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Sample records for egg yolk antibodies

  1. Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) in Routine Diagnostic Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staak, Christian

    1996-01-01

    According to Linscott"s Directory of Immunological and Biological Reagents (1994/95) the commercial availability of egg-yolk antibodies (IgY) is extremely low. For preparation, cleaning and detection of IgY it would be of advantage to have a "Protein Y" available analogous to protein A and protein G for mammalian antibodies. Until now, the search for "Protein Y" was unsuccessful. IgY has been used for routine diagnostic work covering the following subjects: 1.Identification of the host species from abdominal blood of haematophageous insects; 2.IgY-anti-horse-Ig-PO conjugate for ELISA on dourine; 3.FITC-conjugated IgY-antirabies for diagnostic work on rabies; 4.FITC-conjugated IgY against avian virus diseases (Newcastle dis., Infectious bronchitis, Gumboro). In all cases satisfactory results have been achieved.

  2. Diagnostic utility of egg yolk for the detection of avian metapneumovirus antibodies in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Yoo, Yae-Na; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2010-12-01

    Surveillance and diagnosis of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection typically involve measurement of serum antibodies. In the current study, eggs instead of serum samples were used for the detection of AMPV antibodies in egg-laying chicken hens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AMPV-free commercial layer hens were experimentally challenged with AMPV strain SC1509 through intravenous or oculonasal administration. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. AMPV antibodies were detected in egg yolks from challenged hens by 7 days postinoculation (dpi), with the peak titer at 16 dpi. Antibody levels in eggs laid at 28 dpi correlated well (r = 0.93) with sera taken 28 dpi from the same hens. In a field trial of the yolk ELISA, six broiler breeder farms were surveyed, and all tested positive for AMPV antibodies in hen eggs, although positivity varied from farm to farm. Abnormal discolored eggs collected from outbreak farms had significantly higher titers of AMPV yolk antibodies than normal eggs from the same farm, unlike clinically healthy farms, where normal and abnormal eggs had similar antibody titers. These results indicate that diagnosis of AMPV infection by yolk ELISA to detect anti-AMPV antibodies may be a suitable alternative to serologic testing.

  3. Detection of egg yolk antibodies reflecting Salmonella enteritidis infections using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, M.E.; Bouma, A.; Eerden, van E.; Landman, W.J.M.; Knapen, van F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Bergwerff, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assay was developed on the basis of a lipopolysaccharide antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (S. enterica serovar enteritidis) to detect egg yolk antibodies against S. enterica serovar enteritidis. This biosensor assay was compared to two

  4. Elisa evaluation of the levels of antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus in laying hens using egg yolk as substrate

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    RH Rauber

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to compare Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibody titers in serum and egg yolk samples from laying hens. Sixty paired blood and egg samples were collected from laying hens of two farms. Serum samples were frozen, while egg yolk samples were diluted (1:500 before freezing. Serum and yolk samples were tested for the presence of IBV antibodies by indirect ELISA (commercial kit and titers were compared by a correlation test (alpha=0.05. There was a high correlation (r=0.62 between the two kinds of samples, which means that titers of IBV antibodies in the egg yolk and in serum samples are quite the same. Considering that blood collection causes deep stress that leads to economic losses, and since eggs are collected daily on the farm, results reported here are of importance to poultry production.

  5. An Experimental Study on Production of Egg Yolk Antibody(IgY against Bee Venom

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    Hwang, Tae-Jun

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for production of neutral antibody to bee venom(anti-phospholipase A2 IgY. Hen layings were injected repeatedly with bee venom and phospholipase A2 with Freund's adjuvant. Specific antibody in egg yolk from immunized hen laying was separated, and purified, also immunological characteristics of anti-phospholipase A2 IgY was invested. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Phospholipase A2 was showed single band at molecular weight 17,000 in SDS-PAGE and bee venom was showed two band at molecular weight 17,000 and under molecular weight 6,500 in SDS-PAGE. 2. During 70 days after hen immunized with bee venom and phospholipase A2, antibodies(anti-bee venom IgY to bee venom were showed poor ELISA value in egg yolk, but antibodies(anti-Phospholipase A2 IgY to phospholipase A2 in egg yolk were increased ELISA value from 8 days or 15 days and found maximum ELISA value at 42 days. Also after booster at 49 days, ELISA value of anti-Phospholipase A2 IgY in egg yolk was supported at optical density(O.D 1.0 level, continuously. 3. Titer of phospholipase A2 IgY was showed 1: 32,000. 4. In double immunodiffusion test to phospholipase A2 after double dilution of anti-phospholipase A2 IgY, only precipitation line was made in 1:1 dilution well of anti-Phospholipase A2 IgY. But In immunodiffusion test to anti-phospholipase A2 IgY after double dilution of phospholipase A2, Precipitation line to 250ul/ml well of phospholipase A2 was showed. In double immunodiffusion test to bee venom(1mg/ml after double dilution anti-phospholipase A2 IgY, all well without 1:32 dilution well were showed strong precipitation line. 5. In dot bloting test to anti-phospholipase A2 IgY after diluting bee venom(0.5mg/ml, dot bloting color was showed clearly to 1/100(5㎍/㎖ in bee venom.

  6. Production, purification and characterization of antibodies to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D raised in chicken egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, R M; Kint, J A; Devos, M P; Van Brussel, K A; De Leenheer, A P

    1987-11-30

    For this sensitive RIA for 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, we used antibodies to 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-3-hemisuccinate conjugated to bovine serum albumin, raised in eggs by immunization of chickens. We describe an efficient method for purification of IgG from egg yolk. We characterized these antibodies with immunoelectrophoresis and by radioimmunoassay. These antibodies show a high affinity for 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 but cross react with other vitamin D metabolites as well. Extraction and liquid chromatography are necessary to isolate the 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D from human serum or plasma before determination by RIA. The sensitivity of the assay is estimated at 5 pg/tube.

  7. Effects of oral moisturising gel containing egg yolk antibodies against Candida albicans in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Motohashi, Jun; Kimori, Hisato; Nakagawa, Yoichi; Tsurumoto, Akihisa

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of oral moisturising gel containing egg yolk antibody against Candida albicans (anti-CA IgY) in older people. Therefore, we measured the number of Candia CFU present on oral swabs at baseline and after using the gel. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among volunteers living in a nursing home in Japan. The participants were divided into two groups. The group 1 participants received oral care using an experimental oral moisturising gel with anti-CA IgY, and those in group 2 received oral care using a placebo oral moisturising gel without anti-CA IgY. The oral care was performed by care workers three times a day for 4 weeks. The participants' tongues were sampled using a swab method at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of using the oral gel, and the number of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei colonies was counted. The baseline oral condition of the participants in the two groups did not differ significantly. The experimental gel significantly reduced the number of C. albicans colonies from baseline to after 4 weeks of using the oral gel; however, no significant reductions were observed in the number of C. tropicalis or C. krusei colonies. The use of oral moisturising gel containing anti-CA IgY for 1 month significantly reduces the number of C. albicans CFU present on swabs in older people. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of an egg yolk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody test and its use to assess the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in laying hens in Italy

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    Marco Tamba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in commercial layers was established by the presence of antibodies in eggs. Saline-extracted yolks were used with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. For the prevalence study, yolks from 30 eggs were obtained from each of 66 flocks coming from 36 layer farms. The prevalence of egg antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum was 33.3% in single-age farms and 77.8% in multi-age farms. In 27 flocks, antibody titers were compared with results obtained from blood samples taken in the same flock and in the same period and analyzed with the same kit. This study has confirmed that egg yolk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody test is a suitable and practical approach for assessing the flock prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in layer hens.

  9. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

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    Karthika Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  10. Plasmon enhanced fluoro-immunoassay using egg yolk antibodies for ultra-sensitive detection of herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kukkar, Manil; Ganguli, Ashok K; Bhasin, Aman; Suri, C Raman

    2013-08-07

    Plasmon enhanced fluorescence immunoassay (PEFI) format has been reported in developing a sensitive heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay for monitoring the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Computer-assisted molecular modeling was carried out to study the conformational and electrostatic effects of synthesized hapten for producing highly specific egg yolk antibody against a phenyl urea herbicide diuron. The generated antibodies were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate at different molar ratios and used as tracer in the developed fluorescence based immunoassay. The sensitivity of the assay format was enhanced by using silver nanoparticles tagged with bovine serum albumin as a new blocking reagent in the developed PEFI format. Enhancer treatment on the developed immunoassay showed a significant improvement of fluorescence signal intensity with approximately 10 fold increase in assay sensitivity. The immunoassay has a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL(-1) with good signal precision (~2%) in the optimum working concentration range between 1 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) of diuron. These findings facilitate high throughput fluorescence-based processes that could be useful in biology, drug discovery and compound screening applications.

  11. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

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    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VNcontrols (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk enriched in BRV-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent BRV diarrhea. Moreover a strong active ASC immune response is induced in the

  12. Competitive exclusion against Salmonella Enteritidis in layer chickens by yoghurt microbiota: impact on egg production, protection and yolk-antibody and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, I T; Nehme, P A; Jaber, L S; Barbour, E K

    2007-05-01

    This work aims at studying the impact of competitive exclusion of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection in layer chickens, by microbiota of fresh and dried-modified yoghurt, on egg production and weight, protection against infection, and on yolk-antibody and cholesterol levels. Four groups of 27-week-old layer chickens were included in this study. After an initial enrofloxacin treatment, groups 1 and 2 were administered fresh or dry yoghurt (respectively) for 14 days. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged intraoesophageally with Salm. Enteritidis, on the sixth day of yoghurt administration, while group 4 was left unchallenged and without yoghurt administration. No significant difference in percent infectivity of visceral organs with Salm. Enteritidis was observed between the groups. The yoghurt administered groups showed an early significant antibody response in their yolk on the seventh day postchallenge (P egg production and weight. Finally, the egg yolk cholesterol concentration was higher in Salm. Enteritidis-challenged groups than that observed in the unchallenged group. The results point to the possible involvement of yoghurt administration in immunopotentiation and improvement of egg production and weight. These findings warrant further research that could improve immunity and production in layer chickens infected with Salm. Enteritidis.

  13. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, E; Duchamp, G; Batellier, F; Beaumal, V; Anton, M; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Magistrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the egg yolk plasma fraction to whole egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. Plasma contains mainly Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), which are widely presumed to be the cryoprotective agent in egg yolk. Plasma can be produced on an industrial scale, sterilised by gamma-irradiation and incorporated in a ready-to-use extender (our ultimate objective). Plasma samples were subjected to different doses of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) without dramatic chemical changes that may affect their cryoprotective properties. Stallion semen was frozen with whole egg yolk as a control and with sterilised egg yolk plasma. A fertility trial was conducted on a total of 70 mares' cycles. Fertility per cycle was 60% after insemination of semen frozen in our control extender containing egg yolk (EY), compared to 69% for the extender containing sterilised egg yolk plasma (EYP) (P > 0.05). Post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analysed. Motility parameters were not significantly different between extenders except for the variable VAP (for EY versus EYP, VAP: 63 μm.s(-1) versus 59 μm.s(-1), a, b: P 0.05). Membrane integrity was better preserved in EY than in EYP but the difference between extenders was small (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that sterilised egg yolk plasma has the potential to replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. This experiment led to the development of a ready-to-use extender called INRA-Freeze(®) (IMV-Technologies, France). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  15. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

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    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P < 0.05). As well, the bacterial burden in the respiratory tree, intestine and coelomic liquid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained with non-specific IgY or without IgY, suggesting that specific IgY enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. Copyright © 2015

  16. Quantum dot-based lateral-flow immunoassay for rapid detection of rhein using specific egg yolk antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Kong, Hui; Liu, Xiaoman; Cheng, Jinjun; Zhang, Meiling; Wang, Yongzhi; Lu, Fang; Qu, Huihua; Zhao, Yan

    2017-10-16

    The lateral-flow immunoassays based on novel fluorescent labels have been receiving increasing attention. Here, we developed a rapid, quantitative, lateral-flow immunoassay for rapid and accurate detection of rhein (RHE). The competitive immunoassay used anti-RHE IgY (immunoglobulin of yolk) probe conjugated with QDs as reporter. Our results showed that the immunochromatographic strip can be applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of RHE in samples. For quantitative analysis, the strips were scanned by a membrane-strip reader, and a detection curve (y = -0.128ln(x) + 1.7627, correlation coefficient = 0.9792) representing the averages of the scanned data was obtained. The detection range was 80-5000 ng mL -1 and the qualitative-detection limit for RHE was 98.2 ng mL -1 . To our knowledge, this is the first report of the quantitative detection of a natural product by QDs-IgY immunochromatography, which creates a new strategy to detect the harmful or index component of TCM and may be applied as a supplement or alternative to instrument detection.

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of egg yolk plasma proteins during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu

    2017-06-01

    Physical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and egg yolk flattening occur during storage, implying a decline in egg quality. To reveal the deteriorative process related to chicken egg internal quality, a comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations in egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20 and 40 days) under an ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (P albumin, vitellogenin fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like, hemopexin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-I and β 2 -glycoprotein I precursor. Accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40). It is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors such as ovoinhibitor and α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like during prolonged storage lead to an imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will provide an insight into the effects of storage on egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of the deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of ... of WAD goat bucks during cryopreservation. Keywords: Antioxidants, bucks, freezing, oxidative stress, sperm ...

  19. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

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    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  20. Reflection of serum immunoglobulin isotypes in the egg yolk of laying hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

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    Nagendra Nath Barman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroconversion and development of egg yolk immunoglobulins in adult laying White Leghorn hens immunized against an isolate of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC bearing K91 and K88ac antigens, obtained from diarrheic piglet. Materials and Methods: Adult laying White Leghorn hens were immunized with inactivated enterotoxic E. coli strain isolated originally from a case of piglet diarrhea following recommended schedule. The development of whole antibodies and isotype-specific antibodies in serum and egg yolk were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Piglets suffering from diarrhea with fecal samples positive for ETEC were fed with egg yolk and compared with diarrheic control group. Results: The serum and egg yolk ELISA antibody titer against E. coli strain used in the present study was as high as 2666.66±307.92 and 933.33±203.67 respectively on 50 day-post-vaccination (DPV. The immunoglobulin Y (IgY was the predominant isotype in serum and egg yolk, which reached the peak titer of 2200±519.61 in serum on 40 DPV and 800±244.94 in egg yolk on 50 DPV. IgM titer in serum and egg yolk was found to be meager, and no IgA could be detected. Diarrheic piglets fed with the egg yolk suspension from immunized hens showed a promising result in controlling diarrhea. Conclusion: Egg yolk antibodies are considered a suitable immunotherapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy. High titer of egg yolk antibodies raised in the immunized hen against an isolate of ETEC holds the potential to be used for passive protection of diarrheic piglets during their most susceptible period of infection.

  1. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

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    Mohammadreza Nassiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  2. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

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    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  3. Safety and feasibility of heated egg yolk challenge for children with egg allergies.

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    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Ogura, Kiyotake; Borres, Magnus P; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-06-01

    Hen's egg allergy is a frequent cause of childhood food allergy. Egg yolk is used in various commonly consumed foods; if children with allergy to hen's egg could eat heated egg yolk, their quality of life (QOL) would improve. No reports exist regarding oral food challenges (OFCs) for heated egg yolk. We aimed to clarify whether pediatric patients allergic to hen's egg could consume heated egg yolk. Data from pediatric patients who had undergone OFCs for heated egg yolk were evaluated retrospectively. Among 919 patients, positive OFC results were obtained in 17.0% of patients; seven presented with severe symptoms. Older age, high specific IgE value for ovomucoid, low total IgE levels, and history of anaphylaxis related to food other than hen's egg were risk factors for positive OFC results. Specific IgE values for egg white, ovomucoid, and egg yolk, indicative of a negative predictive value >95%, were 0.71, 0.41, and 0.17 kU A /l, respectively. A specific IgE to ovomucoid levels of 100 kU A /l predicted heated egg yolk-positive OFCs for 38.3% of patients. Among 763 patients with a negative OFC, seven (0.9%) reacted to heated egg yolk at home, and 756 (99.1%) consumed hen's egg yolk safely. Most pediatric patients allergic to heated hen's egg safely consumed heated egg yolk. Heated egg yolk OFCs rarely provoked severe symptoms and may be recommended for improving the QOL of children with allergy to hen's egg. © 2017 The Authors Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Edible films from residual delipidated egg yolk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Ismael; Sáez, Sara; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Commercial extraction with organic solvents of valuable lipids from egg yolk produces a highly denatured protein waste that should be valorized. In this work, the delipidated protein waste remaining after ethanol extraction was used to prepare edible films. This material was also treated with transglutaminase, obtaining films that have also been characterized. When compared with gelatin and caseinate edible films, the films made with egg yolk delipidated protein showed poorer mechanical properties, but improved light barrier properties, low water solubility and a high degree of transparency. It is particularly interesting that the presence of phosvitin in the egg yolk gives the films important ferrous chelating properties. When the egg yolk delipidated protein was treated with transglutaminase, the strength of the film was improved in comparison with films made with untreated protein. Finally, addition of thymol and natamycin in the preparation of these films is shown to be an interesting alternative, providing them with antibacterial and antifungal capacities.

  5. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  6. Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, D F K; Sadler, A; Quade, S C; Sun, W-F; Lau, B P-Y; Kosarac, I; Hayward, S; Ryan, J J

    2011-06-01

    Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 3.03 ng g(-1) lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ΣPBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ΣPBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 0.053 ng g(-1) lipid). The α-isomer was the dominant contributor to ΣHBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ΣPBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ΣHBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study.

  7. Egg yolk proteins and peptides with biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins of food reveal biological activity. In the sequence of these proteins also numerous biologically active peptides are encrypted. These peptides are released during proteolysis naturally occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, food fermentation or during designed enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro. Biopeptides may exert multiple activities, affecting the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems. An especially rich source of bioactive proteins and biopeptides is egg. Bioactive peptides released from egg white proteins have been well described, whereas egg yolk proteins as precursors of biopeptides are less well characterized. This manuscript describes biologically active proteins and peptides originating from egg yolk and presents their potential therapeutic role.

  8. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  9. EXPERIMENTS OF FORTIFIED EGG YOLK POWDER IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Kiss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The egg contains inorganic binding nutrients, which are essential in human feeding. Besides a great number of nutrients, vitamins and microelements can be accumulated in egg yolk. The enrichment of vitamins and carotinoids in egg yolk can be achieved by addition of desired supplementary compounds to the feed. Fortified egg yolk can be a good source of different carotenoids, and vitamin C. Carotenoids have protecting effect as follows: antioxidant activity, immunostimulation effect and antimutagenous effect. The ascorbic acid’s biological effect is ability of oxidation-reduction. It has reduction capacity, and takes part in regeneration after glutation oxidation. In our experiment BALBc mice were fed by fortified egg yolk powder. Carotenoid, lutein, lycopene, and vitamin C were mixed into the egg yolk before lyophilisation (lutein 0.014 %; vitamin C 0.035 %, likopin 0.035 % in food. The other mice group was fed with syntetic form of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C. Mice were bled at 5th and 10th day of experiment. Blood and liver concentrations of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C were measured by HPLC method. In our experiment we compared utilization of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C concentration in different fortified food of BALBc mice.

  10. Does dietary vitamin E or C decrease egg yolk cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, Maziar; Zaghari, Mojtaba

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and C on serum metabolites, yolk cholesterol, egg quality, and performance of layer hens. One hundred sixty-eight commercial Hy-Line W-36 layer hens were randomly divided into seven groups and six replicates with four hens in each. Dietary treatments were introduced after the pre-experimental period (10 days) to adjust egg production. Treatments were levels of vitamin E or C (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) supplementation to the basal diet for 4 weeks, whereas the control group received no supplementation. Egg production, egg weight, and feed consumption were recorded during the study. Shell thickness, Haugh unit score, yolk color, yolk weight, yolk cholesterol, and blood parameters were measured at the end of experiment. There was no significant effect of dietary vitamin E or C on hen performance. Egg yolk cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly by antioxidant vitamin supplementation (P Egg yolk cholesterol reduction did not have any negative effect on egg production rate. Antioxidants, especially vitamin C, increased serum glucose concentration (P cholesterol content did not change by vitamin supplementation but cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) decreased and cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) increased (P < 0.05), as dietary vitamin E or C supplementation increased in diets. These results are in conflict with the previous hypothesis that antioxidants have a role in LDL-C removal from the blood or increasing HDL-C. Vitamin E was more effective than vitamin C in this case and if these results are confirmed by further studies, they may result to revision in researchers' point of view about antioxidant especially in human medicine.

  11. Study on preparation the egg yolk puff with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was studied chitosans with different degrees of deacetylation (70%,80%,90%,95% and different usages of chitosan that were added to research the effect of functional indexs in the egg yolk puff,such as calcium content and cholesterol content.Preliminarily chitosan was explored in the application of the Egg yolk puff.Text results showed that when the deacetylation degree of chitosan and its usage were 90% and 1% separately,the functional indexs and sensory quality of the Egg yolk puff can reach the equilibrium.Its calcium content was 76.2 mg/100 g,increased by 44.3 percent.Its cholesterol content was 290 mg/100 g,decreased by 35.1%.

  12. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  13. Benefits and Limits of Egg Yolk vs. Serum Samples for Avian Influenza Virus Serosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, E M; Grund, Christian; Aly, Mona M; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2016-06-01

    Serologic tests are a valuable tool for retrospective surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and monitoring of postvaccination host immune response. Yet collection of serum samples, particularly in adult breeder chickens, is laborious, intrusive to birds, and may pose a serious risk to the biosecurity of a flock. In this study we compared the level of AIV-specific antibody titers in eggs and serum samples obtained from broiler breeder chickens vaccinated at 6, 12, and 18 wk of age with H5N2-inactivated vaccine. Nucleocapsid protein-specific ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) against homologous as well as heterologous antigens were used. The eggs and sera were collected at 22, 30, 45, and 50 wk of age (i.e., 4, 12, 27, and 32 wk after the third and final immunization, respectively). Using ELISA, the number of positive egg yolk samples decreased over time after vaccination, from 97% to 47%, while the seropositivity rate of serum samples was 97%-100% during the whole investigation period. No antibody titers were detected in egg white. By HI, antibody titers in serum samples were higher than in egg yolk samples. Compared to the homologous H5N2 antigen, significantly lower HI titers were obtained by using a heterologous H5N1 virus of clade 2.2.1.2. In addition, no HI titers were detected in egg yolk and/or serum samples tested against the antigen of an Egyptian H5N1 antigenic drift variant of clade 2.2.1.1. This study indicates that egg yolk may be used to monitor the postvaccination immune status of broiler breeder chickens and retrospective serosurveillance-by HI when a matching antigen is available as well as by ELISA-particularly for up to 12 wk postvaccination.

  14. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.25 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the same dose at 0.4 g/kg. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period in order of the groups: 135.6, 136.7 and 138.5 units, at an average intensity of laying 90.4, 91.13 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the egg production, egg mass, egg weight and all of qualitative parameters of egg yolk (egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (°HLR were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or pollen addition (P>0.05.

  15. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology.

  16. Passive immunization with hyperimmune egg yolk IgY as prophylaxis and therapy for poultry diseases---A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive immunization with pathogen-specific egg yolk antibodies (IgY) is emerging as a potential alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of various human and animal diseases. Laying hens are an excellent source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies, which can be collected noninv...

  17. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the addition of dilute, chemically pure hydrochloric acid, and controlled fermentation is maintained by adding food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the...

  18. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of melatonin supplementation in semen extenders on cryosurvival of spermatozoa obtained from West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was studied. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of melatonin (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM) were diluted with semen samples. The diluted semen samples were ...

  19. Distribution of sulfamonomethoxine and trimethoprim in egg yolk and white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžić, Nina; Božić, Đurđica; Kolanović, Božica Solomun; Varenina, Ivana; Cvetnić, Luka; Cvetnić, Željko

    2015-07-01

    The distribution of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and trimethoprim (TMP) in egg yolk and white was measured during and after administration of a SMM/TMP combination in laying hens in doses of 8 g l(-)(1) and 12 g l(-)(1) in drinking water for 7 days. The SMM concentration reached maximal levels on day 2 of the post-treatment period for both doses (μg kg(-)(1)): 5920 and 9453 in yolk; 4831 and 6050 in white, in doses 1 and 2, respectively. Significant differences in the SMM and TMP concentrations between yolk and white in post treatment period were found. SMM dropped below the LOD (1.9 μg kg(-1)) in yolk after day 16 and 19 for doses 1 and 2. TMP reached maximal levels on day 3 after drug administration for doses 1 and 2 (μg kg(-)(1)): 6521 and 7329 in yolk, 1370 and 1539 in white. TMP residues were measured above LOD (0.3 μg kg(-)(1)) in yolk for both doses on day 37 post-treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of degree of hydrolysis (DH) on the functional properties of egg yolk hydrolysate with alcalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhi-Jie; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Chi, Yu-Jie

    2017-03-01

    Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical and functional properties of egg yolk were investigated in this study. Alcalase, neutrase and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze egg yolk. Solubility, foaming properties, emulsifying and microstructure properties of egg yolk were determined after enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed that alcalase had better efficiency of hydrolysis than neutrase and flavourzyme. Enzymatic hydrolysis caused a marked changes in protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, molecular weight distributions, microstructure and other functional properties. It was observed that egg yolk and its hydrolysates exhibited a relatively smooth curve over the entire pH range; egg yolk hydrolysates with high DH had higher solubility than those having lower DH. Foam capacity and stability generally increased with increasing DH although foam stability showed a decrease at 15% DH. Hydrolysates of egg yolk showed scattered and fewer aggregated particles. This study demonstrated that egg yolk hydrolysates could be an excellent emulsifying agent for food and other applications.

  1. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    POO) and Kilka fish oil. (KFO) on yolk fatty acid content .... Egg quality parameters such as; haugh unit score, yolk color index (as measured by ..... oil) diet on performance, carcass quality and fat status in broilers. Afr. J. Biotechnol.

  2. Effect of Egg Yolk and Cooling on Storage of Ram Coated Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadi-Nohdehy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of egg yolk and cooling on ram coated spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three ram by artificial vagina contacted with a tube containing Tris- fructose-egg yolk 15%. Samples were pooled, centrifuged by 700 g for 10 min and removed supernatant. Then, samples were diluted by Tris-glucose and centrifuged again to remove seminal plasma and egg yolk. Aliquots split into two fractions and each one was split into 5 parts and added egg yolk 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The half of the treatments were gradually cold and other ones were encountered with cold shock then samples were incubated at 5C for 72 h. Progressive sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability (by Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining and acrosome reaction (by PNA-Alexa flur-488 were investigated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The results showed that there was no difference between 15% and 20% egg yolk in the progressive sperm motility but they were higher than 0% and 5% egg yolk. There was highest difference between 0% and 20 % egg yolk in the progressive sperm motility. There was no difference among the treatments containing egg yolk in plasma membrane integrity and acrosome reaction. In both cooling rate, there was no difference among the treatments containing egg yolk in the sperm viability. It was suggested that 20% egg yolk was superior to keep the function of ram coated spermatozoa for storage at 5C.

  3. Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrs Kovalcuks

    2015-01-01

    Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this stud...

  4. Efficacy of egg-yolk citrate extender fortified with aqueous garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to harness the potential of aqueous fresh and dried garlic extracts supplement in egg yolk extender for rooster semen to improve fertility and hatchability of egg. Aqueous extract of fresh and dry garlic were obtained and supplemented into egg yolk-citrate buffer at 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% for ...

  5. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-05-17

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  6. Effect of egg yolk on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 7H12 liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, Y.; Ta, K.D.; Heifets, L.

    1988-01-01

    Of 92 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum specimens, 86 showed growth in two types of 7H12 broth, one with egg yolk and the other without egg yolk. In addition, two strains grew only in plain 7H12 broth without yolk, and four others were recovered only in the medium supplemented with egg yolk. The radiometrically detected growth was higher in the presence of egg yolk, corresponding to a higher number of CFU per milliliter in these cultures. The improvement of growth in 7H12 broth supplemented with egg yolk was most noticeable in cultures isolated from sputum specimens having a low number of acid-fast bacilli in the smear and producing only a few colonies on solid media

  7. Properties of low-fat, low-cholesterol egg yolk prepared by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringe, N A

    1997-01-01

    A dry egg yolk ingredient called Eggcellent has 74% less fat and 90% less cholesterol than liquid egg yolks, when reconstituted on an equal protein basis. The phospholipids and proteins are retained, enabling the ingredient to have the taste and texturizing properties of fresh egg yolk. Using the new yolk, it is possible to significantly improve the acceptability of low-fat, low-cholesterol bakery products, scrambled eggs and mayonnaise dressings without losing nutritional claims. The structures and functional properties of egg yolk components and the conditions required to optimize their benefits in foods are reviewed. The lipoproteins of low-fat, low-cholesterol yolk have valuable properties as flavorants, texturizers, foaming agents, emulsifiers, antioxidants, colorants, and nutraceuticals.

  8. [Effects of union of albumin and egg yolk on human semen cryopreservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Hu; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Sheng, Ji-Yun; Zhou, Jie-Ling

    2006-02-01

    To provide a more effective cryoprotective medium (CPM), effect of union of albumin and egg yolk on human sperm cryopreservation was studied. Egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate was regarded as CPM of the control group and egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate with different concentrations of albumin (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 g/L) were regarded as CPMs of experiment groups. Before and after cryopreservation, sperm movement parameters were assessed by using computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and then egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added 1 g/L albumin was selected, whose movement parameters were the best among the experimental groups, and egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrateto group as the control to compare sperm survival rate, membrane integrity, function of mitochondrion and ultrastruction. Sperm in egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate added I g/L albumin showed significantly higher motility, viability than those in the control group and other experimental groups (P egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added 1 g/L albumin had significantly higher survival rate, head unpigmenting rate than those in control group (P egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added I g/L albumin manifested significantly higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity than that in control group (P albumin and egg yolk has better effects on human sperm cryopreservation than those of solitary use of egg yolk. The action of albumin is related to its concentration, and albumin combining with egg yolk may have plus and complementary effects on human sperm cryopreservation.

  9. Production of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibody (IgY) Against Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit and Evaluation of Its Prophylaxis Potency in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Babak; Ebrahimi, Firouz; Nazarian, Shahram

    2018-03-01

    Cholera toxin (CT), responsible for the harmful effects of cholera infection, is made up of one A subunit (enzymatic), and five B subunits (cell binding). The release of cholera toxin is the main reason for the debilitating loss of intestinal fluid. Inhibition of the B subunit (CTB) may block CT activity. To determine the effect of anti CTB-IgY against oral challenge with V. cholera in suckling infant mice. The binding domain of cholera toxin was amplified and ligated into pET28a vector. The pET28a (+)/ctb expression vector was confirmed by endonuclease digestion and sequence analysis. The expression of recombinant CTB in E. coli was performed by induction with IPTG. After immunizing the chickens with recombinant CTB, IgY was purified by water dilution method and NaCl precipitation and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Moreover, the activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were assessed by ELISA. The SDS-PAGE and western blot techniques showed that CTB protein was successfully expressed and specifically recognized by polyclonal antibodies against the cholera toxin. The oral administration of anti- (V. cholera+CTB) in infant mice in challenge with active V. cholera bacterium demonstrated high rate of survival. The increase in the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria implies the necessity of finding novel antibiotics. Our results suggest the possibility of passive protection from purified IgY, hence implying that anti CTB-IgY may be useful in the treatment of cholera infections.

  10. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  11. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolk should be avoided by patients at risk of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Spence, J

    2016-04-01

    Recent recommendations that limits to dietary cholesterol be dropped were probably heavily influenced by propaganda from the egg industry. After conviction for false advertising, the industry has spent hundreds of millions of dollars to convince the public, physicians, and policy makers that dietary cholesterol and egg yolk are harmless. However, there are good reasons for longstanding recommendations that dietary cholesterol be limited to cholesterol increases cardiovascular risk. The misdirection of the egg industry focuses on fasting levels of LDL cholesterol, which are only raised by ~ 10% by consumption of egg yolks. However, the main effect of diet is on the post-prandial state: for ~ 4 hours after a high fat/high cholesterol meal, there is oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial inflammation. One large (65 g) egg yolk contains 237 mg of cholesterol, well above the recommended limit-nearly as much as a 12-ounce hamburger. Besides the very high cholesterol content of egg yolk, the phosphatidylcholine in egg yolk leads, via action of the intestinal microbiome, to production of trimethylamine n-oxide (TMAO), which causes atherosclerosis in animal models. Levels of TMAO in the top quartile after a test dose of two egg yolks were associated with a 2.5-fold increase in the 3-year risk of stroke, death, or myocardial infarction among patients referred for coronary angiography. Persons at risk of cardiovascular disease should limit their intake of cholesterol and egg yolk.

  12. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  13. Isolation of Egg Yolk Granules as Low-Cholesterol Emulsifying Agent in Mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Romero, Hollman; Zhang, Zhong; Tien Nguyen, An; Schlegel, Vicki; Zhang, Yue

    2017-07-01

    Egg yolk is an essential ingredient for many food products due to its excellent functional properties such as emulsification. However, the consumers' concern of its cholesterol level has led food industry to seek solutions for its replacement. Utilization of low-fat egg yolk granules as emulsifier can be an alternative strategy. In this study, granules with low cholesterol content were separated from egg yolk by a simple method under easily scalable centrifugal conditions. The egg yolk granules isolated within 0.17 M NaCl solution achieved a 22.5% yield that was similar to that using higher centrifugation speeds and longer time. The yield of egg yolk granules increased from 25% to 32% when the yolk:water ratio was changed from 1:1 to 1:2. Mayonnaise was prepared to evaluate the emulsifying capacity of the egg yolk granules. It was found that egg yolk granules exhibited similar emulsifying activity as that of whole egg yolk, but a better emulsion stabilizing property that is evidenced by the higher viscosity of mayonnaise prepared with the granules. In addition, the viscosities of mayonnaise prepared by spray dried yolk and granules were slightly higher than the liquid counterpart, showing a further improvement by spray drying on the emulsion stabilizing properties. The mechanical spectra of mayonnaise samples by frequency sweep also suggested that granules favored the formation of stronger 3-dimensional arrangements of oil droplets and therefore a more stable emulsion. Results suggest that granules isolated within 0.17 M NaCl solution present best emulsifying properties and can be applied as whole yolk replacer in food emulsions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (pcholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  15. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: Not for patients at risk of vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, J David; Jenkins, David JA; Davignon, Jean

    2010-01-01

    A widespread misconception has been developing among the Canadian public and among physicians. It is increasingly believed that consumption of dietary cholesterol and egg yolks is harmless. There are good reasons for long-standing recommendations that dietary cholesterol should be limited to less than 200 mg/day; a single large egg yolk contains approximately 275 mg of cholesterol (more than a day’s worth of cholesterol). Although some studies showed no harm from consumption of eggs in health...

  16. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. The multivariate egg: quantifying within- and among-clutch correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens using multivariate mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Erik; Siitari, Heli; Schwabl, Hubert; Richner, Heinz; Tschirren, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Egg components are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in birds and other oviparous species. Because different egg components can have opposite effects on offspring phenotype, selection is expected to favour their mutual adjustment, resulting in a significant covariation between egg components within and/or among clutches. Here we tested for such correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens in great tit (Parus major) eggs using a multivariate mixed-model approach. We found no association between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens within clutches, indicating that within clutches the two egg components are deposited independently. Across clutches, however, there was a significant negative relationship between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens, suggesting that selection has co-adjusted their deposition. Furthermore, an experimental manipulation of ectoparasite load affected patterns of covariance among egg components. Yolk immunoglobulins are known to play an important role in nestling immune defence shortly after hatching, whereas yolk androgens, although having growth-enhancing effects under many environmental conditions, can be immunosuppressive. We therefore speculate that variation in the risk of parasitism may play an important role in shaping optimal egg composition and may lead to the observed pattern of yolk immunoglobulin and yolk androgen deposition across clutches. More generally, our case study exemplifies how multivariate mixed-model methodology presents a flexible tool to not only quantify, but also test patterns of (co)variation across different organisational levels and environments, allowing for powerful hypothesis testing in ecophysiology.

  18. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on hen performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliomytis, M; Orfanou, H; Petrou, E; Charismiadou, M A; Simitzis, P E; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with hesperidin (one or 3 g/kg of feed) for 31 d on the performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability of brown and white laying hens (26-wk old). 2. Supplementation with hesperidin did not affect egg production, egg weight and egg quality traits. 3. No hesperidin effect on yolk and plasma cholesterol was observed. A strain effect was found with lower total and per g yolk cholesterol of brown hens in comparison to the white ones. 4. Oxidative stability of egg yolk, expressed as ng MDA/g yolk, was significantly improved in the hesperidin groups even from the first week of supplementation. At the same time, a significant improvement in the oxidative stability of egg yolk due to the incorporation of hesperidin in hens' diet was observed after 30 and 90 d of storage at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. 5. No hesperidin by strain interaction was detected for any of the traits measured. 6. In conclusion, incorporation of hesperidin to laying hens' feed did not affect productive and egg qualitative traits. On the other hand, dietary hesperidin supplementation significantly improved oxidative stability of both fresh and stored eggs. Antioxidant properties of hesperidin seem to make it a promising natural agent for improving the shelf life of eggs.

  19. Effect of retinyl palmitate supplementation on egg yolk retinol and cholesterol concentrations in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, H M M; Dias da Silva, K H; Alves dos Santos, V V; dos Santos Cavalcanti, J; Dimenstein, R

    2008-07-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to assess the incorporation of retinol into quail egg yolk and cholesterol concentration in response to supplementation with different quantities of retinyl palmitate (600, 1200, 2400 and 4800 microg). 2. Supplementations were performed weekly for 4 weeks and the yolk retinol was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. 3. The results showed a progressive increase in the incorporation of retinol into the egg yolk in response to supplementation, reaching values 384% higher than control values. 4. At the end of supplementation we observed a significant decrease in egg yolk retinol concentrations with supplementations of 2400 and 4800 microg, the most enduring showing high retinol contents even after 3 weeks. 5. Supplementation increased egg weight but neither egg production nor cholesterol levels were significantly altered.

  20. Effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 strain on egg yolk fat and cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to evaluate the functional efficiency of a probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M74 in the feed on egg yolk weight, egg yolk fat and cholesterol contents of Shaver Starcross 288 hens.  Feed in the experimental group was enriched with a probiotic additive containing of 5*109 viable Enterococcus faecium per g. Egg samples a total 30 pcs per group were collected during the first egg-laying period at week 28 and 38 of hens´ age. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Significantly lower concentrations of egg yolk cholesterol were found in the experimental group at week 28, and week 38 in compare with controls. In conclusion, the addition of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium M74 to the feed of Shaver Starcross 288 hens reduced cholesterol in egg yolk at all sampling times. Even though the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics has not yet been fully understood, it is an established fact that cholesterol and bile salt metabolism are closely linked. However, the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics based on the bile salt hydrolase activity hypothesis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated.

  1. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  2. Maternal yolk testosterone in canary eggs : toward a better understanding of mechanisms and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Wendt; Boonen, Sofie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Eens, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Maternal yolk androgens in avian eggs have been shown to affect numerous offspring traits. These changes in offspring phenotype represent examples of maternal effects and are thought to adjust offspring development to the posthatching environment. When studying the functional consequences of yolk

  3. Mass spectrometry characterization for N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin Y from hen egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody that exists in hen egg yolk. It is a glycoprotein, not much is known about its N-glycan structures, site occupancy and site-specific N-glycosylation. In this study, purified protein from hen egg yolk was identified as IgY based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. N-glycan was released from IgY using peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase treatment, and the molecular weight of IgY was calculated using the difference between the molecular weight of IgY and deglycosylated IgY. Two potential N-Glycosylation sites (ASN 308 and ASN 409 ) were detected on IgY by nanoLC-ESI MS. Sugar chains were separated using normal phase liquid chromatography after fluorescence labeling, and 17 N-glycan structures were confirmed using ESI-MS. The sugar chain pattern contained high-mannose oligosaccharide, hybrid oligosaccharide and complex oligosaccharide. These results could lead to other important information regarding IgY glycosylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sphingomyelin exhibits greatly enhanced protection compared with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine against detergent bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Portincasa, P.; Palasciano, G.; Groen, A. K.; van Erpecum, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    Inclusion of phosphatidylcholine within bile salt micelles protects against bile salt-induced cytotoxicity. In addition to phosphatidylcholine, bile may contain significant amounts of sphingomyelin, particularly under cholestatic conditions. We compared protective effects of egg yolk

  5. Chemical method for determination of carbon dioxide content in egg yolk and egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, K M; LaCrosse, J D; Babson, J K

    2001-07-01

    The safety, quality, and shelf life of shell eggs is a function of carbon dioxide content. A commercial process was recently developed for rapidly cooling shell eggs by using cryogenic CO2. The benefit of this new process over existing cooling processes is that the CO2 addition during cryogenic cooling provides additional safety and quality enhancements. In order for these benefits to be fully developed into a process that can be adopted by the egg industry, and thus realized by the consumer, the amount of CO2 absorbed by the egg during this process needs to be quantified. Because the albumen pH of rapidly cooled eggs was reduced to pH neutralization. A simple and accurate method for determining CO2 content in acidified egg albumen and yolk samples was developed. This method involves the liberation of CO2 from an acidified egg sample into a standardized, dilute sodium hydroxide solution inside a sealed jar. The egg sample and a small beaker containing the standardized sodium hydroxide solution are placed in a glass jar and sealed. Next, a concentrated acid phosphate solution is injected through a rubber septum in the cap of the jar onto the egg sample, while avoiding contact with the sodium hydroxide solution. The sample is then stored at 37 C for 24 h. During this storage period, the carbon dioxide is released from the egg sample and is absorbed into the sodium hydroxide solution. Afterwards, the dilute sodium hydroxide solution is removed and titrated to the phenolphthalein endpoint using a dilute, standardized hydrochloric acid solution. The amount of hydrochloric acid solution required for neutralization can be directly related to CO2 content in the sample.

  6. Egg Yolk Protective Effect in Boar Spermatozoa Cooled at 5ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Vasile Rusu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many boar reproduction researches are directed to improve extenders and to increase cold shock protection of semen. Little research is focused on the influence of egg yolk combined with alternative cold shock protective media. Egg yolk could interfere with other compounds present in the extender composition. The influence of egg yolk addition was assessed in boar sperm cells, cooled at 5ºC, to elucidate its effect on motility and membrane integrity. Flow Cytometry and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA were used to determine the rate of sperm with intact plasma and acrosomal membrane, respectively the sperm cells motility. Statistical analyses (T-Test were performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00. Androhep Plus supplemented with 20% egg yolk (AhPlus+20%EY indicated a higher cold shock protection in progressive motility (93.9±2.64% and membrane integrity (79.78±4.14%, rather than the extender without egg yolk (p0.05. The combination egg yolk-AhPlus seems to be an alternative to standard extenders, conferring stability in boar sperm cells against cold shock.

  7. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health.

  8. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria Tenella Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effec­tively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated.Methods: Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophi­lized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oo­cysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed.Results: The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG, reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P0.05.Conclusion: Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis.

  9. OSMOTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN THE HEN'S EGG, AS DETERMINED BY COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF YOLK AND WHITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E

    1932-09-20

    The osmotic pressure of the yolk and white of the hen's egg have been shown to be identical, by means of direct freezing point determinations, dialyses, and vapor pressure measurements. Dialysates of egg yolk slow the rate of ice formation compared with NaCl solutions. They also show a marked change of freezing rate as the freezing point is approached. The anomalous freezing behavior of this material may lead to errors in the determination of the true freezing point which would tend to make the value for the yolk erroneously low. The postulate of a vital activity at the yolk membrane maintaining an osmotic pressure difference is thus shown to be unnecessary, since a simple osmotic equilibrium exists between the yolk and the white.

  10. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

  11. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POO) and Kilka fish oil (KFO) on yolk fatty acid content, ratio of fatty acids (FAs), antibody titre, and blood and yolk cholesterol of laying hens. One hundred White Hy-Line 26-wk-old (W-36) hens were allotted to 6 dietary treatments containing 0, 1.5 ...

  12. Determination of yolk contamination in liquid egg white using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, K; Konda Naganathan, G; Jonnalagada, D; Mortensen, I; Wehling, R; Subbiah, J

    2016-07-01

    Purified egg white is an important ingredient in a number of baked and confectionary foods because of its foaming properties. However, yolk contamination in amounts as low as 0.01% can impede the foaming ability of egg white. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that yolk contamination in egg white could be detected based on its molecular optical properties. Yolk contaminated egg white samples (n = 115) with contamination levels ranging from 0% to 0.25% (on weight basis) were prepared. The samples were excited with a 785 nm laser and Raman spectra from 250 to 3,200 cm(-1) were recorded. The Raman spectra were baseline corrected using an optimized piecewise cubic interpolation on each spectrum and then normalized with a standard normal variate transformation. Samples were randomly divided into calibration (n = 77) and validation (n = 38) data sets. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict yolk contamination levels, based on the Raman spectral fingerprint. Raman spectral peaks, in the spectral region of 1,080 and 1,666 cm(-1), had the largest influence on detecting yolk contamination in egg white. The PLSR model was able to correctly predict yolk contamination levels with an R(2) = 0.90 in the validation data set. These results demonstrate the capability of Raman spectroscopy for detection of yolk contamination at very low levels in egg white and present a strong case for development of an on-line system to be deployed in egg processing plants. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolk should be avoided by patients at risk of vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    David Spence, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent recommendations that limits to dietary cholesterol be dropped were probably heavily influenced by propaganda from the egg industry. After conviction for false advertising, the industry has spent hundreds of millions of dollars to convince the public, physicians, and policy makers that dietary cholesterol and egg yolk are harmless. However, there are good reasons for longstanding recommendations that dietary cholesterol be limited to

  14. Variation in Egg Yolk Colour in Different Systems of Rearing Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 72 laying hens (ISA BROWN hybrid combination were divided into two groups. Thirty-six layers in the first group were reared on litter while the second group of layers was reared using the cage rearing system. Samples of eggs were collected from both groups for a period of seven months. Yolk colour was determined using a portable spectrophotometer using a newly developed method, which complied with the CIELAB system. Yolk colour indicator L* decreased for the rearing system on litter, i.e. egg yolk colour became darker in the course of the whole experiment (α = 0.05. Indicator a* showed a distinct increase in the case of the rearing system on litter, with the differences being significant (α = 0.05 over the last three months of the experiment. Differences for the whole experiment were highly conclusive (α = 0.01, as seen from the increasing red colour intensity. Similarly, indicator b* also increased, i.e. egg yolk was of more distinct yellow colour. In the case of the cage-rearing system, egg yolk colour indicators correlated well with egg weight indicators, as compared to the rearing system on litter. The rearing system on litter resulted in significantly increased intensity of orange colour compared to the cage rearing system.

  15. Gal d 6 is the second allergen characterized from egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Blanco, Juan; Villota, Julian; Juste, Sonsoles; Moneo, Ignacio; Caballero, María Luisa

    2010-06-23

    Only one allergen from the egg yolk, alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) has been described thus far. A new egg yolk allergen was detected studying 27 egg allergic patients. The study was performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting and IgE-immunoblotting-inhibition assays. An egg yolk extract was fractioned by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the new allergen detected was characterized by N-terminal amino acid analysis. A total of 5 of the 27 patients (18%) detected a yolk allergen of an apparent molecular weight of 35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Heating and reduction treatments did not affect its allergenicity, although digestion with simulated gastric fluid diminished the IgE-binding capacity of the allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence corresponded with the YGP42 protein, a fragment of the vitellogenin-1 precursor. Thus, a second egg yolk allergen has been described and designated Gal d 6 by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee.

  16. Cryopreservation of bull semen: Evolution from egg yolk based to soybean based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, S S; Mohanty, T K; Kumaresan, A; Parks, J E

    2016-09-01

    Since the inception of bovine semen cryopreservation, egg yolk and milk based extenders have been used to protect sperm from the detrimental effects of cooling and freezing. In recent years, demand for alternatives to conventional commercial extenders has arisen as the risk of introducing exotic diseases through transporting egg yolk based products has been recognized. Egg yolk can also interfere with sperm evaluation and the presence of particulate material in the extender may reduce fertility. Soybeans contain lecithin, a phospholipid fraction that can substitute for high molecular weight lipoprotein and phospholipids from egg yolk and prevent or ameliorate damage to the sperm plasma membrane that occurs during extension, cooling, and cryopreservation. Soy lecithin based extenders have been evaluated for processing and freezing bovine semen, although extender from soybean milk has not been studied as extensively. Commercially available soy lecithin based extenders are used increasingly but remain under scrutiny and are not universally accepted. With these observations in mind, this review is intended to examine effects of conventional cryopreservation procedures, methods of assessment, and potential for developing soybean extract as an acceptable alternative to traditional egg yolk and milk based extenders for bull sperm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altuntaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control, 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77. Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7 and C18:1 (n-9 in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in the egg yolk.

  18. Colour and viscosity of egg yolk after addition of beetroot to feed for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kopřiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour and viscosity of egg yolk are among major indicators assessed by consumers and food technology. This study attempts to evaluate the colour and viscosity of yolk in laying hens’ eggs after the addition of dried beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra at the amount of 1% and 2% per feeding dose (in July and August 2012. The experiment was performed on 24 hens that were divided into three groups of 8 laying hens. The preparatory phase lasted one week (standard diet, followed by four weeks during which experimental layers received a diet enriched with beetroot. Then, all layers were fed a mixture without beetroot for the following four weeks. Eggs were collected during the whole period of 8 weeks. In total, 30 eggs from each group were subjected to analysis. The colour of eggs was determined using spectrophotometry, by the Colour-guide sphere spex portable colorimeter. The results showed a significant (P ab did not show a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the control and experimental groups. The egg yolk viscosity was lower in experimental groups compared to the control group but the difference was not significant. The addition of dried beetroot at the amount of 1 and 2% per feeding dose had no effect on colour and viscosity. This paper supported the null hypothesis that the addition of dried beetroot to the feeding dose at the amount of 1% and 2% has no effect on the colour and viscosity of egg yolk.

  19. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M. Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A. H.; Smits, Mari A.; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Woelders, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  20. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.; Hulst, M.M.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Smits, M.A.; Vries, de B.; Weites, I.; Groothuis, T.G.; Woelders, H.

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  1. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  2. Effect of dietary karaya saponin on serum and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2010-12-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary karaya saponin on cholesterol deposition in laying hens. 2. A total of 40 Boris Brown hens were randomly assigned at 20 weeks of age to 4 treatment groups and fed on diets supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg karaya saponin for an 8-week experimental period. 3. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation, karaya-saponin-treated groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol (23·0%) and triglycerides but increased high density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration than controls, irrespective of karaya saponin content in the diet. Egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced by dietary karaya saponin. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by karaya saponin but bile acids concentration in the faeces and liver were significantly increased by karaya saponin. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the yolk were greater in hens receiving karaya saponin than in controls. Karaya saponin significantly increased egg production, feed efficiency and yolk colour compared with controls. Karaya saponin tended to increase egg weight, feed consumption, Haugh units, albumen weight and yolk index. 4. In conclusion, karaya saponin is a potential agent for reducing yolk cholesterol concentration together with an overall increase of production performance and improvement in egg quality.

  3. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  4. Dietary Egg Yolk Supplementation Improves Low-Protein-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erami, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yasutake; Kawamura, Sayaka; Miyago, Motonori; Sawazaki, Ai; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients and contains different bioactive substances. In the present study, we studied the benefits of egg yolk in preventing low-protein-diet-induced fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed the following diets, which were based on the AIN-76 formula, for 2 wk: an adequate-protein diet containing 20% casein (C), a low-protein diet containing 5% casein (LP-C), a low-protein diet supplemented with 12.5% egg yolk (LP-EY), and a low-protein diet supplemented with 4.1% egg yolk oil (LP-EYO). The low-protein diets were adjusted to contain 4.13% protein and 4.7% lipids. The LP-C diet resulted in a greater increase in the liver trigriceride (TG) and the vacuolation and a greater decrease in the serum TG and free fatty acid (FFA) than did the C diet. These deviations in the serum and liver TG, serum FFA levels and the liver histopathology were corrected in rats fed the LP-EY diet but not in those fed the LP-EYO diet. Compared to rats fed the LP-C diet, although the activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes (fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme) decreased in rats fed both of the LP-EY and LP-EYO diets, the level of the microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) increased only in rats fed the LP-EY diet. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary egg yolk supplementation decreases the LP diet-induced accumulation of TG in the liver by increasing transport of TG in the liver, and egg yolk oil alone is not sufficient enough to bring about these benefits.

  5. Invitro Assessment of Bacteriostatic Potency of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P1

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in commercial layer chickens to assess the bacteriostatic potency of egg yolk immunoglobulin IgY against food poisoning pathogen. The O antigen of food poisoning pathogen Escherichia coli was prepared and used to immunize commercial layer chickens. The eggs which contain anti-E.Coli IgY was collected on 30 th day of first injection and stored at 4 0 C. The antibacterial IgY was separated by water dilution method (10 times diluted with distilled water, pH 5.0 - 5.5, incubated at 4 0 C for 6 hrs and purified by 60 % ammonium sulphate. The recovery of IgY was in range of 57-62 %. The pathogens in Tryptic soya broth (approx. 6X108/ ml were cultured with anti-E.coli IgY @ 20 mg /ml and inhibitory effect was measured in UV spectrophotometer at 550 nm. The resultant growth curve indicated that the application of polyclonal antibodies (Ig Y on meat could be used to prevent the E.coli food poisoning. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 460-462

  6. Cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterol-egg yolk lipoprotein complex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Muto, Ayano; Kimura, Mamoru; Hoshina, Ryosuke; Wakamatsu, Toshio; Masuda, Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    Free plant sterols cannot be dissolved in oil or water. Using free plant sterols and egg yolks, we developed a plant sterol-egg yolk lipoprotein complex (PSY) that can be dispersed in water and considered suitable for use in processed foods. The cholesterol-lowering activity of PSY was equal to that of free plant sterols and plant sterol esters. Consumption of a freeze-dried PSY-containing omelet reduced serum and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. The results suggest that PSY has cholesterol-lowering activity equivalent to that of free plant sterols and plant sterol esters. Moreover, the cholesterol-lowering activity of PSY was maintained in processed foods.

  7. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P egg weight (P egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P cholesterol and triglyceride (P egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  10. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, M.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Kamps, L.M.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Togtema, K.A.; Amerongen, van A.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young

  11. The effects of biopolymer encapsulation on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk during in vitro human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-08-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effe...

  13. Lipid composition of liver in rats fed diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodžić Aida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition on the fatty-acid composition and lipid content in rat’s liver. During four weeks of the experiment 64 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 16 individuals each (eight individuals of both sexes and fed a commercial feed mixture for rats (group C or diet containing 70% commercial mixture for rats and 30% freshly cooked egg yolks from laying hens fed diets with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Dietary supplementation with egg yolks significantly increased the hepatic cholesterol pool in rats, regardless of the type of fat in the diet of laying hens from which the eggs originated. The content of α-linolenic acid in the liver of male rats in group P was 4-6 times higher compared to males in the other groups. Liver lipids and their fatty-acid composition differ by both, sex and dietary modified egg yolk composition in rats.

  14. Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Whether an individual develops as a male or a female is one of the most important “decisions” that a ... Thus, the objective of the present review is (i) to provide an overview of such paradoxical observations on the role of maternal yolk steroids in sex ..... This second (non-adaptive) explanation fits well with the majority of ...

  15. Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; Dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL-1 concentration range with (3.2 +/- 0.3) mV/µg.mL-1 of sensitivity and 0.09 µg.mL-1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue.

  16. Specific egg yolk immunoglobulin as a new preventive approach for Shiga-toxin-mediated diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Neri

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins (Stxs are involved in the development of severe systemic complications associated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC infection. Various neutralizing agents against Stxs are under investigation for management of EHEC infection. In this study, we immunized chickens with formalin-inactivated Stx-1 or Stx-2, and obtained immunoglobulin Y (IgY from the egg yolk. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY recognized the corresponding Stx A subunit and polymeric but not monomeric B subunit. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY suppressed the cytotoxicity of Stx-1 and Stx-2 to HeLa 229 cells, without cross-suppressive activity. The suppressive activity of these IgY was abrogated by pre-incubation with the corresponding recombinant B subunit, which suggests that the antibodies directed to the polymeric B subunits were predominantly involved in the suppression. In vivo, the intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of these IgY rescued mice from death caused by intraperitoneal injection of the corresponding toxin at a lethal dose. Moreover, oral administration of anti-Stx-2 IgY reduced the mortality of mice infected intestinally with EHEC O157:H7. Our results therefore suggest that anti-Stx IgY antibodies may be considered as preventive agents for Stx-mediated diseases in EHEC infection.

  17. Neutralization effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) and Fab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the neutralization effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) and Fab' fragment against lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and identify possible approaches to prevent and treat LPS related injuries. Mice with third-degree burns covering 30% of the total body surface and exposed to LPS were orally ...

  18. Comparison between the effect of egg yolk-based extender and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison between the effect of egg yolk-based extender and Aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis ) based extender on red tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) sperm ... However, AVBX showed the potential for semen preservation as well with 10% AVBX for best sperm viability while 30% AVBX offered the best result in sperm ...

  19. Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The egg yolk pigmenting properties of increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) of pepper spent in the diet of White Leghorn layers was evaluated. Six months old two hundred and forty layers were divided randomly into six groups of 40 layers. Each group was further divided into two replicate groups of 20 layers and assigned ...

  20. Improved isolation and characterization procedure of sialylglycopeptide from egg yolk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Lin; Prudden, Anthony R; Bosman, Gerlof P.; Boons, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489

    2017-01-01

    Sialylglycopeptide (SGP) is a complex bi-antennary N-glycan bearing a short peptide fragment that can be isolated from the yolk of hen eggs. This natural product has gained popularity as a starting material for the semi-synthesis of N-glycans. We have found that current isolation methods provide a

  1. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  2. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12 from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull with mass motility (≥3+ and total motility (70% and above were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01 higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%.

  3. Egg-Yolk Sphingomyelin and Phosphatidylcholine Attenuate Cholesterol Absorption in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Chen, Guoxun; Ma, Meihu; Qiu, Ning; Zhu, Lingjiao; Li, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Phospholipids have been shown to modulate intestinal cholesterol absorption in cells and animals, a process that is regulated by several transporter proteins. Of these proteins, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is a major contributor to this process. The mechanism by which phospholipids modulate cholesterol absorption remains unknown. Here, we evaluate the effects of egg-yolk phospholipids on cholesterol absorption and transport in human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2 cells) and on the expression of NPC1L1 and others proteins associated with cholesterol absorption (ABCG5, ABCG8, ABCA1, ACAT2, MTP, CAV-1, ANX-2). The roles of SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 in this process were also investigated. The results show that egg-yolk sphingomyelin (CerPCho) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) inhibit cholesterol transport in the Caco-2 monolayer in a dose-dependent manner. These might be due to the decrease of the cholesterol solubility in micelles as well as to the increases in the micellar sizes and the bile acid-binding capacity. Furthermore, the treatments with egg-yolk CerPCho or PtdCho at 1.2 mmol/L reduced the expression levels of NPC1L1 protein to 21 or 22%, respectively, and its mRNA to 9 or 31% of that in the control group (p egg-yolk PtdCho and CerPCho on the mRNA levels of SREBP-1, and SREBP-2. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of egg-yolk CerPCho and PtdCho on cholesterol transport might be due to their interference with the physicochemical properties of micelles and their regulations on the expression of the NPC1L1 gene. © 2018 AOCS.

  4. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David; Jenkins, David J A; Davignon, Jean

    2010-11-01

    A widespread misconception has been developing among the Canadian public and among physicians. It is increasingly believed that consumption of dietary cholesterol and egg yolks is harmless. There are good reasons for long- standing recommendations that dietary cholesterol should be limited to less than 200 mg/day; a single large egg yolk contains approximately 275 mg of cholesterol (more than a day's worth of cholesterol). Although some studies showed no harm from consumption of eggs in healthy people, this outcome may have been due to lack of power to detect clinically relevant increases in a low-risk population. Moreover, the same studies showed that among participants who became diabetic during observation, consumption of one egg a day doubled their risk compared with less than one egg a week. Diet is not just about fasting cholesterol; it is mainly about the postprandial effects of cholesterol, saturated fats, oxidative stress and inflammation. A misplaced focus on fasting lipids obscures three key issues. Dietary cholesterol increases the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation, increases postprandial lipemia and potentiates the adverse effects of dietary saturated fat. Dietary cholesterol, including egg yolks, is harmful to the arteries. Patients at risk of cardiovascular disease should limit their intake of cholesterol. Stopping the consumption of egg yolks after a stroke or myocardial infarction would be like quitting smoking after a diagnosis of lung cancer: a necessary action, but late. The evidence presented in the current review suggests that the widespread perception among the public and health care professionals that dietary cholesterol is benign is misplaced, and that improved education is needed to correct this misconception.

  5. The impact of N-glycosylation on conformation and stability of immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Yaofa; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody, and its applications in industry are very broad. To provide insight into the effects of N-glycosylation on IgY, its conformation and stability were studied. In this research, IgY was extracted from egg yolk and then digested by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase. SDS-PAGE and infrared absorption spectrum showed that carbohydrates were distinctly reduced after enzymolysis. The circular dichroism spectrum indicated that the IgY molecule became more flexible and disordered after removal of N-glycan. The fluorescence intensity revealed that Trp residues were buried in a more hydrophobic environment after disposal of N-glycan. Storage stability decreased with the removal of oligosaccharide chains based on size-exclusion chromatography analysis. Deglycosylated IgY exhibited less resistance to guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding. After deglycosylation, IgY was more sensitive to pepsin. Therefore, N-glycosylation played an important role in the maintenance of the structure and stability of IgY. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of marine algae (Spirulina platensis) and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahroojian, N; Moravej, H; Shivazad, M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary marine algae (Spirulina platensis) on egg yolk colour, and compare the effectiveness of Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens fed on a wheat-based diet. In total, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens of 63 weeks of age were studied by dividing them into 5 groups, 32 birds in each. Except for the control group (based on wheat and soyabean meal), the feed for three other groups contained 1·5, 2·0 and 2·5% of Spirulina; while one group contained synthetic pigments (BASF Lucantin® yellow: 30 mg/kg, and BASF Lucantin® red: 35 mg/kg). Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight and egg yolk colour were determined. A significant increase in egg yolk colour was observed in the treatments that received the Spirulina and synthetic pigment, compared with the control diet. There were no significant differences between the treatments with 2·5% Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour. Finally, the results indicated that the diet containing 2·5% Spirulina could be as effective as the diet with synthetic pigment in producing an agreeable egg yolk colour.

  7. The Effect of Modified Eggs and an Egg-Yolk Based Beverage on Serum Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations and Macular Pigment Optical Density: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elton R.; Plat, Jogchum; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Kijlstra, Aize; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched eggs or a lutein enriched egg-yolk based buttermilk beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment levels. Naturally enriched eggs were made by increasing the levels of the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin in the feed given to laying hens. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited and randomized into 5 groups for 90 days. Group one added one normal egg to their daily diet and group two received a lutein enriched egg-yolk based beverage. Group three added one lutein enriched egg and group four one zeaxanthin enriched egg to their diet. Group five was the control group and individuals in this group did not modify their daily diet. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment densities were obtained at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Macular pigment density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum lutein concentration in the lutein enriched egg and egg yolk-based beverage groups increased significantly (plutein or zeaxanthin enriched egg yolks as well as an egg yolk-based beverage show increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels that are comparable with a daily use of 5 mg supplements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00527553 PMID:24675775

  8. Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  9. Influence of natural and synthetic carotenoids on the color of egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carotenoids are incorporated into the diet of laying hens in order to modify the yolk color. A natural source of carotenoids in tropical countries is annatto, which could be used in the diets of hens. This study aimed to evaluate the addition of natural (annatto and synthetic carotenoids to the diet of laying hens (commercial and alternative and their effects on yolk color and consumer sensory perception of fresh and stored eggs obtained from two different preparations (boiled and fried. Physicochemical analysis of proximate composition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, emulsion activity and instrumental color were performed. Cooking caused significant alterations to the moisture in the preparations and this may have directly affected the color intensity, influencing factors related to egg appearance. In this study, 85 % of the panelists indicated that yolk color is an important attribute of the product’s quality. There was no antioxidant effect of the carotenoids in raw eggs. Synthetic additives should be better dosed to obtain the desired effect. Storage did not alter the proximate composition of the eggs.

  10. Effect of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on egg-yolk cholesterol and laying hen performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, U; Miah, A G; Tareq, K M A; Maki, T; Tsujii, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on the laying hen. A total of forty 23-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (10 laying hens/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04% R. capsulatus during the 60-d feeding period. Dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus (0.04%) reduced (P cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum (15 and 11%), as well as in egg-yolk (13 and 16%) over a 60-d feeding period. Cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum as well as egg-yolk were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary R. capsulatus. Supplementation of R. capsulatus in diets increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and decreased (P cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (P egg production, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit, yolk index, and feed conversion efficiency compared with the same parameters for the control laying hens. It is postulated that known and unknown factors are present in R. capsulatus presumably responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect on laying hens. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers.

  11. Immunoreactivity of hen egg allergens: influence on in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the presence of other egg white proteins and of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Gustavo; López-Fandiño, Rosina; Molina, Elena

    2013-01-15

    Hen egg white comprises of a complex mixture of proteins, which greatly differ in their physicochemical characteristics and relative abundance. We aimed to identify potential undiscovered egg allergens within the egg white proteome and investigated the existence of matrix effects on the proteolytic stability and resultant IgE-binding of the allergenic proteins. In addition to the main egg allergens: ovalbumin (OVA), ovomucoid (OM) and lysozyme (LYS), two minor egg white proteins, tentatively identified as ovoinhibitor and clusterin, were found to react with serum IgE from egg-allergic patients. Egg white exhibited residual immunoreactivity after gastrointestinal digestion due to the presence of intact OVA and LYS, as well as of several IgE-binding peptides derived from OVA. The presence of egg yolk slightly increased the susceptibility to hydrolysis of egg white proteins and abrogated bile salt-induced precipitation of LYS in the duodenal medium. However, the resultant immunoreactivity against IgE of egg white proteins after in vitro digestion was not significantly modified by the presence of yolk components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lesser known indigenous vegetables as potential natural egg yolk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six-week study involving two hundred and fifty (250) Harco black layer birds at point of lay was carried out to investigate the effects of potential natural colourant on performance and egg quality traits. The birds were assigned to five (5) dietary treatments, each containing supplements either of control, baobab leaf (BL), ...

  13. Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Goodrow-Kotyla, Elizabeth F; Wooten, Billy R; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin may reduce the risk of dry, age-related macular degeneration because of their photo-oxidative role as macular pigment. The present study evaluated serum lutein, zeaxanthin, and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) responses at 0.25 degrees , 0.5 degrees , and 1 degree retinal eccentricities to the consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d by older adults taking cholesterol-lowering medications. Subjects consumed foods containing 2 followed by 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk each with a 4-wk egg-free period at baseline and between the 2 interventions. Changes in MPOD (n = 37) with egg yolk consumption were inversely associated (P egg yolks at the 3 retinal eccentricities. MPOD increased by 31% (P = 0.059) at 0.5 degrees with 2 egg yolks. Serum lutein increased by only 16% and 24% (P egg yolks, respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol increased by 5% (P egg yolks. Serum LDL cholesterol did not change with either egg yolk treatment. Consumption of 4 egg yolks/d, and possibly of 2 egg yolks/d, for 5 wk benefited macular health in older adults with low MPOD. Serum HDL cholesterol increased without an increase in LDL cholesterol in this study population, most of whom were taking cholesterol-lowering statins.

  14. Volatile flavours in raw egg yolk of hens fed on different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagemann, Ina; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-30

    Recent studies have suggested that the composition of lipophilic components of egg yolk is influenced by the feed. The aim of the present study was to isolate volatile flavours from egg yolk after different feeding trials using solvent extraction and thin layer high-vacuum distillation. The resulting aroma extract was analysed by various gas chromatographic techniques. Chickens were either fed with laying meal, laying meal plus cabbage and onion or laying meal plus rapeseed oil or held in free-range. The predominating odour impressions were described as onion-like. Comparing all analytical and sensory data of the flavour extracts, there were minimal differences among the respective samples. Free-range eggs contained fewer volatile compounds than the other samples, whereas rapeseed oil supplementation caused an enrichment of sulfur compounds. While data from gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were less conclusive, the results from sulfur-specific analysis using gas chromatography/flame photometric detection showed a considerable effect. However, because of the low abundance of sulfur compounds in the yolk, these differences are not expected to be perceivable by the consumer. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Maternally derived egg hormones, antibodies and antimicrobial proteins: common and different pathways of maternal effects in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune

  16. Interspecies variation in yolk selenium concentrations among eggs of free-living birds: The effect of phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Athanasios C; Karadas, Filiz; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Cassey, Phillip; Bortolotti, Gary R; Speake, Brian K

    2006-01-01

    Birds deposit the trace element selenium (Se) into their eggs because an adequate supply of this micronutrient is essential for embryonic development. Although there is considerable interest in egg Se with regard to topics as diverse as poultry nutrition and environmental pollution, data on the natural levels of Se in eggs of free-living avian species are currently very limited. To address this lack of information, we measured the yolk Se concentrations in eggs of 14 avian species collected in the wild. The concentrations (ng/g wet yolk) varied from 394 to 2238, with a mean value of 1040. Values (means+/-SD) for eggs from the UK, Canada and New Zealand were, respectively, 522+/-192 (3 species), 1194+/-584 (8 species) and 1147+/-200 (3 species). However, analysis by appropriate statistical models indicates that the effect of phylogenetic relatedness among these species is so significant that it removes any effect of geographical location. In particular, species belonging to the order Passeriformes displayed significantly higher yolk Se levels than Non-Passeriforme species. In marked contrast to the free-living species, our previously published data indicate that the Se concentration in egg yolk of the domestic chicken is only about 100 ng/g wet yolk when the birds are maintained on a basal commercial diet without supplementary Se. The results reveal an extensive interspecies variation in yolk Se (across a 6-fold range) for eggs collected from the wild. Nevertheless, the Se concentrations in the yolks of all the free-living species were far higher (4-21-fold) than that achieved in the yolk of the domestic chicken consuming a standard basal diet.

  17. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of plant sterol-enriched diets on plasma and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol metabolism in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Zhao, H L; Thiessen, S; House, J D; Jones, P J H

    2010-02-01

    Egg exists as a major dietary source of cholesterol in Western diets. In North America, laying hen diets are usually devoid of cholesterol when diets are formulated to exclude animal-based products. Hence, laying hens meet their physiological cholesterol requirement through de novo synthesis. Plant sterols exert a cholesterol-lowering effect in humans by interfering with intestinal sterol absorption. However, it is unknown whether plant sterol supplementation could be effective in reducing intestinal reabsorption of biliary cholesterol in laying hens, thus modulating whole body cholesterol in favor of lower plasma and yolk cholesterol content. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of diets enriched with 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% plant sterols on cholesterol absorption, synthesis, as well as plasma, liver, and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. After 8 wk of plant sterol intervention (first 2 wk were acclimatization), feed intake, BW, egg weight, egg yolk weight, egg production, Haugh units, liver mass, plasma, and hepatic cholesterol concentrations did not differ as a function of plant sterol supplementation. Egg cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) fluctuated during the 6-wk experimental period. At wk 6, a minor reduction in egg yolk cholesterol concentration (mg per g of yolk, Pcholesterol-enriched diets, respectively. However, such result failed to affect total egg cholesterol content. No statistical difference was observed across treatments over 6 wk. Neither cholesterol absorption rates nor synthesis differed as a function of treatment. Results suggested that overall cholesterol content in egg yolk was not affected by feeding hens plant sterol-enriched diets over 6 wk.

  19. A Novel Pattern of Yolk Processing in Developing Snake Eggs (Colubridae: Lampropeltini) and its Functional and Evolutionary Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2017-07-01

    Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern. In this paper, scanning electron microscopy and histology were used to study mechanisms of yolk processing in two colubrid snakes, the kingsnake Lampropeltis getula and the milksnake L. triangulum. Endodermal cells from the yolk sac splanchnopleure proliferate massively as they invade the yolk sac cavity, forming elaborate chains of interlinked cells. These cells grow in size as they phagocytose yolk material. Subsequently, vitelline capillaries invade the masses of yolk-laden cells and become coated with the endodermal cells, forming an elaborate meshwork of cell-coated strands. The close association of cells, yolk, and blood vessels allows yolk material to be cellularized, digested, and transported for embryonic use. The overall pattern is like that of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus, but contrasts markedly with that of birds. Given recent evidence that this developmental pattern may also occur in certain lizards, we postulate that it is ancestral for squamates. Studies of lizards, crocodilians, and turtles are needed to clarify the evolutionary history of this pattern and its implications for the evolution of the amniotic (terrestrial) vertebrate egg. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The relationship between carbon stable isotope ratios of hatchling down and egg yolk in Black-headed Gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Baarspul, T.; Dekkers, T.; Van Tienen, P.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstructed the nutrient source for egg synthesis by sampling Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs for yolk, analyzing their carbon stable isotope ratio, and comparing that to hatchling down. Most of the variation in carbon stable isotope ratio was explained by differences between nests,

  1. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is important for reducing egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The nutrient-rich yolk interior is a relatively infrequent location for initial SE deposition in eggs, but migration across the vitelline membrane can ...

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance.

  3. Advances in techniques for reducing cholesterol in egg yolk: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, Gema; Vázquez, Manuel

    2018-03-07

    Eggs are highly nutritious food whose high cholesterol content has been always an inconvenience due to concerns about the relationship between dietary cholesterol and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk. As this remains uncertain, low cholesterol intake is recommended. This review deals with the techniques employed to reduce the cholesterol content in egg yolk once the egg is shelled. There are four main techniques: i) solvent extraction, ii) fractionation by centrifugation, iii) cholesterol chelates or adsorbents and iv) cholesterol biotransformation. Analyse of techniques, descriptions and recent advances are included in this review. Solvent extraction and cholesterol biotransformation allow to reduce up to 94.7% and 93.4%, respectively. However, both methods have not been scaled up due to food safety and economic reasons. Nowadays, fractionation by centrifugation and cholesterol chelates are the only feasible methods with industrial applications, obtaining up to 82% and 99%, respectively. Fractionation method can be considered the best because no substances are added.

  4. β-Cryptoxanthin biofortified maize (Zea mays) increases β-cryptoxanthin concentration and enhances the color of chicken egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-Q; Davis, C R; Schmaelzle, S T; Rocheford, T; Cook, M E; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-02-01

    The laying hen has a natural ability to deposit carotenoids into its egg yolks, especially the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein that is used commercially as an egg colorant. Can this ability to deposit carotenoids be used to enrich egg yolk provitamin A value? After a 10-d carotenoid depletion period in hens (n = 24), the effects of a 20-d intervention with high-β-cryptoxanthin, high-β-carotene, or typical yellow maize on color and carotenoid profile were compared with the effects of a white maize diet (n = 6/treatment). Eggs were collected every other day and yolks were analyzed by using a portable colorimeter to define the color space and by using an HPLC to determine the carotenoid profile. The high-β-cryptoxanthin and yellow maize increased β-cryptoxanthin in the yolk (0.55 ± 0.08 to 4.20 ± 0.56 nmol/g and 0.55 ± 0.08 to 1.06 ± 0.12 nmol/g, respectively; P color (L*, a*, and b*) assessment of the yolks showed an increase in the high-β-cryptoxanthin treatment for the red-green a* scale (P vehicle to elevate provitamin A equivalents and to enhance the color of yolks. This could lead to a human health benefit if widely adopted.

  5. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the performance of laying hens, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor, and serum components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelan Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480 were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05. However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05. On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell.

  6. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Meike; Quataert, Miriam; Kamps, Lisette; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M; Togtema, Arnoud; van Amerongen, Aart; Mensink, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young subjects participated in this 6-weeks randomized controlled study. Subjects consumed either a "plain" control beverage (n = 26), a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage (n = 25), a dried version of this beverage (n = 25), or a beverage composed of the dried individual components of the drink (n = 24). The fresh and both dried versions of the lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage were able to increase serum lutein levels after 6 weeks of consumption (lutein change: -38 ± 47 nmol/L, +304 ± 113 nmol/L, +148 ± 79 nmol/L and +178 ± 83 nmol/L for control, fresh, dried and combined dried group respectively; p lutein-enriched egg-yolk compared to the control drink.

  7. EFFECT OF UNRIPE GRAPE JUICE (VERJUICE ON PLASMA LIPID LEVELS IN RABBITS RENDERED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC BY FEEDING EGG YOLK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aminian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Since many years it has been a general belief in Iranian traditional medicine that unripe grape juice (verjuice has lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Fifty rabbits were selected and divided into 5 groups with 10 rabbits in each. Group 1 had no supplemental diet. Group 2 were fed 10 ml egg yolk daily and group 3 were fed 10 ml egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for six weeks. In the second part of study, 20 rabbits rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding egg yolk for six weeks, then they were divided into two groups: Group 4 received 10 ml of the egg yolk daily, and group 5 received 10 ml of the egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for the next 6 weeks. The plasma lipid profiles were measured at the beginning and then every two weeks. In the first part of study total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations in group 2 rose 10 times in comparison with group 1, but addition of verjuice in group 3 did not prevent rising of these values. In the second part of study, TC and LDL-C values rose in groups 4 and 5 in a parallel fashion. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG were not statistically significant throughout the study. In conclusion, this study did not support preventive or therapeutic effect of verjuice in hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome.

  9. Egg yolk emulsion agar, a new medium for the cultivation of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Westblom, T U; Madan, E; Midkiff, B R

    1991-01-01

    We developed a new agar, egg yolk emulsion (EYE) agar, for cultivation of Helicobacter pylori. EYE agar contains Columbia agar base (Oxoid), 10% EYE (Oxoid), 1% IsoVitaleX (BBL), and 40 mg of Triphenyleteraxolium chloride (Sigma) per liter. We compared EYE agar with the following agars: (i) brain heart infusion agar-7% horse blood-1% IsoVitaleX (GDW agar; C. S. Goodwin, E. D. Blincow, J. R. Warren, T. E. Waters, C. R. Sanderson, and L. Easton, J. Clin. Pathol. 38:1127-1131, 1985), (ii) brain ...

  10. Successful Treatment of Rotavirus-induced Diarrhoea in Suckling Mice with Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Shafiqul A.; Pant, Neha; Juneja, Lekh R.; Hammarström, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    The role of specific immunoglobulins at mucosal sites in imparting protection against disease, such as rotavirus-associated diarrhoea, is well-established. Oral immunoglobulin therapy with egg yolk-derived antirotavirus immunoglobulins has previously been shown to achieve moderate therapeutic effect in diarrhoea due to rotavirus in a clinical trial. Here, data on the therapeutic potential of the same immunoglobulin preparation in an infant mouse model of rotavirus-induced diarrhoea is presented. The use of an animal model has allowed therapy to be evaluated with higher doses of immunoglobulins and has suggested that an improved therapeutic effect can be achieved by increasing the dose in the clinical setting. PMID:18402190

  11. Kinetics of solubilization with Triton X-100 of egg-yolk lecithin bilayers containing cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Hobai, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The titration solubilization of multilamellar egg-yolk lecithin liposomes (MLV-EYL) with Triton X-100 was studied by rectangular optical diffusimetric measurements as a function of cholesterol (Chol) concentration. It was determinated the variation of optic percentage diffu-sion (per mmol surfactant), DDif%/mmol TX-100, in the course of solubilization of MLV-EYL-Chol system with TX-100 10mM. The statistical analysis of the titration curves can reveal the contribution of cholesterol to the sta...

  12. Preventive effect of anti-VacA egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) on Helicobacter pylori-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Sook; Ki, Mi-Ran; Ullah, H M Arif; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kim, Yong Deuk; Chung, Myung-Jin; Elfadl, Ahmed K; Park, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2018-01-08

    Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of gastric disorders and gastric cancer in the human stomach. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is among the multi-effect protein toxins released by H. pylori that enables its persistence in the human stomach. To evaluate the effect of anti-VacA egg yolk immunoglobulin (anti-VacA IgY) on H. pylori infection, a highly specific anti-VacA IgY was produced from egg yolks of hens immunized with a mixture of two purified recombinant VacAs. Female C57BL/6 mice were supplemented anti-VacA IgY daily with drinking water for 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after H. pylori ATCC 43504 inoculation. Anti-VacA IgY recognized both native and denatured structures of VacA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting analyses, respectively. Oral administration of anti-VacA IgYs significantly (p anti-H. pylori antibodies compared to those in the H. pylori-infected, untreated group. The reduction in the immune response was accompanied by a significant (p anti-VacA IgY treated group compared to other groups. Concomitantly, H. pylori-induced histological changes and H. pylori antigen-positivity in gastric tissues were decreased significantly (p anti-VacA IgY treated group similar to the control group. Oral administration of anti-VacA IgY is correlated with a protective effect against H. pylori colonization and induced histological changes in gastric tissues. Our experimental study has proved that it is expected to be a new drug candidate of Hp infection by further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization Efficiency of Yolk Egg on Maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare Embryos and Larvae in Different Incubation Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the efficiency of yolk egg utilization in embryos and larvae, hatching rate, incubation time to hatch, and growth rate of maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare larvae incubated at room remperature, 27oC, and 30oC.  Results of study showed that yolk egg utilization efficiency of embryos and larvae incubated at 30oC was 73.70% and 0,18%, respectively, and no different with that of room and 27oC incubation temperatures.  Hatching rate of eggs incubated at 30oC (84.75% was also same with that of other treatments.  However, incubation time to hatch (27.41 hours was shorter than that of other treatments.  The growth rate by length of larvae (2.16% and survival rate (75.28% incubated at 30oC was also higher compared with that of other treatments.  Thus, in general, optimum temperature for egg hatching and larval rearing of maanvis was 30oC. Keywords: maanvis, Pterophyllum scalare, egg yolk, larvae, embryo, temperature   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur pada embrio dan larva, derajat penetasan, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas, dan laju pertumbuhan serta kelangsungan hidup larva ikan maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare yang diinkubasi pada suhu ruang, 27oC dan 30oC.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur bila diinkubasi pada suhu 30oCsebesar 73,70% pada fase embrio dan 0,18% pada fase larva, dan tidak berbeda dengan suhu ruang dan 27oC.  Demikian juga dengan derajat penetasan telur  (84,75% tidak berbeda dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Sementara itu, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas (27,41 jam lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan suhu inkubasi perlakuan lainnya. Demikian juga dengan laju pertumbuhan panjang (2,16% dan kelangsungan hidup larva (75,28% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Dengan demikian, secara umum suhu optimal untuk penetasan dan pemeliharaan larva ikan maanvis adalah 30°C. Kata kunci: ikan maanvis

  14. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolk from chickens fed diets supplemented with purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Rahim; Dogan, Israfil

    2010-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of purslane on egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, yolk fatty acid composition, and egg cholesterol content in laying hens. Sixty 80-week-old layers were allocated randomly to receive diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg(-1) or 20 g kg(-1) dried purslane for 84 days. Egg weights and egg production in the groups were recorded daily, whereas feed intake was measured weekly. Diet supplemented with 20 g kg(-1) purslane significantly decreased body weight of the chickens compared to the control. Inclusion of purslane at the level of 10 g kg(-1) or 20 g kg(-1) into the diet significantly (P egg weight compared to the control. Chickens fed the diet including 20 g kg(-1) purslane had a significantly (P egg production and improved feed efficiency compared to the control. Cholesterol content of eggs from the hens fed 0, 10 or 20 g kg(-1) did not differ and was 10.45, 9.51 or 9.51 mg g(-1) dried egg yolk, respectively. Inclusion of purslane at the level of 20 g kg(-1) into the diet significantly (P eggs from chickens fed 10 g kg(-1) or 20 g kg(-1) purslane supplemented diets compared to the control. This study showed that adding dried purslane to the diet of laying hens significantly increased egg production and egg weights although there was no reduction in the egg cholesterol concentration. This study also showed that inclusion of purslane into diet enriched eggs with omega-3 fatty acids and decreased the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 in the yolk. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Green synthesis and characterisation of platinum nanoparticles using quail egg yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Gungor, Azize Alayli; Ince, Selvi; Babagil, Aynur

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is extensively used in all parts today. Therefore, nano synthesis is also significant in all explored areas. The results of studies conducted have revealed that nanoparticle synthesis is performed by using both chemical and physical methods. It is well known that these syntheses are carried out at high charge, pressure and temperature in harsh environments. Therefore, this study investigated green synthesis method that sustains more mild conditions. In this study, quail egg yolk having high vitamin and protein content was prepared for green synthesis reaction and used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in the reaction medium. Reaction situations were optimised as a function of pH, temperature, time and concentration by using quail egg yolk. The results showed that the highest platinum nanoparticles were synthesised at 20 °C and pH 6.0 for 4 h. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was established as 0.5 mM. The synthesised platinum nanoparticles were characterised by using UV spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  16. Arsanilic acid modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for Purification of alkaline phosphatase from hen's egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi-Khajeh, Hamed; Safa, Kazem D; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies of magnetic carrier technology have focused on its applications in separation and purification technologies, due to easy separation of the target from the reaction medium by applying an external magnetic field. In the present study, Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles were prepared to utilize a chemical co-precipitation method, then the surfaces of the nanoparticles were modified with arsanilic acid derivatives which were used as the specific nanocarriers for the affinity purification of alkaline phosphatase from the hen's egg yolk. The six different types of magnetic nanocarriers with varied lengths of the linkers were obtained. All samples were characterized step by step and validated using FTIR, SEM, EDX, VSM and XRD analysis methods As the results were shown, the use of inflexible tags with long linkers on the surface of the nanocarrier could lead to better results for separation of alkaline phosphatase from the hen's egg yolk with 76.2% recovery and 1361.7-fold purification. The molecular weight of the purified alkaline phosphatase was estimated to be 68kDa by SDS-PAGE. The results of this study showed that the novel magnetic nanocarriers were capable of purifying alkaline phosphatase in a practically time and cost effective way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of semen collection method and level of egg yolk on capability of dilution and storage of buck semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Dhaher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group. Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%. Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL, the value of the average velocity (VAP, the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL, and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH. Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects

  18. Effects of Temperature and Duration of Storage on the Stability of Antioxidant Compounds in Egg Yolk and Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Nyiri, Zoltán; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Török, János

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants help protect tissues from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In view of the widespread interest in egg yolk and plasma antioxidants in relation to environmental and life-history variables, there is a need for knowledge on the necessary conditions for sample storage, which is currently lacking. In this study, our purpose was to examine the kinetics of the degradation of lutein, retinol, and tocopherol in egg yolk samples and the total antioxidant capacity in plasma samples stored at three different temperatures (-20°, -50°, and -80°C) for 24 mo. We found that yolk lutein was stable during the study period. Yolk retinol and tocopherol showed a steep early decline and then remained relatively stable, but retinol showed significant losses at the end of the study period too. In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference in the stability of antioxidant compounds of egg yolk samples stored at different temperatures. Plasma OXY level was stable during the first 6 mo, showed a slight decline between 6 and 12 mo, and declined more intensely after 12 mo of storage. We suggest that studies focusing on the analysis of egg yolk retinol or tocopherol concentrations and total plasma antioxidant capacity should analyze the samples in the first 6-7 mo after collection. For the analysis of yolk lutein, samples can be stored for 24 mo without significant degradation. The storage temperature of -20°C seemed to be sufficient, as a lower temperature did not significantly affect the slope of degradation of the samples.

  19. Histological structures of native and cooked yolks from duck egg observed by SEM and cryo-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Chiang; Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming

    2009-05-27

    A method was used to fix duck egg yolk while retaining its original sol structure to elucidate the fine structure of native yolk by using fixation with liquid nitrogen and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Native yolk spheres showed a polyhedron shape with a diameter at approximately 50 to 100 μm and packed closely together. Furthermore, the interior microstructure of the native yolk spheres showed that a great amount of round globules ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 μm were embedded in a continuous phase with a lot of voids. After cooking, the sizes of the spheres were almost unchanged, and the continuous phase became a fibrous network structure observed by SEM with chemical fixation probably constituted of low density lipoprotein (LDL). The fine structure of the native yolk can be observed by cryo-SEM; however, the microstructure of yolk granules and plasma from cooked shell eggs can be observed by SEM with chemical fixation.

  20. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the carotenoid concentration in egg yolks depending on the feeding and housing conditions of the laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Karoline; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Fluhr, Joachim W; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2012-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopic measurements are suited to analyze the concentration of carotenoid antioxidants in biological samples. Previously, it has been shown that the carotenoid concentration of nutritional egg yolks has a direct influence on the carotenoid content of human skin in vivo. In the present study, resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the carotenoid concentration in the yolks of hen eggs, which were housed in battery cages or alternatively on free-range grassland. The egg yolks of hens, which had access to grassland, contained approximately double the amount of carotenoid concentration than the egg yolks of hens housed in battery cages (p egg yolks, depending on fodder, housing and weather conditions, were investigated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kobayashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6 fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25 created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7, those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6. In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively, resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05. We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein.

  2. The influence of consuming an egg or an egg-yolk buttermilk drink for 12 wk on serum lipids, inflammation, and liver function markers in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Kelly, Elton R; van der Made, Sanne; Berendschot, Tos Tjm; Husche, Constanze; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2013-10-01

    Dietary cholesterol elevates serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations modestly. There are indications that the cholesterol-raising effect depends on the food matrix, that is, sphingolipids and lactic acid bacteria are suggested to influence cholesterol metabolism. Traditional buttermilk is rich in both sphingolipids and lactic acid bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether effects on cholesterol metabolism depend on food matrix (e.g., cholesterol provided as egg [yolk] or incorporated into traditionally prepared buttermilk drink). Participants (N = 97) took part in a 12-wk intervention study. The controls (n = 20) continued their regular egg consumption of one to two eggs a week. The other two groups consumed either one extra egg per day (n = 57) or a buttermilk drink containing one egg yolk (n = 20). Blood was sampled at day 1 and at the end of the experimental period (day 90) to analyze serum lipids, lipoproteins, and markers reflecting cholesterol metabolism, low-grade systemic inflammation, endothelial activity, and liver function. Serum TC and LDL-C concentrations increased significantly by respectively 0.63 mmol/L (P egg per day compared with controls. There were no effects on markers for inflammation, endothelial activity, or liver function. The increase in serum TC and LDL-C concentration was no longer significant in women consuming the same egg yolk incorporated in a buttermilk drink (0.33 mmol/L [P = 0.66] and 0.31 mmol/L [P = 0.55], respectively). Daily egg consumption for 12 wk increases serum TC and LDL-C concentrations in women but not markers for inflammation, endothelial activity, and liver function. Interestingly, the rise in serum LDL-C concentrations is less pronounced when egg yolk is incorporated into a buttermilk drink, indeed suggesting that fractions in the buttermilk might influence dietary cholesterol absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased consumption of dietary cholesterol, lutein, and zeaxanthin as egg yolks does not decrease serum concentrations and lipoprotein distribution of other carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Gendron, Candice M; Goodrow-Kotyla, Elizabeth F; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2010-11-01

    We have previously reported that consumption of lutein and zeaxanthin as 2 and 4 egg yolks per day for 5 weeks significantly increased serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults taking cholesterol-lowering statins. We hypothesized that increased consumption of eggs, lutein, and zeaxanthin may correlate with decreased absorption of other carotenoids and increased absorption of vitamins A and E, thus affecting their serum concentrations and lipoprotein distribution. Fifty-two subjects aged at least 60 years consumed 2 egg yolks per day followed by 4 egg yolks per day for 5 weeks each with a 4-week egg-free period at baseline and between the 2 interventions. Mean serum β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and retinol concentrations did not change during the 2 and 4 egg yolk phases. Mean serum α-cryptoxanthin and γ-tocopherol concentrations did not change after the 2 egg yolk phase, but increased by 47% (P egg yolk phase. The percentage distribution of carotenoids and tocopherols between the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL fractions was not significantly different during the egg yolk phases compared with baseline despite the significant increases in lutein and zeaxanthin carried on HDL and non-HDL fractions. In conclusion, increased dietary cholesterol, lutein, and zeaxanthin consumed as egg yolks did not decrease the absorption of other carotenoids, and increased γ-tocopherol but not retinol as evidenced by their serum and lipoprotein concentrations. Two and 4 egg yolk consumption increases serum and retinal lutein and zeaxanthin without altering the serum status of the other carotenoids, tocopherol, and retinol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of a diet supplemented with sea-buckthorn pomace on the colour and viscosity of the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea-buckthorn pomace is a very valuable product which contains not only important nutrients but also high-quality oils. The question addressed in the present study was to what extent the diet containing the sea-buckthorn pomace would affect the viscosity and colour of egg yolk measured in the CIELAB system. The feeding mixture for laying hens was supplemented with 20; 50 and 100 g∙kg-1 of sea-buckthorn pomace. As a result, colour indices of the egg yolk such as L*, a* and b* changed significantly (α = 0.01. The greatest relative enhancement was observed for indicator a* for the red colour. Visually, this corresponds to the more intense orange colour of the egg yolk. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet for laying hens resulted in a larger increase in indicator ∆E* (CIE total colour difference compared to the control group. Colour indicator hab is the only indicator whose value oscillated around that determined for the control group. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet resulted in an increase in colour indices a*, b* and C*ab. Indicator ∆E* also increased significantly with an increasing amount of sea-buckthorn pomace in a diet. Egg yolks were darker, had more intense red and yellow colours, and showed lower viscosity which are all features preferred by the consumer.

  5. DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF POWDERED EGG YOLK ADDED TO THE ACP-103® EXTENDER IN SWINE SEMEN CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Toniolli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to improve the conservation of boar semen. Egg yolk is known to have cryoprotectant properties. This study aimed to test different concentrations of egg yolk added to the coconut milk powder extender (ACP-103®, and verify which one is better to maintain sperm viability. The ejaculated (36 were diluted in ACP-103® supplemented with different concentrations of egg yolk (0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7%. The conservation occurred at 17 °C, and vigor and motility analysis were carried out daily. On days 1 (D0, 3 (D2 and 5 (D4 the semen was evaluated for vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance. For statistical nonparametric analysis Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests were performed, and for parametric data ANOVA and Tukey test were used. A decrease in vigor and motility was observed in all treatments. Treatments T2, T3 and T4 better maintained spermatic on D0 (2.4±0.8, 2.5±1.1, and 2.8±0.9, respectively, with no signi cant differences among them. The same was observed for motility (77±15%, 74±23%, and 81±16% on D0. Analyses of vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance did not show statistical difference among treatments. In conclusion, the concentration of egg yolk (7% added to the ACP-103® can be e ectively used as extender to maintain sperm viability.

  6. Effects of different rearing and feeding systems on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignoli, Giovanni; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Mandrioli, Mara; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Laura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-12-23

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks produced with two rearing systems (battery cages and free-range) and two types of feedings (conventional and organic) were studied. Nine fresh egg yolks of each crossed treatment were pooled, frozen for a month, freeze-dried, vacuum-packed, and kept at -18 degrees C until analysis. No significant differences were observed in the lipid (58.0-62.1%) and total sterol contents (33.0-35.5 g/kg of lipids) of the freeze-dried egg yolks. Free rearing and conventional feeding systems resulted in significantly higher total tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein contents, as compared to the battery cage and the organic feed, respectively. However, no significant differences were found in lipid oxidation (peroxide value = 0.7-0.9 mequiv of O(2)/kg of fat; thiobarbituric reactive substances = 1.0-1.3 mg of malonylaldehyde/kg of sample) and cholesterol oxidation (28.8-43.5 mg of cholesterol oxidation products/kg of lipids; 0.08-0.12% oxidized cholesterol) of freeze-dried egg yolks except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, which was significantly lower in samples obtained with organic feed.

  7. An outbreak of food poisoning due to egg yolk reaction-negative Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, N; Kawamura, A; Masuda, T; Akiyama, M

    2001-03-20

    An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning due to an egg yolk (EY) reaction-negative strain occurred in Japan. Twenty-one of 53 dam construction workers who ate boxed lunches prepared at their company cafeteria became ill, and eight required hospital treatment. The outbreak showed a typical incubation time (1.5-4 h with a median time of 2.7 h) and symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea) of staphylococcal food poisoning. Staphylococcus aureus, which produces staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A, was isolated from four fecal specimens of eight patients tested. Scrambled egg in the boxed lunches contained 20-40 ng/g of SEA, and 3.0 x 10(9)/g of viable S. aureus cells that produced this toxin. All isolates from patients and the food were EY reaction-negative, coagulase type II, and showed the same restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern. We concluded that the outbreak was caused by scrambled egg contaminated with EY reaction-negative S. aureus. In Japan, outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning are mainly caused by EY reaction-positive S. aureus, and EY reaction-negative colonies grown on agar plates containing EY are usually not analyzed further for detection of S. aureus. The present outbreak suggested that EY reaction-negative isolates should be subjected to further analysis to detect the causative agents of staphylococcal food poisoning.

  8. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L

    2009-09-01

    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  9. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L; Muddiman, David C; Daniels, Harry V; Reading, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage

  10. Dietary supplementation of Gracilariopsis persica is associated with some quality related sera and egg yolk parameters in laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Behnam; Davood, Sharifi S; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah

    2015-02-01

    Gracilariopsis persica (Gp) is one of the most abundant red algae distributed in the Persian Gulf, containing various bioactive components with hypolipedimic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. Therefore using laying quails as a model we aimed to investigate the effect of dietary Gp on body weight, feed conversion, estradiol, progesterone, calcium and lipid levels in serum, as well as the high-density:low-density lipoprotein (HDL:LDL) ratio. Yolk cholesterol and yolk lipid oxidation were also evaluated. To accomplish this, diets containing 0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) Gp were fed to 5-week-old laying quails for 12 weeks. Our data revealed that Gp had no effect on body weight, feed conversion, triglycerides and estradiol levels of serum. Dietary Gp decreased the serum and yolk cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the sera progesterone and calcium levels and HDL:LDL ratios were increased by feeding diets containing 50 g kg(-1) Gp. Our results relating to yolk lipid oxidation showed that malondialdehyde content was decreased in Gp-fed laying quails. The results of the present study demonstrate that not only serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels, but also susceptibility of yolk lipids to oxidation, can be decreased by feeding Gp to laying quails. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Changes in Quality of Native and Frozenthawed Semen in Relation to Two Collections Performed in a 24-hour Interval and Adition of Clarified Egg Yolk to Extender

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    Folková P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of repeated semen collection and the substitution of normal egg yolk with clarified egg yolk to commercially produced semen extender on qualitative parameters of frozen-thawed canine semen. Two semen collections were scheduled in a 24-hour interval and in each of six dogs, three 1st and three 2nd collections were performed. The frozen-thawed sperm samples were prepared either with clarified or normal egg yolk and motility and viability were evaluated. The effect of the sequence of semen collection was demonstrated by significant differences in motility and also in viability of sperms both in native and frozen-thawed ejaculate. The percentage of viable sperms was significantly higher in samples from the 2nd compared to the 1st collection. This trend was the same also in motility except in native ejaculate. The addition of clarified egg yolk was beneficial for higher survival of sperms immediately after thawing and also after 30 min of incubation, compared to samples with normal egg yolk. Sperm motility evaluated after thawing was higher in samples with clarified egg yolk, without an apparent connection with semen collection sequence. The decrease of values of the qualitative parameters of sperms observed in the period of 30 min of incubation was significantly slowed down when clarified egg yolk was used. This was especially obvious in samples from the 2nd collection.

  12. Thymol feed supplementation in quail alters the percentages of nutritionally relevant egg yolk fatty acids: effects throughout incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria E; Marin, Raul H; Luna, Agustin; Zunino, Maria P; Labaque, Maria C

    2017-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are crucial components of egg yolk and particularly prone to oxidative damage, generating losses of nutrients for embryonic development and influencing the quality of eggs for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary thymol (a natural antioxidant) is related to changes in quail egg yolk total (T), triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition at different stages of embryo development. Thus female Japanese quail (100 days of age) were assigned to one of two dietary treatments (12 individuals each): CON (basal diet) or THY (0.0016 mol thymol day -1 per bird). After 2 weeks of supplementation, eggs were incubated and samples were obtained at 0, 4 and 16 days of embryonic development. In 0 day THY eggs, α-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFA in T and TG, docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA in T and arachidonic acid in TG were increased, while saturated fatty acids (SFA) in T were reduced. From 4 days on, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and SFA from T and TG in THY eggs were found to be similar to those of CON eggs. The changes in PL throughout incubation were similar in both dietary treatments. Thymol would provide the embryo with PUFA for synthesis/deposition in membranes and/or assign to supply energy. Additionally, thymol supplementation would be advisable for the production of healthier table eggs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The effect of dietary flaxseed meal on liver and egg yolk fatty acid profiles, immune response and antioxidant status of laying hens

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    Tarek M. Shafey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementing laying hen diets with 0, 50, or 100 g flaxseed meal (FSM/kg over a 12-week period on liver and egg yolk fatty acids (FA composition, liver and serum lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx], serum lipids (triglyerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, proteins (total protein, globulin and albumin, and immune response [serum antibody titres to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and white blood cell count (WBC and differential (heterophils (H, lymphocytes (L, monocytes (M, eosinophils (E and basophils (B] of laying hens were studied. The FSM diets increased total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA and omega-3 FA of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, docosapentanoic (C22:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n-3, and they reduced total monounsaturated FA (MUFA and total omega- 3/total omega-6 FA (Σn-6:Σn-3 ratio in the liver and egg yolk. Hens fed the FSM diets had a higher serum anti-SRBC and a lower blood H:L ratio. The 100 g FSM/kg diet increased liver TBARS level when compared with the control diet. Dietary FSM did not influence levels of TBARS, SOD, lipids and proteins in the serum, SOD and GPx in the liver, and blood count of M, E, B and total WBC. It was concluded that the addition of FSM to the diet of laying hens enhanced immune response of birds, increased omeg-3 FA and PUFA, and reduced MUFA and Σn-6:Σn-3 ratio in the liver and egg yolk, and that of 100 g FSM/kg diet increased hepatic lipid peroxidation.

  14. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

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    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  15. Development of indirect competitive ELISA using egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) for the detection of Gentamicin residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxin; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Ruediger; Du, Enqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin (Gent) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic being used in livestock sector. Gent residues could cause some genetic disorders by nonsense mutations. This study aimed to develop IgY-based ELISA for the detection of Gent in animal products. Gent was conjugated with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) by carbodiimide method for further immunization in the laying chickens. PEG-6000 extraction method was employed to extract IgY from the egg yolk. The titer of anti-Gent-IgY attained the peak of 1:256,000 after the 5(th) booster immunization. Checkerboard titration confirmed that, anti-Gent IgY in 1:2,000 dilution could give an Optical Density (OD) 1.0 at 2 µg mL(-1) of Gent-OVA coating concentration. IgY-based indirect competitive ELISA (Ic-ELISA) showed that, the IC50 value of anti-Gent IgY was 2.69 ng mL(-1) and regression curve equation was y = -16.27x + 56.97 (R(2) = 0.95, n = 3), confirming that, the detection limit (LOD, IC10 value) was 0.01 ng mL(-1). Recoveries from fresh milk, pork and chicken samples were ranged from 69.82% to 94.32%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10.88%. Our results suggested that generated anti-Gent IgY antibodies can be used in routine screening analysis of Gent residues in food samples.

  16. Comparison of dietary tocotrienols from barley and palm oils in hen's egg yolk: transfer efficiency, influence of emulsification, and effect on egg cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walde, Constanze M; Drotleff, Astrid M; Ternes, Waldemar

    2014-03-15

    The main component in tocotrienols (T3) from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is α-T3, the vitamer with the highest bioavailability, while palm oil T3 is particularly rich in γ-T3. Unlike tocopherols, T3 are known for their cholesterogenesis-inhibiting, neuroprotective and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study the oral bioavailabilities of T3 from barley oil (3.98 mg day⁻¹) and T3 from palm oil (3.36 mg day⁻¹) in nanoemulsified formulations (NE) and self-emulsifying systems (SES) were compared using hen's eggs as a bioindicator. In addition, the transfer efficiencies of barley oil T3 and palm oil T3 into egg yolk were compared, as well as their effects on egg cholesterol levels. Nanoemulsification led to T3 levels (132.9 µg per egg) higher than with non-emulsified barley oil (112.8 µg per egg) and barley oil SES (116.7 µg per egg) owing to the high proportions of α-T3 (99-117 µg per egg), which has a particularly high transfer efficiency (4.32-6.75%). T3 contents of eggs from hens fed barley oil supplements (112-132 µg per egg) were significantly higher than those of eggs from hens fed palm oil supplements (70-78 µg per egg). Addition of barley and palm oils to laying hen feed decreased egg yolk cholesterol by 4 and 6% respectively. Results from this animal study may help to establish T3 from barley as a dietary supplement and to develop nutritionally improved hen's eggs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  18. Effect of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on salmonella in high immunity egg yolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Haili; Han Keguang; Zheng Mingxue; Li Guozhu

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella were inoculated into the yolk and irradiated with different dose of 60 Co γ-ray. The results show that 3 kGy irradiation dose can kill all Salmonella in the yolk and D 10 value of Salmonella in the yolk is 0.36-0.46 kGy

  19. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  20. The quality of Garut ram liquid semen in Tris egg yolk extender to the sucrose supplementation

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    Yulnawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful program of artificial insemination in sheep is determined by the quality of sperm that are used. Therefore, it is important to maintain the quality of sperm during and after storage in low temperature. The research was conducted to study the influence of sucrose in the Tris-yolk extender in maintaining the quality of Garut ram sperm during preservation in reaction tube for four days at 5°C. Ejaculated sperm was collected once a week for five weeks using artificial vagina from same ram. Semen was divided into four groups of extenders, i.e. Tris egg yolk 20% (TKT, TKT + 0,1% sucrose, TKT + 0,3% sucrose and TKT + 0,5% w/v sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of motility on day four (D-4 of storage in TKT (41.00 ± 2.0% was lower (P0.05 from TKT + 0.1% (45.00 ± 3.16%. Whereas the percentage of live cells (%H on D-4 in TKT, TKT + 0.1%, TKT + 0.3% and TKT + 0.5% were 55.00 ± 2.19%; 57.20 ± 2.79%; 59.20 ± 3.25% and 61.20 ± 3.60%, respectively. Meanwhile, the percentage of membrane integrity (MPU in TKT (51.80 ± 1.94% was significantly different (P0.05 from TKT + 0.1% (54.80 ± 2.86%. In conclusion, the addition of sucrose 0.3% w/v into TKT extender could maintain the quality of Garut ram sperm more efficiently and better than TKT extender.

  1. Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

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    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  3. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  4. Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine and plant oils

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    Chojnacka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the sn-1 position of egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC in the process of lipase-catalyzed interesterification was investigated. For this purpose plant oils containing these acids in the triacylglycerol (TAG form were used as acyl donors and three commercially available immobilized lipases were examined as biocatalysts. In all the experiments the best results were obtained using Novozym 435. After 72 h of the reaction of PC with linseed oil the maximum incorporation of α-linolenic acid into PC was 34%. The result of this reaction was also a reduction in the n-6/n-3 ratio in egg-yolk PC from 24.5 to 0.7. The highest incorporation n-6 PUFAs into PC were obtained with evening primrose oil as the acyl donor, and in this case, 50.7% of n-6 PUFA as the sum of linoleic and γ-linolenic was achieved. The highest content of γ-linolenic acid in modified PC (7.3% was achieved in the reaction of PC with borage oil.Se ha investigado la incorporación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en la posición sn-1 de fosfatidilcolina de yema de huevo (PC en el proceso de interesterificación catalizado por lipasas. Para lograr este propósito, fueron examinados aceites vegetales que contienen estos ácidos en la forma de triacilgliceroles (TAG como donadores de acilo y tres lipasas inmovilizadas disponibles comercialmente. En todos los experimentos los mejores resultados se obtuvieron para Novozym 435. La incorporación máxima de ácido α-linolénico en PC fue del 34% después de 72h de la reacción de PC con aceite de linaza. El resultado de esta reacción fue también la reducción de la relación de n-6/n-3 en PC de yema de huevo de 24.5 a 0.7. La incorporación más alta de n-6 PUFAs en PC se logró para el aceite de onagra como donador de acilo, en este caso se alcanzó el 50.7% de n-6 PUFA, como suma de los ácidos linoleico y γ-linolénico. El mayor contenido de ácido γ-linolénico en PC modificado (7

  5. THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  6. Cryopreservation of Dog Semen in a Tris Extender with 1% or 2% Soya Bean Lecithin as a Replacement of Egg Yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Lagerson, E

    2016-04-01

    Egg yolk is usually included in extenders used for preservation of dog semen. Lecithin is an interesting animal-protein free alternative to egg yolk for semen preservation. The aim of our study was to evaluate soya bean lecithin for cryopreservation of dog semen. Five ejaculate replicates were divided in three equal parts, centrifuged and each pellet diluted with one of the three Tris-based extenders containing 20% egg yolk, 1% soya bean lecithin or 2% soya bean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded in 0.5-ml straws, cooled and diluted a second time and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours. Sperm motility parameters (CASA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) and sperm membrane integrity (C-FDA) were evaluated 5 min post-thaw and after 2 and 4 h of incubation. Total motility was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extender and was better in the 1% lecithin extender than in the 2% lecithin extender. Sperm membrane integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extenders but did not differ significantly between the 1% and 2% lecithin extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in the 2% lecithin extender but did not differ between the egg yolk extender and the 1% lecithin extender or between the two lecithin extenders. In conclusion, egg yolk was superior to lecithin in our study. The extender with 1% lecithin preserved sperm motility better than the extender with 2% lecithin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA.

  8. Release of Ecdysteroid-Phosphates from Egg Yolk Granules and Their Dephosphorylation during Early Embryonic Development in Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Ryouichi; Yamahama, Yumi; Sonobe, Haruyuki

    2005-01-01

    Newly laid eggs of many insect species store maternal ecdysteroids as physiologically inactive phosphoric esters. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, we previously reported the presence of a specific enzyme, called ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase), which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of ecdysteroid-phosphates to increase the amount of free ecdysteroids during early embryonic development. In this study, we demonstrated that (1) EPPase is found in the cytosol of yolk cells, (2) ecdysteroid...

  9. Determination of some solubilization parameters with surfactants of egg-yolk lecithin multilamellar vesicles by static light-scattering measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hobai, St.; Fazakas, Zita

    2000-01-01

    Effective surfactant:phospholipid ratios (i.e. molar ratios in the mixed aggregates, vesicles or micelles) have been determined by static light-scattering for the interaction of egg-yolk lecithin (EYL) multilamellar vesicles (MLV) with Triton X-100 (TX-100), sodium deoxycholate (DOCNa) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMB). The suspension of MLV-EYL was mixed with appropriate volumes of surfactant solution and was left overnight to reaches thermodynamic equilibrium. Rectan-gular optic dif...

  10. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period.

  11. COOLING CURVES OF THE BOAR SEMEN DILUTED IN ACP®103 EXTENDER ADDED OF POWDERED EGG YOLK IN FIXED CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyane Bandeira Barros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of boar semen at lower temperatures might contribute to the further expansion of artificial insemination in this species. Egg yolk cryoprotectant properties have already been extensively tested on sperm cryopreservation of several species. This study aimed to test different temperature curves for the conservation of boar semen diluted with coconut milk powdered (ACP®-103 add 7% egg yolk and to verify which one better maintains sperm viability. For this, 36 ejaculates were diluted and stored at 17, 10 and 5 °C. Daily analysis of vigor and motility were performed, and on days D0, D2, and D4 semen was evaluated regarding vitality, morphology, and osmotic resistance. For the statistical analysis we performed the tests of Kruska-Wallis with Dunns post-test (nonparametric data and ANOVA and Tukey test (parametric data. The storage temperature of 10 °C was the best one   to maintain spermatic motility at appropriate levels to be used in an artificial insemination program. Analyses of viability, morphology, and hypoosmotic test did not show statistical difference among the treatments. In conclusion, the best temperature curve was 10 °C with diluted semen previously kept at 17 °C to maintain the viability of sperm cells in pigs for a longer period. Keywords: boar semen; coconut water powder; conservation; egg yolk.

  12. Influence of dietary boron supplementation on some serum metabolites and egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, M; Uyanik, F

    2007-03-01

    The influence of dietary boron (B) supplementation on some serum parameters and egg-yolk cholesterol was studied in laying hens. A total of 224 eighteen-week-old hens of the Hyline Brown 98 strain were assigned to 7 groups with 4 replicates of 8 hens each after 10 days of adaptation, and they were fed commercial diets supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg (diet) B (H3BO3) for 8 weeks. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels were decreased with all B levels. Except in the group receiving 5 mg/kg B supplementation, decreases were found in serum triglycerides in all groups. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was decreased in the groups receiving 100 mg/kg or higher levels of B. All levels of B supplementation increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity at weeks 21 and 22, while 10 mg/kg or higher levels of B increased serum globulin, urea and egg-yolk cholesterol levels. The results demonstrate that B supplementation at levels exceeding 5 mg/kg affects serum biochemical parameters and increases egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

  13. Interactions of egg yolk lipoprotein fraction with boar spermatozoa assessed with a fluorescent membrane probe.

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    Łukasz Zasiadczyk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of a fluorescent membrane probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS, with boar spermatozoa were followed through the use of lipoprotein fraction of ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Semen samples, extended in Kortowo 3 (K3 extender, were supplemented with 2% or 5% LPFo and stored for 3h at 16 degrees C. Additionally, cold shock-treated spermatozoa (1h at 4 degrees C were stored in K3 extender supplemented with LPFo for 3h at 16 degrees C. In each boar, the fluorescent enhancement of ANS was observed in K3-extended semen supplemented with LPFo, prior to storage. Following storage, there was a significant increase in LPFo-ANS fluorescence, particularly in the sperm membrane overlying the head and midpiece regions. There were significant differences among the boars with respect to the sperm populations defined by the LPFo-ANS fluorescence. Sperm viability was not significantly affected during the storage period. Furthermore, the proportions of spermatozoa defined by the different patterns of LPFo-ANS fluorescence were low and remained unchanged after storage of cold shock-treated spermatozoa with 2% or 5% LPFo, suggesting irreversible damage to the sperm membrane architecture. These findings indicate that the ANS fluorescent probe could be used to shed more light on the nature of the interactions between LPFo and sperm membrane following semen preservation. Such valuable information could contribute to the development of an optimal protocol for cryopreservation of boar semen.

  14. Comparative analysis of structure and strength of vitelline membrane and physical parameters of yolk of ostrich, emu, and greater rhea eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaziak, K; Marzec, A; Kieliszek, M; Buclaw, M; Michalczuk, M; Niemiec, J

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed selected morphological traits of eggs, as well as structure, strength, and protein composition of the vitelline membrane (VM) of ostrich, emu, and greater rhea eggs. Ninety eggs (30 for species) were analyzed for the following parameters: egg weight, yolk weight, yolk ratio, and yolk index. In addition, pH value, water activity, consistency index, and flow behavior index were determined. The strength of VM was measured using the TA.HDPlus Texture Analyzer. Micrograph images were taken via a scanning electron microscope. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted under denaturing conditions. Ostrich eggs were characterized by the highest egg and yolk weight compared with those of emu and greater rhea eggs, whereas emu eggs had the highest yolk ratio compared with those of ostrich and greater rhea eggs (P > 0.05). Yolk content differed among the species in terms of water activity; it was found to be higher in emu eggs than in ostrich and greater rhea eggs (P > 0.05). Based on flow curves, yolks of the ratites were classified as pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluids. The consistency index was significantly higher in yolks of ostrich and emu than that of greater rhea eggs, whereas the VM of yolks of greater rhea eggs was the most resistant (had the highest breaking force = 26.4 g). All species differed significantly regarding the structure of VM, the outer layer (OL) in particular, which was found to constitute fibers of various thicknesses that were differently arranged. Fibers of the OL of the VM of emu, whose fibers were the least differentiated but formed the most compact network, were the most diverse in characterization. An electropherogram of the VM of ostrich revealed 11 primary protein bands: 6 for the OL and 5 for the inner layer (IL), that of emu revealed 9 bands: 5 for the OL and 4 for the IL, and that of greater rhea revealed 10 bands: 6 for the OL and 4 for the IL.

  15. The effect of supplementation of soybean oil, acidulated sunflower oil soapstock and their combinations in laying hen diets on performance, egg quality and fatty acid composition of egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Göçmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levesl of dietary soybean oil and acidulated sunflower oil soapstock on performance, egg quality and fatty acid profile of egg yolk in laying hens, . A total of 75, 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed into five treatments according to a completely randomized experimental design, consisting of soybean oil, acidulated sunflower oil soapstock (ASS dietary inclusion levels (25, 50, 75 and 100 %, with five replicates of three birds each. The experiment was lasted in 84 days. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on body weight change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass. The dietary inclusion of ASS i had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, egg shell breaking strength, egg shell weight and egg shell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk pH but haugh unit L, a, b color value. . The inclusion of different levels of soybean oil and ASS in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid contents of egg yolk. It is concluded that the soybean oil can be replaced by ASS without any adverse effect on performance and egg quality in laying hen diets.

  16. Bioavailability of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles relative to lutein in corn gluten meal based on lutein retention in egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye Seong; Kim, Jong Woong; Lee, Dong Gu; Lee, Sanghyun; Kil, Dong Yong

    2016-08-01

    Dietary lutein and its food sources have gained great attention due to its health-promoting effects on humans, especially for certain eye diseases. However, relative bioavailability (RBV) of lutein among lutein-rich feed ingredients that lead to lutein-enriched egg production has not been determined. Thus, the RBV of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared to lutein in corn gluten meal (CGM) was evaluated based on lutein retention in egg yolk. Increasing inclusion levels of DDGS or CGM in diets increased (linear, P lutein concentrations of egg yolk without affecting laying performance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the bioavailability of lutein in DDGS was less (P lutein in CGM, with the RBV of lutein in DDGS being 61.6% when the bioavailability of lutein in CGM was assumed to be 100% for lutein retention in egg yolk. The results of the present experiment indicate that the DDGS can be a potential ingredient for laying hens to improve egg yolk colour and lutein concentrations of egg yolk although lutein in DDGS is less bioavailable than lutein in CGM. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of marine by-product meals on hen egg production parameters, yolk lipid composition and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyes-Vargas, E; Ortega-Pérez, R; Espinoza-Villavicencio, J L; Arellano-Pérez, M; Civera, R; Palacios, E

    2018-04-01

    The effect of including 5% marine by-product meals in feeds of laying hens on egg production, composition and sensory characteristics was tested. Marine by-product meals were prepared using two methods: (i) cooking (100°C/10 min) followed by drying (60°C/24 hr) or (ii) grinding followed by drying. The raw materials used for meal production were scallop or squid viscera, shrimp heads or whole mackerel. A total of 108 laying hens were allocated to nine diet treatments; one control diet (corn and soya bean based) and eight experimental diets, containing 95% of the control feed and 5% of the experimental meal for three weeks. Daily intake was higher in hens fed the dried mackerel and cooked shrimp meals. All the experimental treatments showed significantly higher concentration of n-3 HUFA in yolk reserves and phospholipids compared to the control (0.12-0.13 g per 100 g), especially those with scallop or squid prepared by both methods (0.53-0.95 g per 100 g). Scallop, squid and shrimp meal inclusion in the feed produced eggs with more astaxanthin (0.22 mg per 100 g) while this carotenoid was absent in the control and mackerel treatments. Visual evaluation of raw yolk colour increased with the inclusion of marine by-product meals with higher values in hens fed shrimp heads (13), followed by scallop viscera (11), squid viscera (9), and with similar values for mackerel and control (4). The taste, aroma, texture and colour of cooked eggs from different treatments were not statically different when evaluated by a panel of 60 untrained people. These results suggest that meals from marine by-products are a better alternative for improving egg yolk composition by increasing n-3 HUFA when compared to fishmeal as they also increase astaxanthin and yolk pigmentation without affecting egg sensory characteristics. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The "lecithotrophic" sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L B; Lennarz, W J; Raff, R A; Wray, G A

    1990-03-01

    The sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata undergoes typical development, forming an echinoid pluteus larva, whereas H. erythrogramma undergoes direct development via a highly modified, nonfeeding larva. Using a polyclonal antibody prepared against yolk glycoproteins from the typical developer Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, we found that H. tuberculata contains cross-reactive proteins in abundance, but H. erythrogramma does not. In addition, we used immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that unfertilized eggs of H. tuberculata contain yolk platelets, but those of H. erythrogramma do not.

  19. Impact of a thermal treatment at different pH on the adsorption behaviour of untreated and enzyme-modified egg yolk at the oil-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimer, Katharina; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption properties of egg yolk proteins were investigated with or without enzymatic modification with phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and after a thermal treatment at pH 4 and 6.5. Heat treatment was assessed from 60 to 90 degrees C resulting in a wide range of protein denaturation degrees, which were correlated with the interfacial protein load of emulsion droplets. It was shown that denatured proteins, i.e. protein aggregates are able to adsorb at the oil-water interface and that, most notably, granule constituents play an important role in stabilisation of the oil-water interface at pH 4. Moreover, it was shown that after a thermal treatment of untreated egg yolk (not enzyme treated) an even higher protein load is reached than when PLA(2)-treated egg yolk is used for emulsification. Heat-treated natural egg yolk is therefore supposed to be an appropriate alternative for PLA(2)-treated egg yolk for producing stable emulsions. The SDS-Page profiles show that the composition of the interfacial film is highly influenced by a modification with PLA(2) at pH 4 while at pH 6.5 the interfacial composition of adsorbed proteins is less influenced.

  20. Development of Mayonnaise with Substitution of Oil or Egg Yolk by the Addition of Chia (Salvia Hispânica L.) Mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes Salas

    2018-01-01

    Chia mucilage is formed by the hydration of chia seeds and presents characteristics that potentiate its application as substitute of fat in several foods. In this study, mayonnaises were prepared with different levels of freeze-dried chia mucilage instead of oil or egg yolk. The substitution of oil in mayonnaise promoted increased stability and texture parameters, and the mayonnaise substituted by egg yolk presented similar stability and texture parameters as the control mayonnaise. The substitution of oil in mayonnaise was about 50% with 45% oil substitution, whereas for the mayonnaise with 35% of egg yolk replacement it was about 0.94%. Sensorially, an inverse relation was found, the mayonnaises with substitution of the egg yolk that presented a smaller reduction of the lipid content, presented better sensory acceptance than the mayonnaise with substitution of the oil. Therefore, the results indicated that chia mucilage has potential to substitute part of the amount of oil in the mayonnaise formulation. As for the use of the mucilage in the substitution of the egg yolk, it is not possible to promote a significant reduction in the lipid content nor maintain emulsion stability. Chia mucilage presents high emulsifying hability and water-holding capacity that potentiabilize its use as a substitute for fat in various foods. Mayonnaises developed with up to 45% oil substitution by chia mucilage, presented a reduction in the lipid content by about 50%, an increasing stability and a good sensorial acceptance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P pigeon embryos. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the present study

  3. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-07

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  4. A Combination of Egg Yolk IgY and Phosvitin Inhibits the Growth of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 and K99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, Naiyana; Yoo, Heejoo; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Lee, Kwang Y; Suh, Joo-Won; Sunwoo, Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the main cause of fatal diarrhea in piglets during the first week of life and over the time of weaning. Pathogenesis of ETEC-causing diarrhea involves intestinal colonization mediated by fimbriae. Although, both IgY and egg yolk phosvitin (PV) possess antimicrobial activity, their combined activity has not been explored. A combination of IgY specific for ETEC and metal-chelating PV may show synergistic effect in reducing the growth of ETEC by inhibiting bacterial proliferation and stipulating protection against ETEC infection. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of anti-ETEC IgY and PV on in vitro growth inhibition of ETEC strains possessing K88 and K99 fimbriae prevalent in the porcine population. Anti-K88 and -K99 IgY antibodies were obtained from egg yolks of 23-week-old Single- Comb White Leghorn hens immunized with K88 and K99 fimbriae of ETEC, respectively, with high titres sustained over 6 to 8 weeks of the immunization period. Specific IgY, PV, and PV-hydrolysate from alcalase-hydrolysis under high hydrostatic pressure (PVH-Alc-HHP) alone or in combination, were used to treat ETEC K88 and K99 cultures at optimal concentrations of 100 μg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL, respectively, for 24 h. PVH-Alc-HHP demonstrated the highest degree of hydrolysis, 38.9%. Combined use of IgY and PVH-Alc-HHP showed the highest bactericidal effect resulting in ETEC K88 and K99 growth inhibition of 2.8 and 2.67 log CFU/mL, respectively. Combined IgY-PVH effectively control ETEC, therefore holds a great potential for microbial control in veterinary pharmaceutical industry. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  6. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  7. Thermodynamics of the interaction between bovine binder of sperm BSP1 and low-density lipoprotein from hen's egg yolk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusignan, Marie-France; Manjunath, Puttaswamy [Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center and Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lafleur, Michel, E-mail: michel.lafleur@umontreal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures (CSACS), Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-03-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed Binder-of-SPerm BSP1 protein has high affinity for egg yolk low density lipoproteins. {yields} It is estimated that 104 BSP1 molecules could bind one LDL particle. {yields} BSP1 has 2 phosphocholine binding sites and the BSP1/LDL ratio corresponds to 1.6 phosphatidylcholine per bound BSP1. {yields} The strong interaction between LDL particles and BSP1 is proposed to be important for sperm protection by egg yolk extender. - Abstract: Egg yolk is used in extender to protect sperm from cold shock and freezing during preservation. It is the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction of egg yolk that protects sperm. Even though essential for sperm capacitation, the major proteins from bull seminal plasma, the Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, are detrimental for sperm preservation because they induce a continual phospholipids and cholesterol efflux from sperm membranes. The BSP proteins were proposed to bind to egg yolk LDL, preventing the sperm membrane damage. We characterized the binding between the BSP proteins and the LDL by isothermal titration calorimetry, providing the thermodynamics and quantitative description of this putative association. The association between BSP1 (major BSP proteins) and LDL is characterized by an affinity constant (K{sub a}) of 3.4 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M{sup -1}. A protein/LDL ratio of 104 {+-} 5 was determined indicating that 104 molecules of BSP1 would bind to one LDL particle. This stoichiometry leads to proposing that the association involves 1.6 {+-} 0.1 phosphatidylcholines (PC) per BSP protein. This finding is satisfactorily consistent with the fact that each BSP1 protein has 2 binding sites for choline group. In conclusion, the formation of a high affinity complex between BSP1 and LDL is proposed to be important for the protection of sperm by egg yolk extender.

  8. Vitamin E (Trolox) addition to Tris-egg yolk extender preserves ram spermatozoon structure and kinematics after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sildivane Valcácia; Soares, Adriana Trindade; Batista, André Mariano; Almeida, Felipe Costa; Nunes, José Ferreira; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Guerra, Maria Madalena Pessoa

    2013-02-01

    Several studies reveal that vitamin E acts as a cellular stabilizer of unsaturated lipids against oxidative deterioration, thus maintaining structural and functional integrity at the subcellular level. The objective of this study was to evaluate Vitamin E (Trolox) addition to freezing extender for ram spermatozoa. Semen samples were diluted in Tris-yolk egg medium without antioxidant (control group) and with Trolox in different concentrations (30, 60 and 120μM). After thawing (37°C/30s), samples were subjected to analysis for plasma membrane integrity (PMi), acrosome integrity (Aci), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), sperm kinematics, and ultrastructural integrity. The Trolox 60 and 120μM groups showed higher percentages of iPMs (Pspermatozoon head plasma membranes, while for the spermatozoon tail, plasma membrane preservation at 60μM was higher (P<0.05) than the other groups. The Trolox 60 and 120μM groups presented more mitochondrial ultrastructural preservation than the other groups (P<0.05). These results indicate that Trolox addition to Tris-egg yolk at 60 and 120μM provides greater structural integrity (plasma membrane and mitochondria) and kinematics for ram spermatozoa after cryopreservation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Different Levels of Pigeon Egg Yolk in Extenders on the Post-Thaw Semen Quality of Sahiwal Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Jamil-ur-Rahman, Nazir Ahmad*, Najib-ur-Rahman, Salman Waheed, Maqbool Ahmad, Muhammad Younis1 and Tanveer Ahmad2

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of replacing chicken egg yolk (CEY with pigeon egg yolk (PEY in extenders on post-thaw semen quality in Sahiwal bulls were investigated. Attempts were also made to see if post thaw semen quality was affected by reducing PEY level in the extender. Twenty four semen samples were diluted with five Tris-based extenders. Extender A contained 20% CEY and was used as control, while extenders B, C, D and E contained 5, 10, 15 and 20% PEY, respectively. After freezing and storage for 24 hrs in liquid nitrogen, these samples were evaluated for post-thaw semen quality parameters.The difference in post extension sperm motility between extenders A (20% CEY and E (20% PEY was non significant. Post extension sperm motility decreased as the level of PEY in the extender was decreased. A similar trend was recorded for post thaw sperm motility, livability, absolute index of livability and sperm with intact plasma membrane. The percentages of spermatozoa with abnormal head, or tail were lower (P<0.01 in control extender A and extender E compared to extenders B, C and D. However, for abnormal mid-piece, extenders A and E showed lower values than extender C only. It was concluded that replacing CEY with PEY in same concentration (20% did not improve post thaw semen quality. Moreover, reducing the concentration of PEY in semen extender from 20 to 5% had adverse effects on post-thaw quality of Sahiwal bull semen.

  10. Anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil in egg yolk-fed rabbits: a comparative study with simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrou, Zouhir

    2014-08-01

    The current study was undertaken to assess anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil (PLFO) in rabbits following a hyperlipidemic diet. Twenty healthy female (WNZ) rabbits were divided into four groups of five animals each: (a) normal control (NC group) receiving standard diet, (b) hyperlipidemic control (EY) group receiving standard diet and gavaged daily with egg yolk (10 mL), (c) hyperlipidemic + PLFO (EY + PLFO) group receiving as the EY group and treated daily with PLFO (2 mL/kg BW, (d) hyperlipidemic + simvastatin (EY + SVS) group receiving as the EY group and treated once daily with 2.5 mg/kg BW of simvastatin. At the end of the six-week experimental period, the lipidemic profiles of the different groups were investigated. In the EY group, the egg yolk resulted in a significant increase of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C, and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Both the EY + PLFO and EY + SVS groups, when compared to the EY group, showed a significant decrease of TC, TG, LDL-C, and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. However, with respect to HDL-C the differences were not significant. The TGs were significantly lower (P cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiplication in egg yolk and survival in egg albumen of genetically and phenotypically characterized Salmonella Enteritidis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the location of contamination, the ...

  12. The effect of linseed oil supplementation of the diet on the content of fatty acids in the egg yolk

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    Petra Hudečková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different types of oils in diet on the fatty acid profile in the eggs of layers and to include a particular type of oil as a supplement of feeding mixtures for layers in order to support the development of functional foodstuffs. Thirty layers fed a diet containing soybean oil constituted the control group (soybean oil is the most frequently used oil added to feeding mixtures. In the experimental group (thirty layers, soybean oil was replaced with linseed oil at the same amount (3 kg of oil per 100 kg of feeding mixture. Feeding was provided ad libitum for all days of the month. After one month, egg yolks were analysed and the fatty acid profile was compared. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were found in the concentration of myristic acid that belongs to the group of saturated fatty acids. Eggs in the experimental group showed higher concentrations of myristic acid compared to the control group (0.20 g/100 g of fat and 0.18 g/100 g of fat, respectively. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01 were found for heptadecanoic acid but the trend was opposite to that of myristic acid; concentrations of heptadecanoic acid in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01 were found for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids where egg yolks in eggs from layers fed linseed oil contained higher concentrations of oleic acid, myristoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid. Lower concentrations of n-6 fatty acids (P ≤ 0.01 were found after the addition of linseed oil in eggs. Linseed oil showed a positive effect on n-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid, its concentration in the control and experimental group was 0.82 g/100 g of fat and 5.63 g/100 g of fat, respectively. The possibility of influencing the fatty acid profile in eggs is very important for the development of functional foods.

  13. Alternations in Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Composition in Egg Yolk of Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi Hens Fed with Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.

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    Suhaib Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of hemp seed (HS supplementation on egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in laying hens. Sixty hens (Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi were evenly distributed into four groups (three replicates per group at the peak production (34 weeks. HS was included into the ration at the level of 0.0 (HS-0, 15 (HS-15, 20 (HS-20, and 25% (HS-25 and continued the supplementation for consecutively three weeks. At the end of the experiment, three eggs per replicate were randomly collected and analyzed for egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol profile. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that supplementation of HS-25 significantly (P<0.05 decreased egg yolk total cholesterol, myristic (C14:0, palmitic (C16:0, and stearic (C18:0. Similarly, total as well as individual monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly (P<0.05 while total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids increased significantly in the HS-25. In addition, total omega-3 and omega-6 increased significantly in the HS-25 group. From the present result, we concluded that addition of HS at the rate of 25% to the diet of laying hens augmented the cholesterol and fatty acids profile in egg yolk.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  15. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X

    2010-12-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers.

  16. Studies with /sup 15/N-Lysine in colostomized hens. 4. Incorporation of lysine /sup 15/N into various amino acids of yolk and egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhn, K.; Henning, A. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin)

    1984-01-01

    Each of 3 colostomized laying hens received per os 0.2% L-lysine with 48 atom-% /sup 15/N excess (/sup 15/N') labelled in ..cap alpha..-position in addition to a pelleted laying hen ration of 120 g over a period of 4 days. On the following 4 days they received equal amounts of unlabelled lysine. The eggs laid during the 8 days of the experiment were separated into the egg white, the yolk and the eggshell, and the total and heavy nitrogen in the individual fractions were determined. Above that, 17 amino acids and their atom-%/sup 15/N' were determined in the 19 samples of the white and yolk of egg. Of the total /sup 15/N' from the lysine fed in the 4 days, 10.1% were found in the yolk, 10.5% in the egg white and 1.1% in the eggshells of the eggs laid during the 8 days of the experiment. 85% of the total amino acid /sup 15/N' of the yolk and 86% of the egg white detected to be lysine /sup 15/N'. The /sup 15/N' amount of the other 16 amino acids was mainly concentrated in the two acid and basic amino acids. Approximately 50% of the non-lysine /sup 15/N' in the egg are contained in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine and arginine. A very low incorporation of the labelled lysine only could be detected in the aromatic and sulphur-containing amino acids from both the yolk and the egg white 43% of the /sup 15/N' was detected in the 10 essential and semi-essential (except lysine) and 57% in the 6 non-essential amino acids of the yolk and 52% and 48% resp. of the egg white. One can summarise that the incorporation of /sup 15/N' into the egg shows the same development as that of the labelled amino acids of the wheat protein and that 15% of the lysine /sup 15/N' could be detected in the 16 other amino acids.

  17. Captivity diets alter egg yolk lipids of a bird of prey (the American kestrel) and of a galliforme (the red-legged partridge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surai, P F; Speake, B K; Bortolotti, G R; Negro, J J

    2001-01-01

    The salient feature of the fatty acid profile of kestrel eggs collected in the wild was the very high proportion of arachidonic acid (15.2%+/-0.7% of fatty acid mass, n=5) in the phospholipid fraction of the yolk. Kestrels in captivity fed on day-old chickens produced eggs that differed from those of the wild birds in a number of compositional features: the proportion of linoleic acid was increased in all the lipid fractions; the proportion of arachidonic acid was increased in yolk phospholipid and cholesteryl ester; the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid was decreased in all lipid classes, and that of docosahexaenoic acid was decreased in phospholipid and cholesteryl ester. Partridge eggs from the wild contained linoleic acid as the main polyunsaturate of all the yolk lipid fractions. Captive partridges maintained on a formulated diet very rich in linoleic acid produced eggs with increased levels of linoleic, arachidonic, and n-6 docosapentaenoic acids in the phospholipid fraction; reduced proportions of alpha-linolenic acid were observed in all lipid classes, and the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid was markedly reduced in the phospholipid fraction. Thus, captive breeding of both the kestrel and the partridge increases the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturate ratio of the yolk lipids.

  18. Novel use of tryptose sulfite cycloserine egg yolk agar for isolation of Clostridium perfringens during an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsanas, Despina; Carson, Jolene A; Awad, Milena M; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I; Jenkin, Grant A; Stuart, Rhonda L; Korman, Tony M

    2010-11-01

    Clostridium perfringens has been associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which is a serious disease of neonates. Our study describes the novel use of selective tryptose sulfite cycloserine with egg yolk agar (TSC-EYA) during a nursery outbreak. This medium provides a rapid, sensitive, and accurate presumptive identification of C. perfringens.

  19. The influence of different salinity conditions on egg buoyancy and development and yolk sac larval survival and morphometric traits of Baltic Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Petereit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The small pelagic sprat (Sprattus sprattus is a key ecologic player in the Baltic Sea. However, there is long-term variability in recruitment which is thought to be influenced by fluctuations in abiotic and biotic conditions experienced during the early life stages. This study concentrates on the influence of different ambient salinities on sprat egg development, egg buoyancy and survival as well as early yolk sac larval morphometric traits. Egg buoyancy significantly decreased with increasing salinity experienced during fertilization and/or incubation experiments. Field egg buoyancy measurements in 2007 and 2008 exhibited annual and seasonal differences in specific gravity, potentially associated with changes in adult sprat vertical distribution. Neither egg development time nor the duration of the yolk sac phase differed among salinity treatments. At eye pigmentation, larval standard length exhibited high variance among individuals but did not differ among treatments. The largest ecological impact of salinity experienced during spawning was the modification the buoyancy of eggs and yolk sac larvae, which determines their vertical habitat in the Baltic Sea. There are strong thermo- and oxyclines in the Baltic Sea, and thus salinity can indirectly impact the survival of these early life stages by modifying the ambient temperatures and oxygen conditions experienced.

  20. Effect of different concentrations of egg yolk and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extenders on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarig, A A; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Yimer, N; Goh, Y M; Baiee, F H; Khumran, A M; Salman, H; Ebrahimi, M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8% virgin coconut oil (VCO) combined with different percentages of egg yolk in Tris extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen. A total of 24 ejaculates from four bulls were collected using an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 8% VCO in Tris extender which contained different concentrations 0% (control), 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions: one was chilled and stored at 4°C until evaluation after 24, 72, and 144h; the second fraction was processed by chilling for 3h at 4°C to equilibrate, then packaged in 0.25ml straws and frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C until evaluation after 7 and 14 days. Both chilled and frozen semen samples were then thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), viability, acrosome integrity, and morphology (eosin-nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)). The results indicate treatments with 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk with 8% VCO had greater sperm quality (P<0.05) as compared with the control. The treatment with 20% egg yolk had the greatest sperm quality (P<0.05) among the treated groups for both chilled and frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, the use of 8% VCO combined with 20% egg yolk in a Tris-based extender enhanced the values for chilled and frozen-thawed quality variables of bull sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent used as the extender. The semen were treated in egg yolk skim-milk diluent without antioxidant as control, in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol 0,2 g/100 ml diluent and in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with butylated hydroxytoluene 0,2 g/100 ml diluent. The after thawing observation shown that in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol had life percentage (75.0 ± 3.5% vs 64.8 ± 7.8% and membrane intact percentage (65.8 ± 6.8 % vs 55.2 ± 8.3% significantly higher than control (P<0,05 but insignificantly different from with BHT addition. The presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent, the motility percentage consideraly higher (P<0.05 than (45.8 ± 3.8% using BHT addition (40.0 ± 4.5% but not different from control (41.7 ± 4.1%; while acrosomal intake percentage after α-tocoferrol (54.8% ± 3.3% expressively higher (p,0.05 than BHT addition (49.7 ± 3.6% or control (49.8 ± 3.5%. In conclusion the presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent could improve the quality of Garut sheep frozen semen.

  2. Substitution of egg yolk by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex allows a reduction of the glycerol concentration into the freezing medium of equine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blommaert, Didier; Franck, Thierry; Donnay, Isabelle; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Detilleux, Johann; Serteyn, Didier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to completely replace the egg yolk a classical diluent for freezing equine semen by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex. At the same time, the reduction in the glycerol content used for cryopreservation and the incubation time between sperm and the freezing media were evaluated. Horse ejaculates were frozen with four different freezing extenders: a frozen reference medium (IF) containing egg yolk and 2.5% glycerol and media without egg yolk but supplemented with 1.5 mg 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin cholesterol (HPβCD-C) complex and containing either 1% (G1), 2% (G2) or 3% glycerol (G3). Three incubation times (90, 120 and 180 min) at 4 °C between the fresh semen and the different media were tested before freezing. Viability and motility analyses were performed with computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). Results showed that the freezing media containing the HPβCD-C complex with 1%, 2% and 3% glycerol significantly improve the 3 in vitro parameters of post thawing semen quality (viability, progressive and total mobilities) compared to IF. The best improvement of the parameters was obtained with G1 medium and the longest contact time. The substitution of egg yolk by HPβCD-C complex allows the decrease of protein charge of the medium while favouring the cholesterol supply to membrane spermatozoa offering it a better resistance to osmotic imbalance and a better tolerance to the glycerol toxicity. Our results highlight that the egg yolk of an extender for the freezing of horse semen can be completely substituted by HPβCD-C complex. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Protective effect of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against Prevotella intermedia-mediated gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y-Y; Zhen, Y-H; Wang, D; Zhu, J; Sun, D-X; Liu, X-T; Wang, H-X; Liu, Y; Long, Y-Y; Shu, X-H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) specific to Prevotella intermedia in vitro and in vivo. An IgY specific to P. intermedia was produced by immunizing hens with formaldehyde-inactivated P. intermedia and showed high titres when subjected to an ELISA. The obtained IgY inhibited the growth of P. intermedia in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations from 1 to 20 mg ml(-1) in Center for Disease Control and Prevention liquid medium. Forty rats were challenged with P. intermedia on gingivae and then randomly divided into four groups, which were syringed respectively with phosphate-buffered saline, 1 mg ml(-1) of tinidazole, 20 mg ml(-1) of nonspecific IgY and 20 mg ml(-1) of the IgY specific to P. intermedia at a dosage of 300 μl per day. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), counts of white blood cell (WBC) and histopathological slide of the gums were measured after treatment for 15 days. The gingivitis rats treated with the IgY specific to P. intermedia showed significantly decreased GI, PI, BOP and WBC (P gingivitis. A new immunoglobulin specific to P. intermedia was developed from egg yolk. This specific IgY can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of P. intermedia and protect rats from gingivitis induced by P. intermedia. The new IgY has potential for the treatment of P. intermedia-mediated gingivitis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Petz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the

  5. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks also were increased (linear, P lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) developed against fusion protein LTB-STa-STb neutralizes the toxicity of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J; Xu, Y; Li, H; Wang, L; Wu, F; Xu, F; Jin, L; Li, S; Li, X

    2014-08-01

    To obtain a recombinant enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fusion enterotoxin protein LTB-STa-STb (Bab) that can express the immunogenicity of the haptens STa and STb and induce their corresponding neutralizing antibodies. The three important ETEC enterotoxin genes coding LTB, STa and STb were PCR-amplified, and the amplified products were fused to construct the trivalent enterotoxin expression vector pET30-Bab. SDS-PAGE and Western blot were used to verify the expression of the fusion protein Bab by E. coli BL21 carrying plasmid pET30-Bab. Laying hens immunized with Bab developed high egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) titres specific to LTB, STa and STb, and all were significantly higher than those in the control group (P protein containing three important ETEC enterotoxins may serve as an effective and convenient polyvalent toxoid that can be used to produce multiple antitoxin IgYs to prevent colibacillosis caused by ETEC with various fimbriae in young animals. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Retention of carotenoids in egg yolks of laying hens supplemented with heterotrophic Chlorella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotrbáček, V.; Skřivan, M.; Kopecký, Jiří; Pěnkava, O.; Hudečková, P.; Uhríková, I.; Doubek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2013), s. 193-200 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : lutein * zeaxanthin * enriched eggs Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.871, year: 2013

  8. Ground annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L. in sorghum-based commercial layer diets and their effects on performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demands for healthy foods have stimulated the research on the use of natural products in animal nutrition. Annatto can be used a pigmentation source to improve yolk color of commercial eggs. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the inclusion of ground annatto seeds on the performance and egg quality of layers fed sorghum-based diets. A total of 336 40-w-old hens were distributed according to randomized blocks into seven treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. The following treatments were applied: T1- egg production feed based on corn and soybean meal; T2- egg production feed based on sorghum and soybean meal; T3, T4, T5, T6, and T7- egg production feed based on sorghum supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% ground annatto seeds, respectively. As to performance parameters, only egg production was influenced, with hens fed the corn-based diet producing more eggs than those fed the sorghum-based diet with inclusion of 1.5 and 2.5% de annatto. The only egg quality parameter affected by treatments was the color of yolk, which pigmentation increased with increasing levels of ground annatto seeds. It is concluded that ground annatto seeds can be supplemented in sorghum-based production feeds for layers, and that the inclusion level of 0.89% is sufficient to promote the same yolk pigmentation as that obtained with corn-based diets.

  9. Preservasi Semen Kambing Peranakan Etawa dalam Pengencer Tris dan Sitrat Kuning Telur dengan Penambahan Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (THE PRESERVATION OF ETTAWA GRADE BUCK SEMEN IN TRIS AND CITRATE EGG YOLK DILUENTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determineSDS concentration also to compare Tris egg yolk and citrateegg yolk on the quality of ettawa grade chilled semen. The study consist of two experiments. The firstexperiment was to determine the best SDS concentration in Tris egg yolk diluents and the second experimentwas to compare the SDS suplementation in tris and citrate egg yolk in the quality of ettawa grade chilledsemen. The semen were collected from three bucks, immediately after collection the semen evalutedmacro and microscopycally. Semen demonstrate more than 70% motility and less than 10% spermatozoaabnormality, individually divided into four tube, each tube was diluted in egg yolk supplemented with 0;0,025; 0,05; and 0.075% SDS then stored at 5°C for 72 hours. The quality of chilled semen was observefor motility and viability every 12 hours. Result demonstrated that 0.05% SDS was the best concentrationcompared to others. In the second experiment,the semen were diluted in four different diluents, it wereTris egg yolk (TEY, Tris egg yolk with 0.05% SDS (TEYS, citrate egg yolk (CEY and citrate egg yolk with0.05% SDS (CEYS. Result demonstrated that the mean value of motility and viability of spermatozoa inTEYSdiluents (67.08 ± 6.43% and77.07 ± 6.78% was higher (p<0.05 than CEYS (60.42 ± 9.05% and72.31± 7.45%, TEY (59.23 ± 9.41% and71.21 ± 8.56% and CEY (53.45 ± 11.33% and67.74 ± 8.90%. In conclusion,supplementation of 0.05% SDS in TEY was maintained best sperm quality compared to other diluentsduring preservation.

  10. Preparation of powdered egg yolk using a mini spray dryer Estudo da obtenção de ovo em pó usando mini spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Maria Ignário

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdered egg is used as an emulsifying agent in emulsion formulations. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, of which the yolk contains 44% and the egg white 56%. Spray drying is a widely applied method for drying aqueous or organic solutions and emulsions in the chemical and food industries. Spray drying can be used to preserve food or simply as a rapid drying method. The objective of this work was to study the viability of obtaining powdered egg yolk powder using a Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer. The egg yolk protein was evaluated by the semi-micro Kjeldahl method. It was concluded that the use of the Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer to produce powdered egg yolk is perfectly feasible.Ovo em pó pode ser usado como agente emulsificante. É uma excelente fonte de alta qualidade protéica contendo 44% na gema e 56% na clara. Spray dryer é um método amplamente usado para secar soluções aquosas ou orgânicas, emulsões, na indústria química e alimentícia. Spray dryer pode ser usado para preservar alimentos ou simplesmente como um método rápido de secagem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a viabilidade de obtenção de gema de ovo em pó utilizando o Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer. O teor de proteínas da gema de ovo foi analisado pelo método semi-micro Kjeldahl. Concluiu-se o uso do Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer para a obtenção de gema de ovo em pó é perfeitamente viável.

  11. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alava, Juan Jose; Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Wyneken, Jeanette; Crowder, Larry; Scott, Geoffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of ΣPCBs (52 congeners), ΣDDTs, Σchlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development

  12. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alava, Juan Jose [School of the Environment, University of South Carolina, 702G Byrnes Building, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: jalavasa@sfu.ca; Keller, Jennifer M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: Jennifer.Keller@noaa.gov; Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Wyneken, Jeanette [Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Crowder, Larry [Duke University Marine Laboratory, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Scott, Geoffrey I. [Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of {sigma}PCBs (52 congeners), {sigma}DDTs, {sigma}chlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development.

  13. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources.

  14. Digestibility and Egg Yolk Pigment Intensity of Local Ducks Fed Shrimps Head Meal, Leucaena Leaf Meal and L-Carnitine Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Widiyastuti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient digestibility and egg yolk pigment intensity of local ducks which fed shrimps head meal, leucaena leaf meal and L-Carnitine supplement. The experimental method used was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four treatments i.e : R0 (feed with leucaena leaf meal, R1 (feed with 25 ppm L-Carnitine supplement, R2 (feed with 2% shrimps head meal and R3 (feed with 4% shrimps head meal. A total of 0,20% FeSO4/kg feed were supplemented to all treatments. The results showed that L-Carnitine supplements and fed shrimps head meal (2% and 4% have no significant effects (P>0,05 on crude fat and crude protein digestibility but have significant (P<0.05 effects on yolk pigment intensity. L-Carnitine supplements resulted in 86,69% crude fat and 90,78% crude protein digestibility. Ducks fed with 4% shrimps head meal (R3 produced eggs with highest yolk pigment intensity (10,55. (Animal Production 9(1: 30-35 (2007 Key Words : shrimps head meal, L-Carnitine, digestibility, yolk pigment intensity

  15. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M A Langen

    Full Text Available The social environment can have profound effects on an individual's physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females' endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females' hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females' androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for

  16. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C.

    2017-01-01

    The social environment can have profound effects on an individual’s physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone) and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females’ endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females’ hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females’ androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for circulating

  17. Use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rojas V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract (Bixa orellana L. in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life. Position 864 hens 34 to 45 weeks old, distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment were used. Treatments were T0 (control diet, T1 (T0 + 30 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract and T2 (T0 + 60 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract. The results were 88.6; 91.9 and 90.8% for laying percentage; 60.5; 61.6 and 61.5 g for egg weight; 53.6; 56.4 and 55.7 g for egg mass. The yolk color temperature 7 °C for Roche scale was 6, 9 and 12 and colorimetric Minolta was to "L" of 42.10; 40.24 and 39.65; for "a" of 0.07; 3.68 and 6.44 and for "b" of 19.35; 18.36 and 18.18. Shelf life at room temperature 7 °C was 81, 86 and 90 UH. Lipid peroxidation was 0.10; 0.07 and 0.05 μmol MDA.g-1 yolk; for T0, T1 and T2 respectively. In all variables indicated statistically significant differences between treatments (p < 0.05. Food consumption was 103.9; 109.2 and 107.5 g and feed conversion of 1.94; 1.93 and 1.92. It is concluded that the addition of canthaxanthin and annatto extract to 30 and 60 g t-1 feed than the control, improved performance parameters, yolk color and egg shelf life.

  18. Determination of apparent activating energy of solubilizing MLV-DPPC and MLV-egg-yolk lecithin with surfactants by rectangular optic diffusimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hobai, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    It were determinated the apparent activating energy of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar liposome (MLV) solubilizing with sodium deoxycholate (DOCNa) by turbidi-metric measurements and the apparent activating energy of egg-yolk lecithin (EYL)- MLV solubilizing with different surfactants (DOCNa, TX-100, CTMB) by rectangular optic diffu-si-met-ric measurements. The apparent activating energy of MLV-DPPC solubilizing with DOCNa is Ea = 127.7kJ/mol. The apparent activating energ...

  19. Comparison of different osmolalities and egg-yolk composition in processing media for the cryopreservation of red wolf (Canis rufus) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyear, K M; Goodrowe, K L; Waddell, W T; MacDonald, S E

    2009-02-01

    Successful cryopreservation of sperm and the maintenance of a sperm-based genome resource bank have been identified as priorities for the recovery of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus). The objectives were to improve sperm processing and to determine the relative timing of damage to red wolf sperm during freezing and thawing. Fresh ejaculates (n=37) from adult red wolves (n=15, aged 2-13 y) were collected via electroejaculation and subjected to cooling, freezing and thawing in four TRIS-egg-yolk extender treatments varying in osmolality ( approximately 305 mOsm versus approximately 350 mOsm) and egg-yolk composition (0.8 microm-filtered versus unfiltered). Ejaculates were evaluated for sperm percentage motility, forward progressive motion, and morphological characteristics immediately upon collection and following extension, cooling (prior to freezing) and thawing. Although no single treatment consistently produced superior results, sperm suspended in approximately 305 mOsm extenders exhibited slight losses in motility post-thawing (13 and 7%). Also, sperm suspended in approximately 350 mOsm extenders tended to have slower rates of decline in motility in vitro post-thawing than those stored in approximately 305 mOsm extenders (P=0.55). Finally, extenders incorporating unfiltered egg yolk exhibited a slightly larger ratio of absent to partial acrosomes than did sperm frozen in extenders prepared with clarified egg yolk. For approximately 350 mOsm extenders, most motility loss occurred during the cooling rather than freezing and thawing. In conclusion, these data contribute to knowledge regarding cryopreservation of red wolf sperm.

  20. Exploring the relationship between protein secondary structures, temperature-dependent viscosities, and technological treatments in egg yolk and LDL by FTIR and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, K; Dietrich, K; Lilienthal, S; Ternes, W; Drotleff, A M

    2015-04-15

    Egg yolk and its main component, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), were consecutively pasteurised, optimally freeze-dried, and dispersed in various NaCl solutions (0-10%). Heat-induced changes in the protein secondary structures which accompanied viscosity-increasing aggregation processes were monitored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the intensities of intermolecular β-sheets (1622 cm(-1)) and results were compared with the temperature-dependent viscosities. Considerable changes in secondary structures observed after reconstitution of freeze-dried LDL had no detectable effect on the characteristic heat-induced viscosity curves but suggest that LDL plays a particular role in the unwanted gel formation of egg yolk after conventional freezing. For all egg yolk samples and all NaCl-containing LDL samples, the sigmoidal changes in the absorbance units vs. temperature curves corresponded with the first increase in heat-induced viscosity. Both analytical methods showed that the presence of ionic strength caused a shift in curve progressions towards higher temperatures, indicating increased thermal stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Captivity Diets Alter Egg Yolk Lipids of a Bird of Prey (the American Kestrel) and of a Galliforme (the Red-Legged Partridge)

    OpenAIRE

    Surai, Peter F.; Speake, Brian K.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Negro, Juan J.

    2001-01-01

    The salient feature of the fatty acid profile of kestrel eggs collected in the wild was the very high proportion of arachidonic acid (15.2% 0.7% of fatty acid mass, np5) in the phospholipid fraction of the yolk. Kestrels in captivity fed on dayold chickens produced eggs that differed from those of the wild birds in a number of compositional features: the proportion of linoleic acid was increased in all the lipid fractions; the proportion of arachidonic acid was increased ...

  2. Viability and fertility of cooled equine semen diluted with skimmed milk or glycine egg yolk-based extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Pugliesi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two semen extenders were compared for their ability to maintain viability of horse semen during 24 hours of cold preservation, and for the pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In the experiment 1, five ejaculates from three stallions were split-diluted in either a skimmed milk-based extender (Kenney extender or a glycine egg yolk-based extender (Foote extender and cooled at 6-8 ºC for 24 hours. Semen samples stored in Kenney extender for 24 hours had higher motility and spermatic vigor compared with those stored in Foote extender. However, samples stored in Foote extender had higher number of reactive sperm by hypoosmotic test and greater viability by epifluorescence test compared with those in Kenney extender. In the experiment 2, 17 and 23 ejaculates from two stallions were split-diluted with Kenney extender and Foote extender. The sperm concentration in each extender was adjusted to 500 million viable sperms per insemination dose. Semen was cooled to 6-8 ºC and stored for 24 hours. Seventy-four cycles of crossbred mares were inseminated with either semen diluted in Kenney extender or semen diluted in Foote extender. The pregnancy rate was higher from semen diluted in Kenney extender than that from semen in Foote extender (0.553 vs. 0.306. The Kenney extender is effective in preserving the motility, vigor and fertility of stallion semen after 24 hours of cold storage, whereas the Foote extender is not acceptable.

  3. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Arisa; Ino, Arisa; Watabe, Kazuya; Kim, Mujo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as "bone peptide" or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy.

  4. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Polyclonal antibody to ovomucoid determination in gamma irradiated laying eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Lopes, Tatiana G.G.; Duarte, Keila M.R.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Savino, Vicente J.M.; Coelho, Antonio A.D.

    2009-01-01

    To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovomucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in female rabbits immunized with bioconjugated ovomucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA-ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of Co 60 , type Multipurpose, under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8 Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10 KGy; 20 KGy and 30 KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA.s test we can find the egg allergen ovomucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovomucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  6. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  7. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pegg yolks from different regions of collection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; WATANABE, Arisa; INO, Arisa; WATABE, Kazuya; KIM, Mujo; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as “bone peptide” or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy. PMID:25649521

  9. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  11. Egg yolk and glycerol requirements for freezing boar spermatozoa treated with methyl β-cyclodextrin or cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Eva; Tomás, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Martínez, Emilio A; Vázquez, Juan M; Mocé, Eva

    2014-04-24

    Egg yolk (EY) and glycerol are common constituents of extenders used for sperm cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that using cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) improves sperm cryosurvival in several species. However, standard freezing extenders might not be the most appropriate for CLC-treated sperm. This study evaluated the EY and glycerol requirements for freezing CLC-treated boar spermatozoa. Semen samples from 34 ejaculates coming from 4 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into three aliquots: one was used untreated (control), and the other two were treated with 1 mg of CLC or methyl-β-cyclodextrin/120 × 10(6) sperm for 15 min at 22 C prior to cryopreservation. Our results indicated that reducing the concentration of EY was detrimental for sperm viability after thawing (31.57 ± 2 vs. 19.89% ± 2 for 20 and 10% EY, respectively; P <0.05), even in semen treated with CLC. On the other hand, it was observed that the traditional concentration of glycerol (3%) was not the appropriate for freezing CLC-treated sperm (61.10 ± 3 vs. 47.87% ± 3 viable sperm for control and CLC-treated sperm, respectively; P <0.05). Thus, CLC-treated sperm showed a higher tolerance to high glycerol concentrations (5%) in terms of sperm viability (59.19% ± 3) than non-treated sperm (45.58% ± 3; P<0.05). Therefore, it could be necessary to modify the freezing extenders for CLC-treated sperm. Nevertheless, additional studies will be needed to evaluate alternative cryoprotectants and to determine the effect of high glycerol concentrations on sperm functionality.

  12. Egg production, faecal pH and microbial population, small intestine morphology, and plasma and yolk cholesterol in laying hens given liquid metabolites produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, D W; Loh, T C; Foo, H L; Hair-Bejo, M; Awis, Q S

    2012-01-01

    1. Various dosages of metabolite combinations of the Lactobacillus plantarum RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (COM456) were used to study the egg production, faecal microflora population, faecal pH, small intestine morphology, and plasma and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens. 2. A total of 500 Lohmann Brown hens were raised from 19 weeks to 31 weeks of age. The birds were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed on various treatment diets: (i) basal diet without supplementation of metabolites (control); (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0·3% COM456 metabolites; (iii) basal diet supplemented with 0·6% COM456 metabolites; (iv) basal diet supplemented with 0·9% COM456 metabolites; and (v) basal diet supplemented with 1·2% COM456 metabolites. 3. The inclusion of 0·6% liquid metabolite combinations, produced from three L. plantarum strains, demonstrated the best effect in improving the hens' egg production, faecal lactic acid bacteria population, and small intestine villus height, and reducing faecal pH and Enterobacteriaceae population, and plasma and yolk cholesterol concentrations. 4. The metabolites from locally isolated L. plantarum are a possible alternative feed additive in poultry production.

  13. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçyn, Hasan; Basmacyoolu, Hatice; Kemal Ünal, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%), flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64) or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed) were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (p

  14. Effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth of their offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Adeleke, M A; Ladokun, O A; Sobayo, R A; Jegede, A V; Peters, S O; Oyebamiji, O A; Akinsola, J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of breeder turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth response was investigated using 180 breeder hens. The hens were assigned to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements of two application modes of L-carnitine (diet and drinking water) supplemented at 0, 50 and 100 ppm (mg/kg or mg/l) levels, respectively. Each treatment was replicated five times with six hens per replicate. Dietary inclusion of 50 ppm L-carnitine showed the lowest (p L-carnitine with no regard to application mode recorded the highest (p L-carnitine irrespective of application mode also showed reduced (p L-carnitine for breeder turkeys recorded the lowest (p L-carnitine irrespective of application mode recorded the highest (p production. Incidence of dead-in-shell also reduced (p L-carnitine. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm and oral application in drinking water of 100 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys resulted in highest (p L-carnitine recorded no post-hatch mortality. Highest (p L-carnitine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for turkey hens showed improved serum lipid profile, egg fertility, reduced dead-in-shell, egg-yolk cholesterol and resulted in improved post-hatch growth performance.

  15. Preservability of bull spermatozoa in Tris-egg yolk extender enriched with different concentrations of butylated hydroxytoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sheshtawy RI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of BHT on cattle spermatozoa during cooling and cryopreservation. Methods: Pooled bull semen were diluted by Tris-Citrate-Fructose egg yolk (TCFY diluent considered as control (0 BHT and different concentrations of BHT (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mM were prepared in ethanol in prewarmed (37 ℃ test tubes. The ethanol was allowed to evaporate so that, a thin crystallized layer of BHT was deposited on the inner surface of the tubes. Then extended semen was added into the tubes and incubated at 37 ℃ for 5 min to allow uptake of BHT by spermatozoa. The tubes were cooled slowly (approximately for 2 h up to 5 ℃ and equilibrated for 4 h. After equilibration, semen freezing process was carried out. Extended semen was subjected to evaluation (motility, alive sperm, intact sperm membrane (HOST % and acrosome integrity in both cooled and cryopreserved semen. Results: The result revealed that sperm motility of post-cooled spermatozoa improved (P<0.05 by the use of BHT concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mM in Tris semen extender if compared to the control (85.00±1.09, (83.33± 0.63, (81.67± 0.63 and (78.33± 0.63, respectively. Alive sperm percent was significantly higher in all concentrations of BHT. Sperm abnormalities percent were significantly lower in concentrations of BHT 1 and 2 (11.2±0.2, (11.8±0.2and (13.4±0.4, respectively. Sperm membrane integrity were significantly higher in BHT concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mM. It is exhibited that improved sperm motility in post-thawed frozen semen in the concentrations of BHT (1, 2, 3 and 4 mM if compared to the control. The sperm membrane integrity were significantly improved at all concentrations of BHT. Acrosome integrity was significantly higher at BHT concentration 1 mM (81.80±0.57 and (76.00±2.05, respectively. Conclusions: It could be concluded that some concentrations of BHT improved bull semen quality post-cooling and post-freezing.

  16. Efeito do extrato de urucum na pigmentação da gema dos ovos Effect of anatto extract oil on the egg yolk colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para avaliar níveis de adição do extrato de urucum (EU a uma ração em que o sorgo foi utilizado como principal fonte de energia. Um total de 280 poedeiras no segundo ciclo de produção, 140 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL e 140 Isa Brown (IB, foi alojado em densidade de duas aves/gaiola e alimentado ad libitum com sete rações. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração controle positiva com milho, como principal fonte de energia, e uma ração basal contendo sorgo, como principal fonte de energia, suplementada com seis níveis de EU em 0,0; 0,10; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; e 0,60%. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 7 x 2 (tratamento e linhagem, com cinco repetições de quatro aves. A adição de EU à ração à base de sorgo melhorou a pigmentação da gema dos ovos linearmente. A linhagem IB apresentou melhor pigmentação da gema dos ovos que a linhagem LSL. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a adição de 0,1% de EU à ração com sorgo promoveu similar pigmentação da gema do ovo que a ração à base de milho.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the increasing levels of anatto extract (AE oil in sorghum-based diets as the main energy source. A total of 280 laying hens in the second production cycle, 140 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and 140 Isa Brown (IB, was allotted to a density two birds/pen and full fed seven diets. The treatments consisted of a positive control corn based diet, as principal energy source, and a basal sorghum diet, as principal energy source, supplemented with 0.0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60% of AE. A completely randomized design in a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement (treatment and line, with five replicates of four birds, was used. The egg yolk colour was linearly improved by addition of AE to the sorghum-based diets. The brown-egg layers presented better egg yolk colour than the white-egg layers. The addition of 0.1% AE to the sorghum-based diets produced

  17. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers.

  18. Electrochemical immunosensor based on ensemble of nanoelectrodes for immunoglobulin IgY detection: application to identify hen's egg yolk in tempera paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Fabio; Oliveri, Paolo; Ugo, Paolo

    2014-02-15

    A nanostructured electrochemical biosensor for detecting proteins of interest in work of art, in particular in tempera paintings, is presented. To determine egg yolk we focus here on the determination of immunoglobulin IgY. The transducers are nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), prepared via membrane templated electroless deposition of gold. Because of their geometrical and diffusion characteristics, NEEs are characterized by significantly low detection limits, moreover they display the capability of capturing proteins by interaction with the polycarbonate membrane of the NEE. At first, the proteic component of the paint is extracted by ultrasonication in an aqueous buffer, then IgY is captured by incubation on the NEE. The immunoglobulin is detected by treatment with anti-IgY labeled with horse radish peroxidase (Anti-IgY-HRP). The binding of the Anti-IgY-HRP is detected by recording the electrocatalytic signal caused by addition of H2O2 and methylene blue. The sensor detection capabilities are tested by analyzing both paint models, prepared in the lab, and real samples, from paintings of the XVIII-XX century. Multivariate exploratory analysis is applied to classify the voltammetric patterns, confirming the capability to differentiate egg-yolk tempera from other kind of tempera binders as well as from acrylic or oil paints. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (ppigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (ppigment are

  20. Supplementation of laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols and impact of α-tocopherol on tocotrienol transfer to egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Hannah; Wang, Tong; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei; Prusa, Kenneth

    2015-03-11

    Hens can efficiently transfer nutrients from their feed to the eggs. Tocotrienols (T3s) have various health benefits including lowering cholesterol. Annatto is the only known source of T3s without the presence of α-tocopherol; hence it can be used to study T3 transfer without the interference of α-tocopherol. In this study, hens were fed diets for 7 weeks containing annatto at 100, 500, or 2000 ppm (by weight) and also 2000 ppm annatto with 200, 600, or 1000 ppm of added α-tocopherol to study the effect of α-tocopherol on transfer of T3s. No significant differences were found in egg production or properties. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in transfer efficiencies of tocopherol and T3s to the yolks. α-Tocopherol was transferred more efficiently (21.19-49.17%) than γ-T3 (0.50-0.96%) or δ-T3 (0.74-0.93%). Addition of 1000 ppm of α-tocopherol decreased the amount of γ-T3 but did not impact the transfer of δ-T3 to the egg. These feeding treatments did not impact the cholesterol content of the eggs.

  1. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  2. Continuing multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis strains in egg yolk during refrigeration at 7.2° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continuing attribution of human illness caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) to the consumption of contaminated eggs has led to widespread implementation of risk reduction programs for commercial egg production. Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent bacterial multiplication to dangerously hig...

  3. Effect of supplementation of different boron and copper levels to layer diets on performance, egg yolk and plasma cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Osman; Yazgan, Oktay; Cufadar, Yusuf

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of different levels boron and copper on performance, lipids in yolk and plasma contains in layer diets. In this trial a total of 320 layer chicken (26 weeks old age) was randomly distributed in 16 experimental groups. In each experiment group were consist at 5 replicates, and in each replicates there were 4 birds. During the 16 weeks experiment period, birds were fed with 16 experimental diets. Experimental diets were consisting of all possible combination of 4 levels of added boron (0, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg) and 4 levels of added copper (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) to the basal ration. Effect of treatments on body weight change and plasma glucose levels were not significant. However, added boron and copper had a significant effect on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. While added boron had a significant adverse effect on performance parameters, added copper had a significant positive effect on the same parameters. Yolk lipid contents were increased by addition of boron to the ration. However, yolk lipid contents were decreased by addition of copper to the ration. Plasma lipid contents were also decreased by addition of copper and boron in the ration. Results of the present study showed that laying hens from 26 to 42 weeks of age should be fed with 60 mg/kg boron and 150 mg/kg copper supplementation in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of egg yolk livetins (α, β, and γ-livetin) fraction and its enzymatic hydrolysates in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meram, Chalamaiah; Wu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the egg yolk livetins (α, β, and γ-livetin) fraction and its hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin and Alcalase, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages as an in vitro model. Enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin and Alcalase successfully transformed the large molecular weight livetins into low molecular mass peptides mostly below 10kDa. Results revealed that livetins and its hydrolysates (peptides) treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory responses as evidenced by inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) (22.7-39.2%), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (36.9-43.2%), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (26.1-50.9%) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (60.4-69.0%), and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (58.6-62%). Alcalase hydrolysate showed more effects in inhibiting prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production (30.3%) as well as expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (55.7%). In addition, effect of livetins and its hydrolysates on phagocytic capacity of the macrophages was also evaluated. The results indicate that livetins and its enzymatic hydrolysates significantly (pegg yolk livetins and its hydrolysates with anti-inflammatory activity can potentially be used in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes of Protein and Lipid Contents, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions in Eggs and Yolk-Sac Larvae of American Shad ( Alosa sapidissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Gao, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Jiuxiang; Wang, Yaohui; Guo, Zhenglong; Huang, Bin; Liu, Baoliang; Hong, Lei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the changes of the biochemical composition of American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) eggs and larvae at embryonic and early larval stages, samples were collected at different development stages from artificial fertilization to the end of yolk absorption including 2 h, 12 h and 30 h after fertilization and newly hatched larvae including 1 and 3 days after hatching. The composition of lipid, fatty acids, protein and amino acids were analyzed. The content of total protein exhibited a decreasing trend during embryogenesis and larval development, and a significant reduction was detected after hatching ( P acids after hatching except for glycine ( P fatty acids remained stable during the period of embryogenesis. But after hatching, a significant decrease was found in the content of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-6, SFA and ratio of EPA/ARA ( P acids.

  6. Long-Term Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Bound Phospholipids and the Combination of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Bound Triglyceride and Egg Yolk Phospholipid on Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hongxia; Cui, Jie; Wen, Min; Xu, Jie; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Wang, Qi; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-04-01

    The bioavailability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depends on their chemical forms. This study investigated the long-term effects of DHA-bound triglyceride (TG-DHA), DHA-bound phospholipid (PL-DHA), and the combination of TG-DHA and egg yolk phospholipid (Egg-PL) on lipid metabolism in mice fed with a high-fat diet (fat levels of 22.5%). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with different formulations containing 0.5% DHA, including TG-DHA, PL-DHA, and the combination of TG-DHA and Egg-PL, for 6 weeks. Serum, hepatic, and cerebral lipid concentrations and the fatty acid compositions of the liver and brain were determined. The concentrations of serum total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and hepatic TG in the PL-DHA group and the combination group were significantly lower than those in the high-fat (HF) group ( P < 0.05). Atherogenic index (AI) of the PL-DHA group was significantly lower than that of the combination group ( P < 0.05). Hepatic TC level in the combination group was significantly lower than that in the HF group ( P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the combination group and the PL-DHA group. Both the PL-DHA and the combination groups showed significantly increased DHA levels in the liver compared with the HF group ( P < 0.05). However, there were no obvious increases in the cerebral DHA levels in all DHA diet groups. These results suggest that PL-DHA was superior to the combination of TG-DHA and Egg-PL in decreasing the AI. Long-term dietary supplementation with low amount of DHA (0.5%) may improve hepatic DHA levels, although cerebral DHA levels may not be enhanced.

  7. In Vivo Monitoring of the Growth of Fertilized Eggs of Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes) by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Imaging-A Marked Change in the Relative Content of Weakly Hydrogen-Bonded Water in Egg Yolk Just before Hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Mika; Yasui, Yui; Puangchit, Paralee; Kawasaki, Shoya; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-08-01

    The present study develops further our previous study of in vivo monitoring at the molecular level of the embryonic development in Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and NIR imaging. NIR spectra were measured nondestructively for three major parts of fertilized medaka eggs (the embryonic body, oil droplets, and egg yolk) from the first day after fertilization to the day just before hatching (JBH). Changes in the contents of chemical components such as proteins, water, and lipids were monitored in situ during embryonic development. A marked change in the relative content of weakly hydrogen-bonded water was observed in the egg yolk JBH. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out using the NIR spectra data of the egg yolk and embryo on the fifth day after fertilization. The PCA clearly separates the egg yolk data from the embryo body parts. Principal component PC1 and PC2 loading plots suggest that the hydrogen bonding structure of water in the egg yolk is considerably different to those of the other parts and the fraction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water in the egg yolk is smaller than that in the embryonic body. NIR images developed from the intensities of peaks of second derivative spectra owing to water and proteins show their different distribution patterns. Images of the ratio of strongly and weakly hydrogen-bonded water confirmed that oil droplets and embryonic body parts have higher and lower ratios, respectively, of strongly hydrogen-bonded water than do the other parts. The images developed from the intensity of the peaks at 4864 and 4616 cm(-1) related to the proteins indicated that the egg yolk contains a higher concentration of protein than do the other parts. The peaks at 5756 and 4530 cm(-1) caused by the protein secondary structures of α-helix and β-sheet showed the configuration of the egg cell membrane. The present study might lead to new understanding at the molecular level regarding the growth of

  8. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  9. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a retrospective ...

  10. Screening for hen's egg and chicken meat specific IgE antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Allergy to hen's egg and meat contributes significantly to the manifestations of food allergy all over the world. Objectives: This study was performed to assess the presence of hen's egg and meat specific IgE antibodies among patients investigated for various allergic disorders. Methods. This is a ...

  11. Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera and egg yolk samples. Protective serum antibody titres of ≥3 (log2) were recorded in 5.3% of the naturally exposed, indigenous village hens. Antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus in the yolks were higher than in their sera (230.08 ± 40.05; 1.56 ± 0.74 for ...

  12. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit from the lutein-enriched buttermilk drink. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00902408. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréia M; Praxedes, Erica C G; Campos, Lívia B; Bezerra, Luana G P; Moreira, Samara S J; Maia, Keilla M; Souza, Ana L P; Silva, Alexandre R

    2018-04-01

    As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunoglobulin in the eggs of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, J R; Lobb, C J

    1993-01-01

    Egg yolk proteins obtained from 2-3-day-old fertilized channel catfish eggs were analyzed to determine if immunoglobulin (Ig) was present. Using both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to catfish Ig, egg Ig was isolated and structurally characterized. The egg Ig when analyzed in SDS-gels under nonreducing conditions dissociated into eight distinct subpopulations with relative mobilities identical to that previously described for the serum Ig of the channel catfish. In addition, the component heavy (H) and light (L) chains of the egg Ig had similar relative mobilities as the H and L chains identified in serum Ig. Immunocytological studies using both polyclonal and monoclonal anti-catfish Ig showed that Ig was dispersed throughout the yolk of the egg. In addition these analyses indicated that Ig was localized within the external membranes (eggshell) of the egg.

  15. The relationship of physical and chemical conditions of CEP diluent with egg yolk addition to bull spermatozoa quality before and after storage at temperaturof 4-5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducha, N.; Hariani, D.; Budijastuti, W.

    2018-01-01

    Storage of semen requires diluent to dilute semen and maintain sperm quality. One of the diluent for bull semen was CEP. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bull spermatozoa quality with the physical and chemical conditions of CEP diluents with the addition of egg yolk before and after the storage process. The study used Limousin bull with 5 replications. The quality of spermatozoa included motility and viability. Physical and chemical conditions included the pH and osmolarity of the diluent. The motility of spermatozoa was observed under a light microscope with 200 X magnification at 37°C by two people. The viability of spermatozoa was observed under a light microscope with 400 X magnification with nigrosine eosin staining. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and continued Duncan’s test. Dilution pH was measured using pH indicator paper ranging from 6-8. The osmolarity of the diluent was measured by electrical osmolarity. The results showed that the addition of egg yolk in the CEP diluent decreased the pH and increased osmolartitas, but the quality of spermatozoa can be kept up to 8 days of storage. The conclusion in this study was the addition of egg yolk in the CEP diluent provided physical and chemical conditions that can maintain the quality of spermatozoa during storage at a temperature of 4-5 ° C.

  16. The dietary inclusion of Portulaca oleracea to the diet of laying hens increases the n-3 fatty acids content and reduces the cholesterol content in the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-enriched diet on yolk fatty acid profile and cholesterol content was evaluated. Dried Poutulaca oleracea (purslane: PO diet was added to a commercial diet (C diet at 20% of inclusion level. The effect of the supplemented diet was compared to that of C diet. Twenty-six laying hens were fed ad libitum for 21 days with the 2 diets, supplemented also with 300 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg. Eggs were collected and then the fatty acids (FA profile and the cholesterol content were analysed. The PO diet significantly reduced the saturated FA content (P<0.05 and increased that of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA: 18:2 n-6 (P<0.001, 18:3 n-3 (P<0.001 and 22:6 n-3 (DHA; P<0.01. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA significantly increased with the PO diet and the n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (10.4 vs 11.3; P<0.05.

  17. Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Egg-Yolk Phophatidylcholine with Concentrate of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Cod Liver Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Anna; Gładkowski, Witold; Grudniewska, Aleksandra

    2017-10-19

    Phospholipids containing PUFAs are important vehicles for their delivering to the targeted tissues. In our research project we established enzymatic methods for the enrichment of natural egg-yolk PC with n-3 PUFAs. Instead of synthetic PUFA ethyl esters, the new strategy was developed using polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched fraction (PUFA-EF) from cod liver oil as the natural acyl donors. PUFA-EF was produced by urea-complexation and contained 86.9% PUFA including 8.5% stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4( n -3)), 26.7% EPA, and 45.2% DHA. The transesterification of PC with PUFA was catalyzed by lipases. After screening of enzymes the effect of reaction medium; molar ratio of substrates and etc. was investigated. The highest incorporation of PUFA was 45.6%; including 36.8% DHA and 5.8% EPA at the following reaction conditions: hexane; 55 °C; PUFA-EF/PC acyl ratio of 10; 48 h of reaction time and lipase B from Candida antarctica as a biocatalyst (20% of enzyme load).

  18. Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Egg-Yolk Phophatidylcholine with Concentrate of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Cod Liver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chojnacka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids containing PUFAs are important vehicles for their delivering to the targeted tissues. In our research project we established enzymatic methods for the enrichment of natural egg-yolk PC with n-3 PUFAs. Instead of synthetic PUFA ethyl esters, the new strategy was developed using polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched fraction (PUFA-EF from cod liver oil as the natural acyl donors. PUFA-EF was produced by urea-complexation and contained 86.9% PUFA including 8.5% stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4(n-3, 26.7% EPA, and 45.2% DHA. The transesterification of PC with PUFA was catalyzed by lipases. After screening of enzymes the effect of reaction medium; molar ratio of substrates and etc. was investigated. The highest incorporation of PUFA was 45.6%; including 36.8% DHA and 5.8% EPA at the following reaction conditions: hexane; 55 °C; PUFA-EF/PC acyl ratio of 10; 48 h of reaction time and lipase B from Candida antarctica as a biocatalyst (20% of enzyme load.

  19. Cor, betacaroteno e colesterol em gema de ovos obtidos de poedeiras que receberam diferentes dietas Color, beta-caroten and cholesterol in yolks of eggs by different diets of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marino e Biscaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é um alimento considerado nutricionalmente completo, e contém quantidade significativa de nutrientes. Para os consumidores, a qualidade deste alimento está relacionada com o prazo de validade do produto e com as características sensoriais, como cor da gema e da casca. Poucos estudos foram efetuados no Brasil sobre a utilização de agentes pigmentantes e seus efeitos sobre a coloração das gemas e proporção e qualidade química dos componentes do ovo. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com este trabalho relacionar diferentes dietas com cor, quantidade de betacaroteno e teor colesterol das gemas dos ovos. Foram coletados ovos de poedeiras que receberam 4 diferentes tipos de ração. A cor foi medida em colorímetro Minolta, o beta-caroteno separado em coluna e medido em espectrofotômetro e o colesterol extraído com clorofórmio e quantificado por método colorimétrico. Os resultados mostraram que não há relação entre a cor e aumento do teor de betacaroteno das gemas dos ovos, mas a alimentação alterou a cor da gema. O teor de colesterol foi diferente (pEgg is a nutritional complete food, and content significant quantity of nutrients. For the consumers, the food quality is related with validity date of product and with sensorial characteristics, like yolk color and hull. Few studies were done in Brazil about utilization of colorfull agents and theirs effects in yolk color and chemical quality of egg compounds. The objective of this research was related different feeds with the color, beta-carotene and cholesterol amount of egg yolk. Eggs were caught of laying hens that received 4 feed types. The color measure was done by Minolta colorimeter, beta-carotene separated by column and spectrophotometer and cholesterol separated with chloroform and measured by colorimetric method. The results showed that there is not a relation between the color an increase of beta-carotene amount in the yolks, but feed altered the yolk color. Cholesterol

  20. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive pro...

  1. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Ruuskanen

    Full Text Available Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  2. Thyroid harmones in yolk and their role in chick embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshad, Omkar; Gupta, B.K.; Rattan, P.J.S.; Varman, P.N.

    1976-01-01

    Previous studies had confirmed that large amounts of radioiodine could accumulate in the egg yolk when 131 I was injected into laying hen. Studies were made to check whether the iodine present in the egg yolk is in an hormonal or some other form; and what role the product(s) may be playing during embryogenesis. Results indicate that the egg yolk contains significant amounts of thyroidal hormones which are enough to meet the growth needs of the embryo. (M.G.B.)

  3. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in sera and eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-03-07

    Mar 7, 2016 ... The seroprevalence and maternal antibody profiles to Newcastle disease virus infection of guinea fowls were studied using ..... gallisepticum. Avian diseases, 28 (4): 877-883. Sa'idu L, Tekdek LB & Abdu PA (2004). Prevalence of ND antibodies in domestic and semi domestic birds in Zaria, Nigeria.

  4. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinson, Richard P; Stewart, James R

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg.

  6. Persisting antibody reaction in paragonimiasis after praziquantel treatment is elicited mainly by egg antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yoon; Yun, Doo-Hee; Kang, Shin-Yong; Kim, Lee-Soo; Chung, Young-Bae; Yang, Hyun-Jong

    2000-01-01

    Antibody responses in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with active and chronic paragonimiasis and in sera from patients on whom follow-up studies were done after praziquantel treatment were analyzed using antigens of Paragonimus westermani prepared from eggs, metacercariae, juveniles of 4- and 7-week old, adult worms and recombinant protein of 28 kDa cruzipain-like cysteine protease (rPw28CCP). The patient sera/CSFs of active and chronic paragonimiasis revealed strong antibody reactions against the crude extracts of 4- and 7-week old juveniles as well as against those from egg and adult. rPw28CCP also showed specific reaction to the sera with active paragonimiasis. After the treatment, levels of specific antibodies in the sera gradually decreased to negative range in most patients. In some cases with persisting high antibody levels, however, the reactions at 27 kDa egg protein were sustained throughout the observation period of 34 months. The reactions at 35 and 32 kDa in adult extract and rPw28CCP disappeared rapidly after the treatment. Persistent antibody reactions even after successful treatment are provoked by continuous antigenic challenge from eggs which were not resolved by treatment. PMID:10905068

  7. Induction of polyspermy in sea urchin eggs by antibodies raised against a hamster sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R; Coutu, L; Dubé, F

    1994-07-15

    Polyclonal antibodies raised against a hamster sperm protein (P26h) induce polyspermic fertilizations in the green sea urchin without affecting the fertilizing ability of the spermatozoa nor the elevation of the fertilization membrane. While the adsorption of the antibodies on sperm decreased the polyspermic effect, preincubation of unfertilized eggs with the anti-P26h did not cause polyspermy. These results suggest that common epitopes are involved in fertilization processes in phylogenetically distant species.

  8. Tris-egg yolk-glycerol (TEY) extender developed for freezing dog semen is a good option to cryopreserve bovine epididymal sperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, G; Soares, L; Ferreira, P; Rocha, A

    2015-02-01

    Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is often performed after shipping the excised testis-epididymis complexes, under refrigeration, to a specialized laboratory. However, epididymal spermatozoa can be collected immediately after excision of the epididymis and sent extended and refrigerated to a laboratory for cryopreservation. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of both methods of cold storage bovine epididymal spermatozoa as well as of two different extenders on spermatozoa characteristics after freeze-thawing. For that, spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymis of 19 bulls were extended and cryopreserved in either AndroMed(®) or a Tris-egg yolk (TEY)-based extender. Cryopreservation of sperm cells was performed immediately after castration (Group A, n = 9) or after cold storage for 24 h diluted in the two extenders and (Group B, n = 9) and also after cold storage for 24 h within the whole epididymis (Group C, n = 10). Sperm subjective progressive motility (light microscopy), plasma membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test) and sperm viability (eosin-nigrosin) were evaluated. In vitro fertilization and culture (IVF) was performed to assess the blastocyst rate. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed on post-thaw sperm parameters between samples from Group A, B and C. TEY extended samples presented a higher (p sperm, than those extended in AndroMed(®) . Blastocyst rate after IVF differed only (p epididymal sperm can be shipped chilled overnight either within the epididymal tail or after dilution without deleterious effect on post-thaw sperm quality. TEY extender was more suitable for cold storage and freezing bovine epididymal sperm, than the commercial extender AndroMed®. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Selection for antibody response against sheep red blood cells and layer age affect egg quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. After 22 generations of divergent selection for antibody response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC), hatchability differed between the selected lines. Whether there is a relationship between hatchability and egg traits in these lines is not clear. 2. The aim of the present study was to

  10. Evaluation of antibody response by dogs vaccinated with low egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve dogs were immunized with live attenuated flury strain antirabies vaccine using single, double and triple inoculation sites of the recommended dose, but in divided doses for the double and triple sites. All the dogs were screened for neutralizing antibodies against rabies before immunization, while sera were collected ...

  11. Emulsion of systems containing egg yolk, polysaccharides and vegetable oil Emulsão de sistemas contendo gema de ovo, polissacarídeos e óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitor Junior Fernandes de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work characterizes the emulsifying properties of systems containing egg yolk (0.1; 1.0 and 2.5 % w/v and polysaccharides (xanthan gum, carrageen, pectin and carboxymethylcellulose and three different vegetable oils (sunflower, canola, and palm oils. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability were measured of each combination and it was found the effect of the oil on emulsion stability correlated to the amount of monounsaturated fatty acid. Additionally, increased egg yolk concentration increased emulsifying activity by reducing coalescence of oil droplets. Lastly, 2.5% egg yolk and 0.2% polysaccharide generated emulsions with high emulsifying activity, excellent stability, and droplet size of 4.32 µm.Neste trabalho, caracterizam-se as propriedades emulsificantes de sistemas contendo gema de ovo (0,1; 1,0 e 2,5% m/v, polissacarídeos (goma xantana, carragena, pectina e carboximetilcelulose e três diferentes óleos vegetais (óleos de palma, canola e girassol. Atividade emulsificante e estabilidade da emulsão foram medidas para cada combinação e verificou-se o efeito do óleo sobre a estabilidade da emulsão correlacionada com a quantidade de ácido graxo monoinsaturado. Além disso, a concentração de gema de ovo aumentou a atividade emulsificante, reduzindo a coalescência das gotículas de óleo. Por último, 2,5 % de gema de ovo e 0,2% de polissacarídeo formaram emulsões com alta atividade emulsificante, excelente estabilidade e tamanho de gota de 4,32 µm.

  12. Ácidos graxos da gema e composição do ovo de poedeiras alimentadas com rações com farelo de coco Yolk fatty acids and egg components from layers fed diets with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Carvalho Santiago Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração e do tempo de alimentação de poedeiras comerciais, sobre os ácidos graxos da gema e os componentes do ovo. O delineamento foi em esquema fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de inclusão do FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% e dois tempos de alimentação (14 e 28 dias. Foram avaliados o peso e as porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca dos ovos, bem como os sólidos e lipídios totais e o perfil de ácidos graxos das gemas. A inclusão do FC e o tempo de alimentação influenciaram apenas a proporção de ácido mirístico na gema, que aumentou com a inclusão do FC aos 28 dias de alimentação. Os ácidos esteárico e oléico variaram somente com o tempo de alimentação, e as maiores concentrações foram obtidas aos 28 dias. A relação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados para ácidos graxos saturados da gema diminuiu a partir de 10% de inclusão e aumentou com o tempo de alimentação das aves. O uso de farelo de coco, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, não influencia a proporção dos componentes do ovo, apenas altera a concentração do ácido mirístico da gema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of coconut meal (CM inclusion in commercial layer diets and feeding time, on egg components and yolk fatty acid composition. The experiment followed a factorial design 5x2, with five levels of CM inclusion (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% and two feeding time (14 and 28 days. Parameters evaluated included: egg weight, and albumen, yolk and shell percentages, as well as solids, lipids and fatty acid profile of the yolk. The inclusion of CM and feeding time affected the yolk content of myristic acid which increased with CM level and with feeding time. The levels of stearic and oleic acids in the yolk varied with feeding time and were higher in the eggs after 28 days. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in yolk decreased, when dietary CM levels were

  13. Predictive value of IgE/IgG4 antibody ratio in children with egg allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shindou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%, and negative predictive value (% than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.

  14. Egg-yolk protein by-product as a source of ACE-inhibitory peptides obtained with using unconventional proteinase from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Ewelina; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Polanowski, Antoni; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2014-10-14

    In the present study angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were isolated from egg-yolk protein preparation (YP). Enzymatic hydrolysis conducted using unconventional enzyme from Cucurbita ficifolia (dose: 1000 U/mg of hydrolyzed YP (E/S (w/w)=1:7.52)) was employed to obtain protein hydrolysates. The 4-h hydrolysate exhibited a significant (IC₅₀=482.5 μg/mL) ACE inhibitory activity. Moreover, hydrolysate showed no cytotoxic activity on human and animal cell lines which makes it a very useful multifunctional method for peptide preparation. The compiled isolation procedure (ultrafiltration, size-exclusion chromatography and RP-HPLC) of bioactive peptides from YP hydrolysate resulted in obtaining peptides with the strong ACE inhibitory activity. One homogeneous and three heterogeneous peptide fractions were identified. The peptides were composed of 9-18 amino-acid residues, including mainly arginine and leucine at the N-terminal positions. To confirm the selected bioactive peptide sequences their analogs were chemically synthesized and tested. Peptide LAPSLPGKPKPD showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC₅₀ value of 1.97 μmol/L. Peptides with specific biological activity can be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industries. Because of their potential role as physiological modulators, as well as theirhigh safety profile, they can be used as natural pharmacological compounds or functional food ingredients. The development of biotechnological solutions to obtain peptides with desired biological activity is already in progress. Studies in this area are focused on using unconventional highly specific enzymes and more efficient methods developed to conduct food process technologies. Natural peptides have many advantages. They are mainly toxicologically safe, have wide spectra of therapeutic actions, exhibit less side effects compared to synthetic drugs and are more efficiently absorbed in the intestinal tract. The complexity of

  15. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  16. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of enriched egg yolk lipids obtained by modifying hens’ diets with fish oil and flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçyn, Hasan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%, flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64 or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (pSe han estudiado los efectos producidos por la presencia de aceite de pescado y linaza, en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, sobre la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de los lípidos del huevo. Se han utilizado gallinas ponedoras Isa-White y cinco tipos de dietas experimentales. La primera dieta fue usada como control. Se añadió aceite de pescado (1.5%, linaza (4.32% y 8.64 o ambos (1.5% aceite de pescado y 4.32% linaza a las otras dietas y se alimentó a las gallinas durante 30 y 60 días, determinándose la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de las yemas. No se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 debida a las dietas en el contenido de colesterol de las yemas excepto en la que contenía 8.64% de linaza. El contenido total de ácidos grasos saturados disminuyó en todas las dietas en comparación con la dieta control. El contenido total de ácidos grasos n-3 fue significativamente mayor en todas las dietas. El cambio predominante en las dietas que contenían linaza se encontró en el contenido de ácido linolénico. El contenido de los ácidos eicosapentaenoico, docosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico de todas las dietas fue significativamente mayor.

  17. Differences in internal egg quality characteristics between white and brown shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Dogan

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the differences among the internal quality characteristics of brown and white shell table eggs and to examine the relationship between quality characteristics. A total of 235 eggs from brown and white laying hens (Nick-chick; 95 wk of age) were used in this study. Internal egg quality characteristics including egg weight, albumen height, Haugh Unit, yolk height, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk pH, yolk color were determined. The Haugh unit (Pwhite shell eggs were higher than that of brown shell eggs. On the contrary, the yolk a*(Pwhite shell eggs were lower than that of brown shell eggs. There were no significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs for egg weight, albumen and yolk pH values. Significant (Pegg quality of white shell eggs. Similarly, there were significant (Pegg weight and albumen height (r=0.39), albumen height and yolk height (r=0.35), Haugh unit and yolk index (r=0.36) in internal egg quality of brown shell eggs. Significant (Pwhite shell eggs, and yolk L* and yolk a* (r=-0.56) in brown shell eggs. No significant relationships were observed among others internal egg quality criteria.

  18. Interpretation of serum antibody response to Anoplocephala perfoliata in relation to parasite burden and faecal egg count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L.N.; Lungholt, M.M.; Nielsen, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    of development and gross pathological mucosal lesions were recorded and compared with serum antibody responses and faecal egg counts. Faecal egg counts were determined in samples from A. perfoliata infected horses using a semi-quantitative centrifugation/flotation technique. Blood samples collected at slaughter...

  19. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  20. Low-Dose Oral Immunotherapy Using Low-Egg-Allergen Cookies for Severe Egg-Allergic Children Reduces Allergy Severity and Affects Allergen-Specific Antibodies in Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeta, Akihiro; Matsushima, Marin; Muraki, Nozomi; Asano, Mariko; Takaoka, Yuri; Kameda, Makoto; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of low-egg-allergen cookies (LAC) as low-dose oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with severe egg allergy. We also examined the relationship between mild desensitization by low-dose OIT and serum biomarkers of allergy. We enrolled 13 children with egg allergy who could not receive OIT with hard-boiled egg white (EW). For 11 participants, OIT was carried out using LAC for 3-4 months. Open food challenges with hard-boiled EW and blood samplings were performed before and after OIT. Participants were divided into 2 groups: high effect (H-E) and no/low effect (N/L-E). Serum levels of total IgE and egg yolk-, EW-, and ovomucoid (OM)-specific IgE, ovalbumin (OVA)- and OM-specific IgG4, IgA1, and IgA2, and the percentage of CD 203c+ were measured. Allergic severity was reduced in 7 patients, who were assigned to the H-E group. Moreover, no study participants were taken off the intake of LAC during OIT. In the H-E group, OVA-specific IgA2 levels after OIT were significantly higher than before OIT. The ratios of OM-specific IgG4/OM-specific IgE and OM-specific IgA2/OM-specific IgE in the H-E group after OIT were significantly higher than before OIT. Our findings suggest that low-dose OIT using LAC is an effective and safe treatment for patients with severe egg allergy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The Clinical Usefulness of IgE Antibodies Against Egg White and Its Components in Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Taek Ki; Jeon, You Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang

    2013-05-01

    Egg (egg white) allergies are among the most common food allergies in infants and young children. Serum egg white-specific IgE (sIgE) levels have been shown to be correlated with clinical symptoms, and the predictive decision point of sIgE levels has been proposed and used widely in the clinical setting. However, some patients whose sIgE levels to egg white are higher than the predictive decision point value show no clinical symptoms, and vice versa. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical usefulness of sIgE antibodies to egg white and its components in the diagnosis of egg allergies. Forty-one patients younger than 2 years of age with no experience of egg intake due to concerns regarding allergies or a non-specific clinical response to eggs were enrolled. Total IgE levels and the levels of IgE antibodies specific for egg white and its components (ovomucoid, ovalbumin, and conalbumin) were measured by ImmunoCAP testing. The clinical response of the subjects was confirmed by an open oral food challenge (OFC). Fifteen (71.4%) out of 21 patients in the egg white-sIgE ≥2 kU/L group showed a positive response, while 10 (50.0%) out of 20 patients in the egg white-sIgE egg white and its components between the positive and negative open OFC groups. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of sIgE antibodies against egg white and its components based on an intra-group analysis. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity of the predictive decision point values for egg white-sIgE antibodies by ImmunoCAP were relatively low in Korean children. In addition, no egg white component predicted the clinical reactivity of the subjects. We suggest that the predictive decision point value for a positive egg oral challenge test by ImmunoCAP should be re-evaluated. Moreover, we suggest that careful personal history recording and challenge tests are necessary for the correct diagnosis of an egg allergy.

  2. Correlation between ovarian growth, vitellogenin titer, and yolk polypeptide pattern in the haemolymph of Calliphora vicina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Jensen, P. V.

    1982-01-01

    During the first egg maturation cycle ofCalliphora vicina changes in the vitellogenin titer and yolk polypeptide pattern of the haemolymph are correlated with the intensity of follicular growth, and the rate of yolk deposition.......During the first egg maturation cycle ofCalliphora vicina changes in the vitellogenin titer and yolk polypeptide pattern of the haemolymph are correlated with the intensity of follicular growth, and the rate of yolk deposition....

  3. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  4. Efektivitas Low Density Lipoprotein dan Kuning Telur Ayam dan Puyuh pada Pengawetan Semen Ayam Merawang (EFFECTIVESS OF LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN AND EGG YOLK FROM CHICKEN AND QUAIL ON MERAWANG SEMEN PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magfira Magfira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful of artificial insemination (AI depends on the semen quality and extender. To minimize effect of cold shock during storage, extender is added with egg yolk. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of pure Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and egg yolk from domestic chicken and quail on motility and longevity of Merawang chicken sperm. The semen was collected by massage method from three Merawang roosters. Immediately after collection, semen was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Only semen demonstrated >70% motility and 0.05 in spermatozoa longivity in the four diluents, with a range of longivities between 4.43 to 5.93 days. ABSTRAK Keberhasilan inseminasi buatan (IB salah satunya bergantung pada kualitas semen dan pengencer yang digunakan. Dalam meminimalisir pengaruh cold shock saat penyimpanan, pengencer ditambahkan dengan kuning telur. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkan efektivitas Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL dan kuning telur yang berasal dari ayam kampung dan puyuh terhadap motilitas dan longivitas spermatozoa ayam. Koleksi semen dilakukan menggunakan metode pemijatan pada tiga ekor ayam merawang. Setelah semen dikoleksi, selanjutnya semen dievaluasi secara makroskopis dan mikroskopis. Semen yang menunjukkan motilitas 70% dan abnormalitas kurang dari 20% dibagi empat dan diencerkan menggunakan Ringer Laktat-LDLA (RL-LDLA, Ringer Laktat-(RL-LDLP, Ringer Laktatkuning telur ayam (RL-KTA, dan RL-kuning telur puyuh (RL-KTP. Semen yang telah diencerkan kemudian disimpan pada suhu 5oC. Motilitas spermatozoa diamati dua kali sehari sampai motilitas mencapai 0%. Motilitas spermatozoa dalam pengencer RL-LDLA berbeda dengan motilitas spermatozoa dalam pengencer RL-KTP pada jam ke-60 dan ke-72 (P0.05 dengan rentang longivitas antara 4,43 sampai 5,93 hari.

  5. Quality of eggs produced by laying chickens fed lowgossypol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated an increase in egg production with increasing levels of CSM in the diet up to 10 per cent level of inclusion. The addition of CSM to the diets had no significant effects on egg weight, Haugh unit values (HUV), yolk index, and yolk colour scores. However, egg yolk colour tended to improve with increasing ...

  6. Effect of an artificial Ascaridia galli infection on egg production, immune response, and liver lipid reserve of free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Hunt, P W; Hine, B C; McNally, J; Sharma, N K; Iqbal, Z; Normant, C; Andronicos, N M; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Ascaridia galli infection on free-range laying hens. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) at 17 wk of age were allocated to 4 treatment groups (n = 50 per group), each with 5 replicate pens of 10 hens. Hens in 3 treatment groups were orally inoculated with different doses of embryonated A. galli eggs: low (250 eggs), medium (1,000 eggs), and high (2,500 eggs) levels, whereas hens of the control group were not infected. Infection levels were monitored using excreta egg counts and mature A. galli worm counts in the intestine. Anti A. galli antibody titers (IgY) in the serum were measured prior to infection, and at 6, 11, 15, and 20 wk post infection (PI) and in egg yolk at 11 and 20 wk PI. Parameters evaluated included feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, liver weight, liver fat, and intra epithelial immune cell infiltration. The results showed no difference in feed intake, body weight, or FCR among any treatment groups (P > 0.05). Egg production was lower in the low infection group compared to other groups at 20 wk of age (P eggs in the coprodeum content and adult A. galli worm count were higher in infected hens compared to hens of the control group (P egg yolk antibody may be a more reliable indicator of A. galli infection than serum antibody or excreta egg count. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  8. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TO THE COAT PROTEIN OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Nurhadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the most destructive diseases in many citrus growing areas of Indonesia. Effective strategies for controlling CTV depend on diagnostic procedure namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Study aimed to purify the CTV antigen and produced its polyclonal antibody. Virion of the severe CTV isolate designated UPM/ T-002 was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation combined with low speed centrifugation. Semipurified antigen was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific coat protein (CP band of CTV with molecular weight of 25 kD was excised and eluted using elution buffer containing 0.25 M Tris-HCl pH 6.8 + 0.1% SDS, then used as antigen for injection into 6-month-old female of White Leghorn chicken. Results, showed than the specific polyclonal antibody raised against the 25-kDa CP had a titer of approximately 104, gave low background reaction with healthy plant sap and reacted specifically with CTV isolates. The reaction was equally strong for a severe, a moderate, a mild, and a symptomless isolate, suggesting a broad reaction range of this antibody toward different CTV isolates. Optimal virus titer can be obtained since virus loss during purification could be minimized and the highly purified antigen as an immunogen could be obtained by cutting out the CP band from SDS-PAGE gels. Large amount of highly titer of CTV antibody can be produced in chicken egg. The simplicity of the procedure makes it economically acceptable and technically adoptable because the antibody can be produced in basic laboratory.

  9. Populasi Ascaridia galli Dalam Usus Halus Ayam Yang Diberikan Kombinasi Ekskretori/Sekretori L3 dan Imunoglobulin Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi Darmawi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascaridia galli populations in intestine of chickens treated with combination of excretory/secretory L3 and immunoglobulin yolk ABSTRACT. The purpose of the present study was to determine the presence of worm populations in intestine of chickens vaccinated and combined with egg yolk to experimental Ascaridia galli infection. Amount of 18 head chickens were devided into six groups (A – F. Group A, the chickens were not vaccinated. Group B, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3. Group C, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3, challenged with dose 1000 L2, and treated ten times with 0,875 mg egg yolk with an interval of one day intra orally. Group D, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3 and challenged with dose 1000 L2. Group E, the chickens were challenged with dose 1000 L2 and treated ten times with 0,875 mg egg yolk with an interval of one day intra orally. Group E, the chickens were challenged with dose 1000 L2. Intestinal worm burdens of infected groups were recorded. The result showed that excretory/secretory of A. galli L3 combined with egg yolk decreased significantly A. galli survival in intestine of laying hens. Vaccinations were positively correlated with worm burden at 12 weeks after chalanged. The results suggest that A. galli L3 excretory/secretory product contain potential antigen and that antibody-mediated mechanisms contribute to immune protection.

  10. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  11. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh,Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  12. Improving The Egg Quality Trough Addition Of Green Tea In Diet On Laying Hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Research  was conducted to study the effect of green tea  addition in diet to egg weight, egg number, egg yolk colour , fat level and cholesterol level of egg yolk on laying hens. The materials used were 72 laying hens of 28 weeks old. The method of  the research was experiment arranged in Completely Randomized Design. The treatment were green tea  addition levels were 0 %, 1 %, 2 %, and 3 %. The variables observed were  egg weight,  egg number,  egg yolk colour, fat level and cholesterol level of  egg yolk. The result showed that green tea  had no significant effect  (P> 0.05 on egg weight, egg number and  egg yolk colour, but significant effect  (P<0.05 on fat level and cholesterol level of egg yolk. The conclusion was  green tea  addition  3 % in diets,  had not decreased on egg weight, egg number and not effect on egg yolk colour,  but had decreased fat level and cholesterol level of egg yolk on laying hens. The suggested were on management of laying hen, so addition  2 %  green tea on diets for reducing   fat level and cholesterol level  of egg yolk,  with optimal egg production.   Keywords : Laying hen, Green tea, Egg yolk colour, Fat, Cholesterol

  13. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive

  14. Enhancement of anamnestic immunospecific antibody response in orally immunized chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayo, Susan; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Zagon, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Production of immunospecific egg yolk antibodies (IgY antibodies) in egg laying hens through oral immunization is an attractive alternative to conventional antibody production in mammals for economic reasons as well as for animal welfare reasons. Oral immunization results in a systemic humoral...... response, but oral booster immunizations lack efficiency. The aim of the present study was to develop immunization schemes in which the concentration of immunospecific IgY would increase following oral booster immunizations. Two groups of egg laying hens (5 in each group) were immunized orally (each...... and one oral dose with BSA+RV. The eggs of the chickens in this group had a significantly higher immunospecific anti BSA IgY-concentration than did any of the eggs from the orally immunized chickens. One of the immunization regimes (immunizations in weeks 1, 7 and 18) clearly included a booster effect...

  15. Experimental manipulation of food availability leads to short-term intra-clutch adjustment in egg mass but not in yolk androgen or thyroid hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, Veerle M.; de Vries, Bonnie; Visser, Marcel E.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    In birds, mothers can affect their offspring's phenotype and thereby survival via egg composition. It is not well known to what extent and time-scales environmental variation in resource availability, either via resource constrains or adaptive adjustment to predicted rearing conditions, influences

  16. Experimental manipulation of food availability leads to short-term intra-clutch adjustment in egg mass but not in yolk androgen or thyroid hormones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, V.M.; de Vries, B.; Visser, Marcel E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2016-01-01

    In birds, mothers can affect their offspring's phenotype and thereby survival via egg composition. It is not well known to what extent and time-scales environmental variation in resource availability, either via resource constrains or adaptive adjustment to predicted rearing conditions, influences

  17. Egg Yolk Phospholipids Enriched with 1-O-Octadecyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phospho-(N-Palmitoyl) Ethanolamine Inhibit Development of Experimentally Induced Tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karafiát, Vít; Veselý, Pavel; Dvořák, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2014), s. 220-227 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : hen egg phospholipids * phospholipid derivative NAEPE * inhibition of tumour cells * inhibition of liver * lung * kidney tumours * chicken model Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  18. Effect of atorvastatin on antibody, interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon production in mice immunized with egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haibi, Christelle; Rahal, Elias; Khauli, Raja B; Abdelnoor, Alexander M

    2006-01-01

    Three-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are widely used as the drug of choice for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, actions beyond that of simply lowering cholesterol levels have been reported. This study aims at evaluating the effect of atorvastatin on antibody interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon production in mice immunized with egg albumin. Antibody levels were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine transcripts by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that repeated daily doses of 40 mg/Kg body weight of atorvastatin following immunization suppressed the antibody response in mice to egg albumin. Moreover, a decline in interleukin-4 and gamma-interferon transcripts was observed.

  19. Pigmentação de gemas de ovos de codornas japonesas alimentadas com rações contendo colorífico Egg yolk colour of japanese quail fed on diets with spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Tavares Escocard de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar, semanalmente, o grau de pigmentação de gemas de ovos de codornas japonesas alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis de colorífico (163,8 mg bixina/100 g, no decorrer de quatro semanas. Utilizaram-se 240 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica fêmeas, em delineamento experimental em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com oito tratamentos, cinco repetições e seis codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos, constituídos por oito rações experimentais resultantes da combinação de quatro níveis de colorífico na ração (0; 1,5; 3,0 e 4,5% e duas fontes energéticas (milho e quirera de arroz, foram distribuídos nas parcelas, enquanto que os quatro dias experimentais (7º, 14º, 21º e 28º constituíram as subparcelas. A equação de regressão estimada com o uso do modelo logarítmico explicou 96% da variação dos dados de escore colorimétrico das gemas. No 7º e 14º dia do experimento, os níveis de colorífico estimados que promoveram escores colorimétricos de gemas com padrão caipira (8,5 a 9,0 pontos foram de 1,5%, em rações à base de milho, e 3,0%, em rações à base de quirera de arroz. No 21º e 28º dia experimental, os valores estimados foram de 0,75% (rações com milho e 2,25% (rações com quirera. Em rações com 46,0% de milho ou quirera de arroz, o uso de níveis superiores a 3,0% de colorífico promoveu aumento das perdas de pigmento, pelas excretas, e conseqüente redução da capacidade de deposição de pigmentos nas gemas.One aimed in this work to evaluate , weekly, the egg yolk colour grade of japanese quails fed on diets with different levels of spice (163.8 mg bixin/100 g, in course of four weeks. Two hundred and forty japanese female quails (Coturnix japonica were used in a completely randomized block outline, with eight treatments, five replicates and six quails per experimental unit. The treatments, consisted of eight experimental diets resultant from

  20. Egg structural characteristics of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Faris A. Al-Obaidi; Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus) in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Result...

  1. NWT-02, a fixed combination of lutein, zeaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk and reduction of the loss of vision: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2018-01-01

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to NWT-02 and a reduction of the loss of vision. The food proposed by the applicant as the subject of the health claim is NWT-02. NWT02 is standardised by its content in lutein (≥ 1.10 mg), zeaxanthin (≥ 0.20 mg) and docosahexaenoic acid...... (DHA) (≥ 170 mg). The Panel considers that the food/constituent that is the subject of the health claim, NWT-02, a fixed combination of lutein, zeaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is ‘reduces loss of vision......’. The target population proposed by the applicant is ‘healthy adults over 50 years of age’. The Panel considers that a reduction of the loss of vision is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided two human intervention studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel considers...

  2. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies augment bacterial clearance in a murine pneumonia model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, K.; Christophersen, L.; Bjarnsholt, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral prophylactic therapy by gargling with pathogen-specific egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) may reduce the initial airway colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. IgY antibodies impart passive immunization and we investigated the effects of anti...

  3. The Effects of Egg Shape Index on Egg Quality Traits of Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Alkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigated the effects of the egg shape index on egg quality characteristics in Guinea fowl. For this, the eggs were classified in terms of egg shape index, as ≤ 75, and ≥ 78. A total of 100 Guinea fowl eggs were evaluated to determine the egg quality traits ( egg weight, eggshell thickness, eggshell surface area, eggshell weight per unit surface area, eggshell ratio, albumen index, albumen ratio, yolk index, yolk ratio, yolk/albumen ratio, haugh unit and egg volume. In this study, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight per unit surface area, eggshell ratio, albumen index, albumen ratio, yolk index, yolk ratio, yolk/albumen ratio and haugh unit were not significantly affected by egg shape index groups. Whereas egg weight, eggshell surface area and egg volume were significantly affected by egg shape index groups. At the same time, there were found significant relationship between the egg shape index and egg quality traits. Egg shape index was found to be an important factor affecting the egg quality characteristics.

  4. THE USE OF THE ANTI-VENOM SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM DUCK EGGS FOR INACTIVATION OF THE VIPER VENOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The activity of specific anti-venom can be demonstrated using protection test in laboratory mice. Our study aimed to emphasize the possibility of viper venom inactivation by the antibodies produced and isolated from duck eggs and also to the activation concentration of these antibodies. The venom used for inoculation was harvested from two viper species (Vipera ammodytes and Vipera berus. The immunoglobulin extract had a better activity on the venom from Vipera berus compared to the venom from Vipera ammodytes. This could be the result of a better immunological response, as consequence of the immunization with this type of venom, compared to the response recorded when the Vipera ammodytes venom was used. Besides the advantages of low cost, high productivity and reduced risk of anaphylactic shock, the duck eggs also have high activity up to dilutions of 1/16, 1/32, respectively, with specific activity and 100 surviving in individuals which received 3 x DL50.

  5. Effects of egg yolk inclusion, milk replacer feeding rate, and low-starch (pelleted) or high-starch (texturized) starter on Holstein calf performance through 4 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Suarez-Mena, F X; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate milk replacer (MR) feeding rates, alternative protein and fat sources in MR, and calf starter starch concentration and their effects on calf performance to 4 mo of age. Male Holstein calves (42.6 ± 1.2 kg of body weight; n = 192) were assigned at 3 d of age to 1 of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors tested from d 0 to 56 (nursery) were low or high MR feeding rates, 0 or 10% inclusion of spray-dried egg yolks in MR, and low- or high-starch calf starter. The low MR rate was 0.66 kg of dry matter (DM) fed for 39 d followed by 0.33 kg of DM for 3 d. The high MR rate was 0.87 kg of DM fed for 5 d, 1.08 kg of DM for 37 d, and 0.43 kg of DM for 7 d. The MR contained 27.5% crude protein and 19.6% fat (DM basis) and starters were 21.2% crude protein; low starch was a complete pellet with 10.2% starch, and high starch was textured using whole corn and oats with 43.3% starch. From d 56 to 112 (grower), calves were randomly assigned to pens (4 calves/pen) maintaining MR rate and starch content while stratifying yolk treatments within pen, resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Starter was blended with 5% chopped hay during the grower trial. Fecal scores and medical treatments were recorded daily. In the nursery trial, calves were weighed initially and weekly thereafter. Hip width and body condition score (BCS) were measured initially and every 2 wk thereafter. In the grower trial, body weight, hip width, and BCS were measured on d 56, 84, and 112. Data were analyzed as repeated measures with calf (nursery) or pen (grower) as the experimental unit. Calf average daily gain, hip width, and BCS change were greater for calves fed high versus low MR, 0 versus 10% yolk, and high versus low starch in the nursery. In the grower trial, calves fed low MR and high starch had the greatest average daily gain (1.09 vs. 0.87 kg/d) and hip width change (5.4 vs

  6. Direct measurement of thermal effusivity of avian eggs and theur constituents: A photopyroelectric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafner, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kovacsne, K.; Doka, O.

    2012-01-01

    The front configuration photopyroelectric method has been used to determine, in a nondestructive fashion, thermal effusivity of the yolk and the white of eggs of several bird species as well as of the blends of a single egg yolk and egg white (also called liquid eggs) of different avian eggs.

  7. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high amount of iron in the cooking water. Scrambled eggs cooked at too high a temperature or held ... must be cooked thoroughly until yolks are firm. Scrambled eggs should not be runny. Casseroles and other dishes ...

  8. Embryo lipoproteins and yolk lipovitellin consumption during embryogenesis in Macrobrachium borellii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F; Cunningham, M L; Garda, H; Heras, H

    2008-11-01

    The prawn Macrobrachium borellii has lecithotrophic eggs with highly-abbreviated development. The major yolk component is lipovitellin (LV), a lipoprotein with 30% lipids (by weight). LV consumption during embryogenesis was followed by ELISA and Western blot analysis using an anti-LV polyclonal antibody. No cross-reacting proteins were observed and LV-like lipoproteins were strongly recognized by the antibody in hemolymph (vitellogenin), yolk (LV) and embryos (LVe), as determined by Western Blot analysis. LV decreased significantly along development from 9.4 to 1.1 microg/mg egg. Consumption rate of LV was slow in early embryogenesis, followed by a rapid utilization in late embryonic stages. Significant LVe amounts were still present at hatching. LV apolipoproteins were selectively degraded during embryo development, being the highest molecular weight subunit the most affected. Comparison among in vitro, in vivo and theoretical proteolysis suggested that trypsin may be involved in LV degradation during late embryogenesis. Embryo lipoprotein (HDLe) synthesis was first detected at stage 6. HDLe shared the same density, MW and subunit composition as adult hemolymph HDL(1) and did not cross-react with LV-like lipoproteins. Though expressed at low concentration, it fulfilled embryo needs for lipid transport among organs.

  9. Comparing the mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin agar plating method with the three-tube most-probable-number method for enumeration of Bacillus cereus spores in raw and high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nigel M; Getty, Kelly J K; Schmidt, Karen A; Nutsch, Abbey L; Linton, Richard H

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual recommends two enumeration methods for Bacillus cereus: (i) standard plate count method with mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin (MYP) agar and (ii) a most-probable-number (MPN) method with tryptic soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 0.1% polymyxin sulfate. This study compared the effectiveness of MYP and MPN methods for detecting and enumerating B. cereus in raw and high-temperature, short-time pasteurized skim (0.5%), 2%, and whole (3.5%) bovine milk stored at 4°C for 96 h. Each milk sample was inoculated with B. cereus EZ-Spores and sampled at 0, 48, and 96 h after inoculation. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in B. cereus populations among sampling times for all milk types, so data were pooled to obtain overall mean values for each treatment. The overall B. cereus population mean of pooled sampling times for the MPN method (2.59 log CFU/ml) was greater (P milk samples ranged from 2.36 to 3.46 and 2.66 to 3.58 log CFU/ml for inoculated milk treatments for the MYP plate count and MPN methods, respectively, which is below the level necessary for toxin production. The MPN method recovered more B. cereus, which makes it useful for validation research. However, the MYP plate count method for enumeration of B. cereus also had advantages, including its ease of use and faster time to results (2 versus 5 days for MPN).

  10. Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens Influencia de harinas de yuca y de batata sobre pigmentación, contenido de carotenoides en la yema y desempeño productivo de aves en postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos L Hernán

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens. Eight diets (T1:without pigment, T2: commercial pigment, T3: cassava meal 15%, T4: cassava meal 30%, T5: sweet potato meal 15%, T6: sweet potato meal 30%, T7: cassava and sweet potato meal 15% each, T8: cassava and sweet potato meal 25% each in a randomized design using four replicates of three hens each during seven experimental periods were evaluated. Diets were iso-energetics (2.9 kcal/g and iso-proteis (14.5% CP. Carotenoid concentrations (UV-visible chromatography had differences (P<0.01 among diets. Pigmentation (Fan Roche and carotenoid concentration in egg yoks to come from cassava and sweet potato diets did not show differences (P>0.05 A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05. A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05 between egg yolk to come from diet without pigment and cassava and sweet potato diets. Lutein, -carotene, -carotene, and 9-cis-- carotene were the

  11. Type of dietary lipids and storing time on egg stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of diets containing different lipid sources on eggs quality during refrigerated storage, on yolk fatty acid composition, and on cholesterol in the yolk. Four diets were used containing Soy Oil (SO, Sunflower Seed (SS, and Meat and Bone Meal + Soy Oil (MBM + SO or Meat and Bone Meal + Tallow (MBM + TA. The experiment followed a factorial design 4 × 3 with four dietary treatments and three storage times. The eggs were stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The collected eggs were analyzed for egg weight loss, Haugh units, yolk moisture, yolk lipid oxidation, and cooked yolk firmness. Refrigerated storage reduced Haugh units, and increased yolk moisture. Sixty days of storage time reduced the firmness of hard-cooked yolk. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and storage time for egg weight loss and lipid oxidation. With regard to yolk fatty acid profile, MBM + TA diet increased the contents of palmitic and palmitoleic acids. The levels of oleic and arachidonic acids were higher in yolks from birds fed with SS diet. Linoleic acid level was higher in the yolk from treatment with SO diet. Diets containing MBM + SO induced higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid. Yolk cholesterol content was reduced with the inclusion of SS in the diet. Therefore, the type of lipid present in the diet and refrigerated storage for 60 days at 4 °C can affect the egg quality.

  12. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  13. Yolk sac infection in a broiler flock: a case report | Amaechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hatching eggs and further penetrate the shell to infect the yolk. The source of infection was found to be from the hatchery contaminated with Escherichia coli where infection spread from chick to chick. KEY WORDS: Yolk Sac Infection, Broiler Flocks, Septicaemic Carcass. (Nigerian Veterinary Journal: 2002 23(2): 65-69) ...

  14. Maternal yolk androgens stimulate territorial behaviour in black-headed gull chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Wendt; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal androgens. The concentrations of these yolk androgens are affected by the maternal environment, such as the level of social competition, parasite exposure or food conditions. Since yolk androgens have been shown to affect a wide array of offspring

  15. Identification of a novel yolk protein in the hermatypic coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hideki; Andoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2007-03-01

    The reef-building (or hermatypic) coral Galaxea fascicularis (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Scleractinia) has an annual reproductive cycle. Females of G. fascicularis release packages (or ;bundles') of eggs for external fertilization, whereas male individuals form bundles consisting of sperm and infertile ;pseudo-eggs' that are thought to confer buoyancy to the male bundle. In the egg of G. fascicularis, four proteins (GfEP-1 to 4) were found to be stored in high abundance, and three of them (GfEP-1, 2 and 3) are generated by processing of a vitellogenin (Vg)-like precursor. In the present study, a cDNA encoding GfEP-4 was cloned and its sequence determined (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession no. AB259859). The amino acid sequence of this protein does not exhibit similarity to known proteins, including Vgs or other yolk proteins found in some invertebrates. The expression of GfEP-4 mRNA was observed in females, and also in the majority of males examined, although expression levels were lower than in females. The GfEP-4 protein was detected in pseudo-eggs, where its concentration was 20-100 times lower than in eggs. In contrast, GfEP-1, 2 and 3 were not detected in pseudo-eggs. A protein (28 kDa) which cross-reacted with anti-GfEP-4 antibodies was detected in eggs of the coral Montipora digitata, suggesting the possibility that homologs of this protein are present in the eggs of other scleractinian corals.

  16. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal findings We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels. Conclusion/Significance IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission. PMID:26991326

  17. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H; Fischer, Peter U; Weil, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA). We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels. IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission.

  18. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Vlaminck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA.We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels.IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission.

  19. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Maleo Egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLP Saerang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg were measured by used vernier caliper, egg shell thickness by tripod micrometer, yolk color by yolk color fan. Length and width of egg used were measured by Vernier caliper, and egg shell thickness by a tripod micrometer, yolk color by yolk color fan. Physical characteristic have been identified eggs weight, egg width, egg length, egg index, albumen width, albumen length, albumen index, yolk width, yolk length, yolk index, weight albumen, weight yolk, egg shell thickness, and shell weight increased by 223.70 g, 104.00 mm, 56.68 mm, 56.41, 113.8 mm, 86.72 mm, 6.07%, 85.30 mm, 69.90 mm, 31.54%, 47.51 g, 110.80 g, 0.02 inch, 19.55 g, respectively. The result of analysis indicated that maleo eggs have completed amino acids and fatty acids, that is essensial amino acids, non essensial amino acids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Physical characteristic egg that comprised of egg weight, egg width, egg length, egg index, albumen width, albumen length, albumen index, yolk width, yolk length, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, egg shell thickness, and shell weight were 223.70 g, 104.00 mm, 56.68 mm, 56.41, 113.8 mm, 86.72 mm, 6,07%, 85.30 mm, 69.90 mm, 31.54%, 47.51 g, 110.80 g, 0:02-inch, 19:55 g, respectively. Maleo egg contained complete amino acids and fatty acids, including essential amino acids, non essential amino acids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. (Animal Production 12(1: 34-38 (2010Key Words: Maleo bird, maleo

  20. The performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg quality indices (egg shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness, albumen index and yolk index) were not affected by the treatments (P > 0.05). Egg shell index was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by Garcinia kola meal. At 2.5% level, it significantly enhanced percent albumin and reduced percent ...

  1. Egg components, egg size, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; Sotherland, Paul R; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrian; Bouchard, Sarah S; Reina, Richard D; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V

    2006-12-01

    Relationships between egg size, egg components, and neonate size have been investigated across a wide range of oviparous taxa. Differences in egg traits among taxa reflect not only phylogenetic differences, but also interactions between biotic (i.e., maternal resource allocation) and abiotic (i.e. nest environment conditions) factors. We examined relationships between egg mass, egg composition, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) because of the unique egg and reproductive characteristics of this species and of sea turtles in general. Albumen comprised 63.0%+/-2.8% (mean+/-S.D.) of egg mass and explained most of the variation in egg mass, whereas yolk comprised only 33.0%+/-2.7%. Additionally, leatherback albumen dry mass was approximately 16% of albumen wet mass. Whereas hatchling mass increased significantly with egg mass (n = 218 clutches), hatchling mass increased by only approximately 2 g for each 10 g increase in egg mass and was approximately 10-20 g greater than yolk mass. Taken together, our results indicate that albumen might play a particularly significant role in leatherback embryonic development, and that leatherback eggs are both capable of water uptake from the nest substrate and also possess a large reservoir of water in the albumen. Relationships between egg mass and egg components, such as variation in egg mass being largely explained by variation in albumen mass and egg mass containing a relatively high proportion of albumen solids, are more similar to bird eggs than to eggs of other non-avian reptiles. However, hatchling mass correlates more with yolk mass than with albumen mass, unlike patterns observed in bird eggs of similar composition.

  2. IgY-technology, the immunization of laying hen and the extraction of antibodies from egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban J. Gutiérrez Calzado; Pablo Aníbal Chacana; Diana Pauly; Rüdiger Schade

    2010-01-01

    Las gallinas se pueden inmunizar por vía intramuscular (Musculus pectoralis, izquierdo y derecho con volúmenes de 0.5-1mL) o a través de la pistola genética cuando se trata de ADN. De pendiendo de la inmunogenicidad del antígeno se pueden lograr altos títulos de anticuerpos (hasta 1:1000 000) realizando solo de 3-4 inmunizaciones de refuerzo. Una gallina puede poner huevos de forma continua en el curso de 72 semanas, momento a partir del cual comienza a decrecer su capacidad de puesta. Este p...

  3. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  4. Laying performance and egg qualities characteristics of Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were also significantly higher values for the internal and external egg quality traits (egg weight, egg width, yolk index, Haugh unit, albumen height, albumen %, and yolk width) in T1, T2 and T3 compare to T4(10.00, 2.11, 0.17, 75.42, 1.55, 49.01and 37.3,). Key words: Egg quality, Japanese quail, laying characteristics, ...

  5. New genetic regulators question relevance of abundant yolk protein production in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Borghgraef, Charline; Beets, Isabel; Caers, Jelle; Temmerman, Liesbet

    2015-11-10

    Vitellogenesis or maternal yolk formation is considered critical to the reproduction of egg-laying animals. In invertebrates, however, most of its regulatory genes are still unknown. Via a combined mapping and whole-genome sequencing strategy, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate novel regulators of yolk production in the nematode model system Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition to isolating new alleles of rab-35, rab-10 and M04F3.2, we identified five mutant alleles corresponding to three novel regulatory genes potently suppressing the expression of a GFP-based yolk reporter. We confirmed that mutations in vrp-1, ceh-60 and lrp-2 disrupt endogenous yolk protein synthesis at the transcriptional and translational level. In contrast to current beliefs, our discovered set of mutants with strongly reduced yolk proteins did not show serious reproduction defects. This raises questions as to whether yolk proteins per se are needed for ultimate reproductive success.

  6. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  7. Improving The Egg Quality Trough Addition Of Green Tea In Diet On Laying Hen

    OpenAIRE

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-01-01

    The Research  was conducted to study the effect of green tea  addition in diet to egg weight, egg number, egg yolk colour , fat level and cholesterol level of egg yolk on laying hens. The materials used were 72 laying hens of 28 weeks old. The method of  the research was experiment arranged in Completely Randomized Design. The treatment were green tea  addition levels were 0 %, 1 %, 2 %, and 3 %. The variables observed were  egg weight,  egg number,  egg yolk colour, fat level and cholesterol...

  8. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Addition Pineapple Peel Meal (Ananas comosus (L Merr in Diet on Total Egg and Egg Duck Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD, if the result had significant effect, would be continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that an addition pineapple peel meal in  duck diet had no effect (P>0,05 on numbers of egg and thick of egg shell, however, it had  highly significant effect (P<0,01 on fat  and  cholesterol  egg  yolk . The concluded showed that the addition of pineaple peel meal  in ducks diet can be decreasing fat and cholesterol egg yolk and can not decreasing numbers of egg and egg shell tick. Keywords: Mojosari ducks, total egg, egg shell thick, egg yolk fat, and egg yolk cholesterol

  10. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Maleo Egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone Park

    OpenAIRE

    Saerang, JLP; Manalu, W; Soesanto, IRH; Mardiastuti, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width) of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg ...

  11. Regulation of yolk-androgen concentrations by plasma prolactin in the American kestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J

    2001-12-01

    The concentrations of maternally derived androgens in the yolks of avian eggs vary within and among clutches, but a mechanistic basis for this variation has not been elucidated. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma-prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in female kestrels with ad libitum food availability (control) or food availability that was reduced during the early breeding period. In a second laboratory study, we administered via osmotic mini-pumps ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) to females beginning on the day they laid their first egg of a clutch (egg-day 1) to determine the effects of high prolactin concentrations on yolk-androgen concentrations. In both this study and one on free-living kestrels, we quantified changes in yolk-androgen concentrations with date of clutch initiation. Concentrations of ir-prolactin in nonlaying females rose with date, irrespective of food treatment. Egg-day 1 ir-prolactin concentrations were higher in control females laying late during the breeding phase than in those laying early. This increase was absent in food-reduced females. Yolk-androgen concentrations in eggs 3 and 4 but not eggs 1 and 2 of the clutch were higher in clutches initiated late than in clutches initiated early in the breeding phase in both the field and laboratory. o-prolactin treatment elevated yolk-testosterone but not androstenedione concentrations. These findings suggest that, in American kestrels, seasonal and laying-associated increases in plasma-prolactin concentrations elevate yolk-testosterone concentrations. Food availability and other factors may interact with date to regulate the effects of prolactin on yolk-testosterone deposition.

  12. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size).

  13. Impacts of radiation processing on physicochemical properties of Table Eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M. D. H.; Abdul Azeem, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality, and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact, fresh while and brown shell eggs, inoculated with 10 9 colony-forming units (cfu) of S enteritidis and S, typhimurium. The effect of gamma-irradiation at doses 2,4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic and population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color), chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), the rheological changes (viscosity), pH and protean solubility of the eggs were determinate d. Results showed that 2 kGy, the number of S, enteritidis and eggs internal quality as freshness as measured by albumen height and the number of hugh units, and yolk color index were all significantly reduced with increasing irradiation doses. On significant change was found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). After irradiation, the foaming ability and foam capacity of egg white were increasing radiation doses> The viscosity of egg white and yolk decreased with increasing doses of irradiation. The pH of the egg white and yolk increasing doses of radiation dose. The protein salability decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. These Results Suggest that gamma irradiation reduce the freshness of shell eggs and improving important functional properties such as to foaming ability and foaming capacity. Gamma irradiation can also be applied to the egg breaking process sine irradiation reduces the viscosity of egg white and yolk, which can allow egg whites and yolks to be separated with greater efficiency. (Author)

  14. Effects of dietary taurine on egg production, egg quality and cholesterol levels in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Jian-Ming; Xie, Zhong-Guo; Zhang, Qi

    2010-12-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and has many biological properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with taurine on egg production, egg quality, and cholesterol level in serum and egg yolk of quails. A total of 108 quails aged 6 weeks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of nine quails. The diets were supplemented with 0, 100, and 500 mg kg(-1) of taurine for 8 weeks. Dietary 500 mg kg(-1) taurine significantly affected egg production rate and feed conversion ratio, but had no significant effects on body weight gain, feed consumption, or egg weight. Dietary taurine had no significant effect on egg quality parameters studied. Serum triglyceride concentration was reduced significantly with supplementation of taurine at 100 and 500 mg kg(-1). Egg yolk cholesterol content was reduced significantly, and the contents of serum taurine and egg yolk taurine were increased significantly with taurine supplementation at 500 mg kg(-1). Results of the present study indicated that adding 500 mg kg(-1) taurine reduced yolk cholesterol concentration and increased yolk taurine content without adverse effects on performance and egg quality of laying quails. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  16. Evaluation of tests based on the antibody response to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and soluble egg antigen to differentiate acute and chronic human schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Beck

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Specific IgG and IgM responses to soluble egg antigen (SEA and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH were measured by ELISA in patients with acute and chronic schistosomiasis. The tests based upon IgM and IgG antibodies responses to KLH presented the best diagnostic discrimination, and can be used in conjunction with clinical and epidemiological data to the differential diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis.

  17. Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

  18. Elevated plasma corticosterone decreases yolk testosterone and progesterone in chickens: linking maternal stress and hormone-mediated maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Henriksen

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo.

  19. Incorporation of radioactive zinc into the eggs of Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix Japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusaka, Naonori; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Isao; Yuyama, Akira

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of 65 Zn into eggs was investigated after single or daily intraperitoneal administration to laying Japanese quails. After a single intraperitoneal administration, 65 Zn appeared first in the 2nd egg yolks and reached the highest level in the 3rd and 4th ones, followed by a gradual decrease. The cumulative amount of 65 Zn in the egg yolks over a period of 3 weeks accounted for about 40% of dose. After daily intraperitoneal administration, the 6th-9th egg's yolks contained the highest radioactivity of the eggs examined. Whole-body retention patterns were also observed in both of the experiments. (auth.)

  20. Congelação de sêmem canino com diferentes concentrações de gema de ovo e glicerol em diluidores à base de tris e água de coco Canine semen's freeze with different concentrations of egg yolk and glycerol in tris and coconut wateer extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rodrigues Silva

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar os diluidores à base de água de coco e à base de Tris na congelação do sêmen canino, utilizando-se diferentes concentrações de gema de ovo e glicerol. Cães Pastores Alemães (n=5 tiveram seu sêmen coletado por manipulação digital. Sua fração espermática foi avaliada quanto aos parâmetros macro e microscópicos e misturada para a formação de um pool de esperma que foi diluído em água de coco ou Tris, acrescidos de gema de ovo (10 ou 20% e glicerol (4, 6 ou 8%. Em seguida, congelado pelo método de NUNES et al. (1997, sendo descongelado a 37ºC após uma semana. Observou-se uma superioridade do diluidor à base de Tris na conservação dos parâmetros vigor (2,3 ± 0,8, alterações espermáticas totais (14,8 ± 5,1% e secundárias (14,4 ± 5,5% no par onde os diluidores foram acrescidos de 20% de gema de ovo e 6% de glicerol. Nos demais protocolos, não se evidenciaram diferenças significativas entre os dois diluidores, em nenhum dos parâmetros observados. Esses resultados sugerem uma superioridade do diluidor à base de Tris em relação ao diluidor à base de água de coco na congelação do sêmen canino, no uso dos mesmos acrescidos de 20% de gema de ovo e 6% de glicerol.The aim of the present research was to compare the efficiency of coconut water and Tris extenders on canine semen freezing. The semen from 5 German Shepherd dogs was collected by digital manipulation. The spermatic fraction of different dogs was evaluated about its macro and microscopic parameters and mixed in a pool. It was extended in coconut water or Tris, added of egg yolk (10 or 20% and glycerol (4, 6 or 8%. Then, it was frozen by the method of NUNES et al. (1997 and thawed at 37ºC after one week. A Tris extender superiority was shown at the conservation of vigor (2.3 ± 0.8, total (14.8 ± 5.1% and secondary (14.4 ± 5.5% spermatic defects in the protocols with 20% of egg yolk and 6% of glycerol. In all

  1. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  3. Correlations between breeder age, egg cholesterol content, blood cholesterol level and hatchability of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, B Yilmaz; Sahan, U

    2007-02-01

    1. The research was carried out to investigate correlations between breeder age, egg cholesterol content, blood cholesterol level and hatchability of broiler breeders. 2. Egg cholesterol content increased with increased breeder age. The mean yolk cholesterol contents (mg per g yolk) were 10.47+/-0.28, 15.34+/-0.65 and 15.64+/-0.71 mg/g at 28, 45 and 65 weeks of age, respectively. 3. There were positive correlations between yolk weight and yolk cholesterol content (mg/g yolk) (r=01.941; Pegg cholesterol content (mg/egg) (r=0.980; Pegg yolk cholesterol content and hatchability of fertile eggs (r=-0.345; Peggs (r=-0.574; Pcholesterol levels were 165.1+/-11.04, 166.5+/-11.97 and 179.5+/-11.33 mg/dl at 28, 45 and 65 weeks of age, respectively.

  4. Maternal effects of egg size on emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Sotherland, Paul R

    2004-02-01

    Parental investment in eggs and, consequently, in offspring can profoundly influence the phenotype, survival and ultimately evolutionary fitness of an organism. Avian eggs are excellent model systems to examine maternal allocation of energy translated through egg size variation. We used the natural range in emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg size, from 400 g to >700 g, to examine the influence of maternal investment in eggs on the morphology and physiology of hatchlings. Female emus provisioned larger eggs with a greater absolute amount of energy, nutrients and water in the yolk and albumen. Variation in maternal investment was reflected in differences in hatchling size, which increased isometrically with egg size. Egg size also influenced the physiology of developing emu embryos, such that late-term embryonic metabolic rate was positively correlated with egg size and embryos developing in larger eggs consumed more yolk during development. Large eggs produced hatchlings that were both heavier (yolk-free wet and dry mass) and structurally larger (tibiotarsus and culmen lengths) than hatchlings emerging from smaller eggs. As with many other precocial birds, larger hatchlings also contained more water, which was reflected in a greater blood volume. However, blood osmolality, hemoglobin content and hematocrit did not vary with hatchling mass. Emu maternal investment in offspring, measured by egg size and composition, is significantly correlated with the morphology and physiology of hatchlings and, in turn, may influence the success of these organisms during the first days of the juvenile stage.

  5. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Ewa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm

  6. Effects of karaya saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus on yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Maki, T; Tsujii, H

    2010-06-01

    1. It has been reported that karaya saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus individually have hypocholesterolaemic activity in laying hens. This study focuses on the effect of adding karaya saponin with R. capsulatus to hen's diet with regard to serum and egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides. 2. A total of 56 Boris Brown laying hens were divided into 7 groups at 20 weeks of age. Combinations of 25, 50, 75 mg kg(-1) karaya saponin and R. capsulatus 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) were used as treatment groups. 3. After 8 weeks of supplementation, the effects of all the combinations of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus on serum and egg yolk cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were greater than either karaya saponin or R. capsulatus alone. The combination of karaya saponin 50 mg kg(-1)+ R. capsulatus 400 mg kg(-1) exhibited the greatest reduction of serum (325%) and yolk (225%) cholesterol and the greatest increase of faecal, liver bile acids and yolk fatty acid (oleic, linoleic and linolenic) concentrations. In addition, egg production and yolk colour were significantly improved by the combined use of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus supplementation. 4. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus may lead to the production of a low-cholesterol egg, with production performance maintained at a standard level.

  7. Relation between IgG antibodies to foods and IgE antibodies to milk, egg, cat, dog and/or mite in a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysink, P. E.; de Jong, M. H.; Bindels, P. J.; Scharp-van der Linden, V. T.; de Groot, C. J.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Because IgG antibodies to foods can be detected before IgE antibodies to inhalants, increased levels of IgG antibodies to foods might be used as a predictor of IgE-mediated allergy in initially nonatopic children. To examine the cross-sectional relation between IgG to foods (i.e. mixture of wheat

  8. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  9. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2012-03-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using immunoglobulin Y as an alternative antibody for the detection of hepatitis A virus in frozen liver sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Gentil Arthur; Lanzarini, Natália Maria; Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; da Silva, Alexandre Dos Santos; Mouta Junior, Sergio da Silva E; Guimarães, Juliana Rodrigues; de Moraes, Marcia Terezinha Baroni; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2015-06-01

    An increasing amount of research has been conducted on immunoglobulin Y (IgY) because the use of IgY offers several advantages with respect to diagnostic testing, including its easy accessibility, low cost and translatability to large-scale production, in addition to the fact that it can be ethically produced. In a previous work, immunoglobulin was produced and purified from egg yolks (IgY) reactive to hepatitis A virus (HAV) antigens. In the present work, this anti-HAV-specific IgY was used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect viral antigens in liver biopsies that were obtained from experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. Fields that were positive for HAV antigen were detected in liver sections using confocal microscopy. In conclusion, egg yolks from immunised hens may be a reliable source for antibody production, which can be employed for immunological studies.

  11. Using immunoglobulin Y as an alternative antibody for the detection of hepatitis A virus in frozen liver sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Arthur Bentes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of research has been conducted on immunoglobulin Y (IgY because the use of IgY offers several advantages with respect to diagnostic testing, including its easy accessibility, low cost and translatability to large-scale production, in addition to the fact that it can be ethically produced. In a previous work, immunoglobulin was produced and purified from egg yolks (IgY reactive to hepatitis A virus (HAV antigens. In the present work, this anti-HAV-specific IgY was used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect viral antigens in liver biopsies that were obtained from experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. Fields that were positive for HAV antigen were detected in liver sections using confocal microscopy. In conclusion, egg yolks from immunised hens may be a reliable source for antibody production, which can be employed for immunological studies.

  12. Effect of replacing Palm Kernel Cake with Sheabutter Cake on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shea butter cake at 20% dietary level significantly (P 0.05) decreased shell thickness, shell weight, egg mass and shell surface area. Haugh unit and yolk index were not affected by the treatments. Shell weight and shell thickness were positively correlated. Yolk cholesterol and hen day egg production decreased as dietary ...

  13. Turmeric root and annato seed in second-cycle layer diets: performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Laganá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of annato (Bixa orellana L. and turmeric (Turmeric longa L. in layer feeds on live performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation and depigmentation time. A number of 144 layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments with six replicates of six birds each. In the basal diet, sorghum replaced 50% of corn, and was supplemented or not with natural pigments to composse the following treatments: Control (0% pigments, AS (2.0% annato, TR (2% turmeric and ASTR (1% annato and 1% turmeric. Egg weight (g, egg production (%, egg mass (%, feed intake (g, feed conversion ratio (kg/dz and kg/kg and mortality were evaluated. The following egg quality parameters were evaluated: specific gravity (SG; yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentages, and yolk color. The treatments did not influence layer performance or egg quality parameters, except for egg production and yolk color. The dietary inclusion of 1% turmeric root and 1% annato seed promoted higher egg production. Diets containing annato resulted in more saturated, more intense, and redder yolk color, with increasing pigment deposition after day 10, with maximum values obtained on day 28. Dried turmeric root did not promote good yolk pigmentation, resulting in higher presence of white in the yolk, which was stabilized on day 4. Three days after pigments were withdrawn from the feeds, yolk color faded in the treatments with annato inclusion.

  14. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide in laying hens stimulates antimicrobial properties of egg white against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrani, Larbi; Helloin, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Nicolas; Nys, Yves

    2013-04-15

    The natural protective system of eggs relies on egg yolk immunoglobulins and on antimicrobial proteins/peptides mainly concentrated in the egg white. There is much evidence concerning the specific stimulation of immunoglobulins by antigens but to date, the influence of the hen milieu on the regulation of the egg innate molecular immunity has not been established. To explore the hypothesis of modulation in egg antimicrobial molecules, laying hens were immune-challenged with intravenous injections of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 24 h intervals. Eggs of the control and LPS groups were collected over a period of 21 days following the first LPS injection and the egg white activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were assessed. The increase in egg white anti-S. aureus activity reached 20.9% and 23.4% (pegg whites. We recorded no significant variations between the two experimental groups for these potential modulating factors. Finally, using RT-qPCR we studied the expression of several genes coding for antimicrobial proteins and peptides involved in the immune response in the infundibulum and the magnum, Out of the 11 genes, only TLR4 in the magnum and ovocalyxin-36 in infundibulum were over-expressed respectively 24h and 8 days after the first LPS injection. The other candidate genes showed similar or down regulated expression in the LPS group as compared to the control especially during the first 24h. Our results suggest that the hen enhances the albumen antimicrobial activity of its eggs when exposed to immune stimulations or infections. This could be an attempt to preventively reinforce the protection of the embryo with nonspecific antimicrobial agents in addition to the specific antibodies exported to the egg. The origin of this stimulation of egg molecular immunity remains to be characterized amongst the numerous novel egg proteins recently identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  17. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  18. In vitro production of human anti-sperm antibodies: effect of an oligoclonal antibody (F6) on sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, F M; Besuschio, F; De Santis, L; Lorenzetti, I; Ferrari, A

    1995-07-01

    A method has been developed to establish lines of transformed lymphocytes able to produce in vitro the same anti-sperm antibodies as those naturally occurring in immuno-infertile individuals. We utilized lymphocytes from a male donor whose serum contained anti-sperm antibodies of the IgG class up to the dilution 1:10,000, as detected by means of immunobead binding. T lymphocytes were separated from B lymphocytes using magnetic beads coated with anti-T antibody. B lymphocytes were then placed at a concentration of 5 x 10(6)/ml in a 96-well plate, stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and transformed with Epstein-Barr virus. After a few days, only transformed cells continued growing and these were collected. The supernatant was tested for production of anti-sperm antibodies and those transformed lymphocytes shown to be synthesising antibodies directed against the sperm head and the tail were cloned. We obtained a clone of cells producing antibodies of the IgG1 class directed against the head of the spermatozoon. This oligoclonal antibody (F6) recognized a 58-kDa band from a lysate of sperm membranes and was able to reduce the penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes by capacitated spermatozoa.

  19. Utilizing three monoclonal antibodies in the development of an immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaquinoxaline residues in egg and chicken muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yancheng; Ngom, Babacar; Le, Tao; Jin, Xiue; Wang, Liping; Shi, Deshi; Wang, Xiliang; Bi, Dingren

    2010-09-15

    A rapid and sensitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on competitive format was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine (SM(2)), sulfadiazine (SDZ), and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) in chicken breast muscle and egg samples. For this purpose, three monoclonal antibodies raised against those three sulfonamides were conjugated to colloidal gold particles and applied to the conjugate pads of the test strip. The competitors of the sulfonamides (SM(2)/SDZ/SQX-bovine serum albumin conjugates) were immobilized onto a nitrocellulose membrane at three detection zones to form T(1), T(2), and T(3), respectively. With this method, the cutoff values for the three test lines were achieved at 80 μg/kg, which is lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established for sulfonamides. The recoveries in negative samples spiked at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg ranged from 75% to 82% for egg samples and from 78% to 81% for chicken samples. The method was compared with the HPLC method by testing 180 eggs and chicken breast samples from local markets, and an agreement rate of 99.7% was obtained between the two methods.

  20. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,

  1. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  2. Manipulative signals in family conflict? On the function of maternal yolk hormones in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, W.; Lessells, C.M.; Korsten, P.; von Engelhardt, N.

    2007-01-01

    The exciting discovery by Hubert Schwabl (Washington State University) in the early nineties that the yolk of bird eggs contains hormones originating from the mother opened up an extremely successful research area for endocrinologists and behavioral ecologists. Since then, knowledge of both the

  3. Rapid assimilation of yolk enhances growth and development of lizard embryos from a cold environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Melissa A; Angilletta, Michael J

    2007-10-01

    Selection for rapid growth and development in cold environments results in a geographic pattern known as countergradient variation. The eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, exhibits countergradient variation in embryonic growth and development along latitudinal clines. To identify the proximate causes of countergradient variation, we compared the energy budgets of embryos from a cold environment (Virginia) and a warm environment (South Carolina) during development at a realistic thermal cycle. The difference in mean egg size between populations was controlled by removing yolk from large eggs and performing a sham manipulation on other eggs. Respiration was measured every 4 days throughout 48 days of incubation. After this period, eggs were dissected and the energy contents of embryos and yolk were determined by calorimetry. As expected from previous experiments, embryos from Virginia reached a more advanced stage of development and deposited more energy within tissues than embryos from South Carolina. The greater absorption of yolk by embryos from Virginia was associated with a higher rate of respiration. Assimilation of yolk by rapidly growing embryos could reduce growth or survival after hatching. Such costs might explain the maintenance of countergradient variation in S. undulatus.

  4. Egg shell treatment methods effect on commercial eggs quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Santos de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective was to evaluate commercial eggs quality after being subjected to a cleaning process and immersion in whey protein concentrate (WPC as a function of storage time. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4x7, being four methods of treating shell (not cleaned and not coated with WPC, not cleaned and coated with WPC, cleaned and not coated with WPC, cleaned and coated with WPC and seven periods of storage (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days for a total of 28 treatments, with five replicates of four eggs each. Quality parameters evaluated were weight loss of eggs (%, specific gravity (g/cm3, haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI and potential hydrogen (pH albumen. The storage period increase, regardless of the shell treatment method, causing weight loss in eggs, reductions in specific gravity in the Haugh units, yolk index and increase in the albumen pH. The cleaning method makes egg's internal quality worse during storage. Coverage of whey protein concentrate is a viable alternative for commercial eggs conservation stored at room temperature in order to minimize quality loss during storage, including eggs that need to go through the cleaning process.

  5. Taxa de concepção de cabras inseminadas com sêmen caprino resfriado a 5ºC, por 12 ou 24 horas, em meio diluidor à base de gema de ovo Conception rate of goats inseminated with semen cooled in egg yolk diluent at 5ºC, for 12 or 24 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Siqueira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a capacidade fecundante do sêmen caprino resfriado a 5ºC, por 12 (TI ou 24 horas (TII, em container especial. Para tanto, utilizaram-se 62 fêmeas e dois reprodutores (B1 e B2 da raça Toggenburg, distribuídos em um esquema fatorial 2x2 (dois reprodutores e dois períodos de estocagem do sêmen. Após a coleta, o sêmen foi diluído em Tris-frutose-gema de ovo a 2,5%, envasado em palhetas de 0,25mL, com 150x10(6 espermatozoides móveis e resfriado a 5ºC. As fêmeas receberam duas doses de 22,5µg de PGF2α, em intervalos de 10 dias para a sincronização do estro. A partir da primeira aplicação de PGF2α, as fêmeas foram monitoradas para ocorrência de estro, três vezes ao dia. Realizou-se uma única inseminação, pela técnica de fixação da cérvice, 12 horas após o início do estro. A motilidade e o vigor, após 12 ou 24 horas de resfriamento, foram de 66,14±0,11% e 62,50±0,05%, e 3,46±0,61 e 3,27±0,50, respectivamente. Não houve influência (P>0,05 do reprodutor, nem do período de armazenamento do sêmen sobre a taxa de concepção das cabras, que foi de 49,1%.The fertilizing capacity of goat semen cooled in egg yolk diluent at 5ºC, for 12 or 24 hours was evaluated. Sixty-two Toggenburg does and two sexually mature Toggenburg bucks were used in a fatorial treatment combination (two bucks and two storage periods. The semen was diluted in 2.5% Tris-frutose-egg yolk; envased in 0.25mL plastic straws, with 150x10(6 mobile spermatozoa; and cooled at 5ºC for 12 or 24 hours. The females received two doses of 22.5µg of prostaglandine F2α, at each 10-day intervals in order to synchronize the estrous. From the first PGF2α injection, estrous occurrence was monitored three times per day. Only one insemination was used, using the cervix fixation method, 12 hours after the estrous onset. The means of motility and strength, 12 (TI and 24 hours (TII after semen cooling at 5ºC, were 66.14±0.11% and 62.50±0.05%, and 3.46±0

  6. Effect of thermal processing on retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Héryka M M; Santos, Videanny V A; Medeiros, Vanessa P Q; Silva, Keith H D; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Eggs are a food item of high nutritional value, a source of vitamin A and readily accessible to the general population. Methods This paper analysed the effect of cooking on the retinol levels of free-range and caged hen eggs, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retinol levels of hen and quail eggs were also compared. Results The raw egg yolk retinol concentrations of free-range and caged hen eggs were 476.53+/-39.44 and 474.93+/-41.10 microg/100 g and cooked egg yolk concentrations were 393.53+/-24.74 and 379.01+/-30.78 microg/100 g, respectively; quail egg concentration was 636.56+/-32.71 microg retinol/100 g. No significant difference was found between the retinol of free-range and caged hen egg yolks; however, cooking diminished retinol levels, causing a loss of 17 and 20% in the free-range and caged hen egg yolks, respectively. Quail egg retinol concentration was significantly higher than that of the hens. Conclusion The retinol found in 100 g of hen and quail egg yolks could supply around 42 and 70.7% of the vitamin A requirements of an adult man, and is accordingly considered an excellent source of this vitamin.

  7. Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Hwa Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05 whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05. Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05 without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05 but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05, suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production.

  8. Effect of chicken egg anti-F4 antibodies on performance and diarrhea incidences in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+-challenged piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole Aluko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of spay-dried whole egg containing anti-F4 antibodies (SDWE against recombinantly produced F4 antigens in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+ (ETEC-challenged piglets. Twenty-seven 21-d-old and individually housed piglets were randomly allotted to 3 treatments consisting of a wheat-soybean meal basal diet containing either 0 (control egg powder; CEP, 0.1% (SDWE1 or 0.4% (SDWE2 SDWE. After a 7-d adaptation period, blood samples were collected from all pigs, and pigs were weighed and orally challenged with an ETEC inoculum. Blood was sampled at 24 and 48 h post-challenge, and diarrhea incidences and scores were recorded. On d 14, all pigs were weighed and then euthanized to obtain intestinal tissue samples for histomorphology measurement. During the pre-challenge period, pigs fed the SDWE showed a linear improvement (P < 0.05 in average daily gain (ADG and gain to feed ratio (G:F, but there were no differences among treatments in growth performance during the post-challenge period. Diarrhea incidences and scores, fecal shedding of ETEC, plasma urea nitrogen content and intestinal histomorphology were similar among treatments. The results show that 0.4% SDWE supported greater piglet performance before challenge although such benefits were not evident during the post-challenge period at either 0.1% or 0.4% supplementation.

  9. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J A; Kraut, A; Bernstein, D I; Warrington, R; Bolin, T; Warren, C P; Bernstein, I L

    1993-02-01

    A 26-year-old man employed in a company which manufactured hen egg white derived lysozyme for use in the pharmaceutical industry was evaluated for occupational asthma. The worker began to experience immediate-onset asthmatic symptoms two months after starting to work with egg lysozyme powder. The work process involved the production of approximately 1,000 kg of purified dried lysozyme powder per week. Prick skin testing was positive to egg lysozyme (50 mg/ml) and other egg protein components, but negative to whole egg white and egg yolk reagents. Serum specific IgE to egg lysozyme was documented. Decrements in serial peak expiratory flow rates were associated with lysozyme exposure at work. A specific bronchoprovocation challenge to lysozyme powder was positive demonstrating an isolated immediate asthmatic response (48 percent decrease from baseline FEV1). This is the first reported case of lysozyme-induced asthma specifically caused by inhalational exposure to egg lysozyme.

  10. Morphological specializations of the yolk sac for yolk processing in embryonic corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2017-06-01

    Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes. Our observations reveal that the yolk sac cavity is invaded by endodermal cells that proliferate, absorb yolk spheres, and form aggregates of interconnected cells within the liquid yolk mass. As development proceeds, small blood vessels arise from the yolk sac omphalopleure, penetrate into the yolk mass, and become tightly encased in the endodermal cells. The entire vitellus ultimately becomes converted into a mass of vascularized, "spaghetti-like" strands of yolk-laden cells. The resulting arrangement allows yolk to be digested intracellularly and yolk products to be transported to the developing embryo. Indirect evidence for this pattern in other species raises the possibility that it is ancestral for squamates and quite possibly Reptilia in general. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Transfer of egg white proteins and activation of proteases during the development of Anas platyrhynchos domestica embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Abuassaf, Razan Ataallah

    2018-03-01

    The route of egg white transfer into the yolk and the mechanisms underlying the digestion of egg proteins are unexplored in the fertilized egg of the duck, Anas platyrhynchos domestica. Here, we investigated the route(s) of egg white transfer and we determined the type of activated proteases during duck embryo development. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of egg proteins throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow egg white transfer and we measured its activity. After that, we determined the type of activated proteases by employing different types of protease inhibitors. Several presumptive egg white protein bands appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically on day 15 in the extraembryonic fluid, on day 17 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 19 in the yolk. Furthermore, acidic aspartic proteases seemed to be activated at hatch in the intestine and late in development in the yolk. Our results suggest that the main route of egg white transfer into the yolk is through the amniotic cavity and intestinal lumen. Also, the transferred egg white and endogenous yolk proteins are probably digested by the activated acidic proteases in the intestine and yolk.

  12. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Egg Production of Rhode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    much as 14 d. This is terminated by either ovulation or atresia and' regression. The constituents of the yolk of the egg are not synthesised by ovarian tissue. The diverse protein and lipoproteins specific to the egg, in particular phosvitin, lipovitellin and lipovitellenin an~ synthesised in the liver. They are' subsequently.

  13. The determination of Se content in Se egg by NAA in MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Hou Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    The selenium contents in the yolk, albumin and shell of the egg which was laid by layer hen fed with various Se concentrations are determined by thermal neutron activation analysis with a nuclear reaction 78 Se(n, γ) 77 Se m on the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The results show that the more the selenium added to the feed, the higher the Se content in the egg and that in the egg constituents, the highest Se content is in the egg yolk and the lowest in the egg albumin

  14. [Influence of chitosan feeding of laying hens on egg vitamin and cholesterol content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Filimonova, I V; Kodentsova, O V; Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan feeding (10 and 20 mg per 1 kg body mass) of 19 week-age laying hens during 1.5 months caused a decrease in whole egg content of vitamin A for 13% and 20% (p cholesterol content 1.5-2 fold decrease and didn't influence on egg yolk lipids concentration. Low dose chitosan-receiving hens had eggs with 1.8-fold increased egg yolk phospholipids level. The most optimal dose of chitosan for the improvement of eggs nutritive value was 10 mg. Under minimal loss in vitamins its administration lead to the pronounced cholesterol decrease and marked phospholipids elevation.

  15. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Lucia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nelida L.

    1998-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25 degree sign C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications

  16. Three hen strains fed photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-rich soy oil exhibit different yolk accumulation rates and source-specific isomer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2015-04-01

    Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA accumulation during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA accumulation rates in different hen strains is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA accumulation and depletion in three hen strains by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15% CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA accumulation and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA accumulation and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55% of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA accumulation and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk accumulation.

  17. Comparison between different dilution rates on canine semen freezing using Tris-buffer with the addition of egg-yolk and glycerol Comparação entre diferentes diluições na congelação do sêmen canino utilizando o tampão tris acrescido de gema de ovo e glicerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Standardized sperm concentration and volume:volume extension were compared as dilution rates for canine semen freezing. Six proven stud dogs were submitted to two seminal collections by manual stimulation. Semen was evaluated and extended in tris plus egg-yolk and glycerol according to two different dilution rates. The first one was based on a standardized sperm concentration of 200x10(6 spermatozoa/ml and the second was a volume:volume extension at a proportion of one part semen to one part extender. Semen was frozen, stored in liquid nitrogen and thawed after one week. Sperm motility and vigor were appraised after each stage of the process and at 15 and 30min post-thawing. Sperm morphology was analyzed after collection and thawing. No differences were observed between treatments after thawing regarding sperm motility and vigor, normal sperm morphology rate or longevity. Both dilution rates can be efficiently used for canine semen freezing.Compararam-se a concentração espermática padronizada e a expansão volume:volume na diluição do sêmen canino para congelação. O sêmen de seis cães, submetidos a duas coletas por estimulação manual, foi avaliado e diluído em tris acrescido de gema de ovo e glicerol, de acordo com duas diferentes diluições. A primeira baseou-se na concentração espermática padronizada de 200x10(6 espermatozóides/ml, e a segunda mediante diluição volume:volume, na proporção de uma parte de sêmen para uma de diluidor. O sêmen foi congelado, armazenado em nitrogênio líquido e descongelado após uma semana. A motilidade e o vigor espermáticos foram avaliados a cada etapa do processo e aos 15 e 30min após descongelação. A morfologia espermática foi avaliada após coleta e descongelação. Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre os tratamentos após a descongelação quanto à motilidade, vigor, porcentagem de espermatozóides morfologicamente normais e longevidade. Ambas as taxas de diluição podem ser

  18. (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract on egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Shell thickness was calculated as the average of three measurements; taken at the equator, blunt edge and pointed edge of the egg without membrane using a calliper. The yolk colour was determined with a DSM (2013) yolk colour fan (DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Basel, Switzerland), which ranges from ...

  19. Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study demonstrated that olive oil improved egg weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 fatty acid level of egg yolk, and soyabean oil had positive effects on serum lipid concentrations. Incorporation of these oils into the diets of Japanese ...

  20. Effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage of eggs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S..

    the effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage time on egg traits, hatching traits and the growth of some selected organs in ... weight, chick weight and percentage yolk weight were significantly higher in eggs obtained from breeders at. 40 weeks of age than from those ..... chemical composition of egg white. Poult. Sci.

  1. Physiological and genetical aspects of egg production in White Plymouth Rock pullets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, van J.H.

    1974-01-01

    White Plymouth Rock pullets selected for a high 8-week bodyweight have an unsatisfactory production of hatching eggs, but this is not the only problem. In addition a great proportion of ovulated yolks are lost for the formation of normal eggs, because they are laid in abnormal eggs. In a

  2. Dietary high-polyphenols extra-virgin olive oil is effective in reducing cholesterol content in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, Vito; Ceci, Edmondo; Lastella, Nunzia M B; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-02-07

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) represents an important food in Mediterranean diet due to its favorable effects on human and animal health derived from the consumption of polyphenols. We studied the effects of dietary EVOO differing in polyphenols levels on egg quality. A total of 150 laying hens were allotted into three groups over 10 weeks of the experimental period. The three diets were based on wheat-soybean meal with added oils at 2.5%. Hens were fed the following diets: (1) commercial diet containing sunflower oil (Control), (2) diet EVOO from Cima di Bitonto variety (low-polyphenols content; Low-P), and (3) diet EVOO from Coratina variety (high-polyphenols content; High-P). The performance of the hen, the qualitative traits of eggs, and the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk were measured. None of the egg productive parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was enhanced in hens fed the both EVOO diets (Pcholesterol level in hens (Pegg-yolk cholesterol levels (as per egg; Pegg-yolk. Moreover, the atherogenic index in egg-yolk decreased linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary polyphenols (Pegg-yolk while lowering the egg-yolk cholesterol level, which could be a beneficial functional food for human health.

  3. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Evolution of yolk protein genes in the Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Thomas A A; Byrne, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Vitellogenin genes (vtg) encode large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) that are typically female-specific, functioning as precursors to major yolk proteins (MYPs). Within the phylum Echinodermata, however, the MYP of the Echinozoa (Echinoidea + Holothuroidea) is expressed by an unrelated transferrin-like gene that has a reproductive function in both sexes. We investigated egg proteins in the Asterozoa (Asteroidea + Ophiuroidea), a sister clade to the Echinozoa, showing that eggs of the asteroid Parvulastra exigua contain a vitellogenin protein (Vtg). vtg is expressed by P. exigua, a species with large eggs and nonfeeding larvae, and by the related asterinid Patiriella regularis which has small eggs and feeding larvae. In the Asteroidea, therefore, the reproductive function of vtg is conserved despite significant life history evolution. Like the echinozoan MYP gene, asteroid vtg is expressed in both sexes and may play a role in the development of both ovaries and testes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a putative Vtg from the sea urchin genome, a likely pseudogene, does not clade with asteroid Vtg. We propose the following sequence as a potential pathway for the evolution of YP genes in the Echinodermata: (1) the ancestral echinoderm produced YPs derived from Vtg, (2) bisexual vtg expression subsequently evolved in the echinoderm lineage, (3) the reproductive function of vtg was assumed by a transferrin-like gene in the ancestral echinozoan, and (4) redundant echinozoan vtg was released from stabilizing selection. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Herrmann, Bjørn; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2009-01-01

    , insufficient epidemiological resolution is achieved by characterization of both MOMP and omp1. This calls for new high-resolution genotyping methods applying for example a multilocus variable number tandem repeat assay (MLVA) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The futuristic nanotechnology already seems...

  6. Review Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Iowa State University, USA), David Pike, Melanie Elphick. (University of Sydney, Australia) and four anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, suggestions and discussion on an earlier version of the MS. I acknowledge the Australian Research Council (ARC, Australia) and. Environmental Futures Network (EFN, ...

  7. Effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) pods as feed additive on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SGPT), glucose, creatinine and cholesterol levels, were lowered significantly. Proximate analysis of egg yolk showed that moisture and ether extract were decreased, whereas crude protein (CP), ash and minerals, sodium (Na), potassium (K), ...

  8. Maternal egg hormones in the mating context: the effect of pair personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, S.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Baugh, A.T.; Schaper, S.V.; de Vries, B.; van Oers, K.

    2018-01-01

    Animal personality traits emerge developmentally from the interaction of genetic and early environmental factors. Maternal hormones, such as androgens (testosterone, T and androstenedione, A4), transferred to embryos and egg yolks may simultaneously organize multiple behavioural and physiological

  9. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%, vitamin E (90.00% and selenium (91.98%, and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusion feed (76.00% in respect to the control group (82.00%, confidence interval of 95%. Concerning diet supplemented with selenium and diet supplemented with vitamin E, the egg yolk weight was statistically different compared with the control group (confidence interval of 95%. The yolk weight averaged 1.80 g and 1.29 g more than yolk weight in the control eggs, respectively. The egg shell weight was statistically different in diet enriched with iodine compared with the control. The egg shell weight averaged 1.48 g less per egg for the eggs enriched with iodine with 17.45% less underweight than the control eggs. Enriched eggs offer consumer a variety of value-added options for their egg purchase. Although enriched eggs may provide consumers with a specific quality attribute or healthful ingredient, they do not appear to provide quality and value in a traditional sense as defined by the standards of quality and grade.

  10. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B; Panda, N; Pradhan, C R; Mallik, B K; Majhi, B; Rout, S S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6(th) to 20(th) week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1(st) to 6(th) week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

  11. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  12. Functional role of a high mol mass protein complex in the sea urchin yolk granule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Aruni; Davis, Philip; Robinson, John J

    2004-04-01

    We have investigated the biochemical and functional characteristics of the major protein constituents of the yolk granule organelle present in sea urchin eggs and embryos. Compositional analysis, using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealed distinctly different polypeptide patterns under reducing and non-reducing conditions. In the presence of reducing agent, a 240 kDa species dissociated into polypeptides of apparent mol mass 160, 120 and 90 k. The relatedness of these polypeptides to the 240 kDa species was demonstrated in protein gel blot and peptide mapping analyses. The profile of yolk granule polypeptides was dynamic during embryonic development with the disappearance of the 160 kDa species and the coincidental appearance of lower mol mass polypeptides. However, the 240 kDa complex was detected even after the disappearance of the 160 kDa polypeptide. The 240 kDa complex was released from yolk granules in the absence of calcium and the purified species was shown to bind liposomes in a calcium-dependent manner. In addition, the 240 kDa complex possessed a calcium-dependent, liposome aggregating activity. The 240 kDa species could also induce the aggregation of yolk granules, previously denuded of the complex following treatment with either ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or trypsin. Collectively, these results demonstrate the dynamic characteristics of the yolk granule 240 kDa protein complex and offer insights into a possible functional role.

  13. Primary alveolar echinococcosis: course of larval development and antibody responses in intermediate host rodents with different genetic backgrounds after oral infection with eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jun; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Oku, Yuzaburo; Yagi, Kinpei

    2010-09-01

    We investigated parasite establishment, subsequent larval development and antibody responses in gerbils, cotton rats and 4 inbred mouse strains until 16 weeks post inoculation (p.i.) with 200 eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis. The rate of parasite establishment in the liver determined at 4 weeks p.i. was highest in DBA/2, followed by AKR/N, C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 mice, whereas gerbils harboured few parasite foci. The accurate number of liver lesions in cotton rats could not be determined due to rapid growth and advanced multivesiculation of the parasite observed at 2 weeks p.i. The course of larval development was most advanced in DBA/2 mice with mature protoscolex formation at 16 weeks p.i., followed by AKR/N harbouring metacestodes with sparsely distributed immature protoscoleces. On the other hand, C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 mice had infertile metacestodes without any protoscolex formation. The parasite growth in mice was totally slower than those in gerbils and cotton rats. Specific IgG and IgM responses against 3 types of native crude antigens of larval E. multilocularis were evaluated using somatic extracts of and vesicle fluid of metacestode, and somatic extracts from purified protoscoleces. The 4 mouse strains demonstrated basically similar kinetics with apparent IgG and IgM increases at 9 weeks p.i. and thereafter, except C57BL/10, exhibited higher levels of IgM against crude antigens at some time point of infection. On the other hand, a follow-up determination of specific IgG and IgM levels against recombinant antigens from larval E. multilocularis revealed that each mouse strain showed different antibody-level kinetics. The findings in the present study demonstrate that the course of host-parasite interactions in primary alveolar echinococcosis, caused by larval E. multilocularis, clearly varies among intermediate host rodents with different genetic backgrounds.

  14. Bacterial contamination of stored table eggs from commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 53 week-old, sixty eggs/group were kept at room temperature (26-27.5oC), from which 8 eggs/group were selected on the day of lay and weekly for 4 weeks. One ml of vortex mixed albumin and yolk pooled from 4 eggs was diluted 1:10, inoculated on Plate Count Agar-PCA, Salmonella-Shigella Agar-SSA, ...

  15. Yolk proteolysis and aquaporin-1o play essential roles to regulate fish oocyte hydration during meiosis resumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabra, M.; Raldua, D.; Bozzo, M.G.; Deen, P.M.T.; Lubzens, E.; Cerda, J.

    2006-01-01

    In marine fish, meiosis resumption is associated with a remarkable hydration of the oocyte, which contributes to the survival and dispersal of eggs and early embryos in the ocean. The accumulation of ions and the increase in free amino acids generated from the cleavage of yolk proteins (YPs) provide

  16. Fate of egg proteins during the development of Columba livia domestica embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Aslan, Ibtisam Omar

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of egg white into the yolk and consumption of yolk proteins by the embryo are largely unexplored in the pigeon Columba livia domestica. Here, we investigated the route of egg white transfer as well as the degradation and uptake of yolk proteins by the pigeon embryo. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of proteins in different egg compartments throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow the egg white transfer, and we measured its activity using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as a substrate. Moreover, we determined the general protease activity during different developmental stages in the yolk using casein. Finally, we examined the expression of aminopeptidase-N (APN) and oligopeptide transporter PepT1 genes in the yolk sac membrane (YSM) from incubation day 8 until day 17. Several electrophoretic bands of presumptive egg white proteins appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically in the egg compartments. It appeared on day 12 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 14 in the yolk. Moreover, protease activity in the yolk increased significantly on day 14 and thereafter. APN expression was largest on day 8 and reduced generally afterward, whereas PepT1 expression peaked between days 13 and 15 but then reduced substantially. Our results suggest that the egg white proteins move through the amnion and intestine into the yolk where they undergo degradation by the activated proteases. Furthermore, the YSM appears to have a role in protein consumption, and this role decreases toward hatch. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupia, S; Winkler-Moser, J K; Guney, A C; Beckstead, R; Chen, C-Y O

    2016-11-01

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller's dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluated. Neither R-DDGS nor L-DDGS at up to 20% of laying hen feeds had a statistically significant impact on hen weight gain, egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg mass, or egg weight. Specific gravity was slightly lower for eggs from hens fed 10% R-DDGS or 20% L-DDGS. Eggs from layers fed DDGS had enhanced levels of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and xanthophylls in the yolk, as well as also increased yolk yellow and red color. Eggs from L-DDGS diet had higher tocopherol content, but eggs from R-DDGS diets had higher xanthophylls. Fatty acid composition in eggs was slightly altered by DDGS, but the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was very similar. Feeding DDGS to layer hens had no effect on lecithin or cholesterol content of the eggs. Thus, inclusion of DDGS in the diet of laying hens resulted in increases of several beneficial lipophilic nutrients in egg yolks with no apparent detrimental effects. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Implications of mechanical deformation and formaldehyde preservation for the identification of stage-specific characteristics of Baltic cod eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmacher, A.; Wieland, Kai

    1999-01-01

    surrounded by single cells, while in further advanced stages the yolk membrane collapsed entirely, the yolk coagulated and the embryo extending over the yolk shrank. Formaldehyde fixation caused the yolk and the blastodisc or embryo to darken, and in some cases crystalline enclosures occurred. Eggs......The identification of developmental stages in fish eggs from plankton samples is often complicated by deformation of the embryos due to mechanical stress during the sampling procedure and by dehydration during formaldehyde fixation. The effects of formaldehyde fixation and mechanical stress...... on Baltic cod eggs (Gadus morhua callarias L.) were examined separately by visually comparing the morphological features of treated vs. live eggs of identical ontogenetic age. Microphotographs were made concurrently for documentation. In stage IA eggs, mechanical treatment resulted in scattered blastodiscs...

  19. Impact of cage stocking density on egg laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails in subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, M S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different cage stocking densities on egg production parameters, as well as related stress and immunity indices in Japanese quails under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Two hundred and sixteen birds of Japanese quail at 14th week of age were used in this experiment. The birds were divided randomly into three groups: 60, 72 and 84. Each group subdivided into 4 replicates, where the cages' floor spaces were 200 (S1 ), 167 (S2 ) and 143 (S3 ) cm(2) /bird, respectively. Birds housed at 200 cm(2) /bird (S1 ) had superior fertility (fertility % (p = 0.013) and hatchability % (p = 0.041)), egg production (egg weight (p = 0.034) and egg mass (p = 0.001)) and immunity parameters (higher geometric mean of antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus, p = 0.024). Furthermore, they had higher internal egg quality score: albumen height (p = 0.003), yolk height (p = 0.023), yolk index (p = 0.006) and Haugh unit (p = 0.035). Birds housed at 143 cm(2) /bird (S3 ) had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte % (p = 0.022), but the highest H/L ratio (p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in S1 group (p = 0.031) than that in groups housed at higher densities. Japanese quail housed at high densities revealed drop in fertility, hatchability, production and immunity parameters, indicating a detrimental effects on both welfare and economic income. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Tocoferois e tocotrienois em óleos vegetais e ovos Tocopherols and tocotrienols in vegetable oils and eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Guinaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and content of vitamin E isomers was investigated in vegetable oils and raw and cooked egg yolk in commercial restaurants. The analysis of the eight vitamin E isomers was carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The tocopherol and tocotrienol composition of foods varied considerably. Tocopherols were detected in greater quantity and frequency. The α-tocopherol predominated in egg yolks and olive oil while γ-tocopherol was found in high quantities in soybean and canola oils. Cooking did not cause major losses for most of the vitamin E isomers in egg yolks.

  1. SENSORY ASPECTS AND REDUCTION OF Salmonella IN IRRADIATED EGG POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Froehlich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEggs and their products have been implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks due to contamination with SalmonellaEnteritidis. Irradiation, as a food preservation technology, could minimize such contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of irradiation in powdered egg yolk, egg white, and whole egg samples spiked with Salmonella Enteritidis. The powdered egg samples were exposed to doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 kGy irradiation. Odors and tastes of raw and cooked non-inoculated, irradiated samples, and non-irradiated samples, were analyzed by a trained panel. A dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in slight to moderate changes in powdered egg yolk samples, compared to non-irradiated controls, while minimal differences were observed in powdered egg white samples. The dose of 3.5 kGy, when applied to samples of powdered egg white, resulted in taste and odor slightly stronger than the non-irradiated control. The maximum irradiation threshold before changes in flavor and odor occurred was 2.28 kGy, for powdered yolk and whole eggs, and 2.58 kGy, for powdered egg white. Those thresholds were enough to reduce S.Enteritidis to safe levels.

  2. Application of probiotic on egg production and egg quality of chukar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... the yolk color. This increase in shell thickness, shell weight and albumen weight were significant (P 0.05), though value was greater in probiotic treated birds. Egg production and quality are important determi- nations of the ...

  3. Egg pigmentation reflects female and egg quality in the spotless starling Sturnus unicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    López-Rull, I.; Mikšík, Ivan; Gil, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 12 (2008), s. 1877-1884 ISSN 0340-5443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : egg pigments * biliverdin * yolk androgens Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.917, year: 2008

  4. EFFECTS OF HEN AGE, STORAGE PERIOD AND STRETCH FILM PACKAGING ON INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY TRAITS OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMET ALPER YILMAZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hen age, storage time and packaging with stretch film applications to the internal and external egg quality of table eggs were investigated. A total of 1680 table eggs were used and collected with two commercial layer stocks (Lohmann White 28 and 80 weeks old age. A half of the table eggs packaged with stretch film and all eggs were stored 0, 15, 30 and 45 days at 22 ºC ve 45 % RH . Egg weight, shape index, albumen index, fracture strength, albumen index, yolk index Hauhg unit, yolk color, shell weight, shell thickness, shell weight per unit surface of shell and shell density were examined in the study. Egg weight, egg weight loss, shell weight, albumen index, yolk index, Haugh unit, shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, shell density values were found as higher in the young hen flocks’ eggs. Egg weight loss, shell strength, shell thickness, egg weight, shell density increased and egg weight, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh Units and shell weigh decreased as storage time increased. Packaging eggs with stretch film reduced the internal quality losses resulted from prolonged storage.

  5. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies promote bacterial opsonization and augment the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2016-01-01

    Moderation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as part of a critical defense against invading pathogens may offer a promising therapeutic approach to supplement the antibiotic eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have...... observed that egg yolk antibodies (IgY) harvested from White leghorn chickens that target P. aeruginosa opsonize the pathogen and enhance the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing in vitro. The effects on PMN phagocytic activity were observed in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  6. The Effect of Addition Pineapple Peel Meal (Ananas comosus (L) Merr) in Diet on Total Egg and Egg Duck Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Muharlien Muharlien; Vitra Vitra; Muhammad Halim Natsir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD), if the result had significant effect, would be co...

  7. Heat resistance of Salmonella in various egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, J A; Straka, R P; Ijichi, K

    1969-04-01

    The heat-resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1, a reference strain in the stationary phase of growth, were determined at several temperatures in the major types of products produced by the egg industry. The time required to kill 90% of the population (D value) at a given temperature in specific egg products was as follows: at 60 C (140 F), D = 0.27 min for whole egg; D = 0.60 min for whole egg plus 10% sucrose; D = 1.0 min for fortified whole egg; D = 0.20 min for egg white (pH 7.3), stabilized with aluminum; D = 0.40 min for egg yolk; D = 4.0 min for egg yolk plus 10% sucrose; D = 5.1 min for egg yolk plus 10% NaCl; D = 1.0 min for scrambled egg mix; at 55 C (131 F), D = 0.55 min for egg white (pH 9.2); D = 1.2 min for egg white (pH 9.2) plus 10% sucrose. The average Z value (number of degrees, either centigrade or fahrenheit, for a thermal destruction time curve to traverse one logarithmic cycle) was 4.6 C (8.3 F) with a range from 4.2 to 5.3 C. Supplementation with 10% sucrose appeared to have a severalfold greater effect on the heat stabilization of egg white proteins than on S. typhimurium Tm-1. This information should be of value in the formulation of heat treatments to insure that all egg products be free of viable salmonellae.

  8. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  9. Parâmetros reprodutivos de cabras Toggenburg inseminadas com sêmen resfriado, após diluição em meio à base de gema de ovo Reproductive parameters of Toggenburg goats inseminated with cooled semen diluted in egg yolk extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a taxa de concepção, a resposta à prostaglandina, a duração do estro, a categoria reprodutiva e o tipo de muco de cabras inseminadas com sêmen diluído em meio à base de gema de ovo e resfriado a 5ºC, por 12 ou 24 horas. Foram utilizados dois reprodutores e 62 fêmeas da raça Toggenburg, que receberam duas doses de 22,5µg de PGF2α, em intervalos de 10 dias, para a sincronização do estro. A partir da primeira aplicação de PGF2α, o estro foi monitorado três vezes ao dia. Realizou-se uma única inseminação, 12 horas após o início do estro. As porcentagens de fêmeas em estro, após a primeira e segunda aplicações de PGF2α, foram de 85,5% e 88,7%, respectivamente. O intervalo de aplicação da primeira e segunda doses de PGF2α ao início do estro foi de 41,04±20,32 e 45,67±9,28 horas, e a duração do estro de 40,02±15,96 e 32,24±12,09 horas, respectivamente. A taxa de concepção total foi de 49,1%. O período de armazenamento do sêmen e a categoria reprodutiva não influenciaram (P>0,05 a taxa de concepção. O tipo de muco observado no momento da inseminação influenciou (PThe conception rate, the prostaglandin response, the estrus duration, the reproductive class, and the mucous of goats inseminated with semen diluted in egg yolk extender and cooled at 5ºC, for 12 or 24 hours were evaluated. Sixty-two female goats and two sexually mature Toggenburg bucks were used. The females received two doses of 22.5µg of prostaglandine F2α, at 10-day intervals. After the first injection, the estrus was monitored three times a day (6:00, 12:00, and 18:00h, with a buck teaser. Only one insemination was used. The percentages of animals that showed estrus after the first and the second injection of PGF2α were 85.5% and 88.7%, respectively. The average intervals from first and second PGF2α injection to estrus were 41.04±20.32 and 45.67±9.28h, and the estrus durations for both injections were 40.02±15.96 and 32

  10. Comparison of four antibiotics for inactivating leptospires in bull semen diluted in egg yolk extender and experimentally inoculated with Leptospira santarosai serovar guaricura Comparação de quatro antibióticos para inativar leptospiras em sêmen bovino diluído em gema-citrato e experimentalmente contaminado com Leptospira santarosai sorovar guaricura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Miraglia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of leptospires in pools of semen from three Holstein Friesian bulls, collected in an artificial vagina, was investigated. Spermatic concentration was adjusted in egg yolk citrate extender, submitted to the following treatments: A (control; without antibiotics; B (penicillin, 1,000 UI/mL - streptomycin, 1,000 µg/mL; C (amoxicillin, 1,000 µg/mL; D (ceptiofur sodium, 1,000 µg/mL; E (amoxicillin 1,000 µg/mL - ceptiofur sodium 1,000 µg/mL. Leptospires (2.0 x 10(6 leptospires/mL were added into the diluted semen. Recovery of leptospires was obtained in modified EMJH semi-solid medium with and without antibiotics. The antibiotics in the concentrations used did not affect means of percentage of progressive motility and individual progressive motility of spermatozoids. Penicillin-streptomycin presented the best results in leptospire inactivation (97.1%. Amoxicillin, ceptiofur sodium and their combination at the concentrations studied presented poor results: 59.29%; 32.5% and 60.36% of inactivation, being less effective in leptospire inactivation than penicillin-streptomycin.A inativação de leptospiras em misturas de sêmen, obtidas através de vagina artificial, de três touros holandeses, foi estudada. A concentração espermática foi ajustada em diluidor gema-citrato utilizando os seguintes tratamentos: A (controle; sem antibióticos; B (penicilina, 1000 UI/mL - estreptomicina, 1000 µg/mL; C (amoxicilina, 1000 µg/mL; D (ceftiofur sódico, 1000 µg/mL; E (amoxicilina 1000 µg/mL - ceftiofur sódico 1000 µg/mL. Leptospiras (2,0x10(6 leptospiras/mL foram adicionadas ao sêmen diluído. A recuperação das leptospiras foi obtida em meio EMJH modificado semi-sólido, com e sem antibióticos. As médias da porcentagem de motilidade progressiva e a de motilidade individual progressiva dos espermatozóides não foram afetadas pelos antibióticos nas concentrações usadas. Penicilina-estreptomicina apresentou os melhores resultados na

  11. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) supplementation into the diet of the laying hen positively influences egg yield parameters, shell quality, and decreases egg cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, R; Karaman, M; Cicek, T; Yardibi, H

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of dietary black cumin seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, egg shell quality, and egg yolk cholesterol. In this study, eighty 27-wk-old laying hens (Hyline-5 White) were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 4 replicates of 5 birds each (20 laying hens per group) and fed diets supplemented with 1, 2, or 3% black cumin. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated. Laying hens fed the diet supplemented with 3% black cumin had greater egg production than the control. Diets supplemented with 2 or 3% black cumin increased egg weight compared with other groups. Yolk weights of the eggs from hens fed diets containing 1, 2, and 3% black cumin were significantly greater than those from the control group. Shell thickness of the eggs from chickens fed 2 or 3% black cumin seed was significantly greater than those from chickens fed diets supplemented with 0 or 1% black cumin seed. Also, shell strength of the eggs from hens fed diets supplemented with 3% black cumin seed was significantly greater than the control. In addition, diets supplemented with 2 or 3% black cumin significantly decreased egg cholesterol per gram of yolk compared. No level of black cumin seed supplementation had any effect on live weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, organ weights, and abdominal adipose tissue. This study showed that black cumin at the level of 2 or 3% would positively influence egg production, egg weight, and shell quality and decrease the concentration of cholesterol in the egg yolk.

  12. Chemical, Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Lactose-reduced Baked Custards Made with a Low-fat, Low-cholesterol Egg Substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Veronica Tong

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of type of milk (whole; nonfat; nonfat, 70% lactose-reduced) and type of egg (fresh, whole egg; egg substitute) on the quality of baked custards. The egg substitute was a combination of dried egg whit e solids, dried low-fat, low-cholesterol egg yolk solids, and xanthan gum. Custard formulations served as prototypes for use in studies conducted in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia T...

  13. Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Wendt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption.

  14. Using modified soy protein to enhance foaming of egg white protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Troendle, Molly; Reitmeier, Cheryll A; Wang, Tong

    2012-08-15

    It is well known that the foaming properties of egg white protein are significantly reduced when a small amount of yolk is mixed in the white. To improve foaming properties of yolk-contaminated egg white protein, soy protein isolate (SPI) and egg proteins were modified to make basic proteins, and effects of these modified proteins on egg white foaming were evaluated in a model and an angel cake system. SPI and egg yolk proteins were modified to have an isoelectric point of 10, and sonication was used to increase protein dispersibility after the ethyl esterification reaction. However, only the addition of sonicated and modified SPI (SMSPI) showed improvement of foaming in the 5% egg protein model system with 0.4% yolk addition. SMSPI was then used in making angel food cake to examine whether the cake performance reduction due to yolk contamination of the white would be restored by such alkaline protein. Cake performance was improved when cream of tartar was used together with SMSPI. Basic soy protein can be made and used to improve egg white foaming properties and cake performance. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of Some Egg Quality Traits on Hatching Results in Brown Pure Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the influence of eggshell thickness, albumen height, yolk height and haugh unit on hatching results. A total of 746 eggs, which were obtained and evaluated for egg quality parameters from 100 brown pure line hens of 42 weeks of age, were used. Eggs were collected from each hen for 12 days and individual incubation was carried out. Eggs were grouped based on quality parameters and evaluated accordingly. The findings suggested that hatchability, hatchability of fertile eggs, early, mid and late embryonic mortality did not differ in terms of haugh unit, albumen height, eggshell thickness and yolk height groups. However, early embryonic mortality was found different between the yolk height groups. No relationship was determined among albumen height, haugh unit, eggshell thickness and hatching results. There was no relation between yolk height and hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability, mid and late embryonic mortalities but was a positive correlation with early embryonic mortality. The results of the present study demonstrate that egg quality parameters studied here had no influence on hatching results except that early embryonic mortality increased with the yolk height.

  16. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food. PMID:26404361

  17. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-24

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  18. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  19. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamila Nimalaratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides. In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  20. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  1. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  2. Effects of feeding fermented fish on egg cholesterol content in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Teck-Chwen; Law, Fang-Ling; Goh, Yong-Meng; Foo, Hooi-Ling; Zulkifli, Idrus

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding fermented fish (FF) to layers on laying performance, and polyunsaturated fatty acid and cholesterol levels in eggs and plasma. A total of 96, 13-week-old Babcock B380 pullets were used in this study. They were randomly assigned to four numerically equal groups with eight replicates per treatment, three birds per replicate. All the birds were housed in individual cages. The dietary treatments were: Control diet, without FF; FF3 diet containing 3% (w/w) FF, FF6 diet containing 6% (w/w) FF and FF9 diet containing 9% (w/w) FF. The study was carried out for 16 weeks inclusive of two weeks of adjustment. Weekly feed intake and egg production were recorded. Blood plasma cholesterol and fatty acid profiles were assayed at the end of the experiment. FF did not enhance (P > 0.05) egg mass but (P egg weight slightly. However, egg yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol concentrations were reduced (P egg yolk (Control = 7.9, FF9 = 6.2) and plasma (Control = 10.6, FF9 = 6.2) were decreased by feeding FF. Moreover, FF was able to increase (P egg yolk and plasma. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that FF increased DHA and reduced egg yolk cholesterol in poultry eggs.

  3. Sanitation Of Fresh Chicken Eggs By Ionizing Radiation And Its Effect On Their Physicochemical And Functional Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.H.; Abdul Azeem, A.M.; Eissa, F.I.; Mohamed, F.A.; Nasef, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact fresh white and brown L.S.L shell eggs inoculated with 109 colony forming units (cfu) of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella typhimurium, the effect of three doses 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units, yolk colour and yolk index), proximate composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), amino acids content, ,physicochemical properties (foaming ability, foaming stability and water holding capacity), the rheological change (viscosity), ph, protein solubility, carotenoids and lipid oxidation of the eggs were determined. The results revealed that at 2 kGy, the number of SE and S. typhimurium were reduced to non-detectable levels. The internal quality as freshness of eggs as measured by albumen height and the number of Haugh units as well as yolk colour and yolk index were all significantly reduced with increasing the irradiation doses. Non-significant changes were found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). Amino acids when irradiated at dose 2 kGy caused non-significant changes in their levels, but it caused significant decrease in total essential and non-essential amino acids with increasing irradiation dose at 4 and 6 kGy.After irradiation, the foaming ability and foaming capacity were increased while water holding capacity and viscosity were decreased with increasing radiation doses. The ph of the egg white and yolk was increased with increasing the radiation dose. The protein solubility was decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. Carotenoids of egg yolk were decreased with increasing doses of irradiation while lipid oxidation was increased with increasing radiation dose. Based on the obtained results, it

  4. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) vs. fluorescent (FL) lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 2 - Egg quality, shelf-life and lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Hansen, H; Ning, Z; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    In this 60-wk study, egg quality, egg shelf-life, egg cholesterol content, total yolk lipids, and yolk fatty acid composition of eggs produced by Dekalb white laying hens in commercial aviary houses with either light-emitting diode (LED) or fluorescent (FL) lighting were compared. All parameters were measured at 27, 40, and 60 wk of age, except for egg shelf-life, which was compared at 50 wk of age. The results showed that, compared to the FL regimen, the LED regimen resulted in higher egg weight, albumen height, and albumen weight at 27 wk of age, thicker shells at 40 wk of age, but lower egg weight at 60 wk of age. Egg quality change was similar between the lighting regimens during the 62-d egg storage study, indicating that LED lighting did not influence egg shelf-life. Eggs from both lighting regimens had similar cholesterol content. However, cholesterol concentration of the yolk (15.9 to 21.0 mg cholesterol/g wet weight yolk) observed in this study was higher than that of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database (10.85 mg/g). No significant differences in total lipids or fatty acid composition of the yolks were detected between the two lighting regimens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismail

    Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  6. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  7. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in this ... it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you're ...

  8. Impact of egg handling and conditions during extended storage on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Ward, G E; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2018-02-01

    The international trade of shell eggs has become more important in recent years in order to feed a growing worldwide population, meet food manufacturing demands, and address supply issues during disease outbreaks or product recalls. The primary barriers for the export and import of shell eggs are: whether to wash eggs and egg storage temperature. The current study was undertaken to compare egg quality factors as influenced by egg washing and storage temperature. Three lots of nest run white shell eggs were collected on consecutive d from a commercial in-line egg production facility. The treatment and storage conditions were selected to encompass the primary egg handling and storage conditions utilized throughout the world: washed; washed, oiled; and unwashed stored at 4°C; and unwashed stored at 22°C. Eggs were assessed weekly from 0 to 15 wk. Percent egg weight loss was greatest for the unwashed 22°C eggs (15.72%) and least for washed, oiled 4°C (0.33%, P < 0.0001). Less than 24 h at 22°C had a greater impact on yolk shape measurements decline than 15 wk at 4°C (P < 0.05). After 15 wk, average Haugh unit scores for all refrigerated treatments were still Grade A, and unwashed 22°C dropped from Grade AA to almost Grade B in one week. Room temperature storage of eggs rapidly declines egg quality. Egg treatment did not impact egg quality factors when stored at 4°C. Washing and oiling eggs before refrigerated storage did suppress the rate of egg weight loss. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2017.

  9. Chronobiological studies of chicken IgY: monitoring of infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms of IgY in blood and yolk of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Xin; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Rüdiger; Zhang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-08-15

    IgY is the functional equivalent of mammalian IgG found in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many of its biological aspects have been explored with different approaches. In order to evaluate the rhythmicity of serum and yolk IgY, four chickens were examined and reared under the same conditions. To monitor biological oscillations of IgY in yolk and serum, the eggs and blood samples were collected over a 60 day period and the rhythm of yolk and serum IgY was determined by direct-ELISA. Results indicated that, there is a significant circaseptan rhythm in yolk IgY and circaquattran rhythm in serum IgY. The serum IgY concentration reached a peak in the morning, decreased to a minimum during the daytime and increased again at night revealing a significant circadian rhythm was superimposed by an ultradian rhythm. These data are suited to address the controversies concerning the IgY concentration in egg yolk and blood of laying hens. In addition, this study raised new questions, if the different rhythms in yolk and serum are concerned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The residue levels of narasin in eggs of laying hens fed with unmedicated and medicated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, Mervi; Eerola, Susanna; Perttilä, Ulla; Rossow, Laila; Venäläinen, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Valaja, Jarmo; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Laying hens were fed contaminated feed containing narasin 2.5 mg/kg for 21 days followed by a 7 day withdrawal period, hens in the control group were fed unmedicated feed. Eggs were collected during trial days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and after the withdrawal period of 7 days. The concentration of narasin in yolks and egg whites was analyzed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Narasin was found to accumulate in yolks, where the narasin concentration increased during the treatment. The concentration of narasin varied from 5.9 to 13.8 microg/kg (mean 10.6 microg/kg) in yolks after 21 day feeding periods. The concentrations of narasin ranged from residues were not found in egg whites of the laying hens fed contaminated feed nor in either yolks or egg whites of the laying hens fed unmedicated feed. The effect of cooking was also tested on the amount of narasin residues in eggs. Cooking for 10 min did not significantly influence the narasin residues in eggs. Traces of lasalocid were also found in the yolks. The traces of lasalocid are attributable to an accidental contamination of the feed during its manufacture.

  12. Physicochemical and microscopic characterization of dehydrated ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of ostrich eggs are infertile and can be consumed by humans, however, its high volume and perishability indicate the need of appropriate technological processes. Thus, this study aimed to determine the chemical composition of in natura ostrich eggs, as well as physical, chemical and microscopic parameters of ostrich egg products after dehydration. The chemical composition of in natura ostrich and chicken eggs was determined. Ostrich egg whites, yolks and whole eggs were fermented and dried in mini spray-dryer. After dehydration, yield, composition and particle diameter of egg products collected in the cyclone and spray-dryer chamber were evaluated. In natura ostrich egg white and yolk showed higher protein (respectively 15.21% and 11.54% and fat (respectively 38.48% and 0.34% contents, when compared to chicken eggs. Samples collected from the cyclone showed a lower moisture content and better particle diameter uniformity. The ostrich egg products presented satisfactory yield, uniformity and nutritional value, demonstrating that the spray-dryer technique is another alternative for conservation and use of this food for human consumption.

  13. Replacing carbohydrate during a glucose challenge with the egg white portion or whole eggs protects against postprandial impairments in vascular endothelial function in prediabetic men by limiting increases in glycaemia and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joshua D; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Li, Jinhui; Mah, Eunice; Labyk, Allison N; Reverri, Elizabeth J; Ballard, Kevin D; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2018-02-01

    Eggs attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH), which transiently impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF). We hypothesised that co-ingestion of a glucose challenge with egg-based meals would protect against glucose-induced impairments in VEF by attenuating PPH and oxidative stress. A randomised, cross-over study was conducted in prediabetic men (n 20) who ingested isoenegertic meals (1674 kJ (400 kcal)) containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 whole eggs (EGG), seven egg whites (WHITE) or two egg yolks (YOLK). At 30 min intervals for 3 h, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK), lipids (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol; TAG), F2-isoprostanes normalised to arachidonic acid (F2-IsoPs/AA), and methylglyoxal were assessed. In GLU, FMD decreased at 30-60 min and returned to baseline levels by 90 min. GLU-mediated decreases in FMD were attenuated at 30-60 min in EGG and WHITE. Compared with GLU, FMDAUC was higher in EGG and WHITE only. Relative to baseline, glucose increased at 30-120 min in GLU and YOLK but only at 30-90 min in EGG and WHITE. GlucoseAUC and insulinAUC were also lower in EGG and WHITE only. However, CCKAUC was higher in EGG and WHITE compared with GLU. Compared with GLU, F2-IsoPs/AAAUC was lower in EGG and WHITE but unaffected by YOLK. Postprandial lipids and methylglyoxal did not differ between treatments. Thus, replacing a portion of a glucose challenge with whole eggs or egg whites, but not yolks, limits postprandial impairments in VEF by attenuating increases in glycaemia and lipid peroxidation.

  14. Layer performance, fatty acid profile and the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that, although MOWSM inclusion improved yolk colour, maintained external egg quality, and improved the fatty acid profile, the deleterious effect that it had on layer performance indicated that it may not be fed to early-lay hens at these respective levels. Keywords: Alternative protein, egg production, laying ...

  15. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Pytel, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 7 (2016), s. 1693-1701 ISSN 0032-5791 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg yolk * albumen * liquid whole egg * rheology * eggshell membrane Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2016 http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/

  16. Quality parameters of Isa-Brown and Nigerian local chicken eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , peReat yolk ia NLC was 10.53% higher than for m. Baugh unit, JOlk and albumen iadices were significantly higher for IB than for NLC eggs. Moderate to strong relationships were obtained between egg weight and component weights in both ...

  17. Effect of dietary 15N-CCC on 15N content of meat and eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Udo ter Meulen

    APE in meat differed significantly at P < 0.05 among treatments, whereas those of egg yolk and albumen were similar during the same time period of eleven days. Table 2 Excess δ15N of eggs and meat of laying hens seven days after withdrawal of diets containing varying amounts of 15N-CCC. Excess δ15N. Chicken ...

  18. Riboflavin-binding protein. Concentration and fractional saturation in chicken eggs as a function of dietary riboflavin.

    OpenAIRE

    White, H B; Armstrong, J; Whitehead, C C

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of riboflavin and riboflavin-binding protein were determined in the plasma, egg yolk and albumen from hens fed a riboflavin-deficient diet (1.2 mg/kg) supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, 10 and 40 mg of riboflavin/kg. We observed that the deposition of riboflavin in egg yolk and albumen is dependent on dietary riboflavin and reaches half-maximal values at about 2 mg of supplemental riboflavin/kg. The maximal amount of riboflavin deposited in the yolk is limited stoichiometrically ...

  19. Ovomucoid Is Not Superior to Egg White Testing in Predicting Tolerance to Baked Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Larabee, Katherine S.; Petty, Carter; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with egg allergy may tolerate baked egg products. Ovomucoid specific IgE (sIgE) antibody levels have been suggested to predict outcomes of baked egg challenges. OBJECTIVE We determined the relationship of ovomucoid and egg white sIgE levels and egg white skin prick test (SPT) wheal size with baked egg challenge outcome. METHODS Retrospective review of 1186 patients who underwent ovomucoid sIgE blood testing. Subset analysis was of 169 patients who underwent baked egg food challenges. RESULTS Egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT were different among those eating regular egg, eating baked egg only, or avoiding all egg (P egg challenges. We were able to establish >90% predictive values for passing baked egg challenge for egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT. No patient with egg white SPT wheal egg challenge. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT showed areas under the curve of 0.721, 0.645, and 0.624, respectively. No significant difference was observed among these immunologic parameters in their abilities to predict baked egg challenge outcome (P = .301). CONCLUSION Most children with egg allergy in this study passed baked egg challenges. Ovomucoid sIgE, although a useful clinical predictor of baked egg tolerance, was not superior to egg white SPT or sIgE in predicting outcome of baked egg challenge. PMID:24013255

  20. The effect of the clove essential oil to the production and quality of lyaing hens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum essential oil to the egg production parameters and egg quality of laying hens. A total of 40 Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into 4 groups (n = 10. The laying hens were fed 20 weeks ad libitum. The control group was fed with complete feed mixtures without additives. The first group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 0.3 mg.kg-1 of clove essential oil. The second group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 0.6 mg.kg-1 of clove oil and the third group of hens was fed a diet with complete feed mixtures with 1 mg.kg-1 of clove oil. Egg production, egg weight (g, specific egg weight, albumen weight (g, albumen index, Haugh Units (HU, yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk color (HLR were studied. The results show that the addition of clove oil, especially in the group of laying hens with the addition of 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had no significantly different (P>0.05 to the egg production (the order of the groups: 90.3; 91.8; 91.3; 92.6 %. In egg weight were found no significant differences between groups. The addition of 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had significant (P>0.05 influenced the albumen index and the addition of 0.6 mg.kg-1 and 1 mg.kg-1 clove oil had significant (P>0.05 influenced Haugh units. In the control group was found not significant (P>0.05 different in yolk weight compared with other groups. In the other parameters of egg quality (albumen weight, yolk index, yolk colour with the addition of clove oil were found no significant differences between groups.

  1. Leptin is involved in the effects of cysteamine on egg laying of hens, characteristics of eggs, and posthatch growth of broiler offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Ni, Y; Ren, L; Dai, J; Zhao, R

    2008-09-01

    Cysteamine has been reported to modulate energy homeostasis and exert significant growth-promoting effects in broiler chickens. However, little is known concerning its effects on egg production of hens and the growth rate of their offspring. In the present study, 67-wk-old broiler breeders were allotted at random to control and cysteamine-supplemented (400 mg/kg) groups for 8 wk. The hatchlings were fed under the same condition until 6 wk of age. Cysteamine significantly increased the average laying rate by 2.24% (P eggs by 40.55% (P eggs by 20.15% (P egg weight, egg quality, fertility, or hatch-ability but significantly increased eggshell weight (P albumin weight (P egg yolk and albumin extracts as well as in liver homogenates of hens. Cysteamine did not affect the yolk content of T(3), thyroxine, estradiol, or glucagon, but significantly increased leptin content in liver of hens (P albumin (P eggs. These changes were accompanied by a significant downregulation of leptin receptor mRNA expression (P eggs demonstrated significantly lower body weight at hatching (P egg deposition, together with altered yolk sac leptin receptor expression, may be involved in such an effect.

  2. Effect of Different Levels of Surplus Date on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Hosseini Vashan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four 26-wk-old white Hy-Line layers (W-36 were fed commercial diets containing 0, 1.5, 3 and 5% surplus date for three period of 28 days each to study the effects of dietary surplus date on hen performance (egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ‘FCR’ and body weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density. The yolk of eggs extracted and cholesterol content were determined on one egg of each replicate hens in each period. Blood samples were collected in non-heparin zed tubes from six hens in each treatment through brachial vein at the end of experiment. Serum was separated after 8-10 hrs and was stored at – 20 oC for subsequent analysis. Hen performance (egg production, egg mass, feed intake, FCR and weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density were not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05; However in all traits, the control group had numerically lower value, except egg weight that was significantly increased with supplementation of surplus date in diet. The dietary surplus date did not significantly affect egg cholesterol, ND and IBD titre, but the serum cholesterol was significantly reduced in hens fed diets contained 5% surplus date. This study suggested that the surplus date may be used up to 5% in the diet of laying hens to reduce blood cholesterol without any significant adverse effect on performance.

  3. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  4. Is Aboriginal Food Less Allergenic? Comparing IgE-Reactivity of Eggs from Modern and Ancient Chicken Breeds in a Cohort of Allergic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Matthias; Alessandri, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Briza, Peter; Zennaro, Danila; Mari, Adriano; Ferreira, Fatima; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Background Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran) with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. Methodology Egg allergic children (n = 25) were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1–5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. Principal Findings We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3–5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. Conclusion/Significance Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family. PMID:21552565

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND CHOLESTEROL IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Shakoor, M. A. Javed1, Z. Iqbal2 Z. Nasir and N. Mukhtar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola and soybean oils on egg production and cholesterol in layers. for this purpose. 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments (3 experimental units/treatment containing 2,5% canola oil, 5% canola oil, 2.5% soybean oil, 5% soybean oil and control without any oil (all five rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous for a period of9 weeks. Effect of these treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg mass, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio and egg quality parameters including shell thickness, albumen quality, yolk index, egg cholesterol level and yolk fatty acid composition were studied. The results indicated that the effect of canola and soybean oils on egg production and egg mass was non-significant. Significantly (P<0.05 less yolk cholesterol was found in hens fed diets containing oils compared with the control. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acids (SFA content decreased as oils percentage increased. Total Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was significantly (P<0.01 greater in canola and soybean oil fed hens eggs than the control diet fed hens eggs. Addition of 5% canola oil to the diet resulted in yolk omega-6:omega-3 PUFA being significantly lower (P<0.01 than those of the control diets.

  6. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO YOLK RETENTION IN POULTRY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Khan, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, M. Rabbani1 and M.Y. Tipu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Yolk retention and yolk sac infection is considered as an important cause of death in chicken as well as in guinea fowl, duck, turkey, quail and goose. The factors which slow down the rate of yolk absorption and may in turn, lead to yolk retention are discussed. Yolk sac infection of bacterial origin is most important among these factors. Other factors which may contribute include posthatch starvation, type of initial feed, brooding temperature, prolonged exposure to hatcher environment and size of birds.

  7. Effect of various refrigeration temperatures on quality of shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daekeun; Narciso-Gaytán, Carlos; Regenstein, Joe M; Sánchez-Plata, Marcos X

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of low storage temperatures on shell egg quality. Approximately 2100 shell eggs were collected and stored at - 1.1, 0.6, 2.2, 3.9, 5.6 and 7.2 °C for up to 4 weeks. Eighteen eggs at each storage temperature were evaluated after 0, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Haugh units (HU), yolk index (YI), albumen pH (pHA), yolk pH (pHY) and angel food cake density (CD) were measured. Shell egg quality tended to be preserved better at below 2.2 °C, as high HU and YI values relative to eggs stored at 7.2 °C were determined on day 28. However, storage at - 1.1 °C tended to cause the opposite effect, especially highly declined HU values over time. Significantly different HU values of shell eggs were measured after 14 days of storage, with eggs stored at 0.6 and 2.2 °C having the highest HU values, 80.42 and 77.97 respectively. A lower temperature limit for shell egg storage could be established between 0.6 and 2.2 °C, as both temperatures showed the highest HU values, 77.88 and 77.60 respectively, after 28 days of storage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of basic alkali-pickling conditions on the production of lysinoalanine in preserved eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    During the pickling process, strong alkali causes significant lysinoalanine (LAL) formation in preserved eggs, which may reduce the nutritional value of the proteins and result in a potential hazard to human health. In this study, the impacts of the alkali treatment conditions on the production of LAL in preserved eggs were investigated. Preserved eggs were prepared using different times and temperatures, and alkali-pickling solutions with different types and concentrations of alkali and metal salts, and the corresponding LAL contents were measured. The results showed the following: during the pickling period of the preserved egg, the content of LAL in the egg white first rapidly increased and then slowly increased; the content of LAL in the egg yolk continued to increase significantly. During the aging period, the levels of LAL in both egg white and egg yolk slowly increased. The amounts of LAL in the preserved eggs were not significantly different at temperatures between 20 and 25ºC. At higher pickling temperatures, the LAL content in the preserved eggs increased. With the increase of alkali concentration in the alkali-pickling solution, the LAL content in the egg white and egg yolk showed an overall trend of an initial increase followed by a slight decrease. The content of LAL produced in preserved eggs treated with KOH was lower than in those treated with NaOH. NaCl and KCl produced no significant effects on the production of LAL in the preserved eggs. With increasing amounts of heavy metal salts, the LAL content in the preserved eggs first decreased and then increased. The LAL content generated in the CuSO4 group was lower than that in either the ZnSO4 or PbO groups. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Egg intake improves carotenoid status by increasing plasma HDL cholesterol in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesso, Christopher N; Andersen, Catherine J; Bolling, Bradley W; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with reductions in plasma lutein and zeaxanthin, along with altered composition of their lipoprotein transporters which may affect disease risk. Egg yolk intake has been demonstrated to increase plasma lutein and zeaxanthin in other populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of whole egg feeding on plasma and lipoprotein carotenoids in participants with MetS. Participants consumed 3 whole eggs per day (EGG, n = 20) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB, n = 17), as part of a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) for 12 weeks. Post-intervention, the EGG group had significant increases in plasma lutein (+21%), zeaxanthin (+48%), and β-carotene (+24%), while the SUB group had increases in plasma β-carotene (+55%) only. Significant enrichment of isolated HDL and LDL fractions in lutein (+20% HDL, +9% LDL) and zeaxanthin (+57% HDL, +46% LDL) was observed in the EGG group after 12 weeks. Increases in the proportion of plasma carotenoids carried by HDL was seen for lutein (P eggs, as part of a CRD, increased both plasma and lipoprotein lutein and zeaxanthin. Egg yolk may represent an important food source to improve plasma carotenoid status in a population at high risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Unscrambling Egg Allergy: The Diagnostic Value of Specific IgE Concentrations and Skin Prick Tests for Ovomucoid and Egg White in the Management of Children with Hen’s Egg Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Marriage, D. E.; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, M.; Unsworth, D. J.; Henderson, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Resolution of egg allergy occurs in the majority of egg allergic children. Positive specific IgE antibodies to ovomucoid (OVM) have been suggested to be of greater predictive value for persistent egg allergy than specific IgE to egg white. The performance of OVM-specific IgE antibody levels in a cohort of children referred for a routine egg challenge was compared with egg white specific IgE levels in predicting a positive egg challenge. 24/47 subjects had persistent egg allergy. Receiver oper...

  11. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  12. Residues depletion in egg after warfarin ingestion by laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, M; Pouliquen, H; Pinault, L; Loyau, M

    1998-10-01

    Accidental ingestion of anticoagulant rodenticide bait by poultry rarely leads to clinical signs of poisoning, but represents a risk for the consumer because of potential residues in the laid eggs. An assay was conducted for a better risk assessment. Three groups of laying hens were given a single oral dose of 10, 30 or 90 mg warfarin/kg BW. Eggs were collected for 14 d, and warfarin was analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Warfarin was present in the white for 3 to 4 d following anticoagulant ingestion, while concentration increased in the yolk until the 5th or 6th d, and then gradually decreased. At the end of experimentation, warfarin was still detected at below 100 ng/g in the yolk of eggs in each group.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effect of probiotics and humic acid on egg production and internal quality parameters of laying hens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to evaluate the influence of probiotic preparation based on lactobacillus, probiotic preparation based on enterococci or humic acid on egg production and selected internal egg quality parameters of laying hens hybrid Lohman Brown Lite. For housing hens (n ​​= 60 three storey enriched battery cage was used in which hens were divided in groups (n = 15. In the control group of hens complete feed mixtures without any additions were fed. In the first experimental group complete feed mixture was enriched with probiotic lactobacilli based preparation in a dose of 0.5 g.kg-1. In the second experimental group probiotic enterococci based preparation was added to the feed mixture at a dose of 0.5 g.kg-1. The third experimental group was enriched with 0.5% concentration of humic acid. All groups were fed ad libitum. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily. Complete analysis of the table egg quality was used to evaluate quality parameters: yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index. The results show that supplementation of feed mixture with both kind probiotics as well as humic acid increased egg production (P>0.05 (values of average intensity of laying in the order of the groups: 90.5; 91.9; 91.6 and 92.3 %. The addition of probiotics also positively influenced egg weight (P>0.05. The qualitative parameters of egg internal content were with probiotics or humic acids addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. Doses of supplements used in this study did not significant negatively influenced monitored egg quality parameters. Based on these findings and the beneficial effects of substances on the poultry health confirmed by other authors we recommend use of these substances as supplements to the feed mixtures for laying hens.

  15. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.

  16. THE PASSAGE AND DURATION OF ANTIBODIES TO WEST NILE VIRUS IN HUMBOLDT PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Andrew C; Dubovi, Edward; Erb, Hollis N; Georoff, Timothy A; Abou-Madi, Noha

    2017-03-01

    West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) outbreaks and mortality events have been documented in both wild and captive avian species, including penguins. Serologic response to vaccination in avian species has varied and appears to be largely species dependent; however, Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) previously showed excellent rates of seroconversion. The goal of this study was to determine virus neutralization titers of 17 Humboldt penguin hens and their subsequent eggs, chicks, or both following vaccination with a killed West Nile vaccine. Chicks were also vaccinated at 56, 70, and 84 days old. Titers were measured from 10-346 days prior to lay as well as serially in seven chicks. Data collected showed positive rank correlation between maternal titers and yolk titers (ρ = 0.90, P penguin chicks based on a time-dependent decline in maternal antibody titers. Cell-mediated immunity and experimental challenge following vaccination have not yet been investigated in this species.

  17. Direct construction of predictive models for describing growth Salmonella enteritidis in liquid eggs – a one-step approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new approach using a one-step approach to directly construct predictive models for describing the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in liquid egg white (LEW) and egg yolk (LEY). A five-strain cocktail of SE, induced to resist rifampicin at 100 mg/L, ...

  18. Mercury levels in eggs, embryos, and neonates of Trachemys callirostris (Testudines, Emydidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon Valencia, Beatriz; Zapata, Lina M; Bock, Brian C; Paez, Vivian P; Palacio, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    We quantified total mercury concentrations in eggshells, egg yolks, and embryos from 16 nests of the Colombian slider (Trachemys callirostris). Nests were collected in different stages of development, but estimated time of incubation in natural substrates was not correlated with mercury levels in the eggs, suggesting that mercury was not absorbed from the substrate, but more likely passed on to the embryos during folliculogenesis by the reproductive females who had bioaccumulated the mercury from environmental sources. Mean mercury concentrations were higher in embryos than in eggshells or egg yolks, indicating that embryos also bioaccumulate mercury present in other egg tissues. Intra-clutch variation in egg yolk mercury concentrations was relatively high. Egg yolk mercury concentrations were not associated with any of the fitness proxies we quantified for the nests (hatching success rates, initial neonate sizes and first-month juvenile growth rates). After five months of captive rearing in a mercury-free laboratory environment, 86 % of the juveniles had eliminated the mercury from their tissues.

  19. Effect of Supplementation Purslane (Portulaca oleracea as a Source of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Production Performance and Physical Quality of Egg of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Kartikasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion plant source of n 3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3 on the diets of layers on production performance and physical quality of eggs. A total of  125 Hy-Line Brown hens (38 weeks old were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for five weeks following a seven day adaptation period. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Feed intake (FI measured weekly and feed consumption ratio (FCR was calculated at the end of the trial. A total of 25 egg yolk samples of day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment were collected to analyse physical quality of eggs. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analyzed using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that the incorporation of plants rich in ALA did not modify FI, FCR, and egg production. Supplementation of purslane meal in the diets had no effect on physical quality of eggs, including egg weight, yolk weight, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh Unit (HU. The average of egg weight and yolk weight were 60,5 and 15.3 g, respectively. Diet containing purslane meal increased yolk colour. In conclusion, laying hens that fed diet supplemented with purslane meal rich in ALA improved yolk colour and did not change the production performance of the laying hens or the qualities of the eggs.

  20. PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICALQUALITYOFOPAQUE, SANITIZED, AND CHILLED QUAIL EGGS EXPERIMENTALLY CONTAMINATED WITH Salmonella enteric SER. TYPHIMURIUM

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    Maria Juliana Ribeiro Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of Japanese quail eggs artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. The eggs were sanitized and stored at different temperatures (between 5 and 25 ºC for 27 days. We used 768 eggs with opaque shells, typical pigments of the species, and average weight of 11 g. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (contamination x sanitation x cooling with six replications and one egg per experimental unit. The eggs were contaminated by handling with 1.5 x 105 colony forming unit (CFU of Salmonella. Typhimurium / mL and sanitized according to the treatments with a 5 ppm Cl solution. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and t test. Bacterial contamination has damaged the egg weight, Haugh unit, yolk index and albumen, and pH of yolk and albumen, from 18 days of storage. The egg storage time and storage temperature affected the internal quality of quail eggs in all variables. The worst internal quality was observed in eggs stored at 25 ºC. The sanitation and cooling reduced the growth of Salmonella in contaminated eggs. Eggs in opaque shell, when not refrigerated, should be consumed within 18 days after laying. Keywords: opaque shell; quail eggs; Salmonella Typhimurium; sanitization; storage.

  1. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-11-15

    This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (Pegg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eficacia experimental de anticuerpos IgY producidos en huevos, contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox Experimental efficacy of IgY antibodies produced in eggs against the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothrops atrox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Mendoza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Desarrollar un protocolo de inmunización para producir inmunoglobulinas IgY de origen aviar contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox y evaluar la capacidad neutralizante. Materiales y métodos. Se inmunizaron seis gallinas de postura de la raza hy line brown con 500 μg/dosis de veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de dos meses. Cada semana, los huevos fueron colectados para el aislamiento de inmunoglobulinas IgY a partir de la yema, usando dos pasos consecutivos con αcido caprνlico y sulfato de amonio. La detecciσn de anticuerpos se realizσ por inmunodifusiσn doble mientras que el tνtulo y reactividad cruzada se determinaron por las técnicas de ELISA y Western blot. El cálculo de DL50 y de la DE50 del antiveneno IgY producido se realizó utilizando el método de Probits. Resultados. La masa de anticuerpos aislados fue de 8,5 ± 1,35 mg de IgY/mL de yema. Asimismo, la DE50 del antiveneno aviar fue calculada en 575 μL de antiveneno/mg de veneno. Adicionalmente, los ensayos de reactividad cruzada mostraron que el veneno de B. atrox comparte mas epνtopes comunes con el veneno de B. brazili (47% que con otros veneno del mismo género, en tanto que los venenos de Lachesis muta (19% y Crotalus durissus (12% mostraron una baja reactividad cruzada. Conclusiones. Se ha obtenido IgY purificada contra el veneno de B. atrox con capacidad neutralizante y se ha demostrado su utilidad como herramienta inmunoanalítica para evaluar la reactividad cruzada con venenos de otras especies.Objectives. To develop an immunization protocol in order to produce avian IgY immunoglobulins against Bothrops atrox Peruvian snake venom and to evaluate its neutralizing capacity. Materials and methods. Six Hy Line Brown hens were immunized each two weeks using 500μg/doses of B. atrox venom in a period of two months. Each week, eggs were collected for IgY isolation from yolk using two consecutive steps with caprilic acid and ammonium sulfate

  3. EFFECTS OF HEN AGE, STORAGE PERIOD AND STRETCH FILM PACKAGING ON INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY TRAITS OF TABLE EGGS

    OpenAIRE

    AHMET ALPER YILMAZ; ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hen age, storage time and packaging with stretch film applications to the internal and external egg quality of table eggs were investigated. A total of 1680 table eggs were used and collected with two commercial layer stocks (Lohmann White ) 28 and 80 weeks old age. A half of the table eggs packaged with stretch film and all eggs were stored 0, 15, 30 and 45 days at 22 ºC ve 45 % RH . Egg weight, shape index, albumen index, fracture strength, albumen index, yolk index Hauhg uni...

  4. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Z M; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Welcker, Jorg; Hatch, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004) that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A") eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B") eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival) across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  5. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Benowitz-Fredericks

    Full Text Available In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004 that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A" eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B" eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  6. The Useful of Water Glass as Preservative on Salted Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Thohari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The materiasl used were duck eggs and curing agent. The research method used was factorial experiment (2x4 Randomized  Block Design with two treatment factors. The first factors was preservation which consisted of two levels namely : with (P1 and without (Po dipping in water glass as preservative. The second factor was the length of storage which consisted of four levels namely : 0 day (L0, 14 days (L14, 28 days (L28 and 42 days (L42. Each treatment was devided into three groups based on the time of salting. The variables measured were microbial load, protein content and organoleptic qualities (flavour, colour of yolk and texture of salted eggs. The result of statistical analysis showed that a highly significant different effect (P<0.01 of the length of storage on the microbial load, preservation and the length of storage on protein content and a significant effect (P<0.05 of the preservation and the combination treatments on the microbial load, the flavour and colour of yolk of salted eggs. The salted eggs experienced off flavour, changed yolk colour, and texture while storage for 28 days, neverthless panelist prefered its. The conclusion that the dipping in water glass as preservative and the different length of storage in room temperature affected on  microbial load, protein content and organoleptic qualities (flavour, the colour of yolk and the texture. Dipping in water glass as preservative would make salted egg's microbial load lower than the ones without preservative. A longer storage could increase the microbial load and decrease protein content. After 28 days of storage the egg's flavour and texture as well as yolk colour started to change, however, the panelist preferred its. It was suggested that never keep the salted egg preserved with water glass solution more than 28 days at room temperature.   Keywords: salted egg, water glass

  7. Egg white hydrolysate inhibits oxidation in mayonnaise and a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Sasahara, Ryou; Yoda, Shoichi; Kotake-Nara, Eiichi

    2017-06-01

    The flavor deterioration of mayonnaise is induced by iron, which is released from egg yolk phosvitin under acidic conditions and promotes lipid oxidation. To prevent oxidative deterioration, natural components, rather than synthetic chemicals such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid have been required by consumers. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of three egg white components with the same amino acid composition, namely egg white protein, hydrolysate, and the amino acid mixture, on lipid oxidation in mayonnaise and an acidic egg yolk solution as a model system. We found that the hydrolysate had the strongest inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation among the three components. The mechanism underlying the antioxidant effect was associated with Fe 2+ -chelating activity. Thus, egg white hydrolysate may have the potential as natural inhibitors of lipid oxidation in mayonnaise.

  8. Cold-treated centrosome: isolation of centrosomes from mitotic sea urchin eggs, production of an anticentrosomal antibody, and novel ultrastructural imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Coffe, C; Coffe, G; Schatten, H; Mazia, D; Schatten, G

    1996-01-01

    A novel isolation of centrosomes is described and it was used to both generate a centrosome-specific monoclonal antibody and to image with high-resolution low-voltage scanning electron microscopy the surface details of the isolated centrosome. At first mitotic prometaphase, sea urchin zygotes are chilled on ice overnight. While most of the microtubules disassemble, the mitotic centrosomes collapse into aggregated masses. These centrosomes have been isolated, and used to generate a monoclonal antibody, designated 4D2, which is reactive with interphase and mitotic centrosomes. 4D2 staining of centrosomes is similar, but not identical, to that of other centrosomal antibodies like Ah6 and 5051. Centrosomal material is detected as a compact sphere after cold treatment; upon recovery the sphere expands and undergoes the shape changes previously described [Mazia et al., 1987: J. Cell Biol. 105:206a] to eventually reorganize a normal mitotic apparatus.

  9. Effect of different dietary levels of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spice supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, M A; El-Deek, A A; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Qota, E M

    2009-11-01

    In order to study the influence of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves on productive performance, egg quality, lipids metabolism and metabolic profiles, 180 Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 6 dietary treatments each contained 6 replicates of 5 individually caged hens during the period from 50 to 60 weeks of age. 2. Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0, 50 and 100 g/kg of sun-dried mangrove leaves. Each diet was fed with or without supplementation of 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet. 3. Mangrove leaves at either 50 or 100 g/kg adversely affect laying rate, egg mass and FCR, whilst increasing water intake and water to feed ratio. Mangrove leaves had no significant effect on dry matter, protein, lipid, cholesterol and ash content of liver, or on dry matter, protein and ash of yolk. 4. Plasma total protein, total lipids; liver enzymes AST and ALT and mortality rate were not significantly affected by mangrove leaves. On the other hand, yolk lipid, yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol significantly decreased, while yolk colour significantly increased with inclusion of 50 or 100 g/kg mangrove leaves, and Haugh unit score significantly increased with 100 g/kg mangrove leaves. 5. Spice mixture significantly increased egg weight by 2.2%. Yolk lipid content significantly decreased by 2.6%, while yolk colour and Haugh unit significantly increased with inclusion of spice mixtures. 6. In conclusion, mangrove leaves at 50 g/kg may be included in the laying hen diets as a means of decreasing lipid and cholesterol in yolk and plasma cholesterol and increasing yolk colour. Spice mixture at 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet increased laying rate, egg mass, Haugh unit score and yolk colour while decreasing yolk lipids.

  10. EGG QUALITY OF CREOLE HENS REARED IN THE BACKYARD