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Sample records for eggs drives th2

  1. Different populations of CD11b+ dendritic cells drive Th2 responses in the small intestine and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Johannes U.; Demiri, Mimoza; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    prime S. mansoni-specific Th2 responses. Egg antigens do not induce the expression of IRF-4-related genes. Instead, IRF-4f/f CD11c-cre mice have fewer CD11b+ migrating DCs and fewer DCs carrying parasite antigens to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, CD11b+ CD103+ DCs induce Th2 responses in the small...... intestine, whereas CD11b+ CD103- DCs perform this role in the colon, revealing a specific functional heterogeneity among intestinal DCs in inducing Th2 responses....

  2. Schistosome-derived omega-1 drives Th2 polarization by suppressing protein synthesis following internalization by the mannose receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Bart; Hussaarts, Leonie; Driessen, Nicole N.; Meevissen, Moniek H.J.; Schramm, Gabriele; van der Ham, Alwin J.; van der Hoeven, Barbara; Scholzen, Thomas; Burgdorf, Sven; Mohrs, Markus; Pearce, Edward J.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Haas, Helmut; Smits, Hermelijn H.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-1, a glycosylated T2 ribonuclease (RNase) secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs and abundantly present in soluble egg antigen, has recently been shown to condition dendritic cells (DCs) to prime Th2 responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We show in this study by site-directed mutagenesis of omega-1 that both the glycosylation and the RNase activity are essential to condition DCs for Th2 polarization. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that omega-1 is bound and internalized via its glycans by the mannose receptor (MR) and subsequently impairs protein synthesis by degrading both ribosomal and messenger RNA. These experiments reveal an unrecognized pathway involving MR and interference with protein synthesis that conditions DCs for Th2 priming. PMID:22966004

  3. Transcription factor IRF4 drives dendritic cells to promote Th2 differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jesse W.; Tjota, Melissa Y.; Clay, Bryan S.; Vander Lugt, Bryan; Bandukwala, Hozefa S.; Hrusch, Cara L.; Decker, Donna C.; Blaine, Kelly M.; Fixsen, Bethany R.; Singh, Harinder; Sciammas, Roger; Sperling, Anne I.

    2013-12-01

    Atopic asthma is an inflammatory pulmonary disease associated with Th2 adaptive immune responses triggered by innocuous antigens. While dendritic cells (DCs) are known to shape the adaptive immune response, the mechanisms by which DCs promote Th2 differentiation remain elusive. Herein we demonstrate that Th2-promoting stimuli induce DC expression of IRF4. Mice with conditional deletion of Irf4 in DCs show a dramatic defect in Th2-type lung inflammation, yet retain the ability to elicit pulmonary Th1 antiviral responses. Using loss- and gain-of-function analysis, we demonstrate that Th2 differentiation is dependent on IRF4 expression in DCs. Finally, IRF4 directly targets and activates the Il-10 and Il-33 genes in DCs. Reconstitution with exogenous IL-10 and IL-33 recovers the ability of Irf4-deficient DCs to promote Th2 differentiation. These findings reveal a regulatory module in DCs by which IRF4 modulates IL-10 and IL-33 cytokine production to specifically promote Th2 differentiation and inflammation.

  4. Cyclosporine A Drives a Th17‐ and Th2‐Mediated Posttransplant Obliterative Airway Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemaître, P. H; Vokaer, B; Charbonnier, L.‐M; Iwakura, Y; Field, K. A; Estenne, M; Goldman, M; Leo, O; Remmelink, M; Moine, A. Le

    2013-01-01

    ...) occurring in cyclosporine A (CsA)‐treated recipients. We found that CsA prevented CD8 + T cell infiltration into the graft and downregulated the Th1 response but affected neither Th2 nor Th17 responses in vivo...

  5. Proteins secreted by the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis act as adjuvants for Th2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M J; Harcus, Y M; Riches, P L; Maizels, R M

    2000-07-01

    Infections with parasitic helminths such as Nippostronglyus brasiliensis induce dominant type 2 responses from antigen-specific T helper cells. The potency of the Th2 bias can also drive Th2 responses to bystander antigens introduced at the same time as infection. We now report that the Th2-promoting effect of infection can be reproduced with soluble N. brasiliensis excretory-secretory proteins (NES) released by adult parasites in vitro. Immunization of BALB/c mice with NES results in the production of IL-4 with elevated total serum IgE and specific IgG1 antibodies. NES is also able to stimulate IL-4 and polyclonal IgE production in other mouse strains (C57BL/6, B10.D2, CBA). These features are seen whether NES is administered without adjuvant as soluble protein in phosphate-buffered saline or with complete Freund's adjuvant which normally favors Th1 responses. Thus, NES possesses intrinsic adjuvanticity. Moreover, co-administration of hen egg lysozyme (HEL) with NES in the absence of other adjuvants results in generation of HEL-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IL-4 release and IgG1 antibody responses, documenting that NES can act as an adjuvant for third-party antigens. Proteinase K digestion or heat treatment of NES before immunization abolished the IL-4-stimulating activity, indicating that the factors acting to promote Th2 induction are proteins secreted by the adult parasite.

  6. Th2 cytokines inhibit lymphangiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira L Savetsky

    Full Text Available Lymphangiogenesis is the process by which new lymphatic vessels grow in response to pathologic stimuli such as wound healing, inflammation, and tumor metastasis. It is well-recognized that growth factors and cytokines regulate lymphangiogenesis by promoting or inhibiting lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC proliferation, migration and differentiation. Our group has shown that the expression of T-helper 2 (Th2 cytokines is markedly increased in lymphedema, and that these cytokines inhibit lymphatic function by increasing fibrosis and promoting changes in the extracellular matrix. However, while the evidence supporting a role for T cells and Th2 cytokines as negative regulators of lymphatic function is clear, the direct effects of Th2 cytokines on isolated LECs remains poorly understood. Using in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that physiologic doses of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13 have profound anti-lymphangiogenic effects and potently impair LEC survival, proliferation, migration, and tubule formation. Inhibition of these cytokines with targeted monoclonal antibodies in the cornea suture model specifically increases inflammatory lymphangiogenesis without concomitant changes in angiogenesis. These findings suggest that manipulation of anti-lymphangiogenic pathways may represent a novel and potent means of improving lymphangiogenesis.

  7. Comparison of HIV-1 viral loads, CD4-Th2-lymphocytes and effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of HIV-1 viral loads, CD4-Th2-lymphocytes and effects of praziquantel treatment among adults infected or uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni in fishing villages of ... Single stool samples were examined for S. mansoni eggs using Kato Katz technique at 6-month follow-up and 12 weeks after treatment.

  8. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashaswini Kannan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8-/-mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8-/-M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis.

  9. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Lewis J.; Khoury, Hania; Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia; Mahmood, Radma; Mansour, Nuha R.; Ching-Cheng Huang, Stanley; Pearce, Edward J.; Pedro S. de Carvalho, Luiz; Ley, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot) regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8 –/–mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM) deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8 –/–M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis. PMID:27487182

  10. CD209a Synergizes with Dectin-2 and Mincle to Drive Severe Th17 Cell-Mediated Schistosome Egg-Induced Immunopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Kalantari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunopathology caused by schistosome helminths varies greatly in humans and among mouse strains. A severe form of parasite egg-induced hepatic granulomatous inflammation, seen in CBA mice, is driven by Th17 cells stimulated by IL-1β and IL-23 produced by dendritic cells that express CD209a (SIGNR5, a C-type lectin receptor (CLR related to human DC-SIGN. Here, we show that CD209a-deficient CBA mice display decreased Th17 responses and are protected from severe immunopathology. In vitro, CD209a augments the egg-induced IL-1β and IL-23 production initiated by the related CLRs Dectin-2 and Mincle. While Dectin-2 and Mincle trigger an FcRγ-dependent signaling cascade that involves the tyrosine kinase Syk and the trimolecular Card9-Bcl10-Malt1 complex, CD209a promotes the sustained activation of Raf-1. Our findings demonstrate that CD209a drives severe Th17 cell-mediated immunopathology in a helminthic disease based on synergy between DC-SIGN- and Dectin-2-related CLRs.

  11. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most options. That's where you'll find vegan foods that are made without eggs or egg products. When preparing your own food, you can substitute one of these egg alternatives in your recipes. Each of these replaces one egg (these substitutes ...

  12. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  13. Mouse cytokine profile skewed towards Th2 in pregnancy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two classes of cytokines Th1 and Th2 determine the type of immune response elicited. The Th2 immune response is associated with successful pregnancy. Brucellosis is an intracellular bacterium that elicits the Th1 response and is known to cause spontaneous abortion in mammalian species. This study sought to ...

  14. Mouse cytokine profile skewed towards Th2 in pregnancy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The two classes of cytokines Th1 and Th2 determine the type of immune response elicited. The Th2 immune response is associated with successful pregnancy. Brucellosis is an intracellular bacterium that elicits the Th1 response and is known to cause spontaneous abortion in mammalian species. This study ...

  15. IL-4-producing ILC2s are required for the differentiation of TH2 cells following Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, VS; Kannan, Y; Coomes, SM; Entwistle, LJ; Rückerl, D; Seddon, B; MacDonald, AS; McKenzie, A; Wilson, MS

    2017-01-01

    Immunity to many human and murine gastrointestinal helminth parasites requires interleukin-4 (IL-4)-directed type 2 helper (TH2) differentiation of CD4+ T cells to elicit type-2 immunity. Despite a good understanding of the inflammatory cascade elicited following helminth infection, the initial source of IL-4 is unclear. Previous studies using the rat helminth parasite Nippostronglyus brasiliensis, identified an important role for basophil-derived IL-4 for TH2 differentiation. However, basophils are redundant for TH2 differentiation following infection with the natural helminth parasite of mice Heligmosomoides polygyrus, indicating that other sources of IL-4 are required. In this study using H. polygyrus, which is controlled by IL-4-dependent immunity, we identified that group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produced significant amounts of IL-4 and IL-2 following H. polygyrus infection. Leukotriene D4 was sufficient to stimulate IL-4 secretion by ILC2s, and the supernatant from activated ILC2s could potently drive TH2 differentiation in vitro in an IL-4-dependent manner. Furthermore, specific deletion of IL-4 from ILC2s compromised TH2 differentiation in vivo. Overall, this study highlights a previously unrecognized and important role for ILC2-derived IL-4 for TH2 differentiation in a natural TH2-dependent model of human helminthiasis. PMID:26883724

  16. IL-4R signaling is required to induce IL-10 for the establishment of T(h)2 dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Adam; Harcus, Yvonne M; Taylor, Matthew D; Brombacher, Frank; Maizels, Rick M

    2006-10-01

    The requirement for IL-4 to promote differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into T(h)2 effector cell populations was established by classical in vitro studies. More recent in vivo data, however, indicate that signaling through the IL-4R is not essential for acquisition of the T(h)2 phenotype. In order to reconcile these seemingly contradictory conclusions, we have taken advantage of the ability of the excretory/secretory antigens of the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis to down-regulate T(h)1 cell development and drive T(h)2 cell expansion. We show that the initial development of IL-4-producing T cells is independent of IL-4R signaling but that the subsequent expansion of IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells in a competitive environment that also contains T(h)1 potential is positively influenced by IL-4R signaling. We find that the production of IL-10 is the key IL-4R-dependent factor required to maintain T(h)2 dominance and that in the absence of IL-4R signaling, T(h)2 expansion can only be achieved by neutralization of T(h)1 cytokines. Moreover, in the absence of IL-4R signaling, reduced IL-10 production is due to the lack in expansion of an IL-10(+) T(h)2 population, rather than a global defect in the production of IL-10 by CD4(+) T cells. Thus, the evolution of T(h)2 dominance is achieved at the expense of T(h)1 cell development, normally restrained by IL-10 in an IL-4R-dependent manner. We conclude that T(h)2 cell development in response to N. brasiliensis antigen requires both IL-4 and IL-10 to act in concert on incipient populations of both T(h)1 and T(h)2 types.

  17. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil and 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters) of baking powder for each egg. When you're cutting out eggs, you'll want to make sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, ...

  18. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  19. Nascent Endothelium Initiates TH2 Polarization of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asosingh, Kewal; Cheng, Georgiana; Xu, Weiling; Savasky, Benjamin M.; Aronica, Mark A.; Li, Xiaoxia; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma airway remodeling is linked to T helper-2 (TH2) inflammation. Angiogenesis is a consistent feature of airway remodeling, but its contribution to pathophysiology remains unclear. We hypothesized that nascent endothelial cells in newly forming vessels are sufficient to initiate TH2-inflammation. VE-cadherin is a constitutively expressed endothelial cell adhesion molecule, which is exposed in its monomer form on endothelial tip cells prior to adherens junction formation. Antibody targeted to VE-cadherin monomers inhibits angiogenesis by blocking this adherens junction formation. Here, VE-cadherin monomer antibody reduced angiogenesis in the lungs of the allergen-induced murine asthma model. Strikingly, TH2 responses including, IgE production, eosinophil infiltration of the airway, subepithelial fibrosis, mucus metaplasia and airway-hyperreactivity were also attenuated by VE-cadherin blockade, via mechanisms that blunted endothelial IL-25 and proangiogenic progenitor cell TSLP production. The results identify angiogenic responses in the origins of atopic inflammation. PMID:23427249

  20. Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to academic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D H; Fox, C

    2001-08-01

    Predominant Th2 profiles are associated with the worsening of asthma, and stress is speculated to induce a Th2 profile. The goals of this study were to examine the responses of the cytokines Th1 (IFN-gamma and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6) to a stressor and to look at the relationships between cytokine and psychological responses. Twenty-four students with and without a history of asthma completed questionnaires and gave blood samples during nonexam and exam periods. Cytokines were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated mononuclear cells (MNC) and whole blood. During examinations, there were a significant decrease in IL-2 and a significant increase in IL-6 production (both cultures) and a significant decrease in IFN-gamma production (MNC cultures). Baseline IL-2 levels showed significant negative correlations with several stress and mood scores. Findings of this study indicate a down-regulation of Th1 and a selective up-regulation of Th2 cytokines during a stressful exposure. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Th2 cells produce IL-13 when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response of cells of the adaptive immune system is dependent on IL-33-, not T cell receptor-, based stimulation. While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant ...

  2. Superoxide dismutase 3 attenuates experimental Th2-driven allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Shin, Soojung; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Chung, So-Hyang

    2017-03-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory eye disease mediated by Th2 type immune response. The role of extracellular superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) in immune response and allergic conjunctival inflammation was examined in a murine model for experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC). Allergic conjunctivitis was induced in mice by allergen challenge with ovalbumin in alum via the conjunctival sac. SOD3 was topically applied and allergy indicators were compared. Clinical signs associated with conjunctivitis, such as OVA-specific IgE production, IgG1/G2a ratio and eosinophil infiltration, were drastically reduced in mice treated with SOD3. They also had less dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells in conjunctiva than controls. Attenuated allergic inflammation was accredited to reduced Th2 type cytokine responses and increased Treg cytokine in draining lymph node. The characteristics of EAC were attributed to the absence of SOD3. Our findings suggest that SOD3 might be considered as a potential target for Th2-driven allergic conjunctival inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Deficiency in Th2 cytokine responses exacerbate orthopoxvirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Isaac G; Chaudhri, Geeta; Eldi, Preethi; Buller, R Mark; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-01-01

    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) causes mousepox in mice, a disease very similar to smallpox in humans. ECTV and variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, are closely related orthopoxviruses. Mousepox is an excellent small animal model to study the genetic and immunologic basis for resistance and susceptibility of humans to smallpox. Resistance to mousepox is dependent on a strong polarized type 1 immune response, associated with robust natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. In contrast, ECTV-susceptible mice generate a type 2 response, associated with weak NK cell, CTL and IFN-γ responses but robust IL-4 responses. Nonetheless, susceptible strains infected with mutant ECTV lacking virus-encoded IFN-γ binding protein (vIFN-γbp) (ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ) control virus replication through generation of type 1 response. Since the IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways polarize type 2/T helper 2 (Th2) responses with a corresponding suppression of IFN-γ production, we investigated whether the combined absence of vIFN-γbp, and one or more host genes involved in Th2 response development, influence generation of protective immunity. Most mutant mouse strains infected with wild-type (WT) virus succumbed to disease more rapidly than WT animals. Conversely, the disease outcome was significantly improved in WT mice infected with ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ but absence of IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways did not provide any added advantage. Deficiency in IL-13 or STAT-6 resulted in defective CTL responses, higher mortality rates and accelerated deaths. Deficiencies in IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways significantly reduced the numbers of IFN-γ producing CD4 and CD8 T cells, indicating an absence of a switch to a Th1-like response. Factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to mousepox are far more complex than a balance between Th1 and Th2 responses.

  4. Mast cells have no impact on cutaneous leishmaniasis severity and related Th2 differentiation in resistant and susceptible mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christoph; Wolff, Svenja; Zapf, Thea; Raifer, Hartmann; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Bollig, Nadine; Camara, Bärbel; Trier, Claudia; Schleicher, Ulrike; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lohoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The genus leishmania comprises different protozoan parasites which are causative agents of muco-cutaneous and systemic, potentially lethal diseases. After infection with the species Leishmania major, resistant mice expand Th1 cells which stimulate macrophages for Leishmania destruction. In contrast, susceptible mice generate Th2 cells which deactivate macrophages, leading to systemic spread of the pathogens. Th-cell differentiation is determined within the first days, and Th2 cell differentiation requires IL-4, whereby the initial IL-4 source is often unknown. Mast cells are potential sources of IL-4, and hence their role in murine leishmaniasis has previously been studied in mast cell-deficient Kit mutant mice, although these mice display immunological phenotypes beyond mast cell deficiency. We therefore readdressed this question by infecting Kit-independent mast cell-deficient mice that are Th1 (C57BL/6 Cpa(Cre) ) or Th2 (BALB/c Cpa(Cre) ) prone with L. major. Using different parasite doses and intra- or subcutaneous infection routes, the results demonstrate no role of mast cells on lesion size development, parasite load, immune cell phenotypes expanding in draining lymph nodes, and cytokine production during murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Thus, other cell types such as ILCs or T cells have to be considered as primary source of Th2-driving IL-4. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Obesity and asthma: beyond T(H)2 inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiria, Luiz O S; Martins, Milton A; Saad, Mário J A

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma. Likewise, obesity is known to increase disease severity in asthmatic subjects and also to impair the efficacy of first-line treatment medications for asthma, worsening asthma control in obese patients. This concept is in agreement with the current understanding that some asthma phenotypes are not accompanied by detectable inflammation, and may not be ameliorated by classical anti-inflammatory therapy. There are growing evidences suggesting that the obesity-related asthma phenotype does not necessarily involve the classical T(H)2-dependent inflammatory process. Hormones involved in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogeneses of obesity likely directly or indirectly link obesity and asthma through inflammatory and non-inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, the endocrine regulation of the airway-related pre-ganglionic nerves likely contributes to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in obese states. In this review, we focused our efforts on understanding the mechanism underlying obesity-related asthma by exploring the T(H)2-independent mechanisms leading to this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mina: a Th2 response regulator meets TGFβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Meenu R; Lian, Shangli; Bix, Mark

    2014-12-01

    The JmjC protein Mina is an important immune response regulator. Classical forward genetics first discovered its immune role in 2009 in connection with the development of T helper 2 (Th2) cells. This prompted investigation into Mina's role in the two best-studied contexts where Th2 responses are essential: atopic asthma and helminth expulsion. In work focused on a mouse model of atopic asthma, Mina deficiency was found to ameliorate airway hyper-resistance and pulmonary inflammation. And, in a case-control study genetic variation at the human MINA locus was found to be associated with the development of childhood atopic asthma. Although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of Mina's involvement in pulmonary inflammation remains unknown, our recent work on parasitic helminth expulsion suggests the possibility that, rather than T cells, epithelial cells responding to TGFβ may play the dominant role. Here we review the growing body of literature on the emerging Mina pathway in T cells and epithelial cells and attempt to set these into a broader context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deficiency in Th2 cytokine responses exacerbate orthopoxvirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac G Sakala

    Full Text Available Ectromelia virus (ECTV causes mousepox in mice, a disease very similar to smallpox in humans. ECTV and variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox, are closely related orthopoxviruses. Mousepox is an excellent small animal model to study the genetic and immunologic basis for resistance and susceptibility of humans to smallpox. Resistance to mousepox is dependent on a strong polarized type 1 immune response, associated with robust natural killer (NK cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL and gamma interferon (IFN-γ responses. In contrast, ECTV-susceptible mice generate a type 2 response, associated with weak NK cell, CTL and IFN-γ responses but robust IL-4 responses. Nonetheless, susceptible strains infected with mutant ECTV lacking virus-encoded IFN-γ binding protein (vIFN-γbp (ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ control virus replication through generation of type 1 response. Since the IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways polarize type 2/T helper 2 (Th2 responses with a corresponding suppression of IFN-γ production, we investigated whether the combined absence of vIFN-γbp, and one or more host genes involved in Th2 response development, influence generation of protective immunity. Most mutant mouse strains infected with wild-type (WT virus succumbed to disease more rapidly than WT animals. Conversely, the disease outcome was significantly improved in WT mice infected with ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ but absence of IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways did not provide any added advantage. Deficiency in IL-13 or STAT-6 resulted in defective CTL responses, higher mortality rates and accelerated deaths. Deficiencies in IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways significantly reduced the numbers of IFN-γ producing CD4 and CD8 T cells, indicating an absence of a switch to a Th1-like response. Factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to mousepox are far more complex than a balance between Th1 and Th2 responses.

  8. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  9. Dysregulated cytokine expression by CD4+ T cells from post-septic mice modulates both Th1 and Th2-mediated granulomatous lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Carson

    Full Text Available Previous epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animals indicate that survivors of severe sepsis exhibit deficiencies in the activation and effector function of immune cells. In particular, CD4+ T lymphocytes can exhibit reduced proliferative capacity and improper cytokine responses following sepsis. To further investigate the cell-intrinsic defects of CD4+ T cells following sepsis, splenic CD4+ T cells from sham surgery and post-septic mice were transferred into lymphopenic mice. These recipient mice were then subjected to both TH1-(purified protein derivative and TH2-(Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen driven models of granulomatous lung inflammation. Post-septic CD4+ T cells mediated smaller TH1 and larger TH2 lung granulomas as compared to mice receiving CD4+ T cells from sham surgery donors. However, cytokine production by lymph node cells in antigen restimulation assays indicated increased pan-specific cytokine expression by post-septic CD4+ T cell recipient mice in both TH1 and TH2 granuloma models. These include increased production of T(H2 cytokines in TH1 inflammation, and increased production of T(H1 cytokines in TH2 inflammation. These results suggest that cell-intrinsic defects in CD4+ T cell effector function can have deleterious effects on inflammatory processes post-sepsis, due to a defect in the proper regulation of TH-specific cytokine expression.

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  16. CD4 T-cell subsets in Malaria: TH1/TH2 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian ePerez-Mazliah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells have been shown to play a central role in immune control of infection with Plasmodium parasites. At the erythrocytic stage of infection, IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T-cell help for the B-cell response are required for control and elimination of infected red blood cells. CD4+ T cells are also important for controlling Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages through the activation of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells. However, excessive inflammatory responses triggered by the infection have been shown to drive pathology. Early classical experiments demonstrated a biphasic CD4+ T-cell response against erythrocytic stages in mice, in which T helper (Th1 and antibody helper CD4+ T cells appear sequentially during a primary infection. While IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells do play a role in controlling acute infections, and they contribute to acute erythrocytic-stage pathology, it became apparent that a classical Th2 response producing IL-4 is not a critical feature of the CD4+ T cell response during the chronic phase of infection. Rather, effective CD4+ T-cell help for B cells, which can occur in the absence of IL-4, is required to control chronic parasitemia. IL-10, important to counterbalance inflammation and associated with protection from inflammatory-mediated severe malaria in both humans and experimental models, was originally considered be produced by CD4+ Th2 cells during infection. We review the interpretations of CD4+ T cell responses during Plasmodium infection, proposed under the original Th1/Th2 paradigm, in light of more recent advances, including the identification of multifunctional T cells such as Th1 cells co-expressing IFN-γ and IL-10, the identification of follicular helper T cells (Tfh as the predominant CD4+ T helper subset for B cells, and the recognition of inherent plasticity in the fates of different CD4+ T cells.

  17. Transcription Factors Oct-1 and GATA-3 Cooperatively Regulate Th2 Cytokine Gene Expression via the RHS5 within the Th2 Locus Control Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwan; Kim, Najung; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2016-01-01

    The T helper type 2 (Th2) locus control region (LCR) regulates Th2 cell differentiation. Several transcription factors bind to the LCR to modulate the expression of Th2 cytokine genes, but the molecular mechanisms behind Th2 cytokine gene regulation are incompletely understood. Here, we used database analysis and an oligonucleotide competition/electrophoretic mobility shift assays to search for transcription factors binding to RHS5, a DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) within the Th2 LCR. Consequently, we demonstrated that GATA-binding protein-3 (GATA-3), E26 transformation-specific protein 1 (Ets-1), octamer transcription factor-1 (Oct-1), and Oct-2 selectively associate with RHS5. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays showed that Oct-1 and Oct-2 bound within the Il4 promoter region and the Th2 LCR, and that Oct-1 and GATA-3 or Oct-2 synergistically triggered the transactivational activity of the Il4 promoter through RHS5. These results suggest that Oct-1 and GATA-3/Oct-2 direct Th2 cytokine gene expression in a cooperative manner. PMID:26840450

  18. Competition for antigen between Th1 and Th2 responses determines the timing of the immune response switch during Mycobaterium avium subspecies paratuberulosis infection in ruminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesham Magombedze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Johne's disease (JD, a persistent and slow progressing infection of ruminants such as cows and sheep, is caused by slow replicating bacilli Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infecting macrophages in the gut. Infected animals initially mount a cell-mediated CD4 T cell response against MAP which is characterized by the production of interferon gamma (Th1 response. Over time, Th1 response diminishes in most animals and antibody response to MAP antigens becomes dominant (Th2 response. The switch from Th1 to Th2 response occurs concomitantly with disease progression and shedding of the bacteria in feces. Mechanisms controlling this Th1/Th2 switch remain poorly understood. Because Th1 and Th2 responses are known to cross-inhibit each other, it is unclear why initially strong Th1 response is lost over time. Using a novel mathematical model of the immune response to MAP infection we show that the ability of extracellular bacteria to persist outside of macrophages naturally leads to switch of the cellular response to antibody production. Several additional mechanisms may also contribute to the timing of the Th1/Th2 switch including the rate of proliferation of Th1/Th2 responses at the site of infection, efficiency at which immune responses cross-inhibit each other, and the rate at which Th1 response becomes exhausted over time. Our basic model reasonably well explains four different kinetic patterns of the Th1/Th2 responses in MAP-infected sheep by variability in the initial bacterial dose and the efficiency of the MAP-specific T cell responses. Taken together, our novel mathematical model identifies factors of bacterial and host origin that drive kinetics of the immune response to MAP and provides the basis for testing the impact of vaccination or early treatment on the duration of infection.

  19. T cell clones from Schistosoma haematobium infected and exposed individuals lacking distinct cytokine profiles for Th1/Th2 polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection.

  20. IL-10 induces a STAT3-dependent autoregulatory loop in TH2 cells that promotes Blimp-1 restriction of cell expansion via antagonism of STAT5 target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poholek, Amanda C; Jankovic, Dragana; Villarino, Alejandro V; Petermann, Franziska; Hettinga, Angela; Shouval, Dror S; Snapper, Scott B; Kaech, Susan M; Brooks, Stephen R; Vahedi, Golnaz; Sher, Alan; Kanno, Yuka; O'Shea, John J

    2016-10-01

    Blimp-1 expression in T cells extinguishes the fate of T follicular helper cells, drives terminal differentiation, and limits autoimmunity. Although various factors have been described to control Blimp-1 expression in T cells, little is known about what regulates Blimp-1 expression in T helper 2 (TH2) cells and the molecular basis of its actions. We report that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) unexpectedly played a critical role in regulating Blimp-1 in TH2 cells. Furthermore, we found that the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) acted directly on TH2 cells and was necessary and sufficient to induce optimal Blimp-1 expression through STAT3. Together, Blimp-1 and STAT3 amplified IL-10 production in TH2 cells, creating a strong autoregulatory loop that enhanced Blimp-1 expression. Increased Blimp-1 in T cells antagonized STAT5-regulated cell cycle and antiapoptotic genes to limit cell expansion. These data elucidate the signals required for Blimp-1 expression in TH2 cells and reveal an unexpected mechanism of action of IL-10 in T cells, providing insights into the molecular underpinning by which Blimp-1 constrains T cell expansion to limit autoimmunity.

  1. IFNγ and IL-12 Restrict Th2 Responses during Helminth/Plasmodium Co-Infection and Promote IFNγ from Th2 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Coomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths establish chronic infections in mammalian hosts. Helminth/Plasmodium co-infections occur frequently in endemic areas. However, it is unclear whether Plasmodium infections compromise anti-helminth immunity, contributing to the chronicity of infection. Immunity to Plasmodium or helminths requires divergent CD4+ T cell-driven responses, dominated by IFNγ or IL-4, respectively. Recent literature has indicated that Th cells, including Th2 cells, have phenotypic plasticity with the ability to produce non-lineage associated cytokines. Whether such plasticity occurs during co-infection is unclear. In this study, we observed reduced anti-helminth Th2 cell responses and compromised anti-helminth immunity during Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Plasmodium chabaudi co-infection. Using newly established triple cytokine reporter mice (Il4gfpIfngyfpIl17aFP635, we demonstrated that Il4gfp+ Th2 cells purified from in vitro cultures or isolated ex vivo from helminth-infected mice up-regulated IFNγ following adoptive transfer into Rag1-/- mice infected with P. chabaudi. Functionally, Th2 cells that up-regulated IFNγ were transcriptionally re-wired and protected recipient mice from high parasitemia. Mechanistically, TCR stimulation and responsiveness to IL-12 and IFNγ, but not type I IFN, was required for optimal IFNγ production by Th2 cells. Finally, blockade of IL-12 and IFNγ during co-infection partially preserved anti-helminth Th2 responses. In summary, this study demonstrates that Th2 cells retain substantial plasticity with the ability to produce IFNγ during Plasmodium infection. Consequently, co-infection with Plasmodium spp. may contribute to the chronicity of helminth infection by reducing anti-helminth Th2 cells and converting them into IFNγ-secreting cells.

  2. The Role of Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance in Gulf War-Related Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Ramirez et al, 1996). Finally, although natural infection with Bordetella pertussis and its whole cell-derived vaccine promote a strong Thl response...the stress of deployment with additional effects of the T helper 2 (Th2) adjuvant pertussis could skew the immune response towards a Th2 profile. The...paradoxically the acellular vaccine component pertussis toxin used as adjuvant in GW vaccinations causes Th2 deviation (Munoz et al, 1990; Mu et al, 1993

  3. Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens. Materials and Methods: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylus vulgaris (CSS, excretory-secretory S. vulgaris (ESS, crude somatic Cyathostomins (CSC, and excretory-secretory Cyathostomins (ESC. Results: The results revealed highest 437.04% and lowest 37.81% immunoglobulin G (IgG in high and low egg shedder groups when using ESC and CSS antigens, respectively. Antibodies index for ESS and CSC were significantly higher in moderate egg shedder group while that for ESS and CSC, ESC was significantly higher in high egg shedder group. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α/interleukin-4 (IL-4 balance in S. vulgaris infected donkeys was approximately equal in apparently healthy, low and high egg shedder groups while TNF-α < IL-4 in moderate egg shedder. In Cyathostomins infected animals, TNF-α/IL-4 balance was approximately equal in apparently healthy group while it was low in moderate and high egg shedder groups. The diagnostic accuracy showed that the higher specificity (46.6% and prevalence (95.40% were recorded by CSS and ESC antigens, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiling proved that the band at molecular weight 25 kDa is exhibited by CSS antigen. Conclusion: Combination of detecting level of TNF-α/IL-4 balance, CSS antigen and IgG concentration is good tool for appropriate diagnosis of such infection. More advancement research must be

  4. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  5. Basophil depletion downregulates Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, William K; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Furushima-Shimogawara, Rieko; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Akao, Nobuaki; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D; Karasuyama, Hajime; Ohta, Nobuo

    2013-12-01

    Granuloma formation around parasite eggs during schistosomal infection is considered to be controlled by Th2 cytokines. However, it is still controversial which cell populations are responsible for the host Th2 cytokine-dependent granuloma formation. Basophils have recently attracted attention because of their ability to produce large amounts of IL-4. Therefore, we investigated whether basophils play an essential role in the induction of granuloma formation induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Together with our previous observation that basophil numbers increased markedly in the spleen at 7 weeks postinfection, immunohistochemical staining using anti-mMCP8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) showed basophil infiltration in the granulomatous lesions formed around parasite eggs. To examine the roles of basophils more directly, we treated mice with anti-CD200R3 mAb to deplete basophils. Depletion of basophils resulted in a reduction of basophil number with concomitant downregulation of egg granuloma formation at 7 weeks postinfection. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction in the size of egg granulomas formed in basophil-depleted mice in the pulmonary granuloma model. Taken together, these findings indicated that basophils are essential for S. mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation, and this may serve as a novel therapeutic target in ameliorating the pathology of schistosomiasis. © 2013.

  6. Role of Th1 and Th2 cells in autoimmune demyelinating disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, L.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that Th1 cells play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas Th2 cells contribute to recovery from disease. A maj or determinant in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells is the type of

  7. IL25 elicits a multipotent progenitor cell population that promotes TH2 cytokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD4+ T helper 2 (TH2) cells secrete interleukin (IL)4, IL5 and IL13, and are required for immunity to gastrointestinal helminth infections. However, TH2 cells also promote chronic inflammation associated with asthma and allergic disorders. The non-haematopoietic-cell-derived cytokines thymic stromal...

  8. Host-Based Th2 Cell Therapy for Prolongation of Cardiac Allograft Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jason E.; Costanzo, Carliann M.; Sennesh, Joel D.; Solomon, Michael A.; Fowler, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Donor T cell transfusion, which is a long-standing approach to prevent allograft rejection, operates indirectly by alteration of host T cell immunity. We therefore hypothesized that adoptive transfer of immune regulatory host Th2 cells would represent a novel intervention to enhance cardiac allograft survival. Using a well-described rat cardiac transplant model, we first developed a method for ex vivo manufacture of rat host-type Th2 cells in rapamycin, with subsequent injection of such Th2.R cells prior to class I and class II disparate cardiac allografting. Second, we determined whether Th2.R cell transfer polarized host immunity towards a Th2 phenotype. And third, we evaluated whether Th2.R cell therapy prolonged allograft viability when used alone or in combination with a short-course of cyclosporine (CSA) therapy. We found that host-type Th2.R cell therapy prior to cardiac allografting: (1) reduced the frequency of activated T cells in secondary lymphoid organs; (2) shifted post-transplant cytokines towards a Th2 phenotype; and (3) prolonged allograft viability when used in combination with short-course CSA therapy. These results provide further support for the rationale to use “direct” host T cell therapy for prolongation of allograft viability as an alternative to “indirect” therapy mediated by donor T cell infusion. PMID:21559526

  9. Host-based Th2 cell therapy for prolongation of cardiac allograft viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoba Amarnath

    Full Text Available Donor T cell transfusion, which is a long-standing approach to prevent allograft rejection, operates indirectly by alteration of host T cell immunity. We therefore hypothesized that adoptive transfer of immune regulatory host Th2 cells would represent a novel intervention to enhance cardiac allograft survival. Using a well-described rat cardiac transplant model, we first developed a method for ex vivo manufacture of rat host-type Th2 cells in rapamycin, with subsequent injection of such Th2.R cells prior to class I and class II disparate cardiac allografting. Second, we determined whether Th2.R cell transfer polarized host immunity towards a Th2 phenotype. And third, we evaluated whether Th2.R cell therapy prolonged allograft viability when used alone or in combination with a short-course of cyclosporine (CSA therapy. We found that host-type Th2.R cell therapy prior to cardiac allografting: (1 reduced the frequency of activated T cells in secondary lymphoid organs; (2 shifted post-transplant cytokines towards a Th2 phenotype; and (3 prolonged allograft viability when used in combination with short-course CSA therapy. These results provide further support for the rationale to use "direct" host T cell therapy for prolongation of allograft viability as an alternative to "indirect" therapy mediated by donor T cell infusion.

  10. A phenotypically and functionally distinct human TH2 cell subpopulation is associated with allergic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambre, Erik; Bajzik, Veronique; DeLong, Jonathan H; O'Brien, Kimberly; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh; Speake, Cate; Gersuk, Vivian H; DeBerg, Hannah A; Whalen, Elizabeth; Ni, Chester; Farrington, Mary; Jeong, David; Robinson, David; Linsley, Peter S; Vickery, Brian P; Kwok, William W

    2017-08-02

    Allergen-specific type 2 helper T (TH2) cells play a central role in initiating and orchestrating the allergic and asthmatic inflammatory response pathways. One major factor limiting the use of such atopic disease-causing T cells as both therapeutic targets and clinically useful biomarkers is the lack of an accepted methodology to identify and differentiate these cells from overall nonpathogenic TH2 cell types. We have described a subset of human memory TH2 cells confined to atopic individuals that includes all allergen-specific TH2 cells. These cells are terminally differentiated CD4(+) T cells (CD27(-) and CD45RB(-)) characterized by coexpression of CRTH2, CD49d, and CD161 and exhibit numerous functional attributes distinct from conventional TH2 cells. Hence, we have denoted these cells with this stable allergic disease-related phenotype as the TH2A cell subset. Transcriptome analysis further revealed a distinct pathway in the initiation of pathogenic responses to allergen, and elimination of these cells is indicative of clinical responses induced by immunotherapy. Together, these findings identify a human TH2 cell signature in allergic diseases that could be used for response-monitoring and designing appropriate immunomodulatory strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junfei; Versteeg, Leroy; Liu, Zhuyun; Keegan, Brian; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Briggs, Neima; Jones, Kathryn M; Strych, Ulrich; Beaumier, Coreen M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Zhan, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood. As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14) in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7%) and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000) and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein's inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response. Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum egg challenge that associates with a Th2-skewed immune response

  12. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuyun; Keegan, Brian; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Briggs, Neima; Jones, Kathryn M.; Strych, Ulrich; Beaumier, Coreen M.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zhan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood. Methodology/Principal findings As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14) in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7%) and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000) and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein’s inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response. Conclusions/Significance Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum

  13. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood.As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14 in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7% and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000 and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel, known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein's inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response.Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum egg challenge that associates with a Th2-skewed immune

  14. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  15. Th2 cells and cytokine networks in allergic inflammation of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Coyle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytokines released from Th2 and Th2-like cells are likely to be central to the pathophysiolgy of asthma and allergy, contributing to aberrant IgE production, eosinophilia and, perhaps, mucosal susceptibility to viral infection. IL-4 has emerged as a central target, not only for B cell IgE production, but also in the commitment of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to cells with Th2 effector function capable of secreting IL-5 resultlng in eosinophilic inflammation. In view of the central role of this cytokine and the evidence that glucocorticoids are unable to modify many IL-4 dependent effects, Th2 inhibitors may prove to be novel therapies for the treatment of bronchial asthma.

  16. Delayed Activation Kinetics of Th2- and Th17 Cells Compared to Th1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duechting, Andrea; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-09-12

    During immune responses, different classes of T cells arise: Th1, Th2, and Th17. Mobilizing the right class plays a critical role in successful host defense and therefore defining the ratios of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells within the antigen-specific T cell repertoire is critical for immune monitoring purposes. Antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells can be detected by challenging peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with antigen, and establishing the numbers of T cells producing the respective lead cytokine, IFN-γ and IL-2 for Th1 cells, IL-4 and IL-5 for Th2, and IL-17 for Th-17 cells, respectively. Traditionally, these cytokines are measured within 6 h in flow cytometry. We show here that 6 h of stimulation is sufficient to detect peptide-induced production of IFN-γ, but 24 h are required to reveal the full frequency of protein antigen-specific Th1 cells. Also the detection of IL-2 producing Th1 cells requires 24 h stimulation cultures. Measurements of IL-4 producing Th2 cells requires 48-h cultures and 96 h are required for frequency measurements of IL-5 and IL-17 secreting T cells. Therefore, accounting for the differential secretion kinetics of these cytokines is critical for the accurate determination of the frequencies and ratios of antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

  17. Regulation of an Autoimmune Model for Multiple Sclerosis in Th2-Biased GATA3 Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viromi Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T helper (Th2 cells have been proposed to play a neuroprotective role in multiple sclerosis (MS. This is mainly based on “loss-of-function” studies in an animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, using blocking antibodies against Th2 related cytokines, and knockout mice lacking Th2-related molecules. We tested whether an increase of Th2 responses (“gain-of-function” approach could alter EAE, the approach of novel GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3-transgenic (tg mice that overexpress GATA3, a transcription factor required for Th2 differentiation. In EAE induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35−55 peptide, GATA3-tg mice had a significantly delayed onset of disease and a less severe maximum clinical score, compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Histologically, GATA3-tg mice had decreased levels of meningitis and demyelination in the spinal cord, and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles immunologically, however both groups developed similar levels of MOG-specific lymphoproliferative responses. During the early stage, we detected higher levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-10, with MOG and mitogen stimulation of regional lymph node cells in GATA3-tg mice. During the late stage, only mitogen stimulation induced higher IL-4 and lower interferon-γ and IL-17 production in GATA3-tg mice. These results suggest that a preexisting bias toward a Th2 immune response may reduce the severity of inflammatory demyelinating diseases, including MS.

  18. Priming dendritic cells for Th2 polarization: lessons learned from helminths and implications for metabolic disorders

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    Leonie eHussaarts

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one quarter of the world’s population is infected with helminth parasites. A common feature of helminth infections is the manifestation of a type 2 immune response, characterized by T helper 2 (Th2 cells that mediate anti-helminth immunity. In addition, recent literature described a close association between type 2 immune responses and wound repair, suggesting that a Th2 response may concurrently mediate repair of parasite-induced damage. The molecular mechanisms that govern Th2 responses are poorly understood, although it is clear that dendritic cells (DCs, which are the most efficient antigen-presenting cells in the immune system, play a central role. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms by which DCs polarize Th2 cells, examining both helminth antigens and helminth-mediated tissue damage as Th2-inducing triggers. Finally, we discuss the implication of these findings in the context of metabolic disorders, as recent literature indicates that various aspects of the Th2-associated inflammatory response contribute to metabolic homeostasis.

  19. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, do not drive while impaired. Have someone else drive you or take public ...

  20. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  1. Activated rat hepatic stellate cells influence Th1/Th2 profile in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi-Zhi; Huang, Liu-Ye; Wu, Cheng-Rong; You, Hong; Ma, Hong; Jia, Ji-Dong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of activated rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) on rat Th1/Th2 profile in vitro. METHODS: Growth and survival of activated HSCs and CD4+ T lymphocytes cultured alone or together was assessed after 24 or 48 h. CD4+ T lymphocytes were then cultured with or without activated HSCs for 24 or 48 h and the proportion of Th1 [interferon (IFN)-γ+] and Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4+] cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Th1 and Th2 cell apoptosis was assessed after 24 h of co-culture using a caspase-3 staining procedure. Differentiation rates of Th1 and Th2 cells from CD4+ T lymphocytes that were positive for CD25 but did not express IFN-γ or IL-4 were also assessed after 48 h of co-culture with activated HSCs. Galectin-9 expression in HSCs was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ELISA was performed to assess galectin-9 secretion from activated HSCs. RESULTS: Co-culture of CD4+ T lymphocytes with activated rat HSCs for 48 h significantly reduced the proportion of Th1 cells compared to culture-alone conditions (-1.73% ± 0.71%; P < 0.05), whereas the proportion of Th2 cells was not altered; the Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly decreased (-0.44 ± 0.13; P < 0.05). In addition, the level of IFN-γ in Th1 cells was decreased (-65.71 ± 9.67; P < 0.01), whereas the level of IL-4 in Th2 cells was increased (82.79 ± 25.12; P < 0.05) by co-culturing, as measured by mean fluorescence intensity by flow cytometry. Apoptosis rates in Th1 (12.27% ± 0.99%; P < 0.01) and Th2 (1.71% ± 0.185%; P < 0.01) cells were increased 24 h after co-culturing with activated HSCs; the Th1 cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher than in Th2 cells (P < 0.01). Galectin-9 protein expression was significantly decreased in HSCs only 24 h after co-culturing (P < 0.05) but not after 48 h. Co-culture for 48 h significantly increased the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells; however, the increase in the proportion of Th2 cells was significantly higher than that

  2. Contribution of basophils to cutaneous immune reactions and Th2-mediated allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eOtsuka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Basophils are potent effector cells of innate immunity and also play a role in T helper 2 (Th2-mediated allergic responses. But, although their in vitro functions are well studied, their in vivo functions remain largely unknown. However, several mouse models of basophil depletion have recently been developed and used to investigate basophil functions. For example, in a croton oil-induced model of irritant contact dermatitis in conditionally basophil-depleted transgenic mice, we found that basophils rapidly infiltrate inflamed skin and subsequently induce infiltration of eosinophils. We also showed that basophils induce Th2 skewing upon epicutaneous sensitization with various haptens and peptide antigens. Intriguingly, basophils also promoted Th2 polarization upon protein antigen exposure in the presence of dendritic cells (DCs. The dermal DC subset associated with Th2 skewing was recently identified as CD301b+ DC. Such studies with basophil-deficient mouse models have significantly improved our understanding of the mechanisms involved in human immune-related diseases. In this review, we will focus on the relative contribution of basophils and DCs to Th2-mediated allergic responses.

  3. Effects of PARP-1 Deficiency on Th1 and Th2 Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sambucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell differentiation to effector Th cells such as Th1 and Th2 requires the integration of multiple synergic and antagonist signals. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. Recently, many reports showed that PARP-1, the prototypical member of the PARP family, plays a role in immune/inflammatory responses. Consistently, its enzymatic inhibition confers protection in several models of immune-mediated diseases, mainly through an inhibitory effect on NF-κB (and NFAT activation. PARP-1 regulates cell functions in many types of immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Our results show that PARP-1KO cells displayed a reduced ability to differentiate in Th2 cells. Under both nonskewing and Th2-polarizing conditions, naïve CD4 cells from PARP-1KO mice generated a reduced frequency of IL-4+ cells, produced less IL-5, and expressed GATA-3 at lower levels compared with cells from wild type mice. Conversely, PARP-1 deficiency did not substantially affect differentiation to Th1 cells. Indeed, the frequency of IFN-γ+ cells as well as IFN-γ production, in nonskewing and Th1-polarizing conditions, was not affected by PARP-1 gene ablation. These findings demonstrate that PARP-1 plays a relevant role in Th2 cell differentiation and it might be a target to be exploited for the modulation of Th2-dependent immune-mediated diseases.

  4. THE ROLE OF Th1 AND Th2 CELLS IN ATOPIC AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Cekić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available –helper cells can be divided into two distinct subtypes of effector cells based on the profile of cytokines they produce. Th1 cells produce interferon– γ (IFN– γ and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF– β, and are associated with cell– mediated responses, particularly with resistance to intracellular pathogens (bacteria, parasites, yeasts and viruses. In contrast, Th2 . cells produce IL– 4, IL– 5, IL– 9 and IL– 13. Th2 cells are involved in antibody responses and IgE production, as well as tissue fibrosis, and eosinophilia. Th2 responses are important in the resistance to infection with helminth parasites. Although both Th responses are protective against certain infectious pathogens, they can themselves be pathogenic: Th1 cell responses can mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas dysregulation of Th2 responses is implicated inatopic diseases (allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic eczema, food allergy and anaphylaxis. The recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of initiation and control of Th1 and Th2 cell responses will eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies.

  5. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  6. Role of Th1 and Th2 cells in autoimmune demyelinating disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelkerken L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that Th1 cells play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, whereas Th2 cells contribute to recovery from disease. A major determinant in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells is the type of antigen-presenting cell (APC involved and its functional characteristics, e.g., the production of interleukin-12. Therefore, modulation of APC might interfere with the development of Th1 type responses and as such be beneficial for MS and EAE. The potential of cytokines, in particular interleukin-10, and glucocorticoids to exert a selective effect on APC, and as a consequence to affect the Th1-Th2 balance in EAE, is discussed

  7. What about Th1/Th2 in cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Neto A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The T helper cell type 1 (Th1 response is essential to resist leishmaniasis, whereas the Th2 response favors the disease. However, many leishmanial antigens, which stimulate a Th1 immune response during the disease or even after the disease is cured, have been shown to have no protective action. Paradoxically, antigens associated with an early Th2 response have been found to be highly protective if the Th1 response to them is generated before infection. Therefore, finding disease-associated Th2 antigens and inducing a Th1 immune response to them using defined vaccination protocols is an interesting unorthodox alternative approach to the discovery of a leishmania vaccine.

  8. Oral Administration of p-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Attenuates Atopic Dermatitis by Downregulating Th1 and Th2 Cytokine Production and Keratinocyte Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Su Lee

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex disease that is caused by various factors, including environmental change, genetic defects, and immune imbalance. We previously showed that p-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA isolated from the roots of Curcuma longa inhibits T-cell activation without inducing cell death. Here, we demonstrated that oral administration of HCA in a mouse model of ear AD attenuates the following local and systemic AD manifestations: ear thickening, immune-cell infiltration, production of AD-promoting immunoregulatory cytokines in ear tissues, increased spleen and draining lymph node size and weight, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by draining lymph nodes, and elevated serum immunoglobulin production. HCA treatment of CD4+ T cells in vitro suppressed their proliferation and differentiation into Th1 or Th2 and their Th1 and Th2 cytokine production. HCA treatment of keratinocytes lowered their production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that drive either Th1 or Th2 responses in AD. Thus, HCA may be of therapeutic potential for AD as it acts by suppressing keratinocyte activation and downregulating T-cell differentiation and cytokine production.

  9. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  10. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  11. Anti-apoptotic Serine Protease Inhibitors contribute towards the survival of allergenic Th2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamji, Mohamed H; Temblay, Jeff N; Cheng, Wei; Byrne, Susan M; Macfarlane, Ellen; Switzer, Amy R; Francisco, Natalia D C; Olexandra, Fedina; Jacubczik, Fabian; Durham, Stephen R; Ashton-Rickardt, Philip G

    2017-10-26

    The mechanisms regulating the maintenance of persistent Th2 cells that potentiate allergic inflammation are not well understood. The function of Serine Protease Inhibitor 2A (Spi2A) was studied in mouse Th2 cells and Serine Protease Inhibitor (SERPIN) B3 and B4 genes were studied in Th2 cells from grass pollen allergic individuals. Spi2A deficient Th2 cells were studied in vitro culture or in vivo after challenge of Spi2A Knock-Out (KO) mice with ovalbumin in alum. The expression of SERPIN B3 and B4 mRNA was measured in vitro cultured Th2 cell and in ex vivo CD27(-)CD4(+) and ICL2 cells from grass pollen allergic individuals using quantitative PCR. SERPIN B3 and B4 mRNA levels were knocked down in cultured CD27(-)CD4(+) cells with shRNA. There were lower levels of in vitro polarized Th2 cells from Spi2A KO mice (Ppollen allergic individuals expressed higher levels of both SERPIN B3 and B4 (both Ppollen allergic individuals expressed higher levels of both SERPIN B3 and B4 (both P<0.0005) mRNA compared to CD27(+)CD4(+) cells. ICL2 cells expressed higher levels of both SERPIN B3 and B4 (both P<0.0005) mRNA compared to ICL1 cells. Knock-down of either SERPIN B3 or B4 (both P <0.005) mRNA levels resulted in decreased viability of CD27(-)CD4(+) compared to control transduced cells. The serpins Spi2A in mice and Serpin B3 and B4 in allergic individuals, control viability of Th2 cells. This provides proof-of-principle for a therapeutic approach for allergic disease through the ablation of allergic memory Th2 cells through mRNA SERPIN B3 and B4 down-regulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Modelo natural de dicotomía TH1-TH2: La enfermedad de Hansen Th1-TH2 balance. Natural model: Hansen'disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L Vaquero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Hansen producida por el Mycobacterium leprae, es una enfermedad infecciosa cuyo amplio espectro clínico e inmunopatológico se correlaciona con los diferentes patrones de respuesta Th1/Th2. La activación preferencial de esas subpoblaciones de linfocitos T CD4 juega un rol importante en su patogenia y constituye un modelo natural de esa dicotomía de la respuesta inmune. Ambas formas polares de la lepra presentan un perfil definido de secreción de citoquinas: Th1 (IL2 e IFN? en el polo tuberculoide y Th2 (IL4, IL5, IL10 en el polo lepromatoso. En el primer caso, la respuesta celular adecuada estimula la activación macrofágica y lleva a la destrucción del bacilo. Las lesiones son escasas y limitadas a la piel y nervios periféricos. En el segundo en cambio, la respuesta celular es casi nula y los bacilos se multiplican descontroladamente dentro de los macrófagos, llevando a la diseminación de las lesiones y afectación de otros órganos. La inmunidad humoral está exacerbada y hay un alto nivel de anticuerpos que no pueden eliminar el germen intracelular. Los factores que determinan la diferenciación hacia una respuesta Th1 ó Th2 no se han esclarecido totalmente. Se han postulado varias hipótesis que hacen referencia a factores genéticos, prevalencia de citoquinas en el microambiente celular, disfunción macrofágica; alteración en los receptores Toll de la inmunidad innata, en la expresión de moléculas coestimulatorias, etc En los últimos años se han descubierto nuevas subpoblaciones de linfocitos, (CD4+ CD25+, Tr1, Th3 y Th17 que estarían implicadas en la desregulación de estas respuestas inmunes.Hansen' disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an infectious illness whose wide clinical and immunopathologic spectrum correl with different Th1/Th2 responses patterns. The prefferencial activation of the CD4 T cells subset play an important rol in it's pathogenia and provides a natural model of that balance

  13. Sleepy driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Nelson B; Chau, Jason K M

    2010-05-01

    Sleepiness and drowsiness are neurophysiologic states that may cause attenuation of vigilance and slowing of reaction times, and thus increase the risks of driving. This article reviews selected peer-reviewed publications from the past and present body of knowledge regarding sleepiness and drowsiness while driving and related accidents, injuries, and possible death. Comparative studies of driving drunk and driving sleepy are reviewed because both exhibit similarly dangerous driving behaviors. It is hoped that some of the information from this article could provide new interest in the necessity of education for sleepy drivers.

  14. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  15. Sex-Based Selectivity of PPARγ Regulation in Th1, Th2, and Th17 Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jai Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ has recently been recognized to regulate adaptive immunity through Th17 differentiation, Treg functions, and TFH responses. However, its role in adaptive immunity and autoimmune disease is still not clear, possibly due to sexual differences. Here, we investigated in vitro treatment study with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone to compare Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in male and female mouse splenic T cells. Pioglitazone treatment significantly inhibited various effector T cell differentiations including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells from female naïve T cells, but it selectively reduced IL-17 production in male Th17 differentiation. Interestingly, pioglitazone and estradiol (E2 co-treatment of T cells in males inhibited differentiation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, suggesting a mechanism for the greater sensitivity of PPARγ to ligand treatment in the regulation of effector T cell differentiation in females. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPARγ selectively inhibits Th17 differentiation only in male T cells and modulates Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in female T cells based on different level of estrogen exposure. Accordingly, PPARγ could be an important immune regulator of sexual differences in adaptive immunity.

  16. The murine Th2 locus undergoes epigenetic modification in the thymus during fetal and postnatal ontogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Yoshimoto

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications play a central role in the differentiation and function of immune cells in adult animals. Developmentally regulated epigenetic patterns also appear to contribute to the ontogeny of the immune system. We show here that the epigenetic profile of the T-helper (Th 2 locus undergoes changes in T lineage cells beginning in mid-gestation and extending throughout the first week of life. In particular, regulatory regions of the Th2 locus are largely methylated at CpG residues among fetal liver common lymphoid progenitor cells. The locus subsequently becomes highly hypomethylated among the downstream progeny of these cells within the fetal thymus. This hypomethylated state is preserved until birth when the locus becomes rapidly re-methylated, achieving adult-like status by 3-6 days post birth. Notably, the capacity for rapid, high level Th2 cytokine production is lost in parallel with this re-methylation. In vitro organ culture and in vivo transplantation experiments indicate that signals from the adult environment are required to achieve the postnatal methylated state. Together, these findings indicate that the Th2 bias of neonates may be conferred, in part, by an epigenetic profile inherited from fetal life. However, the fetal program is rapidly terminated post birth by the development of signals leading to the acquisition of adult-like epigenetic patterns.

  17. Diisononyl phthalate induces asthma via modulation of Th1/Th2 equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Paik, Man-Jeong; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2017-04-15

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a member of the phthalate family, is used to plasticize polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This chemical is known to enhance airway inflammation in the OVA-induced asthma model (adjuvant effects) and aggravate allergic dermatitis. Moreover, DINP enhances the production of interleukin-4 in activated CD4(+) T cells. However, the effect of DINP itself on the differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into T helper cells (Th1/Th2) in vitro and allergic asthma in vivo has not yet been studied. In this study, DINP was shown to suppress the polarization of Th1 and enhance the polarization of Th2 from naïve CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Also, DINP induced allergic asthma via the production of IL-4, IL-5, IgE and IgG1 and the reduction of IFN-γ and IgG2a. Finally, we confirmed that exposure to DINP induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells and PAS positive cells and increases the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-3 in asthmatic mice. In conclusion, we suggest that DINP as an environmental pollutant or endocrine disruptor (ECD) induces asthma via the modulation of the Th1/Th2 equilibrium and production of Th2 mediated cytokines and immunoglobulin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Type I interferon is required for T helper (Th) 2 induction by dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Lauren M.; Lundie, Rachel J.; Borger, Jessica G.; Brown, Sheila L.; Connor, Lisa M.; Cartwright, Adam N.R.; Dougall, Annette M.; Wilbers, Ruud H.P.; Cook, Peter C.; Jackson-Jones, Lucy H.; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T.; Johansson, Cecilia; Davis, Daniel M.; Dewals, Benjamin G.; Ronchese, Franca; Macdonald, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 inflammation is a defining feature of infection with parasitic worms (helminths), as well as being responsible for widespread suffering in allergies. However, the precise mechanisms involved in T helper (Th) 2 polarization by dendritic cells (DCs) are currently unclear. We have identified a

  19. Significant elevation of a Th2 cytokine, interleukin-10, in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Wang, Po-Hui; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Ding-Bang; Lin, Yi-Jiun; Kuo, Dong-Yih; Lin, Long-Yau; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Lee, Sheuan; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the expressions and ratios of type 1 T helper cell (Th1) cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), as well as type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients. The human cytokine LINCOplex multiplex bead array was used to measure the plasma levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in 50 healthy controls, as well as in 41 PID patients before and after routine protocol treatment. Significantly increased expressions of Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma (p=0.004), as well as Th2 cytokine IL-5 (p=0.001), and dramatically increased IL-10 (p=0.0001), but significantly decreased expression of Th1 cytokine IL-2 (p=0.029) in PID patients were found after comparison to the control group. The ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-13 showed a significant increase, but the ratios of IFN-gamma to IL-10 and IL-2 to IL-10 was significantly decreased in PID patients before treatment compared to after treatment and controls. The results indicate that the imbalance and cross-regulation between Th1 and Th2 cytokines pathways is probably contributed to the mechanism of PID.

  20. Epidermal expression of I-TAC (Cxcl11) instructs adaptive Th2-type immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebrock, Kirsten; Sunderkötter, Cord; Münck, Niels-Arne; Wolf, Marc; Nippe, Nadine; Barczyk, Katarzyna; Varga, Georg; Vogl, Thomas; Roth, Johannes; Ehrchen, Jan

    2014-04-01

    To decipher early promoters of the local microenvironment for Th2-type immunity, we wanted to identify gene patterns that were induced by Leishmania major in the infected skin of susceptible, Th2-prone BALB/c, but not of resistant, Th1-prone C57BL/6 mice. We found a marked up-regulation of the chemokine I-TAC (Cxcl11) during the first 2 d of infection in the epidermis of susceptible but not of resistant mice. Accordingly, local injection of I-TAC (2×1 μg) in resistant mice on the first day of infection resulted in a Th2-driven, sustained deterioration of disease and dramatically enhanced parasite levels. On the cellular level, I-TAC decreased IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DCs) in skin-draining lymph nodes and by DCs in vitro. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that epidermis-derived I-TAC triggers a sustained Th2-response that determines the outcome of a complex immunological process.

  1. A role for interleukin-33 in T(H)2-polarized intestinal inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, J B; Rogler, G; Nielsen, O H

    2011-01-01

    to the ST2/IL-1 receptor accessory protein complex. Recent studies have shown IL-33 to be upregulated in intestinal parasite infection and in epithelial cells and myofibroblasts in ulcerative colitis (UC). The findings point to a role for IL-33 in directing the T(H)2-type immune responses in these types...

  2. Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Magloire Pandoua Nekoua1, Rufine Fachinan1, Amidou K Atchamou1, Odilon Nouatin2,. Daniel Amoussou-Guenou3, Marcellin K Amoussou-Guenou4, Kabirou Moutairou1, Akadiri Yessoufou1. 1. Laboratory of Cell Biology and ...

  3. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  4. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...

  5. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  6. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Assaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  7. Th1 Th2, Tc1 Tc2 cells of patients with otolaryngological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Ohta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are important regulatory mediators secreted by T cells and other immunoactive cells. Based on the cytokine synthesis patterns, CD4 T cells can often be classified into at least two populations with different immune regulatory functions. The Th1 cells, producing interleukin (IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ, are often associated with cell-mediated immune responses such as delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH, whereas Th2 cells, secreting IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, usually provide B cell help and enhance allergic reactions. Naïve CD8 T cells, similar to CD4 T cells, can differentiate into at least two subsets of cytolytic effector cells with distinct cytokine patterns. The Tc1 cells secrete a Th 1 - like cytokine pattern, including IL-2 and IFN-γ. The Tc2 cells produce Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and 11—10. There is increasing evidence that Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokine imbalance has been of patho- genetic importance in various diseases, such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. The present review article focuses on the evidence that the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokines plays an important role in various otolaryngological diseases, such as Kimura's disease, Wegener's granulomatosism, acute perceptive hearing loss and Meniere's disease. It is concluded that the predominance of Th 1 or Th2 and Tc1 or Tc2 cells may contribute to the mechanism in the pathogenesis of these otolaryngological diseases.

  8. Th2 related markers in milk allergic inflammatory mice model, versus OVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia El-housseiny

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on allergic asthma are limited by the high cost of the administrated allergens. In this study we tested the allergic potency of low fat milk as a cheap substitute to the widely used standard allergen, ovalbumin (OVA. BALB/c female mice (4 weeks old were sensitized intraperitoneally with low fat milk/or OVA followed by intranasal challenge with the two allergens on days 28 and 29. At day 31, serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and lungs were harvested. Mice of the low fat milk model showed infiltration of eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in BALF comparable to that of the OVA model. Both allergic protocols led to the production of similar numbers of Th2 cells and induced comparable expression of Th2 cytokine (IL-13 as evident by real time PCR for IL-13 and GATA3 (Th2 transcription factor and confirmed by immunofluorescence for Th2 surface markers (T1/ST2. In addition, both mouse models had similar elevated levels of allergen specific antibody, IgG1 and IgE. Notably, HE, PAS, and LUNA stained lung sections from low fat milk treated mice had higher average pathological scores as compared to OVA treated mice. In conclusion, this study suggests that the low fat milk-induced inflammation showed hallmarks of allergic airway inflammatory model such as eosinophilic influx in BALF, increased numbers of Th2 cells, augmented expression of IL-13, elevated levels of circulatory IgG1 and IgE, signs of robust pulmonary inflammation, and most importantly it is a cheap and promising model for studying acute allergic airway inflammation and acute asthma.

  9. Role played by Th2 type cytokines in IgE mediated allergy and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo Sudha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent evidence suggest that allergen type 2 helper T cells (Th2 play a triggering role in the activation/recruitment of IgE antibody producing B cells, mast cells and eosinophils. Reduced microbial exposure in early life is responsible for a shift of Th1/Th2 balance in the immune system towards the pre-allergic Th2 response. The Th1 predominantly produce IFNg and delayed type hypersensitivity while Th2 secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 and regulate B cell and eosinophil mediated responses. To assess regulatory changes in the immune system, in patients with allergy and asthma, we studied the cytokine profile in serum in comparison with normal healthy controls. Patients and Methods: A total of 170 patients with various allergies and asthmatic conditions were studied, for cytokines in the serum by ELISA using kits from Immunotech, and analyzed to identify the triggering factors or main contributors towards allergy and asthma. Results: Our study showed increase in the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 in all groups which were non- significant. But the levels of IL-10, IL-13 and TNF α were highly significant. Besides, we found correlation of GM-CSF with IL-10. Significant correlation with different cytokines was observed. Most of these patients showed increase in IgE levels. Conclusions: This study gives a better understanding of how cytokines are the mediators of balance of Th1 and Th2 immune responses and IgE synthesis is controlled by cytokines. Further studies will eventually lead to improved treatment strategies in the clinical management of IgE mediated allergy.

  10. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Areej M; Al-Abbassi, Reem; Al-Binni, Maysaa

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  11. Egg marketing in national supermarkets: specialty eggs--part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P H; Koelkebeck, K W; Bell, D D; Carey, J B; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J

    2001-04-01

    Large eggs promoted as having one or more features beyond conventional white or brown shell eggs (specialty eggs) were evaluated for quality and price in a national retail study. Subtypes of specialty eggs included: nutritionally altered eggs, organic eggs, fertile eggs, eggs from welfare-managed hens, or hens fed all-vegetable diets. Extension Poultry Specialists in California (CA), Connecticut, Illinois, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Texas conducted a survey of egg quality and price and compared 246 dozen specialty eggs with 390 dozen conventional white shell eggs during the summer of 1996. Age of the eggs based on carton dating indicated specialty eggs were older (16.5 d) than white eggs (11.7 d). Average egg weights for specialty compared to white were 60.2 and 59.6 g, respectively. Interior egg quality evaluations including albumen height, Haugh units (HU), and percentage HU 5.0 mm, 67.5, and 10.6%, respectively) compared to specialty eggs (4.7 mm, 63.8, and 16.3%). Although the percentage of cracked eggs was similar between specialty and white eggs (5.4 and 5.7%), the percentage of leakers was threefold higher for the specialty eggs (1.0 vs. 0.3%). Egg price was substantially higher for the specialty eggs, averaging $2.18/dozen with a range from 0.88 to $4.38, compared to white eggs, averaging $1.23/dozen and ranging from 0.39 to $2.35.

  12. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  13. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease and peanut allergy are alternatively associated with IL-5+ and IL-5(-) T(H)2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussin, Calman; Lee, Joohee; Foster, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Both anaphylactic food allergy and eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders are associated with T(H)2 responses and food-specific IgE, yet they have very different clinical presentations. To determine whether the clinical differences between anaphylactic food allergy and eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders are reflected in different T(H)2 responses to foods. Subjects with peanut allergy (PA), subjects with allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (AEG), and nonatopic subjects were enrolled. Antigen-specific IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma, and TNF T-cell responses to peanut, soy, and shrimp were measured by using intracellular cytokine staining and polychromatic flow cytometry. Two distinct subpopulations of T(H)2 cells were found: IL-5+ T(H)2 (IL-4+, IL-5+) and IL-5(-) T(H)2 (IL-4+, IL-5(-)) cells. Peanut-specific IL-5+ T(H)2 cells were present at a 20-fold greater frequency in AEG versus PA (81 vs 4 per 10(6) CD4 cells; P = .05), whereas there were similar frequencies of IL-5(-) T(H)2 cells (67 vs 41 per 10(6)). For all foods, IL-5+ T(H)2 cells accounted for a significantly greater fraction of the antigen-specific cells in AEG relative to PA (29% vs 4%; P < .0001). In PA but not AEG, IL-5(-) T(H)2 responses to peanut were highly correlated with peanut-specific IgE (r = 0.87 vs 0.55, respectively). All subject groups elicited similar very low-magnitude T(H)1 responses to food antigens. T(H)2 responses are composed of 2 subpopulations: IL-5+ T(H)2 and IL-5(-) T(H)2 cells. IL-5+ T(H)2 food allergen-specific T cells are singularly associated with AEG, whereas PA is associated with a dominant IL-5(-) T(H)2 response. These results suggest heterogeneity within the T(H)2 cytokine response, with different T(H)2 responses alternatively favoring IgE-mediated or eosinophil-dominant immunopathology.

  14. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  15. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study dietary boron at different doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg feed) was supplemented to layers from 4 to 64 weeks of age. There was no significant difference between treatments with respect of mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and cracked eggs. Significant increases were observed in body ...

  16. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality traits for each variety were also determined. Mean egg weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Brown variety (10.53g) than in the Black and White varieties. Likewise the Brown variety was significantly higher (P<0.05) in egg width, yolk weight, yolk ...

  17. Sulforaphane inhibits the Th2 immune response in ovalbumin-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Chang-Min; Kim, Yeong Dae; Chung, Sung Woon; Jung, In Duk; Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Heo, Deok Rim; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Seo, Jong Keun; Park, Yeong-Min

    2012-05-01

    Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane), belonging to a family of natural compounds that are abundant in broccoli, has received significant therapeutic interest in recent years. However, the molecular basis of its effects remains to be elucidated. In this study, we attempt to determine whether sulforaphane regulates the inflammatory response in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized with OVA, treated with sulforaphane, and then challenged with OVA. Sulforaphane administration significantly alleviated the OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine. Additionally, sulforaphane suppressed the increase in the levels of SOCS-3 and GATA-3 and IL-4 expression in the OVA-challenged mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that sulforaphane regulates Th2 immune responses. This sutdy provides novel insights into the regulatory role of sulforaphane in allergen-induced Th2 inflammation and airway responses, which indicates its therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases.

  18. Looking beyond the induction of Th2 responses to explain immunomodulation by helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, T B

    2015-06-01

    Although helminth infections are characteristically associated with Th2-mediated responses that include the production of the prototypical cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by CD4(+) cells, the production of IgE, peripheral blood eosinophilia and mucus production in localized sites, these responses are largely attenuated when helminth infections become less acute. This modulation of the immune response that occurs with chronic helminth infection is often induced by molecules secreted by helminth parasites, by non-Th2 regulatory CD4(+) cells, and by nonclassical B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. This review will focus on those parasite- and host-mediated mechanisms underlying the modulated T-cell response that occurs as the default in chronic helminth infections. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Th2 immune responses and alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs) in helminth infection in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Azuma, Noritsugu; Onodera, Sachi; Tsunoka, Yuichi; Morimoto, Motoko

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to understand Th2 immune responses and alternative macrophage activation against nematode parasites in aged mice. Eighteen-month (18 M) and three-month (3 M) old C3H/HeN mice were inoculated with Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp) larvae. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 gene expression was elevated in both groups after infection, but the expression level was significantly low in 18 M mice. Macrophage phenotype was monitored by measuring arginase-1 gene expression and immunofluorescence staining in small intestine, showing a decrease in the number of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs) around worm cysts in 18 M mice. These results suggest that the Th2 immune response in aged mice against a nematode parasite was not sufficiently induced to promote AAMacs.

  20. The Th1:Th2 Dichotomy of Pregnancy and Preterm Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Sykes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a unique immunological state in which a balance of immune tolerance and suppression is needed to protect the fetus without compromising the mother. It has long been established that a bias from the T helper 1 cytokine profile towards the T helper 2 profile contributes towards successful pregnancy maintenance. The majority of publications that report on aberrant Th1:Th2 balance focus on early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Over the last few decades, there has been an increased awareness of the role of infection and inflammation in preterm labour, and the search for new biomarkers to predict preterm labour continues. In this paper, we explore the evidence for an aberrant Th1:Th2 profile associated with preterm labour. We also consider the potential for its use in screening women at high risk of preterm labour and for prophylactic therapeutic measures for the prevention of preterm labour and associated neonatal adverse outcomes.

  1. IMBALANCE OF IMMUNOREGULATORY Th1- AND Th2-CYTOKINES IN PERSISTENT VIRAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Naslednikova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article is considering certain features of immunopathogenesis exhibited in persistent viral infections, taking into account modern data and recently introduced immunological techniques. It has been revealed that a long-term persistence of hepatitis B and C viruses, tick-borne encephalitis, and herpes simplex is accompanied by deficient functioning in the T-cell compartment of immune system, and by markedly altered production of immunoregulatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes, mainly characterized by Th2 predominance.

  2. Looking beyond the induction of Th2 responses to explain immunomodulation by helminths

    OpenAIRE

    Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Although helminth infections are characteristically associated with Th2-mediated responses that include the production of the prototypical cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 by CD4+ cells, the production of IgE, peripheral blood eosinophilia and mucus production in localized sites, these responses are largely attenuated when helminth infections become less acute. This modulation of the immune response that occurs with chronic helminth infection is often induced by molecules secreted by helminth ...

  3. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide from Bifidobacterium longum suppresses Th2 immune responses in a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Kitazawa, H; Iwabuchi, N; Xiao, J Z; Miyaji, K; Iwatsuki, K; Saito, T

    2006-01-01

    We have reported previously that novel immunostimulatory sequence (ISS) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) BL07S from a probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum inhibited immunoglobulin (Ig) E production in vitro. However, whether ISS-ODNs from probiotics regulate T helper type 2 (Th2)-polarized immune reactions in vivo remains unclear. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of ODN BL07S on type I allergic response, BALB/c mice were injected with or without ODN BL07S in the presence of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 0 and 14. Serum Ig levels (IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a) and cytokine levels (interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) were investigated in splenocyte cultures from days 14–28. Production of OVA-specific and total IgE were significantly suppressed by administration of ODN BL07S, but not by ODN BL06S, a non-ISS-ODN. Compared to controls, ODN BL07S induced significantly lower levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) in splenocyte cultures, and significantly higher levels of serum OVA-specific IgG2a. These effects of ODN BL07S on modulation of Th2 immune response were dose-dependent. The present results demonstrate that ODN BL07S from genomic DNA of B. longum BB536 prevents antigen-induced Th2 immune responses in vivo, suggesting that ISS-ODNs from probiotics might be useful in preventing allergic disease. PMID:16792683

  4. [Circulating levels of Th1- and Th2-chemokines increase in patients with early syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anyou; Wang, Chenchen; Sun, Hong; Han, Hongfang; Wang, Fengchao; Zhang, Lunjun; Hu, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Objective To study the changes of plasma T helper type I (Th1)-and Th2-chemokine levels and analyze their roles in immune response and pathogenesis of early syphilis. Methods Heparin-anticoagulated peripheral blood was collected from 56 patients with early syphilis (primary syphilis, PS, n=22; secondary syphilis, SS, n=34) and healthy controls (HC, n=20). The levels of plasma Th1 chemokines including monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG), interferon-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Th2 chemokines including thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) were examined using ELISA. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4 and TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected. Results The levels of plasma MIG, IP-10 and TARC, MDC in the patients with PS and SS were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. Moreover, the level of I-TAC in the patients with SS was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls. In particular, the levels of plasma Th1 chemokines (MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC) in the patients with SS significantly increased compared with those with PS. However, no significant difference was observed in the levels of plasma Th2 chemokines (TARC and MDC) between the patients with PS and SS. The correlation analysis showed that there was an obvious positive correlation between IP-10 and MIG, I-TAC, IFN-γ, TNF-α levels in the patients with early syphilis. Furthermore, the levels of MIG and IP-10 were positively associated with plasma CRP in the patients with early syphilis. Conclusion Both Th1 chemokines and Th2 chemokines are involved in immune response of early syphilis.

  5. Human Rhinovirus Proteinase 2A Induces Th1 and Th2 Immunity in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manisha; Lee, Seung-Hyo; Porter, Paul; Xu, Chuang; Ohno, Ayako; Atmar, Robert L.; Greenberg, Stephen B.; Bandi, Venkata; Gern, Jim; Amineva, Svetlana; Aminev, Alex; Skern, Tim; Smithwick, Pamela; Perusich, Sarah; Barrow, Nadia; Roberts, Luz; Corry, David B.; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco related lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are major causes of lung-related disability and death worldwide. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD) is commonly associated with upper and lower respiratory viral infections and may result in respiratory failure in those with advanced lung disease. Objective We sought to determine the mechanism underlying COPD exacerbation, and host response to pathogen-derived factors. Methods Over a 24 months period, we assessed the viral causes for upper and lower respiratory infections in COPD (n=155) and control (n=103) subjects. We collected nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood under baseline and exacerbated condition. We determined the effect of human rhinovirus (HRV) proteinases on T cell activation in humans, and in mice. Results HRVs are isolated from nasal and lung fluid from subjects with AE-COPD. BAL fluid, and CD4 T cells from COPD patients exhibited a type 1 T helper (Th1), and Th2 cell cytokine phenotype during acute infection. HRV-encoded proteinase 2A activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro, and induced strong Th1, and Th2 immune responses from CD4 T cells. Intranasal administration of recombinant rhinovirus proteinase 2A in mice resulted in an increase in airway hyperreactivity, lung inflammation, and IL-4 and IFN-γ production from CD4 T cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest that patients with severe COPD show Th1 and Th2 bias responses during AE-COPD. HRV-encoded proteinase 2A, like other microbial proteinases, could provide a Th1 and Th2-biasing adjuvant factor during upper and lower respiratory infection in patients with severe COPD. Alteration of the immune response to secreted viral proteinases may contribute to worsening of dyspnea and respiratory failure in COPD. PMID:20430426

  6. Allergen-specific Th2 cells as targets for immune intervention in allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Finally, it is shown that IL-4-driven allergen-specific Th2 cell differentiation can be redirected into a Th0 and Thl cell differentiation pathway by stimulating these IL-4-driven allergen-specific Th cell populations in the presence of IL-12, or by co-stimulating these cells via a novel T cell receptor, designated signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM. The clinical implications of these approaches are discussed.

  7. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  8. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation...... of in-car distractions, and how they impact driving activities (Nevile & Haddington 2010). Data are video recordings of ordinary journeys, capturing drivers and passengers in real-world real-time driving situations (27 hours, 90 journeys). For driving and road safety, research and experience has...

  9. TLR4 genotype and environmental LPS mediate RSV bronchiolitis through Th2 polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Mauricio T.; Serra, M. Elina; Acosta, Patricio L.; Marzec, Jacqui; Gibbons, Luz; Salim, Maximiliano; Rodriguez, Andrea; Reynaldi, Andrea; Garcia, Alejandro; Bado, Daniela; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Hijano, Diego R.; Coviello, Silvina; Newcomb, Dawn; Bellabarba, Miguel; Ferolla, Fausto M.; Libster, Romina; Berenstein, Ada; Siniawaski, Susana; Blumetti, Valeria; Echavarria, Marcela; Pinto, Leonardo; Lawrence, Andrea; Ossorio, M. Fabiana; Grosman, Arnoldo; Mateu, Cecilia G.; Bayle, Carola; Dericco, Alejandra; Pellegrini, Mariana; Igarza, Ignacio; Repetto, Horacio A.; Grimaldi, Luciano Alva; Gudapati, Prathyusha; Polack, Norberto R.; Althabe, Fernando; Shi, Min; Ferrero, Fernando; Bergel, Eduardo; Stein, Renato T.; Peebles, R. Stokes; Boothby, Mark; Kleeberger, Steven R.; Polack, Fernando P.

    2015-01-01

    While 30%–70% of RSV-infected infants develop bronchiolitis, 2% require hospitalization. It is not clear why disease severity differs among healthy, full-term infants; however, virus titers, inflammation, and Th2 bias are proposed explanations. While TLR4 is associated with these disease phenotypes, the role of this receptor in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pathogenesis is controversial. Here, we evaluated the interaction between TLR4 and environmental factors in RSV disease and defined the immune mediators associated with severe illness. Two independent populations of infants with RSV bronchiolitis revealed that the severity of RSV infection is determined by the TLR4 genotype of the individual and by environmental exposure to LPS. RSV-infected infants with severe disease exhibited a high GATA3/T-bet ratio, which manifested as a high IL-4/IFN-γ ratio in respiratory secretions. The IL-4/IFN-γ ratio present in infants with severe RSV is indicative of Th2 polarization. Murine models of RSV infection confirmed that LPS exposure, Tlr4 genotype, and Th2 polarization influence disease phenotypes. Together, the results of this study identify environmental and genetic factors that influence RSV pathogenesis and reveal that a high IL-4/IFN-γ ratio is associated with severe disease. Moreover, these molecules should be explored as potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25555213

  10. TH2 cells and their cytokines regulate formation and function of lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kihyuk; Kataru, Raghu P; Park, Hyeung Ju; Kwon, Bo-In; Kim, Tae Woo; Hong, Young Kwon; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2015-02-04

    Lymphatic vessels (LVs) are critical for immune surveillance and involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. LV density is increased during inflammation; however, little is known about how the resolution of LVs is controlled in different inflammatory conditions. Here we show the negative effects of T helper type 2 (TH2) cells and their cytokines on LV formation. IL-4 and IL-13 downregulate essential transcription factors of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and inhibit tube formation. Co-culture of LECs with TH2 cells also inhibits tube formation, but this effect is fully reversed by interleukin (IL)-4 and/or IL-13 neutralization. Furthermore, the in vivo blockade of IL-4 and/or IL-13 in an asthma model not only increases the density but also enhances the function of lung LVs. These results demonstrate an anti-lymphangiogenic function of TH2 cells and their cytokines, suggesting a potential usefulness of IL-4 and/or IL-13 antagonist as therapeutic agents for allergic asthma through expanding LV mediated-enhanced antigen clearance from the inflammatory sites.

  11. Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amre Nasr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a progressive and destructive chronic granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease caused by certain fungi, the most common being Madurella mycetomatis. The host defence mechanisms against fungi usually range from an early non-specific immune response to activation and induction of specific adaptive immune responses by the production of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines in patients infected with Madurella mycetomatis, and the association between their levels and disease prognosis. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan, where 70 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma were enrolled; 35 with, and 35 without surgical excision. 70 healthy individuals from mycetoma endemic areas were selected as controls. The levels of serum cytokines were determined by cytometric bead array technique. Significantly higher levels of the Th-1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2 were recorded in patients treated with surgical excision, compared to those treated without surgical excision. In contrast, the Th-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower in patients treated with surgical excision compared to those treated without surgical excision. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that cell-mediated immunity can have a role to play in the pathogenesis of eumycetoma.

  12. Immunomodulatory Effects of Taiwanese Neolitsea Species on Th1 and Th2 Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Neolitsea species, medicinal plants belonging to Lauraceae, contain rich alkaloids, steroids, sesquiterpenoids, and triterpenoids which possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. However, species differences in the immunomodulatory effects and evidence pertaining to the effects of Neolitsea species on adaptive immunity are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of ten Taiwanese Neolitsea plants on T helper (Th) cell functionality, especially Th1 and Th2. Most of the 29 crude extracts of Neolitsea were not toxic to splenocytes, except N. buisanensis roots. N. aciculata and N. villosa leaf extracts possessed differential immunomodulatory effects on Th1/Th2 balance. N. aciculata var. variabillima and N. hiiranensis leaf extracts attenuated both Th1 and Th2 cytokines while N. konishii dramatically suppressed IFN-γ production. As N. aciculata var. variabillima and N. konishii leaf extracts significantly attenuated Th1 functionality, we further evaluated their effects on CD4 cells under CD3/CD28 stimulation. N. aciculata var. variabillima significantly suppressed IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17, demonstrating the broad suppressive effects on T helper cells; N. konishii significantly suppressed IFN-γ and IL-10 production, while the production of IL-17 was not altered. Collectively, these data demonstrated that leaf extracts of Taiwanese Neolitsea species contain phytochemicals with potentials to be developed as selective immunomodulators. PMID:28781969

  13. H. pylori attenuates TNBS-induced colitis via increasing mucosal Th2 cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Zhong; Tan, Gao; Wu, Fang; Zhi, Fa-Chao

    2017-09-26

    There is an epidemiological inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and Crohn's disease (CD). However, whether H. pylori plays a protective role against CD remains unclear. Since 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is thought to resemble CD, we investigated whether H. pylori can attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Here we show that H. pylori can attenuate the severity of TNBS-induced colitis. In addition, H. pylori not only down-regulates Th17 and Th1 cytokine expression, but can up-regulate Th2 cytokine expression and increase the Th2:Th17 ratio of CD4+ T in the colonic mucosa of TNBS-induced colitis. Our results indicate that H. pylori attenuates TNBS-induced colitis mainly through increasing Th2 cells in murine colonic mucosa. Our finding offers a novel view on the role of H. pylori in regulating gastrointestinal immunity, and may open a new avenue for development of therapeutic strategies in CD by making use of asymptomatic H. pylori colonization.

  14. Treatment of allergic asthma: Modulation of Th2 cells and their responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erb Klaus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atopic asthma is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease characterised by recurrent episodes of wheezy, laboured breathing with an underlying Th2 cell-mediated inflammatory response in the airways. It is currently treated and, more or less, controlled depending on severity, with bronchodilators e.g. long-acting beta agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists or anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids (inhaled or oral, leukotriene modifiers, theophyline and anti-IgE therapy. Unfortunately, none of these treatments are curative and some asthmatic patients do not respond to intense anti-inflammatory therapies. Additionally, the use of long-term oral steroids has many undesired side effects. For this reason, novel and more effective drugs are needed. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ Th2 cells and their products as targets for the development of new drugs to add to the current armamentarium as adjuncts or as potential stand-alone treatments for allergic asthma. We argue that in early disease, the reduction or elimination of allergen-specific Th2 cells will reduce the consequences of repeated allergic inflammatory responses such as lung remodelling without causing generalised immunosuppression.

  15. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  16. Role of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J T; Zhang, D H; Fang, P F; Li, M H; Wang, R J; Li, S H

    2017-03-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a progressive disease of the spine, manifests as peripheral arthritis with tendon and ligament inflammation that restricts activity. AS is a rheumatoid autoimmune disease although the rheumatoid factor is absent in patients with AS. It is characterized by inflammatory changes such as elevated levels of serum inflammatory factors. The roles of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in autoimmune diseases are well known. However, the roles of these cytokines in the diagnosis and prognosis of AS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the diagnosis and prognosis of AS. The BASDAI activity, BASFI functional index, BASMI measurement score, and the levels of CRP and ESR were measured during the treatment of patients with active AS. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 cytokines) and IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines) were quantified. The levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly low in the serum of patients with active AS, who also had high IFN-γ and TNF-α levels compared to those in the control individuals (P cytokines in patients with AS may reflect disease activity and prognosis.

  17. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  18. Interleukin 4 promotes the development of ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells during immunity to intestinal helminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Stephanie M.; Kannan, Yashaswini; Entwistle, Lewis J.; Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Czieso, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Immunity to intestinal helminth infections requires the rapid activation of T helper 2 cells (Th2 cells). However, simultaneous expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells) impedes protective responses, resulting in chronic infections. The ratio between T reg and effector T cells can therefore determine the outcome of infection. The redifferentiation of T reg cells into Th cells has been identified in hyperinflammatory diseases. In this study, we asked whether ex–T reg Th2 cells develop and contribute to type-2 immunity. Using multigene reporter and fate-reporter systems, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of Th2 cells derive from Foxp3+ cells after Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection and airway allergy. Ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells exhibit characteristic Th2 effector functions and provide immunity to H. polygyrus. Through selective deletion of Il4ra on Foxp3+ cells, we further demonstrate IL-4 is required for the development of ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that converting T reg cells into Th2 cells could concomitantly enhance Th2 cells and limit T reg cell–mediated suppression. PMID:28507062

  19. Th1 and Th2 immune responses related to pelvic endometriosis Resposta imunológica Th1 e Th2 relacionada à endometriose pélvica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Podgaec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the relationship between clinical characteristics of endometriosis and Th1/Th2 immune response patterns. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 65 patients with endometriosis (Group A and 33 without the disease (Group B. Measurement of IL 2, 4 and 10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma was carried out in peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid. RESULTS: Serum TNF-alpha was higher in patients with endometriosis who had deep dyspareunia compared to controls (mean 4.5 pg/ml and 2.3 pg/ml, pOBJETIVO: Este estudo analisa a relação entre as características clínicas da endometriose e os padrões da resposta imune Th1/Th2. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo realizado com 65 pacientes com endometriose (Grupo A e 33 pacientes sem a doença (Grupo B. Foram realizadas avaliação no fluido peritoneal e sangue periférico de IL 2, 4 e 10, TNF-alfa e IFN-gama. A significância foi estabelecida em p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: TNF-alfa encontrava-se elevado em pacientes com endometriose que apresentavam dispareunia de profundidade comparado com controle (média 4,5 pg/ml e 2,3 pg/ml, p< 0,05. Dentre essas pacientes (n=32, 65,5% apresentavam endometriose profunda. Pacientes com endometriose e infertilidade apresentavam concentrações maiores de IL-2 no fluido peritoneal quando comparadas com controle (média 5,9 pg/ml e 0,2 pg/ml, p< 0,05, sendo que neste grupo, 63,5% (n=14 apresentavam endometriose profunda. Foi observada também maior concentração de IL-10 nas pacientes que apresentavam endometriose ovariana quando comparadas às sem esse tipo de endometriose, assim como quando comparadas às pacientes do grupo controle (média 50pg/ml, 18,7pg/ml e 25,7pg/ml, p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem que quando dados clínicos específicos associam-se a uma produção elevada de certas citocinas, ocorre um padrão de resposta Th1 que pode estar associado à endometriose profunda.

  20. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 5 seconds, long enough to cover a football field while driving at 55 mph. 4 How ... 8 On September 17, 2010, the Federal Railroad Administration banned cell phone and electronic device use of ...

  2. Respostas Th1 e Th2 desencadeadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulento em doentes com tuberculose pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane J. Ordway

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Analisaram-se as respostas Th1 e Th2 desencadeadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulento em doentes com tuberculose pulmonar (TP e em dadores saudáveis vacinados pela BCG. Efectuaramse comparações entre a capacidade que as células T apresentavam para proliferar e para produzir IFN-γ e IL-5 em resposta aos derivados de proteíns purificada (PPD, M. tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb, e M. tuberculosis H37Rv inactivado pelo calor (hk Mtb.Este estudo demoostrou que os individuos saudá-vels vacínados com BCG evidenciaram um máximo de proliferação e produção de IFN-γ em resposta ao painel de antigénios, e que Mtb vívo destencadeou uma resposta significativamente mais forte que a obtida pelo Mtb inactivado pelo calor. Embora os doentes com tuberculose pulmonary mostrassem respostas medias mais baxies de proliferação e produção de IFN-γ cm relação aos eontrolos saúdaveis, a resposta proliferativa ao PPD não foi significativamente reduzida, enquanto que a resposta ao Mtb e hk Mtb foram, significativas estatisticamitante. Em conclusão na tuberculose pulmonar a produção de IFN-γ pode estar reduzida sem um concomitante aumento de IL-5, confirmandose assim não existir uma mudança de resposta Th1 para Th2 na tuberculose pulmonar.REV PORT PNEUMOL 1998; IV (4:393-402 ABSTRACT: The contribution of Th1 and Th2 responses elicited by virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated, in healthy BCG vaccinated individuals and pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Comparisons were made between the T cell capacity to proliferate, produce IFN-γ and IL-5 in response to the soluable antigen purified protein derivative (PPD, live M. tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb and heat killed M tuberculosis H37Rv (hk Mtb. These studies demonstrated that control individuals showed the strongest mean proliferative and IFN-γ responses towards the antigen antigen panel and Mth elicited a significantly

  3. Th1, Th2, and Th17 Cytokine Involvement in Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy

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    Jie Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine serum cytokine profiles in Graves’ disease (GD patients with or without active and inactive thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO, we recruited 65 subjects: 10 GD only (without TAO, 25 GD + active TAO, 20 GD + TAO, and 10 healthy controls. Liquid chip assay was used to measure serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines including IFN-γ (interferon-gamma, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1α (interleukin-1 alpha, IL-1Ra (IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-17 and two chemokines: RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted and IP-10 (IFN-γ-induced protein 10. Serum levels of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone receptor autoantibodies (TRAb were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with healthy controls, TAO patients showed significantly elevated serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and IP-10. Comparing active and inactive TAO, serum Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated in active TAO, while serum Th2 cytokine IL-4 was elevated in inactive TAO. Serum Th17 cytokine IL-17 was elevated in GD but reduced in both active and inactive TAO. A positive correlation was found between TRAb and IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. Taken together, serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and chemokines reflect TAO disease activity and may be implicated in TAO pathogenesis.

  4. Aerobic Exercise Attenuated Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Th2-Dominant Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Santos Andrade-Sousa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise (AE in reducing bleomycin-induced fibrosis in mice of a Th2-dominant immune background (BALB/c.BALB/c mice were distributed into: sedentary, control (CON, Exercise-only (EX, sedentary, bleomycin-treated (BLEO and bleomycin-treated+exercised (BLEO+EX; (n = 8/group. Following treadmill adaptation, 15 days following a single, oro-tracheal administration of bleomycin (1.5U/kg, AE was performed 5 days/week, 60min/day for 4 weeks at moderate intensity (60% of maximum velocity reached during a physical test and assessed for pulmonary inflammation and remodeling, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL.At 45 days post injury, compared to BLEO, BLEO+EX demonstrated reduced collagen deposition in the airways (p<0.001 and also in the lung parenchyma (p<0.001. In BAL, a decreased number of total leukocytes (p<0.01, eosinophils (p<0.001, lymphocytes (p<0.01, macrophages (p<0.01, and neutrophils (p<0.01, as well as reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL-1; p<0.01, (IL-1β; p<0.001, (IL-5; p<0.01, (IL-6; p<0.001, (IL-13; p<0.01 and pro-fibrotic growth factor IGF-1 (p<0.001 were observed. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased (p<0.001.AE attenuated bleomycin-induced collagen deposition, inflammation and cytokines accumulation in the lungs of mice with a predominately Th2-background suggesting that therapeutic AE (15-44 days post injury attenuates the pro-inflammatory, Th2 immune response and fibrosis in the bleomycin model.

  5. Detection of intracytoplasmic Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadinejad Z

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients throughout the world. The incidence is increasing despite the major advances in the development of antimicrobial agents and other supportive treatments. Based on multiple studies, it has been shown that patient outcome depends on Th1 and Th2 cytokine response. Moreover, whenever the Th2 response is predominant, the sepsis is more severe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between cytokine levels and the severity of sepsis in patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study on the cellular levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines was carried out in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis. The study included 37 patients (24 men and 13 women, 26 of them had sepsis and 11 had the severe form of sepsis Thirty-seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The average age of the patients was 57 years (±23.3 years, with a range of 21 to 92 years. From the whole blood of the subjects, we separated the monocytes and leukocytes, which were then cultured. Using an ELISA method, we measured levels of IFN- and IL-12 (associated with Th1, and IL-4 and IL-10 (associated with Th2 in the cultured cells with and without cell stimulation. Results: No correlation was found for IFN- production in the cells of patients with sepsis and severe sepsis, regardless of whether the patients had died or survived. However, IL-12 levels were significantly decreased in severe sepsis compared with those of sepsis patients (P=0.048. Furthermore, the cells of expired patients also had significantly decreased IL-12 levels compared with those of surviving patients (P=0.028. We also found that the levels of IFN-, IL-4, and IL-10 were decreased in patients compared with those of controls, which correlated to their production. However, there was no correlation for IL-12 production between the cells of the patients compared with those of the controls. There was also no correlation for

  6. IL-25 Promotes Th2 Immunity Responses in Asthmatic Mice via Nuocytes Activation.

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    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available Interleukin-25 (IL-25 is a potent activator of type-2 immune responses, and is responsible for airway inflammation in asthma. Previous reports have shown that IL-25 expressed hyper-reactivity in an experimental mouse-model of asthma. In addition, the production of IL-13/IL-5 promoted by nuocytes induced airway inflammation. Thus, it has been questioned whether blocking IL-25 against its receptor IL-17BR could inhibit the expression of IL-13 and IL-5 via nuocytes, and further protect against inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA induced mouse-model of asthma.In this study, in order to investigate the correlation among IL-25, IL-5, IL-13 and nuocyte activities, we used OVA-sensitization and -challenging to induce the mouse model of asthma. The murine asthmatic model was validated by histology. The expressions of IL-5, IL-13 and IL-25 were detected by ELISA, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting of the lung tissue. Nuocyte activation was identified by the levels of ICOS (clone C398.4A and T1/ST2 (cloneDJ8 (acting as nuocytes surface markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. This, in turn, was done by means of flow cytometry. The expressions of IL-25, IL-5 and IL-13 in our murine model were detected in the BALF.The mice sensitized and challenged with OVA showed a high expression of IL-25 in both the mRNA and protein levels in lungs. The expressions of ICOS and T1/ST2 in BALF were increased. A significant correlation between IL-25 mRNA, protein, and other Th2-cell producing cytokines (such as IL-5 and IL-13 moreover were identified. Furthermore, when the asthmatic mice were treated with anti-IL-25, both the inflammatory cells' infiltration and the inflammatory cytokines' secretion were significantly decreased. The present findings indicate that IL-25 might be involved in a series of asthmatic immune responses, playing an important role in the increase of nuocytes, and that its activation is necessary in maintaining Th2 central memory and

  7. Burn Wound gammadelta T-Cells Support a Th2 and Th17 Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    penicillin and 50 μg/ml streptomycin (GIBCO, Grand Island, NY). Skin tissues were collected in a 60-mm petri dish (Corning, Tewksbury, MA) and minced...U/ml penicillin and 50 μg/ml strep- tomycin (GIBCO) supplemented with 10 U/ml murine recombinant IL-2 (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). Cells were...Bhavsar D, Mailänder P. The biology of burn in- jury. Exp Dermatol 2010;19:777–83. 6. Romagnani S. T-cell subsets (Th1 versus Th2). Ann Allergy Asthma

  8. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  9. The Metalloporphyrin Antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, Inhibits Th2 Cell Immune Responses in an Asthma Model

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    Paiboon Jungsuwadee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice suggesting an effect on Th2 responsiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that MnTE-2-PyP may alter dendritic cell-Th2 interactions. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DC and OVA323-339-specific Th2 cells were cultured separately in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP for 3 days prior to the co-culturing of the two cell types in the presence of an OVA323-339 peptide and in some cases stimulated with CD3/CD28. MnTE-2-PyP-pretreated DC inhibited IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ production and inhibited Th2 cell proliferation in the DC-Th2 co-culturing system in the presence of the OVA323-339 peptide. Similar results were obtained using the CD3/CD28 cell-activation system; the addition of MnTE-2-PyP inhibited Th2 cell proliferation. MnTE-2-PyP suppressed CD25 expression on OVA-specific Th2 cells, which implied that MnTE-2-PyP can inhibit the activation of Th2 cells. MnTE-2-PyP also down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules: CD40, CD80 and CD86 on immature DC. Our studies suggest that the major mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP inhibits airway inflammation is by acting on the DC and suppressing Th2 cell proliferation and activation.

  10. Flow cytometry imaging identifies rare T(H)2 cells expressing thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor in a "proallergic" milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefer, Amanda J; Hulse, Kathryn E; Lannigan, Josephine A; Solga, Michael D; Wright, Paul W; Kelly, Libby A; Patrie, James; Chapman, Martin D; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2010-11-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is expressed at sites of allergic inflammation, including eczematous skin. This cytokine has been reported to exert its T(H)2-inducing properties through dendritic cells. Expression of TSLP receptor on the surface of activated T(H)2 cells could amplify T(H)2 responses at inflamed sites through the direct actions of TSLP. To test rigorously whether T(H)2 cells induced by "proallergic" factors express TSLP receptor and characterize these cells using an experimental platform that combines flow cytometry with microscopic capabilities. CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis or normal healthy controls were cocultured with autologous dendritic cells in the presence of T(H)2-promoting stimuli (TSLP ± allergen and staphylococcal enterotoxin B ± TSLP). Surface expression of TSLP receptor was analyzed by image-based flow cytometry, and responsiveness of purified T cells to TSLP was assessed by phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 and cytokine secretion. T(H)2-promoting stimuli induced a robust population of activated T(H)2 cells (CD25(+)IL-4(+)). Regardless of the nature of the stimulus, flow cytometry imaging confirmed that T cells expressing TSLP receptor were rare, constituting a minor fraction of the IL-4(+) T cell pool; however, TSLP responsiveness was nonetheless detectable. Analysis of cell size and nuclear morphology revealed preferential expression of TSLP receptor on IL-4-expressing cells undergoing mitosis. Analysis of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis supported the view that rare IL-4(+) T cells expressing TSLP receptor are present at inflamed sites. In a "proallergic" milieu, TSLP receptor is preferentially expressed on rare actively dividing T(H)2 cells. The direct action of TSLP on T cells could amplify T(H)2 responses at sites of allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flow Cytometry Imaging Identifies Rare Th2 Cells Expressing TSLP Receptor in a “Pro-Allergic” Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefer, Amanda J.; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Lannigan, Josephine A.; Solga, Michael D.; Wright, Paul W.; Kelly, Libby A.; Patrie, James; Chapman, Martin D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Background TSLP is expressed at sites of allergic inflammation, including eczematous skin. This cytokine has been reported to exert its Th2-inducing properties through dendritic cells. Expression of TSLP receptor on the surface of activated Th2 cells could amplify Th2 responses at inflamed sites through the direct actions of TSLP. Objective To rigorously test whether Th2 cells induced by “pro-allergic” factors express TSLP receptor and characterize these cells using an experimental platform that combines flow cytometry with microscopic capabilities. Methods CD4+ T cells isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis or normal healthy controls were co-cultured with autologous dendritic cells in the presence of Th2-promoting stimuli (TSLP±allergen and staphylococcal enterotoxin B±TSLP). Surface expression of TSLP receptor was analyzed by image-based flow cytometry and responsiveness of purified T cells to TSLP was assessed by phosphorylation of STAT5 and cytokine secretion. Results Th2-promoting stimuli induced a robust population of activated Th2 cells (CD25+IL-4+). Regardless of the nature of the stimulus, flow cytometry imaging confirmed that T cells expressing TSLP receptor were rare, constituting a minor fraction of the IL-4+ T cell pool; however, TSLP-responsiveness was nonetheless detectable. Analysis of cell size and nuclear morphology revealed preferential expression of TSLP receptor on IL-4-expressing cells undergoing mitosis. Analysis of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis supported the view that rare IL-4+ T cells expressing TSLP receptor are present at inflamed sites. Conclusion In a “pro-allergic” milieu, TSLP receptor is preferentially expressed on rare actively dividing Th2 cells. The direct action of TSLP on T cells could amplify Th2 responses at sites of allergic inflammation. PMID:20888036

  12. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotides block allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting Th2 cell activation and IgE-mediated cytokine induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Edith M.; Chu, Mabel; Lizcano, Jennifer O.; Chang, Bonnie; Herman, Nancy; Kell, Sariah A.; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Coffman, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A single treatment with a CpG-containing immunostimulatory DNA sequence (ISS) given before allergen challenge can inhibit T helper type 2 cell (Th2)–mediated airway responses in animal models of allergic asthma; however, the mechanism of this inhibition remains largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that airway delivery of ISS before allergen challenge in Th2-primed mice acts in two distinct ways to prevent the allergic responses to this challenge. The first is to prevent induction of cytokines from allergen-specific Th2 cells, as demonstrated by the nearly complete inhibition of Th2 cytokine production, Th2-dependent functional responses, and gene induction patterns. ISS inhibits the Th2 response by rendering lung antigen-presenting cells (APCs) unable to effectively present antigen to Th2 cells, but not to Th1 cells. This loss of APC function correlates with a reduced expression of costimulatory molecules, including programmed cell death ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2, CD40, CD80, CD86, and inducible T cell costimulator, and of major histocompatibility complex class II on CD11c+APCs from the airways of ISS-treated mice. The second important action of ISS is inhibition of immunoglobulin E–dependent release of Th2 cytokines, especially interleukin 4, from basophils and/or mast cells in the airways of Th2-primed mice. Thus, inhibition by ISS of allergic responses can be explained by two novel mechanisms that culminate in the inhibition of the principal sources of type 2 cytokines in the airways. PMID:16314434

  13. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  14. Leptin Enhances TH2 and ILC2 Responses in Allergic Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Handong; Zhang, Xing; Castillo, Eliseo F; Luo, Yan; Liu, Meilian; Yang, Xuexian O

    2016-10-14

    Allergic asthma and obesity are the leading health problems in the world. Many studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor of development of asthma. However, the underlying mechanism has not been well established. In this study, we demonstrate that leptin, an adipokine elevated in obese individuals, promoted proliferation and survival of pro-allergic type 2 helper T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells and production of type 2 cytokines, which together contribute to allergic responses. Leptin activates mTORC1, MAPK, and STAT3 pathways in TH2 cells. The effects of leptin on TH2 cell proliferation, survival, and cytokine production are dependent on the mTORC1 and MAPK pathways as revealed by specific inhibitors. In vivo, leptin-deficiency led to attenuated experimental allergic airway inflammation. Our results thus support that obesity-associated elevation of leptin contributes to the increased susceptibility of asthma via modulation of pro-allergic lymphocyte responses. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1987 induces Th2 immune responses and enhances Mycobacterium smegmatis survival in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Shanshan; Shi, Xiaoxia; Deng, Guoying; Chen, Lina; Xin, Yi; Ma, Yufang

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can interfere with host immune response and escape clearance through its specific antigens. M. tuberculosis Rv1987 encoded by region of difference (RD)-2 gene is a secretory protein with immunogenic potency. Here, we investigated the impact of Rv1987 on host cytokine responses and T cell polarization in mouse aerosol model. A recombinant M. smegmatis mc2155 strain that overexpressed Rv1987 protein (named MS1987) was constructed and used to infect C57BL/6 mice. The mc2155 harbored the empty vector (named MSVec) was as a control. The results showed that MS1987 challenged mice promoted Th2-biased cytokine responses with lower secretion of IFN-γ but higher production of IL-4 and Rv1987-specific IgG antibody compared to MSVec infected mice. Neutrophilic inflammation and high bacterial burden were observed in the lung tissues of MS1987 infected mice probably own to the failed Th1 cell immunity. Besides, subcutaneous injection of Rv1987 protein could mediate the Th1 cytokine responses caused by M. bovis BCG in mice. These results indicated that M. tuberculosis Rv1987 protein could modulate host immune response towards Th2 profile, which probably contributed to the immune evasion of bacteria from host elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. An NLRP3 inflammasome-triggered Th2-biased adaptive immune response promotes leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Prajwal; Karki, Rajendra; Vogel, Peter; Watanabe, Makiko; Bix, Mark; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-03-02

    Leishmaniasis is a major tropical disease that can present with cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral manifestation and affects millions of individuals, causing substantial morbidity and mortality in third-world countries. The development of a Th1-adaptive immune response is associated with resistance to developing Leishmania major (L. major) infection. Inflammasomes are key components of the innate immune system that contribute to host defense against bacterial and viral pathogens; however, their role in regulating adaptive immunity during infection with protozoan parasites is less studied. Here, we demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome balances Th1/Th2 responses during leishmaniasis. Mice lacking the inflammasome components NLRP3, ASC, or caspase 1 on a Leishmania-susceptible BALB/c background exhibited defective IL-1β and IL-18 production at the infection site and were resistant to cutaneous L. major infection. Moreover, we determined that production of IL-18 propagates disease in susceptible BALB/c mice by promoting the Th2 cytokine IL-4, and neutralization of IL-18 in these animals reduced L. major titers and footpad swelling. In conclusion, our results indicate that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is detrimental during leishmaniasis and suggest that IL-18 neutralization has potential as a therapeutic strategy to treat leishmaniasis patients.

  17. Th2 dominance in nasal mucosa in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balding, C E J; Howie, A J; Drake-Lee, A B; Savage, C O S

    2001-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis initially affects upper respiratory tract organs including the nasal mucosa in more than 90% of patients. The inflammation is typically granulomatous with associated vasculitis. T lymphocytes are usually a prominent component of the leucocyte infiltrate. Previous studies using peripheral blood T cells have implicated IFN-γ rich Th1-type responses. This study addressed the cytokine milieu in nasal mucosa from 10 patients with active Wegener's granulomatosis using immunohistochemistry. Increased levels of CD3+ T cells and eosinophils were present compared with normal and disease controls. There was increased expression of IL-4, down-regulation of IL-2 and no detectable IFN-γ. There was increased expression of the chemokine receptor CCR3 by infiltrating cells, consistent with an IL-4 dominant, Th2-biased response. In contrast, renal biopsy tissue from 10 patients with active Wegener's granulomatosis showed expression of IL-2 and IL-4. The Th2-type environment within nasal mucosa, often the initial site of disease activity in Wegener's, is consistent with a local allergic response in these patients. PMID:11529927

  18. DISCOVERY OF COLLIMATED BIPOLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PLANETARY NEBULA TH 2-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danehkar, A., E-mail: ashkbiz.danehkar@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2015-12-10

    We present a comprehensive set of spatially resolved, integral field spectroscopic mapping of the Wolf–Rayet planetary nebula Th 2-A, obtained using the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. Velocity-resolved Hα channel maps with a resolution of 20 km s{sup −1} allow us to identify different kinematic components within the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the nebula using the interactive kinematic modeling tool shape. These results suggest that Th 2-A has a thick toroidal shell with an expansion velocity of 40 ± 10 km s{sup −1}, and a thin prolate ellipsoid with collimated bipolar outflows toward its axis reaching velocities in the range of 70–110 km s{sup −1}, with respect to the central star. The relationship between its morpho-kinematic structure and peculiar [WO]-type stellar characteristics deserves further investigation.

  19. Myeloid dendritic cells induce Th2 responses to inhaled antigen, leading to eosinophilic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, B N; De Veerman, M; Coyle, A J; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C; Thielemans, K; Pauwels, R A

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dendritic cells (DCs) can induce sensitization to aeroallergen in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Ovalbumin-pulsed (OVA-pulsed) or unpulsed myeloid DCs that were injected into the airways of naive mice migrated into the mediastinal lymph nodes. When challenged 2 weeks later with an aerosol of OVA, activated CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils were recruited to the lungs of actively immunized mice. These CD4(+) lymphocytes produced predominantly IL-4 and IL-5 but also IFN-gamma, whereas CD8(+) lymphocytes produced predominantly IFN-gamma. Histological analysis revealed perivascular and peribronchial eosinophilic infiltrates and goblet cell hyperplasia. Studies in IL-4(-/-) and CD28(-/-) mice revealed that production of IL-4 by host cells and provision of costimulation to T cells by DCs were critical for inducing the response. Lung CD4(+) T cells strongly expressed the Th2 marker T1/ST2, and signaling through this molecule via a ligand expressed on DCs was essential for the establishment of airway eosinophilia. These data demonstrate that DCs in the airways induce sensitization to inhaled antigen and that molecules expressed on the surface of these cells are critical for the development of Th2-dependent airway eosinophilia.

  20. [Dynamic alteration of CD154/CD40 and its effects on Th1/Th2 polarization in inducible co-stimulator ligand knockout mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Xia, Chao-ming

    2015-12-18

    To analyze effect on the CD154-CD40 signaling pathway and Th1/Th2 polarization by deficient inducible co-stimulator (ICOS)-ICOS ligand (ICOSL) signaling in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. ICOSL knockout (ICOSL-KO) mice and wild-type C57BL/6J mice were used as experimental Schistosomiasis model infected with Schistosoma japonicum. The expressions of CD154 and CD40 on splenocytes and on inflammatory cells around granulomatous infiltration of liver in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum were analyzed by flow cytometry,immunohistochemical staining, respectively, on the day before infection (0 week)and at the end of 4, 7, 12, 16 and 20 weeks post-infection. The splenocytes of the mice were stimulated with soluble egg antigen(SEA) for 72 hours, then the concentrations of interferon gamma(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the culture supernatants were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The levels of SEA-specific antibodies of IgG and IgG1 and IgG2a were measured in the mice sera by ELISA. The granulomatous pathology in the mice liver was dynamically observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Compared with the wild-type C57BL/6J mice, the expressions of CD154 on CD4+ T splenocytes [(18.62 ± 4.76)% vs.(27.91 ± 3.94)%, (22.44 ± 4.67)% vs.(40.86 ± 5.21)%, (25.50 ± 6.81)% vs.(43.81 ± 8.41)%, (20.22 ± 5.28)% vs.(40.95 ± 7.34)%, (17.87 ± 4.59)% vs.(33.16 ± 6.31)%, all PCD154[(0.319 ± 0.066) vs.(0.488 ± 0.086), (0.389 ± 0.067) vs.(0.596 ± 0.082), (0.378 ± 0.064) vs.(0.543 ± 0.072), (0.348 ± 0.069) vs.(0.523 ± 0.076), all PCD154 and CD40 and impairment of Th2 immune response in the ICOSL-KO mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, accompanying with notedly reduced hepatic granulomatous pathology. The ICOS-ICOSL signaling has a regulatory effect on CD154-CD40 signaling pathway, and may play an important role in the hepatic egg granuloma formation of Schistosomiasis.

  1. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X......-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT......-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location....

  2. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  3. The phylotypic egg timer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2000-01-01

    Von Baer and Haeckel provided the basis of what came to be known as the phylotypic egg timer: during their development vertebrate embryos pass through a period in which they show the archetype of the vertebrate body plan. During this period vertebrate embryos are similar, in both form and

  4. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete

  5. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  6. The retinoic acid receptor-α modulators ATRA and Ro415253 reciprocally regulate human IL-5+ Th2 cell proliferation and cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansley, Daniel L; Yin, Yuzhi; Prussin, Calman

    2013-12-06

    Th2 cytokine responses are enhanced by all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the bioavailable form of vitamin A. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) is the high affinity receptor for ATRA that mediates these pro-Th2 effects. We have previously characterized two major human Th2 subpopulations: IL-5- Th2 (IL-5-, IL-4+, IL-13+) and IL-5+ Th2 cells (IL-5+, IL-4+, IL-13+), which represent less and more highly differentiated Th2 cells, respectively. We hypothesized that the pro-Th2 effects of ATRA may differentially affect these Th2 subpopulations. Specific cytokine producing Th2 subpopulations were identified using intracellular cytokine staining. Proliferation was measured using the Cell Trace Violet proliferation tracking dye. Apoptotic cells were identified using either annexin-V or active caspase 3 staining. Th2 gene expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. ATRA increased the output of Th2 cells from house dust mite allergen (HDM) specific short-term cell lines, and this enhancement was limited to the IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. Conversely, the RARα antagonist Ro415253 decreased Th2 cell output from these cultures, and this effect was again limited to the IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. ATRA and Ro415253 respectively augmented and inhibited Th2 cell proliferation, and this affect was more pronounced for the IL-5+ vs. IL-5- Th2 subpopulation. ATRA and Ro415253 respectively augmented and inhibited the expression of IL5 in a significant manner, which was not found for IL4 or IL13. We report that the reciprocal regulation of Th2 cytokine expression and proliferation by RARα modulators are largely limited to modulation of IL-5 gene expression and to proliferation of the highly differentiated IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. These results suggest that RARα antagonism is a potential means to therapeutically target allergic inflammation. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01212016.

  7. ST2 Requires Th2-, but Not Th17-, Type Airway Inflammation in Epicutaneously Antigen-Sensitized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The IL-33/ST2 pathway is crucial for Th2-cytokine-mediated eosinophilic, rather than Th17-cytokine-mediated neutrophilic, airway inflammation in mice that had been epicutaneously sensitized with antigens and then challenged with antigen.

  8. Combining network modeling and gene expression microarray analysis to explore the dynamics of Th1 and Th2 cell regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicini, Marco; Barrenäs, Fredrik; Clancy, Trevor; Castiglione, Filippo; Hovig, Eivind; Kanduri, Kartiek; Santoni, Daniele; Benson, Mikael

    2010-12-16

    Two T helper (Th) cell subsets, namely Th1 and Th2 cells, play an important role in inflammatory diseases. The two subsets are thought to counter-regulate each other, and alterations in their balance result in different diseases. This paradigm has been challenged by recent clinical and experimental data. Because of the large number of genes involved in regulating Th1 and Th2 cells, assessment of this paradigm by modeling or experiments is difficult. Novel algorithms based on formal methods now permit the analysis of large gene regulatory networks. By combining these algorithms with in silico knockouts and gene expression microarray data from human T cells, we examined if the results were compatible with a counter-regulatory role of Th1 and Th2 cells. We constructed a directed network model of genes regulating Th1 and Th2 cells through text mining and manual curation. We identified four attractors in the network, three of which included genes that corresponded to Th0, Th1 and Th2 cells. The fourth attractor contained a mixture of Th1 and Th2 genes. We found that neither in silico knockouts of the Th1 and Th2 attractor genes nor gene expression microarray data from patients with immunological disorders and healthy subjects supported a counter-regulatory role of Th1 and Th2 cells. By combining network modeling with transcriptomic data analysis and in silico knockouts, we have devised a practical way to help unravel complex regulatory network topology and to increase our understanding of how network actions may differ in health and disease.

  9. IL-4-induced GATA-3 expression is a time-restricted instruction switch for Th2 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Noriyasu; Miyazaki, Mayumi; Suzuki, Wataru; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Arima, Kazuhiko; Myburgh, Elmarie; Izuhara, Kenji; Brombacher, Frank; Kubo, Masato

    2004-05-15

    An initial activation signal via the TCR in a restricted cytokine environment is critical for the onset of Th cell development. Cytokines regulate the expression of key transcriptional factors, T-bet and GATA-3, which instruct the direction of Th1 and Th2 differentiation, through changes in chromatin conformation. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of IL-4-mediated signaling in a transgenic mouse, expressing human IL-4R on a mouse IL-4alphaR-deficient background. These experiments, allowing induction with human IL-4 at defined times, demonstrated that an IL-4 signal was required at the early stage of TCR-mediated T cell activation for lineage commitment to Th2, along with structural changes in chromatin, which take place in the conserved noncoding sequence-1 and -2 within the IL-4 locus. At later times, however, IL-4 failed to promote efficient Th2 differentiation and decondensation of chromatin, even though GATA-3 was clearly induced in the nuclei by IL-4 stimulation. Moreover, IL-4-mediated Th2 instruction was independent from cell division mediated by initial TCR stimulation. The role of IL-4 signaling may have a time restriction during Th2 differentiation. In late stages of initial T cell activation, the chromatin structure of the IL-4 locus retains condensation state. These results demonstrate that IL-4-induced GATA-3 expression is time-restriction switch for Th2 differentiation.

  10. A role for interleukin-33 in T(H)2-polarized intestinal inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, J B; Rogler, G; Nielsen, O H

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a recently discovered cytokine member of the IL-1 superfamily that is widely expressed in fixed tissue cells, including endothelial and epithelial cells. IL-33 induces helper T cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils to produce type-2 cytokines through binding...... to the ST2/IL-1 receptor accessory protein complex. Recent studies have shown IL-33 to be upregulated in intestinal parasite infection and in epithelial cells and myofibroblasts in ulcerative colitis (UC). The findings point to a role for IL-33 in directing the T(H)2-type immune responses in these types...... of mucosal inflammation. As the IL-33/ST2 receptor axis can be manipulated by various blocking antibodies, this could be a potential therapeutic target in the future treatment of UC....

  11. Analysis of serum th1/th2 cytokine levels in patients with acute mumps infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Malaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent of parotitis. There has been no study on serum cytokine levels of acute mumps parotitis except for a few which document cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of mumps meningitis. It is with this notion, our study aimed to find Th1/Th2 cytokine levels from patients with acute mumps parotitis. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of mumps-specific IgM, mumps, measles, rubella-specific IgG antibody, and Th1/Th2 cytokines, namely interferon-g (IFN-g, interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured simultaneously in serum from 74 patients (42 pediatric and 32 adult cases, 40 healthy subjects (20 pediatric and 20 adults and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mumps virus genotype C which served as the positive control. Statistical significance was analyzed between each group by means of Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test. Results: IgM positivity confirmed acute infection in all 74 patients and of these 67 were vaccinated cases; however, very few of them (10/67 were positive for mumps IgG. We found that IFN-g, IL-2, and IL-10 showed a statistically significant increase in both pediatric and adult patients with acute mumps infection when compared to healthy controls and values were comparable to the positive control. Conclusion: The Th1 cells play important roles during the acute phase of mumps parotitis.

  12. Airway epithelial transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 inhibits mucous cell metaplasia and Th2 inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yutaka; Chen, Gang; Xu, Yan; Haitchi, Hans Michael; Du, Lingling; Keiser, Angela R; Howarth, Peter H; Davies, Donna E; Holgate, Stephen T; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2011-08-15

    Airway mucous cell metaplasia and chronic inflammation are pathophysiological features that influence morbidity and mortality associated with asthma and other chronic pulmonary disorders. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating mucous metaplasia and hypersecretion provides the scientific basis for diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities to improve the care of chronic pulmonary diseases. To determine the role of the airway epithelial–specific transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1, also known as thyroid transcription factor-1 [TTF-1]) in mucous cell metaplasia and lung inflammation. Expression of NKX2-1 in airway epithelial cells from patients with asthma was analyzed. NKX2-1 +/-gene targeted or transgenic mice expressing NKX2-1 in conducting airway epithelial cells were sensitized to the aeroallergen ovalbumin. In vitro studies were used to identify mechanisms by which NKX2-1 regulates mucous cell metaplasia and inflammation. NKX2-1 was suppressed in airway epithelial cells from patients with asthma. Reduced expression of NKX2-1 in heterozygous NKX2-1 +/- gene targeted mice increased mucous metaplasia in the small airways after pulmonary sensitization to ovalbumin. Conversely, mucous cell metaplasia induced by aeroallergen was inhibited by expression of NKX2-1 in the respiratory epithelium in vivo. Genome-wide mRNA analysis of lung tissue from ovalbumin-treated mice demonstrated that NKX2-1 inhibited mRNAs associated with mucous metaplasia and Th2-regulated inflammation,including Spdef, Ccl17, and Il13. In vitro, NKX2-1 inhibited SPDEF, a critical regulator of airway mucous cell metaplasia,and the Th2 chemokine CCL26. The present data demonstrate a novel function for NKX2-1 in a gene network regulating mucous cell metaplasia and allergic inflammation in the respiratory epithelium.

  13. TH1 and TH2 response to Campylobacter jejuni antigen in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Kishan K; Prasad, Kashi N; Rizwan, Arshi; Verma, Avantika; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-04-01

    To determine the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in lymphocytes from the progressive and recovery phases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after stimulation with Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins. Case-control study. Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences. Sixty-five patients with GBS, 60 age- and sex-matched disease control individuals, and 68 healthy control individuals were included in the study. Lymphocytes from patients with GBS were stimulated with C jejuni outer membrane proteins, and the levels of different proinflammatory (T(H)1 [helper T cell, subtype 1]) and anti-inflammatory (T(H)2) cytokines were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the progressive phase of the disease, the expressions of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, IL-10, and the IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio were significantly upregulated, but expressions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IL-4 were lower in patients compared with disease and healthy controls. In contrast, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF, IL-6, IL-10, and the IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio were significantly lower, but TGF-β1 and IL-4 were upregulated in the recovery phase of GBS patients compared with controls. Upregulation of T(H)1 cytokines in the early disease course may be associated with immune-mediated disease progression due to neuronal inflammation, but upregulation of T(H)2 immune response during the later phase aids recovery from the disease.

  14. Cigarette smoke enhances Th-2 driven airway inflammation and delays inhalational tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Guy F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active smoking increases asthma severity and is related to diminished treatment efficacy. Animal models in which inhalation of both allergen and mainstream cigarette smoke are combined can help us to understand the complex interaction between both agents. We have recently shown that, in allergic mice, the airway inflammation can be cleared by repeated allergen challenge, resulting in the establishment of a state of inhalational tolerance. Methods In this study, we assessed in vivo the impact of cigarette smoke on the efficacy and time course of this form of tolerance induction. We exposed sensitized mice to concurrent mainstream cigarette smoke and allergen (Ovalbumin- OVA and measured the airway inflammation at different time points. Results We first confirmed that aerosolized OVA administered for a prolonged time period (4–8 weeks resulted in the establishment of tolerance. Concurrent OVA and smoke exposure for 2 weeks showed that tobacco smoke enhanced the Th-2 driven airway inflammation in the acute phase. In addition, the induction of the tolerance by repeated inhalational OVA challenge was delayed significantly by the tobacco smoke, since 4 weeks of concurrent exposure resulted in a more persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation, paralleled by a more mature dendritic cell phenotype. However, smoke exposure could not prevent the establishment of tolerance after 8 weeks of antigen exposure as shown by both histopathology (disappearance of the Th-2 driven inflammation and by in vivo functional experiments. In these tolerized mice, some of the inflammatory responses to the smoke were even attenuated. Conclusion Cigarette smoke enhances acute allergic inflammation and delays, but does not abrogate the development of tolerance due to prolonged challenge with inhaled antigen in experimental asthma.

  15. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1 orchestrates T(H2 lineage commitment by mediating Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. This report identifies a new global transcription factor involved in beta-catenin signalling that may play a major role in dictating the functional outcomes of this signalling pathway during development, differentiation, and tumorigenesis.

  16. The Egg model

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate a variety of aspects related to computer-assisted flooding optimization and history matching. Unfortunately the details of the parameters settings are not always identical and not always fully docu...

  17. T cell-derived Act1 is necessary for IL-25-mediated Th2 responses and allergic airway inflammation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaidani, Shadi; Bulek, Katarzyna; Kang, Zizhen; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Liu, Caini; Yin, Weiguo; Abbadi, Amina; Aronica, Mark; Li, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms driven by IL-25 and its cognate receptor IL-17RB necessary for the promotion of T helper type 2 (Th2) mediating pathogenic pulmonary inflammation remain to be defined. We have previously reported the critical role of the U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase Act1 (1), for the downstream signaling of the IL-17 cytokine family including the Th2 promoting cytokine IL-25 (IL-17E) (2). In this study, we report that IL-25 driven but not conventional IL-4 driven Th2 polarization and cytokine production is impaired in Act1-deficient T cells. Also, Act1 deficiency in the T cell compartment results in the abrogation of eosinophilic airway infiltration as well as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a mouse model of antigen induced airway inflammation. The in vivo generation of antigen specific Th2 cytokine producing cells is defective in the absence of Act1 expression in T cells following ovalbumin/Alum immunization. Interestingly, the production of ovalbumin specific IgG1 but not IgG2a or IgE is also impaired. At the molecular level, we report that IL-25-mediated induction of Th2 master regulator GATA-3, and the transcription factor GFI-1 is attenuated in Act1-deficient T cells. Taken together, our findings indicated that Act1 expression in T cells is required for cellular and humoral Th2-mediated allergic responses and the development of AHR, in part, through its function in IL-25 induced development of Th2 T cells. PMID:21856933

  18. Regulation of nasal airway homeostasis and inflammation in mice by SHP-1 and Th2/Th1 signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Hyun Cho

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease orchestrated by Th2 lymphocytes. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1 is known to be a negative regulator in the IL-4α/STAT-6 signaling pathway of the lung. However, the role of SHP-1 enzyme and its functional relationship with Th2 and Th1 cytokines are not known in the nasal airway. In this study, we aimed to study the nasal inflammation as a result of SHP-1 deficiency in viable motheaten (mev mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Cytology, histology, and expression of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed to define the nature of the nasal inflammation. Targeted gene depletion of Th1 (IFN-γ and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines was used to identify the critical pathways involved. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs were studied to demonstrate the clearance mechanism of recruited inflammatory cells into the nasal airway. We showed here that mev mice had a spontaneous allergic rhinitis-like inflammation with eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia, up-regulation of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13, chemokines (eotaxin, and MMPs. All of these inflammatory mediators were clearly counter-regulated by Th2 and Th1 cytokines. Deletion of IFN-γ gene induced a strong Th2-skewed inflammation with transepithelial migration of the inflammatory cells. These findings suggest that SHP-1 enzyme and Th2/Th1 paradigm may play a critical role in the maintenance of nasal immune homeostasis and in the regulation of allergic rhinitis.

  19. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders; Riise, Ruth; Vorum, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)(Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Ten "ant-eggs" were extracted; four of these as well as control tissue were analyzed by mass spectrometry (AB Sciex). Proteins were identified and their approximate abundances were determined. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out on the remaining "ant-eggs" for cytokeratin and S100. In anterior OCT-images, the "ant-egg" structures are localized on the iris. Comparative pictures showed that they stayed in the same location for more than 45 years. Mass spectrometry of "ant-eggs" yielded a proteome of 56 different proteins. Eighteen of the 56 "ant-egg" proteins (32 %) were neither present in our controls nor in a known fetal lens proteome. Among these were cytokeratin and Matrix-Gla protein. Immunohistochemical reactions were positive for cytokeratin and S100. This study demonstrates the previously unknown protein composition of the "ant-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location.

  20. Immune response to the cestode Hymenolepis nana: cytokine production during infection with eggs or cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchedda, M; Bortoletti, G; Gabriele, F; Wakelin, D; Palmas, C

    1997-03-01

    Analysis of cytokine production (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5) by in vitro Con A-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells measured daily after egg or cyst infection of mice with Hymenolepis nana showed that cytokine production varies during parasite development and between different host strains (BALB/c and C3H/He mice). Egg infection stimulates a rapid increase in IFN-gamma, independent of mouse strain. In addition, in BALB/c mice a Th2-like response (IL-4, IL-5 secretion) was stimulated 4-5 days p.i., when the parasites are thought to begin their lumenal phase. After infection with cysts significant increases in IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 were observed at the time when autoinfection with eggs is thought to occur. The level of IFN-gamma paralleled that seen after a primary egg infection. This suggests that there is a predominantly Th1-type response during the tissue phase of H. nana development and that, in BALB/c mice, a Th2 polarization occurs during the first few days of the lumenal phase. The cytokine patterns observed are discussed in relation to host responses during chronic helminth infection.

  1. Influence of Probiotic Consortium on TH1 and TH2 Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Shakhabayeva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main role of probiotics is to maintain homeostasis in the intestines and improve bowel protective function. The aim of the present study is to investigate immuno-modulatory effects of a probiotic consortium. Methods: Observations were carried out in vitro. The presence of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgM, and IgE was studied using a solid-phase enzyme immunosorbent assay on the VECTOR-BEST sets (Russia. Results: Immunomodulatory properties of the probiotic consortium were studied, which consisted of the following strains: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Elevated concentrations of INFγ in control samples decreased 3.9 times (p < 0.05 after a saturation of blood with the probiotic consortium. Significant reduction of cytokine levels after the probiotic effects of the consortium was observed in IL-10 by 2.1 times (p < 0.05 and IgA by 1.87 times (p < 0.0005. There was a significant increase in the levels of IL-4, IgE, IL-6, and IL-8 by 1.3 (p < 0.005, 1.1 (p < 0.5, 18.0 (p < 0.005, and 6 (p < 0.05 times, respectively, in comparison with the control samples. IL-4 and INFγ have different effects on the synthesis of IgE. Soluble low affinity receptors FcεRII (CD23 in association with IL-4 facilitate a differentiation of the B-lymphocytes in IgE-synthesizing cells, while γ-INF inhibits this process. It is known that the intracellular expression of γ-INF and IL-4 is the most reliable marker for Th1 and Th2 immune responses, respectively. The conducted studies determined that the ratio of INF-γ/IL-4 was 0.9 (control 4.8, P < 0.005 after the saturation of the blood cells with probiotic consortium. NF-γ/IL4 ratio decreased by 5.3 times compared with a control value, which indicates a reduction in the functional activity of Th1 type lymphocytes in comparison with the

  2. Myeloid dendritic cells stimulated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin promote Th2 immune responses and the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamauchi

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by subepithelial T-cell infiltration. Recent studies reported that specific T helper (Th subsets, especially Th2 cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP is mainly secreted by epithelial cells and potently activates myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs to induce Th2-mediated inflammation. Here, we investigated the expression of TSLP and related molecules in OLP. Buccal mucosa specimens from patients with OLP, hyperkeratosis, and ulcer were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of TSLP, its receptor (TSLPR, and inflammatory cells. TSLP was detected in/around the epithelium of patients with OLP and hyperkeratosis, whereas TSLPR, CD11c (mDC, and GATA3 (Th2 were strongly expressed in the subepithelial layer only in OLP patients. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that TSLPR expression mainly co-localized with CD11c. Moreover, the number of CD11c- and GATA-3 positive cells was correlated in OLP patients. In lesions selectively extracted by laser microdissection, the mRNA expression of Th2 (IL-4, MDC, TARC, GATA3- and Th17 (IL-17, RORγt-related molecules in OLP patients was significantly higher than in other groups. These results suggest that CD11c+ mDCs expressing TSLPR contribute to aberrant Th2 immune responses and the pathogenesis of OLP via TSLP stimulation.

  3. Notch and presenilin regulate cellular expansion and cytokine secretion but cannot instruct Th1/Th2 fate acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tong Ong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggested that Delta1, 4 and Jagged1, 2 possessed the ability to instruct CD4(+ T cell into selection of Th1 or Th2 fates, respectively, although the underlying mechanism endowing the cleaved Notch receptor with memory of ligand involved in its activation remains elusive. To examine this, we prepared artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing either DLL1 or Jag1. Although both ligands were efficient in inducing Notch2 cleavage and activation in CD4(+ T or reporter cells, the presence of Lunatic Fringe in CD4(+ T cells inhibited Jag1 activation of Notch1 receptor. Neither ligand could induce Th1 or Th2 fate choice independently of cytokines or redirect cytokine-driven Th1 or Th2 development. Instead, we find that Notch ligands only augment cytokine production during T cell differentiation in the presence of polarizing IL-12 and IL-4. Moreover, the differentiation choices of naïve CD4(+ T cells lacking gamma-secretase, RBP-J, or both in response to polarizing cytokines revealed that neither presenilin proteins nor RBP-J were required for cytokine-induced Th1/Th2 fate selection. However, presenilins facilitate cellular proliferation and cytokine secretion in an RBP-J (and thus, Notch independent manner. The controversies surrounding the role of Notch and presenilins in Th1/Th2 polarization may reflect their role as genetic modifiers of T-helper cells differentiation.

  4. Mould-sensitized adults have lower Th2 cytokines and a higher prevalence of asthma than those sensitized to other aeroallergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, M C; Reece, J C; Kandane-Rathnayake, R K; Tang, M L K; Simpson, J A; Feather, I H; Southey, M C; Tsimiklis, H; Hopper, J L; Morrison, S C; Giles, G G; Walters, E H; Dharmage, S C

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that specific allergen sensitizations are associated with different allergic diseases which may reflect different underlying immune profiles. We aimed to examine the cytokine profiles of individuals sensitized to eight common aeroallergens. We used data from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study a population-based cohort study of 45-year-olds. Serum cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α) were measured in 1157 subjects using the LINCOplex assays. Participants underwent skin prick testing for house dust mite, cat, grasses and moulds. Multivariable linear regression was used to compare serum cytokine levels between sensitized and nonatopic subjects. The prevalence of allergic sensitization to any aeroallergen was 51% (95% CI 47-54). Being sensitized to any aeroallergen was strongly associated with current asthma (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 2.6-5.3), and being sensitized to any moulds was associated with a very high risk of current asthma (OR = 6.40, 95% CI 4.06-10.1). The geometric mean (GM) levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6) for adults sensitized to Cladosporium were significantly lower than the levels for nonatopic individuals (IL-4 ratio of GMs = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.62, P = 0.003; IL-5 GM = 0.55, 95% CI 0.30-0.99, P = 0.05; and IL-6 GM = 0.50, 95% CI 0.24-1.07, P = 0.07). Individuals sensitized to other aeroallergens all showed elevated Th2 cytokine levels. Our study is the first large population-based study to demonstrate reduced Th2 cytokines levels in people sensitized to mould. Underlying biological mechanisms driving allergic inflammatory responses in adults sensitized to moulds may differ from those sensitized to other aeroallergens. These findings suggest that it may be necessary to tailor treatments in individuals sensitized to moulds compared with other aeroallergens in order to optimize outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neutralizing Th2 Inflammation in Neonatal Islets Prevents β-Cell Failure in Adult IUGR Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckle Santos, Lane J.; Li, Changhong; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Worthen, G. Scott; Simmons, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Inflammation is associated with T2D; however, it is unknown whether inflammation is causal or secondary to the altered metabolic state. Here we show that the mechanism by which IUGR leads to the development of T2D in adulthood is via transient recruitment of T-helper 2 (Th) lymphocytes and macrophages in fetal islets resulting in localized inflammation. Although this immune response is short-lived, it results in a permanent reduction in islet vascularity and impaired insulin secretion. Neutralizing interleukin-4 antibody therapy given only in the newborn period ameliorates inflammation and restores vascularity and β-cell function into adulthood, demonstrating a novel role for Th2 immune responses in the induction and progression of T2D. In the neonatal stage, inflammation and vascular changes are reversible and may define an important developmental window for therapeutic intervention to prevent adult-onset diabetes. PMID:24408314

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in children with enterovirus 71-associated meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajun; Li, Shuxian; Zheng, Jianfeng; Cai, Chunyan; Ye, Bin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe neurological complications including meningoencephalitis (ME) in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, to date no studies have reported changes in cytokine concentrations and their correlations with clinical variables in patients with ME following EV71 infection. In this study, responses of Th1/Th2 cytokine, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with EV71-related HFMD with ME and patients with febrile convulsions (FC) were analyzed using cytometric bead array technology. It was found that CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly higher in patients with EV71-related ME than in those with FC. Additionally, both CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were correlated with CSF cytology, fever duration and duration of hospital stay. More interestingly, a positive correlation between CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that when a cutoff value of 9.40 pg/mL was set for IL-6, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 85.5%, respectively, for discriminating EV71-related ME from FC. In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-γ may be associated with EV71-induced neuropathology. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Th1 and Th2-like protein balance in human inflammatory radicular cysts and periapical granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Alves, Lucas Rodrigues; de Sousa, Adriana Alkmim; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Vilela, Daniel Nogueira; Pereira, Camila Santos; Batista Domingos, Patrícia Luciana; Viana, Agostinho Gonçalves; Jham, Bruno Correia; Batista de Paula, Alfredo Maurício; Sena Guimarães, André Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Chronic dental periapical lesions result from chronic inflammation of periapical tissues caused by continuous antigenic stimulation from infected root canals. Recent findings have suggested that T helper (Th) 1 and Th2-like cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of chronic periapical inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms regulating these immunoinflammatory pathways have not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) protein levels in human radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. Archived samples of cysts (n = 52) and granulomas (n = 27) were sectioned and submitted to immunohistochemistry to evaluate the tissue expression of IL-4, IL-12, and IFN-γ. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P radicular cysts. IL-4 expression was stronger in periapical granulomas than in radicular cysts. IL-12 was not detected in any of the samples. Our study showed that IFN-γ protein levels are increased in radicular cysts, whereas IL-4 expression is stronger in samples of periapical granulomas. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and to facilitate the development of more effective periapical disease management strategies. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinct Th1, Th2 and Treg cytokines balance in chronic periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Salum, Tatiana Beber; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha; Gervásio, Aurélia M; Souza, Cássio J A; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2010-03-01

    Periapical lesions are a host response that involves immune reaction to prevent dissemination of bacteria from an infected root canal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of nitric oxide (NO), IL-4, TGF-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in chronic periapical lesions and to determine their possible association with clinical and radiographic parameters. Seventeen human radicular cysts and 30 periapical granulomas were used in this study. Cytokines and NO were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by the Griess reaction respectively confirmed by immunohistochemical. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were detected in 10% of granulomas and in 41.2% and 70% of radicular cysts. IL-4 was reactive in 24% of cysts, and TGF-beta was positive in all samples. Patients with tenderness showed significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 (P radicular cysts has mist Th1 and Th2 inflammatory reaction with the presence of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-4.

  9. [Effect of pulmonary surfactant on Th1/Th2 balance in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shu-Fen; Liu, Cui-Qing; Ping, Li-Li; Tian, Bao-Li

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of pulmonary surfactant (PS) on the Th1/Th2 balance and serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IgE in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A total of 58 neonates with RDS were divided into control (n=20) and PS treatment groups (n=38). The control group underwent mechanical ventilation and other conventional treatment, while the PS treatment group received with bovine PS treatment within 1 hour of being admitted to the hospital together with mechanical ventilation and other conventional treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IgE before treatment and 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment. Simultaneously, arterial blood gas, respiratory system compliance, and other ventilator parameters were recorded. Compared with the control group, the PS treatment group showed significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen exposure time (Pneonates with RDS, thus inhibiting lung inflammatory response and reducing lung injury.

  10. Anti-asthma effects of synthetic salidroside through regulation of Th1/Th2 balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Jin, Rong-Guang; Xiao, Lu; Wang, Qiu-Juan; Yan, Tian-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of synthetic salidroside in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) to induce a mouse model of asthma in paracmasis. The mice were treated with dexamethasone as the positive control. At the end of the study, respiratory reactivity was detected, the numbers of various kinds of white blood cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted, and the levels of IL-4 and INF-γ in BALF were determined. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA contents of IL-4 and INF-γ in lung tissue. Histologic examination was performed to observe inflammatory cellular infiltration. Salidroside treatment virtually eliminated airway hyper-reactivity, markedly reduced the eosinophil percent, obviously reduced the levels of IL-4 and raised INF-γ in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared with the sham-treated group. Quantitative PCR on the mRNA content of IL-4 and INF-γ provided confirmation. Lung histologic observations showed that salidroside reduced inflammation and edema. These effects were equivalent to the effects of dexamethasone. Synthetic salidroside exhibits an anti-asthma effect which is related to the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance. This provides a new possibility for treatment of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Holograms with egg albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salinas, P.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Perez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    Two components of the egg as the albumen and their proteins are used for holographic recorded applying lithography technique. This matrix was composed by albumen-glucose and by protein-glucose. The results obtained for the parameter diffraction efficiency with our matrix albumen-glucose was it from 44.1% and for the matrix protein-glucose were two maximums of diffraction efficiency, reached about the mixture ovoalbumin-glucose (6.2*10 -1%) and avidin-glucose (4.7*10 -1%).

  12. Chitinase 3–like-1 Regulates Both Visceral Fat Accumulation and Asthma-like Th2 Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Farida; Sood, Akshay; Ma, Bing; Takyar, Seyedtaghi; Schuyler, Mark; Qualls, Clifford; Dela Cruz, Charles S.; Chupp, Geoffrey L.; Lee, Chun G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Obesity, especially truncal obesity, is a risk factor for asthma incidence, prevalence, and severity. Chitinase 3–like-1 (Chi3l1) is an evolutionarily conserved moiety that plays a critical role in antipathogen and Th2 responses. However, the mechanisms that underlie the association between asthma and obesity and the role(s) of Chi3l1 in fat accumulation have not been defined. Objectives: To determine whether Chi3l1 is regulated by a high-fat diet (HFD) and simultaneously plays an important role(s) in the pathogenesis of asthma and obesity. Methods: We evaluated the regulation of Chi3l1 by an HFD and Th2 inflammation. We also used genetically modified mice to define the roles of Chi3l1 in white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation and Th2 inflammation and blockers of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) to define its roles in these responses. Finally, the human relevance of these findings was assessed with a case–controlstudy involving obese and lean control subjects and those with asthma. Measurements and Main Results: These studies demonstrate that an HFD and aeroallergen challenge augment the expression of WAT and pulmonary Chi3l1. Chi3l1 also played a critical role in WAT accumulation and lung Th2 inflammation. In addition, Chi3l1 inhibited Sirt1 expression, and the deficient visceral fat and Th2 responses in Chi3l1 null mice were reversed by Sirt1 inhibition. Finally, serum and sputum Chi3l1 were positively associated with truncal adiposity, and serum Chi3l1 was associated with persistent asthma and low lung function in obese subjects with asthma. Conclusions: Chi3l1 is induced by an HFD and Th2 inflammation, and simultaneously contributes to the genesis of obesity and asthma. PMID:25629580

  13. Clinical influence of different intracanal medications on Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Frederico C; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Leite, Fabio R M; Gomes, Ana P M; Freitas, Lilian F; Camões, Izabel C G

    2015-02-01

    This clinical study assessed the influence of different intracanal medications on Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses in apical periodontitis and monitored the levels of bacteria from primarily infection during endodontic procedures. Thirty primarily infected teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the medication selected: chlorhexidine (CHX), 2% CHX gel; Ca(OH)2/SSL, Ca(OH)2 + SSL; and Ca(OH)2/CHX, Ca(OH)2 + 2% CHX gel (all, n = 10). Bacterial sample was collected from root canals, and the interstitial fluid was sampled from lesions. Culture techniques were used to determine bacterial counts (colony-forming units/mL). Th1 (tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin [IL]-2) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All intracanal medication protocols were effective in reducing the bacterial load from root canals (all P type cytokines in apical lesions (all P .05). Both Ca(OH)2 treatment protocols significantly increased the levels of Th2-type cytokines (P .05). Thus, chlorhexidine medication showed the lowest effectiveness in increasing the levels of Th2-type cytokine. After treatment, regardless of the type of medication, the linear regression analysis indicated the down-regulation of Th2-type cytokines by Th1-type cytokines. All intracanal medication protocols were effective in reducing bacterial load and lowering the levels of Th1-type cytokines. Thus, the use of Ca(OH)2 medications contributed to the increase in the Th2-type cytokine response in apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Egg activation in physiological polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Fertilization is indispensable not only for restoring diploid genomes but also for the initiation of early embryonic cell cycles in sexual reproduction. While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm is permitted but only one sperm nucleus participates in the formation of a zygote nucleus. Polyspermy requires that the sperm transmit the egg activation signal more slowly, thus allowing the egg to accept several sperm. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by the fertilizing sperm is both necessary and sufficient for egg activation in polyspermy. Multiple small Ca(2+) waves induced by several fertilizing sperm result in a long-lasting Ca(2+) rise, which is a characteristic of polyspermic amphibian eggs. We introduced a novel soluble sperm factor for egg activation, sperm-specific citrate synthase, into polyspermic newt eggs to cause Ca(2+) waves. Citrate synthase may perform dual functions: as an enzyme in mitochondria and as a Ca(2+)-inducing factor in egg cytoplasm. We also discuss the close relationship between the mode of fertilization and the Ca(2+) rise at egg activation and consider changes in this process through evolution in vertebrates.

  15. Egg activation in physiological polyspermy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iwao, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    .... While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy...

  16. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  17. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  18. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain of chickens which reaches a mature egg ... Subsequent rates of decline tend to be parallel and so selection for early albumen quality is effective in improving late albumen quality. The difficulty is that, in many markets, the producer is not directly penalized ... maximum total yield - an intermediate is best. If egg income.

  19. Regulatory role of pro-Th1 and pro-Th2 cytokines in modulating the activity of Th1 and Th2 cells when B cell and macrophages are used as antigen presenting cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrewala Javed N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of antigen presenting cells, expression of costimulatory molecules, the strength of first signal and cytokine milieu are quite important in influencing the reactivation of differentiated Th1 and Th2 cells. Results In the present study, we have analyzed the concerted action of pro-Th1 and pro-Th2 cytokines in the presence of B cells, peritoneal and splenic macrophages as antigen presenting cells and varied concentration of first (anti-CD3 Ab and second (B7-1 transfectant signals on the proliferation and cytokine secretion by Th1 and Th2 cells. Interesting observations were made that IFN-γ significantly augmented the secretion of IL-4 by Th2 cells when either B cells or splenic or peritoneal macrophages were used as APC. Further, IFN-γ significantly inhibited the proliferation of Th1 cells only in the presence of peritoneal macrophages. We have also observed that B cells could significantly respond to cytokines to further enhance the proliferation and cytokine release by Th1 and Th2 cells. But not much effect on addition of exogenous cytokines IL-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12 was observed on the proliferation of Th1 and Th2 cells in the presence of macrophages. In contrast, both IFN-γ and IL-2 significantly enhanced the production of IL-4 and IL-5 respectively, by Th2 cells in presence of B cells, splenic and peritoneal macrophages. Another important observation was that the addition of B7-1 transfectants in the cultures, which were stimulated with low dose of anti-CD3 Ab significantly, enhanced the proliferation and cytokine secretion. Conclusion This study indicates involvement of different type of APCs, cytokine milieu, dose of first and second signals in a concerted manner in the outcome of the immune response. The significance of this study is that the immunization with antigen along with costimulatory molecules may significantly reduce the dose of antigen and can generate better immune response than antigen alone.

  20. Acute ethanol treatment upregulates th1, th2 and hdc in larval zebrafish in stable networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri ePuttonen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies in zebrafish have revealed that acutely given ethanol has a stimulatory effect on locomotion in fish larvae but the mechanism of this effect has not been revealed. We studied the effects of ethanol concentrations between 0.75% and 3.00% on 7-day-old larval zebrafish (Danio rerio of the Turku strain. At 0.75-3% concentrations ethanol increased swimming speed during the first minute. At 3% the swimming speed decreased rapidly after the first minute, whereas at 0.75 and 1.5% a prolonged increase in swimming speed was seen. At the highest ethanol concentration dopamine levels decreased significantly after a 10-min treatment. We found that ethanol upregulates key genes involved in the biosynthesis of histamine (hdc and dopamine (th1 and th2 following a short 10-min ethanol treatment, measured by qPCR. Using in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry, we further discovered that the morphology of the histaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and networks in the larval zebrafish brain was unaffected by both the 10-min and a longer 30-min treatment. The results suggest that acute ethanol rapidly decreases dopamine levels, and activates both forms or th to replenish the dopamine stores within 30 minutes. The dynamic changes in histaminergic and dopaminergic system enzymes occured in the same cells which normally express the transcripts. As both dopamine and histamine are known to be involved in the behavioural effects of ethanol and locomotor stimulation, these results suggest that rapid adaptations of these networks are associated with altered locomotor activity.

  1. A circulating TH2 cytokines profile predicts survival in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Geny; Carbone, Carmine; Frizziero, Melissa; Malleo, Giuseppe; Zanini, Silvia; Casolino, Raffaella; Santoro, Raffaela; Mina, Maria Mihaela; Zecchetto, Camilla; Merz, Valeria; Scarpa, Aldo; Bassi, Claudio; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Surgery is the only potentially curative option for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but metastatic relapse remains common. We hypothesized that the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines could predict recurrence of PDAC, thus allowing to select patients who most likely could benefit from surgical resection. We prospectively collected plasma at diagnosis from 287 patients with pancreatic resectable neoplasms. The expression levels of 23 cytokines were measured in 90 patients with PDAC by using a multiplex analyte profiling assay. Levels higher than cutoff identified of the TH2 cytokines interleukin (IL)4, IL5, IL6 of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)1α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1, and of IL17α, IFNγ-induced protein (IP)10, and IL1b were significantly associated with a shorter median OS. In particular, levels of IL4 and IP10 higher than cutoff identified, and level of TH1 cytokines TNFα and INFγ, and of IL9 and IL1Rα lower than cutoff identified were significantly associated with a shorter DFS. In the multivariate analysis, high IP10 was confirmed as negatively associated with OS (HR = 3.097, p = 0.014) and IL4 and TNFα remain negatively (HR = 2.75, p = 0.002) and positively (HR = 0.224, p = 0.049) associated with DFS, respectively. Simultaneous expression of low IL4 and high TNFα identified patients with best prognosis (HR = 0.313, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, we demonstrated that, among a series of cytokines, IL4 is the most significant independent prognostic factor for DFS in resectable PDAC patients, and it could be useful to select patients with high risk of early recurrence who may avoid an unnecessary resection. PMID:28932629

  2. The influence of leptin on Th1/Th2 balance in obese children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohammed Youssef

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In individuals with asthma, obesity induces the production of leptin and is associated with disease severity. Our objective was to evaluate the levels of serum leptin and their effect on Th1/Th2 balance in obese and non-obese children with asthma, as well as to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated 50 atopic children with physician-diagnosed moderate-to-severe persistent asthma and 20 controls. The children with asthma were divided into two groups, by body mass index percentile: obese (n = 25 and non-obese (n = 25. From all subjects, we collected peripheral blood samples in order to determine the levels of leptin, IFN-γ, and IL-4. Asthma severity was assessed by an asthma symptom score, and the results were correlated with the parameters studied. RESULTS: Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group, as well as being significantly higher in the children with asthma than in the controls, whereas IFN-γ levels were significantly higher and IL-4 levels were significantly lower in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group. In addition, the obese asthma group showed higher asthma symptom scores and significantly lower FEV1 (% of predicted than did the non-obese asthma group. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and IFN-γ levels only in the obese asthma group. CONCLUSIONS: Although leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma in obese and non-obese children, its effect is more pronounced in the former. In the presence of high leptin levels, only obese children with asthma exhibited Th1 polarization, with higher IFN-γ levels and greater asthma severity.

  3. TRAF6 is essential for maintenance of regulatory T cells that suppress Th2 type autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Muto

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs maintain immune homeostasis by limiting inflammatory responses. TRAF6 plays a key role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by mediating signals from various receptors including the T-cell receptor (TCR. T cell-specific deletion of TRAF6 has been shown to induce multiorgan inflammatory disease, but the role of TRAF6 in Tregs remains to be investigated. Here, we generated Treg-specific TRAF6-deficient mice using Foxp3-Cre and TRAF6-flox mice. Treg-specific TRAF6-deficient (cKO mice developed allergic skin diseases, arthritis, lymphadenopathy and hyper IgE phenotypes. Although TRAF6-deficient Tregs possess similar in vitro suppression activity compared to wild-type Tregs, TRAF6-deficient Tregs did not suppress colitis in lymphopenic mice very efficiently due to reduced number of Foxp3-positive cells. In addition, the fraction of TRAF6-deficient Tregs was reduced compared with wild-type Tregs in female cKO mice without inflammation. Moreover, adoptive transfer of Foxp3 (+ Tregs into Rag2(-/- mice revealed that TRAF6-deficient Tregs converted into Foxp3(- cells more rapidly than WT Tregs under lymphopenic conditions. Fate-mapping analysis also revealed that conversion of Tregs from Foxp3(+ to Foxp3(- (exFoxp3 cells was accelerated in TRAF6-deficient Tregs. These data indicate that TRAF6 in Tregs plays important roles in the maintenance of Foxp3 in Tregs and in the suppression of pathogenic Th2 type conversion of Tregs.

  4. Egg serpins: The chicken and/or the egg dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombre, Clara; Guyot, Nicolas; Moreau, Thierry; Monget, Philippe; Da Silva, Mylène; Gautron, Joël; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Twenty-seven serpins belonging to clade A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I serpins are currently referenced in chicken genome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of chicken serpins revealed that ovalbumin (Serpinb14) and its paralogs ovalbumin-related protein Y (Serpinb14b) and ovalbumin-related protein X (Serpinb14c) are found in bird species. These clade B serpins are specifically expressed in reproductive tissues and exported in the egg where they constitute major protein components. These data suggest that these three paralogs have probably appeared in birds to face new environments and ensure the extra-uterine development of an embryo in a shell egg. Twelve other serpins have been identified in the newly produced egg, some of them having a specific distribution in the respective egg structures (eggshell, egg white, vitelline membrane and egg yolk). The physiological role of these egg serpins remain largely unexplored, but there is increasing evidence in literature or by homologies with their mammalian counterparts, that some of them participate in cell proliferation, tissue remodeling and/or angiogenesis associated with folliculogenesis and development of extraembryonic structures, eggshell biomineralization, egg defense and nutrition of the embryo. A better knowledge of the phylogenetic evolution of these 15 serpins in other oviparous species, on their egg distribution, on their regulation during embryonic development (activation/degradation/transfer) and on their functional specificity, is needed to better appreciate their role and their bird-specificity. These review shed light on the multiple possibilities that offer the avian egg model to study the role of serpins in reproduction and developmental biology. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  6. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Shira C Shafir; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months.

  7. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    with intention to freeze eggs were being single, age under 35 years, childlessness, and a history of infertility. In this group, risk and cost were less important considerations. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that there is widespread awareness and support of the availability of eggs freezing for reproductive...

  8. Despite disorganized synapse structure, Th2 cells maintain directional delivery of CD40L to antigen-presenting B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Jennifer L; Parker, David C

    2017-01-01

    Upon recognition of peptide displayed on MHC molecules, Th1 and Th2 cells form distinct immunological synapse structures. Th1 cells have a bull's eye synapse structure with TCR/ MHC-peptide interactions occurring central to a ring of adhesion molecules, while Th2 cells have a multifocal synapse with small clusters of TCR/MHC interactions throughout the area of T cell/antigen-presenting cell interaction. In this study, we investigated whether this structural difference in the immunological synapse affects delivery of T cell help. The immunological synapse is thought to ensure antigen-specific delivery of cytolytic granules and killing of target cells by NK cells and cytolytic T cells. In helper T cells, it has been proposed that the immunological synapse may direct delivery of other effector molecules including cytokines. CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a membrane-bound cytokine essential for antigen-specific T cell help for B cells in the antibody response. We incubated Th1 and Th2 cells overnight with a mixture of antigen-presenting and bystander B cells, and the delivery of CD40L to B cells and subsequent B cell responses were compared. Despite distinct immunological synapse structures, Th1 and Th2 cell do not differ in their ability to deliver CD40L and T cell help in an antigen-specific fashion, or in their susceptibility to inhibition of help by a blocking anti-CD40L antibody.

  9. Th2 Regulation of Viral Myocarditis in Mice: Different Roles for TLR3 versus TRIF in Progression to Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Abston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections are able to induce autoimmune inflammation in the heart. Here, we investigated the role of virus-activated Toll-like receptor (TLR3 and its adaptor TRIF on the development of autoimmune coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 myocarditis in mice. Although TLR3- or TRIF-deficient mice developed similarly worse acute CVB3 myocarditis and viral replication compared to control mice, disease was significantly worse in TRIF compared to TLR3-deficient mice. Interestingly, TLR3-deficient mice developed an interleukin (IL-4-dominant T helper (Th2 response during acute CVB3 myocarditis with elevated markers of alternative activation, while TRIF-deficient mice elevated the Th2-associated cytokine IL-33. Treatment of TLR3-deficient mice with recombinant IL-33 improved heart function indicating that elevated IL-33 in the context of a classic Th2-driven response protects against autoimmune heart disease. We show for the first time that TLR3 versus TRIF deficiency results in different Th2 responses that uniquely influence the progression to chronic myocarditis.

  10. Hyperreactive Onchocerciasis is Characterized by a Combination of Th17-Th2 Immune Responses and Reduced Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katawa, Gnatoulma; Layland, Laura E.; Debrah, Alex Y.; von Horn, Charlotte; Batsa, Linda; Kwarteng, Alexander; Arriens, Sandra; W. Taylor, David; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Adjobimey, Tomabu

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations in onchocerciasis range from generalized onchocerciasis (GEO) to the rare but severe hyperreactive (HO)/sowda form. Since disease pathogenesis is associated with host inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether Th17 responses could be related to aggravated pathology in HO. Using flow cytometry, filarial-specific cytokine responses and PCR arrays, we compared the immune cell profiles, including Th subsets, in individuals presenting the two polar forms of infection and endemic normals (EN). In addition to elevated frequencies of memory CD4+ T cells, individuals with HO showed accentuated Th17 and Th2 profiles but decreased CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ regulatory T cells. These profiles included increased IL-17A+, IL-4+, RORC2+ and GATA3+CD4+ T cell populations. Flow cytometry data was further confirmed using a PCR array since Th17-related genes (IL-17 family members, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-22) and Th2-related (IL-4, IL-13, STAT6) genes were all significantly up-regulated in HO individuals. In addition, stronger Onchocerca volvulus-specific Th2 responses, especially IL-13, were observed in vitro in hyperreactive individuals when compared to GEO or EN groups. This study provides initial evidence that elevated frequencies of Th17 and Th2 cells form part of the immune network instigating the development of severe onchocerciasis. PMID:25569210

  11. Cigarette smoking enhances T cell activation and a Th2 immune response; an aspect of the pathophysiology in periodontal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres de Heens, G.L.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is a strong risk factor for periodontitis. Treated patients who smoke show increased risk for further periodontal breakdown, despite receiving maintenance care. Previous work indicated that such patients have a monocytic cytokine response favoring Th2 activity. The purpose of this study was

  12. Lactobacillus Acidophilus Strain L-92 Regulates the Production of Th1 Cytokine as well as Th2 Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Torii

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral L-92 administration regulated both Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses, suppressed serum OVA-specific IgE, and induced TGF-β production in PPs. TGF-β is known to be associated with activation of regulatory T (Treg cells. These data suggest that LAB may have immunomodulative effect by Treg cells via TGF-β activity.

  13. Antiasthmatic Effects of Hesperidin, a Potential Th2 Cytokine Antagonist, in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyung Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. The features of asthma are airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction, and an increased sensitivity to bronchoconstricting agents, termed airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, excess production of Th2 cytokines, and eosinophil accumulation in the lungs. To investigate the antiasthmatic potential of hesperidin as well as the underlying mechanism involved, we studied the inhibitory effect and anti-inflammatory effect of hesperidin (HPN on the production of Th2 cytokines, eotaxin, IL-17, -OVA-specific IgE in vivo asthma model mice. Methods. In this paper, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA followed intratracheally, intraperitoneally, and by aerosol allergen challenges. We investigated the effect of HPN on airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, various immune cell phenotypes, Th2 cytokine production and OVA-specific IgE production in a mouse model of asthma. Results. In BALB/c mice, we found that HPN-treated groups had suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation, and AHR, and these occurred by suppressing the production of IL-5, IL-17, and OVA-specific IgE. Conclusions. Our data suggest that the therapeutic mechanism by which HPN effectively treats asthma is based on reductions of Th2 cytokines (IL-5, eotaxin, OVA-specific IgE production, and eosinophil infiltration via inhibition of GATA-3 transcription factor.

  14. Antiasthmatic Effects of Hesperidin, a Potential Th2 Cytokine Antagonist, in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Bok-Kyu; Lee, Young-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective. The features of asthma are airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction, and an increased sensitivity to bronchoconstricting agents, termed airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), excess production of Th2 cytokines, and eosinophil accumulation in the lungs. To investigate the antiasthmatic potential of hesperidin as well as the underlying mechanism involved, we studied the inhibitory effect and anti-inflammatory effect of hesperidin (HPN) on the production of Th2 cytokines, eotaxin, IL-17, -OVA-specific IgE in vivo asthma model mice. Methods. In this paper, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) followed intratracheally, intraperitoneally, and by aerosol allergen challenges. We investigated the effect of HPN on airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, various immune cell phenotypes, Th2 cytokine production and OVA-specific IgE production in a mouse model of asthma. Results. In BALB/c mice, we found that HPN-treated groups had suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation, and AHR, and these occurred by suppressing the production of IL-5, IL-17, and OVA-specific IgE. Conclusions. Our data suggest that the therapeutic mechanism by which HPN effectively treats asthma is based on reductions of Th2 cytokines (IL-5), eotaxin, OVA-specific IgE production, and eosinophil infiltration via inhibition of GATA-3 transcription factor. PMID:21772663

  15. The effect of bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunization depends on the genetic predisposition to Th2-type responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylkema, MN; Timens, W; Luinge, M; van der Werf, N; Hoekstra, MO

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization on ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation in a rat model depends on the genetic predisposition to react with a T helper cell (Th) 2-type cytokine response. This study was performed in an

  16. Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN γ and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus.

  17. Targeting Allergen to FcγRI Reveals a Novel Th2 Regulatory Pathway Linked to TSLP Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Kathryn E.; Reefer, Amanda J.; Engelhard, Victor H.; Patrie, James T.; Ziegler, Steven F.; Chapman, Martin D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The molecule H22-Fel d 1, which targets cat allergen to FcγRI on dendritic cells, has the potential to treat cat allergy owing to its T-cell modulatory properties. Objective To investigate whether the T-cell response induced by H22-Fel d 1 is altered in the presence of the Th2-promoting cytokine, TSLP. Methods Studies were performed in cat-allergic subjects with and without atopic dermatitis. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were primed with H22-Fel d 1 in the presence or absence of TSLP and the resulting T-cell cytokine repertoire was analyzed by flow cytometry. The capacity for H22-Fel d 1 to modulate TSLP receptor expression on dendritic cells was examined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of inhibitors of Fc receptor signaling molecules. Results Surprisingly, TSLP alone was a weak inducer of Th2 responses irrespective of atopic status; however, dendritic cells co-primed with TSLP and H22-Fel d 1 selectively and synergistically amplified Th2 responses in highly atopic subjects. This effect was OX40 ligand-independent pointing to an unconventional TSLP-mediated pathway. Expression of TSLP receptor was upregulated on atopic dendritic cells primed with H22-Fel d 1 through a pathway regulated by FcγRI-associated signaling components, including src related tyrosine kinases and Syk, as well as the downstream molecule, PI3-kinase. Inhibition of TSLP receptor upregulation triggered by H22-Fel d 1 blocked TSLP-mediated Th2 responses. Conclusion Discovery of a novel Th2 regulatory pathway linking FcγRI signaling to TSLP receptor upregulation and consequent TSLP-mediated effects questions the validity of receptor-targeted allergen vaccines. Clinical Implications This study establishes a pivotal role for Fc receptor ligation in promoting TSLP-mediated Th2 responses associated with allergic disease. Capsule Summary Atopic dendritic cells are equipped to efficiently upregulate TSLP receptor upon Fc receptor ligation by allergen. These findings suggest

  18. Selenium enrichment of table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Cheng, K M

    2010-10-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element with a recommended dietary allowance for human adults of 55 μg/d. However, there is evidence that greater dietary intakes may have possible health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of cancer. Several studies have shown the feasibility of enriching eggs using organic Se and that Se-enriched eggs are an effective way to supplement human diets. However, few studies have examined the response of egg Se concentration to high (>1 μg/g) dietary organic Se intake by the laying hens. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of higher dietary organic Se levels on production, egg mass, and egg Se levels. These were assessed by feeding 3 breeds of laying hens (Barred Plymouth Rock, Lohmann Brown, Lohmann White) a basal diet containing 0.3 μg of Se/g of diet as Na2SeO3. Into this diet, Se yeast (SelenoSource AF 600), an organic source of Se, was added at 1.0, 2.4, or 5.1 μg of Se/g of diet for 4 wk. Feed consumption, egg production, and egg mass were not affected by the dietary Se concentration in all 3 breeds. Within the range of Se levels employed in the laying hens' diet, egg Se content increased linearly as dietary levels of Se increased. The results of this study indicate that feeding up to 5.1 µg/g of Se will not affect egg production and the welfare of the laying hen and is a practical way of producing Se-enriched eggs for the consumers.

  19. Th2 biased immune response in cases with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tuberculin anergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikó, Z; Szereday, L; Szekeres-Bartho, J

    1998-11-01

    was no significant correlation between the radiological grade of the patients and the examined in vitro parameters unless the tuberculin reactivity of each patients was also considered. Tuberculin anergy may reflect an inappropriate immune response to the intracellular pathogen. The high percentage of IL-4 and IL-10 positive lymphocytes together with a low percentage of IL-12 positive lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of anergic patients suggests a Th2 biased immune response during the early course of the disease.

  20. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...... imaginaries that shaped the Danish regulation on the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyze the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work and readings in Parliament along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that in time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current 5 years...

  1. Allergenicity of pasteurized whole raw Hen's egg compared with fresh whole raw Hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, Merryn; Donato, Adaweyah; Makrides, Maria; Gold, Michael; Quinn, Patrick; Penttila, Irmeli

    2015-05-01

    Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of egg allergy using fresh egg are common; however, to limit the risk of foodborne infection, many allergy units use pasteurized raw egg. Pasteurization and drying processes have the potential to affect the structure of egg proteins in egg powder and thus the allergenicity when compared to fresh egg. Our aim was to compare the binding of serum IgE from egg-allergic children to in vitro digested and undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder with unpasteurized fresh whole raw egg. Egg proteins from in vitro digested or undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder, fresh whole egg, egg white and egg yolk were separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane and incubated overnight with pooled sera from egg-allergic children. In both the raw egg samples and the pasteurized whole egg powder, protein bands corresponding to known molecular weights of the major egg allergens were present. Pasteurized whole raw egg powder was bound by serum IgE in a similar manner to unpasteurized whole raw egg and was unaffected by in vitro digestion. Serum IgE also bound egg yolk, indicating sensitization to both egg yolk and egg white proteins. The main egg allergens are present in pasteurized whole raw egg powder, and serum IgE of egg-allergic children binds to them in a similar pattern to those in fresh whole raw egg. Pasteurized whole raw egg powder is a suitable substitute for raw egg in clinical practice for oral food challenges. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  3. Th1/Th2 cell dichotomy in acquired immunity to Bordetella pertussis: variables in the in vivo priming and in vitro cytokine detection techniques affect the classification of T cell subsets as Th1, Th2 or Th0

    OpenAIRE

    MILLS, KINGSTON

    1996-01-01

    PUBLISHED In studies of the mechanism of immunity to Bordetella pertussis in a murine respiratory infection model, we have previously demonstrated that natural infection of immunization with a whole cell vaccine induces a potent protective immune response, which is mediated by T-helper type-1 (Th1) cells. In contrast an acellular vaccine generates Th2 cells and is associated with delayed bacterial clearance following respiratory challenge. In the present study we have investigated the appa...

  4. Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.

  5. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  6. The change in function of Th1 and Th2-lymphocytes and cytokine profile at chronic intoxication of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Lim and V.F.Grichin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments in non-inbred rats, it has been established that chronic intoxication of ethanol (30 days, total dose – 6.0 LD50 essentially reduces concentration of cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 in blood, increases concentration of IL-6, reduces an interrelation IFNγ/IL-4 in comparison with the control, suppresses of immune responses, which displays the greater lesion of Th1-cells in comparison with Th2-lymphosytes.

  7. Toxoplasma Co-infection Prevents Th2 Differentiation and Leads to a Helminth-Specific Th1 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norus Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections, in particular gastrointestinal nematodes, are widespread and co-infections with other parasites and pathogens are frequently encountered in humans and animals. To decipher the immunological effects of a widespread protozoan infection on the anti-helminth immune response we studied a co-infection with the enteric nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice previously infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Protective immune responses against nematodes are dependent on parasite-specific Th2 responses associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgG1 antibodies. In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii infection elicits a strong and protective Th1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ, IL-12, and IgG2a antibodies. Co-infected animals displayed significantly higher worm fecundity although worm burden remained unchanged. In line with this, the Th2 response to H. polygyrus in co-infected animals showed a profound reduction of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and GATA-3 expressing T cells. Co-infection also resulted in the lack of eosinophilia and reduced expression of the Th2 effector molecule RELM-β in intestinal tissue. In contrast, the Th1 response to the protozoan parasite was not diminished and parasitemia of T. gondii was unaffected by concurrent helminth infection. Importantly, H. polygyrus specific restimulation of splenocytes revealed H. polygyrus-reactive CD4+ T cells that produce a significant amount of IFN-γ in co-infected animals. This was not observed in animals infected with the nematode alone. Increased levels of H. polygyrus-specific IgG2a antibodies in co-infected mice mirrored this finding. This study suggests that polarization rather than priming of naive CD4+ T cells is disturbed in mice previously infected with T. gondii. In conclusion, a previous T. gondii infection limits a helminth-specific Th2 immune response while promoting a shift toward a Th1-type immune response.

  8. Change in function of thl - and th2-lymphocytes and cytokine profile at chronic intoxication of ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Svistunov; P.F. Zabrodsky V.G. Lim; V.A. Grishin

    2010-01-01

    It has been established during the experiments carried on noninbred rats that chronic intoxication of ethanol (30 days, total dose - 6,0 LD50) essentially reduces concentration of cytokines (IFNy, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6,IL-10) in blood, reduces interrelation of IFNy/IL-4 in comparison with the control, suppresses immune reactions, indicating the greater lesion of Th1-cells in comparison with Th2-lymphocytes

  9. Change in function of thl - and th2-lymphocytes and cytokine profile at chronic intoxication of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Svistunov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been established during the experiments carried on noninbred rats that chronic intoxication of ethanol (30 days, total dose - 6,0 LD50 essentially reduces concentration of cytokines (IFNy, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6,IL-10 in blood, reduces interrelation of IFNy/IL-4 in comparison with the control, suppresses immune reactions, indicating the greater lesion of Th1-cells in comparison with Th2-lymphocytes

  10. Correlation of body mass index with Th1/Th2 balance, adhesion molecules and insulin signal transduction in infertile patients

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    Hui-Juan Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of body mass index with Th1/Th2 balance, adhesion molecules and insulin signal transduction in infertile patients. Methods: A total of 132 patients who received diagnostic curettage due to infertility in Tangshan Maternal and Child Health Hospital between June 2015 and March 2016 were selected as the research subjects and divided into the normal group with BMI 30 kg/m 2 according to BMI, and the levels of Th1/ Th2 cytokines in serum as well as the expression of Th1/Th2 transcription factors, adhesion molecules and insulin signal pathway molecules in endometrial tissue were detected. Results: IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in serum of obesity group and overweight group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in serum as well as CD44V6, N-cadherin, FAK, ICAM-1, GLUT-4, IRS-1, PI3K and AKT mRNA expression in endometrial tissue were significantly lower than those of control group; IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in serum of obesity group were significantly higher than those of overweight group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in serum as well as CD44V6, N-cadherin, FAK, ICAM-1, GLUT-4, IRS-1, PI3K and AKT mRNA expression in endometrial tissue were significantly lower than those of overweight group. Conclusion: Weight gain can aggravate the Th1/Th2 disorder, reduce the adhesion molecule expression and hinder the insulin signal transduction in infertile patients.

  11. Assessment of a One-Step Intracellular Staining in Th1, Th2 and Th17 Cells of Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianghua; Luo, Xiaohong; Wang, Ying; Wu, Qiuju; Xiao, Wangxian; Lin, Dijing; Duan, Chaohui

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a potent tool to dissect the phenotypes and functions of cell subsets by measuring multiple parameters on a single-cell basis. However, intracellular staining may be time consuming and more steps, particularly in cytokines, could be problematic for its use in daily routine or in large cohort testing. Lately, a novel reagent has been developed to perform intracellular staining in one step. The objective of our study was thus to assess this new method in comparison with the reference technique by focusing on CD4+ T-cell subsets such as Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in clinical samples. Peripheral blood was collected from 10 children with aplastic anemia and 10 healthy volunteers and stained using the reference and one-step methods. Different subsets of CD4+ T-cells, which are defined as Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, were investigated by flow cytometry. The repetitive experiment was designed to study intraassay precision. Correlations were studied using Pearson's correlation coefficient test. When comparing results obtained with the two techniques, no statistical differences between the percentages of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells were observed. Besides, a nice correlation between percentages of Th1 cells obtained with the two different methods was identified in the global population (r: 0.777, p cells (r: 0.875, p cells (r: 0.886, p step procedures. Importantly, flow cytometry staining obtained with the one-step method was very robust with a nice intra-assay precision and a better discriminative power and repeatability. With better staining quality and a shorter realization time, one-step intracellular staining may provide an efficient way for daily routine testing of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, as well as for further research.

  12. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.105 Dried... recognized as safe within the meaning of section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The... food for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section is “Dried eggs” or...

  13. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cockroach Allergen Bla g 7 Promotes TIM4 Expression in Dendritic Cells Leading to Th2 Polarization

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    Lingxiao Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most common sources of indoor aeroallergens worldwide, cockroach is important in causing rhinitis and asthma while the mechanisms underlying remain obscure. Since T helper (Th type 2 polarization plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, we investigated the effect of Bla g 7, a pan-allergen from Blattella germanica (B. germanica, on Th polarization which is controlled by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. Challenged by recombinant Bla g 7 (rBla g 7, immature DCs obtained from human exhibited upregulated levels of TIM4, CD80, and CD86 and increased IL-13 secretion. Cocultured with CD4+ T cells, challenged DCs increased the ratio of IL-4+ versus IFN-γ+ of CD4+ T cells, suggesting a balance shift from Th1 to Th2. Moreover, antibodies against TIM4, CD80, and CD86 reversed the enhancement of IL-4+/IFN-γ+ ratio and alleviated the IL-13 release induced by rBla g 7, indicating that the Th2 polarization provoked by rBla g 7 challenged DCs is via TIM4-, CD80-, and CD86-dependent mechanisms. In conclusion, the present findings implied a crucial role of Bla g 7 in the development of cockroach allergy and highlighted an involvement of DCs-induced Th2 polarization in cockroach allergy.

  15. Serum levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines in aged patients and their correlation with eczema development and clinical manifestation

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    Wei-Gang Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate variations of Th1/Th2 cytokine levels, as well as their correlation with eczema development and clinical manifestation in aged patients. Methods: A total of 92 patients (above 60 years old with eczema diagnosed by the outpatient department of dermatology and venerology of our hospital were included as the eczema group, while 60 aged patients without eczema as the healthy group. Patients' serum levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines were examined for inter-group comparison and stratified analysis as per clinical manifestation. Results: Serum levels of interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α and interferon (IFN- γ were all significantly higher in patients of the eczema group than the healthy group. Acute stage levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ were significantly higher in patients of the eczema group than the healthy group. There was no significant difference in the levels of IL-12 and TNF-α between patients of the acute stage and those of the chronic stage. And no significant difference existed in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ between generalized and localized eczema patients. Conclusion: Compared with the healthy population, Th1/Th2 cytokine levels are significantly different in eczema patients, especially those in the acute stage.

  16. Human B cells induce dendritic cell maturation and favour Th2 polarization by inducing OX-40 ligand

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    Maddur, Mohan S.; Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Pulendran, Bali; Kaveri, Srini V.; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in immune homeostasis by regulating the functions of various immune cells, including T and B cells. Notably, DCs also undergo education on reciprocal signalling by these immune cells and environmental factors. Various reports demonstrated that B cells have profound regulatory functions, although only few reports have explored the regulation of human DCs by B cells. Here we demonstrate that activated but not resting B cells induce maturation of DCs with distinct features to polarize Th2 cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4 and IL-13. B-cell-induced maturation of DCs is contact dependent and implicates signalling of B-cell activation molecules CD69, B-cell-activating factor receptor, and transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor. Mechanistically, differentiation of Th2 cells by B-cell-matured DCs is dependent on OX-40 ligand. Collectively, our results suggest that B cells have the ability to control their own effector functions by enhancing the ability of human DCs to mediate Th2 differentiation. PMID:24910129

  17. IL-9 is a susceptibility factor in Leishmania major infection by promoting detrimental Th2/type 2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendse, Berenice; Van Snick, Jacques; Brombacher, Frank

    2005-02-15

    IL-9 is a cytokine produced by Th2 cells, induced during Leishmania major infection. Because the role of IL-9 in leishmaniasis is currently unknown, IL-9-deficient mice were generated by immunization with mouse IL-9 coupled to OVA. This produced strong and long-lasting neutralizing anti-IL-9 Abs in vivo. Anti-IL-9 vaccination showed protective effects, because it enabled L. major-infected nonhealer BALB/c mice to better resist to leishmaniasis with doubling the time span until pathological disease progression occurred. Increased resistance was also demonstrated by moderate footpad swelling and histopathology due to reduced parasite burden compared with sham-immunized BALB/c mice. Mechanistically, IL-9 neutralization in BALB/c mice resulted in a reduction of detrimental Th2/type 2 responses with an observed shift toward protective Th1 immune responses. This led to an alteration from alternative to classical macrophage activation with subsequent enhanced killing effector functions, as demonstrated by increased NO production but reduced arginase 1-mediated macrophage responses. Conclusively, the data show that IL-9 is a susceptible factor in leishmaniasis. They further suggest that IL-9 is able to influence Th dichotomy in leishmaniasis by promoting detrimental Th2/type 2 responses in BALB/c mice. The results extend efforts made to generate autoantibodies capable of regulating biological processes, with IL-9 a potential drug target against leishmaniasis.

  18. The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 controls invariant natural killer T cell expansion and Th2-type effector differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tiffany; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Yu, Shuyang; Xue, Hai-Hui; Kee, Barbara L; Verykokakis, Mihalis

    2015-05-04

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are innate-like T cells that rapidly produce cytokines that impact antimicrobial immune responses, asthma, and autoimmunity. These cells acquire multiple effector fates during their thymic development that parallel those of CD4(+) T helper cells. The number of Th2-type effector iNKT cells is variable in different strains of mice, and their number impacts CD8 T, dendritic, and B cell function. Here we demonstrate a unique function for the transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) in the postselection expansion of iNKT cells through a direct induction of the CD127 component of the receptor for interleukin-7 (IL-7) and the transcription factor c-myc. LEF1 also directly augments expression of the effector fate-specifying transcription factor GATA3, thus promoting the development of Th2-like effector iNKT cells that produce IL-4, including those that also produce interferon-γ. Our data reveal LEF1 as a central regulator of iNKT cell number and Th2-type effector differentiation. © 2015 Carr et al.

  19. Effects of Pristane Alone or Combined with Chloroquine on Macrophage Activation, Oxidative Stress, and Th1/Th2 Skewness

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    Qiufang Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective role of chloroquine against pristane-induced macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and Th1/Th2 skewness in C57BL/6J mice. Those mice were treated with pristane alone or combined with chloroquine. Hematological and biochemical parameters, macrophage phagocytic function, the oxidant/antioxidant index, cytokine for IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6, and the isotypes of IgG2a and IgG1 were determined. And the expression of T-bet/GATA-3 and IL-12/IL-10 mRNA in spleen were analyzed by real-time PCR. We found that pristane treatment for a period of 12 or 24 weeks triggered macrophage activation syndrome, characterized by hemophagocytosis in spleen and peripheral blood, enhanced lipid phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages in vitro, erythropenia and leucopenia, increased anti-Smith, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and ferritin, as well as hypercytokinemia of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and catalase activity, as well as a skewed Th1/Th2 balance in spleen, were observed. However, chloroquine supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that pristane administration induces macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and Th1/Th2 skewness, which can be attenuated by chloroquine.

  20. The TLR2/6 ligand PAM2CSK4 is a Th2 polarizing adjuvant in Leishmania major and Brugia malayi murine vaccine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Alice; Turner, Joseph D; Guimarães, Ana; Bates, Paul A; Taylor, Mark J

    2016-02-20

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens, and are the target of new vaccine adjuvants. TLR2 plays a role in parasite recognition and activation of immune responses during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection, suggesting that TLR2 could be targeted by adjuvants for use in Leishmania vaccines. We therefore explored using Pam2CSK4 (Pam2) and Pam3CSK4 (Pam3) lipopeptide adjuvants, which activate TLR2/6 and TLR2/1 heterodimers respectively, in vaccine models for parasitic infections. The use of lipopeptide adjuvants was explored using two vaccine models. For cutaneous leishmaniasis, the lipopeptide adjuvants Pam2 and Pam3 were compared to that of the Th1-driving double-stranded DNA TLR9 agonist CpG for their ability to improve the efficacy of the autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) vaccine to protect against L. major infection. The ability of Pam2 to enhance the efficacy of a soluble Brugia malayi microfilariae extract (BmMfE) vaccine to protect against filarial infection was also assessed in a peritoneal infection model of B. malayi filariasis. Parasite antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed post-challenge. The use of lipopeptides in ALM-containing vaccines did not provide any protection upon infection with L. major, and Pam2 exacerbated the disease severity in vaccinated mice post-challenge. Pam2, and to a lesser extent Pam3, were able to elevate antigen-specific immune responses post-challenge in this model, but these responses displayed a skewed Th2 phenotype as characterised by elevated levels of IgG1. In the B. malayi vaccine model, the use of Pam2 as an adjuvant with BmMfE induced significant protective immunity to the same level as inclusion of an Alum adjuvant. Here, both Pam2 and Alum were found to enhance antigen-specific antibody production post-challenge, and Pam2 significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 produced by splenocytes. These

  1. Changes of mouse cytokines and Th1/Th2 balance in acute stress induced by millimeter-wave

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    Rong SUN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the regular pattern of variation of cytokines, especially the Th1/Th2 cytokines, and its effect on immune balance in stress induced by 35GHz millimeter-wave (MMW exposure in mice. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to 420mW/cm2, 35GHz MMW for 60s, and the dorsal skin temperature was real-time monitored with infrared monitor during the period of exposure. Peripheral WBC, thymic and splenic indexes of mice were detected at different time points after MMW exposure. Meanwhile, the contents of serum IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and Th1/Th2 cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4 were analyzed by ELISA. Results The temperature of ear auricle rapidly increased to 50℃ after initiation of exposure, and continuously rose to about 60℃ at 50s to 60s. Peripheral WBC and lymphocytes showed transient reduction at 6h and restored to the control level from 1 to 7d after radiation exposure. Compared with control group, thymus index displayed a transient increase at 6h and thereafter decreased, and then diminished to which significantly lower than control level 7d after radiation exposure. However, spleen index increased significantly on day 3 and day 7 after radiation exposure. Peripheral IL-1β levels immediately increased to the maximum at 6h and decreased to the minimum at 1d (P<0.05, then gradually recovered to control level during 3d and 7d after radiation exposure. However, IL-6 level displayed a significant increment from 6h to 3d, and increased to peak value at 1d and still obviously higher than that of control group up to 7d (P<0.05 after radiation exposure. Simultaneously, Th1/Th2 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 both increased to the maximal at 3d and still significantly higher than those of control group at 7d (P<0.01 after radiation exposure. Ratios of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4 evidently raised to 1.34 and 1.66 times of control values at 1d and 3d respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions 35GHz MMW exposure can induce obvious thermal effects in mice, and serum

  2. Skin testing with raw egg does not predict tolerance to baked egg in egg-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P J; Kumar, K; Fox, A T

    2014-11-01

    Most children with egg allergy tolerate egg in baked foods, such as cake, but tolerance cannot be predicted with conventional allergy testing. We hypothesized that the skin prick test (SPT) wheal to unprocessed raw egg might predict tolerance of baked egg at formal oral food challenge (OFC). We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the utility of SPT wheal to egg extract (EE), raw egg (RE), and the ratio of EE:RE in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC in children presenting to our tertiary referral centers with a physician diagnosis of egg allergy and following complete egg avoidance in their diet, between 2009 and 2013. OFC were performed following a standardized protocol using baked egg in cake, to a total dose equivalent to 3g egg protein. Data were analyzed from 186 completed challenges: OFC was positive in 64 (34%) children and negative in 122 (66%). Six children experienced anaphylaxis at OFC. Children tolerant to baked egg were more likely to have a lower SPT to egg extract/raw egg and EE:RE (median 0.56) than their allergic counterparts (0.70, p raw egg and EE:ER equal to 0.71, 0.63 and 0.60, respectively. EE:RE was not helpful in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC. Indeed, SPT to egg extract was slightly better at predicting outcome than either SPT to raw egg or EE:RE. Unfortunately, tolerance to baked egg can only be predicted from previous history or through controlled exposure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

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    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  4. Differential modulation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine secretion by prostaglandin E2 critically depends on interleukin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilkens, C. M.; Vermeulen, H. [=Hans; van Neerven, R. J.; Snijdewint, F. G.; Wierenga, E. A.; Kapsenberg, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) favors T helper type 2 (Th2)-like cytokine secretion profiles in murine and human CD4+ T cells by inhibiting the production of the Th1-associated cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and up-regulating the production of the Th2-associated cytokines

  5. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ruben L.; Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; He, Xuehui; Vink, Paul M.; Wijnands, Frank; Gorecka, Monika; Klop, Henri; Bauerschmidt, Sussane; Garritsen, Anja; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; Joosten, Irma; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Alkema, Wynand

    2012-01-01

    Background: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  6. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.L.; Fleuren, W.W.M.; He, X.; Vink, P.M.; Wijnands, F.; Gorecka, M.; Klop, H.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Garritsen, A.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Joosten, I.; Boots, A.M.H.; Alkema, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  7. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Bayon, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1-5 am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9 pm-5 am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  8. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  9. Inflammatory dendritic cells—not basophils—are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Maud; Deswarte, Kim; Pouliot, Philippe; Willart, Monique A.M.; Kool, Mirjam; Muskens, Femke

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear how Th2 immunity is induced in response to allergens like house dust mite (HDM). Here, we show that HDM inhalation leads to the TLR4/MyD88-dependent recruitment of IL-4 competent basophils and eosinophils, and of inflammatory DCs to the draining mediastinal nodes. Depletion of basophils only partially reduced Th2 immunity, and depletion of eosinophils had no effect on the Th2 response. Basophils did not take up inhaled antigen, present it to T cells, or express antigen presentation machinery, whereas a population of FceRI+ DCs readily did. Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen. PMID:20819925

  10. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

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    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  11. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

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    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  12. Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Amany A.; Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y.; Ghoneim, Hossam E.; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M.; Abouelella, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. There is an accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity is significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e., Th1 bias). While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e., Th2 bias). In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. Exposure to 5 or 10 Gy of γ-rays resulted in a state of immune stimulation (Th1 bias), but exposure to 20 Gy showed a standard state of immune suppression (Th2 bias). The results indicated that apparently we can control the immune response by controlling the dose of γ-rays. PMID:25914644

  13. Potential pathogenetic role of Th17, Th0, and Th2 cells in erosive and reticular oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, M-P; Lombardelli, L; Logiodice, F; Tesi, D; Kullolli, O; Biagiotti, R; Giudizi, Mg; Romagnani, S; Maggi, E; Ficarra, G

    2014-03-01

    The role of Th17 cells and associated cytokines was investigated in oral lichen planus. 14 consecutive patients with oral lichen planus were investigated. For biological studies, tissues were taken from reticular or erosive lesions and from normal oral mucosa (controls) of the same patient. mRNA expression for IL-17F, IL-17A, MCP-1, IL-13, IL-2, IL-10, IL-1β, RANTES, IL-4, IL-12B, IL-8, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-18, TGF-β1, IL-23R, IL-7, IL-15, IL-6, MIG, IP-10, LTB, VEGF, IL-5, IL-27, IL-23A, GAPDH, PPIB, Foxp3, GATA3, and RORC was measured using the QuantiGene 2.0. Results showed that Th17-type and Th0-type molecules' mRNAs, when compared with results obtained from tissue controls, were increased in biopsies of erosive lesions, whereas Th2-type molecules' mRNAs were increased in reticular lesions. When the CD4+ T-cell clones, derived from oral lichen planus tissues and tissue controls, were analyzed, a higher prevalence of Th17 (confirmed by an increased CD161 expression) and Th0 CD4+ T clones was found in erosive lesions, whereas a prevalence of Th2 clones was observed in reticular lesions. Our data suggest that Th17, Th0, and Th2 cells, respectively, may have a role in the pathogenesis of erosive and reticular oral lichen planus. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Notch-ligand expression by NALT dendritic cells regulates mucosal Th1- and Th2-type responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Division of Mucosal Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Sekine, Shinichi [Department of Preventive Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kataoka, Kosuke [Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Markham, Jonathan D.; Irwin, Allyson R.; Moon, Grace H.; Tokuhara, Yuka; Fujihashi, Keiko [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Davydova, Julia; Yamamoto, Masato [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gilbert, Rebekah S. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Fujihashi, Kohtaro, E-mail: kohtarof@uab.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL effectively up-regulates APC function by CD11c{sup +} DCs in mucosal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL induces Notch ligand (L)-expressing CD11c{sup +} DCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch L-expressing DCs support the induction of Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing Flt3 ligand (Ad-FL) as nasal adjuvant activates CD11c{sup +} dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of antigen (Ag)-specific IgA antibody (Ab) responses. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for activation of CD11c{sup +} DCs and their roles in induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-cell responses. Ad-FL activated CD11c{sup +} DCs expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand (L)-expression and specific mRNA. When CD11c{sup +} DCs from various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues of mice given nasal OVA plus Ad-FL were cultured with CD4{sup +} T cells isolated from non-immunized OVA TCR-transgenic (OT II) mice, significantly increased levels of T cell proliferative responses were noted. Furthermore, Ad-FL activated DCs induced IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and IL-4 producing CD4{sup +} T cells. Of importance, these APC functions by Ad-FL activated DCs were down-regulated by blocking Notch-Notch-L pathway. These results show that Ad-FL induces CD11c{sup +} DCs to the express Notch-ligands and these activated DCs regulate the induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses.

  15. Cluster analysis of sputum cytokine-high profiles reveals diversity in T(h)2-high asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Sven F; Scheers, Hans; Van den Brande, Paul; Marijsse, Gudrun; Dilissen, Ellen; Van Den Bergh, Annelies; Goeminne, Pieter C; Hellings, Peter W; Ceuppens, Jan L; Dupont, Lieven J; Bullens, Dominique M A

    2017-02-23

    Asthma is characterized by a heterogeneous inflammatory profile and can be subdivided into T(h)2-high and T(h)2-low airway inflammation. Profiling of a broader panel of airway cytokines in large unselected patient cohorts is lacking. Patients (n = 205) were defined as being "cytokine-low/high" if sputum mRNA expression of a particular cytokine was outside the respective 10th/90th percentile range of the control group (n = 80). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was used to determine clusters based on sputum cytokine profiles. Half of patients (n = 108; 52.6%) had a classical T(h)2-high ("IL-4-, IL-5- and/or IL-13-high") sputum cytokine profile. Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed 5 clusters. Patients with an "IL-4- and/or IL-13-high" pattern surprisingly did not cluster but were equally distributed among the 5 clusters. Patients with an "IL-5-, IL-17A-/F- and IL-25- high" profile were restricted to cluster 1 (n = 24) with increased sputum eosinophil as well as neutrophil counts and poor lung function parameters at baseline and 2 years later. Four other clusters were identified: "IL-5-high or IL-10-high" (n = 16), "IL-6-high" (n = 8), "IL-22-high" (n = 25). Cluster 5 (n = 132) consists of patients without "cytokine-high" pattern or patients with only high IL-4 and/or IL-13. We identified 5 unique asthma molecular phenotypes by biological clustering. Type 2 cytokines cluster with non-type 2 cytokines in 4 out of 5 clusters. Unsupervised analysis thus not supports a priori type 2 versus non-type 2 molecular phenotypes. www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01224938. Registered 18 October 2010.

  16. Innate IFNs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells constrain Th2 cytokine responses to rhinovirus: a regulatory mechanism with relevance to asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Antonia L; Carroll, Melanie L; Burel, Julie G; White, Olivia J; Phipps, Simon; Upham, John W

    2012-06-15

    Human rhinoviruses (RV) cause only minor illness in healthy individuals, but can have deleterious consequences in people with asthma. This study sought to examine normal homeostatic mechanisms regulating adaptive immunity to RV in healthy humans, focusing on effects of IFN-αβ and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) on Th2 immune responses. PBMC were isolated from 27 healthy individuals and cultured with RV16 for up to 5 d. In some experiments, IFN-αβ was neutralized using a decoy receptor that blocks IFN signaling, whereas specific dendritic cell subsets were depleted from cultures with immune-magnetic beads. RV16 induced robust expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, multiple IFN-stimulated genes, and T cell-polarizing factors within the first 24 h. At 5 d, the production of memory T cell-derived IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-13, but not IL-17A, was significantly elevated. Neutralizing the effects of type-I IFN with the decoy receptor B18R led to a significant increase in IL-13 synthesis, but had no effect on IFN-γ synthesis. Depletion of pDC from RV-stimulated cultures markedly inhibited IFN-α secretion, and led to a significant increase in expression and production of the Th2 cytokines IL-5 (p = 0.02), IL-9 (p effect on IFN-γ synthesis. Depletion of CD1c(+) dendritic cells did not alter cytokine synthesis. In healthy humans, pDC and the IFN-αβ they secrete selectively constrain Th2 cytokine synthesis following RV exposure in vitro. This important regulatory mechanism may be lost in asthma; deficient IFN-αβ synthesis and/or pDC dysfunction have the potential to contribute to asthma exacerbations during RV infections.

  17. Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Amany A; Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghoneim, Hossam E; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M; Abouelella, Amira M

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. There is an accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity is significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e., Th1 bias). While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e., Th2 bias). In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. Exposure to 5 or 10 Gy of γ-rays resulted in a state of immune stimulation (Th1 bias), but exposure to 20 Gy showed a standard state of immune suppression (Th2 bias). The results indicated that apparently we can control the immune response by controlling the dose of γ-rays.

  18. CXCL13 and TH1/Th2 cytokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of neurosyphilis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongxing; Wang, Jun; Qu, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yingnan; Liu, Huili; Wu, Chunli

    2017-11-01

    Neurosyphilis is a chronic infectious disease with involvement of central nervous system infection by Treponema pallidum. This study was to investigate the contents of B lymphocyte chemokine 1 (BLC-1/chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 13), Th1 cytokines (Interleukin [IL]-2, IL-12, and Interferon [IFN]-γ), and Th2 cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-negative patients with neurosyphilis before and after treatment, aiming to elucidate roles of CXCL13 and Th1/Th2 cytokines in immune response to and pathogenesis of neurosyphilis.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to detect the contents of CXCL13, IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum and CSF of 47 HIV-negative patients with neurosyphilis, 36 syphilis patients without neurological involvement and 23 controls (noninfectious intracranial disease) before, 3 and 12 months after treatment with high dose penicillin.Results showed that there was no significant difference in blood CXCL13 content among 3 groups (P > .05); CSF CXCL13 content in neurosyphilis patients was significantly higher than in other 2 groups (P  .05). CSF CXCL13 content was positively related with IL-6 and IL-10 content, while negatively related to IL-12 content in neurosyphilis patients. CSF IL-6 content was negatively related with IL-12 content. In neurosyphilis patients, the CSF CXCL13 content reduced significantly at 3 and 12 months (P cytokines are involved in the immune response of neurosyphilis patients. CSF CXCL13 and Th1/Th2 cytokines contents may be used for the diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of neurosyphilis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unfolding Kinetics of Egg Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dipti

    2011-03-01

    This study explores denaturing kinetics of egg white using high resolution calorimetric technique. Fresh egg was scanned fro heating and cooling to see the thermodynamics 10circ; C to 100circ; C at different heating ramp rates varying from 1 to 20circ; C/min. An endothermic peak was found on heating scan showing denaturing of protein which was found absent at the cooling indicating the absence of any residue after heating. The denature peak shifted towards higher temperature as ramp rate increases following Arrhenius behavior and shows an activated denaturing kinetics of the egg protein. This peak was also compared with the water to avoid water effects. Behavior of denaturing peak can be explained in terms of Arrhenius theory.

  20. Differential effects of Th1 versus Th2 cytokines in combination with hypoxia on HIFs and angiogenesis in RA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxia and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine-driven inflammation are key features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and contribute to disease pathogenesis by promoting angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to characterise the angiogenic gene signature of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in response to hypoxia, as well as Th1 and T-helper cell 2 (Th2) cytokines, and in particular to dissect out effects of combined hypoxia and cytokines on hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) and angiogenesis. Methods Human angiogenesis PCR arrays were used to screen cDNA from RA FLS exposed to hypoxia (1% oxygen) or dimethyloxalylglycine, which stabilises HIFs. The involvement of HIF isoforms in generating the angiogenic signature of RA FLS stimulated with hypoxia and/or cytokines was investigated using a DNA-binding assay and RNA interference. The angiogenic potential of conditioned media from hypoxia-treated and/or cytokine-treated RA FLS was measured using an in vitro endothelial-based assay. Results Expression of 12 angiogenic genes was significantly altered in RA FLS exposed to hypoxia, and seven of these were changed by dimethyloxalylglycine, including ephrin A3 (EFNA3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), adipokines angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL)-4 and leptin. These four proangiogenic genes were dependent on HIF-1 in hypoxia to various degrees: EFNA3 >ANGPTL-4 >VEGF >leptin. The Th1 cytokines TNFα and IL-1β induced HIF-1 but not HIF-2 transcription as well as activity, and this effect was additive with hypoxia. In contrast, Th2 cytokines had no effect on HIFs. IL-1β synergised with hypoxia to upregulate EFNA3 and VEGF in a HIF-1-dependent fashion but, despite strongly inducing HIF-1, TNFα suppressed adipokine expression and had minimal effect on EFNA3. Supernatants from RA FLS subjected to hypoxia and TNFα induced fewer endothelial tubules than those from FLS subjected to TNFα or hypoxia alone, despite high VEGF protein levels. The Th2

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) evades the human adaptive immune system by skewing the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance toward increased levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE, markers of allergy--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Yechiel

    2006-10-01

    Infection of infants in their first year of life, children and elderly people with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) endangers the life of the patient. An attempt to develop a formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccine during the 1960s resulted in an aggravated infection in immunized children, leading to hospitalization, while infection of non-immunized children produced much milder symptoms. The reason for this remained an enigma, one which was gradually solved over the last decade by many researchers who studied the molecular biology of RSV infection of respiratory ciliary cells. Clinical studies of RSV-infected patients indicated increased levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE in the patients' sera, suggesting that an allergy-like condition developed during infection. The biomarkers of allergy caused by endogenous or environmental allergens include a marked increase of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 and IgE non-neutralizing antibodies to the allergen. The way allergens trigger allergy was deciphered recently, and will be discussed later. Studies of RSV infection led to the suggestion that RSV patients suffer from allergy prior to RSV infection, a concept that was later abandoned. Studies on HIV-1 [Y. Becker, Virus Genes 28, 319-331 (2005)] research led me to the hypothesis that since HIV-1 infection induces a marked increase of IL-4 and IgE in serum, an allergy-like condition, the AIDS stage is the result of an allergen motif that is embedded in the shed viral gp120 molecules. It is hypothesized that the viral-soluble G glycoprotein (sG) contains a T cell superantigen (Tsag) that is capable of binding to the V(H)3 domain of IgE/FcepsilonRI(+) hematopoietic cells, basophils, mast cells and monocytes, similar to the case of allergens, and that this aggregation causes these innate system cells to degranulate and release large amounts of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) into the blood. The way these Th2 cytokines skew the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2 > Th1 will be

  2. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.R. Morris. Department of Agriculture and Horticulture, University of Reading, England. In this article the contribution which geneticists can make to egg quality i.e. eggmass, shell thickness, and albumen height is examined. Factors which the poultryman can manipulate on the farm such as the choice of a lighting system ...

  3. Naturalistic driving : observing everyday driving behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Naturalistic Driving is a relatively new research method for the observation of everyday driving behaviour of road users. For this purpose, systems are installed in subjects’ own vehicles that unobtrusively register vehicle manoeuvres, driver behaviour (such as eye, head and hand manoeuvres) and

  4. QTL mapping of egg albumen quality in egg layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkatukia, Mervi; Tuiskula-Haavisto, Maria; Arango, Jesus; Tabell, Jonna; Schmutz, Matthias; Preisinger, Rudolf; Vilkki, Johanna

    2013-08-16

    A fresh, good quality egg has a firm and gelatinous albumen that anchors the yolk and restricts growth of microbiological pathogens. As the egg ages, the gel-like structure collapses, resulting in thin and runny albumen. Occasionally thin albumen is found in a fresh egg, giving the impression of a low quality product. A mapping population consisting of 1599 F2 hens from a cross between White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up, to identify loci controlling albumen quality. The phenotype for albumen quality was evaluated by albumen height and in Haugh units (HU) measured on three consecutive eggs from each F2 hen at the age of 40 weeks. For the fine-mapping analysis, albumen height and HU were used simultaneously to eliminate contribution of the egg size to the phenotype. Linkage analysis in a small population of seven half-sib families (668 F2) with 162 microsatellite markers spread across 27 chromosomes revealed two genome-wide significant regions with additive effects for HU on chromosomes 7 and Z. In addition, two putative genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions were identified on chromosomes 4 and 26. The QTL effects ranged from 2 to 4% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide significant QTL regions on chromosomes 7 and Z were selected for fine-mapping in the full set composed of 16 half-sib families. In addition, their existence was confirmed by an association analysis in an independent commercial Hy-Line pure line. We identified four chicken genomic regions that affect albumen quality. Our results also suggest that genes that affect albumen quality act both directly and indirectly through several different mechanisms. For instance, the QTL regions on both fine-mapped chromosomes 7 and Z overlapped with a previously reported QTL for eggshell quality, indicating that eggshell membranes may play a role in albumen quality.

  5. Serum Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine profiles and alpha-enolase levels in recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Kemal; Celik, Ahmet; Sayarlıoglu, Mehmet; Colgecen, Emine; Incı, Rahime; Karakas, Tuba; Kelles, Mehmet; Cetin, Gozde Y

    2014-10-01

    All aspects of aetiopathogenesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) have not been elucidated. RAS and Behçet's disease (BD) have clinical and immunological characteristics in common. Although T17 cytokines and alpha-enolase have been shown to play effective roles in BD and many other autoinflammatory diseases recently, their roles in RAS have not been studied extensively. In the present study, we investigated levels of several Th1, Th2 and Th17 pathways related cytokines and alpha-enolase to elucidate pathogenesis of RAS and to obtain data about possible treatment alternatives for the condition. Serum interleukin-1, interleukin-13, interleukin-17, interleukin-18, interferon gamma and alpha-enolase levels in 24 patients with RAS, 30 patients with BD and 20 healthy controls were measured. Serum interleukin-1, interleukin-13, interleukin-17, interleukin-18, interferon gamma and alpha-enolase levels were higher in patients with RAS and patients with BD than in healthy controls (P < 0.005). Like Th1 and Th2 cells, Th17 cells were found to be effective in pathogenesis of RAS. In addition, alpha-enolase, the levels of which were high, may play an important role in etio-pathogenesis of RAS. Further studies to be designed in the light of these findings are required to shed light on pathogenesis and treatment of the condition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cigarette smoking enhances T cell activation and a Th2 immune response; an aspect of the pathophysiology in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heens, G L Torres; van der Velden, U; Loos, B G

    2009-09-01

    Smoking is a strong risk factor for periodontitis. Treated patients who smoke show increased risk for further periodontal breakdown, despite receiving maintenance care. Previous work indicated that such patients have a monocytic cytokine response favoring Th2 activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the T lymphocytic cytokine production representing Th1 and Th2 subpopulations in smokers and non-smokers. Venous blood was collected from 30 treated periodontitis patients (12 smokers) and 24 healthy subjects (12 smokers). Whole blood cell cultures were stimulated and interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-13 were measured in the culture supernatants, representing types 1 and 2 Th subpopulations, respectively. Unadjusted data showed that smokers had more lymphocytes, and higher levels of IFN-gamma and IL-13, irrespective of being periodontal patient. However in a multivariate analysis, increased IFN-gamma production was not significantly explained by smoking, while higher IL-13 was strongly explained by smoking (21%, psmoking patients which may induce conversion of periodontal stability into progressive disease. This phenomenon may be equally important in other conditions, where connective tissue and bone loss are hallmarks of disease pathophysiology.

  7. Inhibiting AKT Phosphorylation Employing Non-Cytotoxic Anthraquinones Ameliorates TH2 Mediated Allergic Airways Disease and Rhinovirus Exacerbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar de Souza Alves, Caio; Collison, Adam; Hatchwell, Luke; Plank, Maximilian; Morten, Matthew; Foster, Paul S.; Johnston, Sebastian L.; França da Costa, Cristiane; Vieira de Almeida, Mauro; Couto Teixeira, Henrique; Paula Ferreira, Ana; Mattes, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe asthma is associated with T helper (TH) 2 and 17 cell activation, airway neutrophilia and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) activation. Asthma exacerbations are commonly caused by rhinovirus (RV) and also associated with PI3K-driven inflammation. Anthraquinone derivatives have been shown to reduce PI3K-mediated AKT phosphorylation in-vitro. Objective To determine the anti-inflammatory potential of anthraquinones in-vivo. Methods BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with crude house dust mite extract to induce allergic airways disease and treated with mitoxantrone and a novel non-cytotoxic anthraquinone derivative. Allergic mice were also infected with RV1B to induce an exacerbation. Results Anthraquinone treatment reduced AKT phosphorylation, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and ameliorated allergen- and RV-induced airways hyprereactivity, neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation, cytokine/chemokine expression, mucus hypersecretion, and expression of TH2 proteins in the airways. Anthraquinones also boosted type 1 interferon responses and limited RV replication in the lung. Conclusion Non-cytotoxic anthraquinone derivatives may be of therapeutic benefit for the treatment of severe and RV-induced asthma by blocking pro-inflammatory pathways regulated by PI3K/AKT. PMID:24223970

  8. In vivo Th1 and Th2 cytokine modulation effects of Rhodiola rosea standardised solution and its major constituent, salidroside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Shen Chou; Chin, Lengsu William; Chao, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ya-Yun; Lin, Long-Yau; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chou, Ming-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2011-11-01

    Although Rhodiola rosea (L.) is used widely and disseminated in Oriental medicine, its in vivo effects on cytokine modulation remain unclear. Among the biologically active components of Rhodiola rosea, salidroside was suggested to be the most active compound. The objectives of this study were to assess the toxicity and cytokine modulation effects of Rhodiola rosea standardised solution (RRSS) and salidroside. Quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis determined the content of salidroside in RRSS to be 4.39% (w/v). Groups of Balb/c mice were fed daily with different doses of RRSS or salidroside, with CAPE or distilled water used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The acute and subacute toxicity tests did not reveal weight differences, pathological changes, or abnormalities in liver or kidney function indices among the treated groups. Ovalbumin-primed mouse cytokine assays demonstrated that both T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines were significantly increased by feeding with RRSS in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Moreover, the cytokine modulation effects of salidroside were less prominent than that of RRSS treatment and not dose-dependent. These findings suggest that increased secretion of both Th1- and Th2-pattern cytokines can be achieved with RRSS and salidroside treatment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mast Cell-Derived Exosomes Promote Th2 Cell Differentiation via OX40L-OX40 Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are nanovesicles released by different cell types, such as dendritic cells (DCs, mast cells (MCs, and tumor cells. Exosomes of different origin play a role in antigen presentation and modulation of immune response to infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that mast cells and CD4+ T cells colocated in peritoneal lymph nodes from BALB/c mouse. Further, bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs constitutively release exosomes, which express CD63 and OX40L. BMMC-exosomes partially promoted the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. BMMC-exosomes significantly enhanced the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells to Th2 cells in a surface contact method, and this ability was partly inhibited by the addition of anti-OX40L Ab. In conclusion, BMMC-exosomes promoted the proliferation and differentiation of Th2 cells via ligation of OX40L and OX40 between exosomes and T cells. This method represents a novel mechanism, in addition to direct cell surface contacts, soluble mediators, and synapses, to regulate T cell actions by BMMC-exosomes.

  10. β-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal sensitization and promotes steroid-resistant TH2/TH17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M; Brandt, Eric B; Ryan, Patrick H; Lindsey, Mark; Mintz-Cole, Rachael A; Reponen, Tiina; Vesper, Stephen J; Forde, Frank; Ruff, Brandy; Bass, Stacey A; LeMasters, Grace K; Bernstein, David I; Lockey, James; Budelsky, Alison L; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K

    2017-01-01

    Allergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity. We sought to determine the mechanism by which fungi affect asthma development and severity. We integrated epidemiologic and experimental asthma models to explore the effect of fungal exposure on asthma development and severity. We report that fungal exposure enhances allergen-driven TH2 responses, promoting severe allergic asthma. This effect is independent of fungal sensitization and can be reconstituted with β-glucan and abrogated by neutralization of IL-17A. Furthermore, this severe asthma is resistant to steroids and characterized by mixed TH2 and TH17 responses, including IL-13(+)IL-17(+)CD4(+) double-producing effector T cells. Steroid resistance is dependent on fungus-induced TH17 responses because steroid sensitivity was restored in IL-17rc(-/-) mice. Similarly, in children with asthma, fungal exposure was associated with increased serum IL-17A levels and asthma severity. Our data demonstrate that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. Furthermore, our results provide a strong rationale for combination treatment strategies targeting IL-17A for this subgroup of fungus-exposed patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eggs are among the most nutritious foods on earth and can be part of a healthy diet. ... undercooked eggs? Infants, young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems are particularly ...

  12. Contaminant concentrations in Florida raptor eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...

  13. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J A; Kraut, A; Bernstein, D I; Warrington, R; Bolin, T; Warren, C P; Bernstein, I L

    1993-02-01

    A 26-year-old man employed in a company which manufactured hen egg white derived lysozyme for use in the pharmaceutical industry was evaluated for occupational asthma. The worker began to experience immediate-onset asthmatic symptoms two months after starting to work with egg lysozyme powder. The work process involved the production of approximately 1,000 kg of purified dried lysozyme powder per week. Prick skin testing was positive to egg lysozyme (50 mg/ml) and other egg protein components, but negative to whole egg white and egg yolk reagents. Serum specific IgE to egg lysozyme was documented. Decrements in serial peak expiratory flow rates were associated with lysozyme exposure at work. A specific bronchoprovocation challenge to lysozyme powder was positive demonstrating an isolated immediate asthmatic response (48 percent decrease from baseline FEV1). This is the first reported case of lysozyme-induced asthma specifically caused by inhalational exposure to egg lysozyme.

  14. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  15. The Egg with Two Yellows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. The Egg with Two Yellows. M K Chandrashekaran. Book Review Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 979-987. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/10/0979-0987 ...

  16. How do eggs pan out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-07-01

    Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.

  17. Allergy to inhaled egg material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J H; McConnochie, K; Trotman, D M; Collins, G; Saunders, M J; Latham, S M

    1983-09-01

    The use of a spray system to coat meat rolls with egg solution resulted in the development of asthmatic type symptoms in eight of thirteen workers exposed to the spray. Symptoms were severe in five workers, less severe in two, and one worker experienced vague symptoms. Even though precipitins were present in nine of the workers there were no pyrexial episodes nor influenza-like symptoms occurring some hours after inhaling the egg material to suggest extrinsic allergic alveolitis. All sera with precipitins reacted against an antigen in egg yolk, two sera only to this antigen but no precipitins to ovalbumin were detected. Lung function, X-ray and haematology provided no evidence that the inhalation of egg had lasting detrimental effects. There was no correlation between clinical response, skin testing, IgE levels and precipitins, hence, for each individual none of these parameters is predictive. However, collectively the results show sensitization and this has been confirmed by lack of symptoms when a different method of coating the pastry was adopted.

  18. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  19. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  20. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... shell membranes missing and with egg meat adhering to or in contact with the outside of the shell. (3... membranes. (4) Liquid egg recovered from shell egg containers and leaker trays. (5) Open leakers made in the...

  1. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3

  2. Effect of Egg Size on Heat Production and the Transition of Energy from Egg to Hatchling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Molenaar, R.; Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    It has been reported that during incubation, large eggs produce more heat than small eggs (Rahn et al., 1974; Hoyt, 1987; Vleck et al., 1980; Vleck and Vleck, 1987; Meijerhof and Van Beek, 1993). Large eggs also face more difficulties to remove the surplus heat from the egg (French, 1997), as a

  3. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any State...

  4. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  5. [Diagnostic stain of helminth eggs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1976-12-01

    A description is given of a diagnostic method for the staining of eggs and larvae of intestinal helminth in smears of both fresh and fixed stool samples. The contents of the eggs and larvae stain red, the background various shades of blue. The most contrasting staining was obtained with thin-walled eggs.

  6. EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0655711075

    EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL! Of all the different kinds of foods, an egg is special for its combination of all essential food nutrients in one item. Chicken eggs have an average weight of (~50g) with two distinct parts that have distinct nutritional values: the yolk (17g); and white (33g).

  7. Human leukocyte antigen-G expression in differentiated human airway epithelial cells: lack of modulation by Th2-associated cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G is a nonclassical class I antigen with immunomodulatory roles including up-regulation of suppressor T regulatory lymphocytes. HLA-G was recently identified as an asthma susceptibility gene, and expression of a soluble isoform, HLA-G5, has been demonstrated in human airway epithelium. Increased presence of HLA-G5 has been demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from patients with mild asthma; this suggests a role for this isoform in modulating airway inflammation though the mechanisms by which this occurs is unclear. Airway inflammation associated with Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 is a principal feature of asthma, but whether these cytokines elicit expression of HLA-G is not known. Methods We examined gene and protein expression of both soluble (G5 and membrane-bound (G1 HLA-G isoforms in primary differentiated human airway epithelial cells collected from normal lungs and grown in air-liquid interface culture. Cells were treated with up to 10 ng/ml of either IL-4, IL-5, or IL-13, or 100 ng/ml of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10, or 10,000 U/ml of the Th1-associated cytokine interferon-beta, for 24 hr, after which RNA was isolated for evaluation by quantitative PCR and protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Results HLA-G5 but not G1 was present in dAEC as demonstrated by quantitative PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Neither G5 nor G1 expression was increased by the Th2-associated cytokines IL-4, IL-5 or IL-13 over 24 hr, nor after treatment with IL-10, but was increased 4.5 ± 1.4 fold after treatment with 10,000 U/ml interferon-beta. Conclusions These data demonstrate the constitutive expression of a T lymphocyte regulatory molecule in differentiated human airway epithelial cells that is not modulated by Th2-associated cytokines.

  8. Patterns and Drivers of Egg Pigment Intensity and Colour Diversity in the Ocean: A Meta-Analysis of Phylum Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E M; Hamel, J-F; Mercier, A

    supported by the comparatively pale colour of equally large, internally brooded eggs. Secondarily, geographic location drives the evolution of egg colour diversity, presumably through the selection of better-adapted, more costly pigments in response to ecological pressure. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp......-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  10. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  11. Egg wash wastewater: Estrogenic risk or environmental asset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...

  12. Differentially expressed genes in white egg 2 mutant of silkworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... egg 2 (w-2) has the same phenotypes as white egg 1 and white egg 3 mutants with white egg color, but its mechanism is more complicated than white egg 1 and white egg 3 mutants based on recent report (Tatematsu et al., 2011) which suggest that the silkworm w-2 locus existed multi-allelic mutations.

  13. Driving Fast Flows with Volumetric Current Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhone, Jason; Endrizzi, D.; Flanagan, K.; Nornberg, M. D.; Peterson, E. E.; Forest, C. B.

    2017-10-01

    Volumetric current drive has been shown to be an efficient method for driving fast flows with high Rm for studying the onset of flow-driven plasma instabilities. High performance plasmas are produced with 20 kW of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and thermally emissive lanthanum hexaboride cathodes. Plasma flow is achieved by injecting current through the plasma across an externally applied weak magnetic field setting up a J × B body force on the plasma volume. Two scenarios for volumetric current drive have been demonstrated. The first injects current across a weak uniform axial magnetic field driving a Keplerian-like flow for magneto-rotational instability (MRI) studies. The second injects current across a weak quadrupole magnetic field for driving a von Karman-like flow for dynamo studies. First results measuring velocity and ion temperature profiles measured by a Fabry-Perot interferometer are shown. Detailed mach probe flow measurements show stronger flow shear in volumetric current drive compared to previous edge-driven plasma flow experiments. Worked funded by NSF and DOE.

  14. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-01-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...

  15. The immune response to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is predominantly of the Th2 type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Kjaergaard, S; Pressler, T

    2000-01-01

    Most cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection have a persistent acute type lung inflammation dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and a pronounced antibody response against P. aeruginosa. We speculated whether this immune response in CF...... is of the Th2 type and whether a change to a Th1 type immune response could improve the prognosis. Therefore, we studied 14 CF patients with (CF +P) and 14 CF patients without (CF -P) chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. The specific production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4......) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined. Cells from CF +P patients had lower IFN-gamma (plung function was found (FVC: Rho = 0.637; p

  16. Electronic structure and thermoelectric transport properties of the golden Th2S3-type Ti2O3 under pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A lot of physical properties of Th2S3-type Ti2O3 have investigated experimentally, hence, we calculated electronic structure and thermoelectric transport properties by the first-principles calculation under pressure. The increase of the band gaps is very fast from 30GP to 35GP, which is mainly because of the rapid change of the lattice constants. The total density of states becomes smaller with increasing pressure, which shows that Seebeck coefficient gradually decreases. Two main peaks of Seebeck coefficients always decrease and shift to the high doping area with increasing temperature under pressure. The electrical conductivities always decrease with increasing temperature under pressure. The electrical conductivity can be improved by increasing pressure. Electronic thermal conductivity increases with increasing pressure. It is noted that the thermoelectric properties is reduced with increasing temperature.

  17. Cellular immunity is activated and a TH-2 response is associated with early wheezing in infants after bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, P M; Turgeon, J P; Yang, J P; Drblik, S P; Marcotte, J E; Pedneault, L; Spier, S

    1997-04-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of cellular immunity are present and linked to early wheezing after bronchiolitis. We prospectively studied 26 infants hospitalized for a first episode of bronchiolitis and without any prior immune, cardiac, or respiratory disease. Blood was obtained at the time of enrollment and 5 months later for the assessment of the total cellular and differential counts, CD4+ (helper) and CD8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocytes, and the activation markers CD23 (low-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor) and CD25 (interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor). The cytokines interferon gamma (T-helper (TH) type-1 cytokine) and IL-4 (TH-2) were measured in plasma and in vitro after stimulation with IL-2 or with the house-dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) antigen. A daily log of episodes of wheezing was kept by parents after discharge. We found an increase in blood eosinophils, an increased percentage of CD4+, CD25+, and CD23+ lymphocytes in subjects at 5 months compared with the time of bronchiolitis and with healthy subjects of the same age (p bronchiolitis, in response to D. farinae antigen. In babies who wheezed, a positive correlation was found between the total number of days that wheezing occurred and the blood eosinophil count. Babies who wheezed more often (> 20 days) had more peripheral blood basophils and eosinophils, and peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from these subjects at the time of bronchiolitis produced less interferon gamma on stimulation with IL-2. Bronchiolitis is followed by activation of cellular immunity, and early wheezing in infants is associated with a TH-2 response.

  18. Piper nigrum extract ameliorated allergic inflammation through inhibiting Th2/Th17 responses and mast cells activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Song, Chang Ho; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Chai, Ok Hee

    2017-12-01

    Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) is commonly used as a spice and traditional medicine in many countries. P. nigrum has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of P. nigrum on allergic asthma has not been known. This study investigated the effect of P. nigrum ethanol extracts (PNE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we analysed the number of inflammatory cells and cytokines production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue; histological structure; as well as the total immunoglobulin (Ig)E, anti-OVA IgE, anti-OVA IgG1 and histamine levels in serum. The oral administration (200 mg/kg) of PNE reduced the accumulation of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils in BALF and mast cells in lung tissue); regulated the balance of the cytokines production of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells, specifically, inhibited the expressions of GATA3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-1β, RORγt, IL-17A, TNF-α and increased the secretions of IL-10, INF-γ in BALF and lung homogenate. Moreover, PNE suppressed the levels of total IgE, anti-OVA IgE, anti-OVA IgG1 and histamine release in serum. The histological analysis showed that the fibrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also ameliorated in PNE treated mice. On the other hand, PNE inhibited the allergic responses via inactivation of rat peritoneal mast cells degranulation. These results suggest that PNE has therapeutic potential for treating allergic asthma through inhibiting Th2/Th17 responses and mast cells activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and function of invariant natural killer T cells producing T(h2- and T(h17-cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Watarai

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is heterogeneity in invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells based on the expression of CD4 and the IL-17 receptor B (IL-17RB, a receptor for IL-25 which is a key factor in T(H2 immunity. However, the development pathway and precise function of these iNKT cell subtypes remain unknown. IL-17RB⁺iNKT cells are present in the thymic CD44⁺/⁻ NK1.1⁻ population and develop normally even in the absence of IL-15, which is required for maturation and homeostasis of IL-17RB⁻iNKT cells producing IFN-γ. These results suggest that iNKT cells contain at least two subtypes, IL-17RB⁺ and IL-17RB⁻ subsets. The IL-17RB⁺iNKT subtypes can be further divided into two subtypes on the basis of CD4 expression both in the thymus and in the periphery. CD4⁺ IL-17RB⁺iNKT cells produce T(H2 (IL-13, T(H9 (IL-9 and IL-10, and T(H17 (IL-17A and IL-22 cytokines in response to IL-25 in an E4BP4-dependent fashion, whereas CD4⁻ IL-17RB⁺iNKT cells are a retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (RORγt⁺ subset producing T(H17 cytokines upon stimulation with IL-23 in an E4BP4-independent fashion. These IL-17RB⁺iNKT cell subtypes are abundantly present in the lung in the steady state and mediate the pathogenesis in virus-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR. In this study we demonstrated that the IL-17RB⁺iNKT cell subsets develop distinct from classical iNKT cell developmental stages in the thymus and play important roles in the pathogenesis of airway diseases.

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miquel) Pax on regulation of Th1/Th2 levels in mice with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young; Lee, Seok-Geun; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-02-01

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla (PH) has various pharmacological effects that include immunologic enhancement and anti‑oxidation. However, it remains unclear whether PH exerts beneficial effects in dermatological diseases. The present study examined the effects of PH on a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)‑induced atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action. PH extract (1 and 100 mg/ml) was applied topically to DNCB-treated dorsal skin of mice every day for 11 days. The immunomodulatory effects of PH were evaluated by measuring skin thickness, mast cell infiltration, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), and mRNA expression levels of T helper (h)1/Th2 and pro‑inflammatory cytokines in dorsal skin. In addition, cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells were detected in dorsal skin by immunohistochemistry. Topical application of PH significantly reduced the thickness of dermis, epidermis and serum IgE production compared with the DNCB group. PH treatment inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells, including mast cells and CD4+ T cells, and suppressed the mRNA expression levels of cytokines (interferon‑γ, interleukin‑4, ‑6, ‑8 and ‑1β, and tumor necrosis factor‑α) associated with the immune response. Furthermore, PH treatment significantly downregulated the protein expression levels of nuclear factor‑κB, phosphorylated inhibitor of κBα and mitogen‑activated protein kinases. The results suggested that PH may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD via the modulation of Th1 and Th2 levels.

  1. Polymorphisms in Th1/Th2 cytokine Genes, hormone replacement therapy, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjian eZhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe conducted a population-based case-control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes modify the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. Compared to women without a history of HRT use, women with a history of HRT use had a significantly decreased risk of NHL if they carried IFNGR2 (rs1059293 CT/TT genotypes (OR=0.5, 95%CI: 0.3-0.9, IL13 (rs20541 GG genotype (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.9 and IL13 (rs1295686 CC genotype (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8, but not among women who carried IFNGR2 CC, IL13 AG /AA and IL13 CT/TT genotypes. A similar pattern was also observed for B-cell lymphoma but not for T-cell lymphoma. A statistically significant interaction was observed for IFNGR2 (rs1059293 Pforinteraction=0.024, IL13 (rs20541 Pforinteraction=0.005, IL13 (rs1295686 Pforinteraction=0.008 and IL15RA (rs2296135 Pforinteraction=0.049 for NHL overall; IL13 (rs20541 Pforinteraction=0.0009, IL13 (rs1295686 Pforinteraction=0.0002, and IL15RA (rs2296135 Pforinteraction=0.041 for B-cell lymphoma. The results suggest that common genetic variation in Th1/Th2 pathway genes may modify the association between HRT and NHL risk.

  2. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Roncalli, Gianluca; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2017-01-01

    Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula) as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process) and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject), while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched) non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental eggs are not

  3. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Soler

    Full Text Available Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject, while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental

  4. Rapid Retort Processing of Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-04

    reduce oxygen uptake by the mix. Par-cooking was also tested as a means of developing the cooked-scrambled egg flavor in the retorted product. In this...carbon. It was then instantaneously frozen by plunging into a “ nitrogen slurry”. The frozen sample was first sublimated to remove any ice or nitrogen on...choice of oil had large impact on flavor depending on whether soy, corn, sunflower , olive or canola was used. Standard vegetable oil performed

  5. Egg consumption and cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes García, Antonio

    2016-07-12

    Diet, along with exercise, is the determining factor in primary prevention –and secondary– of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This disease remains the leading cause of death in our country, as well as neighboring countries. After the publication of the results of the study of the Seven Countries in 1980, egg consumption was discouraged because it was thought falsely that the consumption of it had the same harmful effect as saturated fats increasing CVD risk. This idea, that was proved wrong later, was in general accepted by the medical profession as much as the general population. Simultaneously numerous clinical studies were performed and they clearly contradict that belief, concluding that egg intake do not increase CVD risk. In conclusion, although the literature on this topic is abundant, we cite the works that seem most significant in this regard. Consequently and following the recommendations of the American Heart Association Guidelines, since 2000, we can conclude that intake of up to one egg a day does not modify the risk for CVD in healthy adults.

  6. Androgenesis: where males hijack eggs to clone themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Tanja; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2016-10-19

    Androgenesis is a form of quasi-sexual reproduction in which a male is the sole source of the nuclear genetic material in the embryo. Two types of androgenesis occur in nature. Under the first type, females produce eggs without a nucleus and the embryo develops from the male gamete following fertilization. Evolution of this type of androgenesis is poorly understood as the parent responsible for androgenesis (the mother) gains no benefit from it. Ultimate factors driving the evolution of the second type of androgenesis are better understood. In this case, a zygote is formed between a male and a female gamete, but the female genome is eliminated. When rare, androgenesis with genome elimination is favoured because an androgenesis-determining allele has twice the reproductive success of an allele that determines sexual reproduction. Paradoxically, except in hermaphrodites, a successful androgenetic strain can drive such a male-biased sex ratio that the population goes extinct. This likely explains why androgenesis with genome elimination appears to be rarer than androgenesis via non-nucleate eggs, although both forms are either very rare or remain largely undetected in nature. Nonetheless, some highly invasive species including ants and freshwater clams are androgenetic, for reasons that are largely unexplained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... aerobic conditions was established for each disinfection step. The disinfection procedure reduced the bacterial load from more than 104 cfu (initially visibly clean eggs) and 105 cfu (initially visibly dirty eggs) to less than 10 cfu per sample after disinfection for both groups of eggs. The microbiome....... In conclusion, the investigated disinfection procedure is effective in reducing the bacterial load, and by adding a chlorine wash for initially visibly dirty eggs, the microbiome of initially visibly clean and initially visibly dirty eggs had a highly similar microflora after the final disinfection step....

  8. Multiple helminth infection of the skin causes lymphocyte hypo-responsiveness mediated by Th2 conditioning of dermal myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Cook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the mammalian host by schistosome larvae occurs via the skin, although nothing is known about the development of immune responses to multiple exposures of schistosome larvae, and/or their excretory/secretory (E/S products. Here, we show that multiple (4x exposures, prior to the onset of egg laying by adult worms, modulate the skin immune response and induce CD4(+ cell hypo-responsiveness in the draining lymph node, and even modulate the formation of hepatic egg-induced granulomas. Compared to mice exposed to a single infection (1x, dermal cells from multiply infected mice (4x, were less able to support lymph node cell proliferation. Analysis of dermal cells showed that the most abundant in 4x mice were eosinophils (F4/80(+MHC-II(-, but they did not impact the ability of antigen presenting cells (APC to support lymphocyte proliferation to parasite antigen in vitro. However, two other cell populations from the dermal site of infection appear to have a critical role. The first comprises arginase-1(+, Ym-1(+ alternatively activated macrophage-like cells, and the second are functionally compromised MHC-II(hi cells. Through the administration of exogenous IL-12 to multiply infected mice, we show that these suppressive myeloid cell phenotypes form as a consequence of events in the skin, most notably an enrichment of IL-4 and IL-13, likely resulting from an influx of RELMα-expressing eosinophils. We further illustrate that the development of these suppressive dermal cells is dependent upon IL-4Rα signalling. The development of immune hypo-responsiveness to schistosome larvae and their effect on the subsequent response to the immunopathogenic egg is important in appreciating how immune responses to helminth infections are modulated by repeated exposure to the infective early stages of development.

  9. Role of egg sulfolipidimmobilizing protein 1 on mouse sperm-egg plasma membrane binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnonkitpanit, V; White, D; Suwajanakorn, S; Kan, F W; Namking, M; Wells, G; Kamolvarin, N; Tanphaichitr, N

    1999-09-01

    We have shown that sperm sulfolipidimmobilizing protein 1 (SLIP1, molecular mass of 68 kDa), a sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG)-binding protein, is significant in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction. The objective of this study was to localize SLIP1 on the egg and determine its role in gamete interaction. Immunofluorescence and immunoprotein A gold electron microscopy localized SLIP1 to the egg plasma membrane. In vitro gamete binding, using zona-free eggs preincubated with antiSLIP1 Fab before coincubation with sperm, showed a significant, dose-dependent decrease in sperm-egg plasma membrane binding. Similar results were obtained when affinity-purified antiSLIP1 IgG was used for egg pretreatment. The significance of egg SLIP1 in sperm-egg plasma membrane binding was further demonstrated by a decrease (36-52%) in in vitro fertilization when zona-intact eggs were pretreated with antiSLIP1 IgG. Since SLIP1 has been shown to bind SGG in vitro, we investigated the possibility that sperm SGG may participate in sperm-egg plasma membrane binding through egg SLIP1. Pretreatment of sperm with antiSGG Fab prior to coincubation with zona-free eggs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in sperm-egg plasma membrane binding. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest a role for egg SLIP1 in sperm-egg plasma membrane interaction, which may be through its binding to sperm SGG.

  10. Targeting beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors differentially shifts Th1, Th2, and inflammatory cytokine profiles in immune organs to attenuate adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne eLorton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulates host defense responses and restores homeostasis. SNS-immune regulation is altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and rodent models of RA, characterized by nerve remodeling in immune organs and defective adrenergic receptor (AR signaling to immune cell targets that typically promotes or suppresses inflammation via α- and β2-AR activation, respectively, and indirectly drives humoral immunity by blocking Th1 cytokine secretion. Here, we investigate how β2-AR stimulation and/or α-AR blockade at disease onset affects disease pathology and cytokine profiles in relevant immune organs from male Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA. Rats challenged to induce AA were treated with terbutaline (TERB, a β2-AR agonist (600 μg/kg/day and/or phentolamine (PHEN, an α-AR antagonist (5.0 mg/kg/day or vehicle from disease onset through severe disease. We report that in spleen, mesenteric (MLN and draining lymph node (DLN cells, TERB reduces proliferation, an effect independent of IL-2. TERB also fails to shift Th cytokines from a Th1 to Th2 profile in spleen and MLN (no effect on IFN-γ and DLN (greater IFN-γ cells. In splenocytes, TERB, PHEN and co-treatment (PT promotes an anti-inflammatory profile (greater IL-10 and lowers TNF-α (PT only. In DLN cells, drug treatments do not affect inflammatory profiles, except PT, which raised IL-10. In MLN cells, TERB or PHEN lowers MLN cell secretion of TNF-α or IL-10, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate disrupted β2-AR, but not α-AR signaling in AA. Aberrant β2-AR signaling consequently derails the sympathetic regulation of lymphocyte expansion, Th cell differentiation, and inflammation in the spleen, DLNs and MLNs that is required for immune system homeostasis. Importantly, this study provides potential mechanisms through which reestablished balance between α- and β2-AR function in the immune system ameliorates inflammation and joint

  11. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-07-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.

  12. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  13. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  14. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging for quantification of TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines at the single-cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkar, Hakim; Benbernou, N.; Esnault, S.; Shin, H. C.; Guenounou, Moncef

    1998-04-01

    Immune responses are strongly influenced by the cytokines following antigenic stimulation. Distinct cytokine-producing T cell subsets are well known to play a major role in immune responses and to be differentially regulated during immunological disorders, although the characterization and quantification of the TH-1/TH-2 cytokine pattern in T cells remained not clearly defined. Expression of cytokines by T lymphocytes is a highly balanced process, involving stimulatory and inhibitory intracellular signaling pathways. The aim of this study was (1) to quantify the cytokine expression in T cells at the single cell level using optical imaging, (2) and to analyze the influence of cyclic AMP- dependent signal transduction pathway in the balance between the TH-1 and TH-2 cytokine profile. We attempted to study several cytokines (IL-2, IFN-(gamma) , IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cells were prestimulated in vitro using phytohemagglutinin and phorbol ester for 36h, and then further cultured for 8h in the presence of monensin. Cells were permeabilized and then simple-, double- or triple-labeled with the corresponding specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The cell phenotype was also determined by analyzing the expression of each of CD4, CD8, CD45RO and CD45RA with the cytokine expression. Conventional images of cells were recorded with a Peltier- cooled CCD camera (B/W C5985, Hamamatsu photonics) through an inverted microscope equipped with epi-fluorescence (Diaphot 300, Nikon). Images were digitalized using an acquisition video interface (Oculus TCX Coreco) in 762 by 570 pixels coded in 8 bits (256 gray levels), and analyzed thereafter in an IBM PC computer based on an intel pentium processor with an adequate software (Visilog 4, Noesis). The first image processing step is the extraction of cell areas using an edge detection and a binary thresholding method. In order to reduce the background noise of fluorescence, we performed an opening

  15. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  16. Drives for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustmann, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Internal combustion and electricity as engine driving forces are compared with regard to their specific weight, engine characteristics, efficiency in converting the primary energy and trends of development. Electric drives show a number of advantages especially in cities where frequent stop-and-go traffic is the rule: low emissions, low noise and good utilization of the primary energy are the main advantages here. Technically one needs to have suitable batteries and driving systems. With the Na-S-heavy duty battery coming on to the market a wave of innovations on the area of high-efficiency electric drives is expected in the following years. (orig.).

  17. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  18. IL33 Is a Stomach Alarmin That Initiates a Skewed Th2 Response to Injury and InfectionSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon N. Buzzelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Interleukin (IL33 is a recently described alarmin that is highly expressed in the gastric mucosa and potently activates Th2 immunity. It may play a pivotal role during Helicobacter pylori infection. Here, we delineate the role of IL33 in the normal gastric mucosa and in response to gastropathy. Methods: IL33 expression was evaluated in mice and human biopsy specimens infected with H pylori and in mice after dosing with aspirin. IL33 expression was localized in the gastric mucosa using immunofluorescence. Mice were given 1 or 7 daily doses of recombinant IL33 (1 μg/dose, and the stomach and the spleen responses were quantified morphologically, by flow cytometry and using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Results: In mice, the IL33 protein was localized to the nucleus of a subpopulation of surface mucus cells, and co-localized with the surface mucus cell markers Ulex Europaeus 1 (UEA1, and Mucin 5AC (Muc5AC. A small proportion of IL33-positive epithelial cells also were Ki-67 positive. IL33 and its receptor Interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (ST2 were increased 4-fold after acute (1-day H pylori infection, however, this increase was not apparent after 7 days and IL33 expression was reduced 2-fold after 2 months. Similarly, human biopsy specimens positive for H pylori had a reduced IL33 expression. Chronic IL33 treatment in mice caused systemic activation of innate lymphoid cell 2 and polarization of macrophages to the M2 phenotype. In the stomach, IL33-treated mice developed transmural inflammation and mucous metaplasia that was mediated by Th2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling. Rag-1-/- mice, lacking mature lymphocytes, were protected from IL33-induced gastric pathology. Conclusions: IL33 is highly expressed in the gastric mucosa and promotes the activation of T helper 2–cytokine–expressing cells. The loss of IL33 expression after prolonged H

  19. Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory cytokines in children with different clinical forms of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Kopatys, Agata; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    In addition to Th2 cells, other T cell subsets, like Th1, Th17, and regulatory T cells are also involved in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and other allergic diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate a wide profile of cytokines in the plasma from children with pollen/dust and cow milk allergy with the use of a multiplex Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) test. Twenty children with allergy: 11 with pollen/dust and 9 with cow milk allergy were enrolled into the study. For the analysis of INFγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNFα levels, a flow cytometric test was used. TGFβ concentration was measured using an ELISA test. Concentrations of almost all of the detected cytokines in the patient's plasma were below 1 pg/ml, with no significant difference between the groups examined. The level of IL-17A was higher in pollen/dust allergy group (median 12.73 pg/ml; 25th percentile-Q1/75th percentile-Q3; 9.28/15.83) in comparison to cow milk allergy group (median 7.86 pg/ml - Q1/Q3; 7.86/14.37). Children with cow milk allergy had a slightly higher concentration of TGFβ than children with pollen/dust allergy (median 28.7 ng/ml - Q1/Q3; 19.77/33.00 vs. 17.84 ng/ml - Q1/Q3; 11.21/23.75, respectively); the difference did not reach statistical significance. We conclude that plasma concentration of Th1, Th2, and Th17 regulatory cytokines are relatively low in allergic children. The CBA test, which could be useful in pediatric practice as it requires a relatively small plasma sample volume, is not sensitive enough to measure low cytokine levels, since its detection limit and the standard curve are not appropriate for the concentrations of these mediators expected in clinical samples.

  20. Dectin-2 deficiency promotes Th2 response and mucin production in the lungs after pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuri; Sato, Ko; Yamamoto, Hideki; Matsumura, Kana; Matsumoto, Ikumi; Nomura, Toshiki; Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Ishii, Keiko; Kanno, Emi; Tachi, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Sho; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin receptor that recognizes high mannose polysaccharides. Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-form fungal pathogen, is rich in polysaccharides in its cell wall and capsule. In the present study, we analyzed the role of Dectin-2 in the host defense against C. neoformans infection. In Dectin-2 gene-disrupted (knockout) (Dectin-2KO) mice, the clearance of this fungus and the inflammatory response, as shown by histological analysis and accumulation of leukocytes in infected lungs, were comparable to those in wild-type (WT) mice. The production of type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokines in lungs was higher in Dectin-2KO mice than in WT mice after infection, whereas there was no difference in the levels of production of Th1, Th17, and proinflammatory cytokines between these mice. Mucin production was significantly increased in Dectin-2KO mice, and this increase was reversed by administration of anti-interleukin 4 (IL-4) monoclonal antibody (MAb). The levels of expression of β1-defensin, cathelicidin, surfactant protein A (Sp-A), and Sp-D in infected lungs were comparable between these mice. In in vitro experiments, IL-12p40 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production and expression of CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages were completely abrogated in Dectin-2KO mice. Finally, the disrupted lysates of C. neoformans, but not of whole yeast cells, activated Dectin-2-triggered signaling in an assay with nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter cells expressing this receptor. These results suggest that Dectin-2 may oppose the Th2 response and IL-4-dependent mucin production in the lungs after infection with C. neoformans, and it may not be required for the production of Th1, Th17, and proinflammatory cytokines or for clearance of this fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Plasmodium chabaudi limits early Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced pulmonary immune activation and Th2 polarization in co-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Judith E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larvae of several common species of parasitic nematodes obligately migrate through, and often damage, host lungs. The larvae induce strong pulmonary Type 2 immune responses, including T-helper (Th2 cells as well as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMφ and associated chitinase and Fizz/resistin family members (ChaFFs, which are thought to promote tissue repair processes. Given the prevalence of systemic or lung-resident Type 1-inducing pathogens in geographical areas in which nematodes are endemic, we wished to investigate the impact of concurrent Type 1 responses on the development of these Type 2 responses to nematode larval migration. We therefore infected BALB/c mice with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, in the presence or absence of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi malaria parasites. Co-infected animals received both infections on the same day, and disease was assessed daily before immunological measurements were taken at 3, 5, 7 or 20 days post-infection. Results We observed that the nematodes themselves caused transient loss of body mass and red blood cell density, but co-infection then slightly ameliorated the severity of malarial anaemia. We also tracked the development of immune responses in the lung and thoracic lymph node. By the time of onset of the adaptive immune response around 7 days post-infection, malaria co-infection had reduced pulmonary expression of ChaFFs. Assessment of the T cell response demonstrated that the Th2 response to the nematode was also significantly impaired by malaria co-infection. Conclusion P. c. chabaudi co-infection altered both local and lymph node Type 2 immune activation due to migration of N. brasiliensis larvae. Given recent work from other laboratories showing that N. brasiliensis-induced ChaFFs correlate to the extent of long-term lung damage, our results raise the possibility that co-infection with malaria might alter pulmonary repair processes following nematode

  2. GATA3-driven Th2 responses inhibit TGF-beta1-induced FOXP3 expression and the formation of regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Mantel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors act in concert to induce lineage commitment towards Th1, Th2, or T regulatory (Treg cells, and their counter-regulatory mechanisms were shown to be critical for polarization between Th1 and Th2 phenotypes. FOXP3 is an essential transcription factor for natural, thymus-derived (nTreg and inducible Treg (iTreg commitment; however, the mechanisms regulating its expression are as yet unknown. We describe a mechanism controlling iTreg polarization, which is overruled by the Th2 differentiation pathway. We demonstrated that interleukin 4 (IL-4 present at the time of T cell priming inhibits FOXP3. This inhibitory mechanism was also confirmed in Th2 cells and in T cells of transgenic mice overexpressing GATA-3 in T cells, which are shown to be deficient in transforming growth factor (TGF-beta-mediated FOXP3 induction. This inhibition is mediated by direct binding of GATA3 to the FOXP3 promoter, which represses its transactivation process. Therefore, this study provides a new understanding of tolerance development, controlled by a type 2 immune response. IL-4 treatment in mice reduces iTreg cell frequency, highlighting that therapeutic approaches that target IL-4 or GATA3 might provide new preventive strategies facilitating tolerance induction particularly in Th2-mediated diseases, such as allergy.

  3. Modulation of Th1/Th2 balance by Lactobacillus strains isolated from Kimchi via stimulation of macrophage cell line J774A.1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Tae Joon; Kim, Bongjoon; Song, Dong Sup; Lim, Young Tae; Oh, Eun Seul; Lee, Do Ik; Park, Eon Sub; Min, Hyeyoung; Park, So-Young; Hwang, Kwang Woo

    2011-03-01

    Lactobacilli isolated from Kimchi, a Korean traditional food, were tested for their capacity to modulate the T helper (Th) 1/Th2 balance. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse splenocytes were cultured with 26 strains of lactobacilli; the highest IL-12 induction and lowest IL-4 production were then observed in 4 strains, including Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP55, CJLP56, CJLP133, and CJLP136. These strains produced a larger amount of IL-12, which enhances differentiation and activation of Th1 cells, in macrophage cell-lines more than positive control strains L. casei KCTC 3109(T) and L. rhamnosus GG, although they also induced production of IL-10, which is a suppressor of IL-12. Indeed, CJLP133-stimulated macrophages induced production of more Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and less Th2 cytokine IL-4 than KCTC 3109(T) and GG in co-cultivation with T cells. These findings suggest that lactobacilli from Kimchi may modulate the Th1/Th2 balance via macrophage activation in the hypersensitive reaction caused by Th2 cells. Allergic reactions including asthma and atopy are caused by predominance of Th2 response over Th1 response. Lactobacilli isolated from fermented foods such as yogurt, cheese, and Kimchi showed health-promoting activities. The present study indicated that several lactobacilli strains from Kimchi may reduce allergic reactions through macrophage-mediated induction of Th1 response.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of a baked egg intervention in young children allergic to raw egg but not baked egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, Merryn; Gold, Michael; Quinn, Patrick; El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Penttila, Irmeli; Makrides, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of baked egg by raw egg allergic children is associated with immune changes suggesting development of tolerance. However, causation has not been tested using a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). We aimed to compare clinical and immunological outcomes after baked egg (BE) consumption in young BE tolerant egg allergic children. In a double blind RCT, BE tolerant egg allergic children consumed 10 g BE (1.3 g protein) 2 to 3 times per week for 6 months (n = 21 intervention group) or similar egg free baked goods (n = 22 control group) while maintaining an otherwise egg free diet. The final assessment was a raw egg oral food challenge (OFC) 1 month after ceasing the intervention product. Egg specific IgE and IgG4 were assessed at baseline and 7 months. After the intervention there was no difference in raw egg tolerance between groups, (23.5% (4/17) intervention group and 33.3% (6/18) control group). This was independent of age and amount of BE consumed (aOR 0.50 CI 0.11-2.40 p = 0.39). Both groups demonstrated decreased egg specific serum IgE titres and decreased whole egg specific IgE/IgG4 ratios. We conducted this trial because inclusion of baked egg protein in the diet of egg allergic children appears to move children towards a more tolerant immune profile. Strengths of our study include design of the blinded intervention, the consistent dosing protocol and the regular monitoring of symptoms and intake. However, the study was limited by small sample size resulting in insufficient power to show statistically significant results. Our study suggests that short term, regular consumption of BE by BE tolerant 1 to 5 year old children with IgE mediated raw egg allergy may not induce, accelerate or slow development of tolerance to raw egg in this selected population. Trials with larger sample sizes are required to further test this hypothesis. The trial was registered on 7th February 2012 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  5. Egg arrangement in avian clutches covaries with the rejection of foreign eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polačiková, Lenka; Takasu, Fugo; Stokke, Bård G; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    In birds, the colour, maculation, shape, and size of their eggs play critical roles in discrimination of foreign eggs in the clutch. So far, however, no study has examined the role of egg arrangement within a clutch on host rejection responses. We predicted that individual females which maintain consistent egg arrangements within their clutch would be better able to detect and reject foreign eggs than females without a consistent egg arrangement (i.e. whose eggs change positions more often across incubation). We tested this "egg arrangement hypothesis" in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrush (T. philomelos). Both species are suitable candidates for research on egg rejection, because they show high inter-individual variation and individual repeatability in egg rejection responses. As predicted, using our custom-defined metrics of egg arrangement, rejecter females' clutches showed significantly more consistent patterns in egg arrangement than acceptor females' clutches. Only parameters related to blunt pole showed consistent differences between rejecters and acceptors. This finding makes biological sense because it is already known that song thrush use blunt pole cues to reject foreign eggs. We propose that a disturbance of the original egg arrangement pattern by the laying parasite may alert host females that maintain a consistent egg arrangement to the risk of having been parasitized. Once alerted, these hosts may shift their discrimination thresholds to be more restrictive so as to reject a foreign egg with higher probability. Future studies will benefit from experimentally testing whether these two and other parasitized rejecter host species may rely on the use of consistent egg arrangements as a component of their anti-parasitic defence mechanisms.

  6. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  7. Consumer Attitudes, Willingness to Pay and Revealed Preferences for Different Egg Production Attributes: Analysis of Canadian Egg Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Ellen W.; Boxall, Peter C.; Emunu, John Paul; Boyd, Curtis; Asselin, Andre; Neall, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian egg industry has introduced a number of specialty eggs, including Omega-3, organic, free run/range, vitamin enhanced and vegetarian over the past few decades. These eggs are generally sold at prices higher than the ‘normal’ egg and there has been little analysis of the consumer awareness of and interest in purchasing these eggs. All previous econometric analysis of the Canadian egg market has assumed eggs and consumers are homogeneous. This study makes use of Stated preference an...

  8. Petasites extract Ze 339 (PET) inhibits allergen-induced Th2 responses, airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattström, A; Schapowal, A; Maillet, I; Schnyder, B; Ryffel, B; Moser, R

    2010-05-01

    The herbal Petasites hybridus (butterbur) extract (Ze 339, PET) is known to have leukotriene inhibiting properties, and therefore might inhibit allergic diseases. The effect of PET was investigated in ovalbumin (OVA) immunized BALB/c mice given intranasally together with antigen challenge in the murine model of allergic airway disease (asthma) with the analysis of the inflammatory and immune parameters in the lung. PET given with the antigen challenge inhibited the allergic response. PET inhibited airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophil recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid upon allergen challenge, but had no effect in the saline control mice. Eosinophil recruitment was further assessed in the lung by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity at a concentration of 100 microg PET. Microscopic investigations revealed less inflammation, eosinophil recruitment and mucus hyperproduction in the lung with 100 microg PET. Diminution of AHR and inflammation was associated with reduced IL-4, IL-5 and RANTES production in the BAL fluid with 30 microg PET, while OVA specific IgE and eotaxin serum levels remained unchanged. PET, which has been reported to inhibit leukotriene activity, reduced allergic airway inflammation and AHR by inhibiting the production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, and RANTES. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A phase trial of the oral Lactobacillus casei vaccine polarizes Th2 cell immunity against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Hou, Xingyu; Tang, Lijie; Jiang, Yanping; Ma, Guangpeng; Li, Yijing

    2016-09-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a member of the genus Coronavirus, family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. TGEV is an enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes highly fatal acute diarrhoea in newborn pigs. An oral Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) vaccine against anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus developed in our laboratory was used to study mucosal immune responses. In this L. casei vaccine, repetitive peptides expressed by L. casei (specifically the MDP and tuftsin fusion protein (MT)) were repeated 20 times and the D antigenic site of the TGEV spike (S) protein was repeated 6 times. Immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus is crucial for investigations of the effect of immunization, such as the first immunization time and dose. The first immunization is more important than the last immunization in the series. The recombinant Lactobacillus elicited specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Recombinant L. casei had a strong potentiating effect on the cellular immunity induced by the oral L. casei vaccine. However, during TGEV infection, the systemic and local immune responses switched from Th1 to Th2-based immune responses. The systemic humoral immune response was stronger than the cellular immune response after TGEV infection. We found that the recombinant Lactobacillus stimulated IL-17 expression in both the systemic and mucosal immune responses against TGEV infection. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus vaccine stimulated an anti-TGEV infection Th17 pathway. The histopathological examination showed tremendous potential for recombinant Lactobacillus to enable rapid and effective treatment for TGEV with an intestinal tropism in piglets. The TGEV immune protection was primarily dependent on mucosal immunity.

  10. Parasitic infection and the polarized Th2 immune response can alter a vaccine-induced immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tara M; Nelson, Robin G; Boyer, Jean D

    2003-06-01

    The AIDS epidemic in the Developing World represents a major global crisis. It is imperative that we develop an effective vaccine. Vaccines are economically the most efficient means of controlling viral infections. However, the development of a vaccine against HIV-1 has been a formidable task, and in developing countries chronic parasitic infection adds another level of complexity to AIDS vaccine development. Helminthic and protozoan infections, common in developing countries, can result in a constant state of immune activation that is characterized by a dominant Th2 type of cytokine profile, high IgE levels, and eosinophilia. Such an immune profile may have an adverse impact on the efficacy of vaccines, in particular, an HIV-1 vaccine. Indeed, the CD8 cellular immune response and the corresponding Th1 type cytokines that enhance the CD8 cellular immune response are important for clearing many viral infections. It is believed that an antigen specific CD8 cellular immune response will be an important component of an HIV-1 vaccine.

  11. Glycomacropeptide Attenuates Inflammation, Pruritus, and Th2 Response Associated with Atopic Dermatitis Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fabiola Carolina; Cervantes-García, Daniel; Jiménez, Mariela; Ventura-Juárez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin diseases, whose incidence is increasing in industrialized countries. The epicutaneous application of a hapten, such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), evokes an experimental murine AD-like reaction. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a dairy bioactive peptide derived from hydrolysis of κ-casein by chymosin action. It has anti-inflammatory, prebiotic, and immunomodulatory effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of GMP administration on DNCB-induced AD in rats. The severity of inflammatory process, pruritus, production of cytokines, and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) content were measured, and the histopathological features were analyzed. GMP reduced the intensity of inflammatory process and edema of DNCB-induced dermatitis, with a significant decrease in eosinophils recruitment and mast cells hyperplasia. In addition GMP suppressed the serum levels of total IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression in AD-lesions. Besides, the levels of IL-10 were significantly increased. Remarkably, GMP administration before AD-induction abolished pruritus in dermatitis-like reactions in the rats. Taken together, these results indicate that GMP has an inhibitory effect on AD by downregulating Th2 dominant immune response, suggesting GMP as a potential effective alternative therapy for the prevention and management of AD. PMID:28265582

  12. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  13. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Silva Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  14. IL-31 significantly correlates with disease activity and Th2 cytokine levels in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Ulrike; Weißmantel, Sigo; Gehring, Manuela; Eisenberg, Anna M; Kapp, Alexander; Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2012-05-01

    Recently, we could show that IL-31 serum levels are significantly increased in adult patients with atopic dermatitis compared with skin healthy controls. However, the regulation of IL-31 in children with atopic dermatitis so far is not clear. Thus, we analyzed IL-31 serum levels together with IL-4, IL-13, ECP, and total IgE levels in 60 children with extrinsic, in five children with intrinsic atopic dermatitis, and 20 non-atopic healthy children. Further, we determined the SCORAD score, sleeplessness, and pruritus severity in all children with atopic dermatitis. IL-31 was significantly increased in children with the intrinsic and extrinsic type of atopic dermatitis compared with non-atopic healthy children (p children with extrinsic atopic dermatitis. There was no correlation of IL-31 with pruritus, total IgE Ab, and ECP levels, whereas ECP levels significantly correlated with the SCORAD score in children with extrinsic atopic dermatitis. Together, IL-31 represents an interesting cytokine especially with regard to the severity of the inflammatory process indicated by the correlation of IL-31 with SCORAD score and Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13 in children with extrinsic atopic dermatitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Extract and Its Active Compound, Wogonin, Inhibit Ovalbumin-Induced Th2-Mediated Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Soon Shin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis has been widely used as a dietary ingredient and traditional herbal medicine owing to its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic effects of skullcap and its active compounds, focusing on T cell-mediated responses ex vivo and in vivo. Splenocytes from mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA were isolated for analyses of cytokine production and cell viability. Mice sensitized with OVA were orally administered skullcap or wogonin for 16 days, and then immunoglobulin (Ig and cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Treatment with skullcap significantly inhibited interleukin (IL-4 production without reduction of cell viability. Moreover, wogonin, but not baicalin and baicalein, suppressed IL-4 and interferon-gamma production. In vivo, skullcap and wogonin downregulated OVA-induced Th2 immune responses, especially IgE and IL-5 prediction. Wogonin as an active component of skullcap may be applied as a therapeutic agent for IgE- and IL-5-mediated allergic disorders.

  16. Suppression of allergic reactions by dehulled adlay in association with the balance of TH1/TH2 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Bi-Fong; Lin, Jin-Yuarn; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chiang, Wenchang

    2003-06-18

    Dehulled adlay is known as a natural Chinese medicine having antiallergic activity, although its mechanism remains unclear. This study examined the effects of dehulled adlay on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production. Mice were immunized three times with ovalbumin (OVA) in alum adjuvant. It was found that oral administration of dehulled adlay in mice suppressed the production of IgE against OVA antigen. Serum anti-OVA IgG(2a) antibody levels were significantly increased in mice after oral administration of dehulled adlay. Furthermore, the production of IL-2 by OVA-stimulated splenocytes was augmented in dehulled adlay-fed mice. Although dehulled adlay had no effect on the serum anti-OVA IgG(1) antibody levels, it had a great capacity to reduce IL-5 secretion by means of OVA-stimulated splenocytes. Hydrothermal processes, including steaming and extrusion cooking, did not change the capacity of dehulled adlay to suppress IgE production. Three fractions of dehulled alday, including methanolic extract, warm water extract, and residue, were obtained. The methanolic extract exhibited the greatest capacity to reduce anti-OVA IgE production. These results suggest that dehulled adlay has a modulating ability to shift the balance from Th2 to Th1 dominance in the T cell mediated immune system and may be beneficial for the treatment of allergic disorders.

  17. The Contribution of Allergen-Specific IgG to the Development of Th2-Mediated Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse W. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In both human asthmatics and animal models of allergy, allergen-specific IgG can contribute to Th2-mediated allergic inflammation. Mouse models have elucidated an important role for IgG and Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR signaling on antigen presenting cells (APC for the induction of airway inflammation. These studies suggest a positive feedback loop between IgG produced by the adaptive B cell response and FcγR signaling on innate immune cells. Studies of IgG and FcγRs in humans with asthma or allergic lung disease have been more controversial. Some reports have identified associations between allergen-specific IgG and severity of allergic responses, while other studies have found associations of IgG subclass IgG4 with allergic tolerance. In this paper, we review the literature to help define the nature of IgG and FcγR signaling on innate immune cells and how it contributes to the development of allergic immune responses.

  18. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  19. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  20. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  1. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  2. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  3. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  4. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  5. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  6. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  7. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  8. The evolution of the Th2 immune responses and its relationships with parasitic diseases and allergy Consideraciones sobre la evolución de la respuesta inmunitaria Th2 y sus posibles relaciones con parasitosis y alergia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Caraballo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A variety of links occur between parasites, particularly helminths, and allergic diseases--both common conditions of epidemiological importance in tropical regions. Although speculations are often made about the effects of parasitic diseases on the evolution of the immune system, the selective forces that have shaped the allergic response are unknown and probably include evolutionary mechanisms different to those traditionally reported. Helminths, infectious and antigenic sources that induce allergiclike responses, established themselves as parasites in organisms that already had cell groups related to the type 2 immunity. An essential component in the relationship between helminths and their hosts is that the former induce immunosuppression, creating a kind of balance that allows the survival of both. The development of this equilibrium undoubtedly includes adaptations in both organisms, and the survival of the parasite is the result of (a acquiring immune suppressor mechanisms and (b finding hosts with lower intensity of the type 2 response. This in turn suggests that although helminth infections have influenced the formation of type 2 immunity, they have not been an important selective force in the
    particular case of allergic response. The latter is more related to an exaggerated Th2/IgE response.

    Hay diversos vínculos entre las parasitosis, especialmente las helmintiasis, y las enfermedades alérgicas, ambas condiciones de importancia epidemiológica en las regiones tropicales. Mientras que se ha especulado con frecuencia los efectos de las enfermedades parasitarias sobre la evolución del sistema inmunitario, no se conocen las fuerzas selectivas que han moldeado la respuesta alérgica y pensamos que incluyen mecanismos evolutivos distintos a los tradicionalmente divulgados.
    Los helmintos, fuente infecciosa y antigénica inductora de una respuesta parecida a la alérgica, se establecieron como parásitos en huéspedes que

  9. Intratumoral Th2 predisposition combines with an increased Th1 functional phenotype in clinical response to intravesical BCG in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Gruenbacher, Georg; Culig, Zoran; Brunner, Andrea; Fuchs, Dietmar; Fritz, Josef; Gander, Hubert; Rahm, Andrea; Thurnher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Th1-type immunity is considered to be required for efficient response to BCG in bladder cancer, although Th2 predisposition of BCG responders has recently been reported. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of Th1 and Th2 components in 23 patients undergoing BCG treatment. Peripheral blood, serum and urine samples were prospectively collected at baseline, during and after BCG. Th1 (neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR), IL-12, IFN-γ, soluble TNF-R75 and IL-2Rα) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) biomarkers as well as CD4 expression in T helper (Th), effector and regulatory T cells were determined. Local immune cell subsets were measured on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry to examine expression of transcription factors that control Th1 (T-bet) and Th2-type (GATA3) immunity. We confirmed a Th2 predisposition with a mean GATA3/T-bet ratio of 5.51. BCG responders showed significantly higher levels of urinary (p = 0.003) and serum neopterin (p = 0.012), kynurenine (p = 0.015), KTR (p = 0.005), IFN-γ (p = 0.005) and IL-12 (p = 0.003) during therapy, whereas levels of IL-10 decreased significantly (p BCG instillation. We observed a significant increase in CD4 expression in the Th cell population (p BCG response. Th2-promoting factors such as GATA3 may trigger Th1-type immune responses and thus contribute to the BCG success.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of 27 selected terpenoid compounds tested through modulating Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion profiles using murine primary splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chi-Mei; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-11-15

    This study investigated 27 selected terpenoid compounds, including 8 monoterpenoids, 7 sesqui-terpenoids, 3 di-terpenoids, 8 tri-terpenoids, and 1 tetra-terpenoid, for their Th1/Th2 immunomodulatory potential using mouse primary splenocytes. Changes in Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, secreted by terpenoid-treated splenocytes were measured using the ELISA method. The results showed that triptolide, a diterpenoid, was most cytotoxic, reflecting an IC50 value of 46nM. Eucalyptol, limonene, linalool, thymol, parthenolide, andrographolide, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid and β-sitosterol showed a strong Th2-inclination and anti-inflammation potential in vitro. In addition, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, oridonin, triptolide, diosgenin, betulinic acid, escin, and β-sitosterol treatments significantly inhibited both IL-2 (Th1) and IL-10 (Th2) cytokine production at the same time, suggesting that these terpenoid compounds have an anti-inflammation potential through the inhibition of T-cell immune responses. Diosgenin treatments significantly increased IFN-γ secretion levels using mouse splenocytes, suggesting that diosgenin may be useful in treating a viral infection through the stimulation of IFN-γ production. Menthone, farnesol and oridonin treatments did not markedly increase IL-10/IL-2 (Th2/Th1) cytokine secretion ratios, suggesting that menthone, farnesol and oridonin may have a relative Th1-inclination property, compared to the other selected terpenoid compounds. The relative Th1-inclination property of menthone, farnesol and oridonin may be applied to improve Th2-skewed allergic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  12. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Art...

  13. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  14. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Individuals in the Sudan Reveals Unique Immunoepidemiological Profiles in Uninfected, egg+ and Non-egg+ Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayseer Elamin Mohamed Elfaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sudan, Schistosoma mansoni infections are a major cause of morbidity in school-aged children and infection rates are associated with available clean water sources. During infection, immune responses pass through a Th1 followed by Th2 and Treg phases and patterns can relate to different stages of infection or immunity.This retrospective study evaluated immunoepidemiological aspects in 234 individuals (range 4-85 years old from Kassala and Khartoum states in 2011. Systemic immune profiles (cytokines and immunoglobulins and epidemiological parameters were surveyed in n = 110 persons presenting patent S. mansoni infections (egg+, n = 63 individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR in sera but egg negative (SmPCR+ and n = 61 people who were infection-free (Sm uninf. Immunoepidemiological findings were further investigated using two binary multivariable regression analysis.Nearly all egg+ individuals had no access to latrines and over 90% obtained water via the canal stemming from the Atbara River. With regards to age, infection and an egg+ status was linked to young and adolescent groups. In terms of immunology, S. mansoni infection per se was strongly associated with increased SEA-specific IgG4 but not IgE levels. IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patently-infected individuals and positively correlated with egg load. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-1β were significantly lower in SmPCR+ individuals when compared to Sm uninf and egg+ groups which was further confirmed during multivariate regression analysis.Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the Sudan with a high number of patent individuals. In addition, SmPCR diagnostics revealed another cohort of infected individuals with a unique immunological profile and provides an avenue for future studies on non-patent infection states. Future studies should investigate the downstream signalling pathways/mechanisms of IL-2 and IL-1β as potential diagnostic markers

  16. FEMALE PREFERENCE FOR NESTS WITH EGGS IS BASED ON THE PRESENCE OF THE EGGS THEMSELVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; GROOTHUIS, TGG; Kraak, Sarah B.M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1994-01-01

    In many fish species of which males care for eggs in a nest, including Aidablennius sphynx, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. In this paper we present two aquarium experiments with this Mediterranean blenny to determine whether the females actually use the presence of eggs

  17. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of location in an incubator on the hatching characteristics of eggs obtained from Bronze turkeys of different ages, viz. at the ages of 8, 10 and 12 months. In the study 330 eggs were placed in each of six locations within an incubator, totalling 1 980 eggs from each age ...

  18. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may

  19. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John A

    2014-06-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.

  20. Interspecific differences in egg production affect egg trace element concentrations after a coal fly ash spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Beck, Michelle L; Jackson, Brian P; Hopkins, William A

    2013-12-03

    In oviparous vertebrates, trace elements transfer from mother to offspring during egg production. For animals that produce eggs slowly, like turtles, the trace element concentration of each egg reflects an integration of dietary and stored accumulation over the duration of vitellogenesis. Because turtles also produce eggs synchronously, all eggs within a clutch should exhibit uniform trace element concentrations. In contrast, for animals that produce eggs in sequence and primarily from current dietary resources, like many birds, the trace element concentrations of eggs should be less uniform within a clutch, and likely reflect short-term changes in dietary exposure. We tested the hypothesis that stinkpot turtle (Sternotherus odoratus) clutches exhibit lower variability and higher repeatability in barium, selenium, strontium, and thallium concentrations than those of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from a site impacted by a recent coal ash spill. All four trace elements exhibited significantly lower variability and significantly higher repeatability in stinkpot clutches than in swallow clutches. Mean trace element concentrations of stinkpot eggs were also significantly higher than those of swallow eggs although both species feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates. Variability in swallow egg trace element concentrations was partially due to significant laying order effects. Our results support the hypothesis that interspecific variation in the source of resources and in the synchronicity and rate of egg production can lead to interspecific differences in the variability of egg trace element concentrations.

  1. Predation on Japanese quail vs. house sparrow eggs in artificial nests: small eggs reveal small predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation studies frequently use eggs such as Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) to identify potential predators of Neotropical migrants' eggs, but such eggs may be too large or thick-shelled to identify the full complement of potential predators. We compared predation events and predators of Japanese Quail and smaller House Sparrow (

  2. Pseudo-egg and exotic egg adoption by Kelp Gulls Larus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground-nesting birds, particularly larids, are known to include a variety of items in their nests as pseudo-eggs, as well as to adopt the eggs of conspecifics or other species. Three hypotheses have been put forward to explain this phenomenon: incubation stimulus, mistaken-food, and mistaken-egg hypotheses. Of 382 Kelp ...

  3. Shifts in bacterial communities of eggshells and antimicrobial activities in eggs during incubation in a ground-nesting passerine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grizard, Stephanie; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Ndithia, Henry K.; Salles, Joana F.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Microbial invasion of egg contents is a cause of embryonic death. To counter infection risks, the embryo is protected physically by the eggshell and chemically by antimicrobial proteins. If microbial pressure drives embryo mortality, then females may have evolved, through natural selection, to adapt

  4. Use of powdered egg yolk vs fresh egg yolk for the cryopreservation of ovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Jiménez, F; Puchades, S; Mocé, E; Viudes-de-Cartro, M P; Vicente, J S; Rodriguez, M

    2004-12-01

    Egg yolk is a common additive to sperm cryopreservation diluents. Because of its animal origin, however, it also represents a potential risk of microbiological contamination in the diluent. This potential contamination can be avoided by using powdered egg yolk, instead of fresh egg yolk, as it is pasteurized. This study was conducted to determine ram sperm cryosurvival was affected by the type of egg yolk used (powdered egg yolk or fresh egg yolk) and by yolk concentration (10, 15 or 20%) in the diluent. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify the microbiological contamination in the diluents containing the two types of egg yolk. Sperm cryosurvival was determined by motility and morphology analyses after thawing. Motility parameters were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, and the percentage of sperm with a normal apical ridge was evaluated using a differential interference contrast microscope. No significant differences were observed between diluents in the percentage of sperm with normal apical ridge. However, higher percentages of total motile cells were observed for samples containing powdered egg yolk (69%) compared to samples containing fresh egg yolk (60%). However, sperm in diluents containing fresh egg yolk, exhibited higher values for average-path velocity, straight-line velocity and beat cross frequency and lower values for amplitude of lateral head displacement (p diluents containing powdered egg yolk. Microbiological contamination was similar (diluents, and no bacterial growth was observed in either, when antibiotics were added. Therefore, powdered egg yolk can be effective used in diluents for the freezing of ram semen. However, the in vivo fertility of sperm frozen in diluents containing powdered egg yolk should be tested, as some motility parameters were different for sperm treated with powdered egg yolk compared to fresh egg yolk.

  5. Elevated Levels of Cytokines Associated with Th2 and Th17 Cells in Vitreous Fluid of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Macrophages are involved in low-grade inflammation in diabetes, and play pathogenic roles in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR by producing proinflammatory cytokines. T cells as well as other cells are also activated by proinflammatory cytokines, and infiltration into the vitreous of patients with PDR has been shown. In this study, we measured helper T (Th cell-related cytokines in the vitreous of PDR patients to define the characteristics of Th-mediated immune responses associated with PDR. The study group consisted of 25 type 2 diabetic patients (25 eyes with PDR. The control group consisted of 27 patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM, 26 patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH, and 26 patients with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. Vitreous fluid was obtained at the beginning of vitrectomy, and centrifuging for cellular removals was not performed. Serum was also collected from PDR patients. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble sCD40L, and TNFα in the vitreous and serum samples were measured. Both percent detectable and levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, and TNFα in the vitreous were significantly higher than those in the serum in PDR patients. Vitreous levels of these cytokines and IL-31 were significantly higher in PDR than in ERM or MH patients. Vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα in PDR patients were also significantly higher than those of sarcoidosis patients. In PDR patients, vitreous IL-17A level correlated significantly with vitreous levels of IL-22 and IL-31, and especially with IL-4 and TNFα. Although it is unclear whether these cytokines play facilitative roles or inhibitory roles for the progression of PDR, the present study indicated that Th2- and Th17-related immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  6. Elevated Levels of Cytokines Associated with Th2 and Th17 Cells in Vitreous Fluid of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Sato, Tomohito; Tanaka, Atsushi; Muraoka, Tadashi; Taguchi, Manzo; Sakurai, Yutaka; Karasawa, Yoko; Ito, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are involved in low-grade inflammation in diabetes, and play pathogenic roles in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) by producing proinflammatory cytokines. T cells as well as other cells are also activated by proinflammatory cytokines, and infiltration into the vitreous of patients with PDR has been shown. In this study, we measured helper T (Th) cell-related cytokines in the vitreous of PDR patients to define the characteristics of Th-mediated immune responses associated with PDR. The study group consisted of 25 type 2 diabetic patients (25 eyes) with PDR. The control group consisted of 27 patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM), 26 patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH), and 26 patients with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. Vitreous fluid was obtained at the beginning of vitrectomy, and centrifuging for cellular removals was not performed. Serum was also collected from PDR patients. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble sCD40L, and TNFα in the vitreous and serum samples were measured. Both percent detectable and levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, and TNFα in the vitreous were significantly higher than those in the serum in PDR patients. Vitreous levels of these cytokines and IL-31 were significantly higher in PDR than in ERM or MH patients. Vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα in PDR patients were also significantly higher than those of sarcoidosis patients. In PDR patients, vitreous IL-17A level correlated significantly with vitreous levels of IL-22 and IL-31, and especially with IL-4 and TNFα. Although it is unclear whether these cytokines play facilitative roles or inhibitory roles for the progression of PDR, the present study indicated that Th2- and Th17-related immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of PDR. PMID:26352837

  7. Sphingomyelin Liposomes Containing Soluble Leishmania major antigens Induced Strong Th2 Immune Response in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Chavoshian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA provide suitable protection against leishmaniasis in murine model when delivered by an appropriate delivery system. Liposomes have been shown to be suitable vaccine delivery systems against leishmaniasis, however, the phospholipase-A (PLA activity of SLA is a drawback to prepare a stable liposomal SLA. One strategy to overcome this problem might be using a lipid which is resistant to PLA activity of SLA such as sphingomyelin (SM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stable SM liposomes containing SLA on the immune response induced against leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice .   Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously, three times with 2-week intervals, with SLA, SM-liposome-SLA, empty liposome or buffer. As criteria for protection, footpads swelling at the site of challenge and foot parasite loads were assessed. The immune responses were also evaluated by determination of IgG subtypes and the level of IFN-γ and IL-4 in cultured splenocytes. Results: The group of mice receiving SM-liposome-SLA, showed a significant large footpad swelling, higher parasite burden in foot and higher IL-4 level compared to the group immunized with buffer. In terms of IgG and IgG isotypes, there was no significant difference between the mice receiving SM-liposome-SLA and the mice that received buffer. Moreover, the immune response induced by SM-liposome-SLA showed no significant difference compared with the one caused by SLA alone. Conclusion: It is concluded that SM-liposome-SLA is not an appropriate strategy to induce Th1 immune response and protect the mice against Leishmaniasis; however, SM-liposomes could be suitable vaccine delivery systems when a Th2 response is needed.

  8. Prevention of experimental diabetes by Uncaria tomentosa extract: Th2 polarization, regulatory T cell preservation or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; da Rosa, Larissa Camargo; Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-09-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a species native to the Amazon rainforest and surrounding tropical areas that is endowed with immunomodulatory properties and widely used around the world. In this study we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) aqueous-ethanol extract on the progression of immune-mediated diabetes. C57BL/6 male mice were injected with MLDS (40 mg/kg) and orally treated with UT at 10-400mg/kg during 21 days. Control groups received MLDS alone or the respective dilution vehicle. Pancreatic mononuclear infiltrate and β-cell insulin content were analyzed by HE and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, and measured by digital morphometry. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping and cytokine production were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Treating the animals with 50-400mg/kg of UT caused a significant reduction in the glycemic levels, as well as in the incidence of diabetes. The morphometric analysis of insulitis revealed a clear protective effect. Animals treated with UT at 400mg/kg presented a higher number of intact islets and a significant inhibition of destructive insulitis. Furthermore, a significant protection against the loss of insulin-secreting presented β-cells was achieved, as observed by a careful immunohistochemical evaluation. The phenotypic analysis indicated that the groups treated with higher doses (100-400mg/kg) presented CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell values similar to those observed in healthy animals. These same higher doses also increased the number of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells. Moreover, the extract modulated the production of Th1 and Th2, with increased levels of IL-4 and IL-5. The extract was effective to prevent the progression of immune-mediated diabetes by distinct pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anisakis simplex allergy: a murine model of anaphylaxis induced by parasitic proteins displays a mixed Th1/Th2 pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, M L; Conejero, L; Higaki, Y; Martín, E; Pérez, C; Infante, S; Rubio, M; Zubeldia, J M

    2005-01-01

    The study of the singular hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex (A.s) proteins, may help us to undestand many of the unknown immune interactions between helmiths infections and allergy. We have developed a murine model of allergy to A. simplex, that mimics human A. simplex allergy to study the specific aspects of anaphylaxis induced by parasites. Male C3H/HeJ mice were intraperitoneally sensitized to A. simplex. Mice were then intravenous or orally challenged with A. simplex. Antigen-specific immunoglobulins, polyclonal IgE, anaphylactic symptoms, plasma histamine levels and cytokine profiles were determined. Comparative IgE immunoblot analyses were also performed. Specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were detected in sensitized mice since week 3. Polyclonal IgE raised and peaked with different kinetics. Intravenous A. simplex challenge produced anaphylaxis in mice, accompanied by plasma histamine release. Oral A. simplex challenge in similarly sensitized mice did not caused symptoms nor histamine release. Numerous A. simplex allergens were recognized by sensitized mouse sera, some of them similar to human serum. The A. simplex stimulated splenocytes released IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. We describe a new animal model of anaphylaxis. It exhibits characteristics of type I hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex similar to those observed in allergic humans. Different responses to i.v. or oral A. simplex challenges emerged, which did not reflect a window tolerization period. The cytokine profile developed (mixed Th1/Th2 pattern) differed from the observed in classical models of anaphylaxis or allergy to food antigens. This model may permit to investigate the peculiar allergic reactions to parasitic proteins. PMID:16297154

  10. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  11. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul...

  12. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain

  13. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  14. Competitiveness of the EU egg industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Egg producers in the EU have to comply with legislation dealing with environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. From 1 January 2012 keeping hens in conventional cages was prohibited and egg producers had to change to either enriched cages or alternative housing systems. The result of

  15. Palaeontology: pterosaur egg with a leathery shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Ji, Shu-An; Cheng, Yen-Nien; You, Hai-Lu; Lü, Jun-Chang; Liu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Chong-Xi

    2004-12-02

    The recent discovery of a pterosaur egg with embryonic skeleton and soft tissues from the Yixian Formation confirmed that the flying pterosaurs were oviparous. Here we describe another pterosaur egg whose exquisite preservation indicates that the shell structure was soft and leathery.

  16. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EGG WEIGHT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    variety) obtained from 60 eight weeks old Japanese quails of three different plumage colour varieties: Pharaoh Quail (Black), A & M white (White) and Manchurian Gold (Brown) at 8-14 weeks of age were used in this study. Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to ...

  17. On eggs of some British Guyana Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, C.G.

    1889-01-01

    They make no nest but lay their eggs in a depression in the ground where it is dry, on the beds of cultivated land, on the high dams between plantations, on the bare rocks up the rivers, and on the savannahs in the They lay two or three eggs.

  18. Ethical motivation of Dutch egg consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Vrieze, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses a representative sample of 356 Dutch egg consumers in order to measure the extent to which ethical principles concerning the welfare of hens in different rearing systems are translated into egg purchasing intentions, and the extent to which declared intentions are expressed in

  19. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  20. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  1. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  2. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EGG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    order to maximise the recycling opportunities for egg shells, the material could be incinerated independently of ... used for skin grafts, dental implants, angioplasty sleeves, cornea repair, plastic surgery, treatment of ... of biodegradable plastics from egg shell membrane proteins; altering of food-borne bacterial pathogen heat ...

  4. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  5. Circadian regulation of hemolymph and ovarian ecdysteroids during egg development in the insect Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal-Aucoin, Michael; Rapp, Nicholas; Steel, Colin G H

    2013-11-01

    Ecdysteroids, classically studied as the molting hormones of insects, occur at lower levels in the adult stage, but their source and significance in adult physiology is debated. In Rhodnius prolixus, a blood meal initiates a cycle of egg development and ecdysteroids appeared in the hemolymph within 1-2h of feeding. Systematic changes in hemolymph ecdysteroid titer then occurred during egg development. There was a clear circadian rhythm in the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer throughout egg development. This is the first report of an ecdysteroid rhythm in any adult female insect. Of various tissues examined in vitro, only ovaries released ecdysteroids. The amounts released were adequate to account for observed hemolymph ecdysteroid titers. Therefore, ovaries are the primary, perhaps sole, source of hemolymph ecdysteroids. Ovaries in vitro showed a circadian rhythm of changes in ecdysteroid content and release that was in synchrony with the hemolymph ecdysteroid rhythm, indicating that ovarian ecdysteroid release drives the rhythm seen in the hemolymph. Potential regulation of ovarian ecdysteroids is discussed in relation to the known rhythms in prothoracicotropic hormone and insulin-like peptides that occur during egg development. The prospect of circadian regulation of egg development itself by hormones and/or an ovarian clock is also discussed. © 2013.

  6. Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Regulates the Expression of Interleukin-4 in Th2 Cells in an All-or-none Fashion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, Juliana; Kreher, Stephan; Lehmann, Katrin; Riedel, René; Bardua, Markus; Lischke, Timo; Jargosch, Manja; Haftmann, Claudia; Bendfeldt, Hanna; Hatam, Farahnaz; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Chang, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Th2 memory lymphocytes have imprinted their Il4 genes epigenetically for expression in dependence of T cell receptor restimulation. However, in a given restimulation, not all Th cells with a memory for IL-4 expression express IL-4. Here, we show that in reactivated Th2 cells, the transcription factors NFATc2, NF-kB p65, c-Maf, p300, Brg1, STAT6, and GATA-3 assemble at the Il4 promoter in Th2 cells expressing IL-4 but not in Th2 cells not expressing it. NFATc2 is critical for assembly of this transcription factor complex. Because NFATc2 translocation into the nucleus occurs in an all-or-none fashion, dependent on complete dephosphorylation by calcineurin, NFATc2 controls the frequencies of cells reexpressing Il4, translates analog differences in T cell receptor stimulation into a digital decision for Il4 reexpression, and instructs all reexpressing cells to express the same amount of IL-4. This analog-to-digital conversion may be critical for the immune system to respond to low concentrations of antigens. PMID:25037220

  7. The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm induced by stachydrine hydrochloride reduces uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Bin; Li, Yuzhu; Wang, Li; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhou, Xianbin; Guo, Yuqi; Jiang, Guosheng; Yao, Chengfang

    2013-01-09

    The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm plays an important role in achieving maternal-fetal immunotolerance and participates in RU486-induced abortion. Excessive uterine bleeding is the most common side effect of RU486-induced abortion; however, its etiopathogenesis has not been fully understood. Therefore, elucidating the correlation between the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm and the volume of uterine bleeding may offer novel therapeutic target for reducing uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion. Leonurus sibiricus has been used in clinics to reduce postpartum hemorrhage with low toxicity and high efficiency; however, the effective constituents and therapeutic mechanism have not been described. Stachydrine hydrochloride is the main constituent of L. sibiricus, therefore L. sibiricus is regarded as a candidate for reducing uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice by regulating the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm. The purpose of this study was to determine the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in uterine bleeding of RU486-induced abortion mice and to elucidate the immunopharmacologic effects of stachydrine hydrochloride on inducing the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in reducing the uterine bleeding volume in RU486-induced abortion mice. To investigate the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in uterine bleeding during RU486-induced abortion mice, pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high- and low-dose RU486 (1.5mg/kg and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively), and the serum progesterone (P(4)) protein level, uterine bleeding volume, and proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cells in mice at the maternal-fetal interface were detected by ELISA assay, alkaline hematin photometric assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. To determine the regulatory effect of stachydrine hydrochloride on the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in vitro, splenocytes of non-pregnant mice were separated and treated with P(4,) RU486, and/or stachydrine hydrochloride (10(-5)M, 10(-4)M, and 10(-3)M, respectively). The proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17

  8. The role of CD154-CD40 versus CD28-B7 costimulatory pathways in regulating allogeneic Th1 and Th2 responses in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishimoto, K; Dong, V M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2000-01-01

    We used signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and STAT6 gene knockout (-/-) mice as recipients of fully mismatched cardiac allografts to study the role of T-cell costimulatory pathways in regulating allogeneic T-helper 1 (Th1) versus Th2 responses in vivo. STAT4(-/-) mice hav...

  9. Neisseria gonorrhoeae selectively suppresses the development of Th1 and Th2 cells, and enhances Th17 cell responses, through TGF-β-dependent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingru; Islam, Epshita A.; Jarvis, Gary A.; Gray-Owen, Scott D.; Russell, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae does not induce specific immunity or immune memory. Our previous studies in a murine model of vaginal gonococcal infection showed that innate immunity governed by Th17 cells was a critical aspect of the immune response elicited by this pathogen. Herein we show that N. gonorrhoeae selectively inhibited Th1 and Th2 cells and enhanced Th17 cell development through the induction of TGF-β. Whereas Th17 responses depended on gonococcal lipooligosaccharide acting through TLR4, the inhibitory effect of N. gonorrhoeae on Th1/Th2 responses involved gonococcal Opa proteins. In vitro Th17 responses to N. gonorrhoeae could be diverted to Th1/Th2 by blockade of TGF-β, but not by blockade of IL-17. The results reveal that N. gonorrhoeae suppresses Th1/Th2-mediated adaptive immune response through mechanisms dependent on TGF-β, and that this effect can be manipulated to promote the development of adaptive immunity. PMID:22354319

  10. Inflammatory dendritic cells - not basophils - are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hammad; M. Plantinga (Maud); K. Deswarte (Kim); P. Pouliot (Philippe); M. Kool (Mirjam); M.A. Willart (Monique); F. Muskens (Femke); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear how Th2 immunity is induced in response to allergens like house dust mite (HDM). Here, we show that HDM inhalation leads to the TLR4/MyD88-dependent recruitment of IL-4 competent basophils and eosinophils, and of inflammatory DCs to the draining mediastinal nodes. Depletion

  11. Nuclear factor of activated T cells regulates the expression of interleukin-4 in Th2 cells in an all-or-none fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, Juliana; Kreher, Stephan; Lehmann, Katrin; Riedel, René; Bardua, Markus; Lischke, Timo; Jargosch, Manja; Haftmann, Claudia; Bendfeldt, Hanna; Hatam, Farahnaz; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Chang, Hyun-Dong

    2014-09-26

    Th2 memory lymphocytes have imprinted their Il4 genes epigenetically for expression in dependence of T cell receptor restimulation. However, in a given restimulation, not all Th cells with a memory for IL-4 expression express IL-4. Here, we show that in reactivated Th2 cells, the transcription factors NFATc2, NF-kB p65, c-Maf, p300, Brg1, STAT6, and GATA-3 assemble at the Il4 promoter in Th2 cells expressing IL-4 but not in Th2 cells not expressing it. NFATc2 is critical for assembly of this transcription factor complex. Because NFATc2 translocation into the nucleus occurs in an all-or-none fashion, dependent on complete dephosphorylation by calcineurin, NFATc2 controls the frequencies of cells reexpressing Il4, translates analog differences in T cell receptor stimulation into a digital decision for Il4 reexpression, and instructs all reexpressing cells to express the same amount of IL-4. This analog-to-digital conversion may be critical for the immune system to respond to low concentrations of antigens. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  13. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem for all drivers. Do not use cell phones for talking, texting, or email when you are ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Driving among high school students - United States, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly ...

  14. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  15. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  16. LAT alleviates Th2/Treg imbalance in an OVA-induced allergic asthma mouse model through LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Xiao-Ming; Gu, Wen; Wang, Di; Chen, Yi; Guo, Xue-Jun

    2017-03-01

    Low expression of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is observed in asthma. LAT and its downstream regulator, phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) play important roles in the T cell antigen receptor signaling pathway, and their interaction is associated with CD4 + cell polarization. Here, we investigated whether LAT can alleviate the imbalance among CD4 + cell subgroups and the possible mechanism. An ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma mouse model was established and LAT plasmid was delivered. The pathological changes in lung were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. The typical cytokines released by T helper 2 (Th2) and regulatory T (Treg) cells were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the number of Th1, Th2, and Treg cells were determined using flow cytometry. Lung CD4 + T cells were isolated by magnetic isolation. The mRNA expression of LAT and PLC-γ1 was determined by real-time PCR. Co-Immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm the interaction between LAT and PLC-γ1. The protein expression of LAT, PLC-γ1 and corresponding downstream signaling factors were determined by western blotting. The delivery of LAT DNA to the lung could suppress an overactive Th2 response by decreasing allergic response and Th2 cytokine secretion, and by increasing Treg cytokine secretion. The Th2/Treg imbalance in lung and decreased phosphorylated PLC-γ1 expression in lung CD4 + T cells were rectified by LAT DNA delivery. Excessive activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT-CREB pathways after asthma is attenuated by LAT. The site-specific delivery of LAT DNA to the lung could suppress an overactive Th2 response and rectify the Th2/Treg imbalance in asthmatic mouse model. LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction may contribute to LAT activity in vivo and LAT protects against asthma partly via Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT-CREB pathways. The delivery of LAT DNA could offer a novel and safe strategy for asthma prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  17. Light dulls and darkens bird eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Y Navarro

    Full Text Available Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250-800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color.

  18. Light dulls and darkens bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Johanna Y; Lahti, David C

    2014-01-01

    Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula) to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250-800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color.

  19. Driving risk and Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Sagaspe, P; Philip, P.

    2007-01-01

    For many years fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of accidents, but the causes were unclear. Work or driving that is extensive or conducted during the night-time hours is associated with accidents but few reports have differentiated fatigue, which is usually seen as owing to driving time, from sleepiness, which is owing to reduced sleep extended time awake or being awake at the circadian trough, or drugs. Epidemiological studies from the1990s showed that sleep-related accident...

  20. Microlinear piezo drive experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, Evgeny Petrovich; Rikkonen, S. V.; PONOMAREV S.V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The article embraces the experimental description of the micro linear piezo drive intended for the peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target is the experimental investigation of the micro linear piezo drive to determine the stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following points are briefly presented: test stand con...

  1. Wrong-way driving.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young, inexperienced drivers and elderly drivers. Alcohol often plays a large role with the young; processing (visual) information is especially a problem with the elderly. Improved road signs and infrastruc...

  2. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  3. Driving Schools Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mbewe, Kelvin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand driving schools’ buying behavior when buying auto-mobiles from car dealers and to understand the motives of the people responsible for making such decisions and how driving schools prefer to acquire automobiles from car dealers. These were the main research problems that required quantitative research to conclude. The theoretical chapter of the thesis discusses the principles that influence an organization’s buying behavior, the buying center, m...

  4. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  5. Influence of African nutmeg (Monodora myristica) on the egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the results, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed only in the egg number, egg length, egg width and yolk weight. Egg number recorded 10, 16, 18 and 11 for 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% respectively. Egg length and egg width respectively were reported to be 29.54mm, 29.60mm, 23.14mm and 23.45mm; ...

  6. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moetamedi M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.

  7. Oral but Not Parenteral Interleukin (IL)-12 Redirects T Helper 2 (Th2)-type Responses to an Oral Vaccine Without Altering Mucosal IgA Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Finkelman, Fred D.; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Jackson, Raymond J.; Jirillo, Emilio; McGhee, Jerry R.

    1997-01-01

    Our past studies have shown that the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) induces T helper type 2 (Th2) responses with systemic IgG1, IgE and mucosal secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies (Abs). In this study, recombinant murine IL-12 (rmIL-12) was given either parenterally or orally to mice orally immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) and CT to determine whether this cytokine could redirect the CT-induced Th2-type responses and what effect this shift would have on S-IgA Ab responses. Intraperitoneal administration of rmIL-12 shifted TT-specific responses toward Th1-type and resulted in CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ and IL-2 with markedly reduced levels of Th2-type cytokines. This cytokine profile was accompanied by increased delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and shifts in serum IgG1 to IgG2a and IgG3 anti-TT Ab responses. Further, serum IgE and S-IgA Ab responses were markedly reduced by parenteral IL-12. When IL-12 complexed to liposomes was given orally both shifts to IgG2a and IgG3 and low IgE Abs again occurred concomitant with enhanced serum IFN-γ and DTH responses. Interestingly, oral rmIL-12 did not result in significant levels of serum IL-12 nor altered S-IgA Ab responses and resulted in higher levels of some Th2-type cytokines both in vitro and in vivo when compared with parenteral IL-12. Our results show that the shifts in systemic immune responses with intact S-IgA Abs which occur after oral delivery of IL-12-liposomes are due to cytokine effects in the Peyer's patches and suggest new strategies for the targeted manipulation of Th1- and Th2-type responses to mucosal vaccines. PMID:9053442

  8. [Relationship of reduced lung function with Th1/Th2 polarization, STAT4/6 expression in rats of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyang; Li, Zegeng

    2013-12-01

    To study the correlations between lung function and Th1/Th2 polarization, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins in rats of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal control group, sham group and model group. The COPD rat models were developed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The changes of pulmonary function were detected at 28 d after modeling. The lung tissues of rats were observed by HE staining, and serum IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-12, and IL-13 were determined by ELISA. The mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and IL-4 were examined by PCR, and STAT4, STAT6 proteins in lung tissues were detected by Western blotting. Inflammation of lung tissues was more serious, the levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and Th1/Th2, IFN-γ mRNA and STAT4 protein in lung tissues were higher, and lung function, the levels of serum IL-4 and IL-13, IL-4 mRNA and STAT6 protein in lung tissues were lower in model group than those in normal control and sham groups (P pulmonary function parameters and IFN-γ, Th1/Th2, STAT4 protein, and positive correlations between pulmonary function parameters and IL-4, IL-13, IL-4 mRNA, STAT6 protein (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). The reduced lung function was found related to airway inflammation, cell Th1/Th2 imbalance in COPD. STAT4 and STAT6 involve in the regulation of Th1/Th2 cells. All of the above factors lead to the occurrence of COPD in rats.

  9. The absence of cutaneous lymph nodes results in a Th2 response and increased susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrchen, Jan M; Roth, Johannes; Roebrock, Kirsten; Varga, Georg; Domschke, Wolfram; Newberry, Rodney; Sorg, Clemens; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Sunderkötter, Cord; Kucharzik, Torsten; Spahn, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are important sentinel organs where antigen-presenting cells interact with T cells to induce adaptive immune responses. In cutaneous infection of mice with Leishmania major, resistance depends on the induction of a T-helper-cell-1 (Th1)-mediated cellular immune response in draining, peripheral LNs. We investigated whether draining, peripheral LNs are absolutely required for resistance against L. major infection. We investigated the course of experimental leishmaniasis in wild-type (wt) mice lacking peripheral LNs (pLNs), which we generated by in utero blockade of membrane-bound lymphotoxin, and in mice lacking pLNs or all LNs due to genetic deletion of lymphotoxin ligands or receptors. wt mice of the resistant C57BL/6 strain without local skin-draining LNs were still able to generate specific T-cell responses, but this yielded Th2 cells. This switch to a Th2 response resulted in severe systemic infection. We also confirmed these results with mice lacking pLNs due to genetic depletion of lymphotoxin-beta. The complete absence of LNs due to a genetic depletion of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor also resulted in a marked deterioration of disease and a Th2 response. Thus, in the absence of pLNs, an L. major-specific Th2 response is induced in the remaining secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen and non-skin-draining LNs. This indicates a critical requirement for pLNs to induce protective Th1 immunity and suggests that whether Th1 or Th2 priming to the same antigen occurs depends on the site of the primary antigen recognition.

  10. Targeting Fel d 1 to FcgammaRI induces a novel variation of the T(H)2 response in subjects with cat allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Kathryn E; Reefer, Amanda J; Engelhard, Victor H; Satinover, Shama M; Patrie, James T; Chapman, Martin D; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2008-03-01

    Induction of CD4+ T cells that produce IL-10 or IFN-gamma is central to the protective effects of conventional allergen immunotherapy. We examined the T-cell modulatory capacity of a fusion protein (H22-Fel d 1) that targets Fel d 1 to the high-affinity IgG receptor (FcgammaRI) on antigen-presenting cells. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with H22-Fel d 1 were analyzed for surface phenotype and cytokine secretion by flow cytometry and cytometric bead assay, respectively. CD4+ T cells generated after coculture with H22-Fel d 1-pulsed dendritic cells were analyzed at the single-cell level by flow cytometry after intracellular cytokine staining. The T-cell repertoire was compared for subjects with (IgE+) and without cat allergy (IgE(neg)IgG(neg)), including subjects with a modified T(H)2 response (IgE(neg)IgG+). H22-Fel d 1 induced a semimature phenotype in dendritic cells in conjunction with a selective increase in IL-5+ and IL-10+ CD4+ T cells compared with nonreceptor-targeted Fel d 1. Amplified T cells included diverse subtypes characteristic of T(H)0 (IL-5+IFN-gamma+), regulatory T(H)1 (IL-10+IFN-gamma+) and regulatory T(H)2 (IL-10+IL-5+ cells. T-cell qualitative changes were restricted to subjects with allergy and were distinct from a modified T(H)2 response. Blocking IL-10 induced by H22-Fel d 1 selectively increased IL-5+ CD4+ T cells, suggesting that T(H)2 responses were controlled. Targeting Fel d 1 to FcgammaRI induces a novel variation of the T(H)2 response that incorporates major elements of a protective T-cell response.

  11. Targeting allergen to FcgammaRI reveals a novel T(H)2 regulatory pathway linked to thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Kathryn E; Reefer, Amanda J; Engelhard, Victor H; Patrie, James T; Ziegler, Steven F; Chapman, Martin D; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2010-01-01

    The molecule H22-Fel d 1, which targets cat allergen to FcgammaRI on dendritic cells (DCs), has the potential to treat cat allergy because of its T-cell modulatory properties. We sought to investigate whether the T-cell response induced by H22-Fel d 1 is altered in the presence of the T(H)2-promoting cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Studies were performed in subjects with cat allergy with and without atopic dermatitis. Monocyte-derived DCs were primed with H22-Fel d 1 in the presence or absence of TSLP, and the resulting T-cell cytokine repertoire was analyzed by flow cytometry. The capacity for H22-Fel d 1 to modulate TSLP receptor expression on DCs was examined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of inhibitors of Fc receptor signaling molecules. Surprisingly, TSLP alone was a weak inducer of T(H)2 responses irrespective of atopic status; however, DCs coprimed with TSLP and H22-Fel d 1 selectively and synergistically amplified T(H)2 responses in highly atopic subjects. This effect was OX40 ligand independent, pointing to an unconventional TSLP-mediated pathway. Expression of TSLP receptor was upregulated on atopic DCs primed with H22-Fel d 1 through a pathway regulated by FcgammaRI-associated signaling components, including src-related tyrosine kinases and Syk, as well as the downstream molecule phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Inhibition of TSLP receptor upregulation triggered by H22-Fel d 1 blocked TSLP-mediated T(H)2 responses. Discovery of a novel T(H)2 regulatory pathway linking FcgammaRI signaling to TSLP receptor upregulation and consequent TSLP-mediated effects questions the validity of receptor-targeted allergen vaccines. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exacerbated Th2-mediated airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice: a critical role for CD1d-dependent NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Luiza M; Lefort, Jean; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Diem, Séverine; Zhu, Ren; Dy, Michel; Leite-de-Moraes, Maria C; Bach, J F; Vargaftig, B Boris; Herbelin, André

    2004-02-01

    The NOD mouse has proved to be a relevant model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, closely resembling the human disease. However, it is unknown whether this strain presents a general biastoward Th1-mediated autoimmunity or remains capable of mounting complete Th2-mediated responses. Here, we show that NOD mice have the capacity to develop a typical Th2-mediated disease, namely experimental allergic asthma. In contrast to what might have been expected, they even developed a stronger Th2-mediated pulmonary inflammatory response than BALB/c mice, a strain that shows a typical Th2 bias in this model. Thus, after allergen sensitization and intra-nasal challenge, the typical features of experimental asthma were exacerbated in NOD mice, including enhanced bronchopulmonary responsiveness, mucus production and eosinophilic inflammation in the lungs as well as specific IgE titers in serum. These hallmarks of allergic asthma were associated with increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin production in the lungs, as compared with BALB/c mice. Notwithstanding their quantitative and functional defect in NOD mice, CD1d-dependent NKT cells contribute to aggravate the disease, since in OVA-immunized CD1d(-/-) NOD mice, which are deficient in this particular T cell subset, airway eosinophilia was clearly diminished relative to NOD littermates. This is the first evidence that autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice can also give rise to enhanced Th2-mediated responses and might thus provide a useful model for the study of common genetic and cellular components, including NKT cells that contribute to both asthma and type 1 diabetes.

  13. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xin, H; Gates, R. S; Green, A. R; Mitloehner, F. M; Moore, P. A; Wathes, C. M

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified...

  15. Driving systems of scraper conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukov, I.V.

    1980-02-01

    About 50 types of face scraper conveyors are used in coal mines of the USSR. Various types of driving systems of scraper conveyors are described, among others: the UV-DP thyristor controlled direct current drive, AD-EhMS asynchronous drive with electro-magnetic coupling, and the AD- EhMP asynchronous drive with electro-magnetic powder clutch. These three types of scraper conveyor drive are regarded as superior to other types of drive. From among the three, the UV-DP thyristor controlled drive is the most modern but more difficult to produce and use in mines than AD-EhMP drives. (In Russian)

  16. Intradermal grass pollen immunotherapy increases TH2 and IgE responses and worsens respiratory allergic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovick, Anna; Douiri, Abdel; Muir, Rachel; Guerra, Andrea; Tsioulos, Konstantinos; Hay, Evie; Lam, Emily P S; Kelly, Joanna; Peacock, Janet L; Ying, Sun; Shamji, Mohamed H; Cousins, David J; Durham, Stephen R; Till, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Repeated low-dose grass pollen intradermal allergen injection suppresses allergen-induced cutaneous late-phase responses comparably with conventional subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of grass pollen intradermal immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We randomly assigned 93 adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis to receive 7 preseasonal intradermal allergen injections (containing 7 ng of Phl p 5 major allergen) or a histamine control. The primary end point was daily combined symptom-medication scores during the 2013 pollen season (area under the curve). Analysis was by intention to treat. Skin biopsy specimens were collected after intradermal allergen challenges, and late-phase responses were measured 4 and 7, 10, or 13 months after treatment. There was no significant difference in the primary end point between treatment arms (active, n = 46; control, n = 47; median difference, 14; 95% CI, -172.5 to 215.1; P = .80). Among secondary end points, nasal symptoms were worse in the intradermal treatment group, as measured based on daily (median difference, 35; 95% CI, 4.0-67.5; P = .03) and visual analog scale (median difference, 53; 95% CI, -11.6 to 125.2; P = .05) scores. In a per-protocol analysis intradermal immunotherapy was further associated with worse asthma symptoms and fewer symptom-free days. Intradermal immunotherapy increased serum Phleum pratense-specific IgE levels (P = .001) compared with those in the control arm. T cells cultured from biopsy specimens of subjects undergoing intradermal immunotherapy had higher expression of the TH2 surface marker CRTH2 (P = .04) and lower expression of the TH1 marker CXCR3 (P = .01), respectively. Late-phase responses remained inhibited 7 months after treatment (P = .03). Intradermal allergen immunotherapy suppressed skin late-phase responses but was not clinically effective and resulted in worsening of respiratory

  17. Changes of serum cytokines-related Th1/Th2/Th17 concentration in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Fu, Qin; Ren, Zhaozhou; Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Chenchen; Shen, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Wu, Lina

    2015-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now hypothetically considered to be an autoimmune and inflammatory process in which many pro-inflammatory and T cell-derived cytokines play important roles in the loss of bone mass. For instance, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secreted by Th1 and IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 secreted by Th2 have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a characteristic cytokine secreted by Th17 cells of the CD4 + subgroup. Although IL-17 has been shown to enhance bone resorption in ovariectomized mouse model, bone cells and genetic research, human-related studies of IL-17 are few. According to WHO classification of osteoporosis by the T scores of BMD, the subjects were divided into the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (T scores≤-2.5), the postmenopausal osteopenia group (-2.5 osteoporosis group than in the postmenopausal osteopenia group and the postmenopausal normal BMD group, but the difference between the postmenopausal osteopenia group and the postmenopausal normal BMD group had no statistical significance. IL-17A was negatively correlated with BMD. To our knowledge, we discovered for the first time that serum concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-4 were significantly lower in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group than in the postmenopausal normal BMD group; IFN-γ and IL-4 were positively correlated with BMD. In addition, we also determined that BMI was negatively correlated with BMD; IL-17A was positively correlated with serum calcium. However, no significant differences in IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-10 were observed among the three groups; these three factors were not correlated with BMD. Our experiments have confirmed the roles of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and in the promotion of bone resorption. Targeted therapy of IL-17, IFN-γ, and IL-4 may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis

  18. Pro-inflammatory and Th2-type cytokine responses in PBMC in infants are associated with parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnamaa, P; Nieminen, K; Koulu, L; Tuomasjukka, S; Kallio, H; Yang, B; Tahvonen, R; Savolainen, J

    2012-10-01

    During infancy, a disturbed cytokine balance leads to an atopic immune response. Many risk factors have been associated with the development of atopy. These include parental smoking, elevated cord blood IgE, early exposure to pets and family history of atopy, but the knowledge of their impact on cytokine balance is limited. To assess the cytokines induced by mitogen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of infants at 3 months and 12 months of age and their potential association with fatty acid (FA) intervention, parental atopy, atopic dermatitis and parental smoking. Infants from an intervention study using black currant seed oil (BCSO, n = 34) or placebo (n = 34) were included. PBMC samples were taken at the age of 3 and 12 months. Signs of atopic dermatitis and parental smoking were registered. PBMC were isolated from heparinized blood samples, stimulated with ConcanavalinA mitogen and the cytokine responses were detected at 72 h of stimulation by Luminex technology. Children of smoking parents had elevated levels of IL-4 (P = 0.0004), IL-5 (P = 0.0002), IFN-γ (P = 0.039) and TNF (P = 0.0003) at 12 months of age. Children who had atopic dermatitis by the age of 3 months showed elevated levels of IL-5 at 3 months (P = 0.0027) and 12 months of age (P = 0.022). The production of TNF at the age of 3 months was higher (P = 0.010) and the production of IL-12 at the age of 12 months was lower (P = 0.025) in infants whose parents were atopic. BCSO intervention did not have any effect on any cytokine production or mRNA expression. Children of smoking parents had highly significantly elevated levels of Th2-type cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF. The detrimental effects of parental smoking on the child's immune function should lead us to pay more attention to supporting parents to stop smoking. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds' eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine J; Banks, Peter B

    2012-11-20

    Predators must ignore unhelpful background "noise" within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. Learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. Prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. Using wild free-ranging populations of black rats, Rattus rattus, an alien predator of global concern, we tested whether the application of bird-nesting odors before the introduction of artificial nests (odor preexposure), enhanced the survival of birds eggs (prey) compared with areas where prey and nesting odors were introduced concurrently. In areas where predators had encountered prey odor before prey being available, the subsequently introduced eggs showed 62% greater survival than in areas where prey and odor were introduced together. We suggest that black rats preexposed to prey odor learned to ignore the unrewarding cue, leading to a significant improvement in prey survival that held for the 7-d monitoring period. Exploiting rapid learning that underpins foraging decisions by manipulating sensory contexts offers a nonlethal, but effective approach to reducing undesirable predatory impacts. Techniques based on olfactory preexposure may provide prey with protection during critical periods of vulnerability, such as immediately following a prey reintroduction. These results also highlight the potential benefits to species conservation to be gained from a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms driving alien predator behavior within ecological contexts.

  20. Exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds’ eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine J.; Banks, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Predators must ignore unhelpful background “noise” within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. Learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. Prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. Using wild free-ranging populations of black rats, Rattus rattus, an alien predator of global concern, we tested whether the application of bird-nesting odors before the introduction of artificial nests (odor preexposure), enhanced the survival of birds eggs (prey) compared with areas where prey and nesting odors were introduced concurrently. In areas where predators had encountered prey odor before prey being available, the subsequently introduced eggs showed 62% greater survival than in areas where prey and odor were introduced together. We suggest that black rats preexposed to prey odor learned to ignore the unrewarding cue, leading to a significant improvement in prey survival that held for the 7-d monitoring period. Exploiting rapid learning that underpins foraging decisions by manipulating sensory contexts offers a nonlethal, but effective approach to reducing undesirable predatory impacts. Techniques based on olfactory preexposure may provide prey with protection during critical periods of vulnerability, such as immediately following a prey reintroduction. These results also highlight the potential benefits to species conservation to be gained from a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms driving alien predator behavior within ecological contexts. PMID:23071301

  1. Hummingbird incubation: Female attentiveness and egg temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleck, Carol Masters

    1981-01-01

    Incubating hummingbirds adjust nest attentiveness patterns in different habitats to permit both regulation of egg temperatures for embryonic development and foraging of the adult for positive energy balance. Anna's (Calype anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds nesting in California chaparral left the nest six to nine times during each daylight hour. Eggs usually cooled only 3-6°C during absences but sometimes cooled up to 20°C during long absences. One Anna's Hummingbird became torpid for 4.5 h at night following a rainy day; the eggs survived cooling to 11°C and hatched two days later. A Costa's Hummingbird (Calypte costae) nesting in the California desert also left the nest several times per hour in early morning and late afternoon, but shaded the eggs almost continuously during the middle of the day. A Purple-crowned Fairy (Heliothryx barroti) in the warm lowland tropics of Panama left her eggs unattended for a few relatively long periods each day rather than many short periods as do temperate zone species. This pattern is typical of other tropical hummingbirds as well probably because equable ambient temperatures mean thermoregulation of eggs is not as critical a problem as it is in other habitats. In the temperate zone, hummingbirds exhibit behavioral adaptations (timing of reproduction, segmented foraging pattern) and physiological adaptations (torpor and hypothermia) for successful incubation. Embryonic development is successful even when egg temperatures fluctuate widely.

  2. Eggs as energy: revisiting the scaling of egg size and energetic content among echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, A L; McAlister, J S; Whitehill, E A G

    2013-08-01

    Marine organisms exhibit substantial life-history diversity, of which egg size is one fundamental parameter. The size of an egg is generally assumed to reflect the amount of energy it contains and the amount of per-offspring maternal investment. Egg size and energy are thought to scale isometrically. We investigated this relationship by updating published datasets for echinoderms, increasing the number of species over those in previous studies by 62%. When we plotted egg energy versus egg size in the updated dataset we found that planktotrophs have a scaling factor significantly lower than 1, demonstrating an overall trend toward lower energy density in larger planktotrophic eggs. By looking within three genera, Echinometra, Strongylocentrotus, and Arbacia, we also found that the scaling exponent differed among taxa, and that in Echinometra, energy density was significantly lower in species with larger eggs. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life-history evolution. These data suggest that the evolution of egg size and egg energy content can be decoupled, possibly facilitating response to selective factors such as sperm limitation which could act on volume alone.

  3. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A; Clatterbuck, Corey A; Kelsey, Emma C; Naiman, Alex D; Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1)) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1)) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  4. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Shaffer

    Full Text Available Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1 turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1 than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common, (2 displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1 despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3 demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  5. SULFHYDRYL GROUPS IN FILMS OF EGG ALBUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, A E

    1941-07-20

    1. The same number of SH groups reduces ferricyanide in surface films of egg albumin as in albumin denatured by urea, guanidine hydrochloride, Duponol, or heat, provided the ferricyanide reacts with films while they still are at the surface and with the denatured proteins while the denaturing agent (urea, heat, etc.) is present. 2. The SH groups of a suspension of egg albumin made by clumping together many surface films react with ferricyanide in the same sluggish and incomplete manner as do the groups in egg albumin denatured by concentrated urea when the urea is diluted or in albumin denatured by heat when the solution is allowed to cool off. 3. The known change in configuration of the egg albumin molecule when it forms part of a surface film explains why SH groups in the film react with ferricyanide whereas those in native egg albumin do not. In the native egg albumin molecule groups in the interior are inaccessible to certain reagents. A film is so thin that there are no inaccessible groups. 4. Because of the marked resemblance in the properties of egg albumin in surface films and of egg albumin after denaturation by the recognized denaturing agents, it may be supposed that the same fundamental change takes place in denaturation as in film formation-indeed, that film formation is one of the numerous examples of denaturation. This would mean that in general the SH groups of denatured egg albumin reduce ferricyanide and react with certain other reagents because they are no longer inaccessible to these reagents.

  6. FoxP3+ T regulatory cells and immunomodulation after Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen immunization in experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasby, Eiman A; Hasby Saad, Marwa A; Shohieb, Zeinab; El Noby, Kholoud

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effect of Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen immunization on the immunomodulation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis as an experimental model of IBD in comparison to non immunization and healthy control. The study was performed on 180 mice; 25 healthy control, 15 to identify the inflammatory peak of DSS, 25 received DSS for 7 days; 90 infected with S. mansoni cercariae to collect eggs for antigen preparation, and 25 immunized with the prepared antigen then received DSS course. Disease activity index, macroscopic & microscopic inflammatory scores, FoxP3+ T regulatory cell count, myeloperoxidase activity, and Th1/Th2 cytokine profile were compared in studied groups. Immunization induced both FoxP3+ T(regs) and Th2 cytokines to establish a state of immune homeostasis and create a quiescent steadier immune response to DSS. S. mansoni egg antigen succeeded in acting like a prophylactic helminthic therapy as it has a profitable modulatory effect on DSS-induced colitis model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Epilepsy and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masato

    2013-01-01

    The amends to the driving regulations in Japan made in 2002 lifted the absolute ban on driving by persons with epilepsy (PWE) and granted licenses to PWE after a 2-year seizure-free period. In 2010, 3,373 PWE obtained a driving license, 119 had their license withheld for compliance to traffic regulations and to reduce traffic accidents, the Japan Epilepsy Society passed a proposal of more liberal rules for fitness-to-drive on 11th October 2012; according to this proposal, people with a history of epilepsy can be declared fit-to-drive after a one-year seizure-free period. On 25th October 2012, the Japan License Authority introduced new penal regulations for PWE who do not comply with traffic regulations and proposed a voluntary notification system for a physician in charge of a non-compliant PWE. Public acceptance of these new regulations is needed for reconciliation between the attenuation of traffic accidents and the promotion of living rights of PWE in Japan.

  8. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  9. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs

  10. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Josh; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6–10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R2 = 0.97) and tree swallows (R2 = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R2 = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%–107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15–1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R2 mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs (and

  11. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Ruben L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naïve T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we performed comprehensive transcriptome analyses of Jurkat T cells stimulated with various stimuli and pathway inhibitors. Results from these experiments were validated in a human experimental setting using whole blood and purified CD4+ Tcells. Results Calcium-dependent activation of T cells using CD3/CD28 and PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a Th1 expression profile reflected by increased expression of T-bet, RUNX3, IL-2, and IFNγ, whereas calcium-independent activation via PMA/CD28 induced a Th2 expression profile which included GATA3, RXRA, CCL1 and Itk. Knock down with siRNA and gene expression profiling in the presence of selective kinase inhibitors showed that proximal kinases Lck and PKCθ are crucial signaling hubs during T helper cell activation, revealing a clear role for Lck in Th1 development and for PKCθ in both Th1 and Th2 development. Medial signaling via MAPkinases appeared to be less important in these pathways, since specific inhibitors of these kinases displayed a minor effect on gene expression. Translation towards a primary, whole blood setting and purified human CD4+ T cells revealed that PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a more pronounced Th1 specific, Lck and PKCθ dependent IFNγ production, whereas PMA/CD28 induced Th2 specific IL-5 and IL-13 production, independent of Lck activation. PMA/CD3-mediated skewing towards a Th1 phenotype was also reflected in mRNA expression of the master transcription factor Tbet, whereas PMA/CD28-mediated stimulation enhanced GATA3 mRNA expression in primary human CD4+ Tcells. Conclusions This study identifies stimulatory pathways and gene expression profiles for in vitro skewing of T helper cell

  12. [Psychotropic substances and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L; Ferrario, M M

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of psychotropic substances (alcohol, drugs, medication) has a major impact on complex activity performance such as driving. This issue is of relevant social interest for the high number of potentially involved subjects and the often fatale outcomes, and affects also occupational physicians because of the high number of people whose job is driving. There are still few studies trying to assess the presence of a possible association between increased risk of accident/injury at work and consumption of psychotropic substances and results are not always in agreement. In spite of such uncertainties and some Italian regulations still worth being amended by Legislator, the possible impact of consumption of psychoactive substances on driving is an issue to be still better defined for which occupational physicians may play a basic role in the field of prevention, clinics and rehabilitation.

  13. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  14. Practice Safe Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    More than 30,000 people die in motor vehicle collisions each year in the United States. Distracted, drowsy, and drunk driving cause most motor vehicle collision injuries and deaths. An editorial published in the October 2016 issue of JOSPT identified the global need for effective strategies to reduce, if not eliminate, preventable injuries, including whiplash-associated disorders and deaths from distracted driving. This is a call to action for everyone who gets behind the wheel of a car. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(7):449. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0506.

  15. Toroidal drive with half stator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The toroidal drive can transmit large torque. However, it is a hard work to produce small toroidal stator which limits the miniaturization of the toroidal drive. Here, a novel toroidal drive with half stator is proposed for which the small stator can be produced easily. For the novel toroidal drive, three-dimensional design and the motion simulation are done; the forces and the contact stress in drive system are investigated; and the output torque is compared with one of the normal toroidal drives. Results show that the output torque of the toroidal drive with half stator is almost the same as the output torque of the normal toroidal drive, and the half stator toroidal drive is a good design for realizing the miniaturization of the toroidal drive.

  16. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alsaati, Hytham A; Ditzler, Danielle; Burapatana, Vorakan; Tanner, Robert D

    2003-01-01

    ...) away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents...

  17. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  18. Thymic irradiation inhibits the rapid recovery of TH1 but not TH2-like functions of CD4+ T cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, H.; Adkins, B.; Strober, S. (Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA (United States))

    1991-10-15

    Four to six weeks after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), there is a selective deficit in the CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-2, proliferate in the MLR, and induce GVHD (Th1-like functions). A similar deficit in CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-4 and help antibody responses (Th2-like functions) is not observed. In the present study, shielding of the thymus with lead during TLI increased the Th1-like functions of CD4+ cells. Mice without thymus shields showed a marked selective reduction in the medullary stromal cells identified with the monoclonal antibody, MD1, and the severe reduction was prevented with thymus shields. Thus, shielding the thymus prevents the depletion of thymic medullary stromal cells and allows for a rapid recovery of Th1-like functions in the mouse spleen after TLI. Th2-like functions recover rapidly after TLI whether or not the thymus is irradiated.

  19. Low level of LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction is associated with Th2 polarized differentiation: a contributing factor to the etiology of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaohua; Cui, Zhilei; Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Guo, Xuejun

    2014-07-01

    Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a key adaptor in the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway. The expression of LAT is lower in asthmatic patients than that in healthy people, but there is little knowledge about the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. This study was aimed to determine whether LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction was involved in the development of asthma. It was shown that the phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 decreased in the asthmatic mouse model and Th2 cell differentiated CD4(+) T cells. In addition, depleted endogenous PLC-γ1 promoted CD4(+) T cells to differentiate into IL-4-Productor. It was therefore concluded that the low level of LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction was associated with Th2 polarized differentiation, and this may contribute to the etiology of asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leprosy As a Complex Infection: Breakdown of the Th1 and Th2 Immune Paradigm in the Immunopathogenesis of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose evolution involves complex immune mechanisms of the host that influence the clinical presentation of the disease. For many years, the main interpretation of the host defense response was based on characterization of the established immune paradigm between T helper (Th 1 and Th2 lymphocytes. However, with advances in the knowledge of immunology, new approaches have emerged along with the development of new immunological pathways that have changed the interpretation of the long-established paradigm of the polar forms of the disease, especially with the identification of new subtypes of T lymphocytes such as Th9, Th17, Th22, and Tregs. Thus, this review discusses the role of these new subtypes of T helper lymphocytes and how the development of the immune response of these cells modifies the pattern of the Th1/Th2 response in the immunopathogenesis of leprosy.

  1. Traits of eggshells and shell membranes of translucent eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-He; Li, Ya-Jie; Liu, Long; Liu, Jing-Shou; Bao, Man; Yang, Ning; Zhuo-Cheng, Hou; Ning, Zhong-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Translucent eggshells negatively affect the appearance of eggs and decrease their economic value. Translocation and accumulation of water from the contents to the shells of eggs are frequent occurrences. Causes of translucent eggshell formation have been investigated, but the primary reason is uncertain. In previous studies, scientists have found that the thickness of the eggshell membrane was significantly different between translucent and opaque eggs. However, there are some conflicts among studies. We performed 2 experiments with 3 breeding flocks of chickens to target the reasons for egg translucence. In experiment 1, eggs of 1,024 Brown-Egg Dwarf Layers (DWL) were used. Approximately 1,600 eggs were collected over 2 consecutive days. They were stored for 3 days, and then 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs were selected for measurement of egg quality traits and weight loss over several weeks. In experiment 2, we used DWL and White Leghorn pure line (WLL) for assessment of eggshell ultrastructure and membrane traits. We chose 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs from 3,500 DWL eggs and 125 translucent and 125 opaque eggs from 5,028 WLL eggs. The results are as follows: (1) translucent eggs had greater eggshell strength and lower ultimate failure stress of shell membrane than opaque eggs in both DWL and WLL groups, (2) translucent eggs had thicker shells and thinner shell membranes than opaque eggs in DWL, (3) no significant differences were found in either gas pore or bubble pore traits between translucent and opaque eggs in either line, and (4) no significant differences were detected in internal egg quality or weight loss between translucent and opaque eggs in either line. In summary, the present study suggests that variations in both eggshells and shell membrane structures are implicated in the formation of translucent eggs. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Parental perceptions in egg allergy: does egg challenge make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew Stewart; Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an oral egg challenge in egg sensitized children on parental perceptions relating to their child's allergy. A questionnaire was completed by parents for 167 children attending a tertiary paediatric clinic with egg sensitization. The questionnaires included 10 questions concerning parental perceptions of their child's egg allergy. Parental perceptions of those children who had not had an egg challenge (n = 83) were compared with those whose children had a positive (n = 27) and those with a negative (n = 57) egg challenge. A significant difference (p = parents in the CN group expected little or no future inconvenience for the child. The responses of parents whose child had undergone an egg challenge differed significantly (p = expectation of little or no future discomfort for the child and whether others treated the child differently. The performance of an egg challenge was associated with reduced adverse parental concerns. For 6/10 parameters, expectations concerning egg allergy in children who had been challenged were significantly better than those who had never been challenged irrespective of the challenge outcome. The greater certainty provided by the performance of a food challenge may be a positive outcome in both CP and CN children.

  3. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  4. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried... generally recognized as safe within the meaning of section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...) The name of the food for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section is...

  5. Testing household disinfectants for the inactivation of helminth eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Potentially viable eggs included undeveloped eggs (at different cell stages), ... A single piece of cellulose sponge cloth was soaked in each ..... one-celled stage. Figure 2. Morphology of Ascaris eggs after exposure to Products A and B for one hour (400×): (A) Partially decorticated egg with larva, PV, treated.

  6. Egg structural characteristics of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Faris A. Al-Obaidi; Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus) in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Result...

  7. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  8. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.549 Dried egg storage. Dried egg storage shall be sufficient to...

  9. Nutrient digestibility and egg production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increase in the quantity of biodegraded PKM resulted in significant differences in the values determined for feed intake, hen-day production, and average egg weight; but for egg length, yolk index, egg/yolk ratio and egg shell thickness, there was no significant difference. Despite the significantly lower hen-day production of ...

  10. Egg Quality Characteristics Of Isa – Brown Layers Fed Brewers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs laid by Isa-brown layers were used in this study to investigate the effect of partial substitution of biodegraded brewers' dried grains (BDG) for maize on egg quality parameters of laying hens. A total of 1,728 eggs were used for this study which spanned over a period of 84 days. Eggs were collected from laying birds fed ...

  11. Pollen allergens do not come alone: pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMS) shift the human immue systems towards a TH2-dominated response

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles, Stefanie; Mariani, Valentina; Bryce, Martina; Mueller, Martin J; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Jakob, Thilo; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pollen allergy is characterized by a TH2-biased immune response to pollen-derived allergens. However, pollen-exposed epithelia do not encounter pure allergen but rather a plethora of protein and non-protein substances. We demonstrated that pollen liberate lipids with chemical and functional similarities to leukotriens and prostaglandins - the pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMs). To date, two main groups of PALMs have been characterized: The immunostimulatory PALMs activating in...

  12. Multidose Streptozotocin Induction of Diabetes in BALB/c Mice Induces a Dominant Oxidative Macrophage and a Conversion of TH1 to TH2 Phenotypes During Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naxin Sun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages (Mp are implicated in both early and late phases in type 1 diabetes development. Recent study has suggested that a balance between reductive Mp (RMp and oxidative Mp (OMp is possible to regulate TH1/TH2 balance. The aim of this study is to investigate the redox status of peritoneal Mp and its cytokine profile during the development of autoimmune diabetes induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin in BALB/c mice. Meanwhile, the polarization of TH1/TH2 of splenocytes or thymocytes was also examined. We found that peritoneal Mp appeared as an “incomplete” OMp phenotype with decreased icGSH along with disease progression. The OMp showed reduced TNF-α, IL-12, and NO production as well as defective phagocytosis activity compared to nondiabetic controls; however, there was no significant difference with IL-6 production. On the other hand, the levels of IFN-γ or IL-4 of splenocytes in diabetic mice were significantly higher compared to the control mice. The ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 was also higher at the early stage of diabetes and then declined several weeks later after the occurrence of diabetes, suggesting a pathogenetic TH1 phenotype from the beginning gradually to a tendency of TH2 during the development of diabetes. Our results implied that likely OMp may be relevant in the development of type 1 diabetes; however, it is not likely the only factor regulating the TH1H/TH2 balance in MLD-STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  13. Coincident diabetes mellitus modulates Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-cell responses in latent tuberculosis in an IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), although its role in the TB-induced responses in latent TB (LTB) is not well understood. Since Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses are important in immunity to LTB, we postulated that coincident DM could alter the function of these CD4(+) T-cell subsets. To this end, we examined mycobacteria-induced immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with LTB-DM and compared them with responses of individuals without DM (LTB-NDM). T-cell responses from LTB-DM are characterized by diminished frequencies of mono- and dual-functional CD4(+) Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells at baseline and following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens-purified protein derivative, early secreted antigen-6, and culture filtrate protein-10. This modulation was at least partially dependent on IL-10 and TGF-β, since neutralization of either cytokine resulted in significantly increased frequencies of Th1 and Th2 cells but not Th17 cells in LTB-DM but not LTB individuals. LTB-DM is therefore characterized by diminished frequencies of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, indicating that DM alters the immune response in latent TB leading to a suboptimal induction of protective CD4(+) T-cell responses, thereby providing a potential mechanism for increased susceptibility to active disease. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A role for IL-10-mediated HLA-DR7-restricted T cell-dependent events in development of the modified Th2 response to cat allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefer, Amanda J; Carneiro, Raquel M; Custis, Natalie J; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Sung, Sun-Sang J; Hammer, Juergen; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2004-03-01

    Although high dose exposure to inhaled cat allergen (Fel d 1) can cause a form of tolerance (modified Th2 response), the T cell mechanism for this phenomenon has not been studied. T cell responses to Fel d 1 were characterized in both allergic (IgE(pos)) and modified Th2 (IgE(neg)IgG(pos)) responders as well as serum Ab-negative controls (IgE(neg)IgG(neg)). Fel d 1 stimulated high levels of IL-10 in PBMC cultures from all individuals, with evidence of Th2 and Th1 cytokine skewing in allergic and control subjects, respectively. Using overlapping peptides, epitopes at the N terminus of Fel d 1 chain 2 were shown to stimulate strong T cell proliferation and to preferentially induce IL-10 (peptide 2:1 (P2:1)) or IFN-gamma (P2:2) regardless of the allergic status of the donor. Injection of cat extract during conventional immunotherapy stimulated expansion of IL-10- and IFN-gamma-producing chain 2 epitope-specific T cells along with increased Fel d 1-specific serum IgG and IgG4 Ab. Six of 12 modified responders expressed the major HLA-DRB1 allele, *0701, and both P2:1 and P2:2 were predicted ligands for this allele. Cultures from DR7-positive modified responders produced the highest levels of IL-10 to P2:1 in addition to other major and minor epitopes within chains 1 and 2. In the presence of anti-IL-10 mAb, both T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production were enhanced in a Fel d 1- and epitope-specific manner. We conclude that IL-10-producing T cells specific for chain 2 epitopes are relevant to tolerance induction, and that DR7-restricted recognition of these epitopes favors a modified Th2 response.

  15. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qiang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day during Gestational Days 1–17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4 was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049 and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227 and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351. In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females.

  16. Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles induced by hepatitis C virus F protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ming; Deng, Xiaozhao; Zhai, Xiangjun; Xu, Ke; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Jinhai; Zhou, Zhenxian; Yu, Xiaojie; Xu, Xiaodong; Liu, Yunxi; Zhu, Danyan; Zhang, Yun

    2013-05-01

    Th1 and Th2 cytokine response has been confirmed to be correlated with the pathogenesis of HCV infection. The aim of the study is to investigate the Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles induced by HCV alternate reading frame protein (F protein) in chronic hepatitis C patients. We assessed the immune responses specific to HCV F protein in 55 chronic HCV patients. IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) post F protein stimulation were compared among HCV patients and healthy donors. Finally, the associations between HCV F protein and HLA class II alleles were explored. We found that the seroprevalence of anti-F antibodies in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was significantly higher than that of patients without HCC, but such a significant difference in humoral immune responses to F protein was not observed in HCV 1b-infected- and non-HCV 1b-infected-patients. Additionally, the PBMC proliferation of HCC patients was significantly lower than that of patients without HCC. Furthermore, F protein stimulation of PBMCs from F-seropositive patients resulted in Th2 biased cytokine responses (significantly decreased IFN-γ and/or IL-2 and significantly increased IL-4 and/or IL-5 levels) that reportedly may contribute to HCC progression and pathogenesis. However, no significant difference in the association between HCV F protein and HLA-DRB1*0201, 0301, 0405, 1001 and HLA-DQB1*0201, 0401, 0502, 0602 was observed in this study. These findings suggest that F protein may contribute to the HCV-associated bias in Th1/Th2 responses of chronic hepatitis C patients including the progress of HCC pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased hepatic Th2 and Treg subsets are associated with biliary fibrosis in different strains of mice caused by Clonorchis sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Bei Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that CD4+T cells responses might be involved in the process of biliary fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanism resulting in biliary fibrosis caused by Clonorchis sinensis remains not yet fully elucidated. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the different profiles of hepatic CD4+T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells and their possible roles in the biliary fibrosis of different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and FVB mice induced by C. sinensis infection. C57BL/6, BALB/c and FVB mice were orally gavaged with 45 metacercariae. All mice were sacrificed on 28 days post infection in deep anesthesia conditions. The leukocytes in the liver were separated to examine CD4+T cell subsets by flow cytometry and the left lobe of liver was used to observe pathological changes, collagen depositions and the concentrations of hydroxyproline. The most serious cystic and fibrotic changes appeared in FVB infected mice indicated by gross observation, Masson's trichrome staining and hydroxyproline content detection. In contrast to C57BL/6 infected mice, diffuse nodules and more intensive fibrosis were observed in the BALB/c infected mice. No differences of the hepatic Th1 subset and Th17 subset were found among the three strains, but the hepatic Th2 and Treg cells and their relative cytokines were dramatically increased in the BALB/c and FVB infected groups compared with the C57BL/6 infected group (P<0.01. Importantly, increased Th2 subset and Treg subset all positively correlated with hydroxyproline contents (P<0.01. This result for the first time implied that the increased hepatic Th2 and Treg cell subsets were likely to play potential roles in the formation of biliary fibrosis in C. sinensis-infected mice.

  18. Locally instilled tumor necrosis factor α antisense oligonucleotide contributes to inhibition of TH 2-driven pulmonary fibrosis via induced CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Wang, Min; Pang, Zhonghua; Jiang, Fengtao; Chen, Jiangning; Zhang, Junfeng

    2013-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapeutics has the potential to alleviate pulmonary fibrosis. However, the systemic administration of anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents has brought about contradictory results and frequent adverse effects, such as infections, immunogenicity and malignancies, amongst others. In the present study, we attempted the local administration of tumor necrosis factor α antisense oligonucleotide and evaluated the treatment effects on pulmonary fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. Flow cytometry for regulatory T cells, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for crucial gene expression, western blotting for crucial protein products, immunofluorescent analysis for T(H)2 cells and myofibroblasts, as well as histology analysis for pathological examination, were used. By local administration of tumor necrosis factor α antisense oligonucleotide, we investigated whether tumor necrosis factor α expression in epithelial cells was significantly inhibited and extracellular matrix overexpression was dramatically reduced. These treatment effects were associated with induced regulatory T cells, reduced T(H)2 cells and generally decreased T(H)2-type cytokine expression. Systemic immunosuppression was not triggered by local antisense oligonucleotide administration because the proportion of regulatory T cells in the blood, thymus or spleen was not affected. These findings demonstrate that local administration of tumor necrosis factor α antisense oligonucleotide contributes to anti-fibrotic action via a sustained up-regulated level of regulatory T cells, which inhibits T(H)2-biased responses, pro-fibrotic mediator production and extracellular matrix deposition, with no systemic immunosupression associated with systemically induced regulatory T cells. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  20. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  1. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  2. To study propulsion drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rassylkin, Anton; Vodovozov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a test bench developed to study and monitor the propulsion drives of electric vehicles at Tallinn University of Technology. The composition and performance of the setup are explained. The charging process of the supercapacitor bank is described as an example of the test bench application. The developed simulation model of the supercapacitor bank is presented and discussed.

  3. Drive-Through Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  4. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  5. The Drive to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of the educational vocation is a drive to influence, to meaningfully affect the learning and development of others. For adult educators working in higher education, daily activities--from teaching classes to supervising student research to attending faculty meetings to sitting on advisory boards--are full of opportunities to…

  6. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  7. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  8. CSI: Hard Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

  9. Justicia procumbens Extract (DW2008) Selectively Suppresses Th2 Cytokines in Splenocytes and Ameliorates Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Jihyun; Lee, Hyunyong; Chang, Hwan Bong; Jeon, Jihyun; Yoon, Mi Hee; Woo, Ji Young; Choi, Min-Soo; Hwang, Yunha; Seong, Seungkyoo; Na, Kyuheum; Yoon, Joobyoung

    2017-01-01

    DW2008 is an anhydrous ethanol extract of Justicia procumbens produced by Dong-Wha Pharmaceutical, Inc., Co. as a candidate anti-asthmatic drug. In this study, DW2008 selectively reduced T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in mouse splenocytes and ameliorated ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by downregulating pulmonary infiltration of differential inflammatory cells and Th2 cytokines more than a decoction or ethanol extract of J. procumbens did in a mouse asthma model. DW2008 also significantly inhibited airway hyperresponsiveness and reduced the thickness of the airway epithelium. HPLC analysis showed that the major peaks (justicidin A and B) of DW2008 were higher than those of the other extracts. Justicidin A and B significantly suppressed Th2 cytokine levels in mouse spleen cells and exhibited a protective effect in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Our findings indicate that DW2008 effectively inhibits allergic airway inflammatory reactions and airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, suggesting its potential as an anti-asthmatic agent.

  10. The relation of interleukin 17 (IL-17) and IL-23 to Th1/Th2 cytokines and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Mo Yin; Wu, Hai Jing; Lo, Yi; Lau, Chak Sing

    2010-10-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) was recently linked to pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but its relation to disease activity has not been well characterized. We examined the relation between serum levels of Th17 (IL-17, IL-23), Th1 (IL-12, interferon-γ), Th2 (IL-10, IL-6, IL-4) cytokines and disease activity in patients with SLE. Serum cytokines were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Disease activity was determined by SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), anti-dsDNA antibody, and C3 and C4 levels. Serum levels of IL-17 (p IL-17 level above the detection limit was more frequently found in patients who had active lupus nephritis (11/23, 47.8%) (p = 0.002), nonrenal active disease (9/15, 60%) (p = 0.001), and inactive lupus (21/32, 65.6%) (p IL-17 levels were otherwise comparable between these 3 groups of patients and were not related to SLEDAI, glomerular filtration rate, activity or chronicity score and ISN/RPS criteria class among patients with active lupus nephritis. There was no significant correlation between serum IL-17/IL-23 and Th1 or Th2 cytokine levels. SLE patients had higher serum IL-17 levels than healthy controls. Elevated serum IL-23 was found in patients with inflammatory manifestations including cutaneous involvement and serositis. The lack of correlation between Th17, Th1, and Th2 cytokines suggested independent regulatory mechanisms for these cytokines.

  11. Intravenously delivered graphene nanosheets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes induce site-specific Th2 inflammatory responses via the IL-33/ST2 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojia; Podila, Ramakrishna; Shannahan, Jonathan H; Rao, Apparao M; Brown, Jared M

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials (CBN), such as graphene nanosheets (GNS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), have been proposed for potential nanomedicine applications such as biomedical devices and carriers for drug delivery. However, our current understanding regarding the systemic toxicity of these CBN through intravenous (iv) injection is limited. In this study, we compare the immune response resulting from GNS and MWCNT exposure. We hypothesize that iv administration of GNS and MWCNT would result in divergent systemic inflammatory responses due to physicochemical differences between these two CBN. In the lungs of C57BL/6 mice, GNS actuate a Th2 immune response 1 day following iv administration, which consists of neutrophilic influx and a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-33, and its soluble receptor (sST2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. MWCNT elicited a significant increase in the messenger ribonucleic acid expression of cytokines in the spleen including IL-4 and IL-33, which are associated with an increase in splenic cell differentiation (CD)4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in C57BL/6 mice following iv injection. The observed Th2 responses in both the lung and spleen are absent in ST2(-/-) mice administrated GNS or MWCNT, suggesting a critical role for IL-33. In conclusion, the use of GNS or MWCNT as nanocarriers for drug delivery may result in Th2 immune responses that are mediated through the IL-33/ST2 axis and therefore may promote adverse allergic reactions.

  12. Comparison of Th1- and Th2-associated immune reactivities stimulated by single versus multiple vaccination of mice with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulada-Benedetti, Z.; Al-Zamel, F.; Sher, A.; James, S. (NIAID, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Mice immunized against Schistosoma mansoni by a single percutaneous exposure to radiation-attenuated parasite larvae demonstrate partial resistance to challenge infection that has been shown to correlate with development of cell-mediated immunity, whereas mice hyperimmunized by multiple exposure to attenuated larvae produce antibodies capable of transferring partial protection to naive recipients. Measurement of Ag-specific lymphokine responses in these animals suggested that the difference in resistance mechanisms may be due to the differential induction of Th subset response by the two immunization protocols. Thus, upon Ag stimulation, singly immunized mice predominantly demonstrated responses associated with Th1 reactivity, including IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, whereas multiply immunized animals showed increased IL-5, IL-4, and IgG1 antibody production associated with enhanced Th2 response. These responses demonstrated some degree of organ compartmentalization, with splenocytes demonstrating higher Th1-related lymphokine production and cells from draining lymph nodes showing stronger proliferation and Th2 type reactivity. However, hyperimmunized mice also continued to demonstrate substantial Th1-associated immune reactivity. Moreover, in vivo Ag challenge elicited activated larvacidal macrophages in hyperimmunized animals. These observations indicate that protective cell-mediated mechanisms associated with induction of CD4+ Th1 cell reactivity predominate in singly vaccinated mice. Further vaccination stimulates Th2 responses, such as enhanced IgG1 production, that may also contribute to protective immunity.

  13. Pollen allergens do not come alone: pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMS shift the human immue systems towards a TH2-dominated response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Stefanie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pollen allergy is characterized by a TH2-biased immune response to pollen-derived allergens. However, pollen-exposed epithelia do not encounter pure allergen but rather a plethora of protein and non-protein substances. We demonstrated that pollen liberate lipids with chemical and functional similarities to leukotriens and prostaglandins - the pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMs. To date, two main groups of PALMs have been characterized: The immunostimulatory PALMs activating innate immune cells such as neutrophils and eosinophils, and the immunomodulatory E1-phytoprostanes blocking IL-12 production of dendritic cells, resulting in the preferential induction of TH2 responses. This article reviews our work in the field of PALMs and their effects on cells of the innate and adoptive immune system. From recent results a general picture starts to emerge in which PALMs (and possibly other pollen-associated substances may - independently from protein allergens - propagate an overall TH2 favoring micromilieu in pollen exposed tissue of predisposed individuals.

  14. Pollen allergens do not come alone: pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMS) shift the human immue systems towards a TH2-dominated response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Stefanie; Mariani, Valentina; Bryce, Martina; Mueller, Martin J; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Jakob, Thilo; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Pollen allergy is characterized by a TH2-biased immune response to pollen-derived allergens. However, pollen-exposed epithelia do not encounter pure allergen but rather a plethora of protein and non-protein substances. We demonstrated that pollen liberate lipids with chemical and functional similarities to leukotriens and prostaglandins - the pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMs). To date, two main groups of PALMs have been characterized: The immunostimulatory PALMs activating innate immune cells such as neutrophils and eosinophils, and the immunomodulatory E1-phytoprostanes blocking IL-12 production of dendritic cells, resulting in the preferential induction of TH2 responses. This article reviews our work in the field of PALMs and their effects on cells of the innate and adoptive immune system. From recent results a general picture starts to emerge in which PALMs (and possibly other pollen-associated substances) may - independently from protein allergens - propagate an overall TH2 favoring micromilieu in pollen exposed tissue of predisposed individuals. PMID:19946407

  15. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA- induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL- 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4, MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN- γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model.

  16. Elevated expression of miR-146, miR-139 and miR-340 involved in regulating Th1/Th2 balance with acute exposure of fine particulate matter in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianfang; Liao, Jiping; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Chao; Li, Xueying; Wang, Guangfa

    2018-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is detrimental to human health, and frequently leads to a variety of lung diseases. Recently, IARC conclude that particulate matter is carcinogenic to humans (level one). However, the pulmonary toxicological mechanism induced by PM2.5 remains obscure. Our previous studies confirmed that PM2.5 hurt the human immune system by means of causing the imbalance of Th1/Th2 lymphocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene suppressors and potential mediators of environmental effects, which play an important role in the regulation of CD4+T lymphocyte differentiation. In order to further understand the roles of microRNAs in regulating the imbalance of Th1/Th2 differentiation triggered by PM2.5, mice were subjected to intratracheal instillation of 2.5, 10, or 20mg/kg PM2.5 in this study. Mice were euthanized on the 1st, 7th and 14th day to screen out differential miRNAs in lung tissue by employing the miRNA microarray. The expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were quantified by ELISA and their mRNA expressions in lung tissue were detected by qRT-PCR. The experiment demonstrated that 10 differential miRNAs (miR-146a, -146b, -139, -129, -340, -691, -181a, -155, -21-3p, and -21-5p) were up-regulated. IL-4 levels were found decreased, nevertheless, IFN-γ levels were increased, and the IL-4/IFN-γ ratio was inclined to Th1 shifting. Besides that, we also found that miRNA-691, -181a, -146a, -146b, -21a-3p, -21a-5p, and -340 had a positive linear correlation with BALF IFN-γ, while a negative linear correlation between microRNAs (miR-146, -139, -340, -21, and -181a) and the IL-4/IFN-γ level of BALF was observed. In conclusion, elevated microRNAs profiles correlated with T lymphocyte immune imbalance, driving a Th1-biased immune response after acute PM2.5 exposure. These findings improve our understanding of the toxicological pathways of PM2.5 exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  17. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However......, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might...... become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such "cue scrambling" does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker...

  18. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Gianclaudio eCasutt; Gianclaudio eCasutt; Gianclaudio eCasutt; Nathan eTheill; Mike eMartin; Mike eMartin; Martin eKeller; Martin eKeller; Lutz eJäncke; Lutz eJäncke; Lutz eJäncke; Lutz eJäncke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years) were randomly assigned to either (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or ...

  19. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62-87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective at...

  20. THE SULFHYDRYL GROUPS OF EGG ALBUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, M L

    1941-03-20

    1. 1 cc. of 0.001 M ferricyanide, tetrathionate, or p-chloromercuribenzoate is required to abolish the SH groups of 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin in guanidine hydrochloride or Duponol PC solution. Both the nitroprusside test and the ferricyanide reduction test are used to show that the SH groups have been abolished. 2. 1 cc. of 0.001 M ferrocyanide is formed when ferricyanide is added to 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin in neutral guanidine hydrochloride or urea solution. The amount of ferricyanide reduced to ferrocyanide by the SH groups of the denatured egg albumin is, within wide limits, independent of the ferricyanide concentration. 3. Ferricyanide and p-chloromercuribenzoate react more rapidly than tetrathionate with the SH groups of denatured egg albumin in both guanidine hydrochloride solution and in Duponol PC solution. 4. Cyanide inhibits the oxidation of the SH groups of denatured egg albumin by ferricyanide. 5. Some samples of guanidine hydrochloride contain impurities which bring about the abolition of SH groups of denatured egg albumin and so interfere with the SH titration and the nitroprusside test. This interference can be diminished by using especially purified guanidine hydrochloride, adding the titrating agent before the protein has been allowed to stand in guanidine hydrochloride solution, and carrying out the nitroprusside test in the presence of a small amount of cyanide. 6. The SH groups of egg albumin can be abolished by reaction of the native form of the protein with iodine. It is possible to oxidize all the SH groups with iodine without oxidizing many of the SH groups beyond the S-S stage and without converting many tyrosine groups into di-iodotyrosine groups. 7. p-chloromercuribenzoate combines with native egg albumin either not at all or much more loosely than it combines with the SH groups of denatured egg albumin or of cysteine. 8. The compound of mercuribenzoate and SH, like the compound of aldehyde and SH and like the SH in native

  1. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  2. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to Der p 1 allergen enhance the recruitment of Th2 cells: major involvement of the chemokines TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammad, Hamida; Smits, Hermelijn H.; Ratajczak, Céline; Nithiananthan, Asokananthan; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Stewart, Geoffrey A.; Jacquet, Alain; Tonnel, Andre-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen - presenting cells that can orientate the immune response towards a Th1 or a Th2 type. DC produce chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of either Th1 cells, such as IP10 (CXCL10), Th2 cells such as TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22), or non-polarized T

  3. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares

    2014-01-01

    PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between......Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (q...... the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate...

  4. Egg size, egg composition and reproductive success in the Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, TD; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between egg size and composition and their subsequent effects on hatching and fledging success in Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the island of Schiermonnikoog (53 degrees 30'N, 06 degrees 10'E) in the Dutch Wadden Sea between 1986 and 1990. Egg size

  5. Effect of moderate spray drying conditions on functionality of dried egg white and whole egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M A; Khemakhem, M; Belgith, H; Attia, H

    2008-08-01

    Dried egg and egg-derived proteins have a range of applications in baking, dressings, and confectionery products. Egg powder was produced under high time-temperature scales (approximately 160 degrees C), which led to many changes in egg components, resulting in different functional properties of eggs after reconstitution. In this study, moderate operating conditions were selected to dry egg white and whole egg using a pilot-scale spray dryer. Functional properties changes were evaluated with an appropriate statistical technique. Major finding supports that spray drying of egg white at moderate conditions (air inlet temperature ranged from 110 to 125 degrees C) resulted in a product that enhanced considerably the water holding capacity of produced gels. Moreover, gel prepared with the dried samples was firmer than that of the fresh samples. Drying at a moderate scale allowed not only the increasing of the foaming capacity and the stability of foam but also an increase in their emulsifying capacity and stability of the emulsions.

  6. The effect of different cage tiers and age on egg performance, egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admOUjg

    2014-10-04

    Oct 4, 2014 ... with an electronic balance at the same time every day to calculate hen-day egg production (HDEP) and henhouse ... short diameters of albumen, and diameter of yolk with a digital calliper (± 0.001 mm). ..... Albumen quality of eggs from five commercial strains of white leghorn hens during one year of lay.

  7. Egg weight and egg shell thickness as affected by dietary calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded levels of dietary inclusions of oyster shell and bone meal were used as calcium sources to determine their influence on egg weight and egg thickness for laying chicken in cages, under tropical conditions. Birds were allocated at random to 8% oyster shell and 2% bone meal in treatment 1; 7% and 3% in treatment II; ...

  8. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aa

    Keywords: Egg location, hatchability, incubation, egg size, turkey. # Corresponding author. E-mail: mozcelik@mehmetakif.edu.tr. Introduction. One of the main objectives in turkey breeder production is to increase the number of poults .... the shell and dried, or hatched but adhered to the shell) death rates were determined.

  9. Performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: control group with no FPLE; 30ml FPLE/litre of drinking water; 60ml FPLE; 90ml FPLE and 120ml/litre FPLE respectively at 3 day intervals. Feed was given ad libitum. Eggs were collected at 2 week interval to determine external and internal egg qualities.

  10. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  11. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality | Morris | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 3 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality. TR Morris. Abstract.

  12. Extracts of Ascaris suum egg and adult worm share similar immunosuppressive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza V.M.O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Ascaris suum body extract (Asc prepared from male and female worms (with stored eggs down-regulates the specific immune response of DBA/2 mice to ovalbumin (OA and preferentially stimulates a Th2 response to its own components, which is responsible for the suppression of the OA-specific Th1 response. Here, we investigated the participation of soluble extracts prepared from male or female worms or from eggs (E-Asc in these immunological events. Extracts from either sex (1 mg/animal or E-Asc (0.35 or 1 mg protein/animal suppressed the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction (60-85%, proliferative response (50-70%, IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion (below detection threshold and IgG1 antibody production (70-90% of DBA/2 mice to OA. A dose of 0.1 mg E-Asc/animal did not change DTH or proliferation, but was as effective as 0.35 mg in suppressing IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and OA-specific IgG1 antibodies. Lymph node cells from DBA/2 mice injected with Asc (1 mg/animal or a high dose of E-Asc (1 mg protein/animal secreted IL-4 upon in vitro stimulation with concanavalin A. As previously demonstrated for Asc, the cytokine profile obtained with the E-Asc was dose dependent and changed towards Th1 when a low dose (0.1 mg protein/animal was used. Taken together, these results suggest that adult worms of either sex and eggs induce the same type of T cell response and share similar immunosuppressive properties.

  13. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Wiemann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protoporphyrin (PP and biliverdin (BV give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds

  14. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  15. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  16. The Effect of Addition Pineapple Peel Meal (Ananas comosus (L Merr in Diet on Total Egg and Egg Duck Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD, if the result had significant effect, would be continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that an addition pineapple peel meal in  duck diet had no effect (P>0,05 on numbers of egg and thick of egg shell, however, it had  highly significant effect (P<0,01 on fat  and  cholesterol  egg  yolk . The concluded showed that the addition of pineaple peel meal  in ducks diet can be decreasing fat and cholesterol egg yolk and can not decreasing numbers of egg and egg shell tick. Keywords: Mojosari ducks, total egg, egg shell thick, egg yolk fat, and egg yolk cholesterol

  17. Effect of egg washing and correlation between eggshell characteristics and egg penetration by various Salmonella Typhimurium strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav C Gole

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL, and strain 5 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05 in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05. When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.

  18. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  19. Parkinson's disease and driving ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-04-01

    To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in-car driving test. The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pdriving history were not correlated. Discriminant analysis revealed that the most important features in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in-car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on-road driving assessment.

  20. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yilmaz

    Full Text Available Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  1. CELLULAR RESPONSES TO EGG-OIL (CHARISMON©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bereiter-Hahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg-oil (Charismon© is known for its beneficial action in wound healing and other skin irritancies and its antibacterial activity. The physiological basis for these actions has been investigated using cells in culture: HaCaT-cells (immortalized human keratinocytes, human endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC, peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes (PBML and a full thickness human skin model (FTSM. Emphasis was on the influence of egg-oil on cell migration and IL-8 production in HaCaT cells, respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen (ROS production and proliferation in HUVEC and HaCaT cells, cytokine and interleukin production in PBML and UV-light induced damage of FTSM. IL-8 production by HaCaT cells is stimulated by egg-oil whilst in phythemagglutinin-activated PBMLs production of the interleukins IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ and TFN-α is reduced. ROS-production after H2O2 stimulation first is enhanced but later on reduced. Respiration becomes activated due to partial uncoupling of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and proliferation of HaCaT and HUVEC is reduced. Recovery of human epidermis cells in FTSM after UV-irradiation is strongly supported by egg-oil. These results support the view that egg-oil acts through reduction of inflammatory processes and ROS production. Both these processes are equally important in cellular aging as in healing of chronic wounds.

  2. Modified pressure system for imaging egg cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kurt C.; Yoon, Seung Chul; Jones, Deana R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2008-04-01

    One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders are having difficulty matching the pace of the machines. Additionally, some plants also have a problem with micro-cracks that the graders often miss because they are very small and hard to see immediately post-processing but grow and become readily apparent before they reach market. An imaging system was developed to help the grader detect these small micro-cracks. The imaging system utilized one image captured at atmospheric pressure and a second at a slight negative pressure to enhance the crack and make detection much easier. A simple image processing algorithm was then applied to the ratio of these two images and the resulting image, containing both cracked and/or intact eggs were color-coded to simplify identification. The imaging system was capable of imaging 15 eggs in about 3/4 second and the algorithm processing took about another 10 seconds. These times could easily be reduced with a dedicated, multi-threaded computer program. In analyzing 1000 eggs, the system was 99.6% accurate overall with only 0.3% false positives compared to 94.2% accurate overall for the human graders with 1.2% false positives. An international patent on the system was filed and further automation of the system is needed.

  3. Calcium Signaling in Mammalian Eggs at Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Hideki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Ito, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The innovation and development of live-cell fluorescence imaging methods have revealed the dynamic aspects of intracellular Ca2+ in a wide variety of cells. The fertilized egg, the very first cell to be a new individual, has long been under extensive investigations utilizing Ca2+ imaging since its early days, and spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics and underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ mobilization, as well as physiological roles of Ca2+ at fertilization, have become more or less evident in various animal species. In this article, we illustrate characteristic patterns of Ca2+ dynamics in mammalian gametes and molecular basis for Ca2+ release from intracellular stores leading to the elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and describe the identity and properties of sperm-borne egg-activating factor in relation to the induction of Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations, referring to its potential use in artificial egg activation as infertility treatment. In addition, a possible Ca2+ influx-driven mechanism for slow and long-lasting Ca2+ oscillations characteristic of mammalian eggs is proposed, based on the recent experimental findings and mathematical modeling. Cumulative knowledge about the roles of Ca2+ in the egg activation leading to early embryogenesis is summarized, to emphasize the diversity of functions that Ca2+ can perform in a single type of cell.

  4. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityay I.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds.

  5. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Machado-Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTicks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri,was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennenseeggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases.

  6. Protein kinase Cθ controls type 2 innate lymphoid cell and TH2 responses to house dust mite allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madouri, Fahima; Chenuet, Pauline; Beuraud, Chloé; Fauconnier, Louis; Marchiol, Tiffany; Rouxel, Nathalie; Ledru, Aurélie; Gallerand, Margaux; Lombardi, Vincent; Mascarell, Laurent; Marquant, Quentin; Apetoh, Lionel; Erard, François; Le Bert, Marc; Trovero, Fabrice; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Ryffel, Bernhard; Togbe, Dieudonnée

    2017-05-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) θ, a serine/threonine kinase, is involved in T H 2 cell activation and proliferation. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) resemble T H 2 cells and produce the T H 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 but lack antigen-specific receptors. The mechanism by which PKC-θ drives innate immune cells to instruct T H 2 responses in patients with allergic lung inflammation remains unknown. We hypothesized that PKC-θ contributes to ILC2 activation and might be necessary for ILC2s to instruct the T H 2 response. PRKCQ gene expression was assessed in innate lymphoid cell subsets purified from human PBMCs and mouse lung ILC2s. ILC2 activation and eosinophil recruitment, T H 2-related cytokine and chemokine production, lung histopathology, interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) mRNA expression, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT1) protein expression were determined. Adoptive transfer of ILC2s from wild-type mice was performed in wild-type and PKC-θ-deficient (PKC-θ -/- ) mice. Here we report that PKC-θ is expressed in both human and mouse ILC2s. Mice lacking PKC-θ had reduced ILC2 numbers, T H 2 cell numbers and activation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and expression of the transcription factors IRF4 and NFAT1. Importantly, adoptive transfer of ILC2s restored eosinophil influx and IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 production in lung tissue, as well as T H 2 cell activation. The pharmacologic PKC-θ inhibitor (Compound 20) administered during allergen challenge reduced ILC2 numbers and activation, as well as airway inflammation and IRF4 and NFAT1 expression. Therefore our findings identify PKC-θ as a critical factor for ILC2 activation that contributes to T H 2 cell differentiation, which is associated with IRF4 and NFAT1 expression in allergic lung inflammation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  8. Drive system failure control for distributed drive electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Yaou; Yang, Na; Liu, Yiqun

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at the failure problem of distributed electric drive vehicle, the conventional control strategy of drive system failure is designed according to the characteristics of each wheel torque independent control and the redundant configuration of the power unit. On this basis, combined with the traditional body stability control technology, the direct yaw moment control method is used. The simulation results show that the conventional control method designed of the drive system failure can effectively improve the driving condition of the vehicle. The driving stability of the vehicle is further improved after the direct yaw torque control is applied.

  9. Impaired Driving. Prevention Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amy

    This booklet focuses on impaired driving. The first section presents 21 facts on impaired driving. These include the number of people who lost their lives in alcohol-related crashes; the leading cause of death for young people; the average amount of alcohol consumed by people arrested for driving under the influence; the estimation that a tax…

  10. Ultrastructure of the egg apparatus of Spinacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Wilms

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The egg apparatus of Spinacia was studied from the time the embryo sac reaches its maximal size to just before fertilization, i.e., until about 8-9 hours after pollination. At maturity each synergid has a large elongated nucleus and prominent chalazal vacuoles, Numerous mitochondria, plastids, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER, and lipid bodies are present. The cell wall exists only around the micropylar half of the synergids and each cell has a distinct, striated filiform apparatus. In general, degeneration of one synergid starts after pollination. The egg cell has a spherical nucleus and nucleolus and a large micropylar vacuole. Numerous mitochondria, some plastids with starch grains, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, and HER are present. A continuous cell wall is absent around the chalazal end of the egg cell.

  11. CD4+ Th17 cells discriminate clinical types and constitute a third subset of non Th1, Non Th2 T cells in human leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with localized tuberculoid and generalized lepromatous leprosy show respectively Th1 and Th2 cytokine profile. Additionally, other patients in both types of leprosy also show a non discriminating Th0 cytokine profile with both interferon-γ and IL-4. The present study investigated the role of Th17 cells which appear to be a distinct subtype of Th subtypes in 19 tuberculoid and 18 lepromatous leprosy patients. Five healthy subjects with long term exposure to infection and 4 skin biopsies from healthy subjects undergoing cosmetic surgery were used as controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: An array of Th17 related primers for cytokines, chemokines and transcription factors was used in real time reverse transcribed PCR to evaluate gene expression, ELISA for cytokine secretion in the supernatants of antigen stimulated PBMC cultures and flow cytometry for establishing the phenotype of the IL-17, IL-21 producing cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IL-17 isoforms showed significantly higher expression and release in supernatants of antigen stimulated PBMC cultures and dermal lesions of healthy contacts and tuberculoid leprosy as compared to lepromatous leprosy (p<0.003. This was further confirmed by Th17 associated transcription factor RORC, cytokines IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23, chemokines MMP13, CCL20, CCL22. Of interest was the association of IL-23R and not IL-6R with IL-17(+ cells. The Th17 cells were CD4(+ CCR6(+ confirming their effector cell lineage. Polarized Th1 cytokines were seen in 3/7 tuberculoid and Th2 cytokines in 5/10 lepromatous leprosy patients. Of importance was the higher association of Th17 pathway factors with the non-polarized Th0 types as compared to the polarized Th1 and Th2 (p<0.01. Our study draws attention to a third type of effector Th cell that may play a role in leprosy.

  12. Analysis of CD25hiCD4+ "regulatory" T-cell subtypes in atopic dermatitis reveals a novel T(H)2-like population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefer, Amanda J; Satinover, Shama M; Solga, Michael D; Lannigan, Joanne A; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Wilson, Barbara B; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2008-02-01

    It is unresolved whether circulating CD25hiCD4+ T cells in patients with atopic dermatitis who have elevated IgE (IgE(high)) are regulatory or effector in nature. To analyze the properties of CD25hi T-cell subtypes in IgE(high) atopic dermatitis. The phenotype of circulating CD25hi T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry using PBMCs from patients with atopic dermatitis (total IgE > 250 IU/mL). Cytokines induced in CD25hi subtypes were analyzed after activation with anti-CD3 mAb (+/-IL-2) and in the presence of activated autologous effector T cells (CD25negCD4+). Reactivity to bacterial superantigen derived from the skin-colonizing organism Staphylococcus aureus was also evaluated. CD25(hi) T cells expressing regulatory T-cell markers (Foxp3, CCR4, cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen) were increased in atopic dermatitis compared with IgE(low) controls. This phenomenon was linked to disease severity. Two subtypes of CD25hi T cells were identified on the basis of differential expression of the chemokine receptor CCR6. Although the ratio of CCR6+ and CCR6neg subtypes within the CD25hi subset was unaltered in atopic dermatitis, each subtype proliferated spontaneously ex vivo, suggesting in vivo activation. Activated CCR6neg cells secreted T(H)2 cytokines, and coculture with effector T cells selectively enhanced IL-5 production. Moreover, induction of a T(H)2-dominated cytokine profile on activation with bacterial superantigen was restricted to the CCR6neg subtype. Despite a regulatory phenotype, activated CD25hi T cells that lack expression of CCR6 promote T(H)2 responses.

  13. TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation utilizes distinct signaling pathways for the production of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in neonatal immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitharini, V; Shahana, P; Prema, A; Berla Thangam, E

    2016-09-01

    Co-activation of TLR2 and TLR4 by gram negative and gram positive bacterial ligands induces a robust pro-inflammatory response in inflammatory cells. In order to understand the signaling mechanism, we aimed to delineate the signaling molecules involved in TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation in neonatal immune cells for the production of Th1/Th2/Th17 inflammatory cytokines. For this, we pretreated cord blood and peripheral blood mononuclear and human mast cells with specific signaling molecule inhibitors such as BAY117082, PD98059 and LY294002 and then stimulated with LPS and PGN and assayed for cytokines IL-6, IL-12/IL-23p40 (Th1), IL-13 (Th2), IL-23 (Th17) and RANTES secretion. We found that upon co-stimulation the phosphorylation of NFκBp65, ERK1/2 and Akt was found to be higher than when stimulated with individual ligands in CBMCs. Also, when compared to adult cells, neonatal cells were more potent in the activation of ERK and Akt through TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation. In addition, neonatal cells possess similar capacity to activate NFκB as that of adult cells for IL-6 secretion. Furthermore, all three signaling molecules were found to be involved in the production of Th17 cytokines which is detrimental during inflammation induced by infection in neonates whereas NFκB is mainly involved in the induction of pro-inflammatory response and Th2 cytokines production. In conclusion, different signaling molecules were utilized for the production of different cytokines in immune cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS ON THE CROATIAN MARKET

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    Manuela Grčević Grčević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical quality indicators of table eggs available on the Croatian market. The research was carried out on eggs produced by two manufacturers, marked as A and B, on the 7th and 28th day of egg storing. According to the Regulations on egg quality (OJ 115/06, Art. 9, eggs are classified as class A or fresh eggs and class B or eggs for industrial processing. Referring to the weight of the eggs, the eggs of class A are divided into four grades: XL, L, M and S. Our research focused on the M weight grade eggs, because they are the most represented ones in our conditions. The following external indicators of egg quality were analyzed: shape index (%, egg weight (g, shell weight (g, shell strength (kg/cm2 and thickness (mm. Furthermore, the following indicators of inner egg quality were tested: weight of albumen and yolk (g, yolk colour, Haugh units (HU, albumen height (mm, pH of albumen and pH of yolk. Results of our research provided the following conclusions: based on evaluation of energy and protein value, eggs of the manufacturer B had better nutritive value than eggs of the manufacturer A. The results of research into quality of eggs on the 7th day of storage proved that there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 between the A and B egg manufacturer if referring to the egg weight, shape index, shell thickness, shell weight and strength, as well as albumen weight. After the 28th day of egg storage, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 determined for albumen height, HU, pH values of albumen and yolk, and yolk colour (P=0.003. Based on the analysis of nutritive values and physical and chemical properties of eggs during storage, it was confirmed that eggs produced by the manufacturer B were of better quality than eggs of the manufacturer A. Eggs of both manufacturers met the requirements defined by the Croatian Regulations on egg quality.

  15. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE NATURAL EGG LAYING HABITS OF DOMESTIC GEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pandur

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the examination of the natural egg laying habits of domestic geese. The authors studied Grey Landes geese during the summer laying period. On the day of arrival of the birds a TyniTalk II artificial egg was placed in each nest. These eggs contain a microchip which detects and records data on the temperature of the surroundings. The results obtained demonstrate that after laying a certain number of eggs females laying under natural conditions sit on the nest not only when laying new eggs, but also to warm the eggs in it. The time devoted to warming increases with the laying period.

  16. Ant-egg cataract. An electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Nissen, S H

    1979-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the ant-egg cataractous lens has been studied. Comparison of tissue demineralized by means of EDTA with untreated tissue showed the calcium salts in the ant-eggs to be mostly crystalline. A laminar appearance of the ant-egg seen in EDTA treated material suggested an intermit......The ultrastructure of the ant-egg cataractous lens has been studied. Comparison of tissue demineralized by means of EDTA with untreated tissue showed the calcium salts in the ant-eggs to be mostly crystalline. A laminar appearance of the ant-egg seen in EDTA treated material suggested...

  17. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mityay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Keywords: oology, geometrical parameters of eggs, bird systematics

  18. DNA immunization with fusion of CTLA-4 to hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein enhanced Th2 type responses and cleared HBV with an accelerated kinetic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typically, DNA immunization via the intramuscular route induces specific, Th1-dominant immune responses. However, plasmids expressing viral proteins fused to cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 primed Th2-biased responses and were able to induced effective protection against viral challenge in the woodchuck model. Thus, we addressed the question in the mouse model how the Th1/Th2 bias of primed immune responses by a DNA vaccine influences hepatitis B virus (HBV clearance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasmids expressing HBV core protein (HBcAg or HBV e antigen and HBcAg fused to the extracellular domain of CTLA-4 (pCTLA-4-HBc, CD27, and full length CD40L were constructed. Immunizations of these DNA plasmids induced HBcAg-specific antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice, but with different characteristics regarding the titers and subtypes of specific antibodies and intensity of T-cell responses. The plasmid pHBc expressing HBcAg induced an IgG2a-dominant response while immunizations of pCTLA-4-HBc induced a balanced IgG1/IgG2a response. To assess the protective values of the immune responses of different characteristics, mice were pre-immunized with pCTLA-4-HBc and pHBc, and challenged by hydrodynamic injection (HI of pAAV/HBV1.2. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and DNA in peripheral blood and HBcAg in liver tissue were cleared with significantly accelerated kinetics in both groups. The clearance of HBsAg was completed within 16 days in immunized mice while more than 50% of the control mice are still positive for HBsAg on day 22. Stronger HBcAg-specific T-cell responses were primed by pHBc correlating with a more rapid decline of HBcAg expression in liver tissue, while anti-HBs antibody response developed rapidly in the mice immunized with pCTLA-4-HBc, indicating that the Th1/Th2 bias of vaccine-primed immune responses influences the mode of viral clearance. CONCLUSION: Viral clearance could be efficiently achieved by Th1/Th2-balanced

  19. iNKT Cells Are Responsible for the Apoptotic Reduction of Basophils That Mediate Th2 Immune Responses Elicited by Papain in Mice Following γPGA Stimulation.

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    Hyun Jung Park

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis-derived poly-gamma glutamic acid (γPGA treatment suppresses the development of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD. Although basophils, an innate immune cell, are known to play critical roles in allergic immune responses and repeated long-term administration of γPGA results in decreased splenic basophils in an AD murine model, the underlying mechanisms by which γPGA regulates basophil frequency remain unclear. To investigate how γPGA modulates basophils, we employed basophil-mediated Th2 induction in vivo model elicited by the allergen papain protease. Repeated injection of γPGA reduced the abundance of basophils and their production of IL4 in mice, consistent with our previous study using NC/Nga AD model mice. The depletion of basophils by a single injection of γPGA was dependent on the TLR4/DC/IL12 axis. CD1d-dependent Vα14 TCR invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are known to regulate a variety of immune responses, such as allergy. Because iNKT cell activation is highly sensitive to IL12 produced by DCs, we evaluated whether the effect of γPGA on basophils is mediated by iNKT cell activation. We found that in vivo γPGA treatment did not induce the reduction of basophils in iNKT cell-deficient CD1d KO mice, suggesting the critical role of iNKT cells in γPGA-mediated basophil depletion at the early time points. Furthermore, increased apoptotic basophil reduction triggered by iNKT cells upon γPGA stimulation was mainly attributed to Th1 cytokines such as IFNγ and TNFα, consequently resulting in inhibition of papain-induced Th2 differentiation via diminishing basophil-derived IL4. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that γPGA-induced iNKT cell polarization toward the Th1 phenotype induces apoptotic basophil depletion, leading to the suppression of Th2 immune responses. Thus, elucidation of the crosstalk between innate immune cells will contribute to

  20. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood...... had an increased IL-5 secretion. Interestingly, E4BP4 gene expression and the percentage of E4BP4(+) cells of the recently shown IL-10 transcriptional regulator E4BP4 correlated with IL-10 gene expression and protein secretion in Th1 cultures. Taken together, we report that the IL-1 family "alarmins...