. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and lesion was entirely resolved.

  18. General Dental Practitioners’ Concept towards Using Radiography and Apex-Locators in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Raoof, Maryam; Heidaripour, Maryam; Shahravan, Arash; Haghani, Jahangir; Afkham, Arash; Razifar, Mahsa; Mohammadizadeh, Sakineh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite being the gold standard as well as a routine technique in endodontics, radiographic working length (WL) determination owns many drawbacks. Electronic apex-locators (EALs) are recommended to complement radiographies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of Iranian general dental practitioners (GDPs) towards using radiography and EAL. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and ninety one GDPs attending the 53th Iranian Dental Association Congress completed a...

  19. On-Orbit NiH2 Battery Performance and Problem Solving on the APEX Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Machlis, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics eXperiments (APEX) spacecraft, launched in August 1994, contained an Electrical Power Subsystem which included two 10 Common Pressure Vessel nickel hydrogen batteries manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. The spacecraft bus has fully supported over 18 months of on-orbit payload operations, well exceeding the mission requirement. Over the duration of the mission, three fundamentally different battery charging algorithms were used, as necessitat...

  20. Interference of apex locator, pulp tester and diathermy on pacemaker function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriman, Narayanan; Prabhakar, V; Bhuvaneswaran, J S; Subha, N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three electronic apex locators (EAL), electric pulp tester (EPT) and diathermy on pacemaker function in vitro. Three EALs: Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, CA, U.S.A.), Propex (Dentsply), Mini Apex locator (SybronEndo, Anaheim, CA, USA), EPT (Parkell pulp vitality tester Farmingdale, NY, USA) and Diathermy (Neomed 250 B) were tested for any interference with one pacemaker (A medtronic kappa KVDD901-serial number: PLE734632S). Directly connecting the pacemaker lead with the EAL/EPT/diathermy operating on a flat bench top, the telemetry wand was held directly over the pacemaker to monitor the pacing pattern for a period of 30 s. Pacemaker activity was continuously recorded on the telemetric programmer and electro gram (EGM) readings examined for pacer inhibition, noise reversion or inappropriate pacemaker pulses. All the three apex locators showed no pacing interference or background noise during its function or at rest. The EGM readings of EPT showed varying levels of background noise in between pacing however, this did not affect the normal pacing pattern and the pacing interval remained constant. EGM readings of diathermy showed an increase in the pacing interval (irregular pacing pattern) followed by complete inhibition of the pacing system. The tested EALs do not interfere with cardiac pacemaker function. The tested EPT showed varying levels of background noise but does not interfere with cardiac pacemaker function. Use of Diathermy interfered with the normal pacing, leading to complete inhibition of the pacing system.

  1. Magnetism and bonding in graphene nanodots with H modified interior, edge, and apex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Michael R.; Prabhat, Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2011-08-01

    Ab initio density functional theory calculations of hexagonal shaped zigzag edged graphene nanodot molecules, modified by the addition of atomic H to interior and perimeter sites, predict significant changes to the hexagonally sectored spin distribution and chemical bonding of the originals. The redistribution of Kohn-Sham levels at the top of the valence manifold from parent to derivative hint at large changes in the electronic structure. A centrally added H atom creates an occupied level in the middle of the 0.3 eV band gap of the parent molecule and is surrounded by an island of spins. The latter is isolated enough from the perimeter to provide a calibration of the edge spins of the modified parent. Mid-edge addition of a H atom "quenches" the spin on the edge by drawing a pz-electron into the C-H bond without reducing the spin on the other edges. Addition of H to an apex carbon atom results in a localized spin freed from the double bond that coexists with the parent spin on the same edge. Saturating the apex double bond by adding two H atoms, returns π-levels shifted in energy and index and parent-like spin patterns on all edges, intact except for small changes on the edges joined at the apex. Taken in unison these results demonstrate how atomic hydrogen and other groups could be used to engineer the magnetism of graphene nanodots.

  2. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment as a Retreatment Option for a Tooth with Open Apex - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltiadous, Maria-Elpida A; Floratos, Spyros G

    2015-10-01

    Treatment of non-vital immature teeth with apical periodontitis has always been a challenge in Endodontics. Regenerative endodontic treatment (RET) has been successfully used for the management of these cases. The aim of this study is to present a case of RET used for the retreatment of a previously endodontically treated permanent tooth with an open apex. A 14-year-old boy with a poor endodontic treatment done on his maxillary right central incisor developed symptomatic apical periodontitis. Radiographically, incomplete root development with thin dentinal walls and an open apex were evident. After accessing and removing previous filling materials, the canal was copiously irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A triple antibiotic paste was placed inside the canal and left for 15 days. After removal of the antibiotic mixture, bleeding was induced into the canal by passing a hand file out of the apex. A collagen membrane barrier was placed over the blood clot, followed by sealing with mineral trioxide aggregate. Access was sealed with permanent filling materials. Clinical examination at 12, 24 and 36 months revealed no symptoms. Radiographic examination showed resolution of the periapical lesion and apical closure. Sensitivity tests with cold and an electric pulp test elicited a negative response at all recall periods. On the basis of long-term results, RET may be an effective option for the retreatment of an immature permanent tooth with a failed previous treatment and periapical periodontitis.

  3. Histologic evaluation of the effects of Emdogain gel on injured root apex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Noriyoshi; Minakami, Masahiko; Hatakeyama, Junko; Haruna, Chieko; Morotomi, Takahiko; Izumi, Toshio; Anan, Hisashi

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of Emdogain gel (EMD) on the injured open apex within periapical lesions. Periapical lesions were induced in rats by opening the pulp chambers of the mandibular first molars and filing the apical foramen through the distal root canal with #25 K-files to make an open apex. The teeth were exposed to the oral environment for 7 days. Then we irrigated the distal root canals and divided them into EMD-treated and propylene glycol alginate-treated groups. The rats were killed 7, 14, and 28 days after treatment and examined histochemically. In the EMD-treated rats, more cells expressed transforming growth factor-β1 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 at 7 days after treatment, and the regeneration of cementum and bone was observed around the root apex at 14 days after treatment. Conversely, in the propylene glycol alginate-treated group, few cells expressed transforming growth factor-β1 or bone morphogenetic protein-2, and apical periodontal tissue recovery was rarely seen within the periapical lesions throughout the experiment. These results suggest that EMD does not irritate injured periapical tissue and may create a favorable environment that promotes the healing of destroyed periapical tissues. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The auxin signalling network translates dynamic input into robust patterning at the shoot apex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernoux, Teva; Brunoud, Géraldine; Farcot, Etienne; Morin, Valérie; Van den Daele, Hilde; Legrand, Jonathan; Oliva, Marina; Das, Pradeep; Larrieu, Antoine; Wells, Darren; Guédon, Yann; Armitage, Lynne; Picard, Franck; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Cellier, Coralie; Parry, Geraint; Koumproglou, Rachil; Doonan, John H; Estelle, Mark; Godin, Christophe; Kepinski, Stefan; Bennett, Malcolm; De Veylder, Lieven; Traas, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is thought to provide positional information for patterning during development. It is still unclear, however, precisely how auxin is distributed across tissues and how the hormone is sensed in space and time. The control of gene expression in response to auxin involves a complex network of over 50 potentially interacting transcriptional activators and repressors, the auxin response factors (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. Here, we perform a large-scale analysis of the Aux/IAA-ARF pathway in the shoot apex of Arabidopsis, where dynamic auxin-based patterning controls organogenesis. A comprehensive expression map and full interactome uncovered an unexpectedly simple distribution and structure of this pathway in the shoot apex. A mathematical model of the Aux/IAA-ARF network predicted a strong buffering capacity along with spatial differences in auxin sensitivity. We then tested and confirmed these predictions using a novel auxin signalling sensor that reports input into the signalling pathway, in conjunction with the published DR5 transcriptional output reporter. Our results provide evidence that the auxin signalling network is essential to create robust patterns at the shoot apex. PMID:21734647

  5. Energy management that generates terrain following versus apex-preserving hopping in man and machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Haeufle, Daniel F B; Seyfarth, André; Grimmer, Sten

    2012-01-01

    While hopping, 12 subjects experienced a sudden step down of 5 or 10 cm. Results revealed that the hopping style was "terrain following". It means that the subjects pursued to keep the distance between maximum hopping height (apex) and ground profile constant. The spring-loaded inverse pendulum (SLIP) model, however, which is currently considered as template for stable legged locomotion would predict apex-preserving hopping, by which the absolute maximal hopping height is kept constant regardless of changes of the ground level. To get more insight into the physics of hopping, we outlined two concepts of energy management: "constant energy supply", by which in each bounce--regardless of perturbations--the same amount of mechanical energy is injected, and "lost energy supply", by which the mechanical energy that is going to be dissipated in the current cycle is assessed and replenished. When tested by simulations and on a robot testbed capable of hopping, constant energy supply generated stable and robust terrain following hopping, whereas lost energy supply led to something like apex-preserving hopping, which, however, lacks stability as well as robustness. Comparing simulated and machine hopping with human hopping suggests that constant energy supply has a good chance to be used by humans to generate hopping.

  6. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  7. DECO FRECASE (drywall eco-friendly from eggshell and cane bagasse) as an innovation of eco-friendly interior construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imron, M. A.; Ahkam, D. N. I.; Hidayat, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The number of factories and home industries, both upper and lower middle class certainly adds waste generated, resulting in environmental pollution. The development of buildings is one of the largest contributors to global warming. For that, it takes technological innovations that lead to the criteria of green building. The application of green material is important aspects of environmentally friendly development, the selection of materials on the green material criteria of both roles should be applied continuously in order to realize the environmental sustainability of the material. Utilization Waste eggshell and bagasse which is a community waste, has the potential to become innovative environmentally friendly building materials. The eggshell is composed of 94% calcium carbonate, 1% magnesium carbonate, 1% calcium phosphate, and 4% organic material, especially protein, while the bagasse has a high content of silica (SiO2). In this study, the compounds are used as raw material for making alternative drywall in the form of DECO FRECASE. DECO FRECASE is an innovation of environmentally friendly building materials as an interior wall construction. Through DECO FRECASE, it is expected that building material innovation in Indonesia can be improved and of course environmental problems can be minimized by utilizing it as raw material for building construction.

  8. Effects of Dietary Cadmium and Boron Supplementation on Performance, Eggshell Quality and Mineral Concentrations of Bone in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Osman; Bahtiyarca, Yilmaz

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of different levels of cadmium and boron on performance, eggshell quality, and mineral concentrations of bone in layer diets. In this trial, a total of 144 layer chickens, 21 weeks old, were randomly divided into 12 experimental groups. In each experimental group, there were four replicates, and in each of the replicates, there were three hens. Experimental diets consisted of all possible combinations of four levels of added cadmium (0, 5, 15, and 45 mg/kg) and three levels of added boron (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg) to the basal diet. Added cadmium (15 or 45 mg/kg) had a significant adverse effect on performance parameters (P boron in the diet (P boron content decreased with the supplementation of cadmium (P boron to the diet did not prevent adverse effect of cadmium on performance and eggshell quality, or accumulation of cadmium in bone.

  9. Study on the treatment of traumatic orbital apex syndrome by nasal endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youzhong; Wu, Weijing; Xiao, Zian; Peng, Anquan

    2011-03-01

    Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is a complex disease caused by a variety of pathological factors, and trauma is one of the main factors/causes. Clinical data of 17 cases of traumatic OAS treated by nasal endoscopic surgery in our department from January 2002 to April 2009 were gathered and reviewed. Among them, the six patients presented with OAS after injury to the lateral wall of orbital apex. Seven other patients exhibited OAS after injury to the medial wall of orbital apex, two displayed OAS after zygomatic trauma, while OAS manifested in the other two patients with craniocerebral trauma 3 days after they had decompressive craniotomy--of them, one was blind in both eyes. In the 17 cases, 6 patients were without light sensation, 1 was blind in both eyes; the sight-chart index of eight patients was 0.1, that of three other patients was 0.1-0.2. Fifteen patients displayed eyeball movement disturbance (disorder) and cornea sensory disturbance (disorder), two were with the eyeball abducent disturbance. After the nasal endoscopic surgeries for OAS performed on the 17, the sight of the most patients was restored in varying degrees. The sight of nine patients was between 0.2 and 0.3, that of two patients was between 0.1 and 0.2, that of the other two patients was 0.1, and that of four patients remained unchanged. The eyeball movement and the cornea esthesia in 15 patients recovered from the surgeries, one patient recovered with good eyeball adducent movement and the cornea esthesia but with eyeball abducent disturbance, the other patient did not make a recovery from the eyeball immobility, cornea anesthesia and ptosis. A follow-up lasting 2 months to 2 years suggested that the 16 patients had stable recovery from the surgeries. Satisfactory results could be achieved in the treatment of traumatic OAS by nasal endoscopic surgery. From objective assessment of the therapeutic effects of traumatic OAS, it can be concluded that if a patient is diagnosed with fractures of the

  10. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; van der Veer, E

    Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked

  11. Ostrich eggshell as an alternative raw material for hydroxyapatite synthesis; Sintese e caracterizacao de hidroxiapatita a partir da casca de ovo de avestruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliman, L.B.; Gouvea, D., E-mail: orenabatistacaliman@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica; Della, V.P. [Institutlo Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), ES (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of ostrich eggshell for hydroxyapatite synthesis, a biomaterial of great medical importance due to its high biocompatibility. The eggshell was used as calcium ions source due its great containing of CaCO3. For its utilization, the eggshell was calcined and the obtained oxide (CaO) was transformed into Ca(OH){sub 2}. Hydroxyapatite synthesis consisted in a wet precipitation reaction between Ca(OH){sub 2} and commercial H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The X ray Diffraction analysis has shown that the precipitated Hydroxyapatite calcined at 800°C resulted in a bifasic powder of Hydroxyapatite and β-Tricalcium Phosphate, which proves that this precipitated Hydroxyapatite was deficient in calcium. The Infrared Spectroscopy, showed the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions, result of carrying out the reaction in open atmosphere. By Scanning Electron Microscopy nanometric particles arranged in agglomerates were observed and Specific Surface Area measurement resulted in 11,70 m²/g. Following this procedure, the ostrich eggshell gets a technological profitable reuse also environmentally friendly, being transformed in a new product of high aggregate value. (author)

  12. Effect of eggshell temperature and oxygen concentration during incubation on the development and physiological status of broiler hatchlings in the perinatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Anker, van den I.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of incubation conditions on the developmental and physiological status of birds in the perinatal period, which spans the end of incubation until the early posthatch period. Embryos were incubated at a normal (37.8°C) or high (38.9°C) eggshell temperature (EST) and

  13. Why are birds' eggs colourful? Eggshell pigments co-vary with life-history and nesting ecology among British breeding non-passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassey, P.; Thomas, G.H.; Portugal, S. J.; Maurer, G.; Hauber, M. E.; Grim, T.; Lovell, P.G.; Mikšík, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 657-672 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biliverdin * protoporphyrin * eggshell pigment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.413, year: 2012

  14. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  15. ATTENUATION OF DIFFRACTED MULTIPLES WITH AN APEX-SHIFTED TANGENT-SQUARED RADON TRANSFORM IN IMAGE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to attenuate diffracted multiples with an apex-shifted tangent-squared Radon transform in angle domain common image gathers (ADCIG . Usually, where diffracted multiples are a problem, the wave field propagation is complex and the moveout of primaries and multiples in data space is irregular. The method handles the complexity of the wave field propagation by wave-equation migration provided that migration velocities are reasonably accurate. As a result, the moveout of the multiples is well behaved in the ADCIGs. For 2D data, the apex-shifted tangent-squared Radon transform maps the 2D space image into a 3D space-cube model whose dimensions are depth, curvature and apex-shift distance.
    Well-corrected primaries map to or near the zero curvature plane and specularly-reflected multiples map to or near the zero apex-shift plane. Diffracted multiples map elsewhere in the cube according to their curvature and apex-shift distance. Thus, specularly reflected as well as diffracted multiples can be attenuated simultaneously. This approach is illustrated with a segment of a 2D seismic line over a large salt body in the Gulf of Mexico. It is shown that ignoring the apex shift compromises the attenuation of the diffracted multiples, whereas the approach proposed attenuates both the specularly-reflected and the diffracted multiples without compromising the primaries.

  16. Prepartum teat apex colonization with Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers is associated with low somatic cell count in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, S; Laevens, H; Devriese, L A; Opsomer, G; Leroy, J L M; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A

    2003-04-02

    A high number of dairy heifers freshen with udder health problems. The prevalence of teat apex colonization (TAC) with Staphylococcus chromogenes, one of the most widespread coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in milk samples from freshly calved dairy heifers, was measured cross-sectionally in non-lactating heifers on eight commercial dairy farms in Belgium. The influence of age on this prevalence, and the association between teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes prepartum and quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) in early lactation were studied. In total, 492 teat apices were sampled from 123 heifers. The age of the heifers varied from 8 to 34 months. Overall, 20% of the heifers had at least one teat apex colonized with S. chromogenes. Of all teats sampled, 10% were colonized with S. chromogenes. The chance of having at least one teat apex colonized with S. chromogenes increased with age of the heifer. The presence of prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes was not associated with intramammary infection (IMI) early postpartum with the same bacterium. On the contrary, teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes prepartum appeared to protect quarters in the first few days of lactation from having somatic cell count >or=200000cells/ml milk, commonly accepted as the threshold for intramammary infection.

  17. A novel disulfide-rich protein motif from avian eggshell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi K Kodali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the shell of a chicken egg are two opposed proteinaceous disulfide-rich membranes. They are fabricated in the avian oviduct using fibers formed from proteins that are extensively coupled by irreversible lysine-derived crosslinks. The intractability of these eggshell membranes (ESM has slowed their characterization and their protein composition remains uncertain. In this work, reductive alkylation of ESM followed by proteolytic digestion led to the identification of a cysteine rich ESM protein (abbreviated CREMP that was similar to spore coat protein SP75 from cellular slime molds. Analysis of the cysteine repeats in partial sequences of CREMP reveals runs of remarkably repetitive patterns. Module a contains a C-X(4-C-X(5-C-X(8-C-X(6 pattern (where X represents intervening non-cysteine residues. These inter-cysteine amino acid residues are also strikingly conserved. The evolutionarily-related module b has the same cysteine spacing as a, but has 11 amino acid residues at its C-terminus. Different stretches of CREMP sequences in chicken genomic DNA fragments show diverse repeat patterns: e.g. all a modules; an alternation of a-b modules; or an a-b-b arrangement. Comparable CREMP proteins are found in contigs of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata and in the oviparous green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis. In all these cases the long runs of highly conserved modular repeats have evidently led to difficulties in the assembly of full length DNA sequences. Hence the number, and the amino acid lengths, of CREMP proteins are currently unknown. A 118 amino acid fragment (representing an a-b-a-b pattern from a chicken oviduct EST library expressed in Escherichia coli is a well folded, highly anisotropic, protein with a large chemical shift dispersion in 2D solution NMR spectra. Structure is completely lost on reduction of the 8 disulfide bonds of this protein fragment. Finally, solid state NMR spectra suggest a surprising degree of order in intact

  18. Identifying the components in eggshell membrane responsible for reducing the heat resistance of bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborn, Gene; Sheldon, Brian W

    2006-04-01

    The biological activity (D-value determination) of eggshell membrane (ESM) was examined to determine the membrane components and mechanisms responsible for antibacterial activity. Biological and enzymatic activities (i.e., beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase [beta-NAGase], lysozyme, and ovotransferrin) of ESM denatured with trypsin, lipases, or heat were compared with those of untreated ESM. Trypsin-treated ESM lost all biological activity (D-values at 54 degrees C were 5.12 and 5.38 min for immobilized and solubilized trypsin, respectively) but showed no significant loss of enzymatic activities. Treatments with porcine lipase and a lipase cocktail did not impact biological or enzymatic activities. Heat denaturation of ESM (at 80 and 100 degrees C for 15 min) resulted in significant decreases in biological activity (D-values of 3.99 and 4.43 min, respectively) and loss of beta-NAGase activity. Lysozyme and ovotransferrin activities remained but were significantly reduced. Purified ESM and hen egg white components (i.e., beta-NAGase, lysozyme, and ovotransferrin) were added to Salmonella Typhimurium suspensions (in 0.1% peptone water) at varying concentrations to evaluate their biological activity. D-values at 54 degrees C were 4.50 and 3.68 min for treatment with lysozyme or beta-NAGase alone, respectively, and 2.44 min for ovotransferrin but 1.47 min for a combination of all three components (similar to values for ESM). Exposure of Salmonella Typhimurium cells to a mixture of ovotransferrin, lysozyme, and beta-NAGase or ESM resulted in significant increases in extracellular concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Transmission electron microscopic examination of Salmonella Typhimurium cells treated with a combination of ovotransferrin, lysozyme, and beta-NAGase revealed membrane disruption and cell lysis. The findings of this study demonstrate that ovotransferrin, lysozyme, and beta-NAGase are the primary components responsible for ESM antibacterial activity. The

  19. Intra-clutch and inter-colony variability in element concentrations in eggshells of the black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus, in northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Wiącek, Dariusz; Jakubas, Dariusz

    2017-04-01

    Eggshells are good bioindicators of environmental contamination, and therefore, the concentrations of 17 trace elements in 87 eggshells of black-headed gulls, Chroicocephalus ridibundus, were determined in five breeding colonies in an area dominated by farmland in northern Poland. The intra-clutch variability in the eggshell concentrations of heavy metals and other elements was also investigated, and the concentrations of the elements showed the following pattern: Ca > Mg > Sr > Fe > Zn > Al > Cr > Se > Mn > Cu > Pb > As > Ni > Mo = V > Sc > Cd. The concentrations of Fe, Al, and Mn decreased with the order in which the eggs were laid, but Sr concentrations increased. In contrast, the concentration of Cu significantly increased with the laying date. The concentrations of all elements significantly differed among the studied colonies; the highest concentration of eight elements was found in the eggshells from the Kusowo colony, which may have resulted from the intensive use of fertilizers, manure, and slurry in the surrounding agricultural region. The concentrations of Mg, Sr, and Zn in the eggshells from Skoki Duże were higher than those of the other studied colonies, which may have occurred because the gulls were nesting in a functioning gravel pit; soil and the parent rock are natural reservoirs of these elements. The observed element levels indicate that the environment where the black-headed gull eggs were formed, i.e., primarily near the breeding colonies, remains in a relatively unpolluted state, which was reflected by the low levels of Cd, Ni, and Pb and the lack of measurable levels of Hg.

  20. A study of return to saturation oscillations in the OSU APEX thermal hydraulic testing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Scott Cameron

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the flow oscillations which occur in the AP600 long term cooling test facility at Oregon State University. The AP600 system is an advanced pressurized water reactor design utilizing passive emergency cooling systems. A few hours after the initiation of a cold leg break, the passive cooling systems inject gravity fed cold water at a rate allowing steam production in the reactor vessel. Steam production in the core causes the pressure in the upper head to increase leading to flow oscillations in all the connecting reactor systems. This paper will show that the oscillations have a definite region of onset and termination for specific conditions in the APEX testing facility. Tests performed at high powers, high elevation breaks, and small break sizes do not exhibit oscillations. The APOS (Advanced Plant Oscillation Simulator) computer code has been developed using a quasi-steady state analysis for flows and a transient analysis for the core node energy balance. The pressure in the reactor head is calculated using a modified perfect gas analysis. For tank liquid inventories, a simple conservation of mass analysis is used to estimate the tank elevations. Simulation logic gleaned from APEX data and photographic evidence have been incorporated into the code to predict termination of the oscillations. Areas which would make the work more complete include a better understanding of two-phase fluid behavior for a top offtake on a pipe, more instrumentation in the core region of the APEX testing facility, and a clearer understanding of fluid conditions in the reactor barrel. Scaling of the oscillations onset and pressure amplitude are relatively straightforward, but termination and period are difficult to scale to the full AP600 plant. Differences in the core power profile and other geometrical differences between the testing facility and the actual plant make the scaling of this phenomenon to the actual plant conditions very difficult.

  1. Evaluating transformation with available resources: The influence of APEX on depression screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Brown Levey, Shandra M; Lyon, Corey

    2017-06-01

    The University of Colorado developed and piloted a team-based primary care delivery model called ambulatory process excellence (APEX) in a family medicine residency in 2015. We evaluated its impact on depression screening using found data and tools readily available to practice-based evaluators. The APEX model calls for 5 medical assistants (MAs) supporting 2 providers. MAs have dedicated time to provide delegated care, including depression screening with 2 versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire: PHQ-2 and PHQ-9. Using an interrupted time-series-with-control design, we created longitudinal profiles of the pilot and a control practice using statistical process control charts. We obtained data from preexisting dashboards derived from the electronic medical record. Outcomes included PHQ-2 screening rates, patients screening positive, and the proportion of them completing a PHQ-9. Covariates included monthly visits and new-patient appointments. Using Microsoft Excel, we transformed all data into modified z scores, plotted them on a multivariate control chart for each practice, and assessed them for evidence of special cause variation. Key informants provided information about potentially confounding concurrent events. Compared with baseline, the intervention practice significantly increased primary care medical visits and new-patient appointments, increased positive PHQ-2 patients, and improved PHQ-9 completion. High screening rates remained stable. In the control practice, new-patient appointments increased and PHQ2 screening improved. APEX may contribute to better depression-screening processes. We have provided a detailed description of a real-world, practice-based, quasi-experimental evaluation model using common spreadsheet software (Microsoft Excel) to transform and analyze found data with multivariate statistical process-control charts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  3. Comparison of the accuracies of multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with enlarged apical foramina: ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mügem Aslı Ekici

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed multi-frequency electronic apex locator iPex II with three different multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with different sizes of apical foramina. Materials and Method: Twenty-six extracted mandibular premolars were used in this study. The teeth were decoronated, and the root canals were coronally flared. Actual working length was determined by inserting a #15 K-file until the tip was visualized just within apical foramen. Actual working length was established 0.5 mm short of the distance between the rubber stopper and the file tip. Using Protaper F1, F2 and F3 files (Dentsply Maillefer, over-instrumentation 1 mm beyond the apical foramen was done. The teeth were embedded in teflon molds with alginate exposing the coronal 5 mm. Electronic working length measurements were done by using Raypex 5 (VDW, Raypex 6 (VDW, iPex (NSK Inc. and iPex II (NSK Inc. electronic apex locators. Differences between the electronic and actual working lengths were calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis of the accuracies of the electronic apex locators (α=0.05. Results: Inter-group comparisons revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracies of the different electronic apex locators (p>0.05. Intra-group comparisons also revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between different apical foramen sizes (p>0.05. Conclusion: iPex II and the other electronic apex locators provided similar endodontic working length measurements in teeth with enlarged apical foramina. All electronic apex locators tested in this study were found clinically acceptable for working length determination.

  4. Origins of the Electronic Apex Locator - Achieving Success with Strict Adherence to Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, James L

    2017-01-01

    Current history would have you believe that the evolution and development of the electronic apex locator for use during root canal procedures emanated from the work of Suzuki in 1942, which was developed as a product by Sunada in 1962. Yes, this is partly correct, however the concept of using electrical means to locate the ends of root canals was brought to the dental profession as early as 1918 by Dr. Levitt Ellsworth Custer, which was not addressed until Suzuki revisited Custer's concepts. This contribution was only one of the many that Custer proffered as he championed the use of electricity in dentistry. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  5. Comparación entre los sitios de LLAMA y APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareilles, F. A.; Morras, R.; Hauscarriaga, F. P.; Guarrera, L.; Arnal, E. M.; Lepine, J. R. D.

    A comparison among the meteorological condition prevailing at the location of APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) telescope and the site selected to deploy LLAMA (Long Latin American Millimeter Array) is carried out. The later is dubbed Alto Chorrillo, and is located 4800 m above sea level and around 16 km eastward from the town of San Antonio de los Cobres (province of Salta). This work is part of a long term monitoring campaign aim at selecting sites for millimeter and submillimeter radioastronomy that is being carried out by the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR) since 2002. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Solubilization and identification of hen eggshell membrane proteins during different times of chicken embryo development using the proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaweewong, Kritsda; Garnjanagoonchorn, Wunwiboon; Jirapakkul, Wannee; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2013-04-01

    A fertilized chicken egg is a unit of life. During hatching, transport of nutrients, including calcium, have been reported from the egg components to the developing embryo. Calcium is mobilized from the eggshell with the involvement of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In addition, other unknown proteins may also play some important roles during embryo developing process. Therefore identification and prediction of biological functions of eggshell membrane (ESM) proteins during chick embryo development was conducted by proteome analysis. Comparison of different lysis solutions indicated that the highest ability to extract ESM proteins could be obtained with 1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate in 5 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 8.8 containing 0.1 % 2-mercaptoethanol. In this study fertilized Cornish chicken eggs were incubated at 37 °C in humidified incubators for up to 21 days. At selected times (days 1, 9, 15 and 21), samples were taken and the ESMs were carefully separated by hand, washed with distilled water, and air-dried at room temperature. The ESM proteins were then solubilized and analyzed by proteome analysis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed 62 proteins in the ESM; only keratin is known ESM protein, 8 of which are egg white proteins and related while 53 others have not previously been reported. Some differences in the types of proteins and their molecular functions were noted in ESM at different incubation times. One protein which was present only at days 15 and 21 of egg incubation was identified as a calcium binding protein i.e. EGF like repeats and discoidin I like domain 3 (EDIL3 homologous protein).

  7. New electronic apex locator Romiapex A-15 presented accuracy for working length determination in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aims to evaluate, ex vivo, the accuracy of electronic apex locators Root ZX II and Romiapex-15, for working length (WL determination in permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Fourteen single-rooted teeth (incisors and canines, with their apices fully formed were used. The dental crowns were removed. The anatomic length of the tooth (real measurement was visually determined through the insertion of a size 10 K-file until the tip of the instrument could be observed in the apical foramen under a microscope (20X. Teeth were fixed in a model of resin and adapted into alginate soaked with saline solution, which was used as an  electrical conductor. Using a K-file, root canals were measured electronically using both devices. The results obtained for each apex locator were compared to the real measurements. The accuracy between the devices was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman graph, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, and Student’s t-test. Results: The mean difference between the measurements using the Root ZX II was 0.277mm greater than the real measurement, while the measurements from the Romiapex-15 were 0.308mm higher on average. The comparison between Root ZX II and Romiapex-15 had no significant difference (p= 0.868. Conclusion: It was concluded that Root ZX II and Romiapex-15 had similar accuracy. Romiapex-15 could be an option for WL determination in permanent teeth.

  8. In vitro comparison of working length determination using three different electronic apex locators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Kuştarci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the apex-locating functions of DentaPort ZX, Raypex 5 and Endo Master electronic apex locators (EALs in vitro. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth with mature apices were used for the study. The real working length (RWL was established by subtracting 0.5 mm from the actual root canal length. All teeth were mounted in an alginate model that was especially developed to test the EALs and the teeth were then measured with each EAL. The results were compared with the corresponding RWL, which was subtracted from the electronically determined distance. Data were analyzed using a paired-samples t-test, a Chi-square test and a repeated measure analysis of variance evaluation at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: Statistical analysis showed that no significant difference was found among all EALs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The accuracy of the EALs was evaluated and all of the devices showed an acceptable determination of electronic working length between the ranges of ±0.5 mm.

  9. Using APEX to Model Anticipated Human Error: Analysis of a GPS Navigational Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSelst, Mark; Freed, Michael; Shefto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The interface development process can be dramatically improved by predicting design facilitated human error at an early stage in the design process. The approach we advocate is to SIMULATE the behavior of a human agent carrying out tasks with a well-specified user interface, ANALYZE the simulation for instances of human error, and then REFINE the interface or protocol to minimize predicted error. This approach, incorporated into the APEX modeling architecture, differs from past approaches to human simulation in Its emphasis on error rather than e.g. learning rate or speed of response. The APEX model consists of two major components: (1) a powerful action selection component capable of simulating behavior in complex, multiple-task environments; and (2) a resource architecture which constrains cognitive, perceptual, and motor capabilities to within empirically demonstrated limits. The model mimics human errors arising from interactions between limited human resources and elements of the computer interface whose design falls to anticipate those limits. We analyze the design of a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) device used for radical and navigational decisions in small yacht recalls. The analysis demonstrates how human system modeling can be an effective design aid, helping to accelerate the process of refining a product (or procedure).

  10. Metastatic pancreatic carcinoma to the orbital apex presenting as a superior divisional third cranial nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatti MT

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Paula E Pecen,1 Nicholas A Ramey,1 Michael J Richard,1 M Tariq Bhatti1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine (Division of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Metastatic tumors to the orbit are rare, especially from a primary pancreatic carcinoma. A 59-year-old man presented with 4 weeks of right eye pain and eyelid swelling. There was right upper eyelid ptosis associated with a right supraduction deficit consistent with a superior divisional third cranial nerve (CN III palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right orbital apex lesion. A right orbital exenteration was performed for intractable and severe pain. Surgical pathology demonstrated a poorly differentiated carcinoma that was ultimately felt to be derived from the pancreas. In this report, we describe the clinical and neurological imaging findings of a superior divisional CN III palsy as the presenting manifestation of a presumed metastatic pancreatic carcinoma to the orbital apex, and review the neuroanatomy of CN III with particular emphasis on the anatomical bifurcation of the nerve into a superior and inferior division.Keywords: orbital tumor, orbital metastasis, superior division, third cranial nerve palsy

  11. Medullary Venous Hypertension Secondary to a Petrous Apex Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Murphy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF are common intracranial vascular lesions typically becoming symptomatic with cortical venous hypertension and possible hemorrhage. Here, we present a case illustration of a petrous apex dAVF with marked medullary venous hypertension and a unique clinical presentation. Methods: Case report. Results: A 72-year-old female, whose clinical progression was significant for altered mental status and progressive weakness, presented with diplopia, right leg paresis, and ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed edema involving the medulla. On digital subtraction cerebral angiogram, the patient was found to have a petrous apex dAVF, Cognard type IV. Following treatment with Onyx embolization, her symptoms rapidly improved, with complete resolution of diplopia and drastic improvement of her ataxia. Conclusion: The importance of this case is in the presentation and deterioration of the clinical exam, resembling an acute ischemic event. Further, this case illustrates that dAVF may cause venous hypertension with rapid onset of focal neurologic symptoms not exclusive to cortical locations.

  12. Non-Surgical Endodontic Management of Type II Dens Invaginatus with Closed and Open Apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Díaz, Mariana; Moldauer, Bertram Ivan; Uribe, Mario; Skidmore, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly that poses a significant challenge to the clinician if endodontic treatment is required. The type II (as per Oehlers) form exhibits complex internal anatomy and is frequently associated with incomplete root and apex formation. The purpose of this study is to present two cases of type II DI in the maxillary lateral incisors. In the first case, non-surgical endodontic therapy was performed utilizing calcium hydroxide as an intracanal dressing, showing significant periapical healing of the apical radiolucent area at the six month follow-up. In the second case, the development of the root and apex were affected by pulp necrosis, and the revascularization procedure was performed. Complete resolution of the pre-existing apical radiolucency, apical closure, thickening of the root canal walls, and increase in root length, after 32 months was observed. Early detection of teeth with DI type II and proper exploration of their internal anatomy are key factors for their successful management. As demonstrated in this report, conservative non-surgical endodontic treatment should be the first line of treatment for these cases. The use of revascularization protocols in teeth that develop pulp necrosis and exhibit early stage of root development could be a better alternative than traditional apexification techniques.

  13. Management of dens invaginatus type I and open apex: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Márcia S; Montagner, Francisco; Flores, Claudia B; Morari, Victor H C; Quesada, Gustavo A T; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2010-06-01

    Dens invaginatus is a critical condition for endodontic treatment once it frequently presents a complex internal anatomy and might be associated with incomplete root and apical development. Three cases of dens invaginatus with open apex in maxillary lateral incisors are presented. In the first case, apexification with calcium hydroxide pastes was performed. In the second case, initial treatment was carried out, but the patient missed follow-up appointments for 15 months. In the third case, periradicular surgery was done as a result of the persistence of exudates and incomplete root canal development after conservative endodontic treatment. Oehlers' type I dens invaginatus was also present in the opposite maxillary lateral incisor in 2 patients, but no treatment was required. At subsequent follow-up, the periradicular region was completely healed, and postoperative radiographs revealed good bone healing in all patients. Patient #2 had an increase in root length, and after 38 months the apical third was completely calcified. A careful clinical and radiographic examination should be conducted to identify dens invaginatus associated with incomplete root development and open apexes. Adequate periradicular healing was observed after the infection, and the anatomical features in the root canal system were accessed. Because a long period is required to determine the clinical outcome, patient compliance must be encouraged. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The Anti-Apoptotic Properties of APEX1 in the Endothelium Require the First 20 Amino Acids and Converge on Thioredoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyballa-Rukes, Nadine; Jakobs, Philipp; Eckers, Anna; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Serbulea, Vlad; Aufenvenne, Karin; Zschauer, Tim-Christian; Rabanter, Lothar L; Jakob, Sascha; von Ameln, Florian; Eckermann, Olaf; Leitinger, Norbert; Goy, Christine; Altschmied, Joachim; Haendeler, Judith

    2017-04-20

    The APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1 (APEX1) has a disordered N-terminus, a redox, and a DNA repair domain. APEX1 has anti-apoptotic properties, which have been linked to both domains depending on cell type and experimental conditions. As protection against apoptosis is a hallmark of vessel integrity, we wanted to elucidate whether APEX1 acts anti-apoptotic in primary human endothelial cells and, if so, what the underlying mechanisms are. APEX1 inhibits apoptosis in endothelial cells by reducing Cathepsin D (CatD) cleavage, potentially by binding to the unprocessed form. Diminished CatD activation results in increased Thioredoxin-1 protein levels leading to reduced Caspase 3 activation. Consequently, apoptosis rates are decreased. This depends on the first twenty amino acids in APEX1, because APEX1 (21-318) induces CatD activity, decreases Thioredoxin-1 protein levels, and, thus, increases Caspase 3 activity and apoptosis. Along the same lines, APEX1 (1-20) inhibits Caspase 3 cleavage and apoptosis. Furthermore, re-expression of Thioredoxin-1 via lentiviral transduction rescues endothelial cells from APEX1 (21-318)-induced apoptosis. In an in vivo model of restenosis, which is characterized by oxidative stress, endothelial activation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation, Thioredoxin-1 protein levels are reduced in the endothelium of the carotids. APEX1 acts anti-apoptotic in endothelial cells. This anti-apoptotic effect depends on the first 20 amino acids of APEX1. As proper function of the endothelium during life span is a hallmark for individual health span, a detailed characterization of the functions of the APEX1N-terminus is required to understand all its cellular properties. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 616-629.

  15. Stable isotopes in emu and genyornis eggshell and changes in moisture source delivery to the Australian interior over the last 70 ka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.J.; Miller, G.H.; Fogel, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Moisture delivery to the northern and southern margins of the Australian continent is largely seasonal. Northern Australia receives almost all of its precipitation from the Australian monsoon in the summer months, and southern Australia receives most of its precipitation from the northward expansion fo the westerlies in the winter months. Central Australia is semi-arid to arid, and receives its moisture throughout the year, from convective disturbances arising from either the Australian monsoon or the Westerlies. Geologic evidence from central Australia indicates that the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB) has been both wetter and drier than it is today throughout the late Quaternary. Information on the nature of these climatic changes is derived from the stable isotope composition of late Quaternary fossil avian eggshell collected from the LEB. The eggshells analyzed were laid by two large flightless birds indigenous to Australia: the emu (extant) and Genyornis newtoni (extinct), and span the last 70 ka. (author)

  16. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  17. Effect of working length measurement by electronic apex locator or digital radiography on postoperative pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Tuncer, Aysun; Gerek, Müzeyyen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of working length determination methods, electronic apex locator and digital radiography, on postoperative pain. Two hundred twenty patients with asymptomatic single-rooted vital teeth were randomly assigned to 2 groups according to the method used for working length determination, the radiographic group and the electronic apex locator group. After working length determination, chemomechanical preparation was performed in a crown-down technique with ProTaper instruments. A master cone radiograph was taken. Canals were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer by using a lateral compaction technique. Postoperative pain was assessed after 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours by using a 4-point pain intensity scale. In addition, patients were asked to record the number of days necessary to achieve complete pain resolution. Postoperative pain during the 4-hour to 48-hour interval studied was not significantly different (P > .05) between groups. The mean times for pain dissipation in the radiographic and electronic apex locator groups were 3.37 ± 2.79 and 3.88 ± 3.34 days, respectively. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (P > .05). There is no difference in postoperative pain between working length measurement methods by using an electronic apex locator or digital radiography. The reduced exposure to radiation by using apex locator may be a factor that influences a dentist's decision to choose the electronic apex locator over radiography. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation of MoO3/TiO2 Catalysts with Eggshell and Uniform Mo Distribution by Water-Assisted Spreading of MoO3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gulková, Daniela; Kaluža, Luděk; Vít, Zdeněk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 112, 3-4 (2006), s. 193-196 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/0705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : MoO3/TiO2 * eggshell catalysts * hydrodesulphurization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2006

  19. Slurry Impregnation of ZrO2 Extrudates: Controlled EggShell Distribution of MoO3, Hydrodesulfurization Activity, Promotion by Co

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 127, 3-4 (2009), s. 368-376 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP104/06/P034; GA ČR GA104/06/0705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : slurry impregnation * eggshell Mo catalyst * MoO3/ZrO2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2009

  20. APEX Snaps First Close-up of Star Factories in Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    For the first time, astronomers have made direct measurements of the size and brightness of regions of star-birth in a very distant galaxy, thanks to a chance discovery with the APEX telescope. The galaxy is so distant, and its light has taken so long to reach us, that we see it as it was 10 billion years ago. A cosmic "gravitational lens" is magnifying the galaxy, giving us a close-up view that would otherwise be impossible. This lucky break reveals a hectic and vigorous star-forming life for galaxies in the early Universe, with stellar nurseries forming one hundred times faster than in more recent galaxies. The research is published online today in the journal Nature. Astronomers were observing a massive galaxy cluster [1] with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, using submillimetre wavelengths of light, when they found a new and uniquely bright galaxy, more distant than the cluster and the brightest very distant galaxy ever seen at submillimetre wavelengths. It is so bright because the cosmic dust grains in the galaxy are glowing after being heated by starlight. The new galaxy has been given the name SMM J2135-0102. "We were stunned to find a surprisingly bright object that wasn't at the expected position. We soon realised it was a previously unknown and more distant galaxy being magnified by the closer galaxy cluster," says Carlos De Breuck from ESO, a member of the team. De Breuck was making the observations at the APEX telescope on the plateau of Chajnantor at an altitude of 5000 m in the Chilean Andes. The new galaxy SMM J2135-0102 is so bright because of the massive galaxy cluster that lies in the foreground. The vast mass of this cluster bends the light of the more distant galaxy, acting as a gravitational lens [2]. As with a telescope, it magnifies and brightens our view of the distant galaxy. Thanks to a fortuitous alignment between the cluster and the distant galaxy, the latter is strongly magnified by a factor of 32. "The magnification

  1. Apex-to-Cupola Distance Following VATS Predicts Recurrence in Patients With Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Lai, Wu-Wei; Yen, Yi-Ting; Tseng, Yau-Lin; Chen, Ying-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Ho; Chen, Wei; Light, Richard W

    2015-09-01

    Our study sought to determine whether the size of the residual apical pleural space in young patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is associated with the risk of recurrence. We retrospectively reviewed patients (≤30 years' old) with primary spontaneous pneumothorax following thoracoscopic surgery (2002-2010) in a university-affiliated hospital. The size of residual apical pleural space was estimated by measuring the apex-to-cupola distance on a postoperative chest radiograph at 2 time windows: first between postoperative day (POD) 0 and 3, and second between POD 4 and 14. A total of 149 patients were enrolled with a median follow-up of 11.2 months (interquartile range, 0.95-29.5 months), of whom 141 (94.6%) were male with a mean age of 20 years. The postoperative recurrence rate was 11.4%. Comparing the characteristics between the patients with and without recurrent pneumothorax, the patients with recurrence were younger (18.2 + 2.4 vs 20.7 + 3.7 years, P = 0.008), with a lower rate of pleurodesis (35% vs1 69%, P = 0.037), longer apex-to-cupola distance at POD 0 to 3 (22.41 ± 19.56 vs 10.07 ± 10.83 mm, P cupola distance at POD 0 to 3 >10 mm (P = 0.027, OR: 5.319), and no pleurodesis during VATS (P = 0.022, OR: 5.042) were independent risk factors for recurrent pneumothorax. The recurrence rate was not low (11.4%) in young patients with PSP following VATS. Residual apical pleural space with apex-to-cupola distance of 10 mm or greater at POD 0 to 3, younger age, and no pleurodesis would increase postoperative recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

  2. Mass and energy supply of a cool coronal loop near its apex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Limei; Peter, Hardi; He, Jiansen; Xia, Lidong; Wang, Linghua

    2018-03-01

    Context. Different models for the heating of solar corona assume or predict different locations of the energy input: concentrated at the footpoints, at the apex, or uniformly distributed. The brightening of a loop could be due to the increase in electron density ne, the temperature T, or a mixture of both. Aim. We investigate possible reasons for the brightening of a cool loop at transition region temperatures through imaging and spectral observation. Methods: We observed a loop with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and used the slit-jaw images together with spectra taken at a fixed slit position to study the evolution of plasma properties in and below the loop. We used spectra of Si IV, which forms at around 80 000 K in equilibrium, to identify plasma motions and derive electron densities from the ratio of inter-combination lines of O IV. Additional observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were employed to study the response at coronal temperatures (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, AIA) and to investigate the surface magnetic field below the loop (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, HMI). Results: The loop first appears at transition region temperatures and later also at coronal temperatures, indicating a heating of the plasma in the loop. The appearance of hot plasma in the loop coincides with a possible accelerating upflow seen in Si IV, with the Doppler velocity shifting continuously from -70 km s-1 to -265 km s-1. The 3D magnetic field lines extrapolated from the HMI magnetogram indicate possible magnetic reconnection between small-scale magnetic flux tubes below or near the loop apex. At the same time, an additional intensity enhancement near the loop apex is visible in the IRIS slit-jaw images at 1400 Å. These observations suggest that the loop is probably heated by the interaction between the loop and the upflows, which are accelerated by the magnetic reconnection between small-scale magnetic flux tubes at lower altitudes. Before

  3. Effect of the Inclusion of Organic Copper, Manganese, And Zinc in The Diet of Layers on Mineral Excretion, Egg Production, and Eggshell Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSS Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating the replacement of inorganic copper, manganese, and zinc sources by organic sources in the diet of laying hens during the second laying cycle in trace mineral excretion, egg production, and eggshell quality. Two hundred and fifty 100-week-old Dekalb hens were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. The control treatment consisted of a basal diet with all trace minerals in the inorganic form. The other treatments consisted of a basal diet with a mixture of the minerals copper, manganese, and zinc in the organic form with concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% of the levels of inclusion of inorganic mineral sources in the control treatment. Trace mineral excretion was determined in five layers per treatment by the method of total excreta collection. Excreta trace mineral contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Egg production and eggshell quality were determined by the mass of the eggs and the egg specific gravity, respectively. For all trace minerals examined, the dietary supplementation with organic sources reduced trace mineral excretion compared with the control group, even at 70% inclusion level, without compromising egg production or eggshell quality. The replacement of the inorganic trace mineral sources by organics source effectively reduced the excretion of copper, manganese, and zinc by laying hens in the second laying cycle.

  4. Organochlorine and heavy metal contamination in the eggs of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila (heliaca) adalberti) and accompanying changes in eggshell morphology and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L M; Hiraldo, F

    1988-01-01

    Eggs of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila (heliaca) adalberti) contained small amounts of heavy metals and organochlorine contaminants, including DDE, aldrin, dieldrin and HCHs, PCBs. Levels of organochlorine, except DDE, have decreased from 1972 to 1984. This paper reports how the structural and chemical characteristics of modern shells differ from those of older shells, unaffected by pesticides. Also, fertile and infertile recent eggs are compared. A 12.6% decrease in eggshell thickness has occurred in conjunction with a slight decrease in degree of crystallisation, but no significant changes have been found in other structural variables. The difference in chemical composition of the shell between modern and old eggs is both qualitative (presence of chlorine, potassium, magnesium and copper in recent shells) and quantitative (increase in the percentage of phosphorus and sulphur). The only clear differences between fertile and infertile eggs were a greater increase of phosphorus content and altered crystallisation in the latter. No clear relation between the amount of the mineral constituents of the shell and morphological alterations was established. The levels of contaminants in the contents seemed to be independent of the chemical alterations of the eggshell. The breeding parameters of the overall population showed no significant changes after the introduction of pesticides. However, eggshell changes have occurred in this species, which is one of the rarest birds of prey of the world, and some breeding individuals have sufficiently thin shells to suspect reduced reproductive success.

  5. Exceptionally high Cd levels and other trace elements in eggshells of American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) from the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Pía; Botté, Sandra Elizabeth; Marcovecchio, Jorge Eduardo

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of six trace metals were determined in the eggshells of American oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) from the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. All metals measured in selected samples presented concentrations above the detection limit. Means found for Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn and Ni were as follow: 2.02±0.52, 7.23±2.33, 0.78±0.03, 2.22±1.13 and 6.05±0.89mg/kg dw. The mean concentrations of Cd found were surprisingly high: 13.28±3.38mg/kg dw. Previous studies made on prey items of the American oystercatchers showed low to medium concentrations of the six trace metals. This may indicate a possible transfer of the metals that are available in the environment through food chains. Our study indicates that American oystercatchers sequester heavy metals in their eggshells. Therefore the eggshells may be useful as biomonitors for trace metal contamination in the Bahía Blanca estuary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hen uterine gene expression profiling during eggshell formation reveals putative proteins involved in the supply of minerals or in the shell mineralization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The chicken eggshell is a natural mechanical barrier to protect egg components from physical damage and microbial penetration. Its integrity and strength is critical for the development of the embryo or to ensure for consumers a table egg free of pathogens. This study compared global gene expression in laying hen uterus in the presence or absence of shell calcification in order to characterize gene products involved in the supply of minerals and / or the shell biomineralization process. Results Microarrays were used to identify a repertoire of 302 over-expressed genes during shell calcification. GO terms enrichment was performed to provide a global interpretation of the functions of the over-expressed genes, and revealed that the most over-represented proteins are related to reproductive functions. Our analysis identified 16 gene products encoding proteins involved in mineral supply, and allowed updating of the general model describing uterine ion transporters during eggshell calcification. A list of 57 proteins potentially secreted into the uterine fluid to be active in the mineralization process was also established. They were classified according to their potential functions (biomineralization, proteoglycans, molecular chaperone, antimicrobials and proteases/antiproteases). Conclusions Our study provides detailed descriptions of genes and corresponding proteins over-expressed when the shell is mineralizing. Some of these proteins involved in the supply of minerals and influencing the shell fabric to protect the egg contents are potentially useful biological markers for the genetic improvement of eggshell quality. PMID:24649854

  7. Efficacy of a Levulinic Acid Plus Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Based Sanitizer on Inactivation of Influenza A Virus on Eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ali; Cannon, Jennifer L; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2013-10-17

    Influenza A virus poses a major public health concern and is associated with annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A H3N2 viruses, which are an important cause of human influenza, can infect birds and mammals. Contaminated undercooked poultry products including eggs with avian influenza virus constitute a possible risk of transmission to humans. In this study, a novel levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer was evaluated for eggshell decontamination. Influenza A H3N2 virus-inoculated chicken eggshells were treated with a 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS, 2 % levulinic acid plus 1 % SDS, and 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.5 % SDS liquid solution for 1 min. Log reductions of viable viruses were observed by plaque assay. The 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS sanitizer provided the greatest level of influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation (2.23 log PFU), and differences in virus inactivation were observed for the various levulinic acid plus SDS concentrations tested (P ≤ 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation on eggshells using a novel levulinic acid plus SDS sanitizer. The sanitizer may be useful for reducing egg contamination and preventing the spread of avian influenza virus to humans.

  8. The use of nano-sized eggshell powder for calcium fortification of cow?s and buffalo?s milk yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shibiny, Safinaze; El-Gawad, Mona Abd El-Kader Mohamed Abd; Assem, Fayza Mohamed; El-Sayed, Samah Mosbah

    2018-01-01

    Calcium is an essential element for the growth, activity, and maintenance of the human body. Eggshells are a waste product which has received growing interest as a cheap and effective source of dietary calcium. Yogurt is a food which can be fortified with functional additives, including calcium. The aim of this study was to produce yogurt with a high calcium content by fortification with nano-sized eggshell powder (nano-ESP). Nano-sized ESP was prepared from pre-boiled and dried eggshell, using a ball mill. Yogurt was prepared from cow’s milk supplemented with 3% skimmed milk powder, and from buffalo’s milk fortified with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% and 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% nano-ESP respectively. Electron microscopic transmission showed that the powder consisted of nano-sized crystalline struc- tures (~10 nm). Laser scattering showed that particles followed a normal distribution pattern with z-average of 590.5 nm, and had negative zeta-potential of –9.33 ±4.2 mV. Results regarding changes in yogurt composi- tion, acid development, calcium distribution, biochemical changes, textural parameters and sensory attributes have been presented and discussed. The addition of up to 0.3% nano-ESP made cow and buffalo high-calcium yogurts with an acceptable composition and quality. High-calcium yogurt may offer better health benefits, such as combating osteoporosis.

  9. APEX: A Prime EXperiment at Jefferson Lab - Test Run Results and Full Run Plans; Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beacham, James [Ohio University, JLAB

    2015-06-01

    APEX is an experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in Virginia, USA, that searches for a new gauge boson (A') with sub-GeV mass and coupling to ordinary matter of g' ~ (10-6 - 10⁻²)e. Electrons impinge upon a fixed target of high-Z material. An A' is produced via a process analogous to photon bremsstrahlung, decaying to an e⁺+e⁻ pair. A test run was held in July of 2010, covering mA' = 175 to 250 MeV and couplings g'/e > 10⁻³. A full run is approved and will cover mA' ~ 65 to 525 MeV and g'/e > 2.3 x 10⁻⁴, and is expected to occur sometime in 2016 or 2017.

  10. The apex of the family tree of protocols: optimal rates and resource inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    We establish bounds on the maximum entanglement gain and minimum quantum communication cost of the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf (FQSW) protocol in the one-shot regime, which is considered to be at the apex of the existing family tree in quantum information theory. These quantities, which are expressed in terms of smooth min- and max-entropies, reduce to the known rates of quantum communication cost and entanglement gain in the asymptotic independent and identically distributed scenario. We also provide an explicit proof of the optimality of these asymptotic rates. We introduce a resource inequality for the one-shot FQSW protocol, which in conjunction with our results yields achievable one-shot rates of its children protocols. In particular, it yields bounds on the one-shot quantum capacity of a noisy channel in terms of a single entropic quantity, unlike previous bounds. We also obtain an explicit expression for the achievable rate for one-shot state redistribution.

  11. Bioremediation efficacy in Marrow Marsh following the Apex oil spill, Galveston Bay, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, R.; Singhvi, R.; Ryabik, J.; Lin, Yihua; Syslo, J.

    1992-01-01

    Samples taken from Marrow Marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas were taken to assess the efficacy of the August 5, 1990 bioremediation treatment in the marsh following the Apex barges oil spill on July 28, 1990. The bioremediation treatment combined a lyophilized bacterial mixture and a nutrient mix containing phosphorus and nitrogen. Samples from the marsh had been collected over a 96 h period from both treated and untreated oiled sites. Oil fingerprinting, fatty acid analysis, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons analysis, and total petroleum hydrocarbons analysis were performed to evaluate changes in the chemical characteristics of spilled oil. Results of analyses, although not statistically reliable, failed to support the occurrence of any definite chemical alteration in the spilled oil that could be attributed to the bioremediation treatment. The relatively short sampling period and the number of samples taken, however, may have been insufficient to document the efficacy of the overall bioremediation effect. 13 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Orbital apex syndrome affecting head and neck cancer patients: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Ribeiro, A-C; Luiz, A-C; Montezuma, M-A; Mak, M-P; Santos-Silva, A-R; Brandão, T-B

    2017-05-01

    Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is a complex and uncommon disorder that typically damages multiple cranial nerves in association with optic nerve dysfunction. OAS is associated with several different pathologies, however; only a few cases have been reported in association with head and neck cancer (HNC) so far. A case series of HNC patients diagnosed with OAS is described including clinicopathological data, image findings, and disease outcome. Ptosis and diplopia were diagnosed in four male patients with mean age of 61.2 years who were undergoing treatment for late-stage carcinomas of the tongue, larynx, and nasopharynx, eventually leading to the diagnosis of OAS. The mean overall survival rate after the diagnosis of OAS was 9.5 months. The current study reinforces evidence that OAS indicates poor prognosis and highlights the importance of early diagnosis.

  13. Persistent scarring and dilated cardiomyopathy suggest incomplete regeneration of the apex resected neonatal mouse myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Baun, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Heart damage in mammals is generally considered to result in scar formation, whereas zebrafish completely regenerate their hearts following an intermediate and reversible state of fibrosis after apex resection (AR). Recently, using the AR procedure, one-day-old mice were suggested to have full...... capacity for cardiac regeneration as well. In contrast, using the same mouse model others have shown that the regeneration process is incomplete and that scarring still remains 21days after AR. The present study tested the hypothesis that like in zebrafish, fibrosis in neonatal mammals could...... be an intermediate response before the onset of complete heart regeneration. Myocardial damage was performed by AR in postnatal day 1 C57BL/6 mice, and myocardial function and scarring assessed at day 180 using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and histology, respectively. AR mice...

  14. Subclavian Artery Occlusion and Pseudoaneurysm Caused by Lung Apex Mucormycosis: Successful Treatment with Transcatheter Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economopoulos, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Kontopoulou, Christina; Brountzos, Elias N.

    2007-01-01

    Subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion in young patients are usually post-traumatic. We report the case of a 33-year-old diabetic woman with subclavian artery occlusion and pseudoaneurysm formation caused by pulmonary mucormycosis infection. The patient presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, Horner's syndrome, and absent left arm pulses. A cystic lesion of the left lung apex was found by imaging, was surgically resected, and was histologically diagnosed as mucormycosis infection. Magnetic resonance angiography depicted a left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion adjacent to the mucormycosis lesion. To protect against thromboembolic complications and rupture, the pseudoaneurysm was embolized with coils. The patient is clinically well 1 year after the intervention with no perfusion of the pseudoaneurysm

  15. Transition zone cells reach G2 phase before initiating elongation in maize root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Alarcón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called the transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but on the basal side of the meristem cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. Throughout this journey cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but exit when they enter the elongation zone. In addition, the percentage of cells in G2 phase (4C strongly increased from the meristem to the elongation zone. However, we did not observe remarkable changes in the percentage of cells in cell cycle phases along the entire elongation zone. These results suggest that meristematic cells in maize root apex stop the cell cycle in G2 phase after leaving the meristem.

  16. Disease-induced decline of an apex predator drives invasive dominated states and threatens biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Tracey; Jones, Menna; Mooney, Nick; McCallum, Hamish

    2016-02-01

    Apex predators are important in protecting biodiversity through top-down influence on food webs. Their loss is linked with competitive release of invasive mesopredators and species extinctions. The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) has experienced severe declines over a 15-yr period as a novel transmissible cancer has spread across its current geographic range. We surveyed the mammalian community, using hair traps, across the spatial extent of the devil's progressive population decline. We found increased activity of alien invasive species (feral cats, black rats), and reduced small and medium-sized native prey species in response to the timing of the decline. In areas of long-term devil decline, invasive species comprised a significantly larger proportion of the community. The results provide evidence that the devil plays a keystone role in Tasmania's ecosystem with their decline linked to a shift toward an invasive state and biodiversity loss in one of Australia's most intact faunal communities.

  17. Novel apexification method in a non-vital tooth with an open apex: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many materials have been introduced for apexification each having their own advantages and disadvantages. This case report aims to present a new method of apexification using a combination of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM and enamel matrix derivative (EMD. After irrigating the canal of the maxillary right canine with 2.5 % sodium hypochlorite, a mixture of Bio-Oss and EMD was packed into the apical region for formation of an apical barrier and the canal was obturated by thermoplastic gutta percha technique with AH26 sealer; coronal seal was achieved by resin bonded composite. The size of the periapical lesion decreased significantly after 3, 6, 12 and 18-months. The patient had no radiographic signs or clinical symptoms at 24-month follow up and complete maturation of the apex and healing of the periapical bone were achieved.

  18. Interdisciplinary Approach to a Tooth with Open Apex and Persistent Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop N. Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries in childhood may disrupt root development leading to a tooth with open apex. Apexification procedures in such cases aim at root end closure after reasonable period of time. In some chronic cases, complete healing of the periapical area does not occur resulting in development of a nonhealing sinus. Failure of nonsurgical approach in such cases needs surgical intervention permitting thorough periapical curettage. In the present case, apexification procedure with MTA achieved root end closure but failed to heal the sinus for which surgical treatment was completed with thorough periapical curettage and application of platelet rich fibrin (PRF and a combination of β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite resulted in healing.

  19. Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as a novel apical matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Ambica; Chaudhary, Sarika; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic management of open apex using Biodentine as an apical matrix. Summary : An immature tooth with pulpal necrosis and periapical pathology imposes a great difficulty to the endodontist. Endodontic treatment options for such teeth consist of conventional apexification procedure with and without apical barriers. Biodentine™ is new calcium silicate based cement that exhibits physical and chemical properties similar to those described for certain Portland cement derivatives. This article demonstrates the use of the newer material, Biodentine as an apical matrix barrier in root end apexification procedure. This case reports present apexification and successful healing with the use of Biodentine as an apical barrier matrix. Conclusion : Apexification in one step using an apical plug of Biodentine can be considered a predictable treatment and may be an alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate apexification.

  20. HH137 and 138: Discovering New Knots and a Molecular Outflow with Gemini and APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Cappa, C. E.; Gomez, M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a multi-frequency study of HH 137 and HH 138 using Gemini images and APEX molecular line data, as well as Spitzer images. Several 2.12 micron knots linked to HH137 are identified in the Gemini image. 12^CO(3-2), 13^CO(3-2), and C18^O(3-2) line data reveal the molecular counterpart of HH 137. Spitzer combined images suggest the location of the exciting source of HH 137, almost coincident with a high-density molecular clump detected in C18^O. We derive the main physical parameters of the molecular clump and the molecular outflow, and propose a simple scenario for the whole complex.

  1. Apical foramen morphology according to the length of merged canal at the apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Ho Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the apical foramen morphology and the length of merged canal at the apex in type II root canal system. Materials and Methods This study included intact extracted maxillary and mandibular human premolars (n = 20 with fully formed roots without any visible signs of external resorption. The root segments were obtained by removing the crown 1 mm beneath the cementum-enamel junction (CEJ using a rotary diamond disk. The distance between the file tip and merged point of joining two canals was defined as Lj. The roots were carefully sectioned at 1 mm from the apex by a slow-speed water-cooled diamond saw. All cross sections were examined under the microscope at ×50 magnification and photographed to estimate the shape of the apical foramen. The longest and the shortest diameter of apical foramen was measured using ImageJ program (1.44p, National Institutes of Health. Correlation coefficient was calculated to identify the link between Lj and the apical foramen shape by Pearson's correlation. Results The average value of Lj was 3.74 mm. The average of proportion (P, estimated by dividing the longest diameter into the shortest diameter of the apical foramen, was 3.64. This study showed a significant negative correlation between P and Lj (p < 0.05. Conclusions As Lj gets longer, the apical foramen becomes more ovally shaped. Likewise, as it gets shorter, the apical foramen becomes more flat shaped.

  2. Modified APEX model for Simulating Macropore Phosphorus Contributions to Tile Drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, William I; King, Kevin W; Williams, Mark R; Confesor, Remegio B

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of macropore flow to phosphorus (P) loadings in tile-drained agricultural landscapes remains poorly understood at the field scale, despite the recognized deleterious impacts of contaminant transport via macropore pathways. A new subroutine that couples existing matrix-excess and matrix-desiccation macropore flow theory and a modified P routine is implemented in the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model. The original and modified formulation were applied and evaluated for a case study in a poorly drained field in Western Ohio with 31 months of surface and subsurface monitoring data. Results highlighted that a macropore subroutine in APEX improved edge-of-field discharge calibration and validation for both tile and total discharge from satisfactory and good, respectively, to very good and improved dissolved reactive P load calibration and validation statistics for tile P loads from unsatisfactory to very good. Output from the calibrated macropore simulations suggested median annual matrix-desiccation macropore flow contributions of 48% and P load contributions of 43%, with the majority of loading occurring in winter and spring. While somewhat counterintuitive, the prominence of matrix-desiccation macropore flow during seasons with less cracking reflects the importance of coupled development of macropore pathways and adequate supply of the macropore flow source. The innovative features of the model allow for assessments of annual macropore P contributions to tile drainage and has the potential to inform P site assessment tools. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. A new theory to explain the genesis of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; Cho, Michael

    2003-01-01

    To propose a new hypothesis that attempts to explain the pathogenesis of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma (PA CG). CLASSIC OBSTRUCTION-VACUUM HYPOTHESIS: PA CGs form when mucosal swelling blocks the circuitous pneumatic pathways to the apical air cells. Trapped gas resorption results in a vacuum that triggers bleeding, and CG forms through anaerobic breakdown of blood products. PROBLEMS WITH THE CLASSIC (OBSTRUCTION-VACUUM) HYPOTHESIS: Impaired ventilation of mucosa-lined pneumatic tracts in the middle ear, mastoid, paranasal sinuses, and lung are very common, but CG is rare. The extraordinary levels of temporal bone pneumatization typically observed in PA CG cases is indicative of excellent ventilation and freedom from inflammatory mucosal disease. Were under pressure due to gas absorption alone sufficient to trigger hemorrhage, CG ought to be frequent in otitis media with effusion. The opposite PA of 13 patients with PA CG compared with 31 highly pneumatic PAs in patients undergoing imagery for non-otologic reasons. The nature of the bony partition, as seen on computed tomography, between the PA air cell system and the adjacent marrow compartment. 4 of 13 PAs with CGs on the opposite side showed deficient septation between air cells and marrow, whereas this was not observed in any of the 31 extensively pneumatized normal ears. NEW HYPOTHESIS (EXPOSED MARROW): As cellular tracts penetrate the apex during young adulthood, budding mucosa invades and replaces hematopoietic marrow. The bony interface becomes deficient, with coaptation of richly vascular marrow and the mucosal air cell lining. Hemorrhage from the exposed marrow coagulates within the mucosal cells and occludes outflow pathways. Sustained hemorrhage from exposed marrow elements provides the engine responsible for the progressive cyst expansion. As the cyst expands, bone erosion increases the surface area of exposed marrow along the cyst wall. This exposed marrow theory explains the unique proclivity of

  4. Analysis of petrous apex meningocele associated with meningioma. Is there any relation with chronic intracranial hypertension?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wan-Qun; Huang, Biao; Liang, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jie-Ying; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Petrous apex meningocele (PAM) is an uncommon cystic lesion involving the petrous apex. The underlying cause of PAM may be related to chronic elevated intracranial pressure. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between PAM and meningioma and between PAM and other intracranial hypertension findings. Two hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients with meningiomas were retrospectively studied. Fifty age- and gender-matched controls were also enrolled in this study. The incidence of PAM, empty sella, tortuosity of the optic nerve, and hydrops of optic nerve sheath was evaluated. The maximum width, area, volume of each PAM, or Meckel's cave and volume of meningioma were measured in controls and patients, separately. One hundred fifty-nine (57.19%) patients were detected with coexistent PAMs. One hundred twenty-five patients had bilateral PAMs, 34 had unilateral lesions, and the remaining 119 did not have PAM. Two subjects (4/50) had unilateral PAMs in normal controls. The maximum width, area, volume of PAM, or Meckel's cave were significantly larger in the patients with bilateral PAM group than those in the unilateral PAM group, in the group without PAM, and those in control group (p = 0.000). The volume of meningioma was positively correlated with the PAM volume (r = 0.48). There was a positive correlation for the incidence between PAM and (1) empty sella (r = 0.901) and (2) tortuosity of the optic nerves and hydrops of the optic sheath (r = 0.825). Coexistence of PAMs with meningiomas is not rare in incidence, and it suggests a potential role for chronically elevated intracranial pressure and disturbance of CSF circulation in their pathophysiology. (orig.)

  5. Cost Analysis of Operation Theatre Services at an Apex Tertiary Care Trauma Centre of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Vijaydeep; Kumar, Subodh; Vij, Aarti; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Operating room services are one of the major cost and revenue-generating centres of a hospital. The cost associated with the provisioning of operating department services depends on the resources consumed and the unit costs of those resources. The objective of this study was to calculate the cost of operation theatre services at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi. The study was carried out at the operation theatre department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre (JPNATC), AIIMS from April 2010 to March 2011 after obtaining approval from concerned authorities. This study was observational and descriptive in nature. Traditional (average or gross) costing methodology was used to arrive at the cost for the provisioning of operation theatre (OT) services. Cost was calculated under two heads; as capital and operating cost. Annualised cost of capital assets was calculated according to the methodology prescribed by the World Health Organization and operating costs were taken on actual basis; thereafter, per day cost of OT services was obtained. The average number of surgeries performed in the trauma centre per day is 13. The annual cost of providing operating room services at JPNATC, New Delhi was calculated to be 197,298,704 Indian rupees (INR) (US$ 3,653,679), while the per hour cost was calculated to be INR 22,626.92 (US$ 419). Majority of the expenditures were for human resource (33.63 %) followed by OT capital cost (31.90 %), consumables (29.97 %), engineering maintenance cost (2.55 %), support services operating cost (1.22 %) and support services capital cost (0.73 %). Of the total cost towards the provisioning of OT services, 32.63 % was capital cost while 67.37 % is operating cost. The results of this costing study will help in the future planning of resource allocation within the financial constraints (US$ 1 = INR 54).

  6. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy without echocardiographic abnormalities evaluated by myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiologic process in patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with ST, T changes but without echocardiographic abnormalities was investigated by myocardial perfusion imaging and fatty acid metabolic imaging. Exercise stress 99m Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) imaging and rest 123 I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging were performed in 59 patients with electrocardiographic hypertrophy including 29 without apparent cause including hypertension and echocardiographic hypertrophy, and 30 with essential hypertension. Coronary angiography was performed in 6 patients without hypertension and 4 with hypertension and biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventricular apex from 6 patients without hypertension. Myocardial perfusion and 123 I-BMIPP images were classified into 3 types: normal, increased accumulation of the isotope at the left ventricular apex (high uptake) and defect. Transient perfusion abnormality and apical defect observed by 123 I-BMIPP imaging were more frequent in patients without hypertension than in patients with hypertension (32% vs. 17%, p=0.04671 in perfusion; 62% vs. 30%, p=0.0236 in 123 I-BMIPP). Eighteen normotensive patients with apical defect by 123 I-BMIPP imaging included 3 of 10 patients with normal perfusion at exercise, 6 of 10 patients with high uptake and 9 of 9 patients with perfusion defect. The defect size revealed by 123 I-BMIPP imaging was greater than that of the perfusion abnormality. Coronary stenoses were not observed and myocardial specimens showed myocardial disarray with hypertrophy. Moreover, 9 patients with hypertension and apical defects by 123 I-BMIPP showed 3 different types of perfusion. Many patients without hypertension show a pathologic process similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Perfusion and 123 I-BMIPP imaging are useful for the identification of these patients. (author)

  7. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy without echocardiographic abnormalities evaluated by myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiologic process in patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with ST, T changes but without echocardiographic abnormalities was investigated by myocardial perfusion imaging and fatty acid metabolic imaging. Exercise stress {sup 99m}Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) imaging and rest {sup 123}I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging were performed in 59 patients with electrocardiographic hypertrophy including 29 without apparent cause including hypertension and echocardiographic hypertrophy, and 30 with essential hypertension. Coronary angiography was performed in 6 patients without hypertension and 4 with hypertension and biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventricular apex from 6 patients without hypertension. Myocardial perfusion and {sup 123}I-BMIPP images were classified into 3 types: normal, increased accumulation of the isotope at the left ventricular apex (high uptake) and defect. Transient perfusion abnormality and apical defect observed by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging were more frequent in patients without hypertension than in patients with hypertension (32% vs. 17%, p=0.04671 in perfusion; 62% vs. 30%, p=0.0236 in {sup 123}I-BMIPP). Eighteen normotensive patients with apical defect by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging included 3 of 10 patients with normal perfusion at exercise, 6 of 10 patients with high uptake and 9 of 9 patients with perfusion defect. The defect size revealed by {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging was greater than that of the perfusion abnormality. Coronary stenoses were not observed and myocardial specimens showed myocardial disarray with hypertrophy. Moreover, 9 patients with hypertension and apical defects by {sup 123}I-BMIPP showed 3 different types of perfusion. Many patients without hypertension show a pathologic process similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Perfusion and {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging are useful for the identification of these patients. (author)

  8. Forest cover and level of protection influence the island-wide distribution of an apex carnivore and umbrella species, the Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Kittle; Anjali C. Watson; Samuel A. Cushman; David. W. Macdonald

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators fulfil potentially vital ecological roles. Typically wide-ranging and charismatic, they can also be useful surrogates for biodiversity preservation, making their targeted conservation imperative. The Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya), an endangered, endemic sub-species, is the island’s apex predator. Of potential keystone importance, this...

  9. Stable isotopes in modern ostrich eggshell: a calibration for paleoenvironmental applications in semi-arid regions of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Beverly J.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1998-07-01

    An isotopic study of modern ostrich eggshell (OES) is presented as a calibration for terrestrial paleoenvironmental applications. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionations of OES were determined for various organic fractions of eggshell by measuring the isotopic ratios of modern OES samples collected from controlled settings (i.e., zoos and farms) and corresponding ostrich diet. These fractionations were used to evaluate the relationship between the isotope composition of OES laid by free-range birds living in South Africa and their environment. The carbon isotope composition of the total organic and inorganic fractions of OES were enriched by 2 and 16‰, respectively, relative to the diet. In natural settings, the δ 13C values of both the organic and inorganic fractions of OES reflected that of ambient vegetation, with a noted dietary preference for C 3 plants. The nitrogen isotope composition of the total organic fraction of OES was 3‰ enriched relative to the diet, and varied inversely with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in natural settings. A decrease in MAP of 100 mm was accompanied by an increase in δ 15N values of approximately 1‰. The oxygen isotope composition of the inorganic fraction of the OES varied linearly with that of the drinking water in controlled settings. However, in natural settings, the δ 18O of OES values were highly variable and are thought to be controlled primarily by the δ 18O of ingested plant leaf-water. The stability of the isotopic signal in the organic fraction of OES through geologic time was evaluated through a series of heating experiments. The δ 13C and δ 15N values of the total organic fraction of heated OES increased by less than 0.6 and 0.2‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, in spite of extensive diagenetic alteration and changes in the amino acid composition of the samples. The results of this study indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of OES is relatively stable

  10. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Waste Eggshell as a Base Catalyst under a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the most affordable and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of biodiesel. Substitute fuel is presently a significant topic all over the world, attributable to the efforts of reducing global warming, which is the result arising from the combustion of petroleum or petrol diesel fuel. Due to its advantages of being renewable and environmentally friendly, biodiesel production has the potential to become the major substitute of petrol diesel fuel. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, is produced from renewable sources, and contributes a small amount of greenhouse gas (e.g., CO2 and SO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Research has established that one of the key obstacles to the commercialization of biodiesel is the high price of biodiesel production due to the shortage of suitable raw materials. However, waste-cooking-oil (WCO is one of the most cost-effective sources of biodiesel synthesis, and can practically minimize the raw material cost. The research was carried out to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil in order to reduce the cost, waste, and pollution associated with biodiesel production. The application of a microwave heating system towards enhancing the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil has been given little consideration in the preceding research, particularly with the application of eggshell as a heterogeneous catalyst. However, the tentative results in this study show significant performance in terms of biodiesel production, as follows: (1 the increasing of the reaction time from 120 to 165 min considerably increased the biodiesel production, which declined with a further rise to 210 min; (2 the results of this study reveal that a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of nine is appropriate and can be used for the best production of biodiesel; (3 the production of biodiesel in this study demonstrated a significant increase in response to the further increasing of power; (4 a 120 min

  11. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarper, Nazan; Akansel, Guer; Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim

    2002-01-01

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of digital radiography and apex locator with the conventional method in root length determination of primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I E Neena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the Working length in primary teeth endodontics using intra oral digital radiovisiography and apex locator with conventional method for accuracy. Materials and Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 30 primary teeth which were indicated for pulpectomy in the patients of the age group of 5-11 years All experimental teeth had adequate remaining tooth structure for rubber dam isolation and radiographicaly visible canals. Endodontic treatment was required due to irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis. A standardized intraoral periapical radiograph of the tooth was taken using conventional method by paralleling technique. The distance between the source and the tooth, tooth and the films were standardized using X-ray positioning device. During the pulpectomy procedure, the working length was determined by digital radiograph and apex locator. The measurements were then compared with the conventional method of root canal measurement technique for accuracy Result: From the results obtained we can conclude that Working length determined in primary molars using digital radiography and Apex locator did not show any significant difference in the mean working length measurements when compared with the conventional radiographic method. Conclusions: Apex locator is comparable to conventional radiograph in determining the working length without radiation in the primary teeth. Intraoral digital radiography is the safest method in determining the working length with significant reduction in radiation exposure.Hence, both the techniques can be safely used as alternatives to conventional radiographic methods in determining working length in primary teeth.

  13. Simulating soybean productivity under rainfed conditions for major soil types using APEX model in East Central Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangbang Zhang; Gary Feng; John J. Read; Xiangbin Kong; Ying Ouyang; Ardeshir Adeli; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of soybean yield constraints under rainfed conditions on major soil types in East CentralMississippi would assist growers in the region to effectively utilize the benefits of water/irrigation man-agement. The objectives of this study were to use the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX)agro-ecosystem model to simulate rainfed soybean grain yield (...

  14. Comparison of digital radiography and apex locator with the conventional method in root length determination of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neena, I E; Ananthraj, A; Praveen, P; Karthik, V; Rani, P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the Working length in primary teeth endodontics using intra oral digital radiovisiography and apex locator with conventional method for accuracy. This in vivo study was conducted on 30 primary teeth which were indicated for pulpectomy in the patients of the age group of 5-11 years All experimental teeth had adequate remaining tooth structure for rubber dam isolation and radiographicaly visible canals. Endodontic treatment was required due to irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis. A standardized intraoral periapical radiograph of the tooth was taken using conventional method by paralleling technique. The distance between the source and the tooth, tooth and the films were standardized using X-ray positioning device. During the pulpectomy procedure, the working length was determined by digital radiograph and apex locator. The measurements were then compared with the conventional method of root canal measurement technique for accuracy. From the results obtained we can conclude that Working length determined in primary molars using digital radiography and Apex locator did not show any significant difference in the mean working length measurements when compared with the conventional radiographic method. Apex locator is comparable to conventional radiograph in determining the working length without radiation in the primary teeth. Intraoral digital radiography is the safest method in determining the working length with significant reduction in radiation exposure.Hence, both the techniques can be safely used as alternatives to conventional radiographic methods in determining working length in primary teeth.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Regulation of Primocane Apex Rooting in Raspberry (Rubus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Ming, Yuetong; Cheng, Yunqing; Zhang, Yuchu; Xing, Jiyang; Sun, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Raspberries ( Rubus spp.) exhibit a unique rooting process that is initiated from the stem apex of primocane, conferring an unusual asexual mode of reproduction to this plant. However, the full complement of genes involved in this process has not been identified. To this end, the present study analyzed the transcriptomes of the Rubus primocane and floricane stem apex at three developmental stages by Digital Gene Expression profiling to identify genes that regulate rooting. Sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 26.82 Gb of nucleotides and 59,173 unigenes; 498, 7,346, 4,110, 7,900, 9,397, and 4,776 differently expressed genes were identified in paired comparisons of SAF1 (floricane at developmental stage 1) vs. SAP1 (primocane at developmental stage 1), SAF2 vs. SAP2, SAF3 vs. SAP3, SAP1 vs. SAP2, SAP1 vs. SAP3, and SAP2 vs. SAP3, respectively. SAP1 maintains an extension growth pattern; SAP2 then exhibits growth arrest and vertical (downward) gravitropic deflection; and finally, short roots begin to form on the apex of SAP3. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of SAP1 vs. SAP2 revealed 12 pathways that were activated in response to shoot growth arrest and root differentiation, including circadian rhythm-plant (ko04712) and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075). Our results indicate that genes related to circadian rhythm, ethylene and auxin signaling, shoot growth, and root development are potentially involved in the regulation of primocane apex rooting in Rubus . These findings provide a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of primocane apex rooting in this economically valuable crop.

  16. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early adulthood it will be carried out by palpation, ultrasonography, semen analysis, serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels and during late adulthood follow up will be done by ultrasonography for malignancy every 2 years. CONCLUSION. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality and its.

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  18. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  19. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  20. Enhanced catalytic stability of lipase immobilized on oxidized and disulfide-rich eggshell membrane for esters hydrolysis and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenyu; Cheng, Chuanchuan; Hao, Mei; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Ziying; Shen, Cai; Cheong, Ling-Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Eggshell membrane (ESM) is an industrial waste that is available in abundance from food industry. Present study investigated the physicochemical properties of oxidized ESM and compared the efficiency of ESM and oxidized ESM as carrier for Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL) used in esters hydrolysis and transesterification. Following oxidation treatment, FTIR analysis and Ellman's assay showed amino acid cysteine in ESM was oxidized to form disulfide bond-containing cystine. In addition, AFM analysis showed ESM which exhibited a highly porous filamentous structure appeared to be coalesce following oxidation treatment. Oxidized ESM also showed reduced porosity (38.67%) in comparison to native ESM (51.65%). BCL were successfully immobilized on oxidized ESM through carrier activation method (enzyme loading of 5.01mg protein/g oxidized ESM). These immobilized lipase demonstrated significantly (Ptransesterification (7.83±0.05) activity for at least 10 consecutive runs. Enhanced catalytic stability of BCL immobilized on oxidized ESM might be due to stabilization of the protein structure in oxidized ESM by disulfide bonds which helped formation of a stable bonding with BCL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of fungal metabolites from inside Gallus gallus domesticus eggshells by non-invasively detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumeras, Raquel; Aksenov, Alexander A; Pasamontes, Alberto; Fung, Alexander G; Cianchetta, Amanda N; Doan, Hung; Davis, R Michael; Davis, Cristina E

    2016-09-01

    The natural porosity of eggshells allows hen eggs to become contaminated with microbes from the nesting material and environment. Those microorganisms can later proliferate due to the humid ambient conditions while stored in refrigerators, causing a potential health hazard to the consumer. The microbes' volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) are released by both fungi and bacteria. We studied mVOCs produced by aging eggs likely contaminated by fungi and fresh eggs using the non-invasive detection method of gas-phase sampling of volatiles followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Two different fungal species (Cladosporium macrocarpum and Botrytis cinerea) and two different bacteria species (Stenotrophomas rhizophila and Pseudomonas argentinensis) were identified inside the studied eggs. Two compounds believed to originate from the fungi themselves were identified. One fungus-specific compound was found in both egg and the fungi: trichloromethane. Graphical abstract Trichloromethane is a potential biomarker of fungal contamination of eggs.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Soluble Eggshell Membrane Protein/PLGA Electrospun Nanofibers for Guided Tissue Regeneration Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Guided tissue regeneration (GTR is a widely used method in periodontal therapy, which involves the placement of a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells. The objective of this study is to prepare and evaluate a new type of soluble eggshell membrane protein (SEP/poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanofibers using electrospinning method for GTR membrane application. SEP/PLGA nanofibers were successfully prepared with various blending ratios. The morphology, chemical composition, surface wettability, and mechanical properties of the nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, contact angle measurement, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and a universal testing machine. L-929 fibroblast cells were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of SEP/PLGA nanofibers and investigate the interaction between cells and nanofibers. Results showed that the SEP/PLGA electrospun membrane was composed of uniform, bead-free nanofibers, which formed an interconnected porous network structure. Mechanical property of SEP has been greatly improved by the addition of PLGA. The biological study results showed that SEP/PLGA nanofibers could enhance cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation. The study indicated the potential of SEP/PLGA nanofibers for GTR application and provided a basis for future optimization.

  3. Preparation of graphene oxide doped eggshell membrane bioplatform modified Prussian blue nanoparticles as a sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Rezaei, Rahim; Razmi, Habib; Dehgan-Reyhan, Sajjad

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide doped eggshell membrane (GO-ESM) as a novel electrochemical bioplatform for electroanalytical purposes. The GO-ESM bioplatform was prepared by incorporation of GO nano-sheets into the ESM via a facile sonication procedure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction powder techniques were used to characterize the developed bioplatform. The electrochemistry of GO-ESM was investigated by decorating it on the surface of carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) by an O-ring. The GO-ESM platform was modified with Prussian blue (PB) via a facile dip-coating method. Then the resulted modified electrode (PB|GO-ESM|CCE) was used as a novel hydrogen peroxide electrochemical sensor. The fabricated electrode responds efficiently to H2O2 over the concentration range 125nM-195μM with a detection limit of 31nM (S/N=3) and sensitivity 8.8μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The PB|GO-ESM|CCE has been successfully applied to determination of H2O2 content in spiked milk samples. Due to good stability, environmental friendly, cheapness, nontoxic, well behaved electrochemical properties, and biocompatibility, the fabricated bioplatform has the promising future for practical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of breeder age, broiler strain, and eggshell temperature on development and physiological status of embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Morita, V De Souza; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2016-07-01

    Breeder age and broiler strain can influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen, particularly through differences in yolk size and shell conductance. We hypothesized that these egg characteristics might affect embryonic responses to changes in eggshell temperature (EST). This study aimed to investigate the effect of breeder age, broiler strain, and EST on development and physiological status of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using 4 batches of 1,116 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500. EST of 37.8 (normal) or 38.9°C (high) was applied from incubation d 7 (E7) until hatching. The results showed that breeder age rather than broiler strain had an influence on yolk size (P = 0.043). The shell conductance was higher in Ross 308 than in Cobb 500 (P embryos with a lower YFBM at E14, E18, and 3 h after hatch (all P embryos from the old flock compared to the young flock embryos at E14 and E16 (both P development, and the egg characteristics affected embryonic responses to changes of EST, especially for variables related to chick quality. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Long-Term Observations of Ocean Biogeochemistry with Nitrate and Oxygen Sensors in Apex Profiling Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. S.; Coletti, L.; Jannasch, H.; Martz, T.; Swift, D.; Riser, S.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term, autonomous observations of ocean biogeochemical cycles are now feasible with chemical sensors in profiling floats. These sensors will enable decadal-scale observations of trends in global ocean biogeochemical cycles. Here, we focus on measurements on nitrate and dissolved oxygen. The ISUS (In Situ Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer) optical nitrate sensor has been adapted to operate in a Webb Research, Apex profiling float. The Apex float is of the type used in the Argo array and is designed for multi-year, expendable deployments in the ocean. Floats park at 1000 m depth and make 60 nitrate and oxygen measurements at depth intervals ranging from 50 m below 400 m to 5 m in the upper 100 m as they profile to the surface. All data are transmitted to shore using the Iridium telemetry system and they are available on the Internet in near-real time. Floats equipped with ISUS and an Aanderaa oxygen sensor are capable of making 280 vertical profiles from 1000 m. At a 5 day cycle time, the floats should have nearly a four year endurance. Three floats have now been deployed at the Hawaii Ocean Time series station (HOT), Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the Gulf of Alaska and at 50 South, 30 East in the Southern Ocean. Two additional floats are designated for deployment at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series station (BATS) and in the Drake Passage. The HOT float has made 56 profiles over 260 days and should continue operating for 3 more years. Nitrate concentrations are in excellent agreement with the long-term mean observed at HOT. No significant long-term drift in sensor response has occurred. A variety of features have been observed in the HOT nitrate data that are linked to contemporaneous changes in oxygen production and mesoscale dynamics. The impacts of these features will be briefly described. The Southern Ocean float has operated for 200 days and is now observing reinjection of nitrate into surface waters as winter mixing occurs(surface nitrate > 24 micromolar). We

  6. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  7. Association between implant apex and sinus floor in posterior maxilla dental implantation: A three-dimensional finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAN, XU; ZHANG, XINWEN; CHI, WEICHAO; AI, HONGJUN; WU, LIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the association between the implant apex and the sinus floor in posterior maxilla dental implantation by means of three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analysis. Ten 3D FE models of a posterior maxillary region with a sinus membrane and different heights of alveolar ridge with different thicknesses of sinus floor cortical bone were constructed according to anatomical data of the sinus area. Six models were constructed with the same thickness of crestal cortical bone and a 1-mm thick sinus floor cortical bone, but differing heights of alveolar ridge (between 10 and 14 mm). The four models of the second group were similar (11-mm-high alveolar ridge and 1-mm-thick crestal cortical bone) but with a changing thickness of sinus floor cortical bone (between 0.5 and 2.0 mm). The standard implant model based on the Nobel Biocare® implant system was created by computer-aided design (CAD) software and assembled into the models. The materials were assumed to be isotropic and linearly elastic. An inclined force of 129 N was applied. The maximum von Mises stress, stress distribution, implant displacement and resonance frequencies were calculated using CAD software. The von Mises stress was concentrated on the surface of the crestal cortical bone around the implant neck with the exception of that for the bicortical implantation. For immediate loading, when the implant apex broke into or through the sinus cortical bone, the maximum displacements of the implant, particularly at the implant apex, were smaller than those in the other groups. With increasing depth of the implant apex in the sinus floor cortical bone, the maximum displacements decreased and the implant axial resonance frequencies presented a linear upward tendency, but buccolingual resonance frequencies were hardly affected. This FE study on the association between implant apex and sinus floor showed that having the implant apex in contact with, piercing

  8. Reliable lateral and vertical manipulations of a single Cu adatom on a Cu(111) surface with multi-atom apex tip: semiempirical and first-principles simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yiqun; Liu Qingwei; Zhang Peng; Wang Songyou; Li Yufen; Gan Fuxi; Zhuang Jun; Zhang Wenqing; Zhuang Min

    2008-01-01

    We study the reliability of the lateral manipulation of a single Cu adatom on a Cu(111) surface with single-atom, dimer and trimer apex tips using both semiempirical and first-principles simulations. The dependence of the manipulation reliability on tip height is investigated. For the single-atom apex tip the manipulation reliability increases monotonically with decreasing tip height. For the dimer and trimer apex tips the manipulation reliability is greatly improved compared to that for the single-atom apex tip over a certain tip-height range. Two kinds of mechanism are found responsible for this improvement. One is the so-called enhanced interaction mechanism in which the lateral tip-adatom interaction in the manipulation direction is improved. The other is the suspended atom mechanism in which the relative lateral trapping ability of the tip is improved due to the strong vertical attraction of the tip on the adatom. Both mechanisms occur in the manipulations with the trimer apex tip, while in those with the dimer apex tip only the former is effective. Moreover, we present a method to realize reversible vertical manipulation of a single atom on a Cu(111) surface with the trimer apex tip, based on its strong vertical and lateral attraction on the adatom

  9. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  10. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  11. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    0.01 0.12 81 A.A. 51 M 0 ɘ.01 0.09 Schizophrenia 85a W.G. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.21 Proteins & Ketones in Urine b 0 ɘ.01 0.11 86a W.H. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.15 b 0...AD-AS 90 TOTTS GAP MEDICAL RESEARCH LABS INC BANGOR PA F/G 6/5 ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS, U) 1982 R L BEECH, M E FELVER, M R...LAKSCHMANAN NOOBIN 70 C 0233 UNJCLASSIFIED NL I ,I/ ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS Richard L . Veech, Michael E. Felver, M.R. Lakschmanan, Stewart

  12. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F.; Floris, R.

    1987-01-01

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  13. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glia...

  14. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  15. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  16. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R.; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S.; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C.; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus—an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml−1) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health. PMID:27466455

  17. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  18. General Dental Practitioners’ Concept towards Using Radiography and Apex-Locators in Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Heidaripour, Maryam; Shahravan, Arash; Haghani, Jahangir; Afkham, Arash; Razifar, Mahsa; Mohammadizadeh, Sakineh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite being the gold standard as well as a routine technique in endodontics, radiographic working length (WL) determination owns many drawbacks. Electronic apex-locators (EALs) are recommended to complement radiographies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of Iranian general dental practitioners (GDPs) towards using radiography and EAL. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and ninety one GDPs attending the 53th Iranian Dental Association Congress completed a questionnaire focusing on the use of radiography and EALs during the various stages of root canal treatment. The data was analyzed with the chi-square test with the level of significance set at 0.05. The results were then calculated as frequencies and percentages. Results: More than half of the GDPs reported using radiographs as the sole method for WL determination. A total of 30.4% of the practitioners were using the combined approach during root canal therapy of a single-rooted tooth, while 38.9% used this method in multi-rooted teeth. Approximately half of the respondents would not order follow-up radiographies after root canal treatment. Conclusion: Radiography continues to be the most common method for WL determination in Iran. PMID:25386209

  19. Evaluation of electrical impedance ratio measurements in accuracy of electronic apex locators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil-Jong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this paper was evaluating the ratios of electrical impedance measurements reported in previous studies through a correlation analysis in order to explicit it as the contributing factor to the accuracy of electronic apex locator (EAL. Materials and Methods The literature regarding electrical property measurements of EALs was screened using Medline and Embase. All data acquired were plotted to identify correlations between impedance and log-scaled frequency. The accuracy of the impedance ratio method used to detect the apical constriction (APC in most EALs was evaluated using linear ramp function fitting. Changes of impedance ratios for various frequencies were evaluated for a variety of file positions. Results Among the ten papers selected in the search process, the first-order equations between log-scaled frequency and impedance were in the negative direction. When the model for the ratios was assumed to be a linear ramp function, the ratio values decreased if the file went deeper and the average ratio values of the left and right horizontal zones were significantly different in 8 out of 9 studies. The APC was located within the interval of linear relation between the left and right horizontal zones of the linear ramp model. Conclusions Using the ratio method, the APC was located within a linear interval. Therefore, using the impedance ratio between electrical impedance measurements at different frequencies was a robust method for detection of the APC.

  20. General Dental Practitioners' Concept towards Using Radiography and Apex-Locators in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Heidaripour, Maryam; Shahravan, Arash; Haghani, Jahangir; Afkham, Arash; Razifar, Mahsa; Mohammadizadeh, Sakineh

    2014-01-01

    Despite being the gold standard as well as a routine technique in endodontics, radiographic working length (WL) determination owns many drawbacks. Electronic apex-locators (EALs) are recommended to complement radiographies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of Iranian general dental practitioners (GDPs) towards using radiography and EAL. Three hundred and ninety one GDPs attending the 53(th) Iranian Dental Association Congress completed a questionnaire focusing on the use of radiography and EALs during the various stages of root canal treatment. The data was analyzed with the chi-square test with the level of significance set at 0.05. The results were then calculated as frequencies and percentages. More than half of the GDPs reported using radiographs as the sole method for WL determination. A total of 30.4% of the practitioners were using the combined approach during root canal therapy of a single-rooted tooth, while 38.9% used this method in multi-rooted teeth. Approximately half of the respondents would not order follow-up radiographies after root canal treatment. Radiography continues to be the most common method for WL determination in Iran.