WorldWideScience

Sample records for egg proteins dietary

  1. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  2. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.

  3. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  4. Detection of dietary DNA, protein, and glyphosate in meat, milk, and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

    2017-07-01

    Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed. Because glyphosate is used on some GE crops, the available studies on glyphosate residues in animal products are also reviewed. In GE crops, recombinant DNA (rDNA) makes up a small percentage of the plant's total DNA. The final amount of DNA in food/feed depends on many factors including the variable number and density of cells in the edible parts, the DNA-containing matrix, environmental conditions, and the specific transgenic event. Processing treatments and animals' digestive systems degrade DNA into small fragments. Available reports conclude that endogenous DNA and rDNA are processed in exactly the same way in the gastrointestinal tract and that they account for a very small proportion of food intake by weight. Small pieces of high copy number endogenous plant genes have occasionally been detected in meat and milk. Similarly sized pieces of rDNA have also been identified in meat, primarily fish, although detection is inconsistent. Dietary rDNA fragments have not been detected in chicken or quail eggs or in fresh milk from cows or goats. Collectively, studies have failed to identify full-length endogenous or rDNA transcripts or recombinant proteins in meat, milk, or eggs. Similarly, because mammals do not bioaccumulate glyphosate and it is rapidly excreted, negligible levels of glyphosate in cattle, pig and poultry meat, milk, and eggs have been reported. Despite

  5. Riboflavin-binding protein. Concentration and fractional saturation in chicken eggs as a function of dietary riboflavin.

    OpenAIRE

    White, H B; Armstrong, J; Whitehead, C C

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of riboflavin and riboflavin-binding protein were determined in the plasma, egg yolk and albumen from hens fed a riboflavin-deficient diet (1.2 mg/kg) supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, 10 and 40 mg of riboflavin/kg. We observed that the deposition of riboflavin in egg yolk and albumen is dependent on dietary riboflavin and reaches half-maximal values at about 2 mg of supplemental riboflavin/kg. The maximal amount of riboflavin deposited in the yolk is limited stoichiometrically ...

  6. The effect of dietary protein and lysine on egg quality and production of laying hens during 28-42 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohammadi Emarat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and lysine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets consisted of 3 levels of protein (14, 15 and 16% and 5 levels of lysine (0.71, 0.74, 0.77, 0.80 and 0.83 % in a 35 factorial arrangement were provided. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 12 birds, during four periods of 4 weeks (28-44wks of age. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined for each period. Eggs from each replicate were weighed at the end of three consecutive days of each period and six eggs were used to measure the egg quality characteristics. Although the feed intake did not affected by dietary protein but the egg production, egg mass and feed conversion were improved significantly (p

  7. The effects of protein dietary supplementation on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Konwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition. Materials and Methods: 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days. Results: In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (p<0.05 effect on fecal egg counts even after 15 days; hemoglobin (Hb (g/dl after 45 days; total leukocyte count (103/mm3 and total erythrocyte count (106/mm3 after 30 days; packed cell volume (%, lymphocyte (%, and eosinophil (% after 15 days of supplementation, whereas monocyte (% and neutrophil (% values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl were affected significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01 due to protein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH (pg after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment. Conclusion: The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids.

  8. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  9. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  10. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  11. Comparison of the effects of dietary supplementation of flavonoids on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, H; Yenice, G; Dokumacioglu, E; Kaynar, O; Hayirli, A; Kaya, A

    2017-10-01

    1. The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of hesperidin, naringin and quercetin on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg yolk lipid and protein profiles. 2. A total of 96 Lohmann White laying hens weighing an average of 1500 g at 28 weeks of age were randomly assigned to a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented (0.5 g/kg) with either hesperidin, naringin or quercetin. Each treatment was replicated in 6 cages in an 8-week experimental period. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. 3. None of the dietary flavonoids affected laying performance and eggshell quality. Hesperidin and quercetin supplementations decreased albumen and yolk indexes. 4. As compared to the control group, egg yolk cholesterol content decreased and egg yolk protein content increased in response to dietary hesperidin and quercetin supplementation. The mean egg yolk cholesterol (mg/g) and protein (g/100 g) contents were 10.08/14.28, 16.12/14.08, 14.75/15.04 and 15.15/14.85 for the control group and groups supplemented with naringin, hesperidin and quercetin, respectively. 5. Egg yolk lipid and protein profiles were variable. 6. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of hesperidin or quercetin could be used in the diets during the early laying period to reduce egg yolk cholesterol and increase egg yolk protein, which may be attractive to consumers.

  12. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. ... Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups, namely H0, H1 and H2. ... Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group.

  13. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the range of protein intakes from 18.5 and 28.8 g/bird, no differences were observed in rate of laying between the two feeding strategies or dietary protein levels, nor were there differences in the proportions of yolk or albumen between these treatments. Egg weight, egg output and weight gain increased with ...

  14. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  15. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  16. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects.

  17. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... including 30 and 90 ppm dietary humic acid in liquid form, respectively. ... shell strength without affecting egg production and feed efficiency compared to control ..... Caecal metabolites and microbial populations in chickens consuming ... tation on the performance of laying hens fed with diets based on corn.

  18. Allergy to egg proteins in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Góngora-Meléndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1, ovoalbumin (Gal d2, ovotransferrin (Gal d3, lysozyme (Gal d4 and albumin (Gal d5. Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical Revista México 235 Góngora-Meléndez MA y col. Alergia a las proteínas del huevo en edad pediátrica Revista México diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  19. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  20. Towards the nonstick egg: designing fluorous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, E; Marsh, G

    2000-07-01

    Anyone who has made scrambled eggs will have had cause to praise the properties of Teflon. Teflon's highly chemically inert and nonstick nature derives from the perfluorinated polymer polytetrafluoroethylene. Perfluorocarbons have unique and valuable physical properties not found in nature. By incorporating fluorine into proteins, it might be possible to produce biological molecules with novel and useful properties.

  1. Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20. Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05 compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05 compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets. Keywords: Cholesterol, Sugar syrup diet, Egg, Egg quality, Protein

  2. Consideration of insects as a source of dietary protein for human consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchward-Venne, T.A.; Pinckaers, P.J.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of sufficient dietary protein is fundamental to muscle mass maintenance and overall health. Conventional animal-based protein sources such as meat (ie, beef, pork, lamb), poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy are generally considered high-quality sources of dietary protein because they meet all

  3. Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2014-12-24

    Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ≤ 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fcυ3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ≤ 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens.

  4. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Whole grain gluten-free egg-free high protein pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative whole grain, high protein, gluten-free, egg-free past...

  6. Endogenous contributions to egg protein formation in lesser scaup Aythya affinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Wainwright-de la Cruz, Susan E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lesser scaup Aythya affinis populations have declined throughout the North American continent for the last three decades. It has been hypothesized that the loss and degradation of staging habitats has resulted in reduced female body condition on the breeding grounds and a concomitant decline in productivity. We explored the importance of body (endogenous) reserves obtained prior to arrival on the breeding ground in egg protein formation in southwestern Montana during 2006–2008 using stable-carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of scaup egg components, female tissue, and local prey items. From arrival on the breeding grounds through the egg-laying period, δ15N values of scaup red blood cells decreased while δ13C values became less variable; a pattern consistent with endogenous tissues equilibrating with local (freshwater) dietary sources. In 2006 and 2008, isotopic values for egg albumen and yolk protein indicated that most (>90%) protein used to produce these components was obtained on the breeding grounds. However, in 2007, a year with an exceptionally warm and dry spring, endogenous reserves contributed on average 41% of yolk and 29% of albumen. Results from this study suggest that female scaup can meet the protein needs of egg production largely from local dietary food sources. This highlights the importance of providing high-quality breeding habitats for scaup. Whether this pattern holds in areas with similar breeding season lengths but longer migration routes, such as those found in the western boreal forest, should be investigated.

  7. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M; Masdeu, M; Hale, P; Sibbons, C M; Holt, W V

    2014-02-01

    Seahorses populations in the wild have been declining and to restore them a better knowledge of seahorse reproduction is required. This study examines the effect of dietary quality on seahorse fecundity and egg quality. Two different diets were tested with Hippocampus kuda females: frozen mysis (control) and frozen mysis enriched with a liposome spray containing essential fatty acids. Diets were given to females (two groups of five) over a seven week period. After this period, males (fed the control diet) and females were paired and the eggs dropped by the females were collected. Fatty acid profile were analysed and eggs were counted and measured. Results showed that females fed on enriched mysis had larger eggs and that these had a higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The size of the egg was especially affected in the first spawn, where egg size for females fed the enriched diet was significantly higher than the egg size from control females. This effect was reduced in the following spawning where no significant differences were found. Egg size is an important quality descriptor as seahorse juveniles originating from smaller eggs and/or eggs of poor quality will have less chances of overcoming adverse conditions in the wild and consequently have lower survival and growth rates. This study shows that enriching frozen mysis with polyunsaturated fatty acids increases egg size and egg quality of H. kuda. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... in cages in three tier batteries. Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group. Egg mass of H2 hens was ..... heavy metal ion toxicity to experimental animals is dependant on the technique of application and the applied dose. However, neither increased mortality nor.

  9. Food-cooking processes modulate allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Feng, Bai-Sui; Kong, Xiaoli; Xu, Hong; Li, Xiumin; Yang, Ping-Chang; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the allergenicity of food allergens can suppress the clinical symptoms of food allergy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of processing on the allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins. Eggs were processed by traditional Chinese cooking, including steaming, water boiling, frying, spicing and tea boiling. The contents of processed egg protein were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; the allergenicity was evaluated by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme allergosorbent test inhibition. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis of four major egg allergens from various egg products was performed as well. A mouse model of food allergy was developed to test the allergenicity of processed egg protein in vivo. Protein degradation was significant following tea boiling and spiced-tea boiling. The total allergenic potential of water-boiled egg and fried egg was relatively higher than that of steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg. Challenge with proteins from raw egg, water-boiled egg and fried egg induced skewed T-helper 2 pattern responses (Th2 responses) in the intestine of mice sensitized to egg proteins; however, when the mice sensitized to egg proteins were challenged with proteins from steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg, respectively, only weak Th2 responses were induced in their intestine. Processing by steaming, spicing, or tea boiling can weaken the allergenicity of egg proteins. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae ( Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA brown layers (40 wks of age were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i CON (basal diet, ii 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder, and iii 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder. From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034; however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively. Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044. Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05. Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3 was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  11. THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  12. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kobayashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6 fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25 created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7, those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6. In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively, resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05. We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein.

  13. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary w 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were planned to study the influence of dietary fat sources (fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO)) and dietary doses of -tocopheryl acetate (-TA) (0, 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed) and vitamin A (0 IU, 10000 IU and 20000 IU) on lipid oxidation of stored eggs in three stages of 0 or fresh, 1 and 2 months of storage time.

  14. The effects of dietary calcium iodate on productive performance, egg quality and iodine accumulation in eggs of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Nassiri-Moghaddam, H; Zarghi, H

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of supplemental calcium iodate (CI) on productive performance, egg quality, blood indices and iodine (I) accumulation in the eggs in commercial laying hens. A total of 240 White Leghorn layers (Hy-line W36) were divided through a completely randomized design into six treatments with five replicates and eight hens per each at 32 weeks of age. This experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Concentrations of I in the mash diets were 0.74, 3.13, 5.57, 8.11, 10.65 and 12.94 mg I/kg of feed in treatments 1-6 respectively. The added doses of CI were included 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/kg of diet for treatments 1-6 respectively. There were no significant differences in productive performance among the treatments. The highest eggshell strength was observed in group fed diet containing 3.13 mg I/kg (p = .014). The highest percentage of calcium and lowest percentage of phosphorus in eggshell were observed in group fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg (p = .0001). Feeding hens with diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg increased serum triiodothyronine-to-thyroxine ratio (p = .0001). Serum alanine aminotransferase activity in hens fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was significantly more than control (p = .041). Blood Serum triglycerides in hens fed diet containing 8.11 mg I/kg were significantly higher than control (p = .0001). Edible fraction of the eggs of birds fed diet containing 12.94 mg I/kg was enriched by I almost 3 times more than those fed diet containing 0.74 mg I/kg. The results suggested that egg production, egg mass, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by dietary I levels. Iodine accumulation in the eggs were increased by increasing dietary I levels and the level of 10 mg/kg CI could supply I enrichment of the eggs. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Single food focus dietary guidance: lessons learned from an economic analysis of egg consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraj Leila M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large body of literature evaluating the impact of various nutrients of eggs and their dietary cholesterol content on health conditions. There is also literature on the costs of each condition associated with egg consumption. The goal of the present study is to synthesize what is known about the risks and benefits of eggs and the associated costs from a societal perspective. Methods A risk apportionment model estimated the increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD attributable to egg cholesterol content, the decreased risk for other conditions (age-related macular degeneration (AMD, cataract, neural tube defects, and sarcopenia associated with egg consumption, and a literature search identified the cost of illness of each condition. The base 795 case scenario calculated the costs or savings of each condition attributable to egg cholesterol or nutrient content. Results Given the costs associated with CHD and the benefits associated with the other conditions, the most likely scenario associated with eating an egg a day is savings of $2.82 billion annually with uncertainty ranging from a net cost of $756 million to net savings up to $8.50 billion. Conclusion This study evaluating the economic impact of egg consumption suggests that public health campaigns promoting limiting egg consumption as a means to reduce CHD risk would not be cost-effective from a societal perspective when other benefits are considered. Public health intervention that focuses on a single dietary constituent, and foods that are high in that constituent, may lead to unintended consequences of removing other beneficial constituents and the net effect may not be in its totality a desirable public health outcome. As newer data become available, the model should be updated.

  16. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  17. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and

  18. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Goux, Didier; Duval, Emilie; Bernay, Benoit; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Corre, Erwan; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection. PMID:26168161

  19. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Cornet

    Full Text Available Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection.

  20. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  1. Using modified soy protein to enhance foaming of egg white protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Troendle, Molly; Reitmeier, Cheryll A; Wang, Tong

    2012-08-15

    It is well known that the foaming properties of egg white protein are significantly reduced when a small amount of yolk is mixed in the white. To improve foaming properties of yolk-contaminated egg white protein, soy protein isolate (SPI) and egg proteins were modified to make basic proteins, and effects of these modified proteins on egg white foaming were evaluated in a model and an angel cake system. SPI and egg yolk proteins were modified to have an isoelectric point of 10, and sonication was used to increase protein dispersibility after the ethyl esterification reaction. However, only the addition of sonicated and modified SPI (SMSPI) showed improvement of foaming in the 5% egg protein model system with 0.4% yolk addition. SMSPI was then used in making angel food cake to examine whether the cake performance reduction due to yolk contamination of the white would be restored by such alkaline protein. Cake performance was improved when cream of tartar was used together with SMSPI. Basic soy protein can be made and used to improve egg white foaming properties and cake performance. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The effect of different combinations of dietary energy and protein on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition of breeding female birds can influence egg quality and is therefore extremely important for the development of the embryo and the successful hatching of a high quality chick. We investigated the effect of combining different levels of dietary energy and protein, with accompanied amino acid levels, in the diets of ...

  3. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  4. Of piglets, dietary proteins, and pancreatic proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkink, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Newly weaned piglets often show digestive disorders, frequently resulting in diarrhoea. These disorders may be related to the dietary protein source, since young piglets are less capable of digesting proteins of vegetable origin than older pigs. This study was undertaken to investigate the

  5. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  7. Chemical changes of proteins of irradiated egg-white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajos, G.; Kiss, I.; Halasz, A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation (Co-60) was studied on egg-white proteins. Our earlier study revealed that the functional properties of egg-white depend on the dose of radiation and 3 kGy was found as optimal from the microbiological point of view. The effect of radiation on the protein structure was investigated in the dose range of 0-12 kGy using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The effect of this treatment was compared in fresh, frozen, and freeze-dried samples and in a 1% aqueous solution of egg-white. In aqueous solution a very important change was a marked formation of aggregates induced by radiation at doses of 1.5, 6.0 and 12.0 kGy. The effect of radiation was found to be much smaller in the freeze-dried and frozen samples. Electrophoretic investigations suggest the formation of radiation-induced aggregates, whereas effects in fresh egg-white were much smaller. (author)

  8. Effects of egg white protein supplementation on muscle strength and serum free amino acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-10-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength.

  9. Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Kawano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM, one repetition maximum (1RM muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal. Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength.

  10. Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. PMID:23201768

  11. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Safary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND. After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age, blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn’t affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05 but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32 (p0.05. No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05. Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p0.05. Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001. It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass.

  12. Effect of dietary vanadium and vitamin C on egg quality and antioxidant status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J P; He, K R; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of dietary vanadium (V) and vitamin C (VC) on production performance, egg quality and antioxidant status in laying hens. A total of 360 laying hens (31-week-old) were randomly allotted into a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement treatments (four replicates and 10 chicks per replicate) with three levels of dietary V (0, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin C (0, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. The effect of V and VC did not alter egg production, egg weight, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio during 1-12 week. Albumen height and Haugh unit value were linearly decreased (p effect of 100 mg/kg VC was observed to counteract (p effect in V-containing treatments during 1-12 week. Hens fed V-containing diet laid lighter (linear effect, p effect of V during 4, 8 and 12 week. The effect of VC alone and the interactive effect between VC and V were shown to increase serum (p effect and can mitigate the oxidative stress to some extent. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without impairing physical capacity in the rat. Viviane Costa Silva Zaffani, Carolina Cauduro Bensabath Carneiro-Leão, Giovana Ermetice de Almeida Costa, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Emilianne Miguel Salomão, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes, ...

  14. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  15. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  16. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-01-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of 60 Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such

  17. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  18. Effect of dietary organic selenium and zinc on the internal egg quality of quail eggs for different periods and under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Fernandez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal quality of eggs of Japanese quails fed diets supplemented with chelated selenium and zinc. The experiment was carried out for 120 days, and 144 birds were divided in random blocks into four treatments (control; 0.3 ppm Se; 60 ppm Zn and 0.3 ppm Se + 60 ppm Zn. Ten, 14, 18, and 22 weeks after the beginning of lay, eggs were collected and stored under two different temperatures (environmental temperature or refrigeration and for 10, 20, and 30 days. Eggs were analyzed for: Haugh units (HU, albumen height (AH, yolk index (YI, and albumen index (AI. Parameters were only statistically influenced by the interaction between dietary treatment and storage time. It was concluded that the addition of organic Se and Zn influenced internal egg quality when eggs were stored up to 20 days, independently of storage temperature, suggesting that the combined supplementation of organic Se and Zn improve internal egg quality and extend egg shelf life.

  19. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.

  20. Dietary choline and phospholipid supplementation enhanced docosahexaenoic acid enrichment in egg yolk of laying hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhang, H J; Wang, X C; Wu, S G; Wang, J; Xu, L; Qi, G H

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA). The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.15 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.60%). The feeding trial lasted 28 days. Laying hen performance and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by the diets used. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) level was reduced in the LPC group at d 28 (P egg yolks in the LPC group had a trend to increase in comparison to the control (P = 0.07). The CHO and LPC groups had higher omega-3 (n-3) PUFA and DHA levels and lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the other groups at d 28 (P egg yolk reached a plateau after the laying hens consumed the experimental diets for 14 days, and higher yolk DHA contents were observed in the CHO and LPC groups as compared with the other groups at d 14. It was concluded that dietary choline supplementation for more than 14 d enhanced egg yolk enrichment with n-3 PUFA and DHA when laying hen diets were supplemented with 2% Schizochytrium powder. All the diets had no adverse effect on hen performance, egg quality, or egg components under the experimental condition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Dietary Protein Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortoricci, Amanda R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review High protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD) of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD the CKD management. Recent findings Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remain substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses including secondary analyses of the MDRD data appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their keto-analogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially in non-dialysis days. An LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. Summary A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counselling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting. PMID:27801685

  2. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production 80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. [Tool of nutrition education for allergic to egg and cow's milk protein in pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael

    2014-05-01

    Food allergy affects a large part of the population and their numbers are increasing. Although the knowing of this pathology is growing, allergic patients have really difficulties to lead a normal life, especially with food. Until now,this group hadn t practical tools that would help them in the development of a balanced daily diet, as there are for the general population in the form of pyramids and dietary guidelines . This work has covered this need for two of the most prevalent allergies in early life. gather information on the allergy of cow's milk protein and egg, to design a food pyramid for these patients, based on the consensus, recommendations and scientific guidance. After confirming the absence of a similar work, food pyramids allergy to egg and cow's milk protein, adapted to each, and a joint pyramid is designed to both allergies. Besides basic recommendations for healthy eating were included in general and in particular individuals, with special interest for the collective (food hygiene, food additives, cosmetics, medicines, etc). Due to the importance of nutrition in childhood and acquires the underlying difficulties this group, to properly plan the diet is very important as it can prevent accidents and long-term nutritional deficiencies. Therefore provide graphical tools and practices to this goal, is importance for population and medical and scientific community, and is the result of this work. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic zinc on laying performance, egg quality and some biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; Amer, S A; Arif, M; Wahdan, K M M; El-Kholy, M S

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on the performance, egg quality, antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters of blood serum in laying hens from 22 to 34 weeks of age. A total of 120 Hisex Brown laying hens of 22-week-old were randomly allocated into five treatments with six cage replicates for each (four hens/replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet with no Zn-Met supplementation (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. No significant differences were observed on body weight, body weight gain or feed conversion ratio due to dietary Zn-Met supplementation. However, highly significant impact was observed on daily feed intake. Egg number, egg weight and egg mass were increased in the group fed diet supplemented with the highest level of Zn-Met (100 mg/kg of diet) as compared to other groups. All egg quality traits were statistically (p > .05 or .01) affected as a response to dietary Zn-Met supplementation except egg shape index, shell percentage and yolk index. In comparison with the control group, dietary supplementation of 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg decreased serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. Serum cholesterol level was increased with all dietary levels of Zn-Met in comparison with the control group. Dietary Zn-Met supplementation increased the serum content of zinc, where the highest values were recorded with 50 and 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. Dietary Zn-Met levels did not affect the antioxidant indices in blood serum except for the activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD). The activity of Cu-Zn-SOD was increased with Zn-Met supplementations with no differences among supplemental zinc levels. It is concluded that dietary Zn-Met supplementation reduced serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and increased Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability of laying hens, and the addition of 100 mg Zn

  5. The Effect of NaOH Concentration on pH, Egg White Protein Content and Yolk Colour Pidan Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best treatment NaOH addition on pidan eggs. The materials used for this research was pidan made from duck egg, NaOH, salt, black tea and water. The method was used experiment laboratory and Completely Randomized Design (CRD using 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (1.4%, T2 (2.8% and T3 (4.2%. The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA if there was significantly continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that NaOH concentration on pidan eggs gave significant effect (P<0.05 on albumen protein content, gave highly significant (P<0.01 on pH value and yolk colour. The conclusion of this research was 4.2% NaOH addition on pidan egg was the best treatment with gave result yolk and albumen pH: 10.69; 10.25, albumen protein content 26.89%, egg yolk colour L* (lightness, a* (redness, b* (yellowness:  26.89; 11.33, and 26.77. The suggestion of this research was ussed different immersion time on pidan egg production.

  6. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  7. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by 14 C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs

  8. Role of dietary proteins in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Paolo C; Mettler, Samuel

    2011-03-01

    The previously separate dietary protein recommendations for strength and endurance athletes are no longer supported, and the daily intake for adult athletes suggested by most of the entities is about 1.5 g · kg(-1) body mass with a range of perhaps 1.0 to 2.0 g · kg(-1) body mass. This recommendation is a broad landmark that needs to be adapted to the individual circumstances of the athlete. Research of the past decade indicates a beneficial effect with respect to a positive net muscular protein balance if athletes ingest some protein before an exercise bout. The amount of protein to be ingested to elicit the highest benefit is about 10 to 20 g · h(-1), but due to the insufficient amount of available data, it is not possible yet to rank different protein types or sources according to their anabolic potential. A simple way to translate the nutrient-based recommendations is the Swiss Food Pyramid for Athletes, which ensures a sufficient intake of energy, and all macro- and micronutrients in relation to the volume and intensity of the daily exercise.

  9. The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsuura

    Full Text Available Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP, which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence

  10. Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layman Donald K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.

  11. The Role of Wheat and Egg Constituents in the Formation of a Covalent and Non-covalent Protein Network in Fresh and Cooked Egg Noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Marlies A; Rombouts, Ine; Nivelle, Mieke A; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-01-01

    Noodles of constant protein content and flour-to-egg protein ratio were made with whole egg, egg white, or egg yolk. The optimal cooking time, water absorption, and cooking loss of salted whole egg noodles was respectively lower and higher than of egg white and egg yolk noodles. However, cooked whole egg noodles showed the best Kieffer-rig extensibility. Differences in noodle properties were linked to protein network formation. Disulfide bonds in whole egg noodles developed faster and to a larger extent during cooking than in egg yolk noodles but slower and to a lower extent than in egg white noodles. The balance between the rate of protein cross-linking and starch swelling determines cooked noodle properties. Ionic and hydrophobic protein interactions increase the optimum cooking time and total work in Kieffer-rig extensibility testing of fresh noodles. Hydrogen bonds and covalent cross-links are probably the main determinants of the extensibility of cooked noodles. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%. Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001. Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001 to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement.

  13. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  15. Effect of different energy to protein ratios in starter diet with dehydrated food waste, superworms and unfertilized eggs on growth performance of village chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia, N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted using 144 day-old chicks of Arabian strain village chicken to determine the effect of dietary protein and energy ratios in starter diets with dehydrated food waste, superworms and unfertilized eggs on growth performance in closed confinement system. Dehydrated food waste was the main energy source, superworms and unfertilized eggs were the main protein sources. Six experimental diets were formulated to have 3 energy to protein ratios (134, 150 and 164 with 150 energy to protein ratio as the control.. Every ratio had two different protein sources with the same inclusion level. Each treatment had 2 replicates with 12 birds each in a complete randomized design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum from 0 - 42 d. Proximate analysis of the main ingredients in the diet showed dehydrated food waste had 4,500.54 kcal/kg of gross energy and 25.18% of crude protein while superworms and unfertilized eggs had crude protein of 46.54 and 46.33%, respectively. The study showed that a single diet of energy:protein ratio of 134 kcal ME/kg protein supported optimum growth rate of Arabian strain village chicken from 1 to 42 d of rearing. Feed conversion ratio improved with increasing dietary energy level. These findings have implications on ration formulation for village chickens in Malaysia.

  16. An Optimal Dietary Zinc Level of Brown-Egg Laying Hens Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shizhen; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xichun; Liao, Xiudong; Zhang, Liyang; Guo, Yanli; Luo, Xugang

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary zinc (Zn) level of brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 120 20-week-old Beijing Red commercial laying hens were randomly allotted by bodyweight to one of five treatments with six replicates of four birds each in a completely randomized design, and fed a Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 27.95 mg Zn/kg by analysis and the basal diets supplemented with 30, 60, 90, or 120 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate (reagent grade ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O) for a duration of 20 weeks. Laying performance, egg quality, tissue Zn concentrations, and activities of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and liver copper-Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) were measured. Regression analyses were performed to estimate an optimal dietary Zn level whenever a significant quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed. Tibia Zn concentration (P = 0.002) and serum AKP activity (P = 0.010) showed significant quadratic responses to dietary supplemental Zn levels. The estimates of dietary Zn requirements for brown-egg laying hens from 20 to 40 weeks of age were 71.95 and 64.63 mg/kg for tibia Zn concentration and serum AKP activity, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the tibia Zn might be a more suitable and reliable parameter for Zn requirement estimation, and the optimal dietary Zn level would be about 72 mg/kg for brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age.

  17. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-03-01

    Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids

  19. Consideration of insects as a source of dietary protein for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Pinckaers, Philippe J M; van Loon, Joop J A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of sufficient dietary protein is fundamental to muscle mass maintenance and overall health. Conventional animal-based protein sources such as meat (ie, beef, pork, lamb), poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy are generally considered high-quality sources of dietary protein because they meet all of the indispensable amino-acid requirements for humans and are highly digestible. However, the production of sufficient amounts of conventional animal-based protein to meet future global food demands represents a challenge. Edible insects have recently been proposed as an alternative source of dietary protein that may be produced on a more viable and sustainable commercial scale and, as such, may contribute to ensuring global food security. This review evaluates the protein content, amino-acid composition, and digestibility of edible insects and considers their proposed quality and potential as an alternative protein source for human consumption. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Consumption of whole eggs promotes greater stimulation of postexercise muscle protein synthesis than consumption of isonitrogenous amounts of egg whites in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Stephan; Shy, Evan L; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Beals, Joseph W; West, Daniel Wd; Skinner, Sarah K; Ulanov, Alexander V; Li, Zhong; Paluska, Scott A; Parsons, Carl M; Moore, Daniel R; Burd, Nicholas A

    2017-12-01

    Background: Protein in the diet is commonly ingested from whole foods that contain various macro- and micronutrients. However, the effect of consuming protein within its natural whole-food matrix on postprandial protein metabolism remains understudied in humans. Objective: We aimed to compare the whole-body and muscle protein metabolic responses after the consumption of whole eggs with egg whites during exercise recovery in young men. Design: In crossover trials, 10 resistance-trained men [aged 21 ± 1 y; 88 ± 3 kg; body fat: 16% ± 1% (means ± SEMs)] received primed continuous l-[ ring - 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]leucine infusions and performed a single bout of resistance exercise. After exercise, participants consumed intrinsically l-[5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]leucine-labeled whole eggs (18 g protein, 17 g fat) or egg whites (18 g protein, 0 g fat). Repeated blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected to assess whole-body leucine kinetics, intramuscular signaling, and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Results: Plasma appearance rates of protein-derived leucine were more rapid after the consumption of egg whites than after whole eggs ( P = 0.01). Total plasma availability of leucine over the 300-min postprandial period was similar ( P = 0.75) between the ingestion of whole eggs (68% ± 1%) and egg whites (66% ± 2%), with no difference in whole-body net leucine balance ( P = 0.27). Both whole-egg and egg white conditions increased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 during postexercise recovery (all P egg ingestion increased the postexercise myofibrillar protein synthetic response to a greater extent than did the ingestion of egg whites ( P = 0.04). Conclusions: We show that the ingestion of whole eggs immediately after resistance exercise resulted in greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis than did the ingestion of egg whites

  1. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids levels on egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrotte, E.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Kestemont, P.

    2008-01-01

    Three groups of 40 perch breeders were reared in order to study the effects of 3 different levels of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on egg quality. Two experimental diets, R1 and R2 (n-3/n-6 = 0.13 and 35.54, respectively), were compared to one commercial food, R3 (n-3/n-6 = 3.48.). Spawning and...

  2. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p < or = 0.05). Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the

  3. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Sun-Ha; Chung, Yong-Sam; Lee, Ok-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is a key constituent of enzyme in glutathione peroxidase, which is effective in decreasing various types of oxidative stress, Thus, the adequacy of selenium intake is very important in decreasing the risks of various degenerating diseases such as cardiovascular disease, or certain cancers. Lately, the intake of animal foods is increasing among Koreans owing to a dietary transition toward a western style. This study was conducted to measure the selenium content in meat and eggs, and then assessed the selenium intake from these foods. Forty frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were analyzed using an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The selenium content in 100g of raw meat and eggs ranged from 8.1ug to 50.9ug. In particular, 100g of beef contained 12.4ug to 50.9ug of selenium; pork, 11.2ug to 22.6ug chicken, 10.2ug to 13.7ug and eggs, 28.6ug to 43.0ug. Thus, beef viscera and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of selenium among these groups. 100g of Pork belly, the most frequently eaten meat type among Koreans, contains 14.6ug of selenium. An evaluation of dietary selenium intake shows that the total selenium supply from meats and eggs was 28.4ug/day and 27.5 ug/day in adult men and women, respectively. These are over one-half of the Korean RNI (Recommended Daily Intake) of 55ug/day. (author)

  4. King eiders use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; O'Brien, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves ("capital") and current diet ("income"). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 +/- 18%, N: 99 +/- 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 +/- 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 +/- 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual variation into

  5. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  6. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  7. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol

  8. Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study demonstrated that olive oil improved egg weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 fatty acid level of egg yolk, and soyabean oil had positive effects on serum lipid concentrations. Incorporation of these oils into the diets of Japanese ...

  9. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...

  10. Effect of Irradiation on the Mixture of Egg White Proteins Responsible for Foaming Property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian De Liu; Rong Xiu Han; Dong-Il Jin; Soo-Kee Lee; Cheo-Run Jo

    2009-01-01

    Irradiation of egg white increased foaming ability significantly. To investigate the protein modification by irradiation responsible for the increase of foaming ability, 3 major egg white proteins were purchased and mixed (7.7 g/L ovalbumin, 1.8 g/L ovotransferrin, 0.5 g/L lysozyme) as a model system and irradiated at 0, 2.5, and 5 kGy. The different protein expressions were evaluated using 2-D electrophoresis and it was found that ovotransferrin was cleaved by irradiation and molecular weight and isoelectric point were changed. In addition, many uncharacterized proteins were found and it indicated that irradiation modified proteins randomly but mainly fragmentation was observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that protein fragmentation of 3 major egg white proteins responsible for foaming ability may be the main reason for the improvement of foaming ability

  11. Dietary protein and blood pressure: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure (BP, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, including protein from various sources, in relation to human BP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a MEDLINE search and a manual search to identify English language studies on the association between protein and blood pressure, published before June 2010. A total of 46 papers met the inclusion criteria. Most observational studies showed no association or an inverse association between total dietary protein and BP or incident hypertension. Results of biomarker studies and randomized controlled trials indicated a beneficial effect of protein on BP. This beneficial effect may be mainly driven by plant protein, according to results in observational studies. Data on protein from specific sources (e.g. from fish, dairy, grain, soy, and nut were scarce. There was some evidence that BP in people with elevated BP and/or older age could be more sensitive to dietary protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of protein on BP, especially for plant protein. A blood pressure lowering effect of protein may have important public health implications. However, this warrants further investigation in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, more data are needed on protein from specific sources in relation to BP, and on the protein-BP relation in population subgroups.

  12. Interactive effect of dietary protein level and zilpaterol hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonsmara type steers were used to determine the effect of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels (100, 120 and 140 g CP/kg) on growth performance and meat quality. Treatment groups (T) consisted of 12 steers each. T1 – 100 g CP/kg + 0.15 mg ZH/kg live weight ...

  13. Fate of egg proteins during the development of Columba livia domestica embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Aslan, Ibtisam Omar

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of egg white into the yolk and consumption of yolk proteins by the embryo are largely unexplored in the pigeon Columba livia domestica. Here, we investigated the route of egg white transfer as well as the degradation and uptake of yolk proteins by the pigeon embryo. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of proteins in different egg compartments throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow the egg white transfer, and we measured its activity using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as a substrate. Moreover, we determined the general protease activity during different developmental stages in the yolk using casein. Finally, we examined the expression of aminopeptidase-N (APN) and oligopeptide transporter PepT1 genes in the yolk sac membrane (YSM) from incubation day 8 until day 17. Several electrophoretic bands of presumptive egg white proteins appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically in the egg compartments. It appeared on day 12 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 14 in the yolk. Moreover, protease activity in the yolk increased significantly on day 14 and thereafter. APN expression was largest on day 8 and reduced generally afterward, whereas PepT1 expression peaked between days 13 and 15 but then reduced substantially. Our results suggest that the egg white proteins move through the amnion and intestine into the yolk where they undergo degradation by the activated proteases. Furthermore, the YSM appears to have a role in protein consumption, and this role decreases toward hatch. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Lipoprotein(a) and dietary proteins: casein lowers lipoprotein(a) concentrations as compared with soy protein1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilausen, Karin Johanne; Meinertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark......Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark...

  15. Concentration of Proteins and Protein Fractions in Blood Plasma of Chickens Hatched from Eggs Irradiated with Low Level Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Simpraga, M.; Matisic, D.; Miljanic, S.

    2011-01-01

    In literature there are many results which have shown that low dose radiation can stimulate many physiological processes of living organism. In our earlier paper it was shown that low dose of gamma radiation has a stimulative effect upon metabolic process in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. This was proved by increase of body weight gain and body weight, as well as by increase of two enzymes activities in blood plasma (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) which play an important role in protein metabolism. Therefore, an attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma rays upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1 s t and 3 r d day, or from the wing vein on days 5 and 7 after hatching. The total proteins concentration in the blood plasma was determined by the biuret method using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The protein fractions (albumin, α 1 -globulin, α 2 -globulin, β- and γ-globulins) were estimated electrophoretically on Cellogel strips. The total proteins concentration was significantly decreased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 (P t h day (P 2 -globulin was decreased on days 1 (P t h day of life. Obtained results indicate that low dose of gamma radiation has mostly inhibitory effect upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs before incubation. (author)

  16. Influence of Dietary Zinc and Vitamin C Supplementation on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters and Egg Production in Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to follow out the effect of antistress dietary supplements Zinteral 35 and vitamin C on the levels of some blood biochemical parameters (corticosterone, total cholesterol, glucose, total protein and creatinine and egg production in laying hens during cold (7o C, thermoneutral (19o C and hot (31o C periods. The fowls were divided in three groups (26 females and 3 males in each group. They were reared in a free-range management system with elements of organic production. The experimental treatments were as followed: first (control group without dietary supplement, second group with 100 mg Zinteral 35 per kg diet containing 35 mg/kg zinc oxide, third group with the same amount of Zinteral 35 together with 250 mg vitamin C per kg diet. During the three periods with different ambient temperature, the hens supplemented either with zinc alone (second group or co-administered zinc + vitamin C (third group had significantly lower levels of plasma corticosterone (P<0.001, serum cholesterol (P<0.05 and glucose (P<0.05 than those from the first (control group. The differences between the third and the first groups were bigger versus those between the second and the first groups. For the entire period (March 1 and June 21, egg production was higher by 2.22 % and 4.60 % in the second and third groups respectively in comparison to the first group. The combination of 100 mg Zinteral 35 and 250 mg vitamin C per 1 kg diet exhibited a synergistic effect in reducing cold and heat stress in laying hens and increased their egg production.

  17. The response of broiler breeder hens to dietary balanced protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... between the two feeding strategies or dietary protein levels, nor were ... supplied, whilst in other cases hens may not consume their daily allocation, ..... Aviagen, 2014. http://en.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/Ross_Broiler/ ...

  18. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  19. Effect Of Dietary Protein Levels On The Performance And Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Dietary Protein Levels On The Performance And Carcass ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Response criteria such as weight gain and feed conversion ratio, among others, and carcass characteristics were measured.

  20. Effects of increasing dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish. (Heterobranchus ... (Legendre, 1991) because of its taste, fast growth rate ..... diet containing 40% protein had high growth with low food intake and feed ... protein rate (45%) combined with a bad utilization of.

  1. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved egg production performance, albumen quality, and magnum morphology of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Shu-Geng; Qi, Guang-Hai

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks. Over the course of the trial, dietary supplementation with TP200 significantly increased the egg production (EP) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in wk 6 to 10 and wk 1 to 10 (P hens fed TP200 were higher than those of hens fed the control diet at wks 8 and 10 (P 0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that bands of the ovomucin fractions in the TP200 group had the highest intensity compared with those of the control and TC200 groups. Compared with the control, there was a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl (SH) content of the albumen in the TP200 group at the end of experiment, while a significant decrease in protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity (P hens. In addition, TP rather than TC could improve the health status of the magnum for aged layers.

  2. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people : a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. OBJECTIVES: to assess the

  3. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  4. Optimum dietary protein requirement of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misieng, Josephine Dorin; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Musa, Mazlinda

    2011-02-01

    The optimum dietary protein requirement of the Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings was determined in this study. In this completely randomized designed experiment, formulated diets of five levels of dietary protein (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50%) were tested on the T. tambroides fingerlings (initial body weight of 5.85 +/- 0.40 g), reared in aquarium fitted with a biofiltering system. The fingerlings were fed twice daily at 5% of biomass. The fingerling body weight and total length was taken at every two weeks. Mortality was recorded daily. The dietary protein had significant effects on the body weight gain and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of the fingerlings. The body weight gain and SGR of fingerlings fed with the diet with the dietary protein level of 40% was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 30, 35 and 50%. The feed conversion ratio of the 40% dietary protein was the significantly lowest at 2.19 +/- 0.163. The dietary protein level of 40% was the most optimum for T. tambroides fingerlings.

  5. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  6. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  7. Leucine content of dietary proteins is a determinant of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Layne E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine (Leu regulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS producing dose-dependent plasma Leu and MPS responses from free amino acid solutions. This study examined the role of Leu content from dietary proteins in regulation of MPS after complete meals. Methods Experiment 1 examined 4 protein sources (wheat, soy, egg, and whey with different Leu concentrations (6.8, 8.0, 8.8, and 10.9% (w/w, respectively on the potential to increase plasma Leu, activate translation factors, and stimulate MPS. Male rats (~250 g were trained for 14 day to eat 3 meals/day consisting of 16/54/30% of energy from protein, carbohydrates and fats. Rats were killed on d14 either before or 90 min after consuming a 4 g breakfast meal. Experiment 2 compared feeding wheat, whey, and wheat + Leu to determine if supplementing the Leu content of the wheat meal would yield similar anabolic responses as whey. Results In Experiment 1, only whey and egg groups increased post-prandial plasma Leu and stimulated MPS above food-deprived controls. Likewise, greater phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and 4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1 occurred in whey and egg groups versus wheat and soy groups. Experiment 2 demonstrated that supplementing wheat with Leu to equalize the Leu content of the meal also equalized the rates of MPS. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that Leu content is a critical factor for evaluating the quantity and quality of proteins necessary at a meal for stimulation of MPS.

  8. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  9. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; Hendriks, W H

    2015-05-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary energy levels (2,800, MEs2; and 3,000, MEh2, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the second phase of lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders. No meaningful interactions for energy and protein treatments within the different phases of the study were found and, therefore, this paper focusses on the main effects. Pullets fed the CPl diet had a 12.8% higher feed intake, 14% lower breast muscle, and 97% higher abdominal fat pad portion at 22 wk age. The increased abdominal fat pad and decreased breast muscle of the CPl compared to the CPh birds increased hatchability during the first phase of lay, due to a decreased embryonic mortality between d 10 to 21 of incubation, and increased egg production during the second phase of lay. Feeding birds the MEh1 and MEl1 diets slightly decreased egg production compared to the MEs1 birds. Birds fed the MEh1 diet showed a higher mortality compared to the birds fed the MEs1 and MEl1 diets. Feeding birds the MEh2 diet did not affect egg production, increased hatchability of fertile eggs, decreased embryonic mortality between d 3 to 21 of incubation, and increased the number of first-grade chicks. It was concluded that a low-protein diet during rearing changed body composition with positive effects on incubation traits during the first phase of lay and improved egg production during the second phase of lay in broiler breeders. A high-energy or low-energy diet compared to a standard diet during the first phase of lay slightly decreased total and settable egg numbers while a high-energy diet during the second phase of lay increased hatchability and number of saleable chicks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Egg CD9 protein tides correlated with sperm oscillations tune the gamete fusion ability in mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Favier, Sophie; Perez, Eric; Gourier, Christine

    2018-01-23

    Mammalian fertilization involves membrane events -adhesion, fusion, sperm engulfment, membrane block to polyspermy- whose causes remain largely unknown. Recently, specific oscillations of the sperm in contact with the egg were shown to be necessary for fusion. Using a microfluidic chip to impose the venue for the encounter of two gametes allowed real-time observation of the membrane remodelling occurring at the sperm/egg interface. The spatiotemporal mapping of egg CD9 revealed that this protein concentrates at the egg/sperm interface as a result of sperm oscillations, until a CD9-rich platform is nucleated on which fusion immediately takes place. Within 2 to 5 minutes after fusion, most of the CD9 leaves the egg for the external aqueous medium. Then an egg membrane wave engulfs the sperm head in approximately 25 minutes. These results show that sperm oscillations initiate the CD9 recruitment that causes gamete fusion after which CD9 and associated proteins leave the membrane in a process likely to contribute to block polyspermy. They highlight that the gamete fusion story in mammals is an unexpected interplay between mechanical constraints and proteins. © The Author(s) (2018). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary protein content for an optimal diet: a clinical view

    OpenAIRE

    Santarpia, Lidia; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The dietary protein role in different clinical nutritional conditions and some physio?pathological perspectives is a current and hot topic to discuss. Recent Proceedings of the Protein Summit 2, joining more than 60 nutrition scientists, health experts, and nutrition educators, suggest to increase plant but, in particular, animal protein intake because richer in leucine and consequently more effective to influence anabolic protein metabolism. The Panel conclusions are in apparent con...

  12. Yolk proteins during ovary and egg development of mature female freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Vazquez-Boucard, Celia; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Vitellins from ovaries and eggs at different stages of development in freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were examined by chromatography, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. With these methods, two forms of vitellin (Vt1 and Vt2) were observed in ovaries and eggs (stages I and V). In ovaries in secondary vitellogenesis, native molecular mass was 470 (Vt1) and 440 (Vt2) kDa. The electrophoretic pattern of the eggs proved to be more complex. The protein molecular mass depend on the development stage of the egg: stage I, 650 kDa (Vt1) and 440 kDa (Vt2); stage V, 390 kDa (Vt1) and 340 kDa (Vt2). The identified vitellins appear to be lipo-glycocarotenoprotein. A similar vitellin polypeptide composition was observed in the two forms of vitellin from ovaries and eggs in stage V. In ovaries the SDS-PAGE analysis showed four subunits with molecular weights of approximately 180, 120, 95 and 80 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2). The polypeptide composition in the two forms of vitellins in stage I and stage III eggs were different at 195, 190, 130 and 110 kDa (Vt1) and 116 and 107 kDa (Vt2). On the other hand, in stage V eggs, 110, 95, 87 and 75 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2) were identified. Two antibodies (Ab1 and Ab2) were prepared against the purified proteins of stage V eggs and their specificity was demonstrated by radial immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting analysis. Two forms of vitellins were also found in stage V eggs after chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B column and hydroxylapatite and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  13. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  14. Dietary Proteins, Developmental Programming, and Potential Implication in Maternal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jahan-mihan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proteins are known mainly based on their metabolic and nutritional functions including protein synthesis and a source of energy. In spite of various physiological properties attributed to proteins, their functions have neither been addressed by assessing quality of proteins nor by nutrition and dietetic practices. Methods: Studies were included if they were randomized animal studies, clinical trials and systematic reviews/meta-analysis published in English language. Results: The effect of maternal diet in general and dietary proteins in particular during development on health of offspring has been well-studied. Protein content as well as source of protein in the diet consumed during pregnancy and lactation influenced the risk of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring. Both high and low protein diets showed detrimental effects on health of offspring. Moreover, comparison of maternal casein-based diet with soy protein-based diet showed more favorable effect on body weight, body composition, blood pressure, and glucose metabolism in offspring. However, the role of maternal dietary proteins in developing the risk of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring in gestational obesity is still unclear and needs further study. Conclusions: Dietary proteins are determining factors in developmental programming. Both quantity and source of proteins in maternal diet influenced the development of metabolic syndrome characteristics in offspring. However, whether they have the same function in presence of gestational obesity is still unclear and needs further study.

  15. Impact of casein and egg white proteins on the structure of wheat gluten-based protein-rich food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Arno G B; Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing interest in texturally and nutritionally satisfying vegetable alternatives to meat. Wheat gluten proteins have unique functional properties but a poor nutritional value in comparison to animal proteins. This study investigated the potential of egg white and bovine milk casein with well-balanced amino acid composition to increase the quality of wheat gluten-based protein-rich foods. Heating a wheat gluten (51.4 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend for 120 min at 100 °C increased its firmness less than heating a wheat gluten (33.0 g)-freeze-dried egg white (16.8 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend. In contrast, the addition of casein to the gluten-water blend negatively impacted firmness after heating. Firmness was correlated with loss of protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium during heating, which was higher with egg white than with casein. Even more, heat-induced polymerization of the gluten-water blend with egg white but not with casein was greater than expected from the losses in extractability of gluten and egg white on their own. Structure formation was favored by mixing gluten with egg white but not with casein. These observations were linked to the intrinsic polymerization behavior of egg white and casein, but also to their interaction with gluten. Thus not all nutritionally suitable proteins can be used for enrichment of gluten-based protein-rich foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Interactive effect of dietary protein level and zilpaterol hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    feedlot performance and meat quality of steers ... result of decreased protein degradation and increased protein synthesis (Fiems, ... sheep as well as data from some BAA trials provide evidence to associate ... The perception is that meat is now ... Table 1 Dietary treatments of steers with a mean live weight of 278 ± 20 kg ...

  17. Optimum dietary protein requirement of genetically male tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein level needed for growing genetically male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Diets containing crude protein levels 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50% were formulated and tried in triplicates. Test diets were fed to 20 fish/1m3 floating hapa at 5% of fish body weight daily ...

  18. Dietary Intake of Metals from Fresh Cage-Reared Hens’ Eggs in Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rubio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of 20 metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, Co, B, Ba, Sr, Ni, Si, Al, Pb, and Cd in cage-reared hens’ eggs have been determined in this study using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. There were significant differences in the metal content depending on the edible part of the egg, with the yolk having the greater concentrations of metals. The daily consumption of eggs (24.3 g/person/day for children and 31.2 g/person/day for adults contributes to the intake of trace metals, notably Fe (3.8% children, 3.2% women, and 6.5% men and Zn (4.5% children, 6.6% women, and 4.9% men. In addition, the consumption of eggs does not imply a high contribution of toxic metals.

  19. Links between Dietary Protein Sources, the Gut Microbiota, and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lise Madsen; Lise Madsen; Lise Madsen; Lene S. Myrmel; Even Fjære; Bjørn Liaset; Karsten Kristiansen; Karsten Kristiansen

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal stu...

  20. Links between dietary protein sources, the gut microbiota, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Lise; Myrmel, Lene S.; Fjære, Even; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal stu...

  1. Dietary management of chronic kidney disease: protein restriction and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-11-01

    More kidney protective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of complete kidney failure from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinicians sometimes use protein restriction as kidney protection despite its demonstrated lack of effectiveness in the only large-scale study. Small-scale studies support that dietary acid reduction is kidney-protective, including when done with base-inducing foods like fruits and vegetables. We review these studies in light of current kidney-protective recommendations. Animal models of CKD show that acid-inducing dietary protein exacerbates and base-inducing protein ameliorates nephropathy progression, and that increased intake of acid-inducing but not base-inducing dietary protein exacerbates progression. Clinical studies show that dietary acid reduction with Na-based alkali reduces kidney injury and slows nephropathy progression in patients with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR); base-inducing fruits and vegetables reduce kidney injury in patients with reduced GFR; and base-inducing fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis in CKD. Protein type rather than amount might more importantly affect nephropathy progression. Base-inducing foods might be another way to reduce dietary acid, a strategy shown in small studies to slow nephropathy progression. Further studies will determine if CKD patients should be given base-inducing food as part of their management.

  2. Effect of dietary protein source on piglet meat quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary protein sources (soybean meal vs whey protein on piglet meat quality characteristics. Eighteen castrated male Large White × Duroc × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Piglets were kept in individual metabolic cages and fed ad libitum over a period of 38 days the following 2 diets: diet SB, which was formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of piglets using soybean meal as the main crude protein source and diet WP, where SB was totally replaced by a mixture of whey proteins on equal digestible energy and crude protein basis. At the end of the experiment, piglets were weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle were taken and were used for meat quality measurements.          No significant differences were observed in the values of pH, colour, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content of L. dorsi muscle between the dietary treatments. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that dietary supplementation with different protein sources did not influence meat antioxidant properties during refrigerated storage. The SB piglets had lower 14:0 (P<0.01 and higher 18:3n-3 (P<0.001 levels in intramuscular fat in comparison with WP piglets. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the examined dietary protein sources (soybean meal or whey protein do not have a significant effect on meat quality characteristics of piglets.

  3. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm 3 /g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in mouse oocytes, eggs and ovarian follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Santanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-3-3 (YWHA proteins are a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. Seven mammalian isoforms of 14-3-3 are known (β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ and, σ. These proteins associate with many intracellular proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and protein trafficking. We are particularly interested in the role of 14-3-3 in meiosis in mammalian eggs and the role 14-3-3 proteins may play in ovarian function. Therefore, we examined the expression of 14-3-3 proteins in mouse oocyte and egg extracts by Western blotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viewed fixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and examined mouse ovarian cells by immunohistochemical staining to study the expression of the different 14-3-3 isoforms. Results We have determined that all of the mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in mouse eggs and ovarian follicular cells including oocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated oocytes and eggs confirmed the presence of all of the isoforms with characteristic differences in some of their intracellular localizations. For example, some isoforms (β, ε, γ, and ζ are expressed more prominently in peripheral cytoplasm compared to the germinal vesicles in oocytes, but are uniformly dispersed within eggs. On the other hand, 14-3-3η is diffusely dispersed in the oocyte, but attains a uniform punctate distribution in the egg with marked accumulation in the region of the meiotic spindle apparatus. Immunohistochemical staining detected all isoforms within ovarian follicles, with some similarities as well as notable differences in relative amounts, localizations and patterns of expression in multiple cell types at various stages of follicular development. Conclusions We found that mouse oocytes, eggs and follicular cells within the ovary express all seven isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein. Examination of the

  5. the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on the composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zannel

    Keywords: Breeding ostriches, nutrition, energy, protein, amino acids, egg ... Yolk is an important nutritional component of the avian egg because .... 3 (energy) x 3 (protein) factorial design with energy and protein levels featuring as main factors. ... No significant interactions were observed between energy and protein levels.

  6. Influence of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, K; Li, Y L; Yu, D Y; Rajput, I R; Li, W F

    2013-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens. Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (n = 540; 28 wk of age) were randomized into 6 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet formulated with maize and soybean meal. The treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09% Bacillus licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-wk trial. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 0.01 and 0.03% B. licheniformis significantly increased egg production and egg mass. However, no significant differences were observed in egg weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion efficiency among the 6 groups. Supplementation with different levels of B. licheniformis was found to be effective in improvement of egg quality by increasing egg shell thickness and strength. Compared with control, d-lactate content, diamine oxidase activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone level in serum decreased significantly, and the level of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone increased significantly in plasma of all the experimental groups. Dietary supplementation with B. licheniformis increased the intestinal villus height and reduced the crypt depth. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis could improve laying performance and egg quality significantly in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the stress response, upregulating the growth hormone, and improving intestinal health.

  7. Dietary protein intake in community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people: scope for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake is required to postpone and treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Insight into dietary protein intake in this heterogeneous population segment is needed to locate dietary inadequacies and to identify target populations and feeding strategies for dietary interventions.

  8. Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary ω3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Yolk TBA value was higher in fish oil than sunflower oil groups (p ... composition of different animal products (Hargis et al.,. 1991). Eggs, one .... laying hens on the base of nutrients recommended by (NRC, 1994). It resulted in ...

  9. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on theproduction performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in thestudy with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75%and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each ofwhich consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feedintake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative dataobtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computerprogram. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca levelon feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  10. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on the production performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in the study with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75% and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each of which consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feed intake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computer program. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca level on feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159 g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  11. Effect of dietary fatty acid saturation on egg production at end-of-lay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During weeks 58, 62, 66, 70 and 74 of age (end-of-lay period), all eggs produced were recorded and individually weighed while feed intake, as well as body weights of birds, were determined. Data for the respective collection weeks were pooled to calculate and statistical analyse production parameter means for the ...

  12. Dietary proteins in humans: basic aspects and consumption in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigoz, Yves

    2011-03-01

    This introductory review gives an overview on protein metabolism, and discusses protein quality, sources, and requirements as well as the results from recent studies on Swiss spontaneous protein consumption. To assess protein quality in protein mixes and foods, the "protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score" (PDCAAS) is presented as a valuable tool in addition to the biological value (BV). Considering protein intake recommendations, the lower limit recommended has been defined according to the minimal amount needed to maintain short-term nitrogen balance in healthy people with moderate activity. Evaluation of intakes in Switzerland from food consumption data is about 90 g/day of protein per person. Two-thirds of proteins consumed in Switzerland are animal proteins with high biological value [meat and meat products (28 %), milk and dairy products (28 %), fish (3 %), and eggs (3 %)] and about 1/3 of proteins are of plant origin (25 % of cereals, 3 - 4 % of vegetables). Actual spontaneous protein consumption in Switzerland by specific groups of subjects is well within the actual recommendations (10 - 20 % of energy) with only the frail elderly being at risk of not covering their requirements for protein.

  13. Silkworm caterpillar - soybean meal blend as dietary protein source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of silkworm caterpillar meat (SCM) blended with soybean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in the practical diet of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings (M±SE=17.04±_0.02g). The fish were fed five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing blends of SCM ...

  14. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. 2. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield)

  15. Effects of reducing dietary crude protein and metabolic energy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of a pure reduction in the dietary crude protein (CP) and metabolic energy (ME) contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, faecal microflora and odour gas emission in weaned pigs. A total of 80 weaned piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) ...

  16. Effect of dietary crude protein level on the performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ویرایه

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... The effects of increasing dietary levels of crude protein (CP) on growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and nutrient apparent ... matter intake (DMI) than the kids fed with 10.5, 12.8, .... Food and Agriculture Organization. Database ...

  17. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  18. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  19. Links between Dietary Protein Sources, the Gut Microbiota, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lise; Myrmel, Lene S; Fjære, Even; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The association between the gut microbiota and obesity is well documented in both humans and in animal models. It is also demonstrated that dietary factors can change the gut microbiota composition and obesity development. However, knowledge of how diet, metabolism and gut microbiota mutually interact and modulate energy metabolism and obesity development is still limited. Epidemiological studies indicate an association between intake of certain dietary protein sources and obesity. Animal studies confirm that different protein sources vary in their ability to either prevent or induce obesity. Different sources of protein such as beans, vegetables, dairy, seafood, and meat differ in amino acid composition. Further, the type and level of other factors, such as fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) vary between dietary protein sources. All these factors can modulate the composition of the gut microbiota and may thereby influence their obesogenic properties. This review summarizes evidence of how different protein sources affect energy efficiency, obesity development, and the gut microbiota, linking protein-dependent changes in the gut microbiota with obesity.

  20. Aggregation of egg white proteins with pulsed electric fields and thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Ruijin; Yan, Wenxu; Sun, Qianyan

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is progressing towards application for liquid egg to ensure microbial safety. However, it usually causes protein aggregation, and the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, egg white protein was applied to investigate the changes in protein structure and mechanism of aggregates formation and a comparison was made with thermal treatment. Soluble protein content decreased with the increase of turbidity after both treatments. Fluorescence intensity and free sulfhydryl content were increased after being treated at 70 °C for 4 min. Less-remarkable changes of hydrophobicity were observed after PEF treatments (30 kV cm(-1) , 800 µs). Soluble and insoluble aggregates were observed by thermal treatment, and disulfide bonds were the main binding forces. The main components of insoluble aggregates formed by thermal treatment were ovotransferrin (30.58%), lysozyme (18.47%) and ovalbumin (14.20%). While only insoluble aggregates were detected during PEF processes, which consists of ovotransferrin (11.86%), lysozyme (21.11%) and ovalbumin (31.07%). Electrostatic interaction played a very important role in the aggregates formation. PEF had a minor impact on the structure of egg white protein. PEF had insignificant influence on heat-sensitive protein, indicating that PEF has potential in processing food with high biological activity and heat sensitive properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of dietary propolis on the number and size of pleopadal egg, oxidative stress and antioxidant status of freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mişe Yonar, Serpil; Köprücü, Kenan; Yonar, Muhammet Enis; Silici, Sibel

    2017-09-01

    Four different crayfish diets; control, E1, E2 and E3, respectively containing 0, 1, 2 and 4% propolis, were tested to determine the effects of dietary propolis on the number and size of pleopadal egg, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus). The crayfish were kept at 9.6±5.3°C water temperature and fed three times daily during a six month period The pleopodal egg number (from 7 to 9) produced per gram of the body weight and total pleopodal egg number (from 201 to 263) significantly increased (Pegg size (from 3.22mm to 2.76mm). MDA level significantly (Pegg. The dietary propolis improves reproductive efficiency in the crayfish and decreases the oxidative stress under controlled hatchery conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimum dietary protein requirement in nondiabetic maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Sakae; Kaizu, Yukiko; Odamaki, Mari; Ikegaya, Naoki; Hibi, Ikuo; Miyaji, Kunihiko; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2004-03-01

    There is controversy about whether the dietary protein requirement of 1.2 g/kg/d for hemodialysis (HD) patients, in the nutritional guidelines recommended by the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI), is reasonable. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 129 stable HD patients without diabetes (84 men, 45 women) to investigate the association between the protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance normalized by ideal body weight (nPNAibw), an index of protein intake, and skeletal muscle mass or other metabolic consequences. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to nPNAibw index. Midthigh muscle area (TMA), midthigh subcutaneous fat area (TSFA), abdominal muscle area (AMA), abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA), and visceral fat area (AVFA) were measured using computed tomography, and various nutritional parameters were compared among these groups. TMA and AMA values increased with increasing dietary protein intake from less than 0.7 g/kg/d to 0.9-1.1 g/kg/d and showed a plateau at greater than 0.9 to 1.1 g/kg/d of dietary protein intake. Conversely, fat mass, including TSFA, ASFA, and AVFA, and serum potassium concentration increased with graded protein intake, and no plateau was formed. Patients with nPNAibw greater than 1.3 g/kg/d satisfied the criterion of visceral obesity. Although serum prealbumin levels showed a trend similar to that of muscle mass, there was no significant difference in serum albumin levels among the study groups. Optimal dietary protein requirement for patients undergoing maintenance HD in a stable condition appears to be less than the level recommended by the NKF-KDOQI nutritional guidelines.

  3. The Significance of Protein Components in Heterogeneous Eggs for Embrionic Development and Larvas Persistence of Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalepukhin Valeriy Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous heterogeneity of females and their eggs is one of the most important factors of annual generation’s formation in nature-spawn and incubative centers. Its assessment is significant for comprehending the notion of biochemical changes in proximate prespawn period. Between the shares of egg’s biochemical composition of Cyprinidae species only protein and b-lipoproteids levels are incovering constant and authentic correlations with embrionic development and larval survival in the conditions of artificial reproduction. The promotion of protein’s level to 20 – 24 % (in wet weigth in percolating eggs positively affects the fertilization and larvae vitality. This trend is fair for the domesticated and nature-spawn fish. The same significance is important for the b-lipoproteids level in ovular eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.. The optimal concentration is 100-200 mg % in wet weight.

  4. Effect Of Crude Protein Levels And Follicle Stimulation On Egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups received 16% crude protein (CP) level diets and the other two groups, 32%. One each of the two groups received follicle stimulation, induced by administration of Clomifene citrate (1.5mg/kg) via cathetered 5ml syringe through the 10week experimental period, with feed and water offered ad libitum.

  5. Comparative Effect of Dietary Soybean Oil, Fish Oil, and Coconut Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2018-04-14

    Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P soybean oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P soybean oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.

  6. Radiation-induced cross-linking and scissoring of proteins in egg white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josimovic, L.; Radojcic, M.; Milosavljevic, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    Two kinds of radiation-induced protein damages, cross-linking and scissoring, were studied using a thin fraction of avian egg white. It was found that at a dose of 10 kGy in N 2 O saturated samples only one third of the affected protein molecules underwent aggregation, while, contrary to the results obtained with diluted protein solutions, the rest took part in the fragmentation reaction. The fragments obtained had a uniform molecular weight distribution. The overall G-value was found to be 0.25. In air saturated samples the scissoring dominated ten times over cross-linking with the fragments of discrete and well resolved molecular weights. The overall G-value was equal to 0.3. Both G-values are three times smaller than the corresponding values obtained in the experiments with denatured and purified proteins. The egg white radiation stability was found to be, at least in part, due to the presence of glucose which, in turn, acts as an antioxidant. Other relevant factors which may affect the radiation chemistry of the egg white protein composite are also discussed. (author)

  7. The effect of dietary protein on breast meat yield of broilers reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rob Gous

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... broilers reared on short daylengths if higher levels of dietary protein were fed. .... The basal feeds were sampled after mixing for the analysis of apparent ... number of replications of the main effects (light and dietary protein), sex ... no significant interactions between lighting programme and dietary protein ...

  8. Comparison of soy-protein and egg albumin on endogenously secreted zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberleas, D.; Smith, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Male albino rats (Charles River) were maintained on a basal soy-protein diet, unsupplemented with Zn and with 1.6% Ca for 4 weeks [Ca][Phy]/[Zn] = 9.4(molar). Animals were subdivided in 2 expts. between soy-protein 0.8% Ca, 11.24 mg Zn/Kg diet [4.2(molar)] or 1.6% Ca, 11.21 mg Zn/Kg [9.4(molar)] and egg albumin 0.8% Ca, 0.46 mg Zn/Kg diet and 1.6% Ca, 0.37 mg Zn/Kg diet at which time each animal was injected with 10 μCi 65 Zn. Daily fecal collections were made for 14 days and ratios of 65 Zn Soy:Egg alb. calculated. The very low concentration of Zn in the egg albumin diet restricted the pancreatic secretion of Zn and the differential effect of phytate on these diets was not apparent as shown earlier with soy and casein diets. This was also reflected in the growth rates of the exptl. groups in that the egg albumin fed rats gained -4.4 and -9.0 g/wk; soy fed rats gained 28.0 and 17.3 g/wk

  9. Detection of Egg Production of Tegal Duck by Blood Protein Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of transfferine, albumine, and haemoglobine loci to egg production characteristic of Tegal duck.  100 lying of Tegal ducks keeping by batteray-pen were used in this study.  Individual egg production was recorded until period of 120 days. Blood protein polymorphism analysed by electrophoresis method, and blood sample taken from each ducks.. Egg production and transfferine albumine, and haemoglobine phenotipe on electrophoresis gel were observed in this study.  Genotipe and gene frequencies and genetic variant were applied in data analysis. The result showed that (1 in the transferine locus were identified 3 aleles forming 4 genotipes (TfAA,TfAB, TfBB, and TfBC, (2 in albumine were identified 3 aleles forming 5 genotipes (AlbAA, AlbAB, AlbAC, AlbBB and AlbBC and (3 haemoglobine locus were identified 6 aleles forming 4 genotipes ((HbAA, HbAB, HbAC, HbBB, HbBC dan HbCC.  This study demostrated that B gene frequenci in transfferine, albumine and haemoglonine loci was highest than A and C gene frequency.  Tegal Duck with AA genotipe on all loci had higher egg production than BB and CC homozigote.  This research revealed that the most efective of selection method by haemoglobine protein polymorphism. (Animal Production 10(2: 122-128 (2008   Key Words: Tegal duck, egg production, selection, blood protein polymorphism

  10. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandegan, Arash; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul B; Lemon, Peter Wr

    2017-05-01

    Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise." Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1- 13 C]phenylalanine to 13 CO 2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique]. Methods: Eight men (means ± SDs: age, 22.5 ± 1.7 y; weight, 83.9 ± 11.6 kg; 13.0% ± 6.3% body fat) were studied at rest on a nontraining day, on several occasions (4-8 times) each with protein intakes ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 , for a total of 42 experiments. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each individual's measured resting energy expenditure and were isoenergetic across all treatments. Protein was fed as an amino acid mixture based on the protein pattern in egg, except for phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained at constant amounts across all protein intakes. For 2 d before the study, all participants consumed 1.5 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 On the study day, the protein requirement was determined by identifying the breakpoint in the F 13 CO 2 with graded amounts of dietary protein [mixed-effects change-point regression analysis of F 13 CO 2 (labeled tracer oxidation in breath)]. Results: The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of protein and the upper 95% CI RDA for these young male bodybuilders were 1.7 and 2.2 g · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. Conclusion: These IAAO data suggest that the protein EAR and recommended intake for male bodybuilders at rest on a nontraining day exceed the current recommendations of the Institute of Medicine by ∼2.6-fold

  11. Dietary protein content for an optimal diet: a clinical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, Lidia; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-06-01

    The dietary protein role in different clinical nutritional conditions and some physio-pathological perspectives is a current and hot topic to discuss. Recent Proceedings of the Protein Summit 2, joining more than 60 nutrition scientists, health experts, and nutrition educators, suggest to increase plant but, in particular, animal protein intake because richer in leucine and consequently more effective to influence anabolic protein metabolism. The Panel conclusions are in apparent contradiction with the nutritional ecology statements, which strongly sustain the reduction of animal origin foods in the human diet and are currently concerned about the excessive, mainly animal protein intake in western and westernized Countries. In conclusion, it is time to carefully evaluate protein and aminoacid intake accurately considering quality, digestibility, daily distribution and individual characteristics. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  12. Claudins, dietary milk proteins, and intestinal barrier regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Belinda M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-01-01

    The family of claudin proteins plays an important role in regulating the intestinal barrier by modulating the permeability of tight junctions. The impact of dietary protein on claudin biology has not been studied extensively. Whey proteins have been reported to improve intestinal barrier function, but their mechanism of action is not clear. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated increased intestinal claudin expression in response to milk protein components. Reviewed here are new findings suggesting that whey-protein-derived transforming growth factor β transcriptionally upregulates claudin-4 expression via a Smad-4-dependent pathway. These and other data, including limited clinical studies, are summarized below and, in the aggregate, suggest a therapeutic role for whey protein in diseases of intestinal barrier dysfunction, perhaps, in part, by regulating claudin expression. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  14. Swelling of whey and egg white protein hydrogels with stranded and particulate microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben

    2016-02-01

    Swelling of protein hydrogels in alkaline conditions strongly depends on the gel microstructure. Stranded transparent gels swell as predicted using a modified Flory-Rehner model with the net protein charge. Particulate opaque gels swell very differently, with a sudden increase at a narrow pH range. Its swelling is not controlled by the protein charge, but by the destruction of the non-covalent interactions. Comparable dissolution thresholds, one with pH and another with the degree of swelling, are observed in both types of microstructures. These conclusions are valid for both whey protein isolate (WPI) gels and egg white gels, suggesting that they are universal for all globular proteins that can form such microscructures. Differences are observed, however, from the prevalent chemical crosslinks in each protein system. Non-covalent interactions dominate WPI gels; when such interactions are destroyed at pH≥11.5 the gels swell extensively and eventually dissolve. In egg white gels, the higher degree of disulphide crosslinking allows extensive swelling when non-covalent interactions are destroyed, but dissolution only occurs at pH≥13 when covalent crosslinks are cleaved. The current study highlights that the microstructure of protein hydrogels, a unique particularity of protein systems compared to other synthetic hydrogels, defines swelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of Dietary Protein and Energy Intakes With Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Boucher, Robert; Kiani, Rabia; Raj, Dominic; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2017-09-01

    The associations of dietary protein and/or energy intakes with protein or energy wasting in patients on maintenance hemodialysis are controversial. We examined these in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. In 1487 participants in the HEMO Study, baseline dietary protein intake (grams per kilogram per day) and dietary energy intake (kilocalories per kilograms per day) were related to the presence of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome at month 12 (defined as the presence of at least 1 criteria in 2 of the 3 categories of low serum chemistry, low body mass, and low muscle mass) in logistic regression models. In additional separate models, protein intake estimated from equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) was also related to the PEW syndrome. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of baseline dietary protein intake was paradoxically associated with increased risk of the PEW syndrome at month 12 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79-6.05). This relationship was completely attenuated (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.88-2.06) with adjustment for baseline body weight, which suggested mathematical coupling. Results were similar for dietary energy intake. Compared with the lowest quartile of baseline enPCR, the highest quartile was not associated with the PEW syndrome at 12 months (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.54-1.12). These data do not support the use of dietary protein intake or dietary energy intake criteria in the definition of the PEW syndrome in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

  16. Gamma-radiation induced damage of proteins in the thick fraction of egg white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA VUCKOVIC

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The thick fraction of egg white saturated with either N2O or Ar was irradiated in the dose range 1.5–45 kGy at 60Co gamma source. The gel structure decomposition and other processes accompanied with changes in protein molecular mass were followed by Sephadex G-200 exclusion chromatography, denaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viscosity and turbidity measurements. The complex behaviour of viscosity was observed in the N2O saturated sample (where the hydrated electron was converted into the OH radical; the initial abrupt decrease that radually slows down reaching the minimum at 12 kGy (hmin = 2.7 mPa s followed by the slow rise was measured. The Ar saturated sample ([eaq-] ~ [OH] showed both the significantly faster initial decrease and lower viscosity minimum (hmin = 2.2 mPa s. The combined Sephadex G-200 exclusion chromatography and denaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis data revealed that the three-dimensional egg white (hydrated gel structure was (efficiently decomposed even in the N2O saturated sample. The protein scission was detected in the entire dose range studied, while the protein agglomeration is not noticed at low doses (around 1.5 kGy; however, it dominates at higher doses. In the highest dose region studied, the loss of structure in SDS-PAGE chromatograms indicates that the agglomerates are formed from protein fragments rather than from intact proteins. The continuous linear increase in turbidity was measured. The results obtained indicate that ionizing radiation causes the breakdown of the protein network of the thick fraction of egg white via the reduction of S–S bridges by the hydrated electron and the protein fragmentation due to the direct action of ionizing radiation. The protein agglomeration is initiated by the reaction of the OH radical; its inefficiency at low doses is attributed to the glucose antioxidant properties and radical immobility.

  17. The effect of irradiation on the functional properties of spray-dried egg white protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.; Kiss, I.F.; Wilde, P.J.; Wilson, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The foaming properties of spray-dried egg white powder were examined as a function of dosage with ionizing radiation. Foam stability was studied by a micro-conductimetric method. A marked increase in foam stability was observed in all the irradiated samples examined (2–16 kGy) when compared to a non-irradiated control. The drainage rate and minimum thickness of air-suspended thin liquid films stabilised with egg white protein was measured interferometrically. The rate of film thinning decreased with increasing dose suggesting a dose related change in the bulk viscosity. There were minor changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of the irradiated protein determined by circular dichroism, which may account for the observed changes in functionality

  18. Metabolic Regulation of CaMKII Protein and Caspases in Xenopus laevis Egg Extracts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Francis; Darbandi, Rashid; Chen, Si-Ing; Eckard, Laura; Dodd, Keela; Jones, Kelly; Baucum, Anthony J.; Gibbons, Jennifer A.; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Colbran, Roger J.; Nutt, Leta K.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of the Xenopus laevis egg provides a cell survival signal. We found previously that increased carbon flux from glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) through the pentose phosphate pathway in egg extracts maintains NADPH levels and calcium/calmodulin regulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity to phosphorylate caspase 2 and suppress cell death pathways. Here we show that the addition of G6P to oocyte extracts inhibits the dephosphorylation/inactivation of CaMKII bound to caspase 2 by protein phosphatase 1. Thus, G6P sustains the phosphorylation of caspase 2 by CaMKII at Ser-135, preventing the induction of caspase 2-mediated apoptotic pathways. These findings expand our understanding of oocyte biology and clarify mechanisms underlying the metabolic regulation of CaMKII and apoptosis. Furthermore, these findings suggest novel approaches to disrupt the suppressive effects of the abnormal metabolism on cell death pathways. PMID:23400775

  19. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of Ligustrum lucidum on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X L; He, W L; Yang, M L; Yan, Y M; Xue, Y H; Zhao, S T

    2017-11-01

    The fruit of Ligustrum lucidum (FLL, Nuzhenzi in Chinese) is an important traditional medicine, and have attracted significant research attention because of their various biological activities. However, there are few research reports available on the use of FLL as a feed additive in livestock nutrition, particularly in layers. This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of the diet of laying hens with FLL on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites. A total of 360 72-week-old hens were allocated to three dietary treatments (eight replications of 15 hens/treatment group) and were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with an inclusion level of 0.25% or 0.50% of FLL powder in the final feed, until 78 weeks of age. Hens were housed in a three-tier cage system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary supplementation with FLL did not affect egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell thickness, albumen height, egg yolk color, eggshell breaking strength or egg shape index. However, FLL supplementation significantly decreased (Phens fed FLL compared with the control group. It can be concluded that FLL, at a supplementation level of 0.25% final feed, can be used as an effective feed additive to improve the performance of laying hens during the late laying period.

  1. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (Pkids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity.

  2. Effect of feeding different dietary protein levels on reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate effects of feeding different dietary protein levels on reproductive biology of African mud catfish under hapa system. Catfish fingerlings (mean body weight (4.50± 0.01g) and total length (8.0±0.2cm) were randomly stocked at 20 fish per hapa (1m3). Five experimental diets with crude ...

  3. Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Dixon, Brian M

    2012-09-08

    An appreciable volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for greater gains from resistance training, but not all findings are in agreement. We recently proposed "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" in an effort to explain discrepancies in the response to increased dietary protein in weight management interventions. The present review aimed to extend "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" to studies examining the effects of protein on resistance training induced muscle and strength gains. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see muscle and strength differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see muscle and strength benefits. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 66.1% g/kg/day between group intake spread versus a 10.2% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +59.5% compared to +6.5% when additional protein was no more effective than control. The magnitudes of difference between the mean spreads and changes of the present review are similar to our previous review on these theories in a weight management context. Providing sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in enhancing muscle and strength gains from resistance training. An increase in dietary protein favorably effects muscle and strength during resistance training.

  4. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tieland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60% with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80% provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from

  5. An isotopic assessment of protein from diet and endogenous stores: Effects on egg production and incubation behaviour of geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little empirical information exists to assess to what degree geese use a capital versus income breeding strategy for investing nutrients into eggs. We used stable isotope methods to directly estimate the sources of protein deposited into egg yolks of Brent Branta bernicla and Emperor Geese Anser canagicus on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA. Approximately 59 and 45% of protein in egg yolks of Brent and Emperor Geese, respectively, was derived from exogenous sources (i.e. food plants on the local breeding area). Within clutches of Brent Goose eggs, first-laid eggs exhibited slightly higher contributions from endogenous reserves than last-laid eggs. This pattern was less clear for Emperor Geese, which may have been a consequence of possibly analyzing eggs that were laid by intraspecific nest parasites rather than by hosts. For both these species, individuals exhibited large variability in the percent contribution of exogenous versus endogenous stores to eggs, and future studies should identify ecological factors related to this variation. Those Emperor Geese in poor body condition incubated their nests less constantly, and based on δ13C values, they fed on terrestrial foods while off their nests. Although not a pure capital breeder, Emperor Geese used nutrients garnered on spring staging areas to fuel virtually all their own maintenance during incubation and to contribute half or more of the nutrients in eggs. These results highlight the ecological importance of these spring staging habitats to geese.

  6. Effects on DPPH inhibition of egg-white protein polypeptides treated by pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Jia; Liu, Bolong; Lin, Songyi; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Jingbo; Jones, Gregory; Huang, Hsiang-Chi

    2013-05-01

    Egg-white protein polypeptides are potentially used as a functional ingredient in food products. In this study, the effects on DPPH inhibition of egg-white protein polypeptides ranging from 10 to 30 kDa treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) technology were investigated. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition (%) was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of polypeptides. In order to develop and optimize a pulsed electric field (PEF) mathematical model for improving the antioxidant activity, we have investigated three variables, including concentration (6, 8 and 10 mg mL(-1)), electric field intensity (10, 20 and 30 kV cm(-1)) and pulse frequency (2000, 2350 and 2700 Hz) and subsequently optimized them by response surface methodology (RSM). The concentration (8 mg mL(-1)), electric field intensity (10 kV cm(-1)) and pulse frequency (2000 Hz) were found to be the optimal conditions under which the DPPH inhibition increased 28.44%, compared to the sample without PEF treatment. Both near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyze the change of functional groups. The results showed that PEF technology could improve the antioxidant activity of antioxidant polypeptides from egg-white protein under the optimized conditions. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Alternative proteins: A New Green Revolution: Dietary Proteins From Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, P.; Diaz, J.; Jong, J. de; Bussmann, P.

    2017-01-01

    The fractionation and isolation of leaf proteins, mostly in the form of a photosynthetic enzyme, RuBisCO, contributes to improving sustainability and increasing profitability for the agro-industrial sector.

  8. The Effect of Dietary Protein Levels in Growing Period on Performance at Onset of Lay of Crossbred Hens between Cockerel Native Chickens and Commercial Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimurti Februari Trisiwi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effects of various dietary protein levels during growing period crossbreed hens between cockerel native chickens and laying hens on performance at onset of lay. The effects of the dietary protein levels on weight and other components of eggs were also examined. Eighteen hens aged thirteen weeks were randomly divided into three different treatment groups. Each group consists of six replications. The replication contains a hen. All the treatment hens were grown in a battery-cage until reaching sexual maturity then were fed with three different dietary protein levels which are 13,54%, 12,00%, and 9,80% formulated with 2600 kcal/kg ME. The collected data were analyzed by a one-way classification of variance analysis (CRD followed by testing the significant means using The Duncan,s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. The experiment result suggested that the treatment during hen’s growing period did not cause significance on performance at onset lay, egg weight, and egg components weight.

  9. FTO genotype, dietary protein, and change in appetite: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Hu, Frank B; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Williamson, Donald A; Qi, Lu

    2014-05-01

    A common obesity-risk variant rs9939609 in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene was recently shown to affect appetite, and the gene is sensitive to the regulation of amino acids. We examined the interaction between FTO genotype and protein intake on the long-term changes in appetite in a randomized controlled trial. We genotyped FTO rs9939609 in 737 overweight adults in the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial and assessed 4 appetite-related traits including cravings, fullness, hunger, and prospective consumption. We showed that dietary protein significantly modified genetic effects on changes in food cravings and appetite scores at 6 mo after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, weight change, and baseline value for respective outcomes (P-interaction = 0.027 and 0.048, respectively). The A allele was associated with a greater decrease in food cravings and appetite scores in participants with high-protein-diet intake (P = 0.027 and 0.047, respectively) but not in subjects in the low-protein-diet group (P = 0.384 and 0.078, respectively). The weight regain from 6 to 24 mo attenuated gene-protein interactions. Protein intakes did not modify FTO genotype effects on other appetite measures. Our data suggest that individuals with the FTO rs9939609 A allele might obtain more benefits in a reduction of food cravings and appetite by choosing a hypocaloric and higher-protein weight-loss diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  10. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail ( at Low Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks were equally divided into three groups (20/group based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1 obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05 in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01 to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.

  11. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication of redox-responsive magnetic protein microcapsules from hen egg white by the sonochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Tian, Fangyuan

    2015-01-01

    Redox-responsive magnetic protein microcapsules with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) encapsulated inside have been obtained using a facile, cost-effective and fast sonochemical method from hen egg white proteins. Such prepared redox-responsive magnetic hen egg white protein microcapsules (MHEWPMCs) could be easily manipulated to do magnetic-guided targeting delivery. The synchronous loading of the hydrophobic dye Coumarin 6 as a model of drug into MHEWPMCs was readily achieved during the fabrication of MHEWPMCs by dissolving them into the oil phase before ultrasonication. TEM images indicated that Fe3O4 MNPs were encapsulated in MHEWPMCs. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images indicated that the dye was distributed evenly in the MHEWPMCs and no leakage of dye from the MHEWPMCs was observed due to the protection of protein shells. The MHEWPMCs are potential candidates as attractive carriers for drug targeting delivery and stimuli-responsive release due to their magnetic and redox responsiveness of the disulfide in the microcapsule shells.

  13. Dietary protein effects on irradiated rat kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, P.A.; Yatuin, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that unilaterally nephrectomized, kidney irradiated young male S-D rats have an increased median survival when placed on a low (4%) protein diet, as compared to a normal (20%) or high (50%) protein diet (200, 103, and 59 days respectively for 14 Gy irradiation). They have expanded these studies to examine the effects of irradiation and dietary protein levels on kidney function, by examining the parameters of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urine urea nitrogen, urine creatinine, urine osmolarity, urine volume, and water consumption. Irradiated 20% protein diet animals show an increase in water consumption and urine production and also a decrease in urine osmolarity, urine urea concentration and urine creatinine concentration. These changes all support the hypothesis the kidney irradiated rats fed a normal protein diet have a reduced capability to concentrate urine compared to nonirradiated control rats. Evaluation of the same parameters in irradiated rats fed a 4% protein diet does not indicate a similar loss of concentrating capability. Whether this protection is due to the growth inhibition of the 4% protein diet or some other phenomena remains to be determined

  14. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  15. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with eggs. Prevention is the name of the game with food allergies, so it's important for kids ... protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If ...

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) on meat quality and egg fatty acid composition of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, H; Konca, Y; Durmuscelebi, F

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted in two separate experiments. Experiment I was conducted to investigate the effects of hemp seed (HS) on meat quality traits, and experiment II was designed to determine egg fatty acid (FA) composition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In experiment I and experiment II treatments, groups were as follows: (i) control (not included HS0), (ii) 5% HS inclusion to diets, (iii) 10% HS inclusion to diets and (iv) 20% HS inclusion to diets. In experiment I, a total of 192 7-day-old-quail were fed with HS diets for 5 weeks, and end of the experiment I, a total of 64 quail (16 each) slaughtered and meat samples were analysed for meat colour, pH, cooking and thawing loss and FA composition. In experiment II, a total of 120 8-week-old laying quail were fed with experimental diets for 6 weeks and egg FA composition were determined. Breast meat cooking loss was significantly lower in 20% supplemented group (p egg samples were linearly increased with increasing the dietary HS ratio (p eggs (p egg yolk omega-3 FA content and decrease cooking loss of quail meats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Heating Has No Effect on the Net Protein Utilisation from Egg Whites in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Matsuoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg whites (EW are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36, 198±1 g were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU rate. The soybean protein group had a significantly lower level of food intake and was thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The NPU value was similar among the unheated, soft-boiled, and boiled EW groups (97.5±0.4, 96.5±0.1, and 96.5±0.7, resp.. The EW group values were significantly higher than the whey group values (90.5±1.0. These results show that EW serve as a good source of protein, irrespective of heating.

  18. Sources of dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of dietary protein on blood pressure (BP), especially for plant protein. We examined the relationship between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal, dairy, meat and grain) and the risk of hypertension in a general population of 3588 Dutch

  19. Dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a Dutch older population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Veer, van 't P.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    AB Background: Several observational studies suggest an inverse association of protein with blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the role of dietary protein from specific sources in BP. Method: We examined the relation between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal,

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  1. Blood harmane concentrations and dietary protein consumption in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, E D; Zheng, W; Applegate, L; Shi, L; Factor-Litvak, P

    2005-08-09

    Beta-carboline alkaloids (e.g., harmane) are highly tremorogenic chemicals. Animal protein (meat) is the major dietary source of these alkaloids. The authors previously demonstrated that blood harmane concentrations were elevated in patients with essential tremor (ET) vs controls. Whether this difference is due to greater animal protein consumption by patients or their failure to metabolize harmane is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with ET and controls differ with regard to 1) daily animal protein consumption and 2) the correlation between animal protein consumption and blood harmane concentration. Data on current diet were collected with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and daily calories and consumption of animal protein and other food types was calculated. Blood harmane concentrations were log-transformed (logHA). The mean logHA was higher in 106 patients than 161 controls (0.61 +/- 0.67 vs 0.43 +/- 0.72 g(-10)/mL, p = 0.035). Patients and controls consumed similar amounts of animal protein (50.2 +/- 19.6 vs 49.4 +/- 19.1 g/day, p = 0.74) and other food types (animal fat, carbohydrates, vegetable fat) and had similar caloric intakes. In controls, logHA was correlated with daily consumption of animal protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.003); in patients, there was no such correlation (r = -0.003, p = 0.98). The similarity between patients and controls in daily animal protein consumption and the absence of the normal correlation between daily animal protein consumption and logHA in patients suggests that another factor (e.g., a metabolic defect) may be increasing blood harmane concentration in patients.

  2. Association of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with the risk of incident dementia or Alzheimer disease: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylilauri, Maija Pt; Voutilainen, Sari; Lönnroos, Eija; Mursu, Jaakko; Virtanen, Heli Ek; Koskinen, Timo T; Salonen, Jukka T; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K

    2017-02-01

    There is little information about the associations of intakes of cholesterol and eggs, a major source of dietary cholesterol, with the risk of cognitive decline in general populations or in carriers of apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APO-E4), a major risk factor for dementia. We investigated the associations of cholesterol and egg intakes with incident dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older men from Eastern Finland. A total of 2497 dementia-free men, aged 42-60 y in 1984-1989 at the baseline examinations of the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, were included in the study. Information on the apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) phenotype was available for 1259 men. Data on cognitive performance tests at the 4-y re-examinations were available for 480 men. Dietary intakes were assessed with the use of 4-d food records at baseline. Dementia and AD diagnoses were based on Finnish health registers. Cox regression and ANCOVA were used for the analyses. During the 21.9-y follow-up, 337 men were diagnosed with dementia, and 266 men were diagnosed with AD. Neither cholesterol nor egg intake was associated with a higher risk of incident dementia or AD. For example, when evaluated continuously, each intake of 100 mg cholesterol/d was associated with a multivariable-adjusted HR of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.02) for incident dementia, and each additional 0.5 egg (27 g)/d was associated with an HR of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.01). However, egg intake was associated with better performance on neuropsychological tests of the frontal lobe and executive functioning, the Trail Making Test, and the Verbal Fluency Test. The Apo-E4 phenotype did not modify the associations of cholesterol or egg intake (P-interactions > 0.11). Neither cholesterol nor egg intake is associated with an increased risk of incident dementia or AD in Eastern Finnish men. Instead, moderate egg intake may have a beneficial association with certain areas

  3. Effect of gluten, egg and soy proteins on the rheological and thermo-mechanical properties of wholegrain rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pătraşcu, Livia; Banu, Iuliana; Vasilean, Ina; Aprodu, Iuliana

    2017-03-01

    The effect of protein addition on the rheological, thermo-mechanical and baking properties of wholegrain rice flour was investigated. Gluten, powdered eggs and soy protein concentrate were first analyzed in terms of rheological properties, alone and in admixture with rice flour. The temperature ramp tests showed clear differences in the rheological behavior of the batters supplemented with different proteins. The highest thermal stability was observed in case of soy protein samples. Frequency sweep tests indicated significant improvements of the rheological properties of rice flour supplemented with 15% gluten or soy proteins. The thermo-mechanical tests showed that, due to the high fat contents and low level of free water, the dough samples containing powdered eggs exhibited the highest stability. Addition of gluten resulted in a significant decrease of the dough development time, whereas samples with powdered eggs and soy proteins were more difficult to hydrate. The incorporation of proteins into the rice flour-based dough formulations significantly affected starch behavior by decreasing the peak consistency values. Concerning the quality of the rice flour-based breads, soy protein addition resulted in lighter crumb color and increased texture attributes, samples with gluten had better resilience and adhesiveness, whereas breads with egg protein were less brittle.

  4. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation have...... in humans (7), growing pigs (8), and growing rats (9). In adult cats, both protein synthesis and breakdown were lower when feeding a low- than when feeding a high-protein diet [20 vs. 70% of metabolizable energy (ME)5 from protein] (10). The objectives of this study were therefore to develop a ¹5N...

  5. Injection of an antibody against a p21 c-Ha-ras protein inhibits cleavage in axolotl eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Baltus, E; Hanocq-Quertier, J; Hanocq, F; Brachet, J

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a ras protein was demonstrated in cleaving axolotl eggs by selective immunoprecipitation with a polyclonal antibody against a peptide encoded by the c-Ha-ras oncogene, cellular homolog of the v-Ha-ras oncogene of Harvey rat sarcoma virus. Injection of this antibody into axolotl oocytes subjected to progesterone treatment does not prevent meiotic maturation. Injection of the same antibody into a blastomere of axolotl eggs at the 2- or 4-cell stage causes cleavage arrest in the ...

  6. ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

  7. Effects of peptides derived from dietary proteins on mucus secretion in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustre, Jean; Toumi, Férial; Trompette, Aurélien; Jourdan, Gérard; Guignard, Henri; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2002-09-01

    The hypothesis that dietary proteins or their hydrolysates may regulate intestinal mucin discharge was investigated in the isolated vascularly perfused rat jejunum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rat intestinal mucins. On luminal administration, casein hydrolysate [0.05-5% (wt/vol)] stimulated mucin secretion in rat jejunum (maximal response at 417% of controls). Lactalbumin hydrolysate (5%) also evoked mucin discharge. In contrast, casein, and a mixture of amino acids was without effect. Chicken egg albumin and its hydrolysate or meat hydrolysate also did not modify mucin release. Interestingly, casein hydrolysate-induced mucin secretion was abolished by intra-arterial TTX or naloxone (an opioid antagonist). beta-Casomorphin-7, an opioid peptide released from beta-casein on milk ingestion, induced a strong mucin secretion (response at 563% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone. Intra-arterial beta-casomorphin-7 also markedly increased mucin secretion (410% of controls). In conclusion, two enzymatic milk protein hydrolysates (casein and lactalbumin hydrolysates) and beta-casomorphin-7, specifically, induced mucin release in rat jejunum. The casein hydrolysate-induced mucin secretion is triggered by a neural pathway and mediated by opioid receptor activation.

  8. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  9. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the production and quality of eggs and larvae of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Støttrup, Josianne; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) entering their first year of gamete maturation were fed diets with different levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 6.5 months prior to commencement of spawning. Gravid females were stripped three times: at the beginning, peak......–173% higher in eggs than in diets. Cod fed the diet with the lowest EPA/ARA ratio had the greatest egg production. Eggs from fish on a diet with high ARA level had significantly higher fertilization and hatching success than those fed low levels of ARA. This diet produced on average 71 viable eggs g 1 female...

  10. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%-8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  11. Efficacy of various protein-based coating on enhancing the shelf life of fresh eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Cengiz; Yüceer, Muhammed

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings (whey protein isolate [WPI], whey protein concentrate [WPC], zein, and shellac) on functional properties, interior quality, and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs were evaluated during storage at 24 °: C for 6 weeks. Coatings and storage time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter (DMA), relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH (9.56) and weight loss, and lower albumen viscosity (5.73), Haugh unit (HU), and yolk index (YI) during storage. Among the coated eggs, the shellac and zein coated eggs had the highest value of albumen viscosity (27.26 to 26.90), HU (74.10 to 73.61), and YI (44.84 to 44.63) after storage. Shellac (1.44%) was more effective in preventing weight loss than WPC (4.59%), WPI (4.60%), and zein (2.13%) coatings. Uncoated eggs had the higest value (6.71%) of weight lost. All coatings increased shell strength (5.18 to 5.73 for top and 3.58 to 4.71 for bottom) significantly (P eggs (4.70 for top and 3.15 for bottom). The functional properties such as albumen DMA (14.50 to 16.66 and 18.97 for uncoated) and albumen RWC (841 to 891 and 475 for uncoated) of fresh eggs can be preserved during storage when they are coated. The shellac and zein coatings were more effective for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during storage. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) in the 800 to 2500 nm reflection spectra were used to quantify the contents of the fresh eggs at the end of storage. Eggs coated with shellac or zein displayed a higher absorbance at 970 and 1,197 nm respectively (OH vibration of water) compared with those coated with WPI or WPC and the uncoated group at the end of storage. The coatings improved functional properties and also shell strength and could be a viable alternative technology for maintaining the internal quality of eggs during long-term storage. This study highlights the promising use of

  12. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  13. A natural and readily available crowding agent: NMR studies of proteins in hen egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Gabriel; Adrover, Miquel; Kelly, Geoff; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-05-01

    In vitro studies of biological macromolecules are usually performed in dilute, buffered solutions containing one or just a few different biological macromolecules. Under these conditions, the interactions among molecules are diffusion limited. On the contrary, in living systems, macromolecules of a given type are surrounded by many others, at very high total concentrations. In the last few years, there has been an increasing effort to study biological macromolecules directly in natural crowded environments, as in intact bacterial cells or by mimicking natural crowding by adding proteins, polysaccharides, or even synthetic polymers. Here, we propose the use of hen egg white (HEW) as a simple natural medium, with all features of the media of crowded cells, that could be used by any researcher without difficulty and inexpensively. We present a study of the stability and dynamics behavior of model proteins in HEW, chosen as a prototypical, readily accessible natural medium that can mimic cytosol. We show that two typical globular proteins, dissolved in HEW, give NMR spectra very similar to those obtained in dilute buffers, although dynamic parameters are clearly affected by the crowded medium. The thermal stability of one of these proteins, measured in a range comprising both heat and cold denaturation, is also similar to that in buffer. Our data open new possibilities to the study of proteins in natural crowded media. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  15. Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on growth and nitrogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) on the growth of dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus was investigated as a first step towards formulating a practical diet for this potential mariculture species in South Africa. The effects of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and nitrogenous waste ...

  16. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Salmela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae--the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease--and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin.

  17. Dietary protein restriction for renal patients: don't forget protein-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Rossi, Andrea; Innocenti, Maurizio; Ricchiuti, Guido; Bozzoli, Laura; Sbragia, Giulietta; Meola, Mario; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) consists of pharmacological, nutritional, and psychological-social approaches. The dietary therapy of CKD, namely a low-protein low-phosphorus diet, plays a crucial role in contributing to delay the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to protect cardiovascular and nutritional status. The protein-free food products represent a very important tool for the implementation of a low-protein diet to ensure adequate energy supply, reducing the production of nitrogenous waste products. This survey included 100 consecutive CKD patients who were asked their opinion about the use of protein-free foods. Ninety-eight patients (98%) reported a regular daily intake of protein-free pasta (as macaroni, spaghetti, etc.), which was the preferred product consumed. Actually, the taste and texture of protein-free pasta were considered as "good" or "very good" by 70% of patients. Conversely, 43% of CKD patients perceived the taste and texture of protein-free bread as "bad" or "very bad", and 30% found it "acceptable". Therefore, the main concern for the implementation of low-protein diets is the use and palatability of the protein-free products, bread in particular. The use of these products may help in reducing protein, phosphorus, and sodium intake while supplying an adequate energy intake, which represents the basis for a nutritionally safe and successful dietary treatment of advanced CKD patients. Manufacturers and food technology should make more efforts to finding new solutions to improve the taste and texture of protein-free products. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunological Reactivity Using Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies of Autoimmune Thyroid Target Sites with Dietary Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datis Kharrazian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many hypothyroid and autoimmune thyroid patients experience reactions with specific foods. Additionally, food interactions may play a role in a subset of individuals who have difficulty finding a suitable thyroid hormone dosage. Our study was designed to investigate the potential role of dietary protein immune reactivity with thyroid hormones and thyroid axis target sites. We identified immune reactivity between dietary proteins and target sites on the thyroid axis that includes thyroid hormones, thyroid receptors, enzymes, and transport proteins. We also measured immune reactivity of either target specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH receptor, 5′deiodinase, thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, thyroxine-binding globulin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine against 204 purified dietary proteins commonly consumed in cooked and raw forms. Dietary protein determinants included unmodified (raw and modified (cooked and roasted foods, herbs, spices, food gums, brewed beverages, and additives. There were no dietary protein immune reactions with TSH receptor, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroxine-binding globulin. However, specific antigen-antibody immune reactivity was identified with several purified food proteins with triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroglobulin, and 5′deiodinase. Laboratory analysis of immunological cross-reactivity between thyroid target sites and dietary proteins is the initial step necessary in determining whether dietary proteins may play a potential immunoreactive role in autoimmune thyroid disease.

  19. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  20. Effect of egg albumen protein addition on physicochemical properties and nanostructure of gelatin from fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Luyun; Feng, Jianhui; Peng, Xichun; Regenstein, Joe M; Li, Xiuxia; Li, Jianrong; Zhao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The physicochemical properties and nanostructure of mixtures of egg albumen protein (EAP) and gelatin from under-utilised grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) skins were studied. The gelatin with 1% EAP had an acceptable gel strength. The addition of 5% EAP significantly increased the melting and gelling temperatures of gelatin gels. Additionally, the colour turned white and the crystallinity was higher in gelatin gels with gradient concentrations of EAP (1, 3, and 5%). Gelatin with 5% EAP had the highest G' values while gelatin with 1% EAP had the lowest G' values. Atomic force microscopy showed the heterogeneous nanostructure of fish gelatin, and a simple coacervate with a homogeneous distribution was only observed with the addition of 1% EAP, indicating interaction between gelatin and EAP. These results showed that EAP effect fish gelatin's physicochemical and nanostructure properties and has potential applications in foods and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Miwa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP, which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  2. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Okhee Lee

    2015-01-01

    Thirty three frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were collected and pretreated. Selenium (Se) contents in the diet samples were analyzed using an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 100 g of beef contains 12.4-50.9 μg of Se; pork, 11.2-22.6 μg; chicken, 10.2-13.7 μg and eggs, 28.6-43.0 μg. Beef innards and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of Se. This study reveals that Se intake of Korean adults are 28.7 μg/day in men and 27.6 μg/day in women from meat and eggs, which are over 1/2 of the Korean recommended Se intake. (author)

  3. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    ) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48......), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some...

  4. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  5. Effective translation of current dietary guidance: understanding and communicating the concepts of minimal and optimal levels of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Miller, Sharon L

    2015-04-29

    Dietitians and health care providers have critical roles in the translation of the dietary guidance to practice. The protein content of diets for adults can be based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.80 g/kg per day. Alternatively, the most recent Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for macronutrients reflect expanded guidance for assessing protein needs and consider the relative relation of absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat to total energy intake in the context of chronic disease prevention. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) reflects the interrelation between the macronutrients and affords dietitians and clinicians additional flexibility in diet planning. Accounting for the caloric value of RDAs for carbohydrate and fat, "flexible calories" emerge as an opportunity to create varied eating plans that provide for protein intakes in excess of the RDA but within the AMDR. Protein Summit 2.0 highlighted the growing body of scientific evidence documenting the benefits of higher protein intakes at amounts approximating twice the RDA, which include promotion of healthy body weight and preservation of lean body mass and functional ability with age. The essential amino acid (EAA) density of a food also emerged as a novel concept analogous to "nutrient density," which can enable the practitioner to calculate the caloric cost associated with a specific protein source to attain the daily requirement of EAAs to accomplish various health outcomes because these indispensable nutrients have a significant role in protein utilization and metabolic regulation. Tailoring recommendations unique to an individual's varying goals and needs remains a challenge. However, flexibility within the application of DRIs to include consideration of the AMDR provides a sound framework to guide practitioners in effective translation of current dietary guidance with a specific regard for the documented benefits of higher protein intakes. © 2015

  6. Effects of dietary protein quality and quantity on albino rat tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary protein quality and quantity on albino rat tissue serum protein, erythrocyte fragility and bone mineral content. ... The 20% protein diet was a commercial diet better in nutrient composition and quality than the diet containing 17 and 15% protein formulated in our laboratory. At the end of 21 days, kidney, testes, ...

  7. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary

  8. Sensory evaluation by gamma radiation effect on protein allergen of laying hen eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, M.N.C.; Arthur, V.; Perina, V.C.S.; Silva, L.C.A.S.; Bortoleto, G.G.

    2012-01-01

    Although considered the most complete food and nutritionally shown to be part of a healthy diet, the egg is the source of many eating disorders, especially for infants. Irradiation has been used in studies not only as a means of microbiological control, but also on its structural action in the substances molecules and has been used to reduce the allergenic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory effects of Co 60 gamma radiation on proteins, enabling the acceptability of allergy food for genetically intolerant people. Eggs commercial fresh and freeze-dried and subjected to gamma irradiation by Co 60 source at doses 0 (control), 10 kGy; 20 kGy and 30 kGy and rates of doses of 19.4 kGy/h and 31.8 kGy/h. Acceptability test was used by the hedonic scale, since it is necessary to know the “affective status” of consumers for the product, implying a preference, i.e. the most preferred samples are the most accepted and vice versa. The samples were presented as the habit of consumption (cooked) to a group of 41 adults panelists of both gender, aged from 21 to 40 years, and served under complete block design balanced with respect to the order of presentation. The evaluated attributes was flavor, appearance and overall acceptability. In general, for boiled eggs and freeze-dried, it was observed that the control sample was the most acceptable, followed by the sample irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rates. In addition, panelists presented in testimony that they found interesting changes due to irradiation; also said they would not buy the product because of the marked change in appearance and smell, which at one point he ended up in disgust and detract from sales of the product, but they would buy irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rate and dose of 20 kGy at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/h. - Highlights: ► To minimized allergenic foods problem can be used gamma radiation. ► To identify the consumers preference about the quality of this kind food was used

  9. Sensory evaluation by gamma radiation effect on protein allergen of laying hen eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, M. N. C.; Arthur, V.; Perina, V. C. S.; Silva, L. C. A. S.; Bortoleto, G. G.

    2012-08-01

    Although considered the most complete food and nutritionally shown to be part of a healthy diet, the egg is the source of many eating disorders, especially for infants. Irradiation has been used in studies not only as a means of microbiological control, but also on its structural action in the substances molecules and has been used to reduce the allergenic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory effects of Co60 gamma radiation on proteins, enabling the acceptability of allergy food for genetically intolerant people. Eggs commercial fresh and freeze-dried and subjected to gamma irradiation by Co60 source at doses 0 (control), 10 kGy; 20 kGy and 30 kGy and rates of doses of 19.4 kGy/h and 31.8 kGy/h. Acceptability test was used by the hedonic scale, since it is necessary to know the "affective status" of consumers for the product, implying a preference, i.e. the most preferred samples are the most accepted and vice versa. The samples were presented as the habit of consumption (cooked) to a group of 41 adults panelists of both gender, aged from 21 to 40 years, and served under complete block design balanced with respect to the order of presentation. The evaluated attributes was flavor, appearance and overall acceptability. In general, for boiled eggs and freeze-dried, it was observed that the control sample was the most acceptable, followed by the sample irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rates. In addition, panelists presented in testimony that they found interesting changes due to irradiation; also said they would not buy the product because of the marked change in appearance and smell, which at one point he ended up in disgust and detract from sales of the product, but they would buy irradiated with 10 kGy in both dose rate and dose of 20 kGy at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/h.

  10. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes. PMID:29207491

  11. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Tong, Tammy Y N; Key, Timothy J

    2017-12-02

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment ( n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  12. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Bradbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944. In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  13. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello E

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Espedita Muscariello,1 Gilda Nasti,1 Mario Siervo,2 Martina Di Maro,1 Dominga Lapi,1 Gianni D’Addio,3 Antonio Colantuoni1 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 3IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Telese, Italy Objective: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women.  Materials and methods: A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex -0.071× age +5.102. Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2, as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104 was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50 administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins, and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54, for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up.  Results: The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline. The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the

  14. Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Nissan M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Beamer, Sarah K; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-15

    Cardiovascular disease has had an unquestioned status of the number one cause of death in the US since 1921. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have cardio-protective benefits. However, egg is typically a poor source of ω-3 PUFAs and, in general, the American diet is low in these cardio-protective fatty acids. Novel, nutritionally enhanced egg products were developed by substituting yolk with ω-3 PUFA-rich flaxseed, menhaden, algae, or krill oil. Experimental egg products matched composition of hen egg (whole egg). The experimental egg products, mixed whole egg, and a liquid egg product (Egg Beaters) were microwave-cooked and compared. Although fat, protein, and moisture contents of experimental egg products matched (P > 0.05) mixed whole egg, experimental egg products had more (P egg. Triglycerides were the main lipid class in all experimental egg products except those developed with krill oil, which had even more phospholipids than mixed whole egg. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed that lipid oxidation of experimental egg products was lower (P 0.05) to mixed whole egg, except for experimental egg products with krill oil. However, peroxide value showed that all egg samples had minimal oxidation. Experimental egg products developed with menhaden or flaxseed oil had the highest (P egg samples. However, experimental egg products with krill oil likely contained a natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to developing novel, nutraceutical egg products. Instead of dietary modification of chicken feed, yolk substitution with ω-3 PUFAs oils resulted in enhancement of ω-3 PUFAs beyond levels possible to achieve by modifying chicken feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Mutation of a vitelline membrane protein, BmEP80, is responsible for the silkworm "Ming" lethal egg mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anli; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Qiaoling; Tang, Shunming; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng; Qiu, Zhiyong; Xia, Dingguo; Huang, Yongping; Xu, Yunmin; He, Ningjia

    2013-02-25

    The egg stage is an important stage in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) life cycle. Normal silkworm eggs are usually short, elliptical, and laterally flattened, with a sometimes hollowed surface on the lateral side. However, the eggs laid by homozygous recessive "Ming" lethal egg mutants (l-e(m)) lose water and become concaved around 1h, ultimately exhibiting a triangular shape on the egg surfaces. We performed positional cloning, and narrowed down the region containing the gene responsible for the l-e(m) mutant to 360 kb on chromosome 10 using 2287 F(2) individuals. Using expression analysis and RNA interference, the best l-e(m) candidate gene was shown to be BmEP80. The results of the inverse polymerase chain reaction showed that an ~1.9 kb region from the 3' untranslated region of BmVMP23 to the forepart of BmEP80 was replaced by a >100 kb DNA fragment in the l-e(m) mutant. Several eggs laid by the normal moths injected with BmEP80 small interfering RNAs were evidently depressed and exhibited a triangular shape on the surface. The phenotype exhibited was consistent with the eggs laid by the l-e(m) mutant. Moreover, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that the BmEP80 protein was expressed in the ovary from the 9th day of the pupa stage to eclosion in the wild-type silkworm, but was absent in the l-e(m) mutant. These results indicate that BmEP80 is responsible for the l-e(m) mutation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Consequences of different strategies of free amino acid supplementation to dietary proteins for physiological utillization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gas, M.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of using free amino acids (AAs) as dietary constituent is sometimes lower than that of AAs derived from intact protein. The aim of the project was to evaluate dietary management conditions, which can determine the efficiency of utilization of crystalline AAs in animal diets or in

  17. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30...... concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared...

  18. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  19. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-05-01

    To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5-8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25-40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme.

  20. Sequence Identification, Recombinant Production, and Analysis of the Self-Assembly of Egg Stalk Silk Proteins from Lacewing Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenfeldt, Martin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2017-06-13

    Egg stalk silks of the common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea likely comprise at least three different silk proteins. Based on the natural spinning process, it was hypothesized that these proteins self-assemble without shear stress, as adult lacewings do not use a spinneret. To examine this, the first sequence identification and determination of the gene expression profile of several silk proteins and various transcript variants thereof was conducted, and then the three major proteins were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli encoded by their native complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that the silk proteins in aqueous solutions had a mainly intrinsically disordered structure. The largest silk protein, which we named ChryC1, exhibited a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior and self-assembled into fibers or film morphologies, depending on the conditions used. The second silk protein, ChryC2, self-assembled into nanofibrils and subsequently formed hydrogels. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed conformational changes of both proteins into beta sheet rich structures upon assembly. ChryC3 did not self-assemble into any morphology under the tested conditions. Thereby, through this work, it could be shown that recombinant lacewing silk proteins can be produced and further used for studying the fiber formation of lacewing egg stalks.

  1. Dietary protein intake and coronary heart disease in a large community based cohort: results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Haring

    Full Text Available Prospective data examining the relationship between dietary protein intake and incident coronary heart disease (CHD are inconclusive. Most evidence is derived from homogenous populations such as health professionals. Large community-based analyses in more diverse samples are lacking.We studied the association of protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for incident CHD in 12,066 middle-aged adults (aged 45-64 at baseline, 1987-1989 from four U.S. communities enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study who were free of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary protein intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years of follow-up by food frequency questionnaire. Our primary outcome was adjudicated coronary heart disease events or deaths with following up through December 31, 2010. Cox proportional hazard models with multivariable adjustment were used for statistical analyses.During a median follow-up of 22 years, there were 1,147 CHD events. In multivariable analyses total, animal and vegetable protein were not associated with an increased risk for CHD before or after adjustment. In food group analyses of major dietary protein sources, protein intake from red and processed meat, dairy products, fish, nuts, eggs, and legumes were not significantly associated with CHD risk. The hazard ratios [with 95% confidence intervals] for risk of CHD across quintiles of protein from poultry were 1.00 [ref], 0.83 [0.70-0.99], 0.93 [0.75-1.15], 0.88 [0.73-1.06], 0.79 [0.64-0.98], P for trend  = 0.16. Replacement analyses evaluating the association of substituting one source of dietary protein for another or of decreasing protein intake at the expense of carbohydrates or total fats did not show any statistically significant association with CHD risk.Based on a large community cohort we found no overall relationship between protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for CHD.

  2. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara, G.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain.El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de la grasa de la dieta de dos estirpes de ponedoras (Hy-line y Warren sobre el contenido de ácidos grasos y colesterol del huevo durante un periodo del ciclo de puesta de 20 meses. Ambas estirpes recibieron 3 dietas consecutivas que contenían 7% de lípidos de los cuales 3% provenía de los componentes basales de la dieta y 4% fue adicionado en forma de grasa, aceites u oleínas con objeto de aumentar progresivamente el contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y disminuir el contenido de los ácidos grasos saturados y monoinsaturados. El cambio de grasa en la dieta afectó al perfil de la mayoría de los ácidos grasos del huevo, sugiriéndose la existencia de un mínimo de ácido elaídico en la grasa añadida para su aparición en el huevo. El contenido de AGP se incrementó mientras que el de AGM disminuyó en el

  3. Effect of dietary heated oil and garlic supplementation on the meat and egg quality of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    A total number of 360 Japanese quail (14 days old) were used to study the effect of using 2% garlic as a supplement in order to overcome the adverse effect of adding 4% heated oil on their meat and egg quality. The chicks were equally and randomly arranged into 4 groups, each of three replicates. The first and second groups were supplemented with 4% cotton seed oil and 4% cotton seed oil + 2% garlic, respectively, while in both third and forth groups, cotton seed oil was replaced by 4% heated oil. The body weight and mortality rate were examined weekly. At 42 day of age, 9 birds from each group were slaughtered. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, T3 and T4 were determined by RIA besides to cholesterol and fatty acid in meat. The experiment was completed with the remaining chicks for another 6 weeks for analysis of egg cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty acids. The data revealed that addition of 2% garlic to both cotton seed and heated oil significantly decreased serum and egg cholesterol and triglycerides and meat cholesterol. In addition, total unsaturated fatty acid showed improvement in both meat and egg

  4. Dietary sugars and proline influence biological parameters of adult Trissolcus grandis, an egg parasitoid of Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajirajabi, Nafiseh; Fazel, Morteza Movahedi; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Arbab, Abbass; Asgari, Shahriar

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies that are used in the biological control of insect herbivore pests. The egg parasitoid Trissolcus grandis Thompson (Hym. Scelionidae) is a major enemy of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hem. Scutelleridae), which in turn is one of the most

  5. Role of dietary supplementation in the protein content of bovine milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Results of protein contents of fodder (FOD) in comparison with concentrates that is,. F-COC, F-MSC .... including proteins which provide a bulk amount of raw ... degradability of dietary protein and fat on ruminal, blood, and milk.

  6. Dietary protein intake and distribution patterns of well-trained Dutch athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillen, Jenna B.; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C.; Brinkmans, Naomi Y.J.; Versteegen, Joline J.; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Kapp, Christoph; Vries, de Jeanne; Borne, van den Joost J.G.C.; Gibala, Martin J.; Loon, van Luc J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day

  7. Sex differences in snack food reinforcement in response to increasing dietary protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRACKGROUND: Protein is posited to play a dynamic role in energy balance and reward-driven eating behavior. However, little is known about the effect of increasing protein intake on snack food reinforcement. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein changes th...

  8. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A Gogo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

  9. Practical dietary management of protein energy malnutrition in young children with cow's milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan; Venter, Carina; Fox, Adam T; Shah, Neil

    2012-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affects between 1.9 and 4.9% of infants and young children. This food allergy requires the complete elimination of cow's milk and its derivatives, impacting on nutritional status. The risk of having protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in children with CMPA has been well documented. In 2007, the World Health Organisation published guidelines on the dietary management of PEM, which has impacted on the recommendations and composition on specialist feeds for many chronic diseases, but not on CMPA. The main change in management of the child with PEM is the protein energy ratio and energy requirements. The ideal protein energy ratio lies between 8.9 and 11.5%, which would ensure a deposition of about 70% lean and 30% fat mass. In addition, for optimal catch-up growth between 5 and 10 g/kg/day, energy requirements should be between 105 and 126 kcal/kg/day. Although most current hypoallergenic formulas fall well within the recommendation for protein, there is a problem in achieving energy requirements. As a result, modular additions are often made, disturbing the protein energy ratio or feeds are concentrated, which impacts on osmolality. We therefore aimed to review current guidelines on PEM and how these can be applied in the management of the malnourished child with CMPA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Recombinant proteins from Gallibacterium anatis induces partial protection against heterologous challenge in egg-laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Flachs, Esben M.

    2016-01-01

    Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium and major cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying hens, thereby contributing to decreased egg production and increased mortality among the hens. Due to widespread drug resistance and antigenic diversity, novel prophylactic measures...

  11. Effect of varying concentrations of dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy on laying performance of Pearl Grey guinea fowl hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate optimum dietary concentrations of ME and CP for egg production performance of the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens. In a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, 360 Pearl Gray guinea fowl replacement pullets (22 wk of age) were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 2,800 and 2,900 kcal of ME/kg of diet, each containing 14, 16, and 18% CP, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Experimental birds were raised in laying cages and received 16 h of light throughout the study period. The birds were observed for feed consumption, hen-day egg production (HDEP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed conversion ratio, internal egg quality, shell thickness (ST), and BW at the end of each 28-d lay period at 26 to 50 wk of age and at 62 to 86 wk of age. Mortality was recorded as it occurred. Mean HDEP, EW, EM, and ST were higher (P treatments. Differences in feed consumption, EW, internal egg quality, BW, and mortality among dietary ME and CP concentrations were not significant (P > 0.05). Overall, diets composed of 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of diet and 14% CP were utilized more efficiently by the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens at 26 to 50 and 62 to 86 wk of age.

  12. Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen

    2009-06-01

    The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality.

  13. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculatio...

  14. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  15. THE ROLE OF MATH/BTB PROTEINS IN EGG CELL AND AT THE ONSET OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Leljak-Levanić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The conserved BTB and MATH domains are presented in a variety of proteins as a single copy domain, together or in combination with other types of domains. Different functional roles have been identified for BTB proteins such as transcription repression, cytoskeleton regulation as well as protein ubiquitination/degradation in which amino-terminal MATH domain is responsible for substrate specificity. Although the function of MATH/BTB proteins is not clear, distribution of these proteins from yeast to human and domain conservation suggest that they are critical in some cellular functions. In wheat we have identified existence of at least three MATH/BTB domain proteins encoding genes (TaMATH/BTB, TaMATH/BTB-Ec, TaMATH/BTB-2c which expression was analyzed in different vegetative tissues, egg cells, zygotes and during embryo development. TaMATH/BTB was found to be expressed ubiquitously, while transcript of TaMATH/BTB-Ec is presented only in the egg cell. TaMATH/BTB-2c is induced after fertilization, with the highest expression level in 2-celled stage proembryo. Subcellular localization of TaMATH/BTB-2c was analyzed after generating GFP-fusion proteins. Besides the complete coding region, deletions of either MATH or BTB domain were fused to GFP. Expression and subcellular localization indicates a putative role of TaMATH/BTB-2c in cell polarity.

  16. Dietary β-glucan enhances the contents of complement component 3 and factor B in eggs of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengyan; Wang, Peng; Li, Mengyang; Liu, Shousheng; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-12-01

    β-glucan has been shown to increase non-specific immunity and resistance against infections or pathogenic bacteria in several fish species, but no information is available regarding its trans-generational effects to date. Here we clearly demonstrated that β-glucan enhanced the contents of immune-relevant molecules C3 and Bf in eggs of zebrafish, and the embryos derived from β-1,3 glucan-treated zebrafish were more resistant to bacterial challenge than control embryos. Moreover, the transferred C3 and Bf were directly associated with the antimicrobial defense of early embryos. In addition, feeding female zebrafish with β-glucan had little detrimental effects on the number of spawned eggs and their embryonic development. Collectively, these data show for the first time that β-glucan can be safely used to promote the non-specific immunity in offspring of fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tracing Dietary Mercury Histochemically, with Autometallography, through the Liver to the Ovaries and Spawned Eggs of the Spot, a Temperate Coastal Marine Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, John J; Morris, James A; Evans, David W

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to mercury (Hg) results in reproductive abnormalities and deficiencies in female fish. We traced the maternal assimilation and redistribution of dietary inorganic (HgII) and organic (MeHg) forms of Hg in a coastal marine fish, the Spot Leiostomus xanthurus. We conducted a 90-d laboratory experiment in which treatment Spot were fed muscle of Blue Marlin Makaira nigricans with elevated concentrations of Hg mixed with a commercial fish food, while control Spot were fed only commercial food pellets. Gonadal maturation was induced by shortening the photoperiod and increasing the temperature. Spawning was induced by intramuscular injection of human chorionic gonadotropin at 100 IU/kg. Solid-sampling atomic absorption spectrophotometry measured the total Hg (THg), HgII, and MeHg in Blue Marlin muscle. Autometallography located Hg-sulfide granules in the liver, ovaries, and spawned eggs, and densitometry provided comparisons of Hg-sulfide granules in the ovaries of treatment and control Spot. Overall, the intensity and prevalence of Hg-sulfide granules were greater in the liver, ovaries, and eggs from treatment Spot than in those from controls. The tissue and cellular distribution of Hg-sulfide granules differed. Received November 18, 2016; accepted June 18, 2017.

  18. Crystallization and evaluation of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals for protein pH titration in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Wakari; Yagi, Daichi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Ohnishi, Yuki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0) and the quality of the crystals was characterized. Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined To observe the ionized status of the amino acid residues in proteins at different pH (protein pH titration in the crystalline state) by neutron diffraction, hen egg-white lysozyme was crystallized over a wide pH range (2.5–8.0). Crystallization phase diagrams at pH 2.5, 6.0 and 7.5 were determined. At pH < 4.5 the border between the metastable region and the nucleation region shifted to the left (lower precipitant concentration) in the phase diagram, and at pH > 4.5 the border shifted to the right (higher precipitant concentration). The qualities of these crystals were characterized using the Wilson plot method. The qualities of all crystals at different pH were more or less equivalent (B-factor values within 25–40). It is expected that neutron diffraction analysis of these crystals of different pH provides equivalent data in quality for discussions of protein pH titration in the crystalline state of hen egg-white lysozyme

  19. Alcohol-extracted, but not intact, dietary soy protein lowers lipoprotein(a) markedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinertz, Hans; Nilausen, Karin; Hilden, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    We previously found that dietary soy protein produces higher lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] plasma concentrations than does casein. This study tested the hypothesis that soy protein contains Lp(a)-raising alcohol-removable components. Twelve normolipidemic women and men consumed, in a crossover design......, liquid-formula diets containing casein, soy protein, or alcohol-extracted soy protein. Dietary periods of 32 days were separated by washout periods on self-selected diets. Fasting lipid and Lp(a) levels were measured throughout. Median Lp(a) concentration was >2-fold greater after 28 to 32 days on a soy...... protein diet than after an extracted soy protein diet (Psoy protein diets were virtually identical. Women and men responded similarly. When the switch was made from a self-selected to a soy protein diet, median Lp(a) concentration increased 16...

  20. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VI. Serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were used, of which 40 were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Foals from these 24 mares were weaned at the age of 6 months. Non-lactating and lactating mares were divided into 4 dietary groups each. The total daily protein intake and the protein quality (essential amino-acid content differed in the 4 groups of non-lactating and 4 groups of lactating mares. The mares were covered and the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary protein on serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy was studied. A sharp decline in serum progestagen concentrations was recorded in all dietary groups from Days 18 to 40 of pregnancy, with some individual mares reaching values of less than 4 ng/mℓ. Serum progestagen concentrations recorded in some of the non-lactating mares on the low-quality protein diet increased to higher values (p<0.05 than those of mares in the other 3 dietary groups at 35-140 days of pregnancy. A similar trend was observed for the lactating mares on a low-quality protein diet at 30-84 days of pregnancy. No such trends were observed in any of the other dietary groups. High-quality protein supplementation increased serum progestagen concentrations during the 1st 30 days of pregnancy. Lactation depressed serum progestagen concentrations until after the foals were weaned.

  1. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TO THE COAT PROTEIN OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Nurhadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the most destructive diseases in many citrus growing areas of Indonesia. Effective strategies for controlling CTV depend on diagnostic procedure namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Study aimed to purify the CTV antigen and produced its polyclonal antibody. Virion of the severe CTV isolate designated UPM/ T-002 was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation combined with low speed centrifugation. Semipurified antigen was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific coat protein (CP band of CTV with molecular weight of 25 kD was excised and eluted using elution buffer containing 0.25 M Tris-HCl pH 6.8 + 0.1% SDS, then used as antigen for injection into 6-month-old female of White Leghorn chicken. Results, showed than the specific polyclonal antibody raised against the 25-kDa CP had a titer of approximately 104, gave low background reaction with healthy plant sap and reacted specifically with CTV isolates. The reaction was equally strong for a severe, a moderate, a mild, and a symptomless isolate, suggesting a broad reaction range of this antibody toward different CTV isolates. Optimal virus titer can be obtained since virus loss during purification could be minimized and the highly purified antigen as an immunogen could be obtained by cutting out the CP band from SDS-PAGE gels. Large amount of highly titer of CTV antibody can be produced in chicken egg. The simplicity of the procedure makes it economically acceptable and technically adoptable because the antibody can be produced in basic laboratory.

  2. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  3. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in ... but it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you' ...

  4. Sources of dietary protein in relation to blood pressure in a general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Vedder, M.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP). We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20–65 y and not using

  5. Dietary ratio of protein to carbohydrate induces plastic responses in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen James

    2010-01-01

    of the protein-rich food. In contrast, intestines, caeca and colons were heavier when diets contained more carbohydrates and less protein. This response may function to increase the digestive rate of carbohydrates when the dietary content of this macronutrient increases, but it may also indicate a compensatory...

  6. Dietary pattern, serum magnesium, ferritin, C-reactive protein and anaemia among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological data of dietary patterns and anaemia among older Chinese remains extremely scarce. We examined the association between dietary patterns and anaemia in older Chinese, and to assess whether biomarkers of serum magnesium, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum ferritin can mediate these associations. We analysed the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey data (2401 individuals aged ≥60 years for whom both dietary and biomarker data are available). Dietary data was obtained using 24 h-recall over three consecutive days. Fasting blood samples and anthropometry measurement were also collected. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor scores representing dietary patterns were used in Poisson regression models to explore the association between each dietary pattern and anaemia. Of the 2401 participants, 18.9% had anaemia, 1.9% had anaemia related to inflammation (AI), and 1.3% had iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). A traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was positively associated with anaemia; a modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit and fast food) was inversely associated with anaemia. Progressively lower magnesium and BMI levels were associated with increasing traditional dietary quartiles; while a progressively higher magnesium and BMI levels were associated with increasing modern dietary quartiles (p  0.05) in CRP and serum ferritin across quartiles for either dietary pattern. In the fully adjusted model, the prevalence ratio (PR) of anaemia, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile, was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.33; 2.29) for a traditional dietary pattern, and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.16) for a modern dietary pattern. The association between dietary patterns and anaemia is mediated by serum magnesium. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia among older Chinese. Future studies need to examine whether correcting micronutrient deficiency (e.g. magnesium) by

  7. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kesiena

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... nine dietary treatments. Each treatment combination had four replicate pens (10 birds per pen). .... Ambient temperature was 29°C on day 1, gradually decreased to 21°C and ..... Glu, blood glucose; Lac, blood lactose; HCo3.

  8. Effect of different dietary energy and protein sources on antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and microstructure of salted yolks in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Hu, Y J; Fouad, A M; Lin, C X; Xu, Z P; Chen, W; Fan, Q L; Xia, W G; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zheng, C T

    2018-01-08

    The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and

  9. [Non-enzymatic glycosylation of dietary protein in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednykh, B S; Evdokimov, I A; Sokolov, A I

    2015-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins, based on discovered by Mayarn reaction of carbohydrate aldehyde group with a free amino group of a protein molecule, is well known to experts in biochemistry of food industry. Generated brown solid in some cases give the product marketable qualities--crackling bread--in others conversely, worsen the product. The biological effects of far-advanced products of non-enzymatic protein glycosylation reaction have not been studied enough, although it was reported previously that they are not split by digestive enzymes and couldn't be absorbed by animals. The objective of this work was to compare the depth of glycosylation of different food proteins of animal and vegetable origin. The objects of the study were proteins of animal (casein, lactoglobulin, albumin) and vegetable (soy isolate, proteins of rice flour, buckwheat, oatmeal) origin, glucose and fructose were selected as glycosylation agents, exposure 15 days at 37 degrees C. Lactoglobulin was glycosylated to a lesser extent among the proteins of animal origin while protein of oatmeal was glycosylated in the least degree among vegetable proteins. Conversely, such proteins as casein and soya isolate protein bound rather large amounts of carbohydrates. Fructose binding with protein was generally higher than the binding of glucose. The only exception was a protein of oatmeal. When of glucose and fructose simultaneously presented in the incubation medium, glucose binding usually increased while binding of fructose, in contrast, reduced. According to the total amount of carbohydrate (mcg), which is able to attach a protein (mg) the studied food proteins located in the following order: albumin (38) > soy protein isolate (23) > casein (15,) > whey protein rice flour protein (6) > protein from buckwheat flour (3) > globulin (2) > protein of oatmeal (0.3). The results obtained are to be used to select the optimal combination of proteins and carbohydrates, in which the glycosylation

  10. Effect of the level of dietary protein on the utilization of alpha-ketoisocaproate for protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C.W.; Tungsanga, K.; Walser, M.

    1986-04-01

    The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) as a dietary substitute for leucine in rats on varying protein intake was estimated by an isotopic method, previously shown to yield the same results as comparative growth experiments. /sup 14/C-KIC and /sup 3/H-leucine are injected orally. Six hours later the ratio, R, of /sup 14/C//sup 3/H in isolated proteins, divided by the same ratio in the injectate is measured. This ratio has been shown to be approximately equal to nutritional efficiency of KIC relative to leucine. As dietary protein increased from 6.3% to 48.3%, whole body protein R decreased from 0.515 +/- 0.045 to 0.299 +/- 0.016. Variations with protein intake were noted in R of protein isolated from individual organs. The magnitude of R in these organs varied two-fold, in the following sequence: brain greater than heart greater than or equal to skeletal muscle greater than or equal to salivary gland greater than or equal to kidney greater than liver. Whole body protein R could be confidently predicted (r2 = 0.992) from R in the protein of kidney and muscle. Thus, the nutritional efficiency of KIC as a dietary substitute for leucine in individual organs as well as in the whole animal is strongly dependent on the level of protein intake.

  11. Effect of the level of dietary protein on the utilization of alpha-ketoisocaproate for protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.W.; Tungsanga, K.; Walser, M.

    1986-01-01

    The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) as a dietary substitute for leucine in rats on varying protein intake was estimated by an isotopic method, previously shown to yield the same results as comparative growth experiments. 14 C-KIC and 3 H-leucine are injected orally. Six hours later the ratio, R, of 14 C/ 3 H in isolated proteins, divided by the same ratio in the injectate is measured. This ratio has been shown to be approximately equal to nutritional efficiency of KIC relative to leucine. As dietary protein increased from 6.3% to 48.3%, whole body protein R decreased from 0.515 +/- 0.045 to 0.299 +/- 0.016. Variations with protein intake were noted in R of protein isolated from individual organs. The magnitude of R in these organs varied two-fold, in the following sequence: brain greater than heart greater than or equal to skeletal muscle greater than or equal to salivary gland greater than or equal to kidney greater than liver. Whole body protein R could be confidently predicted (r2 = 0.992) from R in the protein of kidney and muscle. Thus, the nutritional efficiency of KIC as a dietary substitute for leucine in individual organs as well as in the whole animal is strongly dependent on the level of protein intake

  12. Effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, Van Rick A.; Kwakkel, René; Krimpen, van Marinus; Hendriks, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females. A 2×3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A total of 2880 Ross 308

  13. Effects of dietary protein and glycaemic index on biomarkers of bone turnover in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Müller, Martha; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it has been debated whether high protein intake compromises bone mineralisation, but no long-term randomised trial has investigated this in children. In the family-based, randomised controlled trial DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity and Genes), we examined the effects of dietary protein...... and glycaemic index (GI) on biomarkers of bone turnover and height in children aged 5-18 years. In two study centres, families with overweight parents were randomly assigned to one of five ad libitum-energy, low-fat (25-30 % energy (E%)) diets for 6 months: low protein/low GI; low protein/high GI; high protein....../low GI; high protein/high GI; control. They received dietary instructions and were provided all foods for free. Children, who were eligible and willing to participate, were included in the study. In the present analyses, we included children with data on plasma osteocalcin or urinary N...

  14. Effect of Different Heat Treatments on In Vitro Digestion of Egg White Proteins and Identification of Bioactive Peptides in Digested Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefen; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggs are ingested by people after a series of processes, but to date, only a few studies have explored the nutrient variations caused by different heat treatments. In this work, the impacts of different heat treatments (4, 56, 65, and 100 °C on the in vitro digestibility of egg white proteins were investigated by hydrolysis with pepsin or pepsin + pancreatin to simulate human gastrointestinal digestion, and the digested products were identified using Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Egg white proteins treated at 65 °C had the highest in vitro pepsin digestibility value whereas the pepsin + pancreatin digestibility increased significantly (P cooking temperature was raised. The molecular weight distribution of the digested products indicated that, when compared to pepsin-treated samples, pepsin + pancreatin-treated samples contained more low-molecular-weight peptides (m/z egg white digested products, especially in samples treated at 4 and 100 °C. These findings may facilitate a better understanding of nutritive values of egg white proteins and their digested products under different cooking temperatures, such as antibacterial and antioxidant peptides identified in the digestion samples treated, respectively at 4 and 100 °C. This study also provided information for improving the applications of eggs in the food industry as well as a theoretical basis for egg consumption. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler meat ... fatty acid profile of poultry products such as eggs and meat by means of dietary inclusion of ..... Designer eggs: From improvement of egg composition to functional.

  16. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  17. Dietary protein safety and resistance exercise: what do we really know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery Lonnie M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Resistance trainers continue to receive mixed messages about the safety of purposely seeking ample dietary protein in their quest for stimulating protein synthesis, improving performance, or maintaining health. Despite protein's lay popularity and the routinely high intakes exhibited by strength athletes, liberal and purposeful protein consumption is often maligned by "experts". University textbooks, instructors, and various forms of literature from personal training groups and athletic organizations continue to use dissuasive language surrounding dietary protein. Due to the widely known health benefits of dietary protein and a growing body of evidence on its safety profile, this is unfortunate. In response, researchers have critiqued unfounded educational messages. As a recent summarizing example, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN Position Stand: Protein and Exercise reviewed general literature on renal and bone health. The concluding remark that "Concerns that protein intake within this range [1.4 – 2.0 g/kg body weight per day] is unhealthy are unfounded in healthy, exercising individuals." was based largely upon data from non-athletes due to "a lack of scientific evidence". Future studies were deemed necessary. This assessment is not unique in the scientific literature. Investigators continue to cite controversy, debate, and the lack of direct evidence that allows it. This review discusses the few existing safety studies done specific to athletes and calls for protein research specific to resistance trainers. Population-specific, long term data will be necessary for effective education in dietetics textbooks and from sports governing bodies.

  18. Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new

  19. Changes in atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by carbohydrate restriction in men are dependent on dietary protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangravite, Lara M; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake in 40 healthy men. After a 3-wk baseline diet [50% daily energy (E) as carbohydrate, 13% E as protein, 15% E as saturated fat], participants consumed for 3 wk each in a randomized crossover design two high-beef diets in which protein replaced carbohydrate (31% E as carbohydrate, 31% E as protein, with 10% E as beef protein). The high-beef diets differed in saturated fat content (8% E vs. 15% E with exchange of saturated for monounsaturated fat). Two-week washout periods were included following the baseline diet period and between the randomized diets periods. Plasma TG concentrations were reduced after the 2 lower carbohydrate dietary periods relative to after the baseline diet period and these reductions were independent of saturated fat intake. Plasma total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol as well as apoB concentrations were lower after the low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet period than after the low-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat diet period. Given our previous observations with mixed protein diets, the present findings raise the possibility that dietary protein source may modify the effects of saturated fat on atherogenic lipoproteins.

  20. Effects of dietary protein level on nutrients digestibility and reproductive performance of female mink (Neovison vison during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkui Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.

  1. In vitro effect of dietary protein level and nondigestible oligosaccharides on feline fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, C; Stefanelli, C; Biagi, G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of some prebiotic substances and 2 dietary protein levels on the composition and activity of feline fecal microbiota. Two in vitro studies were conducted. First, 6 nondigestible oligosaccharides were studied; treatments were control diet (CTRL), gluconic acid (GA), carrot fiber (CF), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), lactitol (LAC), and pectins from citrus fruit (PEC). Substrates were added to feline fecal cultures at 2 g/L for 24 h incubation. Compared with the CTRL, ammonia had been reduced (Pmicrobiota and that high dietary protein levels in a cat's diet can have negative effects on the animal intestinal environment.

  2. The role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2 in regulating human sperm-egg recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Nixon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common lesions present in the spermatozoa of human infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. Although this unique cellular interaction can now be readily by-passed by assisted reproductive strategies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, recent large-scale epidemiological studies have encouraged the cautious use of this technology and highlighted the need for further research into the mechanisms responsible for defective sperm-egg recognition. Previous work in this field has established that the sperm domains responsible for oocyte interaction are formed during spermatogenesis prior to being dynamically modified during epididymal maturation and capacitation in female reproductive tract. While the factors responsible for the regulation of these sequential maturational events are undoubtedly complex, emerging research has identified the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2, as a key regulator of these events in human spermatozoa. HSPA2 is a testis-enriched member of the 70 kDa heat shock protein family that promotes the folding, transport, and assembly of protein complexes and has been positively correlated with in vitro fertilization (IVF success. Furthermore, reduced expression of HSPA2 from the human sperm proteome leads to an impaired capacity for cumulus matrix dispersal, sperm-egg recognition and fertilization following both IVF and ICSI. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the role of HSPA2 in sperm function and explore the potential mechanisms by which it is depleted in the spermatozoa of infertile patients. Such information offers novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sperm function.

  3. FTO genotype, dietary protein, and change in appetite: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Yanping; Hu, Frank B; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Williamson, Donald A; Qi, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Background: A common obesity-risk variant rs9939609 in the fat mass– and obesity-associated (FTO) gene was recently shown to affect appetite, and the gene is sensitive to the regulation of amino acids. Objective: We examined the interaction between FTO genotype and protein intake on the long-term changes in appetite in a randomized controlled trial. Design: We genotyped FTO rs9939609 in 737 overweight adults in the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial and assessed 4 appetite-related traits including cravings, fullness, hunger, and prospective consumption. Results: We showed that dietary protein significantly modified genetic effects on changes in food cravings and appetite scores at 6 mo after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, weight change, and baseline value for respective outcomes (P-interaction = 0.027 and 0.048, respectively). The A allele was associated with a greater decrease in food cravings and appetite scores in participants with high-protein–diet intake (P = 0.027 and 0.047, respectively) but not in subjects in the low-protein–diet group (P = 0.384 and 0.078, respectively). The weight regain from 6 to 24 mo attenuated gene-protein interactions. Protein intakes did not modify FTO genotype effects on other appetite measures. Conclusion: Our data suggest that individuals with the FTO rs9939609 A allele might obtain more benefits in a reduction of food cravings and appetite by choosing a hypocaloric and higher-protein weight-loss diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:24622803

  4. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism of altered B-cell response induced by changes in dietary protein type in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.; Shenouda, N.; Kongshavn, P.A.; Osmond, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 20 g/100 g dietary lactalbumin (L) or casein (C) diets or a nonpurified (NP) diet on the immune responsiveness of C57Bl/6J, C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice has been investigated by measuring the response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. To investigate the possible influence of dietary protein type on the supply of B lymphocytes, bone marrow lymphocyte production has been examined by a radioautographic assay of small lymphocyte renewal and an immunofluorescent stathmokinetic assay of pre-B cells and their proliferation. The humoral response of all mice fed the L diet was found to be higher than that of mice fed the C diet or nonpurified diet. A similar pattern of dietary protein effect in (CBA/N X DBA/2J) F1 mice carrying the xid defect was observed following challenge with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). An even greater enhancing effect of dietary L was noted in normal (DBA/2J X CBA/N) F1 mice after immunization with SRBC, but in contrast, the normal large-scale production of B lymphocytes in mouse bone marrow was independent of the type of dietary protein. Dietary protein type did not affect blood level of minerals and trace metals. The free plasma amino acid profile essentially conformed to the amino acid composition of the ingested protein, suggesting that the changes in plasma amino acid profile might be a crucial factor in diet-dependent enhancement or depression of the B-cell response

  6. Low Proportion of Dietary Plant Protein among Athletes with Premenstrual Syndrome-Related Performance Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Takeda, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is psychosomatic disorder that are limited to the late luteal phase in the menstrual cycle. PMS could impair athletic performance. To investigate associations between proportions of dietary plant and animal protein and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance, we surveyed 135 female athletes aged 18-23 years attending Kindai University. Participants belonged to authorized university clubs, all of which have high rankings in Japanese university sports. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on diet history, demographics, and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance. Total protein, animal protein, and plant protein intake were examined, and the proportion of dietary plant protein was calculated for each participant. We divided athletes into two groups: those without PMS-related impairment of athletic performance (n = 117) and those with PMS-related performance impairment (n = 18). A t-test was used to compare mean values and multivariable adjusted mean values between groups; adjustment variables were energy intake, body mass index, and daily training duration. Total protein intake was not significantly different between the groups. However, athletes whose performance was affected by PMS reported higher intake of animal protein (mean 50.6 g) than athletes whose performance was unaffected by PMS (mean 34.9 g). Plant protein intake was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (mean 25.4 g) than among athletes without impairment (mean 26.9 g). The proportion of dietary plant protein was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (39.3%) than those without impairment (45.9%). A low proportion of dietary plant protein may cause PMS-related athletic impairment among athletes.

  7. Stable isotopes as a tool to differentiate eggs laid by caged, barn, free range, and organic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2009-05-27

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of whole yolk, delipidized yolk, albumen, and egg membrane were analyzed from 18 different brands of chicken eggs laid under caged, barn, free range, and organic farming regimes. In general, free range and organic egg components showed enrichment of (15)N values up to 4‰ relative to caged and barn laid eggs, suggesting a higher animal protein (trophic) contribution to the chicken's diet than pure plant-based foods and/or that the feed was organically manufactured. One sample of free range and two samples of organic eggs had δ(15)N values within the range of caged or barn laid eggs, suggesting either that these eggs were mislabeled (the hens were raised under "battery" or "barn" conditions, and not permitted to forage outside) or that there was insufficient animal protein gained by foraging to shift the δ(15)N values of their primary food source. δ(13)C values of potential food sources are discussed with respect to dietary intake and contribution to the isotopic signature of the eggs to determine mixing of C(3) and C(4) diets, although they did not elucidate laying regimen. The study finds that stable nitrogen isotope analysis of egg components is potentially a useful technique to unravel dietary differences between caged or barn hens and free range hens (both conventional and organic) and could be further developed as an authentication tool in the egg industry.

  8. Changes in Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Induced by Carbohydrate Restriction in Men Are Dependent on Dietary Protein Source1234

    OpenAIRE

    Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S.; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake i...

  9. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p sport (r=0.77, p protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.

  10. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  11. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; de Sain-van der Velden, M. G. M.; Stellaard, F.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  12. Do vulnerable populations consume adequate amounts of dietary protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the previous year there has been a renewed interest in the adequacy of protein intake to maintain optimal health and to promote normal growth and development (1, 2). In this issue of the Journal there is an excellent report on protein consumption among children aged 6–36 mo from low-income countr...

  13. The effects of dietary energy and protein concentrations on ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were investigated of energy and protein concentrations (with associated amino acid concentrations) in ostrich diets on leather quality of the skins of 50 ostriches. Energy concentrations were 9.0, 10.5 and 12.0 MJ ME/kg diet and protein concentrations were 130, 150 and 170 g/kg diet. The physical leather ...

  14. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  15. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains: A controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Brink, E.J.; Boetje, M.; Siebelink, E.; Bijlsma, S.; Engberink, M.F.; Veer, P.V.'.; Tomé, D.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Baak, M.A. van; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in,

  16. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains : a controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Boetje, Martine; Siebelink, Els; Bijlsma, Sabina; Engberink, Marielle F.; van 't Veer, Pieter; Tome, Daniel; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in,

  17. The effect of dietary rumen degradable protein content on veal calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the undegradable dietary protein requirements of veal calves. Two experiments were carried out with Holstein bull calves from 3-10 days of age until slaughter at 20 weeks of age. Both experiments were divided into starter and finishing periods. Calves were offered starter pellets ...

  18. Effect of dietary protein content on growth, uniformity and mortality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the response in performance, including uniformity and mortality, of two broiler strains to dietary protein content. In Experiment 1, 480 Cobb 500 and 480 Ross 788 day-old sexed broiler chickens were housed in cages to 21 d with 10 chickens per cage, and in Experiment 2, ...

  19. Dietary citrus pulp improves protein stability in lamb meat stored under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravador, Rufielyn Sungcaya; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens Larsen

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of dried citrus pulp on proteins in lamb meat, when used as a replacement of concentrate in the feed, was studied using meat from 26 male Comisana lambs. The lambs of age 90. days had been grouped randomly to receive one of the three dietary treatments: (1) commercial...

  20. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.L.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing–finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine cystine, threonine and tryptophan, but

  1. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine + cystine, threonine and tryptophan,

  2. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  3. Dietary protein-induced hepatic IGF-1 secretion mediated by PPARγ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Songbo; Xu, Jingren; Zhuang, Lu; Xing, Kongping; Zhang, Mengyuan; Zhu, Xiaotong; Wang, Lina; Gao, Ping; Xi, Qianyun; Sun, Jiajie; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Tiejun; Shu, Gang; Jiang, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein or amino acid (AA) is a crucial nutritional factor to regulate hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) expression and secretion. However, the underlying intracellular mechanism by which dietary protein or AA induces IGF-1 expression remains unknown. We compared the IGF-1 gene expression and plasma IGF-1 level of pigs fed with normal crude protein (CP, 20%) and low-protein levels (LP, 14%). RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to detect transcript expression in the liver in response to dietary protein. The results showed that serum concentrations and mRNA levels of IGF-1 in the liver were higher in the CP group than in the LP group. RNA-seq analysis identified a total of 1319 differentially expressed transcripts (667 upregulated and 652 downregulated), among which the terms "oxidative phosphorylation", "ribosome", "gap junction", "PPAR signaling pathway", and "focal adhesion" were enriched. In addition, the porcine primary hepatocyte and HepG2 cell models also demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of IGF-1 and PPARγ increased with the increasing AA concentration in the culture. The PPARγ activator troglitazone increased IGF-1 gene expression and secretion in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibition of PPARγ effectively reversed the effects of the high AA concentration on the mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the protein levels of IGF-1 and PPARγ, as well as the phosphorylation of mTOR, significantly increased in HepG2 cells under high AA concentrations. mTOR phosphorylation can be decreased by the mTOR antagonist, rapamycin. The immunoprecipitation results also showed that high AA concentrations significantly increased the interaction of mTOR and PPARγ. In summary, PPARγ plays an important role in the regulation of IGF-1 secretion and gene expression in response to dietary protein.

  4. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Elena; Parolini, Cinzia; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Brambilla, Stefano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats were fed Nath's hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (pPea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (ppea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (ppea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes.

  5. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of egg white protein on the quality and stability of corn oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Batool, J.; Ajaz, M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of egg albumin has been examined on the texture and stability of O/W emulsion. The corn oil was used as dispersed phase while the aqueous phase as continuous phase of the emulsion. The aqueous phase was designed with the protein contents (0.5- 4 wt. %) at pH 7. The different oil phase (10-40 wt. %) were homogenized in aqueous phase (90-60 wt. %). It was observed that the viscosity and turbidity of the emulsion were increased with the increase of protein concentration and oil phase contents. Flow profile showed that shear stress was increased with increase of shear rate but it decreased at higher shear rate (100 s-1) in heated emulsion. On the other hand the emulsion viscosity was decreased with the increase of shear rate showing non- Newtonian behavior. This work may be useful in the formulation and physicochemical properties of food products i.e. sauces, mayonnaise etc. (author)

  7. Effect van voereiwitgehalte op de ammoniakemissie bij vleeskuikens : oriënterende metingen bij vier behandelingsniveaus = Effect of dietary crude protein content on ammonia emission in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.C.J.; Belt, van de K.; Aar, van der P.; Blanken, K.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein content on litter composition and ammonia emissions from the litter in a broiler house were measured. Differences were small, probably because feed intake was lower at higher dietary protein content.

  8. Duplicate Abalone Egg Coat Proteins Bind Sperm Lysin Similarly, but Evolve Oppositely, Consistent with Molecular Mimicry at Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Springer, Stevan A.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2013-01-01

    Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis), some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp.), a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d N/d S) of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14), and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL. PMID:23408913

  9. Duplicate abalone egg coat proteins bind sperm lysin similarly, but evolve oppositely, consistent with molecular mimicry at fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Aagaard

    Full Text Available Sperm and egg proteins constitute a remarkable paradigm in evolutionary biology: despite their fundamental role in mediating fertilization (suggesting stasis, some of these molecules are among the most rapidly evolving ones known, and their divergence can lead to reproductive isolation. Because of strong selection to maintain function among interbreeding individuals, interacting fertilization proteins should also exhibit a strong signal of correlated divergence among closely related species. We use evidence of such molecular co-evolution to target biochemical studies of fertilization in North Pacific abalone (Haliotis spp., a model system of reproductive protein evolution. We test the evolutionary rates (d(N/d(S of abalone sperm lysin and two duplicated egg coat proteins (VERL and VEZP14, and find a signal of co-evolution specific to ZP-N, a putative sperm binding motif previously identified by homology modeling. Positively selected residues in VERL and VEZP14 occur on the same face of the structural model, suggesting a common mode of interaction with sperm lysin. We test this computational prediction biochemically, confirming that the ZP-N motif is sufficient to bind lysin and that the affinities of VERL and VEZP14 are comparable. However, we also find that on phylogenetic lineages where lysin and VERL evolve rapidly, VEZP14 evolves slowly, and vice versa. We describe a model of sexual conflict that can recreate this pattern of anti-correlated evolution by assuming that VEZP14 acts as a VERL mimic, reducing the intensity of sexual conflict and slowing the co-evolution of lysin and VERL.

  10. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS...... seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic...

  11. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  12. Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... during 90 days. Feeds were formulated using ground nut oil cake, mustard oil cake, rice bran, wheat ... Lim, 2002). However, protein is essential for normal tissue ... the diet, pre-treatment and degree of gelatinization. The ability of ... A pelleting machine (Hobart, model, A 200) was used to pellet the feeds.

  13. Effects of dietary crude protein and calcium/ phosphorus content on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of three levels of crude protein (CP) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) and three levels of Ca and available P (Av. P) (NRC, 15% more than NRC and 15% less than NRC) on performance of broilers from hatching until 21 days of age. The experimental ...

  14. The Measurement and Interpretation of Dietary Protein Distribution During a Rugby Preseason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kristen; Slater, Gary; King, Neil; Byrne, Nuala

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that increasing protein distribution may be desirable to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in combination with resistance exercise. However, there is a threshold above which additional protein consumption has limited benefit for MPS and may promote protein loss due to increased oxidation. This study aimed to measure daily protein intake and protein distribution in a cohort of rugby players. Twenty-five developing elite rugby union athletes (20.5 ± 2.3 years, 100.2 ± 13.3 kg, 184.4 ± 7.4 cm) were assessed at the start and end of a rugby preseason. Using a 7-day food diary the reported daily protein intake was 2.2 ± 0.7 g · kg · day(-1) which exceeds daily recommendations. The reported carbohydrate intake was 3.6 ± 1.3 g · kg · day(-1) which may reflect a suboptimal intake or dietary underreporting. In general, the rugby athletes were regularly consuming more than 20 g of protein; 3.8 ± 0.9 times per day (68 ± 18% of eating occasions). In addition to documenting current dietary intakes, an excess protein estimation score was calculated to determine how frequently the rugby athletes consumed protein above a known effective dose with a margin of error. 2.0 ± 0.9 eating occasions contained protein in excess of doses (20 g) known to promote MPS. Therefore, it is currently unclear whether the consumption of regular large doses of protein will benefit rugby athletes via increasing protein distribution, or whether high protein intakes may have unintended effects including a reduction in carbohydrate and/or energy intake.

  15. Effect of dietary nutrients on ileal endogenous losses of threonine, cysteine, methionine, lysine, leucine and protein in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrate, S; Vignale, S K; Ekmay, R; England, J; Coon, C

    2018-04-01

    An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta. The APE of D4-lysine in plasma, jejunal digesta and ileal digesta reached the isotopic steady state at 5.5, 3.4 and 2.0 days, respectively, by using the broken-line model. It was assumed that the isotopic steady state at 5 days identified for D4-lysine is also representative for the 15N-labeled AA. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets from 1 to 21 days with increasing levels of fat (6%, 8%, 12%, 13% extract ether), protein (26%, 28.5%, 31% CP) or fiber (14%, 16%, 18% NDF) by adding poultry fat, soybean meal, blended animal protein or barley. Chicks were orally administered 15N-threonine, 15N-cysteine, 15N-methionine, 15N-lysine and 15N-leucine at 2% of estimated daily intake for 5 days from 17 to 21 days of age. Dietary nutrients influenced endogenous losses (EL), where dietary fat stimulated EL of lysine (P=0.06), leucine and protein (P=0.07); dietary protein enhanced EL of leucine and protein; and finally the dietary fiber increased EL of leucine. Dietary nutrients also affected apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Dietary fat increased AID of cysteine but decreased AID of lysine. Dietary protein reduced AID of protein, threonine, lysine and leucine, and similarly dietary fiber decreased AID of protein, threonine, methionine, lysine and leucine. In contrast, dietary fat or protein did not affect real ileal digestibility (RID) of protein and AA except threonine and leucine. The dietary fiber reduced the RID of protein, threonine and leucine. This

  16. High-pressure protein crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagae, Takayuki [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Nobuhisa, E-mail: nobuhisa@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structure of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was analyzed under pressures of up to 950 MPa. The high pressure modified the conformation of the molecule and induced a novel phase transition in the tetragonal crystal of HEWL. Crystal structures of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) determined under pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 950 MPa are presented. From 0.1 to 710 MPa, the molecular and internal cavity volumes are monotonically compressed. However, from 710 to 890 MPa the internal cavity volume remains almost constant. Moreover, as the pressure increases to 950 MPa, the tetragonal crystal of HEWL undergoes a phase transition from P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 to P4{sub 3}. Under high pressure, the crystal structure of the enzyme undergoes several local and global changes accompanied by changes in hydration structure. For example, water molecules penetrate into an internal cavity neighbouring the active site and induce an alternate conformation of one of the catalytic residues, Glu35. These phenomena have not been detected by conventional X-ray crystal structure analysis and might play an important role in the catalytic activity of HEWL.

  17. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P eggs (P egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals...... with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results....

  19. Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    This study aimed to determine a feed formulation with the best protein to energy ratio that would result in a better viscera composition and organ indices (OI) of Cyprinus carpio communis. Fingerlings having average weight of 1.64 ± 0.13 g and length of 5.26 ± 0.10 cm were fed on four different formulated feeds and a control ...

  20. Egg-specific expression of protein with DNA methyltransferase activity in the biocarcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Cho, Hye-Jeong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kong, Yoon; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Bae, Young-An

    2015-08-01

    Despite recent reports regarding the biology of cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni, the impact of the regulatory machinery remains unclear in diverse platyhelminthes. This ambiguity is reinforced by discoveries of DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2)-only organisms and the substrate specificity of DNMT2 preferential to RNA molecules. Here, we characterized a novel DNA methyltransferase, named CsDNMT2, in a liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. The protein exhibited structural properties conserved in other members of the DNMT2 family. The native and recombinant CsDNMT2 exhibited considerable enzymatic activity on DNA. The spatiotemporal expression of CsDNMT2 mirrored that of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC), both of which were elevated in the C. sinensis eggs. However, CsDNMT2 and 5 mC were marginally detected in other histological regions of C. sinensis adults including ovaries and seminal receptacle. The methylation site seemed not related to genomic loci occupied by progenies of an active long-terminal-repeat retrotransposon. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that C. sinensis has preserved the functional DNA methylation machinery and that DNMT2 acts as a genuine alternative to DNMT1/DNMT3 to methylate DNA in the DNMT2-only organism. The epigenetic regulation would target functional genes primarily involved in the formation and/or maturation of eggs, rather than retrotransposons.

  1. Dietary Protein in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity and Co-Morbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup

    mice were fed obesity‐promoting diets with protein from different sources, in different forms and at different levels to evaluate the affect on development of obesity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Results: In the present study the dietary level of protein, 16 versus 32 percent energy from...... protein, was found to be negligible in development of obesity and co‐morbidities in mice. Seafood protein with high endogenous taurine and glycine contents was found to prevent diet‐induced adiposity and dyslipidemia, both in ad libitum and pair‐fed settings. The ability of seafood proteins to prevent...... that the source and form of protein has great impact on development and prevention of diet‐induced adiposity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and impairment of glucose tolerance through modulations of voluntary locomotor activity, energy expenditure and energy substrate metabolism in mice...

  2. Uncoupling proteins, dietary fat and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warden Craig H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been intense interest in defining the functions of UCP2 and UCP3 during the nine years since the cloning of these UCP1 homologues. Current data suggest that both UCP2 and UCP3 proteins share some features with UCP1, such as the ability to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential, but they also have distinctly different physiological roles. Human genetic studies consistently demonstrate the effect of UCP2 alleles on type-2 diabetes. Less clear is whether UCP2 alleles influence body weight or body mass index (BMI with many studies showing a positive effect while others do not. There is strong evidence that both UCP2 and UCP3 protect against mitochondrial oxidative damage by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species. The evidence that UCP2 protein is a negative regulator of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells is also strong: increased UCP2 decreases glucose stimulated insulin secretion ultimately leading to β-cell dysfunction. UCP2 is also neuroprotective, reducing oxidative stress in neurons. UCP3 may also transport fatty acids out of mitochondria thereby protecting the mitochondria from fatty acid anions or peroxides. Current data suggest that UCP2 plays a role in the metabolic syndrome through down-regulation of insulin secretion and development of type-2 diabetes. However, UCP2 may protect against atherosclerosis through reduction of oxidative stress and both UCP2 and UCP3 may protect against obesity. Thus, these UCP1 homologues may both contribute to and protect from the markers of the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Level changes and human dietary exposure assessment of halogenated flame retardant levels in free-range chicken eggs: A case study of a former e-waste recycling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Chen; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Liu, Yin-E; Ren, Zi-He; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2018-04-06

    To assess the impacts of e-waste regulations on environmental pollution, we built on a previous study from 2010 to investigate the levels and human dietary exposure of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in free-range chicken eggs from Baihe village in 2013 and 2016. The concentrations of PBDEs, PBBs, HBCDs, and DBDPE showed a significant decrease (pexposure estimates suggested high dietary intake of HFRs via home-produced eggs. As for PBDEs, considering the worst situation (highly polluted eggs were consumed), the margin of exposure (MOE) of BDE99 for both adults and children were 1.5 and 0.3 in 2013, and 1.1 and 0.2 in 2016, respectively, which were below 2.5. According to the CONTAM panel, an MOE larger than 2.5 indicates no health concern. Therefore, these MOE values represent a significant potential health concern due to the adverse impacts of PBDEs on human neurodevelopment and fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The good and the bad: what researchers have learned about dietary cholesterol, lipid management and cardiovascular disease risk since the Harvard Egg Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance, C

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, while lower than it once was, remains a significant health consideration. To review the evolving evidence with respect to what role various factors play in the aetiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). While total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were previously believed to play central roles, it has now become clear that neither in isolation is highly significant. For example, some people with very high LDL-C levels do not develop CHD, while others with very low LDL-C levels do. Furthermore, there is a difference between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol, which is found in animal-based foods, raises blood cholesterol in only approximately one-third of people. Conversely, intake of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids can result in dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, obesity--particularly abdominal obesity--and metabolic syndrome both are strong independent risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease. Statin therapy and a diet comprising a portfolio of plant sterols and viscous fibres can both significantly reduce LDL-C levels and C-reactive protein. The latter is a key marker of inflammation and of elevated risk for cardiovascular disease.

  5. Ultrasound Pretreatment as an Useful Tool to Enhance Egg White Protein Hydrolysis: Kinetics, Reaction Model, and Thermodinamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Jelena R; Stefanović, Andrea B; Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Tanasković, Sonja M Jakovetić; Dojčinović, Marina B; Bugarski, Branko M; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2016-09-28

    The impact of ultrasound waves generated by probe-type sonicator and ultrasound cleaning bath on egg white protein susceptibility to hydrolysis by alcalase compared to both thermal pretreatment and conventional enzymatic hydrolysis was quantitatively investigated. A series of hydrolytic reactions was carried out in a stirred tank reactor at different substrate concentrations, enzyme concentrations, and temperatures using untreated, and pretreated egg white proteins (EWPs). The kinetic model based on substrate inhibition and second-order enzyme deactivation successfully predicts the experimental behavior providing an effective tool for comparison and optimization. The ultrasound pretreatments appear to greatly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of EWPs under different conditions when compare to other methods. The apparent reaction rate constants for proteolysis (k 2 ) are 0.009, 0.011, 0.053, and 0.045 min -1 for untreated EWPs, and those pretreated with heat, probe-type sonicator, and ultrasound cleaning bath technologies, respectively. The ultrasound pretreatment also decreases hydrolysis activation (E a ) and enzyme deactivation (E d ) energy, enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) of activation and for the probe-type sonication this decrease is 61.7%, 61.6%, 63.6%, and 32.2%, respectively, but ultrasound has little change in Gibbs free energy value in the temperature range of 318 to 338 K. The content of sulfhydryl groups and ζ potential show a significant increase (P < 0.05) for both applied ultrasound pretreatments and the reduction of particle size distribution are achieved, providing some evidence that the ultrasound causes EWP structural changes affecting the proteolysis rate. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. OP-16 DIETARY INTERVENTION USING THE LOW FODMAP DIET VERSUS THE "MILK, EGG, WHEAT AND SOYA FREE" DIET FOR TREATMENT OF FUNCTIONAL GUT DISORDERS A SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keetarut, K; Kiparissi, F; McCartney, S; Murray, C

    2015-10-01

    The adolescent clinic is a tertiary referral clinic including patients with a wide variety of complex gastroenterology conditions predominantly tertiary referrals fromGreat Ormond Street Hospital transition clinic. To assess the benefit of the low FODMAP diet versus the "Milk, egg, wheat and soya" (MEWS) free diet for symptom control in patients with functional gut disorders and/or food allergy from June 2013 to June 2015. A total of 436 patients were seen during this time period for dietetic advice and the age range varied from 13-21 years old with 43terms of diagnosis used. These included the broad categories of inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, functional gut conditions, congenital gut disorders, autoimmune disorders and oncology conditions. For functional gut disorders/food allergy there were 14 terms used which varied from "Functional gut disorder" to "Irritable bowel syndrome" and also included patients with delayed gastric emptying. For patients with food allergy the terms "multiple food allergy" or EosinophilicOesophagitis or Colitis were used. A total of 40 patients with functional gut disorders were referred for the MEWS or low FODMAP diet. The efficacy of the diet was measured using a symptom scale pre and post dietary intervention assessing if patients symptoms changed from nil/mild/moderate tosignificant. The results indicate whether the presenting predominant symptom e.g., bloating, constipation or abdominal pain improved following the dietary intervention. A total of 29 patients were seen for the "MEWS" free diet.These were 17 functional, 3 food allergy, 6 IBS, 2 EosinophilicOesophagitis, 1 oncology patient. The age ranged from 14 to 21 and average ageat treatment was 16.6 years old with 11 males and 18 females. 13 patients were referred for the low FODMAP diet. The patients referred for the low FODMAP diet were 7 with a functional gut disorder, 5Irritable Bowel Syndrome and1 EosinophilicColitis.The age range was 14 to 19 years old with

  7. Fiber-bound nitrogen in gorilla diets: implications for estimating dietary protein intake of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Pell, Alice N

    2008-07-01

    Protein is essential for living organisms, but digestibility of crude protein is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Nitrogen is used to estimate protein content because nitrogen is a component of the amino acids that comprise protein, but a substantial portion of the nitrogen in plants may be bound to fiber in an indigestible form. To estimate the amount of crude protein that is unavailable in the diets of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, foods routinely eaten were analyzed to determine the amount of nitrogen bound to the acid-detergent fiber residue. The amount of fiber-bound nitrogen varied among plant parts: herbaceous leaves 14.5+/-8.9% (reported as a percentage of crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis), tree leaves (16.1+/-6.7% DM), pith/herbaceous peel (26.2+/-8.9% DM), fruit (34.7+/-17.8% DM), bark (43.8+/-15.6% DM), and decaying wood (85.2+/-14.6% DM). When crude protein and available protein intake of adult gorillas was estimated over a year, 15.1% of the dietary crude protein was indigestible. These results indicate that the proportion of fiber-bound protein in primate diets should be considered when estimating protein intake, food selection, and food/habitat quality.

  8. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Baum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1. Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults.

  9. Current issues in determining dietary protein and amino-acid requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pencharz, P; Jahoor, F; Kurpad, A

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge.Eu.......European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.297....

  10. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Melissa G.; Roudybush, Thomas E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits,...

  11. The relation between dietary protein, calcium and bone health in women: results from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikert, Cornelia; Walter, Dietmar; Hoffmann, Kurt; Kroke, Anja; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in bone health is controversial. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between protein intake, dietary calcium, and bone structure measured by broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). Our analysis includes 8,178 female study participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam Study. Ultrasound bone measurements were performed on the right os calcis, and BUA was determined. Dietary intake was assessed by a standardized food frequency questionnaire. We applied linear regression models to estimate the association between dietary protein and BUA. After multivariate adjustment, high intake of animal protein was associated with decreased BUA values (beta = -0.03; p = 0.010) whereas high vegetable protein intake was related to an increased BUA (beta = 0.11; p = 0.007). The effect of dietary animal protein on BUA was modified by calcium intake. High consumption of protein from animal origin may be unfavourable, whereas a higher vegetable protein intake may be beneficial for bone health. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that high calcium intake combined with adequate protein intake based on a high ratio of vegetable to animal protein may be protective against osteoporosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2014-01-01

    and at follow-up about 5 years later were analyzed with multiple linear regression and dietary macronutrient substitution models. Interactions between dietary protein and baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline WC adjusted for BMI (WCBMI ) (divided in tertiles; nine groups total), were analyzed in relation...... protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  13. DIETARY PROTEIN INTAKE IS INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE URINARY EXCRETION OF PHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobronravov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of urinary phosphate (P excretion and P retention triggers activation of phosphotonins and subsequent development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in progressing of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main source of P is dietary protein. No large studies are presented to-date to evaluate the relationship between dietary protein intake and parameters of P metabolism in CKD patients. This was a goal of the cross-sectional cohort study .11315 CKD patients were entered (males 43%. Median (10th-90th percentile of age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were 46 (24-69 and 64 (24-104. The analyzed data were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI serum albumin, creatinine, calcium and phosphate; 24-h urine creatinine, phosphate (P,proteinuria (DP. Estimated parameters includes: eGFR, fractional P excretion (FEP, 24-h P excretion (24-h UP, and P clearance (CP. Dietary protein intake (DPI was based on 24-h urinary urea excretion. No significant differences in serum phosphate were found in groups with various DPI. FEP, 24-h UP and CP were significantly higher in higher DPI range. DPI was positively associated with 24-h UP (β=0,287, p<0.000001 in multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, DP, eGFR, serum P, FEP, BMI, and Ca. Thus, DPI is considered to be the independent factor influencing urinary P excretion and hence contributing to progression of mineral and bone disease in renal dysfunction.

  14. Attenuation of Renovascular Damage in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat by NWT-03, an Egg Protein Hydrolysate with ACE- and DPP4-Inhibitory Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yumei; Landheer, S.; Gilst, van W.H.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are important target enzymes in glycemic control and renovascular protection. Here, we studied the effect of NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with DPP4- and ACE-inhibitory activity, on renovascular damage in Zucker

  15. Attenuation of Renovascular Damage in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat by NWT-03, an Egg Protein Hydrolysate with ACE- and DPP4-Inhibitory Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yumei; Landheer, Sjoerd; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Amerongen, Aart; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Deelman, Leo E.; Buikema, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are important target enzymes in glycemic control and renovascular protection. Here, we studied the effect of NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with DPP4- and ACE-inhibitory activity, on renovascular damage in Zucker

  16. High-fiber diets with reduced crude protein for commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating diets containing different fiber sources and two crude protein levels on the performance, egg quality, and nitrogen metabolism of commercial layers. In total, 392 48-wk-old Isa Brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x2+1 (control factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of three fiber feedstuffs (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls, and rice hulls and two dietary crude protein levels (12% and 16%. Cottonseed hulls associated with the high crude protein level (16% resulted in the worst feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs. Diets with 16% crude protein resulted in the highest feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass values, and improved feed conversion ratio (kg eggs/kg feed. The dietary inclusion of soybean hulls determined low yolk pigmentation, and of rice hulls, low egg specific gravity. The 16% crude protein diet with rice hulls promoted the best feed conversion ratio. Hens fed the reference diet presented higher egg mass and better feed conversion ratio per kg eggs and per dozen eggs. Hens fed the diets with low crude protein level (12% had reduced nitrogen excretion, but presented worse egg production.

  17. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single...

  18. Oral food desensitization in children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy: a new protocol with raw hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, Paolo; Giampietro, Paolo G; Carello, Rossella; Gabriele, Ida; Avitabile, Simona; Galli, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects young children and can cause severe allergic reactions. Avoidance results in dietary limitations and can affect the quality of life, especially in cases where potentially life-threatening reactions exist. Our objective was to desensitize children with moderate-severe IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy over a 6-month period, by introducing increasing and very gradual daily doses of raw hen's egg in order to enable the children to assume 25ml of this food, or to induce tolerance to the highest possible dose. The protocol foresaw the egg reintroduction in the home setting. In this randomized, controlled open study, 20 hen's egg allergic children (10 in the active group) were admitted. A convincing history or a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge confirmed the diagnosis. Oral desensitization was performed with increasing doses starting from 0.27 mg of hen's egg proteins (1 drop of raw hen's egg diluted 1:100). We adopted an original, mathematically calculated protocol in order to ensure a constant, daily increment of doses. 8/10 children (80%) in the active group achieved the daily intake of 25ml over a 6-month period. One child (10%) could tolerate up to 2ml/day while another child (10%) failed the desensitization. Six months after enrolment only 2 children in the control group (20%) could tolerate hen's egg. We successfully desensitized 8/10 children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy in a 6-month period. The partial outcome in the child who could tolerate 2ml/day reduced the risk of severe reactions after unnoticed introduction of egg. A regular protocol that ensures a daily constant increase of doses helps to reduce possible adverse events, thus improving safety and effectiveness. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Effect on Dietary Protein and Feeding Rate on Growth of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus Fuscoguttatus) Juvenile

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuqi, Muhammad; Astuti, Ni Wayan Widya; Suwirya, Ketut

    2012-01-01

    The grouper fish culture was developed after its succesful seed production in hatchery well known. In grow-out culture grouper, the protein requirement and feeding rate have to know well in order to understand the effectiveness on feed utilization . The experiment was designed by factorial design with the first factor as 3 dietary protein (36%, 42%, 48%) and the second factor as 3 feeding rate ( 1,5%, 2,0%, 2,5%). Ten of juvenile tiger grouper (102, 51-102, 73 g of body weight) were stocked i...

  20. Repletion of branched chain amino acids reverses mTORC1 signaling but not improved metabolism during dietary protein dilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maida, Adriano; Chan, Jessica S K; Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether...... dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance. We tested whether replenishment of dietary BCAAs to an AA-diluted (AAD......) diet is sufficient to reverse the glucoregulatory benefits of dietary PD. METHODS: We conducted AA profiling of serum from healthy humans and lean and high fat-fed or New Zealand obese (NZO) mice following dietary PD. We fed wildtype and NZO mice one of three amino acid defined diets: control, total...

  1. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  2. Sources of dietary protein in relation to blood pressure in a general Dutch population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP. We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20-65 y and not using antihypertensive medication. DESIGN: Mean BP levels were calculated in quintiles of energy-adjusted protein with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and other nutrients including protein from other sources. In addition, mean BP difference after substitution of 3 en% carbohydrates or MUFA with protein was calculated. RESULTS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP (p(trend = 0.62 and 0.71 respectively, both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA. Systolic BP was 1.8 mmHg lower (p(trend36 g/d than in the lowest (<27 g/d quintile of plant protein. This inverse association was present both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA and more pronounced in individuals with untreated hypertension (-3.6 mmHg than in those with normal (+0.1 mmHg or prehypertensive BP (-0.3 mmHg; p(interaction<0.01. Meat and grain protein were not related to BP. Dairy protein was directly associated with systolic BP (+1.6 mmHg, p(trend<0.01, but not with diastolic BP (p(trend = 0.24. CONCLUSIONS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP in this general untreated Dutch population. Plant protein may be beneficial to BP, especially in people with elevated BP. However, because high intake of plant protein may be a marker of a healthy diet and lifestyle in general, confirmation from randomized controlled trials is warranted.

  3. Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Profiles in Relation to Risk of Dysglycemia: Findings from a Prospective Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Esfandyari, Saeed; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Considering the limited knowledge on the effects of dietary amino acid intake on dysglycemia, we assessed the possible association of dietary protein and amino acid patterns with the risk of pre-diabetes in a prospective population-based study. Participants without diabetes and pre-diabetes (n = 1878) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 5.8 years. Their dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006–2008); demographic,...

  4. Dietary Protein in Older Adults: Adequate Daily Intake but Potential for Improved Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle K. Cardon-Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV, and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg−1·day−1. Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67, and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg−1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count (r = 0.439, p = 0.007 and negatively correlated with sedentary time (r = −0.456, p = 0.005 and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time (r = −0.421, p = 0.011. Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies.

  5. Fosrenol for Enhancing Dietary Protein Intake in Hypoalbuminemic Dialysis Patients (FrEDI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Koontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy wasting (PEW, reflected by serum albumin 5.5 mg/dL is also common and is associated with high death risk. The traditional dietary approach to control hyperphosphatemia by limiting protein foods may cause or worsen PEW. We hypothesized that provision of a high protein diet including during HD treatment results in favorable outcomes if a potent phosphorus binder such as lanthanum carbonate (Fosrenol™ can control phosphorus simultaneously and conducted a pilot/feasibility randomized controlled trial in 110 hypoalbuminemic (<4.0 mg/dL MHD patients in several dialysis clinics. After a washout period and upon 1:1 randomization, we provided the INTERVENTION group with 8 weeks of high protein meals as prepared meal boxes (50 g protein, 850 Cal, phosphorus to protein ratio <10 mg/gm during each HD treatment, along with 0.5 to 1.5 g Fosrenol (titrated as needed plus dietary counseling to maintain a high dietary protein intake at home. The CONTROL group received meal boxes containing low calorie (<50 Cal and almost no protein (<1 g, such as salads during each HD treatment and continued non-Fosrenol binders. We examined combined change in serum albumin with remaining in target phosphorus range of 3.5-<5.5 mg/dL over the 8 weeks of intervention. Among the 51 intervention and 55 control subjects who qualified for the intention-to-treat analyses, the combined rise in albumin ≥0.2 g/dL while maintaining phosphorus in 3.5-<5.5 mg/dL range was achieved in 25.5% and 9.8%, respectively (χ² p-value 0.036. No serious adverse events were reported, and patients reported satisfaction with high protein meals during HD. Hence, provision of high protein meals combined with Fosrenol™ during HD is safe and may improve albumin while controlling serum phosphorus. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT0111694

  6. Effect of voluntary exercise and dietary protein levels on incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein by mice liver slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Masanori; Kimura, Shuichi

    1983-01-01

    The effect of voluntary exercise on incorporation of 14 C-leucine into protein by mice liver slices in vitro were examined with mice fed 4 %, 6 % and 20 % protein diets. The incorporation of 14 C-leucine increased as dietary protein levels decreased and was significantly higher in liver slices of exercise groups than in slices of non-exercise groups. (author)

  7. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  8. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (Pducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and carcass components. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  9. Influence of Protein and Energy Level in Finishing Diets for Feedlot Hair Lambs: Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Ríos-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight Pelibuey×Katahdin male intact lambs (23.87±2.84 kg were used in an 84-d feeding trial, with six pens per treatment in a 2×2 factorial design arrangement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interaction of two dietary energy levels (3.05 and 2.83 Mcal/kg ME and two dietary protein levels (17.5% and 14.5% on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass traits. The dietary treatments used were: i High protein-high energy (HP-HE; ii High protein-low energy (HP-LE; iii Low protein-high energy (LP-HE, and iv Low protein-low energy (LP-LE. With a high-energy level, dry matter intake (DMI values were 6.1% lower in the low-protein diets, while with low-energy, the DMI values did not differ between the dietary protein levels. Energy levels did not influence the final weight and average daily gain (ADG, but resulted in lower DMI values and higher gain efficiencies. No effects of protein level were detected on growth performance. The observed dietary net energy (NE ratio and observed DMI were closer than expected in all treatments and were not affected by the different treatments. There was an interaction (p2.80 Mcal/kg ME. Providing a level of protein above 14.5% does not improves growth-performance, dietary energetics or carcass dressing percentage.

  10. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  11. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  12. Immunoglobulin production is impaired in protein-deprived mice and can be restored by dietary protein supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Amaral

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Most contacts with food protein and microbiota antigens occur at the level of the gut mucosa. In animal models where this natural stimulation is absent, such as germ-free and antigen-free mice, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and systemic immunological activities are underdeveloped. We have shown that food proteins play a critical role in the full development of the immune system. C57BL/6 mice weaned to a diet in which intact proteins are replaced by equivalent amounts of amino acids (Aa diet have a poorly developed GALT as well as low levels of serum immunoglobulins (total Ig, IgG, and IgA, but not IgM. In the present study, we evaluated whether the introduction of a protein-containing diet in 10 adult Aa-fed C57BL/6 mice could restore their immunoglobulin levels and whether this recovery was dependent on the amount of dietary protein. After the introduction of a casein-containing diet, Aa-fed mice presented a fast recovery (after 7 days of secretory IgA (from 0.33 to 0.75 mg/mL, while in casein-fed mice this value was 0.81 mg/mL and serum immunoglobulin levels (from 5.39 to 10.25 mg/mL of total Ig. Five percent dietary casein was enough to promote the restoration of secretory IgA and serum immunoglobulin levels to a normal range after 30 days feeding casein diet (as in casein-fed mice - 15% by weight of diet. These data suggest that the defect detected in the immunoglobulin levels was a reversible result of the absence of food proteins as an antigenic stimulus. They also indicate that the deleterious consequences of malnutrition at an early age for some immune functions may be restored by therapeutic intervention later in life.

  13. CUP-1 Is a Novel Protein Involved in Dietary Cholesterol Uptake in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Victor J.; Athie, Alejandro; Salinas, Laura S.; Navarro, Rosa E.; Vaca, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Sterols transport and distribution are essential processes in all multicellular organisms. Survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans depends on dietary absorption of sterols present in the environment. However the general mechanisms associated to sterol uptake in nematodes are poorly understood. In the present work we provide evidence showing that a previously uncharacterized transmembrane protein, designated Cholesterol Uptake Protein-1 (CUP-1), is involved in dietary cholesterol uptake in C. elegans. Animals lacking CUP-1 showed hypersensitivity to cholesterol limitation and were unable to uptake cholesterol. A CUP-1-GFP fusion protein colocalized with cholesterol-rich vesicles, endosomes and lysosomes as well as the plasma membrane. Additionally, by FRET imaging, a direct interaction was found between the cholesterol analog DHE and the transmembrane “cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus” (CRAC) motif present in C. elegans CUP-1. In-silico analysis identified two mammalian homologues of CUP-1. Most interestingly, CRAC motifs are conserved in mammalian CUP-1 homologous. Our results suggest a role of CUP-1 in cholesterol uptake in C. elegans and open up the possibility for the existence of a new class of proteins involved in sterol absorption in mammals. PMID:22479487

  14. Dietary live yeast alters metabolic profiles, protein biosynthesis and thermal stress tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Renault, David

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional factors on insect's life-history traits such as reproduction and lifespan has been excessively examined; however, nutritional determinant of insect's thermal tolerance has not received a lot of attention. Dietary live yeast represents a prominent source of proteins and amino acids for laboratory-reared drosophilids. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster adults were fed on diets supplemented or not with live yeast. We hypothesized that manipulating nutritional conditions through live yeast supplementation would translate into altered physiology and stress tolerance. We verified how live yeast supplementation affected body mass characteristics, total lipids and proteins, metabolic profiles and cold tolerance (acute and chronic stress). Females fed with live yeast had increased body mass and contained more lipids and proteins. Using GC/MS profiling, we found distinct metabolic fingerprints according to nutritional conditions. Metabolite pathway enrichment analysis corroborated that live yeast supplementation was associated with amino acid and protein biosyntheses. The cold assays revealed that the presence of dietary live yeast greatly promoted cold tolerance. Hence, this study conclusively demonstrates a significant interaction between nutritional conditions and thermal tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Curcumin Ameliorates Aging-Related Cerebrovascular Dysfunction through the AMPK/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Pu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. One pathogenic mechanism underlying this effect is increased oxidative stress. Up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 plays a crucial role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Dietary patterns are widely recognized as contributors to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin, which has an antioxidant effect, can improve aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via UCP2 up-regulation. Methods: The 24-month-old male rodents used in this study, including male Sprague Dawley (SD rats and UCP2 knockout (UCP2-/- and matched wild type mice, were given dietary curcumin (0.2%. The young control rodents were 6-month-old. Rodent cerebral artery vasorelaxation was detected by wire myograph. The AMPK/UCP2 pathway and p-eNOS in cerebrovascular and endothelial cells were observed by immunoblotting. Results: Dietary curcumin administration for one month remarkably restored the impaired cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aging SD rats. In cerebral arteries from aging SD rats and cultured endothelial cells, curcumin promoted eNOS and AMPK phosphorylation, up-regulated UCP2 and reduced ROS production. These effects of curcumin were abolished by either AMPK or UCP2 inhibition. Chronic dietary curcumin significantly reduced ROS production and improved cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in aging wild type mice but not in aging UCP2-/- mice. Conclusions: Curcumin improves aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via the AMPK/UCP2 pathway.

  16. Dietary protein intake in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukkipati, Ramanath; Noori, Nazanin; Feroze, Usama; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those with stage 5 CKD, have protein wasting. The degree to which increased morbidity and mortality seen in these patients is due to protein depletion rather than to the often accompanying comorbidity is not clear. High protein diets lead to the accumulation of metabolites of protein that are potentially toxic. The MDRD Study, which investigated the effects of three levels of dietary protein and phosphorus intakes and two blood pressure goals on the progression of CKD, has several limitations. Several meta-analyses have examined the effects of low protein diets (LPD) on the progression of CKD. It is possible that the lower SUN levels or lesser degree of uremic symptoms may have contributed to the positive findings of LPD in the meta-analyses of Fouque and Pedrini et al., when compared with the study of Kasiske et al. A number of published reports indicate that LPD provide adequate protein for almost all clinically stable CKD patients and do not adversely affect body composition. In general, there are no large differences in the protein intake recommended by different expert groups for a given stage of CKD.

  17. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  18. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Antonino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0% mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3% were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0% appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0% consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7% and non-users (52,8%; supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids. Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based information about supplementation in this environment and the promotion of updated educational programs for the

  19. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Melissa G; Roudybush, Thomas E; McGraw, Kevin J

    2012-08-15

    Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits, is naturally restricted in hummingbird diets (comprised mostly of sugars), suggesting that iridescent coloration may be especially challenging to produce in these animals. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of dietary protein availability during molt on iridescent color expression in male Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We fed captive birds either a 6% (high) or a 3% (low) protein diet and stimulated molt by plucking half the gorget and crown ornaments on each bird as well as the non-ornamental iridescent green tail feathers. We found that birds receiving more protein grew significantly more colorful crown feathers (higher red chroma and redder hue) than those fed the low-protein diet. Diet did not affect gorget coloration, but regrowth of feathers in captivity affected both gorget and crown coloration. Additionally, birds on the high-protein diet grew yellower (higher hue) green tail feathers than birds on the low-protein diet. These results indicate that iridescent ornamental feathers are sensitive to diet quality and may serve as honest signals of nutrition to mates or rivals. Further, because both ornamental and non-ornamental iridescent coloration were affected by conditions during their growth, iridescent color in these birds appears to be generally condition dependent.

  20. Threonine supplementation reduces dietary protein and improves lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Wen, Z G; Qiao, S Y; Hou, S S

    2017-12-01

    1. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of threonine (Thr) supplementation on reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and the effects of Thr on lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks. The effects of dietary CP concentration (160, 190 and 220 g/kg) and Thr supplemental concentration (0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 g/kg) on growth performance, carcass, liver lipid and plasma profiles were determined in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age. 2. A total of 720-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage for each treatment according to average body weight. 3. Dietary Thr supplementation improved growth performance and breast muscle percentage at all CP diets, and ducks fed Thr-supplemented diets had higher plasma concentrations of some plasma amino acids. Thr supplementation reduced the concentrations of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol in liver, and plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterin concentration at 160 and 190 g/kg CP, whereas it increased triglyceride concentration at 160 g/kg CP. 4. Thr requirements based on quadratic broken-line model estimation were 6.6 and 7.0 g/kg for optimal average daily gain (ADG), and 6.7 and 7.3 g/kg for breast muscle percentage of Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age at 190 and 220 g/kg CP, respectively. The dietary Thr requirements and estimated ADG (55.18 vs. 55.86 g/d/bird) and breast muscle percentage (2.79% vs. 2.75%) of Pekin ducks did not differ between 190 and 220 g/kg CP according to the t-test results. 5. Dietary CP level could be reduced to 190 g/kg in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age with Thr supplementation to balance dietary amino acids, and Thr supplementation prevented excess liver lipid deposition in this instance.

  1. Transcriptomic changes underlie altered egg protein production and reduced fecundity in an estuarine model fish exposed to bifenthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Cole, Bryan J; DeCourten, Bethany M; White, J Wilson; Hasenbein, Simone; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides are a class of insecticides found to have endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates such as fishes and in human cell lines. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmental contaminants that mimic or alter the process of hormone signaling. In particular, EDCs that alter estrogen and androgen signaling pathways are of major concern for fishes because these EDCs may alter reproductive physiology, behavior, and ultimately sex ratio. Bifenthrin, a pyrethroid with escalating usage, is confirmed to disrupt estrogen signaling in several species of fish, including Menidia beryllina (inland silverside), an Atherinid recently established as a euryhaline model. Our main objective was to broadly assess the molecular and physiological responses of M. beryllina to the ng/L concentrations of bifenthrin typically found in the environment, with a focus on endocrine-related effects, and to discern links between different tiers of the biological hierarchy. As such, we evaluated the response of juvenile Menidia to bifenthrin using a Menidia-specific microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on specific endocrine-related genes of interest, and a Menidia-specific ELISA to the egg-coat protein choriogenin, to evaluate a multitude of molecular-level responses that would inform mechanisms of toxicity and any underlying causes of change at higher biological levels of organization. The sublethal nominal concentrations tested (0.5, 5 and 50ng/L) were chosen to represent the range of concentrations observed in the environment and to provide coverage of a variety of potential responses. We then employed a 21-day reproductive assay to evaluate reproductive responses to bifenthrin (at 0.5ng/L) in a separate group of adult M. beryllina. The microarray analysis indicated that bifenthrin influences a diverse suite of molecular pathways, from baseline metabolic processes to carcinogenesis. A more targeted examination of gene expression via q

  2. Protein-enhanced soups: a consumer-accepted food for increasing dietary protein provision among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Elizabeth; Crowe, Kristi Michele; Lawrence, Jeannine

    2015-02-01

    Protein-enhanced soups (PES) may improve protein intake among older adults. This study examined sensory attributes (aroma, texture, taste, and overall acceptability) and preferences of PES (chicken noodle and cheddar broccoli) compared with flavor-matched control soups (FCS) among older adults (≥65 years) and evaluated dietary profile changes of a standard menu based on the substitution of one PES serving/d for a standard soup. Modified paired preference tests and 5-point facial hedonic scales were administered to participants (n = 44). No significant differences in sensory attributes between either PES compared with FCS were identified, but significant gender- and age-related differences (p preferred protein-enhanced chicken noodle soup while only 38% preferred protein-enhanced cheddar broccoli soup to their respective FCS. Substituting one PES serving for one non-fortified soup serving per day resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.001) protein profile. Results suggest that all attributes of PES were consistent with sensory expectations and PES substitution could improve protein provision.

  3. Dietary Nutrients and Bioactive Substances Modulate Heat Shock Protein (HSP) Expression: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2018-05-28

    Interest in the heat shock proteins (HSPs), as a natural physiological toolkit of living organisms, has ranged from their chaperone function in nascent proteins to the remedial role following cell stress. As part of the defence system, HSPs guarantee cell tolerance against a variety of stressors, including exercise, oxidative stress, hyper and hypothermia, hyper and hypoxia and improper diets. For the past couple of decades, research on functional foods has revealed a number of substances likely to trigger cell protection through mechanisms that involve the induction of HSP expression. This review will summarize the occurrence of the most easily inducible HSPs and describe the effects of dietary proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, high-fat diets and other food-derived substances reported to induce HSP response in animals and humans studies. Future research may clarify the mechanisms and explore the usefulness of this natural alternative of defense and the modulating mechanism of each substance.

  4. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    to trace the metabolic fate of dietary protein, 1·8% fishmeal was replaced with isotope-labelled whole protein (.98% 13C). The experiment was divided into a growth period lasting 89 d, growing fish from approximately 140 to 350 g, followed by a 3 d period feeding isotope-enriched diets. Isotope ratio MS...

  5. Protein needs in athletes and dietary-nutrition guidelines to gain muscle mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important effects of strength training is muscular hypertrophy. Athletes should optimize their nutritional management in order to compensate their own genetic limitations. The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific evidence concerning protein intake as a tool to achieve muscle hypertrophy. Depending on the expenditure and energy intake of athlete, a daily protein ranging between 10-15% of total dietary intake is needed. However in sports diets, it is preferable to estimate the amount of protein needed per kilogram of body weight in each individual. In this regard athletes should ingest an amount between 1.2 g and 1.8 g of proteins/kg of body mass/day to maintain their lean mass. In order to increase muscle mass (0.5 kg/week, athletes should take between 1.6 g and 1.8 g of protein/kg/day with an increase of 400-500 kcal in their daily diet. These needs will depend on the sport, muscular catabolic status, the athlete’s lean mass and glycogen stores. Protein needs will increase if muscle and liver glycogen stores are empty. Excess of protein intake (more than 2 g/kg/day, with full glycogen stores, does not benefit the athlete and could cause an increase in circulating ketones and urea, thereby producing an early dehydration.

  6. A Schistosoma japonicum chimeric protein with a novel adjuvant induced a polarized Th1 immune response and protection against liver egg burdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xiangyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schitosomiasis japonica is still a significant public health problem in China. A protective vaccine for human or animal use represents an important strategy for long-term control of this disease. Due to the complex life cycle of schistosomes, different vaccine design approaches may be necessary, including polyvalent subunit vaccines. In this study, we constructed four chimeric proteins (designated SjGP-1~4 via fusion of Sj26GST and four individual paramyosin fragments. We tested these four proteins as vaccine candidates, and investigated the effect of deviating immune response on protection roles in mice. Methods The immunogencity and protection efficacy of chimeric proteins were evaluated in mice. Next, the chimeric protein SjGP-3 was selected and formulated in various adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206, IMS 1312 and ISA 70M. The titers of antigen-specific IgG, IgE and IgG subclass were measured. The effect of adjuvant on cytokine production and percentages of CD3+CD8-IFN-γ+ cells and CD3+CD8-IL-4+ cells were analyzed at different time points. Worm burdens and liver egg counts in different adjuvant groups were counted to evaluate the protection efficacy against cercarial challenge. Results Immunization of mice with chimeric proteins provided various levels of protection. Among the four proteins, SjGP-3 induced the highest level of protection, and showed enhanced protective efficacy compared with its individual component Sj26GST. Because of this, SjGP-3 was further formulated in various adjuvants to investigate the effect of adjuvant on immune deviation. The results revealed that SjGP-3 formulated in veterinary adjuvant ISA 70M induced a lasting polarized Th1 immune response, whereas the other adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206 and IMS 1312, generated a moderate mixed Th1/Th2 response after immunization but all except for IMS 1312 shifted to Th2 response after onset of eggs. More importantly, the SjGP-3/70M formulation induced

  7. No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vieira Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae. Biological traits of the stink bug Euschistus heros and its main biological control agent Telenomus podisi were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC; 60 ± 10% RH; and 14/10 h photoperiod by placing first instar nymphs into Petri dishes with pods originating from two soybean isolines (Bt-soybean MON 87701 × MON 89788, which expresses the Cry1Ac protein, and its near non-Bt isoline A5547 where they remained until the adult stage. Due to gregarious behavior exhibited by first instar nymphs, they were individualized only when at the second instar. Adults were separated by sex and weighed, and pronotum width of each individual was subsequently measured. They were placed into plastic boxes containing soybean grains of the same soybean isoline as food source. Egg viability and female fecundity were assessed in adult individuals. Adult females of T. podisi (up to 24h old were placed with eggs of E. heros from mothers reared on both soybean isolines. Nymphal development time, insect weight, pronotum width, sex ratio, female fecundity, and egg viability (% emergence of Euschistus heros did not differ between treatments. Eggto-adult development time, female longevity, sex ratio, and percentage of parasitized eggs were not impacted by the Bt-soybean (expressing Cry1Ac protein. Results indicate that the Bt-soybean, MON 87701 × MON 89788, has no direct significant impact on the two studied species.

  8. Dietary protein and carbohydrate requirement of juvenile Hawaiian limpet (Cellana sandwicensis Pease, 1861 fed practical diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Thai Hua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate dietary protein and carbohydrate requirement of juvenile Hawaiian limpets Cellana sandwincensis. A total of 64 juvenile limpets (3.12 ± 0.86 g were fed five different dietary protein levels ranging from 270 to 470 g kg−1 for 90 days. Carbohydrate and lipid levels were held constant at 180 and 49.7 g kg−1, respectively. Weight gain and growth rates of the animals did not differ significantly (P > 0.05 among the protein levels ranging from 270 g kg−1 (0.30 % day−1 to 470 g kg−1 (0.23 % day−1. Next, opihi were fed four diets with protein levels from 210 to 500 g kg−1 with a constant carbohydrate level at 120 g kg−1. Weight gain and specific growth rates of opihi increased with increasing dietary protein from 210 to 350 g kg−1, and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased at the 500 g kg−1 diet. Highest weight gain, growth rates, and protein efficiency ratio were achieved at 350 g kg−1. Elevated carbohydrate levels (180–370 g kg−1 produced a significant difference (P < 0.05 in growth. The fastest growth rates of animals were obtained with 270 g kg−1 (0.27 % day−1 and 320 g kg−1 (0.26 % day−1. The weight gain of animals fed 180 and 370 g kg−1 carbohydrate diets were significantly (P < 0.05 lower than those of animals fed 270 and 320 g kg−1. We conclude that about 350 g kg−1 protein and 320 g kg−1 carbohydrate levels could be used for opihi.

  9. Sucrose Sensitivity of Honey Bees Is Differently Affected by Dietary Protein and a Neonicotinoid Pesticide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien J Démares

    Full Text Available Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed.

  10. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations

  11. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. HISTORY MAY BE THE BEST GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE ATHLETE'S DIETARY PROTEIN NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Lamont

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008. These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007. This anthropological fact, and some recent laboratory evidence, argues against the need to increase the protein RDA for athletes from 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day to 1.2 to 1.4 g per kilogram per day (ACSM, 2000. Our research group found that amino acids make a small contribution (2 - 3% of total to endurance energy needs (Lamont et al, 1999 and that athlete's have similar oxidation rates if corrections are made for oxygen consumption and fat-free body mass. Others report that a short-term training program of 38-days reduces amino acid use during exercise and down-regulates a critical enzyme in the oxidative pathway in order to spare this nutrient (McKenzie et al., 2000 Yet sport nutritionists and physiologists continue to recommend an increased protein RDA for this group. If one does a Google search using the words exercise and protein you would literally get millions of citations recommending the athlete to increase their protein intake. One reason for this continued recommendation, I believe, is that the laboratory procedure used to justify an increased protein RDA (field-based nitrogen balance measurements has many methodological shortcomings that are not recognized by the sports science community (Lamont, 2008. The problems with this technique are so great that its scientific fidelity has been questioned (Lamont, 2008. And as Longo and colleagues have highlighted (2008 the Institute of Medicine concluded that the evidence for

  13. Dietary protein and fat intake in relation to risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases).The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25-0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history of

  14. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  15. Multi-allergen quantification of fining-related egg and milk proteins in white wines by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Linda; Losito, Ilario; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Pilolli, Rosa; Visconti, Angelo

    2013-09-15

    A method based on High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of fining agents containing potentially allergenic milk (casein) and egg-white (lysozyme and ovalbumin) proteins, added to commercial white wines at sub-ppm levels. Selected tryptic peptides were used as quantitative markers. An evaluation of protein digestion yields was also performed by implementing the (15)N-valine-labelled analogues of the best peptide markers identified for αS1 -casein and ovalbumin. The method was based on the combination of ultrafiltration (UF) of protein-containing wines, tryptic digestion of the dialyzed wine extracts and liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) analysis of tryptic digests. Peptides providing the most intense electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS response were chosen as quantitative markers of the proteins under investigation. Six-point calibrations were performed by adding caseinate and egg-white powder in the concentration range between 0.25 and 10 µg/mL, to an allergen-free white wine. The following three peptide markers, LTEWTSSNVMEER, GGLEPINFQTAADQAR and ELINSWVESQTNGIIR, were highlighted as best markers for ovalbumin, while GTDVQAWIR and NTDGSTDYGILQINSR for lysozyme and YLGYLEQLLR, GPFPIIV and FFVAPFPEVFGK for caseinate. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.4 to 1.1 µg/mL. The developed method is suited for assessing the contemporary presence of allergenic milk and egg proteins characterizing egg white and caseinate, fining agents typically employed for wine clarification. The LODs of the method enable the detection of sub-ppm concentrations of residual fining agents, that could represent a potential risk for allergic consumers. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane proteins in dividing eggs of the loach (Misgurnus fossilis): Regional differences and changes during the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkova, V P; Budayova, M; Kvasnicka, P; Cigankova, N; Chorvat, D

    1994-12-01

    Regional differences in lateral diffusion rates of fluorescence-labeled proteins have been studied in the plasma membrane of dividing eggs of the loach (Misgurnus fossilis) by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Apparent animal-vegetal differences in fluorescence intensity, lateral diffusion coefficients, and fractions of mobile proteins have been found, with all these quantities being higher in the animal pole region than in the yolk region. Cyclic changes in protein diffusion coefficients and mobile fractions during the first few cell cycles have also been recorded. Soon after the end of a cleavage, the diffusion coefficient reaches its minimal value and increases rapidly before the next cleavage.

  17. Effect of dietary proteins on the incorporation of amino acids in plasma proteins of ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, Usha R.; Singh, U.B.; Kumar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on nine male calves (Hariana x Holstein) of about one and a half years of age and fed different amounts of crude protein. 14 C-DL-leucine was injected into the blood of the animals and specific radioactivity of plasma protein measured. There was linear correlation between nitrogen ingested, digested and retained by the animals and the specific radioactivity of total plasma proteins. The experiments suggest the possible use of the incorporation of amino acids into plasma proteins as an index of nutritional status of the animals. (auth.)

  18. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  19. Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Duck Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of juvenile far eastern catfish. Six diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (20%, 30% and 40% and two levels of lipid (9% and 17%. Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 7.6 g were hand-fed to apparent satiation for 66 days. Final mean weight was improved with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels, and the highest final mean weight was observed in fish fed the 40/17 (% protein/% lipid diet. No significant difference was observed in final mean weight for fish fed between 30/17 diet and 40/9 diet. Feed efficiency of fish fed the diets containing over 30% protein levels with 9% and 17% lipid levels were significantly higher than those of fish fed the 20% protein levels. Feed efficiency of fish fed the 30/17 diet was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 40/9 diet or 40/17 diet. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 20% protein diets with 17% lipid level were significantly higher than those of fish fed 9% lipid diet. Daily feed intake of fish tended to decrease with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels. Moisture content of whole body in fish fed the 9% lipid diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed the 17% lipid diets at the same protein level, but the opposite trends were found for crude lipid content. Significant effects of dietary lipid were observed for most fatty acids, according to their relative values in the diets. The results of this study suggest that the protein requirement for maximum growth of juvenile far eastern catfish may be higher than 40%, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 17% can improve growth and feed utilization.

  20. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  1. Estimation of the True Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Dietary Protein in the Small Intestine of Ruminants by the Mobile Bag Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Andersen, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed. The ...

  2. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...... performance, mortality rate, hepatic fatty infiltration, weights of body and liver, relative weight of liver, haematocrit values, plasma activities of alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) and creatine-kinase (CK), and plasma concentrations of chemical parameters were studied...

  3. Thermal, mechanical, and moisture absorption properties of egg white protein bioplastics with natural rubber and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander; Zeller, Mark Ashton; Sharma, Suraj

    2013-07-03

    Petroleum-based plastics have many drawbacks: the large amount of energy required to produce the plastic, the waste generated as a result of plastic production, and the accumulation of waste due to slow degradation rate. It is because of these negative attributes of conventional plastic use that attention is being focused on environmentally friendly plastics from alternative sources. Albumin protein provides one possible source of raw material, with inherent antimicrobial properties that may make it suitable for medical applications. We conducted this study to investigate the various bioplastic properties of the albumin with the use of three plasticizers - water, glycerol, and natural rubber latex. Based on results, 75:25 albumin-water, 75:25 albumin-glycerol, and 80:20 albumin-natural rubber were the best blending ratios for each plasticizer for a subsequent time study to determine water stability, with the 80:20 albumin-natural rubber blend ratio having possessed the best thermal, tensile, and viscoelastic properties overall.

  4. Effect of changes in dietary protein and oil levels on production parameters of female broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farran, M.T.; Barbour, G.W.; Usayran, N.N.; Darwish, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, as factorial arrangement of treatments in a complete randomized design, were conducted to evaluate weight gain (WG), feed conversion (FC), and carcass characteristics of female broilers fed diets varying in crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) levels with graded oil supplementation. In experiment 1, the CP level was 190 and 220 g/kg in the starter diets and reduced by 25 g/kg for each grower diet with ME of 12.1 and 12.6 MJ /kg and oil level of 0 and 40 g/kg. In the second experiment, the level of CP was 190, 210, and 230 g/kg in the starter diets and reduced by 30g/kg in each corresponding grower diet with an oil level of 0, 20, and 40 g /kg. The 190 g/kg dietary CP reduced WG of birds at market age in both experiments but increased the FC value only in trial 2 (P < 0.05). In addition, it reduced protein and moisture contents but increased fat level in ready to cook (RTC) carcasses (P<0.05). In experiment 2, however, birds fed the 210 g CP/kg diet had WG and FC at market age, and yield of abdominal fat, pectoralis major muscle and drum, in addition to RTC carcass moisture comparable to those fed the highest dietary CP level. Dietary oil supplementation at 40 g/kg improved (P<0.05) bird WG and FC in both trials. In conclusion, diets containing 40 g oil/kg with 210 - 180 g CP/kg (starter and grower, respectively) can be safely fed to broiler females. (author)

  5. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that supplement use is a widespread and accepted practice by athletes and people who attend commercial gyms. Little is known about protein supplement amongst people undertaking strength training in commercial gyms in Italy when compared to the US. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the use of protein supplementation, alone or in association with other supplements, and dietary behavior amongst regular fitness center attendees in Palermo, Italy. Design Resistance training information have been collected from 800 regular fitness center attendees for the initial analysis. A specific questionnaire was generated for the experimentation. Data were collected using a face-to-face interview method. Supplement users were then compared to the non users and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, chi-square test or exact test of Fisher when appropriate. Results 30.1% of the respondents use dietary supplements during their training as a believe it is the "way to gain muscles and strength". Whey protein shakes (50.0%) mixed with creatine and amino-acids (48.3%) were the most frequent choices amongst the users. A majority of the subjects (34.0%) appeared to rely on their gym instructors' advice for their intake; a lower proportion (13.0%) consulted physicians, while none of them consulted nutritionists. A high consumption of milk has been noticed in both users (67,7%) and non-users (52,8%); supplement non-users consumed significantly more snacks and bakery products than users per week (P < 0.001), while users consumed significantly more protein-rich foods (P < 0.01) with a particular preference for meat (48.0%). Conclusions A considerable number of regular strength training adepts consume protein supplements mixed with other products (mainly creatine and amino-acids). Limited numbers consult "dietary specialists" and rely mainly on their instructors. We emphasize on the importance of the dissemination of scientifically based

  6. Dietary whey protein lessens several risk factors for metabolic diseases: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have grown in prevalence around the world, and recently, related diseases have been considered epidemic. Given the high cost of treatment of obesity/DM-associated diseases, strategies such as dietary manipulation have been widely studied; among them, the whey protein diet has reached popularity because it has been suggested as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and DM in both humans and animals. Among its main actions, the following activities stand out: reduction of serum glucose in healthy individuals, impaired glucose tolerance in DM and obese patients; reduction in body weight; maintenance of muscle mass; increases in the release of anorectic hormones such as cholecystokinin, leptin, and glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1); and a decrease in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Furthermore, studies have shown that whey protein can also lead to reductions in blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress. PMID:22676328

  7. Dietary whey protein lessens several risk factors for metabolic diseases: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Gabriela TD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM have grown in prevalence around the world, and recently, related diseases have been considered epidemic. Given the high cost of treatment of obesity/DM-associated diseases, strategies such as dietary manipulation have been widely studied; among them, the whey protein diet has reached popularity because it has been suggested as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and DM in both humans and animals. Among its main actions, the following activities stand out: reduction of serum glucose in healthy individuals, impaired glucose tolerance in DM and obese patients; reduction in body weight; maintenance of muscle mass; increases in the release of anorectic hormones such as cholecystokinin, leptin, and glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1; and a decrease in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Furthermore, studies have shown that whey protein can also lead to reductions in blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

  8. Fatty acid binding proteins have the potential to channel dietary fatty acids into enterocyte nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Adriana; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Canclini, Lucia; Silvarrey, Maria Cecilia; André, Michèle; Babin, Patrick J

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular lipid binding proteins, including fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) 1 and 2, are highly expressed in tissues involved in the active lipid metabolism. A zebrafish model was used to demonstrate differential expression levels of fabp1b.1, fabp1b.2, and fabp2 transcripts in liver, anterior intestine, and brain. Transcription levels of fabp1b.1 and fabp2 in the anterior intestine were upregulated after feeding and modulated according to diet formulation. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy immunodetection with gold particles localized these FABPs in the microvilli, cytosol, and nuclei of most enterocytes in the anterior intestinal mucosa. Nuclear localization was mostly in the interchromatin space outside the condensed chromatin clusters. Native PAGE binding assay of BODIPY-FL-labeled FAs demonstrated binding of BODIPY-FLC(12) but not BODIPY-FLC(5) to recombinant Fabp1b.1 and Fabp2. The binding of BODIPY-FLC(12) to Fabp1b.1 was fully displaced by oleic acid. In vivo experiments demonstrated, for the first time, that intestinal absorption of dietary BODIPY-FLC(12) was followed by colocalization of the labeled FA with Fabp1b and Fabp2 in the nuclei. These data suggest that dietary FAs complexed with FABPs are able to reach the enterocyte nucleus with the potential to modulate nuclear activity. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungback Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15% and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05 in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05 in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05 between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism.

  10. Regulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha expression but not adiponectin by dietary protein in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Kerr, B J; Spurlock, M E

    2008-10-01

    Soy protein regulates adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in some species, but the effect of dietary soy protein on adiponectin and PPARalpha in the pig has not been studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether soya bean meal reduction or replacement influences serum adiponectin, adiponectin mRNA, serum metabolites and the expression of PPARalpha and other genes involved in lipid deposition. Thirty-three pigs (11 pigs per treatment) were subjected to one of three dietary treatments: (i) reduced crude protein (CP) diet containing soya bean meal (RCP-Soy), (ii) high CP diet containing soya bean meal (HCP-Soy) or (iii) high CP diet with corn gluten meal replacing soya bean meal (HCP-CGM) for 35 days. Dietary treatment had no effect on overall growth performance, feed intake or measures of body composition. There was no effect of dietary treatment on serum adiponectin or leptin. Dietary treatment did not affect the abundance of the mRNAs for adiponectin, PPARalpha, PPARgamma2, lipoprotein lipase or fatty acid synthase in adipose tissue. The mRNA expression of PPARalpha, PPARgamma2, lipoprotein lipase or fatty acid synthetase in loin muscle was not affected by dietary treatment. In liver tissue, the relative abundance of PPARalpha mRNA was greater (p Soy diets when compared to pigs fed RCP-Soy or HCP-CGM diets. Hepatic mRNA expression of acyl-CoA oxidase or fatty acid synthase was not affected by dietary treatment. Western blot analysis indicated that hepatic PPARalpha protein levels were decreased (p Soy diets when compared to pigs fed the HCP-Soy diets. These data suggest that increasing the soy protein content of swine diets increases hepatic expression of PPARalpha without associated changes in body composition.

  11. Metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction in early mouse embryos following maternal dietary protein intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Megan; Schulz, Samantha L; Armstrong, David T; Lane, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    Dietary supply of nutrients, both periconception and during pregnancy, influence the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. Despite the importance of research efforts surrounding the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, the biological mechanisms involved remain elusive. Mitochondria are of major importance in the oocyte and early embryo, particularly as a source of ATP generation, and perturbations in their function have been related to reduced embryo quality. The present study examined embryo development following periconception exposure of females to a high-protein diet (HPD) or a low-protein diet (LPD) relative to a medium-protein diet (MPD; control), and we hypothesized that perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in the mouse embryo may be responsible for the impaired embryo and fetal development reported by others. Although the rate of development to the blastocyst stage did not differ between diets, both the HPD and LPD reduced the number of inner cell mass cells in the blastocyst-stage embryo. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced and mitochondrial calcium levels increased in the 2-cell embryo. Embryos from HPD females had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and ADP concentrations, indicative of metabolic stress and, potentially, the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, whereas embryos from LPD females had reduced mitochondrial clustering around the nucleus, suggestive of an overall quietening of metabolism. Thus, although periconception dietary supply of different levels of protein is permissive of development, mitochondrial metabolism is altered in the early embryo, and the nature of the perturbation differs between HPD and LPD exposure.

  12. The influence of dietary crude protein intake on bone and mineral metabolism in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Brand

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary protein consumption is thought to cause calciuresis, a negative calcium balance and increased bone loss that may result in skeletal deformities and fracture. To explore this hypothesis, 40 approximately 100-day-old meat-type Merino ram lambs were fed, for 6 months, diets with an increasing crude protein (CP content (114, 142, 171 and 190 g/kg DM but approximately on an iso-nutrient basis with regard to metabolisable energy, calcium and phosphorus. Increased protein consumption modestly (NS enhanced calciuresis and resulted in significant (P < 0.01 limb skewness. This could not, however, be ascribed to osteopaenic bones, and compared with animals consuming lower protein rations, the bone mineral density (BMD and vertebral trabecular bone volume of animals fed high protein diets were significantly increased: theBMDof thoracic vertebrae was positively related to the CP intake (r=0.62; P < 0.001. In animals consuming higher protein diets, skeletal radiology and quantitative bone histology revealed no evidence of increased bone turnover as would be expected in animals that are in negative calcium balance. No relationship existed between limb skewness and the growth rate of lambs. However, the ratio of Ca:P in the forelimb (r = -0.98, vertebrae (r = -0.72 and rib (r = -0.42 was found to be inversely correlated with increased protein intake and resulted from an increase in the phosphorus content of bone, while the amount of bone calcium was unaffected. We conclude that qualitative micro-architectural abnormalities, and not mere bone loss, may underlie the skeletal deformities induced by increased protein consumption in sheep.

  13. Effects of short light regimes and lower dietary protein content on the reproductive performance of White Roman geese in an environment-controlled house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Chiang, Hsin-I; Lin, Min-Jung; Jea, Yu-Shine; Chen, Lih-Ren; Fan, Yang-Kwang; Lee, Tzu-Tai

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of short light regimes and lower dietary protein content on the reproductive performance of White Roman geese in an environment- controlled house. Thirty-two ganders and 80 geese during the third laying period were allotted into 16 pens, randomly assigned into a split-plot design with two different lighting regimes: (1) short light regimes (SL) with 6.5h of light and 17.5h of dark (6.5L:17.5D), and (2) long light regimes (LL) with 19L:5D during the 6-wk prelaying period, followed by two different levels of protein diets (Low CP: 15% vs. High CP: 18%) for the laying period. The results showed that birds treated with the SL light regime had a heavier body weight compared to those treated with LL at the arrival of the peak period of egg production (6.19 vs. 5.87kg, Pvs. 175day, Pvs. 12.6%, Plight regime during the prelaying period and on the low CP diet during the laying period found conditions sufficient to sustain their regular reproduction performance, which would benefit geese farmers in the perspectives of energy saving and prolonged laying period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Chronic dietary supplementation with soy protein improves muscle function in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi J Khairallah

    Full Text Available Athletes as well as elderly or hospitalized patients use dietary protein supplementation to maintain or grow skeletal muscle. It is recognized that high quality protein is needed for muscle accretion, and can be obtained from both animal and plant-based sources. There is interest to understand whether these sources differ in their ability to maintain or stimulate muscle growth and function. In this study, baseline muscle performance was assessed in 50 adult Sprague-Dawley rats after which they were assigned to one of five semi-purified "Western" diets (n = 10/group differing only in protein source, namely 19 kcal% protein from either milk protein isolate (MPI, whey protein isolate (WPI, soy protein isolate (SPI, soy protein concentrate (SPC or enzyme-treated soy protein (SPE. The diets were fed for 8 weeks at which point muscle performance testing was repeated and tissues were collected for analysis. There was no significant difference in food consumption or body weights over time between the diet groups nor were there differences in terminal organ and muscle weights or in serum lipids, creatinine or myostatin. Compared with MPI-fed rats, rats fed WPI and SPC displayed a greater maximum rate of contraction using the in vivo measure of muscle performance (p<0.05 with increases ranging from 13.3-27.5% and 22.8-29.5%, respectively at 60, 80, 100 and 150 Hz. When the maximum force was normalized to body weight, SPC-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05, whereas when normalized to gastrocnemius weight, WPI-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05. There was no difference between groups using in situ muscle performance. In conclusion, soy protein consumption, in high-fat diet, resulted in muscle function comparable to whey protein and improved compared to milk protein. The benefits seen with soy or whey protein were independent of changes in muscle mass or fiber cross-sectional area.

  15. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  16. Effect of dietary protein level on ewe milk yield and on air quality under different ventilation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of dietary N utilization for milk protein synthesis in dairy animals is quite low (15 to 35% (NRC, 1988; Tamminga, 1992, therefore farmers are driven to use high protein level diets for sustaining milk production in lactating animals. Previous experiments have demonstrated that an increase in the protein level of diet from 13 to 16% resulted in higher blood urea concentrations (Jaime and Purroy, 1995 and increased N excretion in urine in sheep (Gonzalez et al., 1984.

  17. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  18. Effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid on laying performance, egg quality, immune activity and endocrine hormone in heat-stressed Roman hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zou, Xiao-Ting; Li, Hui; Dong, Xin-Yang; Zhao, Wenjing

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on laying performance, egg quality, digestive enzyme activity, hormone level and immune activities in Roman hens under heat stress. Roman hens (320 days old) were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg GABA, respectively during a 60-day experiment. Compared with control, supplementation of 50 mg/kg GABA improved the laying performance and egg quality by significantly increasing egg production, average egg weight and shell strength (P level. Anti-oxidation activity was improved by significantly increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), but decreasing malondialdehyde level in serum (P level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E(2) ), insulin, triiodothyronine (T(3) ) and free triiodothyronine (FT(3) ) levels, and IgG, IgA and complement (C3)activity in serum (P GABA improved laying performance and physical condition mainly by modulating hormone secretion, enhancing anti-oxidation and immune activity, and maintaining electrolyte balance. Fifty mg/kg was the optimum level for laying hens under heat stress in the present study. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Dietary ratio of animal:plant protein is associated with 24-h urinary iodine excretion in healthy school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Johner, Simone A; Stehle, Peter; Remer, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    Adequate dietary iodine intake in children is essential for optimal physical and neurological development. Whether lower dietary animal food and salt intake may adversely affect iodine status is under discussion. We examined the association between dietary animal:plant protein ratio with 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UI, μg/d), and whether this is modified by salt intake. A 24-h UI was measured in 1959 24-h urine samples from 516 6- to 12-year-old participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Parallel 3 d weighed food records were used to estimate dietary intakes. Protein sources were classified as dairy, animal and plant. A repeated-measures regression model (PROC MIXED) was used to analyse the effect of animal:plant protein ratios on 24-h UI. plant protein ratios ranged from 0.5 (95 % CI 0.4, 0.6) to 1.6 (95 % CI 1.4, 1.9) (lowest and highest quartile). After adjustment for total energy intake, main dietary iodine sources (dairy and salt intake), and further covariates, the inter-individual variation in animal:plant protein ratio was significantly associated with variation in 24-h UI. One unit higher animal:plant protein ratio predicted 6 μg/d higher 24-h UI (P= 0.002) in boys and 5 μg/d (P= 0.03) in girls. This relationship was partially mediated by a higher salt intake at higher animal:plant protein ratios. These results suggest that lower consumption of animal protein is associated with a small decline in iodine excretion, partially mediated by decreased salt intake. Because limited salt and increased intake of plant-based foods are part of a preferable healthy food pattern, effective nutrition political strategies will be required in the future to ensure appropriate iodine nutrition in adherent populations.

  20. Role of Dietary Protein and Muscular Fitness on Longevity and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Barbara; Volaklis, Konstantinos; Fuchs, Dietmar; Burtscher, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Muscle atrophy is an unfortunate effect of aging and many diseases and can compromise physical function and impair vital metabolic processes. Low levels of muscular fitness together with insufficient dietary intake are major risk factors for illness and mortality from all causes. Ultimately, muscle wasting contributes significantly to weakness, disability, increased hospitalization, immobility, and loss of independence. However, the extent of muscle wasting differs greatly between individuals due to differences in the aging process per se as well as physical activity levels. Interventions for sarcopenia include exercise and nutrition because both have a positive impact on protein anabolism but also enhance other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic older adults, such as physical function, quality of life, and anti-inflammatory state. The process of aging is accompanied by chronic immune activation, and sarcopenia may represent a consequence of a counter-regulatory strategy of the immune system. Thereby, the kynurenine pathway is induced, and elevation in the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan concentrations, which estimates the tryptophan breakdown rate, is often linked with inflammatory conditions and neuropsychiatric symptoms. A combined exercise program consisting of both resistance-type and endurance-type exercise may best help to ameliorate the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, to prevent muscle aging comorbidities, and to improve physical performance and quality of life. In addition, the use of dietary protein supplementation can further augment protein anabolism but can also contribute to a more active lifestyle, thereby supporting well-being and active aging in the older population.

  1. Chemical Utilization of Albizia lebbeck Leaves for Developing Protein Concentrates as a Dietary Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Lutful Haque; Varshney, V K

    2017-08-17

    In search of nonconventional sources of protein to combat widespread malnutrition, the possibility of developing a protein concentrate as an alternative dietary supplement from abundantly available yet poorly valorized leaves of Albizia lebbeck (siris) was examined. A process for recovery of leaf protein concentrate (LPC) from these leaves was optimized and applied for isolation of LPCs from lower, middle, and upper canopies of the tree. The optimized conditions (leaves to water 1:9, coagulation at pH 4.0 using 1 N citric acid at 90°C for 11 minutes) afforded LPCs containing protein 37.15%, 37.57%, and 37.76% in 5.99%, 5.97%, and 6.07% yield, respectively. The proximate nutritional composition, pigments, minerals, in vitro digestibility, and antinutritional factors of these LPCs were determined. Analysis of variance of these data revealed no significant difference with respect to canopy. Use of Albizia lebbeck leaves for development of LPC as a food/feed supplement was revealed.

  2. The major egg reserve protein from the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata is a complex carotenoprotein related to those of Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea scalaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Heras, H

    2014-03-01

    Snails from the genus Pomacea lay conspicuous masses of brightly colored eggs above the water. Coloration is given by carotenoproteins that also which play important roles in protection against sun radiation, stabilizing and transporting antioxidant molecules and helping to protect embryos from desiccation and predators. They seem a key acquisition, but have been little studied. Here we report the characteristics of the major carotenoprotein from Pomacea maculata and the first comparison among these egg proteins. This particle, hereafter PmPV1, represents ~52% of perivitellin fluid protein. It is a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein responsible for the bright reddish egg coloration. With VHDL characteristics, PmPV1 apparent molecular mass is 294kDa, composed of five non-covalently bound subunits of pI 4.7-9.8 and masses between 26 and 36kDa whose N-terminal sequences were obtained. It is a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein scarcely lipidated (strategy of Pomacea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma radiation effect on allergen protein of laying hen eggs;Efeito da radiacao gama em proteina alergenica de ovos de galinhas poedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia Nalesso Costa

    2009-07-01

    The egg is the most complete natural food; it has all the necessary nutrients such as vitamins, aminoacids and essential minerals to maintain a life. However, although, has several proteins that promote allergies in considerable part of the world population. To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovo mucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in four New Zealand female rabbits, at 45 days old, immunized with bio conjugated ovo mucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were approved by Institute of Animal Science and Pastures (IZ)'s Committee of Ethical and Animal Experimentation and preceded according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs, from the Genetic Department of Agricultural University Luiz de Queiroz ESALQ/USP. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of {sup 60}Co, type Multipurpose at the Energetically Researches and Nuclear Institute (IPEN), under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10KGy; 20KGy and 30KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA s test we can find the egg allergen ovo mucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovo mucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation

  4. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  5. Dietary whey proteins shield murine cecal microbiota from extensive disarray caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Naice E S; Roquetto, Aline R; de Pace, Fernanda; Moura, Carolina S; Santos, Andrey Dos; Yamada, Aureo T; Saad, Mário José A; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    High-fat diets are used to induce adverse alterations in the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, generalized inflammation and metabolic stress, which ultimately may lead to obesity. The influence of dietary whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce stress. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to test if dietary milk-whey proteins, both in the intact form and hydrolyzed, could have an effect on the compositional changes of the cecal microbiota that can be induced in mice when receiving a high-fat diet in combination with the standard casein. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control casein diet (AIN 93-G); high-fat-casein (HFCAS); high-fat-whey protein concentrate (HFWPC) and high-fat whey-protein hydrolysate (HFWPH) for 9weeks. The intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S-rRNA of the invariant (V1-V3) gene, potentially endotoxemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was determined colorimetrically, and liver fat infiltration assessed by light microscopy. The high-fat diet proved to induce dysbiosis in the animals by inverting the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes, promoted the increase of LPS and resulted in liver fat infiltration. The whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, resisted the installation of dysbiosis, prevented the surge of circulating LPS and prevented fat infiltration in the liver. It is concluded that dietary whey proteins exert metabolic actions that tend to preserve the normal microbiota profile, while mitigating liver fat deposition in mice consuming a high-fat diet for nine weeks. Such beneficial effects were not seen when casein was the dietary protein. The hydrolyzed whey protein still differed from the normal whey protein by selectively protecting the Bacteroidetes phylum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical Activity Modifies the Association between Dietary Protein and Lean Mass of Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jessica A; Wertheim, Betsy C; Thomson, Cynthia A; Bea, Jennifer W; Wallace, Robert; Allison, Matthew; Snetselaar, Linda; Chen, Zhao; Nassir, Rami; Thompson, Patricia A

    2017-02-01

    Maintenance of lean muscle mass and related strength is associated with lower risk for numerous chronic diseases of aging in women. Our aim was to evaluate whether the association between dietary protein and lean mass differs by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. Participants were postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n=8,298). Our study measured percent lean mass, percent fat mass, and lean body mass index. Linear regression models adjusted for scanner serial number, age, calibrated energy intake, race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and recreational physical activity were used to determine the relationship between protein intake and body composition measures. Likelihood ratio tests and stratified analysis were used to investigate physical activity and body mass index as potential effect modifiers. Biomarker-calibrated protein intake was positively associated with percent lean mass; women in the highest protein quintile had 6.3 percentage points higher lean mass than the lowest quintile (Plean body mass index were both inversely related to protein intake (both Plean body mass index (P interaction =0.011). Leucine intake was associated with lean mass, as were branched chain amino acids combined (both Plean mass in postmenopausal women. Importantly, those that also engage in physical activity have the highest lean mass across body mass index categories. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 1. A flexible and practical tool to predict dose-response curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. An empirical model of exponential form was developed, different versions of which can be used to predict growth rate, feed conversion and carcase and breast meat yield of broiler chickens as a function of dietary balanced protein ( DBP) content. The model was developed to support decision- making

  8. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  9. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    Full Text Available Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP levels (14% or 10% and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg. The low-protein (LP diets (10% CP were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS (P<0.01 and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN (P<0.001, while dietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (P<0.001 and lean percentage (P<0.05, and decreased the feed conversion ratio (P<0.05 and back fat (P<0.05. CS supplementation also increased the concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (P<0.001, and reduced the concentrations of leptin, SS, and PUN (P<0.001. Increased mRNA abundance of Akt1 and IGF-1 signaling (P<0.001 and decreased mRNA abundance of Forkhead Box O (FOXO 4 (P<0.01 and muscle atrophy F-box (P<0.001 were observed in pigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of

  10. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...... with lipid analyses of the fillet. Overall, the results showed that the sensory characteristics of the trout were affected in different ways during ice storage. The source of lipid seemed to affect the sensory quality at the beginning of the storage period, while the protein source seemed to have a more...

  11. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  12. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Christy A.; Elliott, John E.; Ormerod, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in δ 13 C (C. cinclus) or δ 15 N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  13. Taste sensitivity for monosodium glutamate and an increased liking of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Smeets, Astrid J P G; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine individuals' taste threshold for monosodium glutamate (MSG) alone and in combination with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP-5) and to examine if this threshold was related to an increase in sensory properties (including pleasantness of taste) and/or to one's preference for dietary protein over carbohydrate and fat. Using the triangle tasting method, the taste threshold was determined for thirty-six women and twenty-four men. Thresholds varied from zero to infinite as determined using a clear soup with added MSG in the concentration range of 0.1 to 0.8 % (w/w) MSG. Subjects rated fourteen sensory properties of the soup and also their 'liking', 'eating frequency' and 'preference' of twenty-two common high-protein, high-carbohydrate and high-fat food items. The taste threshold (and therefore sensitivity) of MSG was lowered from 0.33 (sem 0.24) to 0.26 (sem 0.22) % MSG when 0.25 % (w/w) IMP-5 was added. None of the sensory properties assessed was associated with the taste threshold of MSG +/- 0.25 % IMP-5 in the overall study population. However, the taste descriptor 'meatiness' was associated with the threshold data for individuals who could taste concentrations of protein were found to be related to the threshold of MSG +/- 0.25 % IMP-5. From this study population we conclude that the taste threshold of MSG in combination with IMP-5 does appear to predict one's 'liking' of as well as 'preference' for high-protein foods.

  14. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by

  15. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition of juvenile parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, biometrics, hematology and body composition in juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish averaging 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD was randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 × 40 × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish. Five isocaloric diets (16.7 kJ/g energy were formulated to contain crude protein levels (CP as 35 (CP35, 40 (CP40, 45 (CP45, 50 (CP50 and 60 % (CP60 in the diets. Fish were fed one of the experimental diets at apparent satiation twice a day in triplicate groups. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG of fish fed with CP50 and CP60 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed with CP35, CP40 and CP45 diets. Fish fed with CP45, CP50 and CP60 diets had higher feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR than those of fish fed with CP35 and CP40 diets. Protein retention efficiency (PRE decreased with increase of dietary protein levels among fish fed with the experimental diets. Whole-body crude protein and lipid contents increased with the dietary protein level up to CP50 diet. In conclusion, analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the optimum dietary protein level could be 50 % for maximum growth of juvenile parrot fish, while the broken-line analysis of WG suggested that the level could be 48.5 %, in a diet containing 16.7 kJ/g energy.

  16. Effects of dietary protein intake on responses of young sheep to infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houtert, M F; Barger, I A; Steel, J W; Windon, R G; Emery, D L

    1995-01-01

    The effects of protein supplementation and infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis on production responses and immune function in young sheep and on nematode population dynamics were assessed. Eighty-four 3-month-old Merino wether sheep were housed in individual pens and fed ad libitum chopped oaten hay containing 0.5% urea, together with 50 g day-1 lucerne meal. Fish meal (FM) was given as a source of protected protein at 0, 50 or 100 g day-1 (FM0, FM50, FM100; from Days --28 to 140). From Days 1 to 140, 0 or 1000 T. colubriformis infective larvae were given on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Infected sheep were slaughtered after 35, 70, 105, or 140 days of infection. Live-weight gain was reduced significantly by infection with T. colubriformis in sheep given FM0, but not in sheep given FM50 or FM100. Greasy wool production and fibre diameter were increased by FM, whereas the effects of infection with T. colubriformis on wool measurements depended on the level of FM given. Worm egg concentrations in faeces were significantly lower for sheep given FM100 than for those given FM0 or FM50 during the last 28 days of infection. Similarly, the apparent rate of worm expulsion was considerably higher in sheep given FM than in those not given FM. The rate of expulsion of T. colubriformis correlated with levels of circulating eosinophils as well as with the concentration of intestinal sheep mast cell proteases. Levels of parasite-specific and non-specific circulating antibodies were either unaffected or reduced as a result of supplementation with FM, although lymphocyte stimulation in vitro in response to T. colubriformis third stage larval antigen was enhanced significantly in infected animals given FM100. It was concluded that supplementary feeding with FM substantially reduced the production losses attributable to infection with T. colubriformis and was associated with enhanced expulsion of the parasite burden.

  17. The Addition of White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Concentrated Base on Quality Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol, Protein Content and Salt Content of Salted Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu’addimah Mu’addimah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research was to determine the effect of Curcuma zedoaria concentrated addition on quality antioxidant activity, total phenols, protein content and salt content of salted egg. The materials were duck’s egg, water, salt, and essence of white turmeric. The method was experiment using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and three for replications. The Curcuma zedoaria juice research were divided into P0 (0%, P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30% and P4 (40%. Data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and then continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, if it was found significant effect among treatmeants. The result showed that the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice indicated highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on antioxidant activity, protein content and salt content, but significantly effect (P<0.05 on total phenol. The best treatment was the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice 40% were indicated of antioxidant activity, total phenol, protein content and the salt content was 99.80 mg/g, 0.16%, 9.96%, 2.43% respectively.

  18. The effect of palatability of protein source on dietary selection in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Terré, M; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2014-07-01

    Evidence has shown that soybean meal is perceived as more palatable than canola meal by dairy calves in short-term preference tests. This study evaluated the effect of protein source on longer-term dietary selection of dairy calves. In experiment 1, 40 Holstein bull calves (11.4 ± 4.3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets for 6 wk: base starter pellet (S; 12% crude protein; CP) and high-protein pellet (40% CP) containing either (1) soybean meal (SB) or (2) canola meal (CM). In wk 7 to 8, all calves were offered a single pelleted diet containing the protein source to which they were previously exposed. In experiment 2, 22 Holstein bull calves (9.9 ± 4.6d of age) were offered, for 6 wk, a choice of 2 mixed pelleted diets: (1) 70% S and 30% SB (SB mix), or (2) 70% S and 30% CM (CM mix). In wk 7 to 8, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets, as in experiment 1: (1) SB + S, or (2) CM + S. All feeds were provided ad libitum. Calves received 6 L/d of milk replacer [0.75 kg/d of dry matter (DM)] for the duration of both experiments. Feed intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed every 14 d. Feeds were sampled weekly to analyze DM and nutrient intake. Mixed diets in experiment 2 were analyzed for CP in wk 4 and 6 to assess feed sorting (calculated as actual CP intake as a percentage of predicted intake). In experiment 1, calves offered SB + S in wk 1 to 6 consumed more high-protein pellet than calves offered CM + S [73 vs. 42% of DM intake (DMI)] and, consequently, more CP (168 vs. 117 g/d). Solid feed DMI and average daily gain were similar between treatments. When offered a single diet in wk 7 to 8, calves offered starter containing soybean meal increased intake to a greater extent than calves offered the starter containing canola meal. In experiment 2, calves preferred the SB mix to CM mix (preference ratio: 0.7). Calves consumed more CP than predicted from SB mix in wk 4 and 6 (108 ± 2.0%), indicating that they were sorting in

  19. Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Yue, Hongyuan; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly used in hens’ diets to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, the molecular consequences of this substitution remains unclear. To investigate the impact of this substitution at the molecular level, iTRAQ combined with biochemical analysis was performed in Hy-Line W-36 hens supplemented with a mixed diet of CSM and SBM. Egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly reduced in the CSM100 group (100% crude protein of SBM replaced by CSM) compared with the SBM group (Phen diet. PMID:28813468

  20. Refinement of the production of antigen-specific hen egg yolk antibodies (IgY intended for passive dietary immunization in animals. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcq, C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies have become essential tools in recent decades, with a wide range of applications in the laboratory and in human and veterinary medicine. The use of laying hens, instead of mammals, to obtain the necessary antibodies from the eggs is a major advance in terms of animal welfare because it makes blood sampling obsolete. However, the advantages of this technology are numerous, in addition to the animal welfare aspect. With a carefully designed immunization protocol, it is possible to enhance both the hen's immune response and its welfare during the process. This review puts forward recommendations how to do this and discusses recent approaches on improving the technology.

  1. Impact of dietary precursor ALA versus preformed DHA on fatty acid profiles of eggs, liver and adipose tissue and expression of genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Eck, P; House, J D

    2017-04-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply. Seventy Lohmann hens (n=10/treatment) consumed either a control diet (0.03% total omega-3 PUFA), or the control with supplementation (0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3 PUFA) from either flaxseed oil or algal product, as sources of ALA (precursor) or DHA (preformed), respectively. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design, and data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. ALA accumulated as a function of intake (PDHA-fed hens. Unlike flaxseed oil, preformed-DHA contributed to greater (P<0.0001) accumulation of LCPUFA in yolk total PL and TAG pool, as well as adipose TAG. This may relate to elevated (P<0.0001) expression of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1). No difference in hepatic EPA level in total lipids was noted between both treatment groups; EPA liver =2.1493x-0.0064; R 2 =0.70, P<0.0001 (x=dietary omega-3 PUFA). The latter result may highlight the role of hepatic EPA in the regulation of LCPUFA metabolism in laying hens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

  3. Sequence-specific interaction between the disintegrin domain of mouse ADAM 3 and murine eggs: role of beta1 integrin-associated proteins CD9, CD81, and CD98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Bigler, D; Ito, Y; White, J M

    2001-04-01

    ADAM 3 is a sperm surface glycoprotein that has been implicated in sperm-egg adhesion. Because little is known about the adhesive activity of ADAMs, we investigated the interaction of ADAM 3 disintegrin domains, made in bacteria and in insect cells, with murine eggs. Both recombinant proteins inhibited sperm-egg binding and fusion with potencies similar to that which we recently reported for the ADAM 2 disintegrin domain. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed a critical importance for the glutamine at position 7 of the disintegrin loop. Fluorescent beads coated with the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain bound to the egg surface. Bead binding was inhibited by an authentic, but not by a scrambled, peptide analog of the disintegrin loop. Bead binding was also inhibited by the function-blocking anti-alpha6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) GoH3, but not by a nonfunction blocking anti-alpha6 mAb, or by mAbs against either the alphav or beta3 integrin subunits. We also present evidence that in addition to the tetraspanin CD9, two other beta1-integrin-associated proteins, the tetraspanin CD81 as well as the single pass transmembrane protein CD98 are expressed on murine eggs. Antibodies to CD9 and CD98 inhibited in vitro fertilization and binding of the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain. Our findings are discussed in terms of the involvement of multiple sperm ADAMs and multiple egg beta1 integrin-associated proteins in sperm-egg binding and fusion. We propose that an egg surface "tetraspan web" facilitates fertilization and that it may do so by fostering ADAM-integrin interactions.

  4. Sequence-Specific Interaction between the Disintegrin Domain of Mouse ADAM 3 and Murine Eggs: Role of β1 Integrin-associated Proteins CD9, CD81, and CD98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Bigler, Dora; Ito, Yasuhiko; White, Judith M.

    2001-01-01

    ADAM 3 is a sperm surface glycoprotein that has been implicated in sperm-egg adhesion. Because little is known about the adhesive activity of ADAMs, we investigated the interaction of ADAM 3 disintegrin domains, made in bacteria and in insect cells, with murine eggs. Both recombinant proteins inhibited sperm-egg binding and fusion with potencies similar to that which we recently reported for the ADAM 2 disintegrin domain. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed a critical importance for the glutamine at position 7 of the disintegrin loop. Fluorescent beads coated with the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain bound to the egg surface. Bead binding was inhibited by an authentic, but not by a scrambled, peptide analog of the disintegrin loop. Bead binding was also inhibited by the function-blocking anti-α6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) GoH3, but not by a nonfunction blocking anti-α6 mAb, or by mAbs against either the αv or β3 integrin subunits. We also present evidence that in addition to the tetraspanin CD9, two other β1-integrin-associated proteins, the tetraspanin CD81 as well as the single pass transmembrane protein CD98 are expressed on murine eggs. Antibodies to CD9 and CD98 inhibited in vitro fertilization and binding of the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain. Our findings are discussed in terms of the involvement of multiple sperm ADAMs and multiple egg β1 integrin-associated proteins in sperm-egg binding and fusion. We propose that an egg surface “tetraspan web” facilitates fertilization and that it may do so by fostering ADAM–integrin interactions. PMID:11294888

  5. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND LIPID ON THE GROWTH OF RED SNAPPER, Lutjanus sebae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Red snapper, Lutjanus sebae is favored in mariculture activities because it has a relatively good market and price. Technology for big scale seed production of this species has been developed and is now adequate to supply seed for grow-out activities. However, the availability of artifical diets for L. sebae is still a major constraint for grow-out production. Data on optimum dietary protein and lipid requirements for this fish as a basic information in feed development is not available yet. The objective of the present study was to find out dietary protein and lipid requirements for juvenile of L. sebae. A 70-day feeding experiment was conducted in 24 fiberglass tanks, 200 L volume. Each tank was equipped with a flow-through water system. Twenty five hatchery-produced juveniles of L. sebae (43.1 g BW were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. The fish were fed with the experimental diets twice everyday at a level of 3% of biomass for the first 4 weeks, and then 2% of biomass afterward. Twelve experimental diets were prepared in form of dry pellet containing casein and fish meal as the main protein sources. Experimental diet had 4 levels of crude protein (32%, 37%, 42%, and 47% and each protein level consisted of 3 levels of lipid (7%, 12%, and 17%. The experiment employed factorial method with completely random design using 12 combination treatments and 2 replications for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that there was no significant effect of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed consumption, and feed efficiency of tested fish. Growth and feed efficiency of fish fed on diet containing 42% and 47% crude protein were significantly higher than that of fish fed on diet containing 32% and 37% crude protein. High lipid content in the diet (17% resulted in poor growth and poor feed efficiency. This data indicates that Lutjanus sebae has limited ability to utilize dietary lipid as an energy

  6. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (Pmaking the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of broiler chickens to different dietary crude protein and feeding regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Oyedeji

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

  9. Differential Regulation of Hippocampal IGF-1-Associated Signaling Proteins by Dietary Restriction in Aging Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadem, Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta; Sharma, Ramesh

    2017-08-01

    Time-dependent alterations in several biological processes of an organism may be characterized as aging. One of the effects of aging is the decline in cognitive functions. Dietary restriction (DR), an intervention where the consumption of food is lessened but without malnutrition, is a well-established mechanism that has a wide range of important outcomes including improved health span, delayed aging, and extension of lifespan of various species. It also plays a beneficial role in protecting against age-dependent deterioration of cognitive functions, and has neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 plays an important role in the regulation of cellular and tissue functions, and relating to the aging process the most important pathway of IGF-1 is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) signaling cascade. Although many have studied the changes in the level of IGF-1 and its effect on neural proliferation, the downstream signaling proteins have not been fully elucidated. Hence in the present investigation, the IGF-1 gene expression and the normal endogenous levels of IGF1R (IGF-1 receptor), PI3K, Akt, pAkt, and pFoxO in the hippocampus of young, adult, and old mice were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. The effects of DR on these protein levels were also studied. Results showed a decrease in the levels of IGF-1, IGF1R, PI3K, and pAkt, while pFoxO level increased with respect to age. Under DR, these protein levels are maintained in adult mice, but old mice displayed diminished expression levels of these proteins as compared to ad libitum-fed mice. Maintenance of PI3K/Akt pathway results in the phosphorylation of FoxOs, necessary for the enhancement of neural proliferation and survival in adult mice. The down-regulation of IGF-I signaling, as observed in old mice, leads to increasing the activity of FoxO factors that may be important for the neuroprotective

  10. Effects of Radiation and Dietary Iron on Expression of Genes and Proteins Involved in Drug Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, K. M.; Wotring, V. E.

    2014-01-01

    Liver function, especially the rate of metabolic enzyme activities, determines the concentration of circulating drugs and the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Dietary factors and exposure to radiation are aspects of spaceflight that are potential oxidative stressors and both can be modeled in ground experiments. In this experiment, we examined the effects of high dietary iron and low dose gamma radiation (individually and combined) on the gene expression of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, redox homeostasis, and DNA repair. METHODS All procedures were approved by the JSC Animal Care and Use Committee. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8); control, high Fe diet (650 mg iron/kg), radiation (fractionated 3 Gy exposure from a Cs- 137 source) and combined high Fe diet + radiation exposure. Animals were euthanized 24h after the last treatment of radiation; livers were removed immediately and flash -frozen in liquid nitrogen. Expression of genes thought to be involved in redox homeostasis, drug metabolism and DNA damage repair was measured by RT-qPCR. Where possible, protein expression of the same genes was measured by western blotting. All data are expressed as % change in expression normalized to reference gene expression; comparisons were then made of each treatment group to the sham exposed/ normal diet control group. Data was considered significant at phigh Fe

  11. Influence of dietary casein or lactalbumin on incorporation of 14C leucine into protein of ethanol-perfused livers of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, K.A.C.; Treloar, B.P.; Hove, E.L.; Sedcole, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing casein or lactalbumin as the sole source of protein (c. 200 g protein/kg diet) for about 4 weeks. At 190-210 g live weight the rats were anaesthetised, and the livers were perfused with ethanol (0-3.7 mL/100 mL perfusate, i.e., 0-625 m ) and 30 minutes later with 14 C leucine (5 micro g Ci) for 60 minutes. The specific radioactivity (dpm/mg protein) of liver and perfusate protein was determined. The log specific radioactivity data of each dietary group were described by a 2-phase linear model: a constant or plateau level up to an ethanol concentration of c. 2 mL ethanol/100 mL perfusate (340 m ), and a linear decrease in log specific radioactivity above that level. For the liver protein the constant log specific radioactivity of the casein dietary group was significantly higher than that for the lactalbumin dietary group. The decreases in log specific radioactivity for both liver and perfusate in the casein dietary group were significantly greater than those in the lactalbumin dietary group. The dietary dependent difference in incorporation with varying ethanol concentrations may result from a combination of control over liver protein synthesis and protein secretion. Predisposing rats to 2 high-quality protein diets results in differences in liver protein metabolism which are maintained against a wide range of ethanol perfusate concentrations. (auths)

  12. Egg quality of quails fed low methionine diet supplemented with betaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Dewanti, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of betaine supplementation to low methionine diet on egg quality of quails. A total of 340 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was divided into 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 17 quails each. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The four dietary treatments were the low methionine diet (0.3% methionine) without betaine supplementation and the low methionine diet supplemented with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% betaine. The experimental diets were applied for 8 weeks and the egg quality traits were measured at the age of 16 and 20 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to orthogonal polynomial test to determine the optimum level of betaine. Increasing dietary levels of betaine increased the fat content of the egg with the linear regression of y = 11.0949 + 4.1914x (R2 = 0.18). However, supplementation of betaine did not affect protein content, yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentage. It can be concluded that betaine supplementation up to 0.21% to low methionine diet only had little effect in improving the quality traits of quail eggs.

  13. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  14. Role of Dietary Protein and Thiamine Intakes on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older People: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda Koh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age.

  15. Changes of Protein and Lipid Contents, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions in Eggs and Yolk-Sac Larvae of American Shad ( Alosa sapidissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Gao, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Jiuxiang; Wang, Yaohui; Guo, Zhenglong; Huang, Bin; Liu, Baoliang; Hong, Lei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the changes of the biochemical composition of American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) eggs and larvae at embryonic and early larval stages, samples were collected at different development stages from artificial fertilization to the end of yolk absorption including 2 h, 12 h and 30 h after fertilization and newly hatched larvae including 1 and 3 days after hatching. The composition of lipid, fatty acids, protein and amino acids were analyzed. The content of total protein exhibited a decreasing trend during embryogenesis and larval development, and a significant reduction was detected after hatching ( P acids after hatching except for glycine ( P fatty acids remained stable during the period of embryogenesis. But after hatching, a significant decrease was found in the content of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-6, SFA and ratio of EPA/ARA ( P acids.

  16. Performance And Egg Quality Of Hens Fed Cocoa Husk Based Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lowman Brown hens, 37 - week - old, were used to study the effect of dietary inclusion of 10 and 20% cocoa husk meal (CHM) at the expense of maize on hen performance and egg quality. The trial was conducted for 10 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed consumption (FC), and feed ...

  17. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Hainanmycin on Protein Degradation and Populations of Ammonia-producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. B. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro fermentation was conducted to determine the effects of hainanmycin on protein degradation and populations of ammonia-producing bacteria. The substrates (DM basis for in vitro fermentation consisted of alfalfa hay (31.7%, Chinese wild rye grass hay (28.3%, ground corn grain (24.5%, soybean meal (15.5% with a forage: concentrate of 60:40. Treatments were the control (no additive and hainanmycin supplemented at 0.1 (H0.1, 1 (H1, 10 (H10, and 100 mg/kg (H100 of the substrates. After 24 h of fermentation, the highest addition level of hainanmycin decreased total VFA concentration and increased the final pH. The high addition level of hainanmycin (H1, H10, and H100 reduced (p0.05. After 24 h of fermentation, H10 and H100 increased (p<0.05 concentrations of peptide nitrogen and AA nitrogen and proteinase activity, and decreased (p<0.05 NH3-N concentration and deaminase activity compared with control. Peptidase activitives were not affected by hainanmycin. Hainanmycin supplementation only inhibited the growth of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which is one of the species of low deaminative activity. Hainanmycin supplementation also decreased (p<0.05 relative population sizes of hyper-ammonia-producing species, except for H0.1 on Clostridium aminophilum. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with hainanmycin could improve ruminal fermentation and modify protein degradation by changing population size of ammonia-producing bacteria in vitro; and the addition level of 10 mg/kg appeared to achieve the best results.

  18. Interaction between dietary protein content and the source of carbohydrates along the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Robert; Boudry, Christelle; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Although fermentable carbohydrates (CHO) can reduce metabolites derived from dietary protein fermentation in the intestine of pigs, the interaction between site of fermentation and substrate availability along the gut is still unclear. The current study aimed at determining the impact of two different sources of carbohydrates in diets with low or very high protein content on microbial metabolite profiles along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Thirty-six piglets (n = 6 per group) were fed diets high (26%, HP) or low (18%, LP) in dietary protein and with or without two different sources of carbohydrates (12% sugar beet pulp, SBP, or 8% lignocellulose, LNC) in a 2 × 3 factorial design. After 3 weeks, contents from stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon were taken and analysed for major bacterial metabolites (D-lactate, L-lactate, short chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, phenols and indols). Results indicate considerable fermentation of CHO and protein already in the stomach. HP diets increased the formation of ammonia, amines, phenolic and indolic compounds throughout the different parts of the intestine with most pronounced effects in the distal colon. Dietary SBP inclusion in LP diets favoured the formation of cadaverine in the proximal parts of the intestine. SBP mainly increased CHO-derived metabolites such as SCFA and lactate and decreased protein-derived metabolites in the large intestine. Based on metabolite profiles, LNC was partly fermented in the distal large intestine and reduced mainly phenols, indols and cadaverine, but not ammonia. Multivariate analysis confirmed more diet-specific metabolite patterns in the stomach, whereas the CHO addition was the main determinant in the caecum and proximal colon. The protein level mainly influenced the metabolite patterns in the distal colon. The results confirm the importance of CHO source to influence the formation of metabolites derived from protein fermentation along the intestinal

  19. Beyond the role of dietary protein and amino acids in the prevention of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzke, Klaus J; Freudenberg, Anne; Klaus, Susanne

    2014-01-20

    High-protein diets have been shown to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity and can improve associated metabolic disorders in mice. Dietary leucine supplementation can partially mimic this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms triggering these preventive effects remain to be satisfactorily explained. Here we review studies showing a connection between high protein or total amino nitrogen intake and obligatory water intake. High amino nitrogen intake may possibly lower lipid storage, and prevent insulin resistance. Suggestions are made for further systematical studies to explore the relationship between water consumption, satiety, and energy expenditure. Moreover, these examinations should better distinguish between leucine-specific and unspecific effects. Research in this field can provide important information to justify dietary recommendations and strategies in promoting long-term weight loss and may help to reduce health problems associated with the comorbidities of obesity.

  20. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. The influence of Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Starfish (Asterias rubens) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammershøj, Marianne; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment....... The egg weight was not different from the egg weights of control diets, but the inclusion of 4 g mussel meal resulted in a lower (P colour was lower (P ... 100 g feed can be used in diets as a high quality protein source for egg production. These meals can replace fish meal; however, an inclusion level higher than 8 g/100 g of mussel or starfish meal may result in a fishy smell of the eggs....

  2. Is controlling phosphorus by decreasing dietary protein intake beneficial or harmful in persons with chronic kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinaberger, Christian S; Greenland, Sander; Kopple, Joel D; Van Wyck, David; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2008-12-01

    Dietary restrictions to control serum phosphorus, which are routinely recommended to persons with chronic kidney disease, are usually associated with a reduction in protein intake. This may lead to protein-energy wasting and poor survival. We aimed to ascertain whether a decline in serum phosphorus and a concomitant decline in protein intake are associated with an increase in the risk of death. In a 3-y study (7/2001-6/2004) of 30 075 prevalent maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, we examined changes in serum phosphorus and in normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA), a surrogate of dietary protein intake, during the first 6 mo and the subsequent mortality. Four groups of MHD patients were defined on the basis of the direction of the changes in serum phosphorus and nPNA. Baseline phosphorus had a J-shaped association with mortality, whereas higher baseline nPNA was linearly associated with greater survival. Compared with MHD patients whose serum phosphorus and nPNA both rose over 6 mo, those whose serum phosphorus decreased but whose nPNA increased had greater survival, with a case mix-adjusted death risk ratio of 0.90 (95% confidence limits: 0.86, 0.95; P protein intake may outweigh the benefit of controlled phosphorus and may lead to greater mortality. Additional studies including randomized controlled trials should examine whether nondietary control of phosphorus or restriction of nonprotein sources of phosphorus is safer and more effective.

  3. Biological activity of egg-yolk protein by-product hydrolysates obtained with the use of non-commercial plant protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zambrowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysis leads to improved functional and biological properties of protein by-products, which can be further used as nutraceuticals and protein ingredients for food applications.The present study evaluated ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant and immunostimulating activities in hydrolysates of egg-yolk protein by-product (YP, generated during industrial process of delipidation of yolk. The protein substrate was hydrolyzed using non-commercial protease from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia. The reaction was conducted in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 at temperature of 37°C for 4 hours using different enzyme doses (100-1000 U/mg of substrate. The protein degradation was monitored by the determination of the degree of hydrolysis (DH, release of free amino groups (FAG and by RP-HPLC. In the obtained hydrolysates we also evaluated biological activities. It was shown that the highest DH of substrate (46.6% was obtained after 4h of reaction at the highest amount of enzyme. This hydrolysate exhibited antioxidant activity, including ferricion reducing (FRAP (56.41 μg Fe2+/mg, ferric ion chelating (695.76 μg Fe2+/mg and DPPH free radical scavenging (0.89 μmol troloxeq/mg as well as ACE-inhibitory (IC50=837.75 μg/mL activities.The research showed improved biological properties of enzymatically modified YP by-product.

  4. Dietary protein-fiber ratio associates with circulating levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Johnson, D W; Xu, H; Carrero, J J; Pascoe, E; French, C; Campbell, K L

    2015-09-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60% male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45% diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes. Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Profiles in Relation to Risk of Dysglycemia: Findings from a Prospective Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mirmiran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limited knowledge on the effects of dietary amino acid intake on dysglycemia, we assessed the possible association of dietary protein and amino acid patterns with the risk of pre-diabetes in a prospective population-based study. Participants without diabetes and pre-diabetes (n = 1878 were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 5.8 years. Their dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006–2008; demographic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and in follow-up examinations. Pre-diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of pre-diabetes across tertiles of dietary protein and amino acid pattern scores. The mean age of the participants (44.9% men was 38.3 ± 12.7 years at baseline. Three major amino acid patterns were characterized: (1 higher loads of lysine, methionine, valine, aspartic acids, tyrosine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, alanine, histidine, and serine; (2 higher loads of glycine, cysteine, arginine, and tryptophan; and (3 higher loads of proline and glutamic acid. Dietary total protein intake Hazard Ratio (HR = 1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.92–1.38 and HR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.81–1.23, in the second and third tertile, respectively was not related to the development of pre-diabetes. The highest score of second dietary amino acid pattern tended to be associated with a decreased risk of pre-diabetes (HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65–1.01, whereas the third pattern was related to an increased risk in the fully adjusted model (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.02–1.52; p for trend = 0.05. These novel data suggest that the amino acid composition of an individual’s diet may modify their risk of pre-diabetes.

  6. Antioxidant activity in cooked and simulated digested eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remanan, M K; Wu, J

    2014-07-25

    The avian egg is an excellent source of nutrients consisting of components with beneficial properties but there is limited knowledge on the effect of cooking methods and gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of eggs. The present study was focused on the effect of cooking and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on antioxidant activity of eggs using ORAC, ABTS and DPPH assays. The results suggest that fresh egg yolk has higher antioxidant activity than fresh egg white and whole eggs. Cooking reduced whereas simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased the antioxidant activity of eggs. Boiled egg white hydrolysate showed the highest antioxidant activity; a total of 63 peptides were identified, indicative of the formation of novel antioxidant peptides upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This study suggests the potential role of eggs as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  7. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tan, Bie; Li, Yinghui; Duan, Yehui; Blachier, François; Hu, Chien-An A; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA) pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet)- or higher/NRC (National Research Council)-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I) and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II) were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (Prelated AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05) than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K), and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05). There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05) the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but repressed (P<0.05) the level for p70S6K in Landrace pigs. The higher protein-NRC diet increased ratio of p-mTOR/mTOR in

  8. Effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in the diets on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters in quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, S; Erol, H; Ozsoy, B; Onbaşılar, I; Yalçın, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in quail diets on laying performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged 10 weeks were randomly allocated into one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into five replicates as subgroups, comprising 12 quails each. Dried brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used at the levels of 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% in the diets of the first, second and third treatment groups, respectively. Soyabean meal was replaced with dried brewing yeast. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The experimental period lasted 18 weeks. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, daily feed intake, daily protein intake, egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index, egg Haugh unit, the percentages of egg shell, albumen and yolk, excreta moisture and small intestinal pH. Inclusion of 3% and 4.5% dried brewing yeast in diets reduced egg yolk cholesterol concentration as mg per yolk and mg per g yolk (P brewing yeast was significantly lower (P brewing yeast resulted in significant increases (P brewing yeast. It is concluded that dried brewing yeast can be used up to 4.5% in the diets of laying quails without adverse effects on the measured parameters.

  9. The dietary inclusion of Portulaca oleracea to the diet of laying hens increases the n-3 fatty acids content and reduces the cholesterol content in the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-enriched diet on yolk fatty acid profile and cholesterol content was evaluated. Dried Poutulaca oleracea (purslane: PO diet was added to a commercial diet (C diet at 20% of inclusion level. The effect of the supplemented diet was compared to that of C diet. Twenty-six laying hens were fed ad libitum for 21 days with the 2 diets, supplemented also with 300 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg. Eggs were collected and then the fatty acids (FA profile and the cholesterol content were analysed. The PO diet significantly reduced the saturated FA content (P<0.05 and increased that of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA: 18:2 n-6 (P<0.001, 18:3 n-3 (P<0.001 and 22:6 n-3 (DHA; P<0.01. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA significantly increased with the PO diet and the n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (10.4 vs 11.3; P<0.05.

  10. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Laura A; Robbins, Charles T; Shipley, Lisa A

    2003-01-01

    Many fruits contain high levels of available energy but very low levels of protein and other nutrients. The discrepancy between available energy and protein creates a physiological paradox for many animals consuming high-fruit diets, as they will be protein deficient if they eat to meet their minimum energy requirement. We fed young grizzly bears both high-energy pelleted and fruit diets containing from 1.6% to 15.4% protein to examine the role of diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis in dealing with high-energy-low-protein diets. Digestible energy intake at mass maintenance increased 2.1 times, and composition of the gain changed from primarily lean mass to entirely fat when the protein content of the diet decreased from 15.4% to 1.6%. Daily fat gain was up to three times higher in bears fed low-protein diets ad lib., compared with bears consuming the higher-protein diet and gaining mass at the same rate. Thus, bears eating fruit can either consume other foods to increase dietary protein content and reduce energy expenditure, intake, and potentially foraging time or overeat high-fruit diets and use diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis to deal with their skewed energy-to-protein ratio. These are not discrete options but a continuum that creates numerous solutions for balancing energy expenditure, intake, foraging time, fat accumulation, and ultimately fitness, depending on food availability, foraging efficiency, bear size, and body condition.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for protein. The Panel concludes that a Population Reference Intake (PRI) can be derived from nitrogen balance studies. Several health outcomes possibly...... for growth and maintenance. For pregnancy, an intake of 1, 9 and 28 g/d in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively, is proposed in addition to the PRI for non-pregnant women. For lactation, a protein intake of 19 g/d during the first six months, and of 13 g/d after six months, is proposed...

  12. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and mortality increased......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  13. Effect of dietary protein sources of on blood or milk urea nitrogen of native cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, N R; Huque, K S; Asaduzzaman, M. [Animal Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)], E-mail: nathusarker@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    T{sub 4} treatment groups. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content in morning milk was lower compared to evening milk. This similar findings also reported by Broderick and Clayton, (1997), they reported that MUN concentrations was generally lower for samples collected at morning milking. Others explained that the differences of MUN in morning or evening milk might be influenced by the differences in feeding to milking intervals. These data show that feeding urea or protein of organic sources had effect on BSU and MUN contents in the morning milk but had no significant effect on evening milk. The lower BSU or MUN content in milk of the cows fed urea and molasses either in daily meals or as mix with concentrates may be due mainly to a lower CP intake compared to UMS and Matikalai. The results and discussion evinced no significant effect of feeding urea or organic protein on milk protein per cent (%). Determination of dietary protein concentration or sources on different components of milk protein is important to identify to determine feeding effect of urea on the quality of milk. Further detail study, may be worth a try to answer these questions.

  14. Late division kinetics in relation to modification of protein synthesis in mouse eggs blocked in the G2 phase after X-irradiation; and comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinfeld, S.; Gilles, J.; Jacquet, P.; Baugnet-Mahieu, L.; Rowley, R.

    1987-01-01

    Mouse zygotes (BALB/c blocked in the G 2 phase of the first cell cycle after X-irradiation were allowed to develop in culture medium. Delayed cleavage occurred at the same time in embryos exposed to 1 or 2 Gy and late division coincided with the second division in controls. Two dimensional electrophoresis showed that blocked irradiated embryos underwent the same modifications in protein synthesis as control embryos of the same age, except during first mitosis, for three polypeptide sets of 30, 35 and 45 kilodaltons molecular weight. The most remarkable difference between them was the appearance in cleaving controls of three spots at 35 kilodaltons that were absent in blocked irradiated embryos. It is assumed that blocked embryos 'missed' some signal necessary for cell division, but remained ready to cleave when a second signal occurred. Eggs from the BALB/c strain were particularly susceptible to this effect of X-irradiation but it was also found in eggs from other strains, irradiated with much higher doses. The accompanying comment by Rowley discusses the point of interruption of the control mechanism and the nature of the lesions involved. (author)

  15. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Kiuchi; Yasushi Ohashi; Reibin Tai; Toshiyuki Aoki; Sonoo Mizuiri; Toyoko Ogura; Atsushi Aikawa; Ken Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were ...

  16. Responses of heat shock protein 70 and caspase-3/7 to dietary selenomethionine in juvenile white sturgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the responses of juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus to elevated dietary selenium (Se based on the determination of the RNA/DNA ratio in muscle, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, and caspase-3/7 in muscle and/or liver tissues. Four semi-purified test diets were prepared by adding different levels of L-selenomethionine (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg diet. The analytical determinations of total Se were 2.2, 19.7, 40.1, and 77.7 mg/kg diet. The sturgeon (initial body weight: 30 ± 2 g; mean ± SEM were raised in indoor tanks provided with flow through freshwater (18–19 °C. There were three replicates for each dietary treatment with 25 fish per replicate. The liver and muscle tissues were collected at 4 and 8 weeks after feeding the test diets. A significant interaction between duration and levels of dietary Se exposures on RNA/DNA ratio in the muscle tissue was detected (P < 0.05. Although there was no significant main effect due to the duration of dietary Se exposures (i.e., 4 weeks versus 8 weeks on muscle RNA/DNA ratio (P ≥ 0.05, the ratio was significantly decreased with increasing dietary Se levels. Significant main effects were caused by the duration and levels of dietary Se exposures on Hsp70 in both the muscle and liver tissues, with significant increases in Hsp70 due to a longer exposure (8 weeks and higher levels (40.1 and 77.7 mg Se/kg diet of dietary Se. The caspase-3/7 activity in the liver were significantly higher in fish fed the diets containing 40.1 and 77.7 mg Se/kg diet than those fed the other diets. The toxic thresholds of Se in the muscle were estimated to be 32.2 and 26.6 mg Se/kg for the depressed specific growth rate and the induced Hsp70 response in muscle, respectively. This result indicated that the Hsp70 response in muscle is a more sensitive biomarker than the SGR of sturgeon for evaluating Se toxicity in white sturgeon. Results of the

  17. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  18. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  19. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  20. Influence of supplemental vitamin C on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus thoracis of steers fed varying concentrations of dietary sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplemental vitamin C (VC) on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of cattle receiving varying concentrations of dietary sulfur (S). A longissimus muscle was collected from 120 Angus-cross steers assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial, evaluating three concentrations of dietary S (0.22, 0.34, and 0.55%) and two concentrations of supplemental VC (0 or 10 g h(-1)d(-1)). Increasing dietary S and VC supplementation (Pdegradation (P = 0.07) and protein carbonylation (Pdegradation. © 2013.

  1. The 10 sea urchin receptor for egg jelly proteins (SpREJ are members of the polycystic kidney disease-1 (PKD1 family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyata Shinji

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the human polycystic kidney disease-1 (hPKD1 gene result in ~85% of cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, the most frequent human monogenic disease. PKD1 proteins are large multidomain proteins involved in a variety of signal transduction mechanisms. Obtaining more information about members of the PKD1 family will help to clarify their functions. Humans have five hPKD1 proteins, whereas sea urchins have 10. The PKD1 proteins of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, are referred to as the Receptor for Egg Jelly, or SpREJ proteins. The SpREJ proteins form a subfamily within the PKD1 family. They frequently contain C-type lectin domains, PKD repeats, a REJ domain, a GPS domain, a PLAT/LH2 domain, 1–11 transmembrane segments and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Results The 10 full-length SpREJ cDNA sequences were determined. The secondary structures of their deduced proteins were predicted and compared to the five human hPKD1 proteins. The genomic structures of the 10 SpREJs show low similarity to each other. All 10 SpREJs are transcribed in either embryos or adult tissues. SpREJs show distinct patterns of expression during embryogenesis. Adult tissues show tissue-specific patterns of SpREJ expression. Conclusion Possession of a REJ domain of about 600 residues defines this family. Except for SpREJ1 and 3, that are thought to be associated with the sperm acrosome reaction, the functions of the other SpREJ proteins remain unknown. The sea urchin genome is one-fourth the size of the human genome, but sea urchins have 10 SpREJ proteins, whereas humans have five. Determination of the tissue specific function of each of these proteins will be of interest to those studying echinoderm development. Sea urchins are basal deuterostomes, the line of evolution leading to the vertebrates. The study of individual PKD1 proteins will increase our knowledge of the importance of this gene family.

  2. Postexercise Dietary Protein Strategies to Maximize Skeletal Muscle Repair and Remodeling in Masters Endurance Athletes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Thomas M; Reaburn, Peter R; Phillips, Stuart M; Jenkins, David G

    2016-04-01

    Participation rates of masters athletes in endurance events such as long-distance triathlon and running continue to increase. Given the physical and metabolic demands of endurance training, recovery practices influence the quality of successive training sessions and, consequently, adaptations to training. Research has suggested that, after muscle-damaging endurance exercise, masters athletes experience slower recovery rates in comparison with younger, similarly trained athletes. Given that these discrepancies in recovery rates are not observed after non-muscle-damaging exercise, it is suggested that masters athletes have impairments of the protein remodeling mechanisms within skeletal muscle. The importance of postexercise protein feeding for endurance athletes is increasingly being acknowledged, and its role in creating a positive net muscle protein balance postexercise is well known. The potential benefits of postexercise protein feeding include elevating muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell activity for muscle repair and remodeling, as well as facilitating muscle glycogen resynthesis. Despite extensive investigation into age-related anabolic resistance in sedentary aging populations, little is known about how anabolic resistance affects postexercise muscle protein synthesis and thus muscle remodeling in aging athletes. Despite evidence suggesting that physical training can attenuate but not eliminate age-related anabolic resistance, masters athletes are currently recommended to consume the same postexercise dietary protein dose (approximately 20 g or 0.25 g/kg/meal) as younger athletes. Given the slower recovery rates of masters athletes after muscle-damaging exercise, which may be due to impaired muscle remodeling mechanisms, masters athletes may benefit from higher doses of postexercise dietary protein, with particular attention directed to the leucine content of the postexercise bolus.

  3. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panel on Macronutrients; Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes; Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

    Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...

  4. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

    2005-01-01

    Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...

  5. Effect of dietary protein on the excretion of. cap alpha. /sub 2u/, the sex-dependent protein of the adult male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, O W; Flory, W

    1975-01-01

    Adult male rates were maintained on normal (20 percent casein), protein-free (0 percent casein), high protein (50 percent casein), deficient protein (20 percent zein), and a supplemented, deficient protein (20 percent zein plus L-lysine and L-tryptophan) diets. Rats on a protein-free diet excreted approximately 1 mg ..cap alpha../sub 2u//24 h compared with a normal of 10-15 mg/24 h. Depleted rats placed on the normal diet showed a rapid restoration of the normal ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ excretion as well as total urinary proteins. Accumulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ in the blood serum was measured in nephrectomized rats. Rats on the protein free diet accumulated only 30 percent of the ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ compared to normals. On a 50 precent casein diet, rats excreted 30-50 mg ..cap alpha../sub 2u//24 h. However, the accumulation was normal in the serum of nephrectomized rats. A high protein diet did not stimulate ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ synthesis but probably increased the renal loss of all urinary proteins. The excretion of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ on a zein diet was reduced to the same degree as with the protein-free diet. Supplementation with lysine and tryptophan restored the capacity to eliminate ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ to near normal levels. Accumulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ in the serum of nephrectomized rats kept on the zein diets showed that the effect was to suppress the synthesis of the ..cap alpha../sub 2u/. Supplementation restored the biosynthesis of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/. It is concluded that the effect of dietary protein on the excretion of urinary proteins in the adult male rat is caused in a large part by an influence on the hepatic biosynthesis of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/. The biosynthesis of this protein, which represents approximately 30 percent of the total urinary proteins, is dependent on an adequate supply of dietary protein.

  6. Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

  7. Attenuation of renovascular damage in Zucker diabetic fatty rat by NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with ACE- and DPP4-inhibitory Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE are important target enzymes in glycemic control and renovascular protection. Here, we studied the effect of NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with DPP4- and ACE-inhibitory activity, on renovascular damage in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats. Comparisons were made to rats treated with vildagliptin (VIL, included as a positive control for the effect of DPP4 inhibition. METHODS: ZDF rats received NWT-03 (1 g/kg/day or VIL (3 mg/kg/day from 10 to 25 weeks of age. Metabolic and renal functions were assessed; the kidney was removed for histological analysis of glomerulosclerosis and expression of pro-inflammatory/fibrotic markers (RT-PCR and Western blotting; and the aorta was removed for studies of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR. FINDINGS: Hyperinsulinemic ZDF rats typically developed signs of type-2 diabetes and renovascular damage, as evidenced by albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and impaired EDR. Neither NWT-03 nor VIL improved metabolic parameters; for VIL, this was despite a 5-fold increase in glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 levels. NWT-03 and VIL both reduced renal interleukin (Il-1β/Il-13 mRNA expression and glomerulosclerosis. However, only NWT-03 additionally decreased renal tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA and P22(phox protein expression, reduced albuminuria, and restored aortic EDR. Indomethacin added to the organ bath instantly improved aortic EDR, indicating a role for cyclooxygenase (COX-derived contractile prostanoids in opposing relaxation in ZDF rats. This indomethacin effect was reduced by NWT-03, but not by VIL, and coincided with decreased renal COX-1/2 protein expression. CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION: Long-term supplementation with the egg protein hydrolysate NWT-03 attenuated renovascular damage in this preclinical rat model of type 2 diabetes. A comparison to the DPP4-inhibitor VIL suggests that the effects of NWT-03 were related to both

  8. Effects of Increasing Prepartum Dietary Protein Level Using Poultry by-Product Meal on Productive Performance and Health of Multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hossein Yazdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two levels of crude protein using poultry by-product meals (PBPM fed during late gestation on the performance, blood metabolites, and colostrum composition of Holstein dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous cows 26±6 d before expected calving were assigned randomly to two treatments containing 1 14% and 2 16% crude protein. The cow’s BCS was 3.56 ± 0.5 on average, at the beginning of the trial. Yields of milk, protein, lactose, fat, and SNF were not affected by prepartum dietary CP level. Colostrum composition (fat, CP and Total solids, blood metabolites (Ca, Glucose, Total protein, Albumin, Globulin and Urea N, and metabolic diseases incidence were not influenced by prepartum dietary CP level. There was no significant difference between treatments in body weight and BCS changes. As expected, blood urea N before calving was higher in the cows fed 16% CP diets. Serum cholesterol during prepartum and postpartum periods was significantly decreased as the CP increased in the diet. In general, although postpartum glucose level increased in cows which received 16% CP in the diet, it seems that no other obvious advantages over feeding the 14% CP diet are apparent. So feeding this last diet is recommended to close up cows.

  9. The effects of dietary protein levels on the population growth, performance, and physiology of honey bee workers during early spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Benle; Wu, Zaifu; Xu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on honey bee colonies, specifically the population growth, physiology, and longevity of honey bee workers during early spring. Diets containing four different levels of crude protein (25.0, 29.5, 34.0, or 38.5%) and pure pollen (control) were evaluated. Twenty-five colonies of honey bees with sister queens were used in the study. We compared the effects of the different bee diets by measuring population growth, emergent worker weight, midgut proteolytic enzyme activity, hypopharyngeal gland development, and survival. After 48 d, the cumulative number of workers produced by the colonies ranged from 22,420 to 29,519, providing a significant fit to a quadratic equation that predicts the maximum population growth when the diet contains 31.7% crude protein. Significantly greater emergent worker weight, midgut proteolytic enzyme activity, hypopharyngeal gland acini, and survival were observed in the colonies that were fed diets containing 34.0% crude protein compared with the other crude protein levels. Although higher emergent worker weight and survival were observed in the colonies that were fed the control diet, there were no significant differences between the control colonies and the colonies that were fed 34.0% crude protein. Based on these results, we concluded that a dietary crude protein content of 29.5-34.0% is recommended to maximize the reproduction rate of honey bee colonies in early spring. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Comparison of antibody responses to hen's egg and cow's milk proteins in orally sensitized rats and food-allergic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Kleij, H.P.M. van der; Koppelman, S.J.; Houben, G.F.; Penninks, A.H.; Felius, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: No adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and the allergenicity of food proteins. To further validate an enteral brown Norway (BN) rat sensitization model under development, we studied specific protein recognition to determine whether a comparable

  11. Effect of inclusion of hydroxycinnamic and chlorogenic acids from green coffee bean in β-cyclodextrin on their interactions with whey, egg white and soy protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budryn, Grażyna; Pałecz, Bartłomiej; Rachwał-Rosiak, Danuta; Oracz, Joanna; Zaczyńska, Donata; Belica, Sylwia; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; Meseguer, Josefina María Vegara; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise the interactions of hydroxycinnamic and chlorogenic acids (CHAs) from green coffee, with isolates of proteins from egg white (EWP), whey (WPC) and soy (SPI), depending on pH and temperature. The binding degree was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and an ultrahigh resolution hybrid quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometer with ESI source (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). As a result of binding, the concentration of CHAs in proteins ranged from 9.44-12.2, 11.8-13.1 and 12.1-14.4g/100g for SPI, WPC and EWP, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters of protein-ligand interactions were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and energetics of interactions at the atomic level by molecular modelling. The amount of CHAs released during proteolytic digestion was in the range 0.33-2.67g/100g. Inclusion of CHAs with β-cyclodextrin strongly limited these interactions to a level of 0.03-0.06g/100g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brazil nut meal and spray-dried egg powders as alternatives to synthetic methionine in organic laying hen diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, H K; Patterson, P H

    2017-09-01

    The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements. Egg production and quality, body weight (BW), feed intake, and manure nutrients and ammonia were assessed. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS, with Tukey's test used for multiple mean comparisons, and P ≤ 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. Body weight was greatest for the COM diet, and feed conversion improved for hens fed egg-based diets compared to controls. Egg weight and production did not differ between COM and treatment diets. The SDEW diet had greater albumen height and Haugh units compared to ORG and BNPP diets and greater percent albumen compared to COM and BNPP diets. Specific gravity was greatest for BNPP fed hens. Manure DM and potash were highest from COM and BNPP diets, respectively. Both egg-based diets increased ammonia flux relative to the COM diet. The BNPP and egg-based diets were lower in cost for $/metric tonne, $/dozen eggs, and $/kg of eggs compared to the ORG diet. The ingredients assessed herein could, therefore, cost-effectively replace synthetic Met in organic hen diets without negatively impacting egg production. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. The Role of Dietary Protein and Fat in Glycaemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for Intensive Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Megan; Bell, Kirstine J; O'Connell, Susan M; Smart, Carmel E; Shafat, Amir; King, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    A primary focus of the management of type 1 diabetes has been on matching prandial insulin therapy with carbohydrate amount consumed. However, even with the introduction of more flexible intensive insulin regimes, people with type 1 diabetes still struggle to achieve optimal glycaemic control. More recently, dietary fat and protein have been recognised as having a significant impact on postprandial blood glucose levels. Fat and protein independently increase the postprandial glucose excursions and together their effect is additive. This article reviews how the fat and protein in a meal impact the postprandial glycaemic response and discusses practical approaches to managing this in clinical practice. These insights have significant implications for patient education, mealtime insulin dose calculations and dosing strategies.

  14. Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A. van Baak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.

  15. Potassium Bicarbonate Attenuates the Urinary Nitrogen Excretion That Accompanies an Increase in Dietary Protein and May Promote Calcium Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglia, Lisa; Harris, Susan S.; Abrams, Steven A.; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2009-01-01

    Context: Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. Objective: We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), allows protein to have a more favorable net impact on intermediary indices of muscle and bone conservation than it does in the usual acidic environment. Design: We conducted a 41-d randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of KHCO3 or placebo with a 16-d phase-in and two successive 10-d metabolic diets containing low (0.5 g/kg) or high (1.5 g/kg) protein in random order with a 5-d washout between diets. Setting: The study was conducted in a metabolic research unit. Participants: Nineteen healthy subjects ages 54–82 yr participated. Intervention: KHCO3 (up to 90 mmol/d) or placebo was administered for 41 d. Main Outcome Measures: We measured 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, IGF-I, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, and fractional calcium absorption. Results: KHCO3 reduced the rise in urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanied an increase in protein intake (P = 0.015) and was associated with higher IGF-I levels on the low-protein diet (P = 0.027) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.050). KHCO3 was also associated with higher fractional calcium absorption on the low-protein diet (P = 0.041) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.064). Conclusions: In older adults, KHCO3 attenuates the protein-induced rise in urinary nitrogen excretion, and this may be mediated by IGF-I. KHCO3 may also promote calcium absorption independent of the dietary protein content. PMID:19050051

  16. Effects of dietary level of tannic acid and protein on internal organ weights and biochemical blood parameters of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Barszcz

    Full Text Available Tannic acid (TA is a polyphenolic compound with a health-promoting potential for humans. It is hypothesised that TA effects on the relative weight of internal organs and biochemical blood indices are modified by dietary protein level in rats. The study involved 72 rats divided into 12 groups fed diets with 10 or 18% of crude protein (CP and supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2% of TA. After 3 weeks of feeding, the relative weight of the caecum was greater in rats fed TA diets, while feeding diets with 10% of CP increased the relative weight of the stomach, small intestine and caecum, but decreased that of kidneys and spleen. Albumin concentration was higher in rats fed 0.25% and 0.5% TA diets than in rats given the 2% TA diets. The 2% TA diets reduced creatine kinase (CK activity compared to non-supplemented diets and those with 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of TA. Rats fed the 10% CP diets had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and γ-glutamyltransferase as well as the concentration of iron and cholesterol, but lower that of urea and uric acid. The interaction affected only cholinesterase activity. In conclusion, TA induced caecal hypertrophy and could act as a cardioprotective agent, as demonstrated by reduced CK activity, but these effects were not modified by dietary protein level.

  17. Correlations of dietary energy and protein intakes with renal function impairment in chronic kidney disease patients with or without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-En; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hung, Chi-Chih; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Liu, Shao-Chun; Wu, Tsai-Jiin; Huang, Meng-Chuan

    2017-05-01

    Dietary energy and protein intake can affect progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD complicated with diabetes is often associated with a decline in renal function. We investigated the relative importance of dietary energy intake (DEI) and dietary protein intake (DPI) to renal function indicators in nondiabetic and diabetic CKD patients. A total of 539 Stage 3-5 CKD patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)Disease equation] with or without diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics of Nephrology and Nutrition in a medical center in Taiwan. Appropriateness of DEI and DPI was used to subcategorize CKD patients into four groups:(1) kidney diet (KD) A (KD-A), the most appropriate diet, was characterized by low DPI and adequate DEI; (2) KD-B, low DPI and inadequate DEI; (3) KD-C, excess DPI and adequate DEI; and (4) KD-D, the least appropriate diet, excess DPI and inadequate DEI. Inadequate DEI was defined as a ratio of actual intake/recommended intake less than 90% and adequate DEI as over 90%. Low DPI was defined as less than 110% of recommended intake and excessive when over 110%. Outcome measured was eGFR. In both groups of CKD patients, DEI was significantly lower (ppatients were KD-C and KD-D significantly correlated with reduced eGFR compared with KD-A at increments of -5.63 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p = 0.029) and -7.72 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p=0.015). In conclusion, inadequate energy and excessive protein intakes appear to correlate with poorer renal function in nondiabetic CKD patients. Patients with advanced CKD are in need of counseling by dietitians to improve adherence to diets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  19. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  20. Dietary Protein Sources and Risk for Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: Results From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Bernhard; Selvin, Elizabeth; Liang, Menglu; Coresh, Josef; Grams, Morgan E; Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Steffen, Lyn M; Rebholz, Casey M

    2017-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction is recommended for patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency. Long-term data on the relationship between dietary protein sources and risk for incident kidney disease in individuals with normal kidney function are largely missing. This study aimed to assess the association between dietary protein sources and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants from 4 US communities. A total of 11,952 adults aged 44-66 years in 1987-1989 who were free of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 . A 66-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food intake. CKD stage 3 was defined as a decrease in eGFR of ≥25% from baseline resulting in an eGFR of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ; CKD-related hospitalization; CKD-related death; or end-stage renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 2,632 incident CKD cases. Red and processed meat consumption was associated with increased CKD risk (HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.42, p trend  = 0.01). In contrast, higher dietary intake of nuts, legumes, and low-fat dairy products was associated with lower CKD risk (nuts: HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 0.81, 95% CI: 0.72-0.92, p trend protein sources with risk of incident CKD; with red and processed meat being adversely associated with CKD risk; and nuts, low-fat dairy products, and legumes being protective against the development of CKD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  2. Effect of dietary protein levels on rumen metabolism and milk yield in mid-lactating cows under hot and humid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Schonewille, J.T.; Yawongsa, A.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Kanjanapruthipong, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 levels of dietary Crude Protein (CP) in concentrates with similar proportions of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) on rumen metabolism, milk yield and composition in mid lactating cows in Thailand. Eight 87.5% Holsteinx12.5% indigenous

  3. Effect of dietary protein levels on rumen metabolism and milk yield in mid-lactating cows under hot and humid conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W; Schonewille, Thomas; Yawongsa, A; Rukkwamsuk, T; Kanjanapruthipon, J; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 levels of dietary Crude Protein (CP) in concentrates with similar proportions of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) on rumen metabolism, milk yield and composition in mid lactating cows in Thailand. Eight 87.5% Holsteinx12.5% indigenous

  4. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the body temperature of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Ibarra, N; Chávez, M; Gómez, T; Suárez, A; Valle, J A; Camacho, R L; Cervantes, M

    2018-04-01

    Feed intake and diet composition appear to affect the body temperature of pigs. Two trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the intestinal temperature (IT) of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions. Ten pigs (64.1 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) fitted with an ileal cannula were used. A thermometer set to register the IT at 5-min intervals was implanted into the ileum through the cannula. In both trials, the ambient temperature ranged from 19.1 to 21.6°C and the pigs were fed at 07:00 and 19:00 hr (same amount each time). In trial 1, the pigs were fed daily 1.2 or 1.8 kg of a wheat-soybean meal diet. The IT followed a similar pattern along a 24-hr period regardless the feed intake level. The IT rapidly increased up to 0.61 and 0.74°C after the morning meal and up to 0.53 and 0.47°C after the evening meal in pigs fed 1.2 and 1.8 kg/d respectively. The postprandial IT was higher in pigs fed 1.8 kg after each meal (p level. The postprandial IT did not differ between pigs fed the low protein or the high protein (p > .10). The IT rapidly increased up to 0.66 and 0.62°C after the morning meal in pigs fed the high- and low-protein diet (p  .10). In conclusion, the feed intake level affected the IT of pigs housed under TN conditions, but the dietary protein content had no effect. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Usefulness of dietary enrichment on energy and protein intake in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition discharged to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabal, Joan; Hervas, Sonia; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2014-02-01

    Malnutrition is a cause for concern among many admitted elderly patients, being common at hospital admission and discharge. The objective of this study was to assess if diet enrichment with small servings of energy and protein dense foods, improves energy and nutrient intake in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition discharged to home. This was a retrospective case series study in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition treated with diet enrichment. There was a data review of dietary and health records of elderly patients discharged to home. Forty-one patients, mean age of 83 ± 5 years, met the inclusion criteria; 13 patients had been lost after 4 weeks of treatment and a total of 24 patients after 12 weeks. Records contained food intake data assessed at baseline, and after 4 and 12 weeks of treatment. Mini Nutritional Assessment, anthropometric measurements, routine biochemical parameters and the Barthel Index were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared to baseline, patients significantly improved their energy and protein intake after 4 weeks of treatment, fulfilling the mean nutritional requirements. The improvement in energy and protein intake was still manifest at week 12. After 12 weeks of dietary enrichment, a significant weight gain was observed (4.1%, p = 0.011), as well. No significant changes were detected in functional status. Using small servings of energy and protein dense foods to enrich meals seems a feasible nutritional treatment to increase energy and protein intake and meet nutritional goals among elderly patients discharged to home. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef; Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa; Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay, 200 g fishmeal. The concentrations of the amino-acids threonine, iso-leucine, leucine and arginine were increased in the total ration when lucerne hay replaced the tef hay while fishmeal supplementation increased the methionine and lysine contents, which provided a wide range of concentrations of digestible amino-acids in each of the 4 rations.

  8. Effect of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different limestone particle sizes had no effect on any of the tested egg production and eggshell quality parameters. These results suggested that larger particles limestone are not necessarily essential to provide sufficient Ca2+ to laying hens for egg production and eggshell quality at end-of-lay, provided that the dietary Ca ...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  10. EGG QUALITY AND HATCHABILITY OF In situ - REARED KEDU AND CEMANI HENS FED DIET OF FARMER FORMULATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation in Kedu andCemani hens reraed in situ and given farmer-formulated diet on egg performances. A total of 120 femaleand 24 male birds were equally divided into two groups of Kedu and Cemani, with average body weightof 1890+216.79 and 1830+396.23 g, respectively. Basal ration was based on the diet formulated by thefarmer (R1 consisting of corn (30%, rice bran (50%, protein concentrate (15%, and premix (5%.Dietary treatments evaluated were R1 (without additional vitamin E, and the other three were theinclusion of DL α-tocopheryl acetate into the R1 diet up to 2 (R2, 4 (R3 and 6 IU (R4. The experimentwas arranged in a Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments, and 2 different groups of hen (Kedu andCemani were assigned as block. Parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day production, feedconversion ratio, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability. The result showed that vitamin Esupplementation did not affect whatever parameters, except egg fertility. Egg hatchability between Keduand Cemani hens was significantly different (p<0.05. Trend comparison test indicated significantlylinear (p<0.05 for fertility and hatchability. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation up to 6 IUincreased linearly egg fertility and hatchability of about 5-8%, and egg hatchability of Kedu hens washigher (11% than that of Cemani.

  11. Digestibility, productive performance, and egg quality of laying hens as affected by dried cassava pulp replacement with corn and enzyme supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khempaka, Sutisa; Maliwan, Prapot; Okrathok, Supattra; Molee, Wittawat

    2018-02-24

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential use of dried cassava pulp (DCP) supplemented with enzymes as an alternative feed ingredient in laying hen diets. In experiment 1, 45 laying hens (Isa Brown) aged 45 weeks were placed in individual cages to measure nutrient digestibility for 10 days. Nine dietary treatments were control and DCP as a replacement for corn at 20, 25, 30, and 35% supplemented with mixed enzymes (cellulase, glucanase, and xylanase) at 0.10 and 0.15%. Results showed that the use of DCP at 20-35% added with mixed enzymes had no negative effects on dry matter digestibility, while organic matter digestibility and nitrogen retention decreased with increased DCP up to 30-35% in diets. Both enzyme levels (0.10 and 0.15%) showed similar results on nutrient digestibility and retention. In experiment 2, a total of 336 laying hens aged 32 weeks were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatments (control and DCP-substituted diets at 20, 25, and 30%) supplemented with mixed enzymes (0.10 and 0.15%). Diets incorporated with 20-30% of DCP and supplemented with mixed enzymes at both levels had no significant effects on egg production, egg weight, feed intake, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, or egg quality, except for egg yolk color being decreased with an increase of DCP in diets (P digestibility, productive performance, or egg quality.

  12. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides promote oral allergic sensitization and orally induced anaphylaxis to peanut protein in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Wang, Yu; Tang, Lihua; de Villiers, Willem JS; Cohen, Donald; Woodward, Jerold; Finkelman, Fred D; Eckhardt, Erik RM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of peanut allergies is rising. Peanuts and many other allergen sources contain significant amounts of triglycerides, which affect absorption of antigens but have unknown effects on sensitization and anaphylaxis. We recently reported that dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), which bypass mesenteric lymph and directly enter portal blood, reduce intestinal antigen absorption into blood compared to long-chain triglycerides (LCT), which stimulate mesenteric lymph flow and are absorbed in chylomicrons via mesenteric lymph. OBJECTIVE Test how dietary MCT affect food allergy. METHODS C3H/HeJ mice were fed peanut butter protein in MCT, LCT (peanut oil), or LCT plus an inhibitor of chylomicron formation (Pluronic L81; “PL81”). Peanut-specific antibodies in plasma, responses of the mice to antigen challenges, and intestinal epithelial cytokine expression were subsequently measured. RESULTS MCT suppressed antigen absorption into blood, but stimulated absorption into Peyer's patches. A single gavage of peanut protein with MCT as well as prolonged feeding in MCT-based diets caused spontaneous allergic sensitization. MCT-sensitized mice experienced IgG-dependent anaphylaxis upon systemic challenge and IgE-dependent anaphylaxis upon oral challenge. MCT feeding stimulated jejunal-epithelial TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33 expression compared to LCT, and promoted Th2 cytokine responses in splenocytes. Moreover, oral challenges of sensitized mice with antigen in MCT significantly aggravated anaphylaxis compared to challenges with LCT. Importantly, effects of MCT could be mimicked by adding PL81 to LCT, and in vitro assays indicated that chylomicrons prevent basophil activation. CONCLUSION Dietary MCT promote allergic sensitization and anaphylaxis by affecting antigen absorption and availability and by stimulating Th2 responses. PMID:23182172

  13. Signaling Pathways Related to Protein Synthesis and Amino Acid Concentration in Pig Skeletal Muscles Depend on the Dietary Protein Level, Genotype and Developmental Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle growth is regulated by the homeostatic balance of the biosynthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. To elucidate the molecular interactions among diet, pig genotype, and physiological stage, we examined the effect of dietary protein concentration, pig genotype, and physiological stages on amino acid (AA pools, protein deposition, and related signaling pathways in different types of skeletal muscles. The study used 48 Landrace pigs and 48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs assigned to each of 2 dietary treatments: lower/GB (Chinese conventional diet- or higher/NRC (National Research Council-protein diet. Diets were fed from 5 weeks of age to respective market weights of each genotype. Samples of biceps femoris muscle (BFM, type I and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, type II were collected at nursery, growing, and finishing phases according to the physiological stage of each genotype, to determine the AA concentrations, mRNA levels for growth-related genes in muscles, and protein abundances of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Our data showed that the concentrations of most AAs in LDM and BFM of pigs increased (P<0.05 gradually with increasing age. Bama mini-pigs had generally higher (P<0.05 muscle concentrations of flavor-related AA, including Met, Phe, Tyr, Pro, and Ser, compared with Landrace pigs. The mRNA levels for myogenic determining factor, myogenin, myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2 A, and myostatin of Bama mini-pigs were higher (P<0.05 than those of Landrace pigs, while total and phosphorylated protein levels for protein kinase B, mTOR, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70S6K, and ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR, p-AKT/AKT, and p-p70S6K/p70S6K were lower (P<0.05. There was a significant pig genotype-dependent effect of dietary protein on the levels for mTOR and p70S6K. When compared with the higher protein-NRC diet, the lower protein-GB diet increased (P<0.05 the levels for mTOR and p70S6K in Bama mini-pigs, but

  14. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc, averaging 26.62 ± 3.07 kg body weight, were assigned in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg, and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G-2finishing(F phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement. Results In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness (P2 at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06 and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09. In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01 and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07 as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to

  15. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...