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Sample records for egg derived immunoglobulin

  1. The multivariate egg: quantifying within- and among-clutch correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens using multivariate mixed models.

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    Postma, Erik; Siitari, Heli; Schwabl, Hubert; Richner, Heinz; Tschirren, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Egg components are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in birds and other oviparous species. Because different egg components can have opposite effects on offspring phenotype, selection is expected to favour their mutual adjustment, resulting in a significant covariation between egg components within and/or among clutches. Here we tested for such correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens in great tit (Parus major) eggs using a multivariate mixed-model approach. We found no association between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens within clutches, indicating that within clutches the two egg components are deposited independently. Across clutches, however, there was a significant negative relationship between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens, suggesting that selection has co-adjusted their deposition. Furthermore, an experimental manipulation of ectoparasite load affected patterns of covariance among egg components. Yolk immunoglobulins are known to play an important role in nestling immune defence shortly after hatching, whereas yolk androgens, although having growth-enhancing effects under many environmental conditions, can be immunosuppressive. We therefore speculate that variation in the risk of parasitism may play an important role in shaping optimal egg composition and may lead to the observed pattern of yolk immunoglobulin and yolk androgen deposition across clutches. More generally, our case study exemplifies how multivariate mixed-model methodology presents a flexible tool to not only quantify, but also test patterns of (co)variation across different organisational levels and environments, allowing for powerful hypothesis testing in ecophysiology.

  2. Protective effect of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against Prevotella intermedia-mediated gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y-Y; Zhen, Y-H; Wang, D; Zhu, J; Sun, D-X; Liu, X-T; Wang, H-X; Liu, Y; Long, Y-Y; Shu, X-H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) specific to Prevotella intermedia in vitro and in vivo. An IgY specific to P. intermedia was produced by immunizing hens with formaldehyde-inactivated P. intermedia and showed high titres when subjected to an ELISA. The obtained IgY inhibited the growth of P. intermedia in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations from 1 to 20 mg ml(-1) in Center for Disease Control and Prevention liquid medium. Forty rats were challenged with P. intermedia on gingivae and then randomly divided into four groups, which were syringed respectively with phosphate-buffered saline, 1 mg ml(-1) of tinidazole, 20 mg ml(-1) of nonspecific IgY and 20 mg ml(-1) of the IgY specific to P. intermedia at a dosage of 300 μl per day. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), counts of white blood cell (WBC) and histopathological slide of the gums were measured after treatment for 15 days. The gingivitis rats treated with the IgY specific to P. intermedia showed significantly decreased GI, PI, BOP and WBC (P intermedia-mediated gingivitis. A new immunoglobulin specific to P. intermedia was developed from egg yolk. This specific IgY can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of P. intermedia and protect rats from gingivitis induced by P. intermedia. The new IgY has potential for the treatment of P. intermedia-mediated gingivitis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Immunoglobulins in the eggs of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

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    Haines, Ashley N; Flajnik, Martin F; Rumfelt, Lynn L; Wourms, John P

    2005-01-01

    Elasmobranchs, which include the sharks, skates, and rays, emerged over 450 million years ago and are the oldest vertebrates to possess an adaptive immune system. They have evolved diverse reproductive modes, with a variety of physiological adaptations that enhance reproductive success. The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, is an aplacental, viviparous elasmobranch in which the egg and its associated vitelline vasculature are the primary route for maternal-embryonic interactions. During gestation, nurse shark embryos hatch from their eggcases and develop free in the uterus, which is flushed regularly with seawater. Similar to higher vertebrates, embryonic and neonatal nurse sharks possess an immune system that is not fully competent. In birds and bony fishes, maternal immunoglobulins (Ig) stored in the egg during oogenesis confer protective immunity to embryos during gestation. However, early research suggested that such transfer of passive immunity does not occur in sharks. To better understand how elasmobranch embryos are protected from waterborne pathogens during this potentially vulnerable time, we have re-examined the existence of Igs in elasmobranch eggs. Using monoclonal antibodies, we establish the presence of two classes of Igs in nurse shark eggs: 7S IgM and IgNAR. The potential transfer of immunoglobulins from elasmobranch eggs is discussed.

  4. Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Precipitation

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    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolatedfrom most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections hasbeen difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y asa potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. Thespecificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extractedfrom egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum afterinjections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum.Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to thetarget antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must bedone on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.

  5. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

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    Mohammadreza Nassiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  6. Mass spectrometry characterization for N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin Y from hen egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody that exists in hen egg yolk. It is a glycoprotein, not much is known about its N-glycan structures, site occupancy and site-specific N-glycosylation. In this study, purified protein from hen egg yolk was identified as IgY based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. N-glycan was released from IgY using peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase treatment, and the molecular weight of IgY was calculated using the difference between the molecular weight of IgY and deglycosylated IgY. Two potential N-Glycosylation sites (ASN 308 and ASN 409 ) were detected on IgY by nanoLC-ESI MS. Sugar chains were separated using normal phase liquid chromatography after fluorescence labeling, and 17 N-glycan structures were confirmed using ESI-MS. The sugar chain pattern contained high-mannose oligosaccharide, hybrid oligosaccharide and complex oligosaccharide. These results could lead to other important information regarding IgY glycosylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Invitro Assessment of Bacteriostatic Potency of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Escherichia coli

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    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P1

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in commercial layer chickens to assess the bacteriostatic potency of egg yolk immunoglobulin IgY against food poisoning pathogen. The O antigen of food poisoning pathogen Escherichia coli was prepared and used to immunize commercial layer chickens. The eggs which contain anti-E.Coli IgY was collected on 30 th day of first injection and stored at 4 0 C. The antibacterial IgY was separated by water dilution method (10 times diluted with distilled water, pH 5.0 - 5.5, incubated at 4 0 C for 6 hrs and purified by 60 % ammonium sulphate. The recovery of IgY was in range of 57-62 %. The pathogens in Tryptic soya broth (approx. 6X108/ ml were cultured with anti-E.coli IgY @ 20 mg /ml and inhibitory effect was measured in UV spectrophotometer at 550 nm. The resultant growth curve indicated that the application of polyclonal antibodies (Ig Y on meat could be used to prevent the E.coli food poisoning. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 460-462

  8. Reflection of serum immunoglobulin isotypes in the egg yolk of laying hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

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    Nagendra Nath Barman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroconversion and development of egg yolk immunoglobulins in adult laying White Leghorn hens immunized against an isolate of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC bearing K91 and K88ac antigens, obtained from diarrheic piglet. Materials and Methods: Adult laying White Leghorn hens were immunized with inactivated enterotoxic E. coli strain isolated originally from a case of piglet diarrhea following recommended schedule. The development of whole antibodies and isotype-specific antibodies in serum and egg yolk were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Piglets suffering from diarrhea with fecal samples positive for ETEC were fed with egg yolk and compared with diarrheic control group. Results: The serum and egg yolk ELISA antibody titer against E. coli strain used in the present study was as high as 2666.66±307.92 and 933.33±203.67 respectively on 50 day-post-vaccination (DPV. The immunoglobulin Y (IgY was the predominant isotype in serum and egg yolk, which reached the peak titer of 2200±519.61 in serum on 40 DPV and 800±244.94 in egg yolk on 50 DPV. IgM titer in serum and egg yolk was found to be meager, and no IgA could be detected. Diarrheic piglets fed with the egg yolk suspension from immunized hens showed a promising result in controlling diarrhea. Conclusion: Egg yolk antibodies are considered a suitable immunotherapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy. High titer of egg yolk antibodies raised in the immunized hen against an isolate of ETEC holds the potential to be used for passive protection of diarrheic piglets during their most susceptible period of infection.

  9. The impact of N-glycosylation on conformation and stability of immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk.

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    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Yaofa; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody, and its applications in industry are very broad. To provide insight into the effects of N-glycosylation on IgY, its conformation and stability were studied. In this research, IgY was extracted from egg yolk and then digested by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase. SDS-PAGE and infrared absorption spectrum showed that carbohydrates were distinctly reduced after enzymolysis. The circular dichroism spectrum indicated that the IgY molecule became more flexible and disordered after removal of N-glycan. The fluorescence intensity revealed that Trp residues were buried in a more hydrophobic environment after disposal of N-glycan. Storage stability decreased with the removal of oligosaccharide chains based on size-exclusion chromatography analysis. Deglycosylated IgY exhibited less resistance to guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding. After deglycosylation, IgY was more sensitive to pepsin. Therefore, N-glycosylation played an important role in the maintenance of the structure and stability of IgY. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific egg yolk immunoglobulin as a new preventive approach for Shiga-toxin-mediated diseases.

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    Paola Neri

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins (Stxs are involved in the development of severe systemic complications associated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC infection. Various neutralizing agents against Stxs are under investigation for management of EHEC infection. In this study, we immunized chickens with formalin-inactivated Stx-1 or Stx-2, and obtained immunoglobulin Y (IgY from the egg yolk. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY recognized the corresponding Stx A subunit and polymeric but not monomeric B subunit. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY suppressed the cytotoxicity of Stx-1 and Stx-2 to HeLa 229 cells, without cross-suppressive activity. The suppressive activity of these IgY was abrogated by pre-incubation with the corresponding recombinant B subunit, which suggests that the antibodies directed to the polymeric B subunits were predominantly involved in the suppression. In vivo, the intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of these IgY rescued mice from death caused by intraperitoneal injection of the corresponding toxin at a lethal dose. Moreover, oral administration of anti-Stx-2 IgY reduced the mortality of mice infected intestinally with EHEC O157:H7. Our results therefore suggest that anti-Stx IgY antibodies may be considered as preventive agents for Stx-mediated diseases in EHEC infection.

  11. The potency of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY specific as immunotherapy to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

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    Sri Agus Sudjarwo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgYs specific as immunotherapy to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC infection. Lohmann laying hens were immunized intramuscularly with antigenic of MTBC. Egg yolk was separated from egg white, and IgY antibody was then purified by multiple polyethylene glycols 6000 extraction and ammonium sulfate purification steps. The IgY anti-MTBC concentration in egg yolk increased at 2 weeks and it reached a maximum at 4 weeks after immunization. After 6 weeks, the levels of IgY anti-MTBC decreased gradually. The antibody of MTBC was detected and produces a specific line of precipitation in agar gel precipitation test beginning the week 2 after the first immunization. Analysis of results obtained with ELISA showed a significant increase in the MTBC specific antibodies after 2 weeks and reached a plateau at 4 weeks from the booster immunization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the IgY preparation to be pure and dissociated into protein bands with molecular weights of 112, 78, 69, 49, and 28 kDa and Western blot analysis shown the presence of anti-MTBC IgY in egg yolks, with molecular weights of approximately 78 kDa. These results suggested that egg yolk could be a practical strategy in large-scale production of specific anti-MTBC IgY for immunotherapy of TBC.

  12. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria Tenella Infection in Chickens

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    JJ Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effec­tively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated.Methods: Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophi­lized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oo­cysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed.Results: The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG, reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P0.05.Conclusion: Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis.

  13. General applicability of chicken egg yolk antibodies: the performance of IgY immunoglobulins raised against the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Camenisch, G; Tini, M; Chilov, D; Kvietikova, I; Srinivas, V; Caro, J; Spielmann, P; Wenger, R H; Gassmann, M

    1999-01-01

    Avian embryos and neonates acquire passive immunity by transferring maternal immunoglobulins from serum to egg yolk. Despite being a convenient source of antibodies, egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) from immunized hens have so far received scant attention in research. Here we report the generation and rapid isolation of IgY from the egg yolk of hens immunized against the alpha subunit of the human hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1alpha). Anti-HIF-1alpha IgY antibodies were affinity purified and...

  14. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

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    Ritu Agrawal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry,viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05 among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p0.05 difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63- 5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No significant difference in the rate of transfer of IgY was observed in four breeds studied (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and moderate seropositivity was detected for Salmonella-specific antibodies in progeny chicks.

  15. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/ protein isolate: postulated mechanism of action for management of enteropathy

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    Petschow BW

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bryon W Petschow, Bruce Burnett, Audrey L Shaw, Eric M Weaver, Gerald L Klein Entera Health, Inc., Cary, NC, USA Abstract: The health and performance of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors, including diet, nutritional status, genetics, environment, stress, the intestinal microbiota, immune status, and gut barrier. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to enteropathy or intestinal disorders that are known to occur in concert with certain disease states or conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Nutritional support in the form of a medical food along with current therapies could help manage the adverse effects of enteropathy, which include effects on nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolism, as well as utilization of nutrients from foodstuffs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight management, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animals. Recent trials in humans provide preliminary evidence that a serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. This review summarizes data from preclinical and clinical studies with immunoglobulin-containing plasma/serum protein concentrates, with a focus on the postulated mode of action of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate for patients with enteropathy. Keywords: bovine immunoglobulins, nutrient, gut barrier, microbiota

  16. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

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    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model.In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers.Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  17. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

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    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  18. Human Schistosoma haematobium antifecundity immunity is dependent on transmission intensity and associated with immunoglobulin G1 to worm-derived antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Frances M.; van Dam, Govert J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunity that reduces worm fecundity and, in turn, reduces morbidity is proposed for Schistosoma haematobium, a parasite of major public health importance. Mathematical models of epidemiological trends suggest that antifecundity immunity is dependent on antibody responses to adult......-worm-derived antigen. METHODS: For a Malian cohort (age, 5-29 years) residing in high-transmission fishing villages or a moderate-transmission village, worm fecundity was assessed using the ratio of urinary egg excretion to levels of circulating anodic antigen, a Schistosoma-specific antigen that is steadily secreted......, host age and transmission were negatively associated with worm fecundity. A significant interaction term between host age and transmission indicates that antifecundity immunity develops earlier in high-transmission areas. SWA immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) levels explained the effect of transmission...

  19. Review Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    some kind of functional link between maternally derived ... one progresses from the phylogenetically primitive boids to the more advanced ... but also in birds and fishes (Arcos 1972; Conley et al 1997;. McCormic ..... Ecology 79 1873–1883.

  20. Immunoglobulins in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup

    2015-01-01

    immunoglobulin synthesis. Intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulins are usually of restricted clonality, and electrophoresis-based methods can be used for detecting this in the form of oligoclonal bands. These methods depend on comparing paired CSF and blood samples. Qualitative analyses for the assessment......The assessment of intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulin is an important part of routine cerebrospinal fl uid (CSF) analysis. Immunoglobulins can be detected in normal CSF and are derived from plasma. The appearance of immunoglobulins in normal CSF is readily explained by size-dependent diffusion...

  1. Quantitative glycan profiling of normal human plasma derived immunoglobulin and its fragments Fab and Fc.

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    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2012-08-31

    Typical clinical grade human IgG (intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG), used for carbohydrate analysis, is derived from thousands of healthy donors. Quantitative high-resolution glycan profiles of IgG and its Fc-Fab fragments are presented here. Glycan profiles were established following digestions with Fc specific endoglycosidase S and generic PNGase F under denaturing and non-denaturing (native) conditions. The native PNGase F glycan profile of IgG was similar (but not identical) to that of Endo S. Endo S profiles did not contain the glycans with bisecting GlcNAc. PNGase F glycan profiles were the same for Fc fragments that were isolated from pepsin and Ide S protease digests. Both isolated Fab fragments and the previously deglycosylated IVIG (native conditions) yielded the same glycan profile. Glycan profiles were established using high resolution HPLC with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2AA) labeling. An accurate determination of sialylation levels can be made by this method. Carbohydrate content in Fc and Fab was determined using an internal standard and corrected for both protein and glycan recoveries. Fab portion contained about 14% of the total carbohydrate which translates to 2.3 sugar chains per mol in IVIG where 2 chains are located in the CH2 domain of the Fc. Fc glycans consisted of neutral (N) 84.5%; mono-sialylated (S1) 15% and di-sialylated (S2) 0.5%. In contrast, Fab contained N, 21%; S1, 43% and S2, 36%. The distribution of bisecting N-acetylglucosamine and fucose was found to be very different in various glycans (N, S1 and S2) found in Fab and Fc. Total IgG glycan profile (Fab plus Fc) contained N, 78.5%; S1, 17% and S2, 4.5%. Percent distribution of glycans G0, G1 and G2 (with 0, 1 and 2 two galactoses) was 26, 49 and 25 respectively within the 78% of the neutral glycans. Glycan profiles were nearly the same for various clinical grade IVIG preparations from various manufacturers. A fast HPLC profiling method was developed for the separation and quantitation

  2. The Deposition and Elimination of Glucosinolate Metabolites Derived from Rapeseed Meal in Eggs of Laying Hens.

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    Zhu, L P; Wang, J P; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2018-02-14

    This study was to investigate the deposition and elimination of glucosinolate metabolites including 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) and thiocyanate ion (SCN - ) derived from rapeseed meal (RSM) in hen eggs. During 12 weeks accumulation phase, the serum triiodothyronine, thyronine, blood urea nitrogen, kidney index, and thyroid index linearly increased with the RSM at week 12 (P eggs (Y, ng/g) was correlated with 5-VOT intake (X 2 , μg/d·bird) and 5-VOT feeding time (X 1 , week): Y = 54.94X 1 + 0.51X 2 - 430.34 (P eggs (Y, mg/kg) was correlated with RSM intake (X 2 , μg/d·bird) and RSM feeding time (X 1 , week): Y = 0.095X 1 + 0.302X 2 - 0.4211 (P eggs. Taken together, 5.88% RSM with dietary supplements of 23.55 mg/kg 5-VOT and 10.76 mg/kg SCN - had no effects on hens with regard to serum parameters, organ index, and thyroid histopathology, and more than 4 weeks withdrawal should be considered for human and hen health.

  3. Tropism and infectivity of duck-derived egg drop syndrome virus in chickens.

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    Min Kang

    Full Text Available Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV can markedly decrease egg production in laying hens. Duck is the natural host of EDSV. EDSV derived from ducks abrogate egg drop in laying hens. We have previously confirmed that duck-derived EDSVs have a variety of replication activities in chick embryo liver (CEL cells. However, it is currently unclear whether duck-derived EDSV could display tropism and adaptation in laying hens. This study assessed whether duck-derived EDSV can adapt to laying hens, and estimated the inducing factors. Complete genome sequences of duck-derived EDSVs (D11-JW-012, D11-JW-017, and D11-JW-032 isolates with various replication efficiency in CEL cells and C10-GY-001 isolate causing disease in laying hens were analyzed to find their differences. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequence revealed that C10-GY-001, D11-JW-032, and strain 127 virus as vaccine were clustered into the same group, with D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 clustered in another group. Comparison between D11-JW-012 isolate that poorly replicated and D11-JW-017 isolate that replicated well in CEL cells in same cluster revealed six amino acid differences on IVa2, DNA polymerase, endopeptidase, and DNA-binding protein. These amino acids might be key candidates enhancing cellular tropism in chicken. When the pathogenicities of these isolates in laying hens were compared, D11-JW-032 showed severe signs similar to 127 virus, D11-JW-017 showed intermediate signs, while D11-JW-012 showed almost no sign. Eleven amino acids differed between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-017, and 17 amino acids were different between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-012. These results suggest that EDSVs derived from ducks have various pathogenicities in laying hens. Key amino acid candidates might have altered their affinity to tropism of laying hens, causing difference pathogenicities.

  4. Preparation and preliminary characterization of crystallizing fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme

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    Sumida, John P.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2001-11-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of Asp 101 using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. Asp 101 lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and EDANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to His 15, located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. All the derivatives fluoresce in the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determination of binding effects on the probe quantum yield, lifetime, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes. Quenching studies show that, as postulated, the Asp 101-bound probes are partially sheltered from the bulk solution by their location within the active site cleft. Probes bound to His 15 have quenching constants about equal to those for the free probes, indicating that this site is highly exposed to the bulk solution.

  5. POTENSI NETRALISASI IMUNOGLOBULIN Y ANTITETANUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI TELUR AYAM (THE POTENCY NETRALIZATION OF ANTI TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN Y THAT WERE ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The porpuse of study was to explore the potential use of? anti tetanus IgY from eggs yolk as a substitute for anti tetanus serum raised in ?horses. The eggs were collected from chickens which have previously been immunized with tetanus toxoid. Neutralization potency test of anti tetanus IgY determined by ?Spearman-Karber method.? The highest mean titer of anti tetanus of egg yolk was 80.16 ? 33.55 IU/ml and the lowest was 1.69 ? 0.63 IU/ml. The concentration? of purified IgY was 1.644 ? 0.424 mg/ml. Spearman-Karber value of potency of anti tetanus IgY are 35 IU/ml. ?This research concluded that Chickens was capable of produced of anti tetanus in eggs yolk with value of potency are 35 IU/ml.

  6. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MOLECULAR FORMS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN A AND RECOMBINANT DERIVATIVES POLYPEPTIDES OF BAC RECEPTOR PROTEINS FROM GROUP B STREPTOCOCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Korzhueva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article concerns interactions between immunoglobulin A and recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides, designed on the basis of externally localized Bac protein of the Group B streptococci, possessing IgA-binding activity.There is a current demand for immunochemical reagents that are strictly specific for IgA, in order to develop antigenic standards for detection of IgA levels in biological fluids, as well as for affinity purification of IgA and its fragments.To analyze an opportunity of the abovementioned application ways for these proteins, a special study was performed to assay an interaction capability of recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides binding to Fc regions of different IgA forms (serum IgA, secretory IgA, subclasses of serum IgA – IgA1, IgA2. Selectivity of ligand binding was specially confirmed.It was found out that, among three presented polypeptides, the structure of recombinant P6 derivative proved to be optimal for IgA-binding ability of Bac protein.Structural features of IgA-binding fragments of Bac protein, i.e., binding site position on the IgA molecule (proximity to epitopes for three monoclonal antibodies, variability of the site structure, as well as resistance of binding site for P6, P7, P8 in IgA molecule against partial disulfide bonds reduction. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 327-336.

  7. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Ruuskanen

    Full Text Available Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  8. Immunoglobulin derived depositions in the nervous system: novel mass spectrometry application for protein characterization in formalin-fixed tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fausto J; Gamez, Jeffrey D; Vrana, Julie A; Theis, Jason D; Giannini, Caterina; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Parisi, Joseph E; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Pendlebury, William W; Bergen, H Robert; Dogan, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Proteinaceous deposits are occasionally encountered in surgically obtained biopsies of the nervous system. Some of these are amyloidomas, although the precise nature of other cases remains uncertain. We studied 13 cases of proteinaceous aggregates in clinical specimens of the nervous system. Proteins contained within laser microdissected areas of interest were identified from tryptic peptide sequences by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Immunohistochemical studies for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains and amyloidogenic proteins were performed in all cases. Histologically, the cases were classified into three groups: 'proteinaceous deposit not otherwise specified' (PDNOS) (n=6), amyloidoma (n=5), or 'intracellular crystals' (n=2). LC-MS/MS demonstrated the presence of lambda, but not kappa, light chain as well as serum amyloid P in all amyloidomas. lambda-Light-chain immunostaining was noted in amyloid (n=5), although demonstrable monotypic lymphoplasmacytic cells were seen in only one case. Conversely, in PDNOS kappa, but not lambda, was evident in five cases, both light chains being present in a single case. In three cases of PDNOS, a low-grade B-cell lymphoma consistent with marginal zone lymphoma was present in the brain specimen (n=2) or spleen (n=1). Lastly, in the 'intracellular crystals' group, the crystals were present within CD68+ macrophages in one case wherein kappa-light chain was found by LC-MS/MS only; the pathology was consistent with crystal-storing histiocytosis. In the second case, the crystals contained immunoglobulin G within CD138+ plasma cells. Our results show that proteinaceous deposits in the nervous system contain immunoglobulin components and LC-MS/MS accurately identifies the content of these deposits in clinical biopsy specimens. LC-MS/MS represents a novel application for characterization of these deposits and is of diagnostic utility in addition to standard immunohistochemical analyses.

  9. Immunoglobulin M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleass, Richard J; Moore, Shona C; Stevenson, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an ancient antibody class that is found in all vertebrates, with the exception of coelacanths, and is indispensable in both innate and adaptive immunity. The equally ancient human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, formed an intimate relationship with IgM with whic...

  10. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunoki M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mikihiro Yunoki,1-3 Takeshi Kurosu,2 Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu,2,4 Kazuo Takahashi,5 Yoshinobu Okuno,4 Kazuyoshi Ikuta2,4 1Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, 2Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, 3Pathogenic Risk Evaluation, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, 4Research and Development Division, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kagawa, 5Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, West Nile virus (WNV, and dengue virus (DenV are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. Keywords

  11. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  12. The interaction between calreticulin and immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllegaard, Karen Mai; Duus, Karen; Træholt, Sofie Dietz

    2011-01-01

    accumulating in support of calreticulin as a polypeptide binding chaperone. In contrast to mammalian immunoglobulin G (IgG), which has complex type N-glycans, chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) possesses a monoglucosylated high mannose N-linked glycan, which is a ligand for calreticulin. Here, we have used solid...... and solution-phase assays to analyze the in vitro binding of calreticulin, purified from human placenta, to human IgG and chicken IgY in order to compare the interactions. In addition, peptides from the respective immunoglobulins were included to further probe the binding specificity of calreticulin....... The experiments demonstrate the ability of calreticulin to bind to denatured forms of both IgG and IgY regardless of the glycosylation state of the proteins. Furthermore, calreticulin exhibits binding to peptides (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) derived from trypsin digestion of both immunoglobulins...

  13. Safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived and egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccines in 3 to children and adolescents at risk of influenza-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; de Martino, Maurizio; Lopez, Jose Garcia-Sicilia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Villani, Alberto; Moreno-Perez, David; Hernández, María Méndez; Aldeán, Javier Álvarez; Mateen, Ahmed Abdul; Enweonye, Igwebuike; de Rooij, Richard; Chandra, Richa

    2016-08-01

    This descriptive, non-comparative, phase III study evaluated the safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived (TIVc) and egg-derived (TIV) seasonal influenza vaccines in children at risk of influenza-related complications. Four hundred and thirty subjects were randomized 2:1 to TIVc or TIV. Subjects aged 3 to vaccinated, n=89) or two doses (if not previously vaccinated, n=124) of the study vaccines; the 9 to vaccination; safety was monitored for 6 months. After any vaccination, the most frequently reported solicited local adverse event (AE) was tenderness/pain (TIVc 44%, 66%, 53% and TIV 56%, 51%, 65% in the age groups 3 to vaccine-related serious AEs were noted. New onset of chronic disease was reported in ≤1% of subjects. TIVc and TIV had acceptable tolerability and similar safety profiles in at-risk children (NCT01998477). Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Has Immunomodulatory Effects on the Colon of Mice that Spontaneously Develop Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pérez-Bosque

    Full Text Available Dietary immunoglobulin concentrates prepared from animal plasma can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. Previous studies have revealed that supplementation with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI ameliorates colonic barrier alterations in the mdr1a-/- genetic mouse model of IBD. Here, we examine the effects of SBI on mucosal inflammation in mdr1a-/- mice that spontaneously develop colitis. Wild type (WT mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% w/w or milk proteins (Control diet, from day 21 (weaning until day 56. Leucocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN and in lamina propria were determined, as was mucosal cytokine production. Neutrophil recruitment and activation in MLN and lamina propria of KO mice were increased, but were significantly reduced in both by SBI supplementation (p < 0.05. The increased neutrophil recruitment and activation observed in KO mice correlated with increased colon oxidative stress (p < 0.05 and SBI supplementation reduced this variable (p < 0.05. The Tact/Treg lymphocyte ratios in MLN and lamina propria were also increased in KO animals, but SBI prevented these changes (both p < 0.05. In the colon of KO mice, there was an increased production of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 (2-fold, IL-6 (26-fold and IL-17 (19-fold, and of chemokines MIP-1β (4.5-fold and MCP-1 (7.2-fold. These effects were significantly prevented by SBI (p < 0.05. SBI also significantly increased TGF-β secretion in the colon mucosa, suggesting a role of this anti-inflammatory cytokine in the modulation of GALT and the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory response during the onset of colitis.

  15. Experimental and theoretical NMR studies of interaction between phenylalanine derivative and egg yolk lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Ptak, Tomasz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Broda, Małgorzata A

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of phenylalanine diamide (Ac-Phe-NHMe) with egg yolk lecithin (EYL) in chloroform was studied by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Six complexes EYL-Ac-Phe-NHMe, stabilized by N-H···O or/and C-H···O hydrogen bonds, were optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level. The assignment of EYL and Ac-Phe-NHMe NMR signals was supported using GIAO (gauge including atomic orbital) NMR calculations at VSXC and B3LYP level of theory combined with STO-3Gmag basis set. Results of our study indicate that the interaction of peptides with lecithin occurs mainly in the polar 'head' of the lecithin. Additionally, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with Ac-Phe-NHMe is the negatively charged oxygen in phosphate group that acts as proton acceptor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Dissecting the Structure-Function Relationship of a Fungicidal Peptide Derived from the Constant Region of Human Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Ciociola, Tecla; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Magliani, Walter; Ferrari, Elena; Gatti, Rita; D'Adda, Tiziana; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic peptides encompassing sequences related to the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies or derived from their constant region (Fc peptides) were proven to exert differential antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and/or immunomodulatory activities in vitro and/or in vivo, regardless of the specificity and isotype of the parental antibody. Alanine substitution derivatives of these peptides exhibited unaltered, increased, or decreased candidacidal activities in vitro. The bioac...

  17. Exosomes Derived from Dendritic Cells Treated with Schistosoma japonicum Soluble Egg Antigen Attenuate DSS-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–150 nm small membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular medium via cells that function as a mode of intercellular communication. Dendritic cell (DC-derived exosomes modulate immune responses and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, Schistosoma japonicum eggs show modulatory effects in a mouse model of colitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from DCs treated with S. japonicum soluble eggs antigen (SEA; SEA-treated DC exosomes would be useful for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Exosomes were purified from the supernatant of DCs treated or untreated with SEA and identified via transmission electron microscopy, western blotting and NanoSight. Acute colitis was induced via the administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in drinking water (5.0%, wt/vol. Treatment with exosomes was conducted via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.; 50 μg per mouse from day 0 to day 6. Clinical scores were calculated based on weight loss, stool type, and bleeding. Colon length was measured as an indirect marker of inflammation, and colon macroscopic characteristics were determined. Body weight loss and the disease activity index of DSS-induced colitis mice decreased significantly following treatment with SEA-treated DC exosomes. Moreover, the colon lengths of SEA-treated DC exosomes treated colitis mice improved, and their mean colon macroscopic scores decreased. In addition, histologic examinations and histological scores showed that SEA-treated DC exosomes prevented colon damage in acute DSS-induced colitis mice. These results indicate that SEA-treated DC exosomes attenuate the severity of acute DSS-induced colitis mice more effectively than DC exosomes. The current work suggests that SEA-treated DC exosomes may be useful as a new approach to treat IBD.

  18. Feasibility of real-time calculation of correlation integral derived statistics applied to EGG time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, PLC; van Egmond, J; van Rijn, CM; Takens, F; Coenen, AML; Booij, LHDJ

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the feasibility of online calculation of the correlation integral (C(r)) aiming to apply C(r)derived statistics. For real-time application it is important to reduce calculation time. It is shown how our method works for EEG time series. Methods: To achieve online

  19. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in ... but it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you' ...

  20. Peptide and nucleotide sequences of rat CD4 (W3/25) antigen: evidence for derivation from a structure with four immunoglobulin-related domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.J.; Jefferies, W.A.; Barclay, A.N.; Gagnon, J.; Williams, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The rat W3/25 antigen was the first marker antigen of helper T lymphocytes to be identified. Subsequently, the human OKT4 antigen (now called CD4) was described, and cell distribution and functional data suggested that W3/25 and OKT4 antigens were homologous. This is now confirmed by the matching of peptide sequences from W3/25 antigen with sequence predicted from rat cDNA clones detected by cross-hybridization with a cDNA probe for human CD4. Analysis of the two sequences suggests an evolutionary origin from a structure with four immunoglobulin-related domains, although only domain 1 at the NH 2 terminus meets the standard criteria for an immunoglobulin-related sequence. CD4 domains 2 and 4 contain disulfide bonds but seem like truncated immunoglobulin domains, whereas domain 3 may have a pattern of β-strands like an immunoglobulin variable domain, but without the disulfide bond

  1. Transesterification of Jatropha and Karanja oils by using waste egg shell derived calcium based mixed metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Girdhar; Rawat, Devendra S.; Lamba, Bhawna Y.; Bisht, Kamal K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Nayan; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste chicken eggshell derived CaO(cesp) based mixed metal oxides were prepared. • Transesterification of high free fatty acid containing non-edible oils were achieved using prepared catalysts. • CaO(cesp) based mixed metal oxides have shown better activity in comparison to neat CaO(cesp). • Best Conversions were achieved with ZnO–CaO(cesp). • Catalyst has shown good reusability up to 4 cycles without significant loss in its activity. - Abstract: Solid base heterogeneous catalysts are one of the promising materials for the transesterification of vegetable oils because these catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require very severe operating conditions. Calcium oxide has shown good catalytic activity due to its high basicity which is required for transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAGs). In the present study, the transesterification of non-edible, high free fatty acid containing Jatropha and Karanja oils was studied by using waste chicken egg shell derived calcium (i.e. CaO(cesp)) based mixed metal oxides (M-CaO; M = ZnO, MnO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 ) as heterogeneous catalyst. A comparison was also made on the catalytic performance of these prepared catalysts. The catalyst characterizations were done by XRD, SEM, TGA, FT-IR and BET techniques. The effectiveness of the catalysts was highly influenced by the calcination temperature. ZnO–CaO(cesp) catalyst was found to be the most efficient catalyst among all. The maximum conversion for the transesterification of Jatropha and Karanja oils were achieved using 5 wt% catalyst, 65 °C temperature and 12:1 methanol/oil ratio. The catalyst could be re-used effectively during four cycles. Use of the CaO(cesp) based mixed oxides made the process more environmental benign and economical. The biodiesel prepared has shown good fuel characteristics as per EN, ASTM and IS standards

  2. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C., E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Corrêa, B. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C.; Corrêa, B.

    2017-01-01

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  4. Nitrogen-enriched carbon sheets derived from egg white by using expanded perlite template and its high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiucun; Liu, Yinqin; Li, Wenjun; Xu, Liqun; Yang, Huan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-enriched carbon sheets were synthesized using egg white as a unique carbon source and expanded perlite as a novel template. The as-prepared material was further used as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications, demonstrating excellent supercapacitance with a maximum gravimetric specific capacitance of 302 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in a 3-electrode setup for a sample carbonized at 850 °C and activated for 6 h. Moreover, the carbon sheet-based capacitor with 2-symmetric electrodes showed an excellent cycle life (2% loss at 0.1 A g-1 after 10 000 cycles). The excellent performance may be attributed to the combination of the 3D carbon structure and the highly concentrated doped nitrogen component from the natural egg source for superior pseudocapacitance.

  5. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  6. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  7. 抗肠道病毒71型特异性卵黄抗体的制备及鉴定%Preparation and identification of specific chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins against enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思思; 赵肃清; 李月明; 温俊林

    2011-01-01

    0bjsctive iPreparhg specificity chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY ) against enteiovius 71 (EV 71) and detecting its biobgical activities,this is significantfor prevention and treatnentof EV 71 infection .M ethods:Fourhensweie inmurmed Ihree tineswiih tie purified him an EV71 virus as an antigen .The inmunogbbulh Y (IgY ) antibody was extracted and purified from tie egg yolk by water combine pofyeihylene gfycol (water-peg) m eihod .The yield and molecularm ass of IgY were analysed by Bradford m eihod and SDS-PAGE electrophore- sis.ELBA and A gar double in munodiffusbn were used for detect 1he titer of IgY ,while tie inmunoreactivily of antHiV71 IgY was tested using W estem bbt.Results :The yield and purily of IgY were 7 .76 m g/m land 94.86% respective^ .Results of ELBA hdicated 1hat1he specific an- trEV71 IgY antibody appealed in tie egg yolk 10 days afterprinary inmuniation and reached 1he highest titer 1 = 20 480 after 40 days,while 1he titer of A gar double in m unodiffusion was 1 = 16 .W estem bbt analysis revealed lhattie purified IgY antibody owned good inmunoreactivily and a specifically combination capacily of EV71 virus.Conclusbn :Egg yolk is a large scale source of antidodys specifically against EV 71 virus .The antrEV 71 IgY extracted and purified by W aterPEG m etiod possess good production ,purtly ,and bbbgical activities.%目的:制备特异性抗肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)的卵黄抗体并检测其生物学性能,这对EV71感染手足口病的预防和治疗具有重大的意义.方法:用纯化并灭活后EV71作为抗原免疫健康产蛋鸡.采用本实验室水提综合聚乙二醇法提取纯化鸡卵黄抗体;用Bradford法测定卵黄抗体提取液的蛋白含量;还原性SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳分析测定提取蛋白的纯度及相对分子质量;分别用ELISA、双向免疫琼脂扩散检测纯化特异性卵黄抗体抗EV71效价;Western blot分析特异性卵黄抗体的免疫反应性.结果:卵黄中卵黄抗体含量达7.76 mg

  8. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. Design: Laboratory based experimentation. Setting: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of ...

  9. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  10. Drop of egg production in chickens by experimental infection with an avian metapneumovirus strain PLE8T1 derived from swollen head syndrome and the application to evaluate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Miki; Koimaru, Hiroyuki; Shiba, Masahiro; Ono, Eriko; Nagata, Tadashi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-08-01

    Decreases in egg production and increased incidence of abnormal eggs due to malformation of egg shells were observed in specific pathogen free (SPF) 173-day-old laying hens inoculated intravenously with an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) strain PLE8T1. This strain was derived from an isolate from broiler birds exhibiting swollen head syndrome (SHS). Some SPF birds inoculated with the virus showed, slight diarrhea without any respiratory symptoms. Thus, the PLE8T1 strain was used as a challenge virus to evaluate efficacy of aMPV vaccines. SPF chickens which received a live attenuated aMPV vaccine (NEMOVAC; Merial) at 7 or 77 days old and an inactivated aMPV vaccine (OVO-4; Merial) at 105 days old were protected against poor egg production caused by the challenge with the PLE8T1 strain. Thus, aMPV, the PLE8T1 strain passaged 22 times after isolation, from birds exhibiting SHS, could induce a drop in egg production in laying hens accompanied by malformation of egg shells. It was suggested that this challenge system could be applied to evaluate the efficacy of aMPV vaccine.

  11. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  12. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with eggs. Prevention is the name of the game with food allergies, so it's important for kids ... protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If ...

  13. Egg ovotransferrin-derived ACE inhibitory peptide IRW increases ACE2 but decreases proinflammatory genes expression in mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Kaustav; Liang, Guanxiang; Chen, Yanhong; Guan, LeLuo; Davidge, Sandra T; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    Egg ovotransferrin-derived angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide IRW was previously shown to reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats through reduced vascular inflammation and increased nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of this peptide through transcriptome analysis by RNAseq technique. Total RNA was extracted from kidney and mesenteric arteries; the RNAseq libraries (from untreated and IRW-treated groups) were constructed and subjected to sequence using HiSeq 2000 system (Illumina) system. A total of 12 764 and 13 352 genes were detected in kidney and mesenteric arteries, respectively. The differentially expressed (DE) genes between untreated and IRW-treated groups were identified and the functional analysis through ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a greater role of DE genes identified from mesenteric arteries than that of kidney in modulating various cardiovascular functions. Subsequent qPCR analysis further confirmed that IRW significantly increased the expression of ACE-2, ABCB-1, IRF-8, and CDH-1 while significantly decreased the expression ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in mesenteric arteries. Our research showed for the first time that ACE inhibitory peptide IRW could contribute to its antihypertensive activity through increased ACE2 and decreased proinflammatory genes expression. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  16. Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the 3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakura Sato

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Measurements of sIgE against egg, milk, and wheat as determined by 3gAllergy may be used as a tool to facilitate the diagnosis of food allergy in subjects with suspected food allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays.

  17. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  18. Clinical applications of immunoglobulin: update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin is the most used blood product in the clinical practice. Immunoglobulin applications have increased quickly since the elucidation of its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties which turned this blood product into a precious tool in the treatment of numerous diseases that present with humoral immune deficiency or that cause immune system dysfunction. Currently, the approved indications for Ig are: primary immunodeficiencies, secondary immunodeficiencies (multiple myeloma or chronic lymphoid leukemia, Kawasaki syndrome, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Guillain Barré syndrome, graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation and repeat infections in HIV children. On the other hand, there are numerous "off-label" indications of immunoglobulin, which represent 20-60% of all clinical applications of this drug. It is important to study all these indications and, above all, the scientific evidence for its use, in order to provide patients with a new therapeutic option without burdening the health system. This review results from a wide selection of papers identified in the Pubmed and Lilacs scientific electronic databases. A group of descriptors were used from human immunoglobulin to the names of each disease that immunoglobulin is clinically applied. Our main objective is to list the numerous indications of immunoglobulin, both authorized and "off-label" and to analyze these indications in the light of the most recent scientific evidence.

  19. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  20. Specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for analysis of residual allergenic food proteins in commercial bottled wine fined with egg white, milk, and nongrape-derived tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jennifer M; Apostolou, Effie; de Leon, Maria P; Stockley, Creina S; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-01-23

    Regulations introduced by the Food Standards Australia New Zealand in December 2002 require all wine and wine product labels in Australia to identify the presence of a processing aid, additive or other ingredient, which is known to be a potential allergen. The objective of this study was to establish sensitive assays to detect and measure allergenic proteins from commonly used processing aids in final bottled wine. Sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed and established for the proteins casein, ovalbumin, and peanut. Lower limits of detection of these proteins were 8, 1, and 8 ng/mL, respectively. A panel of 153 commercially available bottled Australian wines were tested by these ELISA, and except for two red wines known to contain added whole eggs, residuals of these food allergens were not detected in any wine. These findings are consistent with a lack of residual potentially allergenic egg-, milk-, or nut-derived processing aids in final bottled wine produced in Australia according to good manufacturing practice at a concentration that could cause an adverse reaction in egg, milk, or peanut/tree-nut allergic adult consumers.

  1. Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the 3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sakura; Ogura, Kiyotake; Takahashi, Kyohei; Sato, Yasunori; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-04-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibody detection using the Siemens IMMULITE ® 3gAllergy™ (3gAllergy) assay have not been sufficiently examined for the diagnosis of food allergy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring sIgE levels using the 3gAllergy assay to diagnose allergic reactions to egg, milk, and wheat. This retrospective study was conducted on patients with diagnosed or suspected allergies to egg, milk and wheat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their clinical reactivity to these allergens based on oral food challenge outcomes and/or convincing histories of immediate reaction to causative food(s). The sIgE levels were measured using 3gAllergy and ImmunoCAP. Predicted probability curves were estimated using logistic regression analysis. We analyzed 1561 patients, ages 0-19 y (egg = 436, milk = 499, wheat = 626). The sIgE levels determined using 3gAllergy correlated with those of ImmunoCAP, classifying 355 patients as symptomatic: egg = 149, milk = 123, wheat = 83. 3gAllergy sIgE levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients (P allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Heteroatom-Doped and Hierarchical Egg-Box-Like Carbons Derived from Moringa oleifera Branches for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yijin; Luo, Ying; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Xiao; Liang, Yeru; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Sun, Luyi; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao

    2016-12-07

    In this paper, we demonstrate that Moringa oleifera branches, a renewable biomass waste with abundant protein content, can be employed as novel precursor to synthesize three-dimensional heteroatom-doped and hierarchical egg-box-like carbons (HEBLCs) by a facile room-temperature pretreatment and direct pyrolysis process. The as-prepared HEBLCs possess unique egg-box-like frameworks, high surface area, and interconnected porosity as well as the doping of heteroatoms (oxygen and nitrogen), endowing its excellent electrochemical performances (superior capacity, high rate capability, and outstanding cycling stability). Therefore, the resultant HEBLC manifests a maximum specific capacitance of 355 F g -1 at current density of 0.5 A g -1 and remarkable rate performance. Moreover, 95% of capacitance retention of HEBLCs can be also achieved after 20 000 charge-discharge cycles at an extremely high current density (20 A g -1 ), indicating a prominent cycling stability. Furthermore, the as-assembled HEBLC//HEBLC symmetric supercapacitor displays a superior energy density of 20 Wh kg -1 in aqueous electrolyte and remarkable capacitance retention (95.6%) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. This work provides an environmentally friendly and reliable method to produce higher-valued carbon nanomaterials from renewable biomass wastes for energy storage applications.

  3. TCam-2 seminoma cells exposed to egg-derived microenvironment modify their shape, adhesive pattern and migratory behaviour: a molecular and morphometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ferranti

    Full Text Available Seminoma is one of the most common Testicular Germ Cell Tumours that originates during embryonic development due to an alteration of the local niche that in turn results in a delayed or blocked differentiation of Primordial Germ Cells. The block of differentiation is actually a common way to develop cancer disease as postulated by the "embryonic rest theory of cancer". In agreement with this theory different studies have demonstrated that embryonic cues display the capacity of reprogramming aggressive cancer cells towards a less aggressive phenotype. Herein we investigate the ability of a culture medium added with 10% egg albumen (EW, Egg White to modulate seminoma cell phenotype and behaviour, by ensuring a proper set of morphogenetic signals. We chose to use the TCam-2 seminoma cell line that has been established as the only available cell line, obtained from a primary testicular seminoma. EW is able to: 1 modify TCam-2 cell spreading rate and cell-substrate adhesion without affecting proliferation and survival indexes; 2 modulate TCam-2 actin distribution pattern increasing cortical localization of actin filaments; 3 increase TCam-2 cell-cell junction capability; 4 decrease both chemo-sensitive and collective TCam-2 migratory behaviour. According to these observations morphometric fractal analysis revealed the ability of EW to increase Circularity and Solidity parameters and, consequently, to decrease Fractal dimension. Prompted by these observations we hypothesize that EW treatment could rescue, at least in part, the neoplastic-metastatic behaviour of seminoma cells.

  4. INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN IN PEDIATRIC RHEUMATOLOGY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Alexeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern successful treatment of rheumatic diseases is impossible without the use of intravenous immunoglobulin. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin is based on strict indications developed as a result of long-term multicenter controlled studies. The article highlights the issues of using immunoglobulin in pediatric rheumatology practice, and provides the review of literature with the results from the evaluation of the efficiency of intravenous immunoglobulin confirming the efficiency of the drug only for certain rheumatic diseases. 

  5. Immunoglobulin adsorption on modified surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Preservation of biological functioning of proteins during immobilisation is of special interest in various biomedical and biotechnical applications. In industry physical adsorption of immunoglobulins (IgGs) onto solid surfaces is still the predominant immobilisation procedure because it is

  6. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  7. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic...

  8. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  9. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Christy A.; Elliott, John E.; Ormerod, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in δ 13 C (C. cinclus) or δ 15 N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  10. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  11. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Tobias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50µL aliquots were incubated in 850µL BHI broth containing 50µL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37ºC. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm. Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05 growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals.

  12. Human plasma-derived immunoglobulin G fractionated by an aqueous two-phase system, caprylic acid precipitation, and membrane chromatography has a high purity level and is free of detectable in vitro thrombogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M; Segura, Á; Wu, Y-W; Herrera, M; Chou, M-L; Villalta, M; León, G; Burnouf, T

    2015-02-01

    Instituto Clodomiro Picado has developed an immunoglobulin G (IgG) plasma fractionation process combining a polyethylene glycol/phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), caprylic acid precipitation and anion-exchange membrane chromatography. We evaluated the purity and in vitro thrombogenicity of such IgG, in line with current international requirements. Contributions of the different production steps to reduce thrombogenicity were assessed at 0·2 l-scale, and then the methodology was scaled-up to a 10 l-scale and final products (n = 3) were analysed. Purity, immunoglobulin composition, and subclass distribution were determined by electrophoretic and immunochemical methods. The in vitro thrombogenic potential was determined by a thrombin generation assay (TGA) using a Technothrombin fluorogenic substrate. Prekallikrein activator (PKA), plasmin, factor Xa, thrombin and thrombin-like activities were assessed using S-2302, S-2251, S-2222, S-2238 and S-2288 chromogenic substrates, respectively, and FXI by an ELISA. The thrombogenicity markers were reduced mostly during the ATPS step and were found to segregate mostly into the discarded liquid upper phase. The caprylic acid precipitation eliminated the residual procoagulant activity. The IgG preparations made from the 10 l-batches contained 100% gamma proteins, low residual IgA and undetectable IgM. The IgG subclass distribution was not substantially affected by the process. TGA and amidolytic activities revealed an undetectable in vitro thrombogenic risk and the absence of proteolytic enzymes in the final product. Fractionating human plasma by an ATPS combined with caprylic acid and membrane chromatography resulted in an IgG preparation of high purity and free of a detectable in vitro thrombogenic risk. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  13. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  14. Effects of culture media conditions on production of eggs fertilized in vitro of embryos derived from ovary of high grade Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was investigated the effects of culture media conditions on production of eggs fertilized in vitro of embryos from ovaries of high grade Korean native cow, Hanwoo. Methods The IVMD 101 and IVF 100 were used for in vitro maturation of selected Hanwoo oocytes and In vitro embryo culture after in vitro fertilization, respectively. The IVMD 101 and IVD 101 were used for in vitro culture and completely free of serum. Results The cleavage rates of 2-cell embryos in reference to Hanwoo oocytes were 86.7, 92.9 , and 90.1 % in the control group, IVDM101 medium and IVD101 medium, respectively which indicates that the IVDM101 medium and IVD101 medium may result favorable outcomes. The in vitro development rates of blastocysts were 12.4, 38.4 and 32.4 % in the control group, serum free IVMD101 medium and IVD101 medium, respectively. For hatched blastocysts, it was 5.3, 33.9, and 28.6 % in the control group, serum free IVMD101 medium and IVD101 medium, respectively. Hence, more favorable results were expected for the hatched blastocysts in which the IVMD101 medium and IVD101 medium were used than the control group. Average cell numbers of blastocysts were 128.3, 165.7, and 163.6 in the groups of TCM-199 + 10 % FBS medium, IVMD 101 medium, and IVD 101 medium, respectively which clearly show that the IVMD 101 and IVD 101 medium consequence significantly higher cell numbers compared to the control group (i.e., TCM-199 + 10 % FBS medium. Pregnancy rate after embryo transfer was 39.6 % when the serum free medium was used which is higher than that of the medium supplemented with serum (32.8 %. In addition, stillbirth rates were 4.9 % in the group of serum free medium whereas it was 13.6 % in the serum supplemented medium (13.6 %. Conclusions Taken altogether, serum free media, the IVMD 101 and IVD 101 represented more favorable results in the embryo development rate of embryos, cell numbers of blastocyst, and

  15. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  16. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  17. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  18. Immunoglobulin subclass in experimental murine Toxocara cati infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig that could be used to determine monoclonal antibody in conjugate-making an effort for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA diagnostic kit of toxocariasis in human. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to assess the Ig profile, based on ELISA-isotyping, in mice infected with second stage larvae eggs of Toxocara cati. The optical density values of anti-T. cati mice serum IgG subclasses were analyzed by applying ANOVA factorial. Results: The specific IgG subclass in mice infected with T. cati mice was found to be IgG2β. Conclusion: Subclass of IgG, especially IgG2β, can provide leads about the use of the monoclonal antibody in conjugate making an effort for the indirect ELISA diagnostic kit.

  19. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  20. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  1. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  2. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  3. Egg Bungee Jump!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  4. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  5. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  6. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-24

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  7. Detection of inflammatory lesions with radiolabelled immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, D.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden; Ogtrop, M. van; Arndt, J.W.; Camps, J.A.J.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous reports on the use of radiolabelled immunoglobulins led us to undertake a pilot experiment in an animal model to investigate the potentials sodium pertechnate Tc 99m-immunoglobulin scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci. Mice infected in one leg with staphylococcus infection in were injected with sodium pertechnote Tc 99m-immunoglobulin, albumin aggregated technetium Tc 99m or gallium citrate Ga 67. The results obtained by scintigraphy suggested a specific accumulation of radiolabelled immunoglobulin at the site of infection. Visualization of the infection and the image quality, especially the 6- and 24-h images, were clearly enhanced after the use of immunoglobulin preparations as compared with those labelled with gallium. (orig.)

  8. EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).

  9. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  10. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using the general linear procedure of SAS (2012). Differences in means were ranked using the Duncan's multiple Range test. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality ...

  11. Using immunoglobulin Y as an alternative antibody for the detection of hepatitis A virus in frozen liver sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Arthur Bentes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of research has been conducted on immunoglobulin Y (IgY because the use of IgY offers several advantages with respect to diagnostic testing, including its easy accessibility, low cost and translatability to large-scale production, in addition to the fact that it can be ethically produced. In a previous work, immunoglobulin was produced and purified from egg yolks (IgY reactive to hepatitis A virus (HAV antigens. In the present work, this anti-HAV-specific IgY was used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect viral antigens in liver biopsies that were obtained from experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. Fields that were positive for HAV antigen were detected in liver sections using confocal microscopy. In conclusion, egg yolks from immunised hens may be a reliable source for antibody production, which can be employed for immunological studies.

  12. Use of intravenous immunoglobulins in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Donyush

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are main component of immune defense; they take part in anti-infectious resistance of organism and regulate processes of different immune reactions. Intravenous immunoglobulins are the most frequently used products made from donor blood plasma. The need in these drugs is steadily increasing during last 15–20 years, and indications are widening due to modern hightechnology methods of production and cleaning. The article presents modern data on formula, mechanisms of action and indications for different groups of intravenous immunoglobulins (standard, hyperimmune, fortified and description of possible adverse events.Key words: immuglobulines, prophylaxis, treatment, unfavorable reaction, children.

  13. Towards the nonstick egg: designing fluorous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, E; Marsh, G

    2000-07-01

    Anyone who has made scrambled eggs will have had cause to praise the properties of Teflon. Teflon's highly chemically inert and nonstick nature derives from the perfluorinated polymer polytetrafluoroethylene. Perfluorocarbons have unique and valuable physical properties not found in nature. By incorporating fluorine into proteins, it might be possible to produce biological molecules with novel and useful properties.

  14. Eggs on Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs face a very different fate. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries. In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical imaginaries that shaped...... Danish regulation of the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyse the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work, and readings in Parliament, along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that over time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current five years and today continue...... to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare-state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate, and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss the gendered implications captured in the sociotechnical...

  15. The Prospect of Immunoglobulin Y for Therapy of Canine parvovirus Infection in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is a highly infectious virus. The virus causes death in dogs worldwide. The mortality rate due to infection of CPV in dog reaches 91%. Prevention of CPV infection in puppies has been done by vaccination which is effectively proven. Protective mechanisms of maternal antibodies contribute to the failure of vaccination. Highly stable characteristics of parvovirus enable the virus still exist in the environment. Various therapies are performed only to suppress the clinical symptoms but can not reduce puppy mortalities. This review discusses CPV alternative therapy and the advantages using immunoglobulin Y (IgY specific antibodies isolated from chicken egg yolk. Immunoglobulin Y will neutralize the virus, so it can not infect host cells. Intravenous IgY therapy has shown to suppress the spread of CPV infection and prevent death.

  16. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  17. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs. Eat or refrigerate eggs and foods containing eggs promptly after cooking. Do not keep eggs or foods made with ... water can pull bacteria into the egg. Refrigerate eggs after collection. Cook eggs thoroughly. Raw and undercooked eggs contain Salmonella ...

  18. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  19. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide...... a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases....... The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted...

  20. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  1. Effect of egg washing on the cuticle quality of brown and white table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, S; Messens, W; De Reu, K; De Preter, S; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Baerdemaeker, J; Michiels, C W; Bain, M

    2011-10-01

    Egg washing is currently not permitted within the European Union, with few exceptions. This is mainly because there are concerns that cuticle damage could occur during or after the washing process, as a result of a suboptimal operation. In this study, the cuticle coverage levels of 400 washed or unwashed eggs, derived from either a brown or a white egg-laying flock at the end of lay, were compared. The eggs from older hens inherently have poorer cuticle coverage and as a result arguably constitute a greater risk to consumer safety if they are then washed. Thus, the effects of the washing procedure used in this study on cuticle quality were tested under the worst-case scenario. A standard Swedish egg washing process was used. The cuticle coverage of the eggs was assessed by a colorimeter by quantifying the color difference before and after staining with Tartrazine and Green S. The cuticle of an additional 30 eggs from each of the four groups was then visually assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The staining characteristics of the cuticle varied greatly within each group of eggs and showed that the washing process did not lead to cuticle damage. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that there was no irreversible damage to the cuticle of the washed eggs and that it was not possible to correctly assign the treatment (washed or not) based on a visual assessment. In conclusion, no evidence could be found to suggest that the washing procedure used in this investigation irreversibly changed the quality of the cuticle.

  2. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  3. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs. ...

  5. Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maurer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of autoimmunity mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE autoantibodies, which may be termed autoallergy, is in its infancy. It is now recognized that systemic lupus erythematosus, bullous pemphigoid (BP, and chronic urticaria, both spontaneous and inducible, are most likely to be mediated, at least in part, by IgE autoantibodies. The situation in other conditions, such as autoimmune uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroid Graves’ disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, and even asthma, is far less clear but evidence for autoallergy is accumulating. To be certain of an autoallergic mechanism, it is necessary to identify both IgE autoantibodies and their targets as has been done with the transmembrane protein BP180 and the intracellular protein BP230 in BP and IL-24 in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Also, IgE-targeted therapies, such as anti-IgE, must have been shown to be of benefit to patients as has been done with both of these conditions. This comprehensive review of the literature on IgE-mediated autoallergy focuses on three related questions. What do we know about the prevalence of IgE autoantibodies and their targets in different diseases? What do we know about the relevance of IgE autoantibodies in different diseases? What do we know about the cellular and molecular effects of IgE autoantibodies? In addition to providing answers to these questions, based on a broad review of the literature, we outline the current gaps of knowledge in our understanding of IgE autoantibodies and describe approaches to address them.

  6. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  7. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  8. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  9. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  10. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen

  11. Calanus finmarchicus egg production at its northern border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva Friis; Bohr, Magnus; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    How the distribution of Calanus finmarchicus and its potential northward expansion will be affected by climate changes depends on the mechanisms and processes constraining their reproduction, recruitment and survival. Here we present measurements of C. finmarchicus egg production rates during...... the spring bloom in 2008, 2010 and 2011 in Disko Bay, West Greenland and validate four independently derived metabolic models to predict egg production rates. The spring bloom in 2008 was short and intense and supported lower cumulated specific egg production of C. finmarchicus than the longer blooms...... with lower peak biomass in 2011 and 2012. The models predicted different timing of initialization and development of egg production rates based on phytoplankton biomass and temperature and model performance varied from ‘poor’ to ‘very good’. Phytoplankton biomass controlled the changes in egg production...

  12. No evidence for contraindications to the use of propofol in adults allergic to egg, soy or peanut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, L L; Mosbech, H; Krøigaard, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Propofol is thought to be a potential cause of allergic reactions in patients allergic to egg, soy or peanut, since current formulations contain an emulsion that includes egg lecithin and soybean oil. However, other than six case reports lacking in confirmatory evidence of an allergic...... reaction, there is no evidence linking the two types of allergies. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of propofol allergy and to investigate if patients with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to egg, soy or peanut tolerated propofol. METHODS: Study A examined the frequency of propofol allergy...... IgE to egg, soy or peanut. RESULTS: Four of the 153 propofol-exposed patients (2.6%) investigated in study A were diagnosed with propofol allergy. Of these, three tested positive only on intravenous provocation. None of the four had allergic symptoms when eating egg, soy or peanut and none had...

  13. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  14. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT...

  15. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  16. Enhancement of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor transcytosis by biparatopic VHH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D Emmerson

    Full Text Available The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR ensures the transport of dimeric immunoglobulin A (dIgA and pentameric immunoglobulin M (pIgM across epithelia to the mucosal layer of for example the intestines and the lungs via transcytosis. Per day the human pIgR mediates the excretion of 2 to 5 grams of dIgA into the mucosa of luminal organs. This system could prove useful for therapies aiming at excretion of compounds into the mucosa. Here we investigated the use of the variable domain of camelid derived heavy chain only antibodies, also known as VHHs or Nanobodies®, targeting the human pIgR, as a transport system across epithelial cells. We show that VHHs directed against the human pIgR are able to bind the receptor with high affinity (∼1 nM and that they compete with the natural ligand, dIgA. In a transcytosis assay both native and phage-bound VHH were only able to get across polarized MDCK cells that express the human pIgR gene in a basolateral to apical fashion. Indicating that the VHHs are able to translocate across epithelia and to take along large particles of cargo. Furthermore, by making multivalent VHHs we were able to enhance the transport of the compounds both in a MDCK-hpIgR and Caco-2 cell system, probably by inducing receptor clustering. These results show that VHHs can be used as a carrier system to exploit the human pIgR transcytotic system and that multivalent compounds are able to significantly enhance the transport across epithelial monolayers.

  17. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  18. Ancient Phylogenetic Beginnings of Immunoglobulin Hypermutation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubrycht, J.; Sigler, Karel; Růžička, Michal; Souček, P.; Borecký, J.; Ježek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2006), s. 691-706 ISSN 0022-2844 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : immunoglobulin * hypermutation * antigen Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.767, year: 2006

  19. The Immunobiology of Immunoglobulin G4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lighaam, Laura C.; Rispens, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies are in many ways unusual. In this review, an overview is given of the structural and functional aspects of IgG4 antibodies, the consequences of IgG4 antibody formation in various disease settings, and the factors involved in the regulation of IgG4 responses.

  20. Immunoglobulins and their fragments on solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Summary

    Adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a common step in the production of immunological tests and biosensors. The use of IgG in these applications stems from its ability to specifically bind all kinds of molecules (antigens). In these tests the IgG

  1. [Production, specificity and structure of immunoglobulins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujard, C; Delfraissy, J F

    1991-03-21

    Immunoglobulin is a key factor of the immune response resulting from B-cell activation and associated with T-cell stimulation. Because of its structure, this antibody has a dual function: it specifically recognizes the inducer antigen in the variable region and eliminates it by a constant portion which is responsible for effector properties. Surface immunoglobulin, therefore, is the B-cell antigen receptor; it differs from the T-cell receptor in that it recognizes the antigen unbound to the major istocompatibility complex; binding the antigen results in direct signal transduction first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus. This receptor can be secreted in the body: it is made up of circulating immunoglobulins. Human immunoglobulins are divided into 5 classes, each of them with its own response kinetics, distribution and functions. The variability of the antibody response accounts for a genetic organization involving numerous genes which may be associated with each other, or mutate, or recombine during maturation of the lymphocytes. Altogether, this system has a theoretical capacity of response to three hundred million different antigens.

  2. Predictive value of IgE/IgG4 antibody ratio in children with egg allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shindou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%, and negative predictive value (% than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.

  3. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  4. Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Gomez-Rial, Jose; Valcarcel, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    and biological significance of IgE antibodies to N-glycans from wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers. A structured questionnaire, skin prick tests, serum IgE levels, IgE-immunoblotting to wine extracts, and basophil activation tests were used to characterize 20 heavy drinkers and 10 control subjects. Eleven...... heavy drinkers (55%) showed IgE binding to proteins in wine extracts. The proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as grape-derived vacuolar invertase and thaumatin-like protein. Immunoblot reactivity was closely associated with the presence of IgE to CCDs and was inhibited by preincubation...... with a glycoconjugate containing bromelain-type N-glycans. The same conjugate, CCD-bearing allergens, and wine extracts activated basophils in patients with high-titer CCD-specific IgE but not in healthy controls. There was no relationship between immunoblot reactivity and consumption of any specific type of wine...

  5. Irradiation of Poultry and Egg Products; Irradiation de la Volaille et des Ceufs et Derives; Obluchenie domashnej ptitsy, yaits i izdelij iz nikh; Irradiacion de Volateria, Huevos y Productos Derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornley, Margaret J. [Sub-Department of Chemical Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1966-11-15

    Poultry and egg products may be treated advantageously with various kinds of irradiation process, in different circumstances. Where contamination with Salmonella is a problem, 'radicidation' may be carried out with doses of the order of 0.5 Mrad. This is particularly valuable for frozen products, such as whole egg and some kinds of poultry, especially duck. Dried-egg products may be treated also in this way. This application is described in detail by other authors (Ley, Mossel [2,3]). The treatment of poultry carcasses so that they can be stored indefinitely, or 'radappertization', can be achieved by doses of 4,5 Mrad. However, other processes must be associated with the irradiation, to prevent undesirable off-flavours. These can include pre-heating to inactivate enzymes, irradiation in the frozen state, in vacuum or nitrogen packs, or with activated charcoal included in the pack, and particular methods of cooking are sometimes recommended. These methods are of interest for army use, and have been extensively studied for the research programme of the United States Army. The 'radurization' process for poultry, i.e. increase in storage life by inactivation of most of the spoilage microorganisms, is of interest for commercial use. Doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 Mrad may be used without adverse effects on flavour, and will extend the periodjbefore microbial spoilage by 1.5- to 3-fold. Storage at chill temperatures (5 Degree-Sign C or below) is necessary, and changes in flavour during storage may limit the extension of this period, so that 20 days at 1 Degree-Sign C is about i the most obtainable without quality deterioration. The mechanism of these changes is not understood, but they are not due to microbial spoilage or to the irradiation. The eventual microbial spoilage of irradiated chickens at chill temperatures is due to non-pathogenic bacteria, which are normally present in the spoilage flora, though sometimes the proportions of different kinds of these bacteria

  6. PREPARATION OF CONJUGATE FOR USE IN AN ELISA FOR HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS IN LAYER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mansoor, S. U. Rahman, I. Hussain, M. H. Rasool and M. A. Zahoor

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed for the detection of antibodies against Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS virus. Virus identification was done through haemaggluti- nation inhibition (HI test using known antisera. Antichicken immunoglobulins were raised in goats and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation technique. These goat-antichicken immunoglobulins were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Twenty-seven serum samples were collected from a layers flock vaccinated against EDS and specific antibodies were determined by using a horseradish conjugate.

  7. Increased IgG on cell-derived plasma microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with autoantibodies and complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Østergaard, Ole; Stener, Line

    2012-01-01

    To quantify immunoglobulin and C1q on circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to determine whether immunoglobulin and C1q levels are correlated with clinical and serologic parameters.......To quantify immunoglobulin and C1q on circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to determine whether immunoglobulin and C1q levels are correlated with clinical and serologic parameters....

  8. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  9. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  10. Intravenous immunoglobulin and Alzheimer's disease immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Beka

    2007-02-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) contributes to the acute progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has become the main target for therapeutics. Active immunization with Abeta in individuals with AD has been efficacious; however, some patients developed side effects, possibly related to an autoimmune response. Evidence that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), an FDA-approved purified immunoglobulin fraction from normal human donor blood, shows promise of passive immunotherapy for AD is reviewed. Investigations into the molecular effects of IVIg on Abeta clearance, using the BV-2 cellular microglia line, demonstrate that IVIg dissolves Abeta fibrils in vitro, increases cellular tolerance to Abeta, enhances microglial migration toward Abeta deposits, and mediates phagocytosis of Abeta. Preliminary clinical results indicate that IVIg, which contains natural antibodies against the Abeta, warrants further study into its potential to deliver a controlled immune attack on the peptide, avoiding the immune toxicities that have had a negative impact on the first clinical trials of vaccine against Abeta.

  11. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  12. Neuromyelitis Optica Immunoglobulin G in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Lynsee A.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Tseng, Brian S.; Miller, Bradford R.; Corboy, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica or Devic’s syndrome is an uncommon demyelinating disorder that preferentially attacks the spinal cord and optic nerves. Although it is well described in adults, childhood neuromyelitis optica has rarely been reported in the literature and is frequently misdiagnosed as severe multiple sclerosis. Recently, a serum immunoglobulin G test for neuromyelitis optica has become available which may clarify and accelerate the diagnosis. This report describes a child with recurrent m...

  13. Effect of Egg Orientation on Malposition in Hatching Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effects of orientation in the hatching eggs on hatching results and position disorders, so the eggs were placed in incubator for 3 groups as orientation of normal, horizontal and small end up. In this study, 1680 hatching eggs were divided into 3 groups with 7 replicates of 80 eggs in each. Hatchability of fertile eggs, malformation ratio, malposition ratio, weight loss ratio, chick quality, embryo death ratios in the early, middle and late stage of embriogenesis and mortality ratio were investigated in this research. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of egg weight loss ratio, embryo death in the late stage of embriogenesis, malposition ratio, hatching rate , whereas no significant differences among the groups in respect to malformation ratio, chick quality, embryo death in early and late embriogenesis. It was determined that the late embrionic mortality increased because of the position errors in case of hatching eggs orientation and the head of the embryo in small end up of eggs.

  14. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  15. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  16. Values and public acceptability dimensions of sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B; Appleby, M; Busch, L; Kalof, L; Miele, M; Norwood, B F; Pajor, E

    2011-09-01

    The attributes of egg production that elicit values-based responses include the price and availability of eggs, environmental impacts, food safety or health concerns, and animal welfare. Different social groups have distinct interests regarding the sustainability of egg production that reflect these diverse values. Current scientifically based knowledge about how values and attitudes in these groups can be characterized is uneven and must be derived from studies conducted at varying times and using incomplete study methods. In general, some producer and consumer interests are translated through markets and are mediated by market mechanisms, whereas others are poorly reflected by economic behavior. An array of survey and focus group research has been performed to elicit consumer and activist beliefs about performance goals they would expect from an egg production system. These studies provide evidence that consumers' market behavior may be at odds with their ethical and political beliefs about performance goals.

  17. Functional responses of North Atlantic fish eggs to increasing temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    -days and survival of fish eggs from 32 populations of 17 species in the North Atlantic to different temperatures in order to determine potential consequences of global warming for these species. The response of development time exhibited a similar decreasing trend with respect to temperature across species....... There was an overall decrease, across species, in an index of thermal requirement (cumulative degree-days) for egg development with increasing temperature. Within an empirically derived optimal thermal range for egg survival, the thermal requirement was more variable in species adapted to cold waters compared...... to species adapted to warmer waters. Moreover, the sensitivity of survival of eggs from different species to increases in temperature differed, reflecting a pattern of sensitivity along a stenotherm-eurytherm gradient of vulnerability to temperature among species. The results quantify physiological effects...

  18. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  19. Egg dumping by predatory insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbani, A. C.; Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 290-293 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Egg dumping * ladybird beetles * oocyte resorption * trophic egg Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  20. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and

  1. Immunoglobulin E and G4 antibody responses in occupational airway exposure to bovine and porcine plasma proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, E. J. M.; Stapel, S. O.; de Vrieze, H.; van der Zee, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Production of both antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG4 antibodies is dependent on stimulation of B cells by T helper 2 cell-derived cytokines. However, there is controversy as to their interaction. In this study, we investigated the interdependency of IgE and IgG4 antibody

  2. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use.

  3. Study on mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs ( Brachionus plicatilis) with different collection times and different preservation periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Zheng, Yan; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2001-09-01

    The present study investigated the possible changes in the mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs produced by a single stock of Brachionus plicatilis and collected and preserved annually from 1985 1998. Several clones derived from each batch of resting eggs were cultured under the same conditions for 21 days. The percentage of clones appearing resting eggs and the average yield of resting eggs produced from each clone were recorded and statistically analyzed to find the differences between the mixis potential of those resting egg batches. Results showed that different batches of resting eggs had different mictic levels among their descendent clones; but no regular relationship was found between the mixis potential of resting eggs and their collection times/preservation periods. Several internal and external factors that might affect the mixis potential of resting eggs were discussed.

  4. The Eagle's EGGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  5. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  6. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of postnatal screening for toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA. SETTING: Ten centres in three European countries. METHODS: We compared results of the first postnatal IgM or IgA test in infants with infected mothers identified by prenatal screeni...

  7. Immunoglobulin therapy for enteroviral meningitides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Kimirilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the material of their own observations on the clinical and laboratory efficacy of the Russian intravenous immunoglobulin Gabriglobin for the treatment of enteroviral meningitides in children.The performed trials indicated that the use of Gabriglobin in the combination therapy of severe enteroviral meningitides in children reduced the duration of intoxication, global cerebral symptoms, meningeal syndrome, the time of cerebrospinal fluid sanitation by 1,5 times, and that of in-hospital treatment by 5,8±1,8 days as compared to those who received conventional basic therapy.

  8. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  9. Evolution of egg coats: linking molecular biology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-08-01

    One central goal of evolutionary biology is to explain how biological diversity emerges and is maintained in nature. Given the complexity of the phenotype and the multifaceted nature of inheritance, modern evolutionary ecological studies rely heavily on the use of molecular tools. Here, we show how molecular tools help to gain insight into the role of egg coats (i.e. the extracellular structures surrounding eggs and embryos) in evolutionary diversification. Egg coats are maternally derived structures that have many biological functions from mediating fertilization to protecting the embryo from environmental hazards. They show great molecular, structural and functional diversity across species, but intraspecific variability and the role of ecology in egg coat evolution have largely been overlooked. Given that much of the variation that influences egg coat function is ultimately determined by their molecular phenotype, cutting-edge molecular tools (e.g. proteomics, glycomics and transcriptomics), combined with functional assays, are needed for rigorous inferences on their evolutionary ecology. Here, we identify key research areas and highlight emerging molecular techniques that can increase our understanding of the role of egg coats in the evolution of biological diversity, from adaptation to speciation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...... imaginaries that shaped the Danish regulation on the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyze the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work and readings in Parliament along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that in time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current 5 years...... and today continue to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss their gendered implications captured...

  11. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  12. Immunoglobulin gene expression and regulation of rearrangement in kappa transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of the functionally rearranged immunoglobulin kappa gene from the myeloma MOPC-21 into the male pronucleus of fertilized mouse eggs, and implantation of the microinjected embryos into foster mothers. Mice that integrated the injected gene were detected by hybridizing tail DNA dots with radioactively labelled pBR322 plasmid DNA, which detects pBR322 sequences left as a tag on the microinjected DNA. Mice that integrated the injected gene (six males) were mated and the DNA, RNA and serum kappa chains of their offspring were analyzed. A rabbit anti-mouse kappa chain antiserum was also produced for use in detection of mouse kappa chains on protein blots. Hybridomas were produced from the spleen cells of these kappa transgenic mice to immortalize representative B cells and to investigate expression of the transgenic kappa gene, its effect on allelic exclusion, and its effect on the control of light chain gene rearrangement and expression. The results show that the microinjected DNA is integrated as concatamers in unique single or, rarely, two separate sites in the genome. The concatamers are composed of several copies (16 to 64) of injected DNA arranged in a head to tail fashion. The transgene is expressed into protein normally and in a tissue specific fashion. For the first time in these transgenic mice, all tissues contain a functionally rearranged and potentially expressible immunoglobulin gene. The transgene is expressed only in B cells and not in hepatocytes, for example. This indicates that rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes is necessary but not sufficient for the tissue specific expression of these genes by B cells

  13. Irradiation studies of mallard duck eggs material containing Mirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, R.H.; Grodner, R.M.; Graves, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs containing Mirex (dodecachloropentacyclo[5.3.0.0 2 , 6 .0 3 , 9 .0 4 , 8 ]decane) from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhychos l.), fed diets with the insecticide incorporated at levels of 1 and 100 ppM for 25 weeks, were subjected to ultraviolet (uv) and γ irradiation. Seven derivatives were obtained on photolysis and eight derivatives were obtained from γ irradiation. Irradiation products appeared to be mono and dihydro derivatives of Mirex. Structural assignments for two monohydro derivatives and three dihydro derivatives were made on the basis of retention time and mass spectral data

  14. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  15. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  16. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  17. Serology and immunoglobulin profile in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhya, S; Chakraborty, G; Hajra, B; Bhattacharya, S; Sikdar, P K; Sinha, S; Banerjee, P P; Ghosh, E; Chakraborty, P

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and twenty cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis, 80 non-rheumatoid cases suffering from various other diseases and 40 healthy individuals were investigated for the presence of rheumatoid factor, quantitation of serum immunoglobulin, demonstration of ANA and LE cell phenomenon. Microlatex agglutination test of serum for rheumatoid factor showed 56.6% positivity in rheumatoid group and 3.7% positivity in non-rheumatoid group. All three serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) were raised in serum in significant titre in cases of rheumatoid arthritis, whereas only IgA lever was elevated in the group of non-rheumatoid diseases. ANA and LE cell phenomenon were observed in 11.7% and 4.4% cases of rheumatoid arthritis who had severe underlying disease. In non-rheumatoid group, only one of 6 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus showed rheumatoid factor and that too in an insignificant titre (less than 1:20). Synovium and synovial fluid contained plenty of plasma cells and lymphocytes. It has been observed that RF appears first in synovial fluid and it may take several months to a year to attain detectable level in serum.

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Levy, Yair; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2005-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy may be beneficial and safe for various manifestations in SLE. A structured literature search of articles published on the efficacy of IVIg in the treatment of SLE between 1983 and 2005 was conducted. We searched the terms "IVIg," "intravenous immunoglobulin," "lupus," "SLE," and "systemic lupus erythematosus." The various clinical manifestations of SLE that were reported to be successfully treated by IVIg in case reports include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, acquired factor VIII inhibitors, acquired von Willebrand disease, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiogenic shock, nephritis, end-stage renal disease, encephalitis, neuropsychiatric lupus, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and vasculitis. The most extensive experience is with lupus nephritis. There are only a few case series of IVIg use in patients with SLE with various manifestations, in which the response rate to IVIg therapy ranged from 33 to 100%. We suggest that IVIg devoid of sucrose, at a dose of 2 g/kg over a 5-d period given uniformly and at a slow infusion rate in patients without an increased risk for thromboembolic events or renal failure, is a safe and beneficial adjunct therapy for cases of SLE that are resistant to or refuse conventional treatment. The duration of therapy is yet to be established. Controlled trials are warranted.

  19. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    (15)N value of 4.8‰ to account for an organic plant derived diet. Monitoring of New Zealand egg isotopes over the past 7 years suggests that organic eggs should have a minimum δ(15)N value of 6.0‰, and eggs falling below this value should be investigated further by certification authorities.

  20. Chlorocholine chloride residue distribution in eggs, breast and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) residue or its metabolites in the meat and eggs of laying hens was studied using the 15N delta value (d15N) and 15N atom % derived from 15N-CCC containing diets. In a completely randomised design, 20 laying hens were divided into four groups allocated four different ...

  1. Physiological ecology of desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) eggs: temperature and water relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, A.

    1980-12-01

    The soil environment imposes constraints on the timing of oviposition and the location of suitable sites for egg burrows of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). The effects of temperature and water potential on the developmental period and hatching success of eggs were determined. Eggs hatch normally between 28/sup 0/ and 38/sup 0/C at environmental water potentials between -50 and -1500 kPa. Predictions were derived for the timing and placement of egg clutches based on soil water potential and temperature profiles measured in the field and on the results of laboratory incubation experiments. The results suggest that egg burrows should be located at depths >22 cm in washes or possibly in sparsely vegetated areas away from creosote bushes. The biogeography of desert iguanas within the United States is discussed in relation to soil environments and tolerances of eggs. The physical factors affecting incubation may limit the geographical range of desert iguanas.

  2. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on...

  3. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  4. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria. Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Immunity ...

  5. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria. Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Immunity, IgA, IgG, IgM.

  6. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Maurya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation.

  7. INTERACTION OF ALBUMIN AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN G WITH SYNTHETIC HYDROXYAPATITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pylypchuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown by X-ray phase analysis, IR spectra analysis and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry methods that interaction of synthetic hydroxyapatite with a solution of immunoglobulin G leads to its partial dissolution due to leaching from the surface of calcium triphosphate which, in our opinion, forms complexes with immunoglobulin G.

  8. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  9. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS...

  10. THE CORN-EGG PRICE TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Babula, Ronald A.; Bessler, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A vector autoregression (VAR) model of corn, farm egg, and retail egg prices is estimated and shocked with a corn price increase. Impulse responses in egg prices, t-statistics for the impulse responses, and decompositions of forecast error variance are presented. Analyses of results provide insights on the corn/egg price transmission mechanism and on how corn price shocks pulsate through the egg-related economy.

  11. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  12. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  13. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Individuals in the Sudan Reveals Unique Immunoepidemiological Profiles in Uninfected, egg+ and Non-egg+ Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfaki, Tayseer Elamin Mohamed; Arndts, Kathrin; Wiszniewsky, Anna; Ritter, Manuel; Goreish, Ibtisam A; Atti El Mekki, Misk El Yemen A; Arriens, Sandra; Pfarr, Kenneth; Fimmers, Rolf; Doenhoff, Mike; Hoerauf, Achim; Layland, Laura E

    2016-05-01

    In the Sudan, Schistosoma mansoni infections are a major cause of morbidity in school-aged children and infection rates are associated with available clean water sources. During infection, immune responses pass through a Th1 followed by Th2 and Treg phases and patterns can relate to different stages of infection or immunity. This retrospective study evaluated immunoepidemiological aspects in 234 individuals (range 4-85 years old) from Kassala and Khartoum states in 2011. Systemic immune profiles (cytokines and immunoglobulins) and epidemiological parameters were surveyed in n = 110 persons presenting patent S. mansoni infections (egg+), n = 63 individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR in sera but egg negative (SmPCR+) and n = 61 people who were infection-free (Sm uninf). Immunoepidemiological findings were further investigated using two binary multivariable regression analysis. Nearly all egg+ individuals had no access to latrines and over 90% obtained water via the canal stemming from the Atbara River. With regards to age, infection and an egg+ status was linked to young and adolescent groups. In terms of immunology, S. mansoni infection per se was strongly associated with increased SEA-specific IgG4 but not IgE levels. IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patently-infected individuals and positively correlated with egg load. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-1β were significantly lower in SmPCR+ individuals when compared to Sm uninf and egg+ groups which was further confirmed during multivariate regression analysis. Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the Sudan with a high number of patent individuals. In addition, SmPCR diagnostics revealed another cohort of infected individuals with a unique immunological profile and provides an avenue for future studies on non-patent infection states. Future studies should investigate the downstream signalling pathways/mechanisms of IL-2 and IL-1β as potential diagnostic markers in order to

  14. The Ability of Immunoglobulin Yolk Recognized the Antigen in the Tissue of Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-antibody reaction is an important tool for the analysis of localization of target molecules, including antigenic protein within worm tissues. The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of immunoglobulin yolk (IgY anti-excretory/secretory recognized the antigen in the tissue of Ascaridia galli by mean of immunohistochemistry method. The excretory/secretory protein was procured from A. galli and concentrated by mean of vivaspin 30,000 MWCO. IgY was produced by egg yolks of immunized chickens with excretory/secretory, and purified using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC method. A. galli adult worms were cut in transversal and longitudinal section of the center and anterior region. Slides were incubated with both primary IgY for overnight at 4 oC and secondary antibody rabbit anti-chicken IgY HRP-conjugate for one hour at room temperature. The slides were stained with 3-amino, 9-ethylcarbazole (AEC chromogen, counterstained with Lillie Mayer Haematoxylin, and mounted in glyserin aqueous mount. Antigen-antibody reaction was investigated under a microscope. The result showed that antigen was appeared in the tissues such as cuticle, epicuticle, buccal cavity, and eggs inside the uterine of A. galli. This research concluded that IgY stimulated by the excretory/secretory was able to recognized the antigen scattered in the tissues of A. galli so the IgY could be applied for immunodiagnostic.

  15. Solar urticaria successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic solar urticaria (SU) is a rare, debilitating photodermatosis, which may be difficult to treat. First-line treatment with antihistamines is effective in mild cases, but remission after phototherapeutic induction of tolerance is often short-lived. Other treatment options include plasma exchange, photopheresis and cyclosporin. We present two cases of severe, idiopathic SU, which were resistant to conventional treatment. Both patients achieved remission after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and have remained in remission at 13 months and 4 years, respectively. There are only two case reports of successful treatment of solar urticaria with IVIg. In our experience IVIg given at a total dose of 2 g\\/kg over several 5-day courses about a month apart is an effective treatment option for severe idiopathic SU. It is also generally safe, even if certainly subject to significant theoretical risks, such as induction of viral infection or anaphylaxis.

  16. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD is an increasingly recognized immune-mediated condition comprised of a collection of disorders that share specific pathological, serological, and clinical features. IgG4-RD is a fibroinflammatory condition with a tendency to form tumors with inflammatory infiltrate with IgG4 rich plasma cells and elevation of serum IgG4, which may affect virtually every organ and tissue. IgG4-related ophthalmic disease may present as dacryoadenitis, myositis, or involvement of other orbital tissue. Hypophysitis or pachymeningitis may manifest as cranial neuropathies. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD is based on a typical clinical scenario, supportive laboratory test, expected radiological characteristics, and distinct histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressives form the mainline treatment.

  17. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo; Cirillo, Davide; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products offered...

  20. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  1. Limited number of immunoglobulin VH regions expressed in the mutant rabbit "Alicia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, L A; Short, J A; Zhai, S K; Kelus, A S; Meier, D; Knight, K L

    1990-06-01

    A unique feature of rabbit Ig is the presence of VH region allotypic specificities. In normal rabbits, more than 80% of circulating immunoglobulin molecules bear the VHa allotypic specificities, al, a2 or a3; the remaining 10% to 20% of immunoglobulin molecules lack VHa allotypic specificities and are designated VHa-. A mutant rabbit designated Alicia, in contrast, has predominantly serum immunoglobulin molecules that lack the VHa allotypic specificities (Kelus and Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1986. 83: 4883). To study the nature and molecular complexity of VHa- molecules, we cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of seven cDNA prepared from splenic RNA of an Alicia rabbit. Six of the clones appeared to encode VHa- molecules; the framework regions encoded by these clones were remarkably similar to each other, each having an unusual insertion of four amino acids at position 10. This insertion of four amino acids has been seen in only 2 of 54 sequenced rabbit VH genes. The similarity of the sequences of the six VHa- clones to each other and their dissimilarity to most other VH genes leads us to suggest that the VHa- molecules in Alicia rabbits are derived predominantly from one or a small number of very similar VH genes. Such preferential utilization of a small number of VH genes may explain the allelic inheritance of VH allotypes.

  2. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  3. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Protects Against Severe Pandemic Influenza Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rockman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious, acute, febrile respiratory infection that can have fatal consequences particularly in individuals with chronic illnesses. Sporadic reports suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg may be efficacious in the influenza setting. We investigated the potential of human IVIg to ameliorate influenza infection in ferrets exposed to either the pandemic H1N1/09 virus (pH1N1 or highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1. IVIg administered at the time of influenza virus exposure led to a significant reduction in lung viral load following pH1N1 challenge. In the lethal H5N1 model, the majority of animals given IVIg survived challenge in a dose dependent manner. Protection was also afforded by purified F(ab′2 but not Fc fragments derived from IVIg, supporting a specific antibody-mediated mechanism of protection. We conclude that pre-pandemic IVIg can modulate serious influenza infection-associated mortality and morbidity. IVIg could be useful prophylactically in the event of a pandemic to protect vulnerable population groups and in the critical care setting as a first stage intervention.

  4. [Batch release of immunoglobulin and monoclonal antibody products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S

    2014-10-01

    The Paul-Ehrlich Institute (PEI) is an independent institution of the Federal Republic of Germany responsible for performing official experimental batch testing of sera. The institute decides about the release of each batch and performs experimental research in the field. The experimental quality control ensures the potency of the product and also the absence of harmful impurities. For release of an immunoglobulin batch the marketing authorization holder has to submit the documentation of the manufacture and the results of quality control measures together with samples of the batch to the PEI. Experimental testing is performed according to the approved specifications regarding the efficacy and safety. Since implementation of the 15th German drug law amendment, the source of antibody is not defined anymore. According to § 32 German drug law, all batches of sera need to be released by an official control laboratory. Sera are medicinal products, which contain antibodies, antibody fragments or fusion proteins with a functional antibody portion. Therefore, all batches of monoclonal antibodies and derivatives must also be released by the PEI and the marketing authorization holder has to submit a batch release application. Under certain circumstances a waiver for certain products can be issued with regard to batch release. The conditions for such a waiver apply to the majority of monoclonal antibodies.

  5. [Identification and production of monoclonal antibody of Siberian tiger's immunoglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaonglong; Zhang, Duanling; Zhou, Ming; Xue, Yuan; Hua, Yuping; Ma, Jianzhang

    2010-03-01

    To purify immunoglobulin (Ig) of Siberian Tiger and prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the Ig,which can be used to develop immunological diagnostic kits for diagnosing infectious disease in Siberian Tiger. The Ig of Siberian tigers was purified with saturated ammonium sulfate combined with recombinant Protein G. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the purified Ig. Spleno-cytes of the mice immunized were collected and fused with the mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14). The positive hybridoma clones were selected by ELISA and were identified by western blot. The sandwich ELISA was used to detect immunocompetence of the purified Ig and the mAb. We obtained three mouse hybridoma clones that produced mAbs against Ig of Siberian Tiger. The derived McAbs could recognize Ig heavy chain of Siberian Tiger specifically. The biological activity of the Ig and obtained McAbs also could be identified by detecting the antibody induced by panleukopenia virus (FPV-HLJ) vaccine in Siberian Tiger. The antibody also would be useful for assess the vaccine efficacy against the infectious disease on the Siberian Tiger. Protein G can be used in Ig purification of Siberian Tiger. The obtained McAbs from the hybridoma ADT11 in this study owned strong ability to bind Ig of Siberian Tiger and have a stable immunocompetence. They can be used to develop diagnostic methods for detecting infectious disease in Siberian Tiger and vaccine research.

  6. Egg-Independent Influenza Vaccines and Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Manini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain. In particular, if the next influenza pandemic were to arise from an avian influenza virus, and thus reduce the egg-laying hen population, there would be a shortage of embryonated eggs available for vaccine manufacturing. Although the production of egg-derived vaccines will continue, new technological developments have generated a cell-culture-based influenza vaccine and other more recent platforms, such as synthetic influenza vaccines.

  7. Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Neuropathy : Immunoglobulin And Immune Complex Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM and immune complexes IgG (IcG were measured in 58 cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, popularly known as Guillian Barre′ syndrome, and in 30 healthy controls using single radial immunodiffusion assay. Immunoglobulin and immune complex levels were significantly elevated in patients as compared to controls. The increased levels of immunoglobulins and immune complexes may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease and provide rationale for therapeutic plasmapheresis.

  8. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo; Tenca, Claudya; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Albesiano, Emilia; Bagnara, Davide; Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Chu, Charles C; Morabito, Fortunato; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrarini, Manlio; Tramontano, Anna; Fais, Franco; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV–diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation. PMID:21785810

  9. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation.

  10. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  11. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its...... use, or the circumstances under which this technique may be considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was designed to investigate knowledge and attitudes of women in Denmark and the UK on egg freezing and their potential intentions regarding the procedure. RESULTS: Data...... was collected from September 2012 to September 2013 and the responses of 973 women were analyzed. In total, 83% of women reported having heard of egg freezing, and nearly all considered it acceptable for medical indications, whilst 89% considered it acceptable for social reasons. Overall, 19% expressed active...

  12. Immunoglobulin for alloimmune hemolytic disease in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, Carolien; Scheffer-Rath, Mirjam Ea; Lopriore, Enrico; de Haas, Masja; Liley, Helen G

    2018-03-18

    Exchange transfusion and phototherapy have traditionally been used to treat jaundice and avoid the associated neurological complications. Because of the risks and burdens of exchange transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been suggested as an alternative therapy for alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to reduce the need for exchange transfusion. To assess the effect and complications of IVIg in newborn infants with alloimmune HDN on the need for and number of exchange transfusions. We performed electronic searches of CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase (Ovid), Web of Science, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Academic Search Premier, and the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and controlled-trials.com in May 2017. We also searched reference lists of included and excluded trials and relevant reviews for further relevant studies. We considered all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of IVIg in the treatment of alloimmune HDN. Trials must have used predefined criteria for the use of IVIg and exchange transfusion therapy to be included. We used the standard methods of Cochrane and its Neonatal Review Group. We assessed studies for inclusion and two review authors independently assessed quality and extracted data. We discussed any differences of opinion to reach consensus. We contacted investigators for additional or missing information. We calculated risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for categorical outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) for continuous variables. We used GRADE criteria to assess the risk of bias for major outcomes and to summarize the level of evidence. Nine studies with 658 infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Term and preterm infants with Rh or ABO (or both) incompatibility were included. The use of exchange transfusion decreased significantly in the immunoglobulin treated group (typical RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.49; typical RD -0.22, 95% CI -0.27 to

  13. 7(th) International Immunoglobulin Conference: Poster presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnatz, K; Ballow, M; Stangel, M; Bril, V

    2014-12-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy is the mainstay of treatment for primary antibody deficiency disorders and has proved to be efficacious in specific autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Additionally, due to the role of Ig in complement activation, it is being used increasingly in solid organ transplantation. Furthermore, Ig is the primary or secondary treatment in some immune-mediated neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) or multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). This session discusses trends of Ig use in Europe, proposed mechanisms of action, adverse effects and the potential role of Ig therapy in transplantation. Dr Šedivá reported that Ig therapy is available in all European countries, although dosing is not always optimal, due partly to reimbursement plans. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) has become increasingly accessible in recent years; however, the chosen route of administration still varies widely between countries. Dr Berger's presentation on optimization of Ig therapy in neuropathies, and Dr Rojavin's report on a pharmacometric model to determine the serum IgG levels achieved by different dosing regimens in primary antibody deficiency (PAD) patients, led to the challenging concept of using individualized dosing strategies. Dr Klehmet reported on the potential benefit of using antigen-specific T cell responses as a biomarker of IVIg responsiveness in CIDP patients, while Dr von Gunten provided an insight into the mechanisms of action of Ig preparations, suggesting that the immunoregulatory effects of IgG may be mediated by IgG antibodies against glycans. Dr Basta reported on the potential thrombogenic adverse effects associated with Ig therapy. Although these adverse events are rare, further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between Ig replacement and immunomodulatory therapy and these adverse reactions. In transplantation, Dr Carbone described that prophylactic IVIg treatment was found to decrease the

  14. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm -positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis , respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis . The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  15. Pattern of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) use in a pediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) use in a pediatric intensive care facility in a resource limited setting. ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2013) > ... Results: The clinical diagnoses included neurology (35%), neonatology (16%), ...

  16. Beneficial use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of Sydenham chorea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. van Immerzeel (Tabitha); R.M. van Gilst (Ruud); N.G. Hartwig (Nico)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis double case report indicates that treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) is effective in patients with Sydenham chorea (SC). SC is a rare but impressive clinical manifestation following streptococcal infection. This movement disorder characterised by chorea, emotional

  17. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  18. Oral peptide specific egg antibody to intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter-2b is effective at altering phosphate transport in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Hellestad, Erica M; Sand, Jordan M; Piccione, Michelle L; Bishop, Jeff W; Helvig, Christian; Petkovich, Martin; Cook, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Hyperimmunized hens are an effective means of generating large quantities of antigen specific egg antibodies that have use as oral supplements. In this study, we attempted to create a peptide specific antibody that produced outcomes similar to those of the human pharmaceutical, sevelamer HCl, used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (a sequela of chronic renal disease). Egg antibodies were generated against 8 different human intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b) peptides, and hNaPi2b peptide egg antibodies were screened for their ability to inhibit phosphate transport in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Antibody produced against human peptide sequence TSPSLCWT (anti-h16) was specific for its peptide sequence, and significantly reduced phosphate transport in human Caco-2 cells to 25.3±11.5% of control nonspecific antibody, when compared to nicotinamide, a known inhibitor of phosphate transport (P≤0.05). Antibody was then produced against the mouse-specific peptide h16 counterpart (mouse sequence TSPSYCWT, anti-m16) for further analysis in a murine model. When anti-m16 was fed to mice (1% of diet as dried egg yolk powder), egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was detected using immunohistochemical staining in mouse ileum, and egg anti-m16 IgY colocalized with a commercial goat anti-NaPi2b antibody. The effectiveness of anti-m16 egg antibody in reducing serum phosphate, when compared to sevelamer HCl, was determined in a mouse feeding study. Serum phosphate was reduced 18% (Pegg yolk powder) and 30% (Pegg immunoglobulin. The methods described and the findings reported show that oral egg antibodies are useful and easy to prepare reagents for the study and possible treatment of select diseases. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G disrupts blood brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Berg, Carsten Tue; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    associated with blood-borne horseradish peroxidase leakage indicating blood-brain barrier breakdown. The cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G therefore distributes widely in brain to initiate astrocytopathy and blood-brain barrier breakdown....... was evaluated. A distinct distribution pattern of aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G deposition was observed in the subarachnoid and subpial spaces where vessels penetrate the brain parenchyma, via a paravascular route with intraparenchymal perivascular deposition. Perivascular astrocyte-destructive lesions were...

  20. Purification, characterization and ELISA detection of mink immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2008-01-01

    the estimated molecular weights of the immunoglobulin gamma, alpha and mu heavy chains were found to be 54 kDa, 69 kDa and 83 kDa respectively. The purities of purified IgG, IgM and IgA were estimated by immunoglobulin class specific ELISAs to be more than 90% for IgG and IgM, and more than 80% for IgA....

  1. Mouse myeloma cells that make short immunoglobulin heavy chains: pleiotropic effects on glycosylation and chain assembly

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Two variants in immunoglobulin heavy chain production, derived from the MPC 11 mouse myeloma cell line, make short heavy (H) chains with identical precise deletions of the CH3 domain. The CH3 domain is expressed in the H chain mRNA from both variants. Although in vitro translation of this mRNA produces one H chain species, deleted heavy chains are secreted as heavy-light (HL) and H2L2 moieties in contrast to MPC 11, which secretes only H2L2 . The heavy chains of HL apparently contain more car...

  2. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven

    2012-07-30

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  3. Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... for Recommendations This page contains information about egg allergy and flu vaccination. Summary: CDC and its Advisory ...

  4. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  5. How do eggs pan out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-07-01

    Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.

  6. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  7. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  8. Plant response to butterfly eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griese, Eddie; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Fatouros, Nina E.

    2017-01-01

    Plants employ various defences killing the insect attacker in an early stage. Oviposition by cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.) on brassicaceous plants, including Brassica nigra, induces a hypersensitive response (HR) - like leaf necrosis promoting desiccation of eggs. To gain a deeper insight

  9. Consumption of whole eggs promotes greater stimulation of postexercise muscle protein synthesis than consumption of isonitrogenous amounts of egg whites in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Stephan; Shy, Evan L; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Beals, Joseph W; West, Daniel Wd; Skinner, Sarah K; Ulanov, Alexander V; Li, Zhong; Paluska, Scott A; Parsons, Carl M; Moore, Daniel R; Burd, Nicholas A

    2017-12-01

    Background: Protein in the diet is commonly ingested from whole foods that contain various macro- and micronutrients. However, the effect of consuming protein within its natural whole-food matrix on postprandial protein metabolism remains understudied in humans. Objective: We aimed to compare the whole-body and muscle protein metabolic responses after the consumption of whole eggs with egg whites during exercise recovery in young men. Design: In crossover trials, 10 resistance-trained men [aged 21 ± 1 y; 88 ± 3 kg; body fat: 16% ± 1% (means ± SEMs)] received primed continuous l-[ ring - 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]leucine infusions and performed a single bout of resistance exercise. After exercise, participants consumed intrinsically l-[5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]leucine-labeled whole eggs (18 g protein, 17 g fat) or egg whites (18 g protein, 0 g fat). Repeated blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected to assess whole-body leucine kinetics, intramuscular signaling, and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Results: Plasma appearance rates of protein-derived leucine were more rapid after the consumption of egg whites than after whole eggs ( P = 0.01). Total plasma availability of leucine over the 300-min postprandial period was similar ( P = 0.75) between the ingestion of whole eggs (68% ± 1%) and egg whites (66% ± 2%), with no difference in whole-body net leucine balance ( P = 0.27). Both whole-egg and egg white conditions increased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 during postexercise recovery (all P egg ingestion increased the postexercise myofibrillar protein synthetic response to a greater extent than did the ingestion of egg whites ( P = 0.04). Conclusions: We show that the ingestion of whole eggs immediately after resistance exercise resulted in greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis than did the ingestion of egg whites

  10. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  11. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  12. Fish egg size: a characteristic determined by parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana RM Mazzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a trade-off between relative batch fecundity and egg size has been widely documented (e.g. Brown & Shine 2009. Studies on the evolution of parental care and its relationship with fish egg size were stimulated by the work of Shine (1978, who proposed several possible hypotheses, including one that predicted that the onset of parental care preceded the increase in egg size. This hypothesis has since been challenged by Nussbaum & Schultz (1989 and more recently by Summers et al. (2006, who proposed an alternative hypothesis in which the evolution of large eggs was said to precede the evolution of parental care and not the reverse. Here, we examined 313 species of bony fish, including 152 species with parental care (PC and 161 species without parental care (NPC, and found evidence that fully supports the hypothesis of Shine (1978. Additionally, we explain how strengthening this hypothesis could impact the development of phylogenies. We also make suggestions for future studies on gene regulatory mechanisms that could explain the evolution of parental care and egg size in bony fish within a more modern context of developmental ecology. Our analysis uses data describing the mean size of ripe eggs and the occurrence of parental care in 313 species of bony fish belonging to 53 families in 11 orders. Data for 22 of the 313 species were collected by us from the Tocantins River. Data for the remaining species were obtained from the literature: 6 species from the Paraná River (Suzuki et al. 2000, 149 species from large African lakes and some pelagic marine species (Duponchelle et al. 2008, 74 marine species (Pauly & Pullin 1988, and 65 species from the Tocantins River (Neuberger 2010. Of these 313 total species, 161 (51.4% are PC species and 152 (48.6% are NPC species. We analyzed a minimum of eight mature females from each of the 16 species we collected, and for each female, we measured 10 mature oocytes and derived the mean diameter of

  13. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals includ...

  14. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hatchability of all eggs set and of fertile eggs was the highest in eggs placed in the front of the machine. Furthermore, early and middle stage deaths during incubation were lower in the front of the incubator compared to the back. The differences between eggs placed in the upper, middle and lower parts of the machine ...

  15. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through

  16. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  17. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  18. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  19. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  20. A new high molecular weight immunoglobulin class from the carcharhine shark: implications for the properties of the primordial immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, R M; Schluter, S F; Shen, S; Marchalonis, J J

    1996-04-16

    All immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors throughout phylogeny share regions of highly conserved amino acid sequence. To identify possible primitive immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin-like molecules, we utilized 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and a highly conserved constant region consensus amino acid sequence to isolate a new immunoglobulin class from the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus. The immunoglobulin, termed IgW, in its secreted form consists of 782 amino acids and is expressed in both the thymus and the spleen. The molecule overall most closely resembles mu chains of the skate and human and a new putative antigen binding molecule isolated from the nurse shark (NAR). The full-length IgW chain has a variable region resembling human and shark heavy-chain (VH) sequences and a novel joining segment containing the WGXGT motif characteristic of H chains. However, unlike any other H-chain-type molecule, it contains six constant (C) domains. The first C domain contains the cysteine residue characteristic of C mu1 that would allow dimerization with a light (L) chain. The fourth and sixth domains also contain comparable cysteines that would enable dimerization with other H chains or homodimerization. Comparison of the sequences of IgW V and C domains shows homology greater than that found in comparisons among VH and C mu or VL, or CL thereby suggesting that IgW may retain features of the primordial immunoglobulin in evolution.

  1. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  2. Prenatal and newborn immunoglobulin levels from mother-child pairs and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Croen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. An etiological role for immune factors operating during early brain development in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD has not yet been established. A major obstacle has been the lack of early biologic specimens that can be linked to later diagnosis. In a prior study, we found lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of maternally-derived total IgG and Toxoplasmosis gondii (Toxo IgG in newborn blood spot specimens from children later diagnosed with ASD compared to population controls.Methods. We obtained maternal mid-gestational serum specimens and newborn screening blood spots from the California Genetics Disease Screening Program (GDSP for linked mother-baby pairs for 84 children with ASD and 49 children with developmental delay but not ASD (DD identified from California Department of Developmental Services records and for 159 population controls sampled from birth certificates. Immunoglobulin levels in maternal and newborn specimens were measured by solid phase immunoassays and analyzed in logistic regression models for total IgG, total IgM, and Toxo IgG, and, for maternal specimens only, Toxo IgM. Correlations between maternal and newborn ranked values were evaluated.Results. In both maternal and newborn specimens, we found significantly lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of Toxo IgG. In addition, point estimates for all comparisons were <1.0 suggesting an overall pattern of lower immunoglobulin levels associated with higher ASD risk but most did not reach statistical significance. We did not find differences in maternal or newborn specimens comparing children with DD to controls. Discussion. These results are consistent with evidence from our prior study and other published reports indicating that immune factors during early neurodevelopment may be etiologically relevant to ASD. Lowered immunoglobulin levels may represent suboptimal function of the maternal immune system or reduced maternal exposure

  3. Egg Component-Composited Inverse Opal Particles for Synergistic Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiao; Shao, Changmin; Bian, Feika; Yu, Yunru; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2018-05-23

    Microparticles have a demonstrated value in drug delivery systems. The attempts to develop this technology focus on the generation of functional microparticles by using innovative but accessible materials. Here, we present egg component-composited microparticles with a hybrid inverse opal structure for synergistic drug delivery. The egg component inverse opal particles were produced by using egg yolk to negatively replicate colloid crystal bead templates. Because of their huge specific surface areas, abundant nanopores, and complex nanochannels of the inverse opal structure, the resultant egg yolk particles could be loaded with different kinds of drugs, such as hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT), by simply immersing them into the corresponding drug solutions. Attractively, additional drugs, such as the hydrophilic doxorubicin (DOX), could also be encapsulated into the particles through the secondary filling of the drug-doped egg white hydrogel into the egg yolk inverse opal scaffolds, which realized the synergistic drug delivery for the particles. It was demonstrated that the egg-derived inverse opal particles were with large quantity and lasting releasing for the CPT and DOX codelivery, and thus could significantly reduce cell viability, and enhance therapeutic efficacy in treating cancer cells. These features of the egg component-composited inverse opal microparticles indicated that they are ideal microcarriers for drug delivery.

  4. Immunoglobulin heavy chain exclusion in the shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Malecek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system depends on specific antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (Ig in B lymphocytes and T cell receptors (TCR in T lymphocytes. Adaptive responses to immune challenge are based on the expression of a single species of antigen receptor per cell; and in B cells, this is mediated in part by allelic exclusion at the Ig heavy (H chain locus. How allelic exclusion is regulated is unclear; we considered that sharks, the oldest vertebrates possessing the Ig/TCR-based immune system, would yield insights not previously approachable and reveal the primordial basis of the regulation of allelic exclusion. Sharks have an IgH locus organization consisting of 15-200 independently rearranging miniloci (VH-D1-D2-JH-Cmu, a gene organization that is considered ancestral to the tetrapod and bony fish IgH locus. We found that rearrangement takes place only within a minilocus, and the recombining gene segments are assembled simultaneously and randomly. Only one or few H chain genes were fully rearranged in each shark B cell, whereas the other loci retained their germline configuration. In contrast, most IgH were partially rearranged in every thymocyte (developing T cell examined, but no IgH transcripts were detected. The distinction between B and T cells in their IgH configurations and transcription reveals a heretofore unsuspected chromatin state permissive for rearrangement in precursor lymphocytes, and suggests that controlled limitation of B cell lineage-specific factors mediate regulated rearrangement and allelic exclusion. This regulation may be shared by higher vertebrates in which additional mechanistic and regulatory elements have evolved with their structurally complex IgH locus.

  5. Serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and Graves' disease phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carmen Sorina; Sirbu, Anca Elena; Betivoiu, Minodora Andreea; Florea, Suzana; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Fica, Simona Vasilica

    2017-02-01

    We investigated, at diagnosis, the relationship between serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and the main characteristics of Graves' disease: hyperthyroidism severity, goiter size, presence of active Graves' ophthalmopathy, antithyroid antibodies status, and titer. This prospective study included 80 newly diagnosed Graves' disease patients. The main parameters measured at diagnosis: thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, total triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, immunoglobulin G4. In Graves' disease patients, serum immunoglobulin G4 levels were higher than in general population (p = 0.028) and higher in men compared to women (p = 0.002). Only one female patient with intense hypoechoic goiter, high anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers had an elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 level at diagnosis. Patients with immunoglobulin G4 levels above the 75th percentile (>237.52 mg/dl, N = 20) were younger at Graves' ophthalmopathy onset (p 286.28 mg/dl, N = 8) had lower total triiodothyronine values (p = 0.001) than patients with IgG below the 90th percentile. No significant correlations were found between smoking status (p = 0.58), goiter size (p = 0.50), the presence of ophthalmopathy (p = 0.42) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers (p = 0.45) and the mean value of immunoglobulin G4 levels at diagnosis. Our data suggest that Graves' disease patients with elevated immunoglobulin G4 levels at diagnosis have a phenotype characterized by higher anti-thyroglobulin antibody and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers, less severe T3 hyperthyroidism, younger age at ophthalmopathy onset and require a shorter duration of the first methimazole treatment cycle.

  6. Baculovirus-expressed constructs induce immunoglobulin G that recognizes VAR2CSA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Nielsen, Morten A; Turner, Louise

    2006-01-01

    We raised specific antisera against recombinant VAR2CSA domains produced in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. All were reactive in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but only insect cell-derived constructs induced immunoglobulin G (IgG) that was reactive with native VAR2CSA on the surface...

  7. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), are currently tested in human clinical trials for their potential immunomodulatory capacity. The biological potency of TSO (egg viability and infectivity) is traditionally assessed in Göttingen minipigs as the establishment of intestinal larvae...... after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical......, physical, and biological factors on egg hatching. Thus, in a series of experiments and in different combinations, the eggs were stimulated with glass beads, artificial gastric juice, bile salt and trypsin solution, fermentation gut medium, or stimulated with mucosal scrapings from the ileum and the large...

  8. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; Ruangpanit, Y; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and old) and, within each age, 2 egg sizes (57 to 61 g and 66 to 70 g, or small and large) were used. In experiment 2, a total of 240 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder flocks at 29 (young) and 53 (old) wk of age, and which were selected from the same egg weight range (58 to 61 g), were tested in 2 replicate chambers. In experiment 1, it was shown that the amount of yolk relative to albumen was higher in the old flock eggs, and this effect was more pronounced in the large eggs. The old flock eggs, especially the larger egg size, contained more energy as a result of a greater yolk size. Energy utilization of the embryos was positively related to yolk size and the amount of energy transferred to yolk-free body (YFB) was largely determined by the available egg energy. The efficiency of converting egg energy into chick body energy (E(YFB)) was equal for both egg sizes and both breeder age groups. Chick YFB weight of young and old flock eggs was equal. However, dry YFB weight of chicks from old flock eggs was higher than in chicks from young flock eggs, which was associated with more protein and fat content and thus more energy accumulated into YFB. As a consequence, embryos derived from old flock eggs produced more heat from d 16 of incubation onward than those of the young flock eggs. In conclusion, the higher energy deposition into chick YFB of old flock eggs, leading to higher embryonic heat production, is the result of a higher amount of available energy in the egg and is not due to changes in E(YFB).

  9. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Soler

    Full Text Available Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject, while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental

  10. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  11. Effects of nitrogen on egg-laying inhibition and ovicidal response in planthopper-resistant rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G; Srinivasan, Thanga Suja; Naik, Bhaskar S; Ramal, Angelee Fame; Bernal, Carmencita C; Almazan, Maria Liberty P

    2016-11-01

    A series of experiments was set up to examine the effects of nitrogen on rice ( Oryza sativa L.) resistance against Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). Egg laying by N. lugens was reduced on the indica variety IR60. Nymph biomass ( N. lugens and S. furcifera ) was also lower on IR60: this was associated with low honeydew production and a high proportion of xylem-derived honeydew in N. lugens but not in S. furcifera . Nitrogen increased egg-laying by S. furcifera and increased N. lugens nymph biomass on all varieties tested. Oviposition and egg mortality in both planthopper species were examined on plants at 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS). Sogatella furcifera laid more eggs on plants at 15 DAS, but laid few eggs during darkness; N. lugens continued to lay eggs on older rice plants (30 DAS) and during darkness. Egg mortality was high on cv. Asiminori, highest at 45 DAS, and higher for S. furcifera than for N. lugens . Mortality of S. furcifera eggs was associated with lesions around the egg clusters. These were more common around clusters laid during the day and suggested induction by Asiminori of an ovicidal response. Egg mortality declined under higher soil nitrogen levels. Results are discussed in the light of improving rice resistance against planthoppers and reducing rates of planthopper adaptation to resistance genes.

  12. Egg shape mimicry in parasitic cuckoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M R G; Medina, I; Langmore, N E; Sherratt, E

    2017-11-01

    Parasitic cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of host species. Rejection of cuckoo eggs by hosts has led to the evolution of egg mimicry by cuckoos, whereby their eggs mimic the colour and pattern of their host eggs to avoid egg recognition and rejection. There is also evidence of mimicry in egg size in some cuckoo-host systems, but currently it is unknown whether cuckoos can also mimic the egg shape of their hosts. In this study, we test whether there is evidence of mimicry in egg form (shape and size) in three species of Australian cuckoos: the fan-tailed cuckoo Cacomantis flabelliformis, which exploits dome nesting hosts, the brush cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus, which exploits both dome and cup nesting hosts, and the pallid cuckoo Cuculus pallidus, which exploits cup nesting hosts. We found evidence of size mimicry and, for the first time, evidence of egg shape mimicry in two Australian cuckoo species (pallid cuckoo and brush cuckoo). Moreover, cuckoo-host egg similarity was higher for hosts with open nests than for hosts with closed nests. This finding fits well with theory, as it has been suggested that hosts with closed nests have more difficulty recognizing parasitic eggs than open nests, have lower rejection rates and thus exert lower selection for mimicry in cuckoos. This is the first evidence of mimicry in egg shape in a cuckoo-host system, suggesting that mimicry at different levels (size, shape, colour pattern) is evolving in concert. We also confirm the existence of egg size mimicry in cuckoo-host systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Arsenic residues in livers of swine, lamb and poultry and in eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoeppler, H O

    1975-01-01

    The arsenic content of 3651 swine, 180 lamb livers, 420 egg samples and poultry livers from 175 poultry farms were determined colorimetrically. The analyses samples were all derived from bavarian farms. According to the proposed legal standards (3), 1.23% of the swine liver samples and 1.67% of the egg samples were above the tolerated values of 0.5 resp. 0.1 mg/kg. 14 references, 4 tables.

  14. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  15. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns and Drivers of Egg Pigment Intensity and Colour Diversity in the Ocean: A Meta-Analysis of Phylum Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E M; Hamel, J-F; Mercier, A

    Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green. We explore the ways in which these colour patterns correlate with behavioural, morphological, geographic and phylogenetic variables in extant classes of Echinodermata, a phylum that has close phylogenetic ties with chordates and representatives in nearly all marine environments. Results of multivariate analyses show that intensely pigmented eggs are characteristic of pelagic or external development whereas pale eggs are commonly brooded internally. Of the five egg colours catalogued, orange and yellow are the most common. Yellow eggs are a primitive character, associated with all types of development (predominant in internal brooders), whereas green eggs are always pelagic, occur in the most derived orders of each class and are restricted to the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Orange eggs are geographically ubiquitous and may represent a 'universal' egg pigment that functions well under a diversity of environmental conditions. Finally, green occurs chiefly in the classes Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea, orange in Asteroidea, yellow in Echinoidea, and brown in Holothuroidea. By examining an unprecedented combination of egg colours/intensities and reproductive strategies, this phylum-wide study sheds new light on the role and drivers of egg pigmentation, drawing parallels with theories developed from the study of more derived vertebrate taxa. The primary use of pigments (of any colour) to protect externally developing eggs from oxidative damage and predation is

  17. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  19. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  20. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  1. Bacteriostatic enterochelin-specific immunoglobulin from normal human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Yancey, R.J.; Lankford, C.E.; Earhart, C.F.

    1980-02-01

    Heat-inactivated normal human serum produces iron-reversible bacteriostasis of a number of microorganisms. This inhibitory effect was abolished by adsorption of serum with ultraviolet-killed cells of species that produce the siderophore enterochelin. Bacteriostasis also was alleviated by asorption of serum with 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine, a degradation product of enterochelin, bound to the insoluble matrix AH-Sepharose 4B. Our results indicate that enterochelin-specific immunoglobulins exist in normal human serum. These immunoglobulins may act synergistically with transferrin to effect bacteriostasis of enterochelin-producing pathogens.

  2. Diverse binding site structures revealed in homology models of polyreactive immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsland, Paul A.; Guddat, Luke W.; Edmundson, Allen B.; Raison, Robert L.

    1997-09-01

    We describe here computer-assisted homology models of the combiningsite structure of three polyreactive immunoglobulins. Template-based modelsof Fv (VL-VH) fragments were derived forthe surface IgM expressed by the malignant CD5 positive B cells from threepatients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). The conserved frameworkregions were constructed using crystal coordinates taken from highlyhomologous human variable domain structures (Pot and Hil). Complementaritydetermining regions (CDRs) were predicted by grafting loops, taken fromknown immunoglobulin structures, onto the Fv framework models. The CDRtemplates were chosen, where possible, to be of the same length and of highresidue identity or similarity. LCDR1, 2 and 3 as well as HCDR1 and 2 forthe Fv were constructed using this strategy. For HCDR3 prediction, adatabase containing the Cartesian coordinates of 30 of these loops wascompiled from unliganded antibody X-ray crystallographic structures and anHCDR3 of the same length as that of the B CLL Fv was selected as a template.In one case (Yar), the resulting HCDR3 model gave unfavourable interactionswhen incorporated into the Fv model. This HCDR3 was therefore modelled usingan alternative strategy of construction of the loop stems, using apreviously described HCDR3 conformation (Pot), followed by chain closurewith a β-turn. The template models were subjected to positionalrefinement using energy minimisation and molecular dynamics simulations(X-PLOR). An electrostatic surface description (GRASP) did not reveal acommon structural feature within the binding sites of the three polyreactiveFv. Thus, polyreactive immunoglobulins may recognise similar and multipleantigens through a diverse array of binding site structures.

  3. Maternal effects of egg size on emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Sotherland, Paul R

    2004-02-01

    Parental investment in eggs and, consequently, in offspring can profoundly influence the phenotype, survival and ultimately evolutionary fitness of an organism. Avian eggs are excellent model systems to examine maternal allocation of energy translated through egg size variation. We used the natural range in emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg size, from 400 g to >700 g, to examine the influence of maternal investment in eggs on the morphology and physiology of hatchlings. Female emus provisioned larger eggs with a greater absolute amount of energy, nutrients and water in the yolk and albumen. Variation in maternal investment was reflected in differences in hatchling size, which increased isometrically with egg size. Egg size also influenced the physiology of developing emu embryos, such that late-term embryonic metabolic rate was positively correlated with egg size and embryos developing in larger eggs consumed more yolk during development. Large eggs produced hatchlings that were both heavier (yolk-free wet and dry mass) and structurally larger (tibiotarsus and culmen lengths) than hatchlings emerging from smaller eggs. As with many other precocial birds, larger hatchlings also contained more water, which was reflected in a greater blood volume. However, blood osmolality, hemoglobin content and hematocrit did not vary with hatchling mass. Emu maternal investment in offspring, measured by egg size and composition, is significantly correlated with the morphology and physiology of hatchlings and, in turn, may influence the success of these organisms during the first days of the juvenile stage.

  4. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  5. Running out of time: exploring women's motivations for social egg freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kylie; Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Mitchell, Helene

    2018-04-12

    Few qualitative studies have explored women's use of social egg freezing. Derived from an interview study of 31 participants, this article explores the motivations of women using this technology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 users of social egg freezing resident in UK (n = 23), USA (n = 7) and Norway (n = 1). Interviews were face to face (n = 16), through Skype and Facetime (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 6). Data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. Women's use of egg freezing was shaped by fears of running out of time to form a conventional family, difficulties in finding a partner and concerns about "panic partnering", together with a desire to avoid future regrets and blame. For some women, use of egg freezing was influenced by recent fertility or health diagnoses as well as critical life events. A fifth of the participants also disclosed an underlying fertility or health issue as affecting their decision. The study provides new insights in to the complex motivations women have for banking eggs. It identifies how women's use of egg freezing was an attempt to "preserve fertility" in the absence of the particular set of "life conditions" they regarded as crucial for pursuing parenthood. It also demonstrates that few women were motivated by a desire to enhance their career and that the boundaries between egg freezing for medical and for social reasons may be more porous than first anticipated.

  6. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ted H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6160 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, PO Box 764, Jefferson, TX 75657 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Math and Science, Oglala Lakota College, 490 Piya Wiconi Road, Kyle, SD, 57752 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch.

  7. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  8. THE USE OF THE ANTI-VENOM SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM DUCK EGGS FOR INACTIVATION OF THE VIPER VENOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The activity of specific anti-venom can be demonstrated using protection test in laboratory mice. Our study aimed to emphasize the possibility of viper venom inactivation by the antibodies produced and isolated from duck eggs and also to the activation concentration of these antibodies. The venom used for inoculation was harvested from two viper species (Vipera ammodytes and Vipera berus. The immunoglobulin extract had a better activity on the venom from Vipera berus compared to the venom from Vipera ammodytes. This could be the result of a better immunological response, as consequence of the immunization with this type of venom, compared to the response recorded when the Vipera ammodytes venom was used. Besides the advantages of low cost, high productivity and reduced risk of anaphylactic shock, the duck eggs also have high activity up to dilutions of 1/16, 1/32, respectively, with specific activity and 100 surviving in individuals which received 3 x DL50.

  9. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  10. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Irradiation of shell egg on the physicochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Ahn, D U

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of irradiation of shell eggs on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white during storage. Color and textural parameters of irradiated liquid egg white after cooking were also determined. Shell eggs were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 kGy using a linear accelerator. Egg white was separated from yolk and stored in at 4°C up to 14 d. Viscosity, pH, turbidity, foaming properties, color, and volatile profile of liquid egg white, and color and texture properties of cooked egg white were determined at 0, 7, and 14 d of storage. Irradiation increased the turbidity but decreased viscosity of liquid egg white. Foaming capacity and foam stability were not affected by irradiation at lower dose (2.5 kGy), but were deteriorated at higher doses (≥5.0 kGy) of irradiation. Sulfur-containing volatiles were generated by irradiation and their amounts increased as the irradiation dose increased. However, the sulfur volatiles disappeared during storage under aerobic conditions. Lightness (L* value) and yellowness (b* value) decreased, but greenness (-a* value) increased in cooked egg white in irradiation dose-dependent manners. All textural parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) of cooked egg white increased as the irradiation dose increased, but those changes were marginal. Our results indicated that irradiation of shell egg at lower doses (up to 2.5 kGy) had little negative impact on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white, but can improve the efficiency of egg processing due to its viscosity-lowering effect. Therefore, irradiation of shell eggs at the lower doses has high potential to be used by the egg processing industry to improve the safety of liquid egg without compromising its quality.

  12. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  13. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Wiemann, Jasmina; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N.; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; M?ller, Christa E.; Sander, P. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selecti...

  14. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Z; Hedayati, M T; Mahdian, S; Mayahi, S

    2015-06-01

    Although molds are regarded as the main fungal allergen sources, evidence indicates that spores of Basidiomycota including Agaricus bisporus ( A. bisporus ) can be also found at high concentrations in the environment and may cause as many respiratory allergies as molds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against A. bisporus via immunoblotting technique in individuals working at mushroom cultivation centers. In this study, 72 workers involved in the cultivation and harvest of button mushrooms were enrolled. For the analysis of serum IgE and IgG, A. bisporus grown in Sabouraud dextrose broth was harvested and ruptured by liquid nitrogen and glass beads. The obtained sample was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected as "crude extract" (CE). CE was separated via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separated proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose filter and the bands responsive to IgE and IgG were identified by anti-human conjugated antibodies. All participants were screened in terms of total IgE level. Among 72 workers, 18 (25%) had a total IgE level higher than 188 IU/mL. In SDS-PAGE, the CE of A. bisporus showed 23 different protein bands with a molecular weight range of 13-80 kDa. The sera of 23.6% and 55.5% of participants showed positive response, with specific IgE and IgG antibodies against A. bisporus in the blot, respectively. The bands with molecular weights of 62 and 68 kDa were the most reactive protein components of A. bisporus to specific IgE antibodies. Moreover, bands with molecular weights of 57 and 62 kDa showed the highest reactivity to IgG, respectively. Also, 62 and 68 kDa components were the most reactive bands with both specific IgG and IgE antibodies. The obtained findings revealed that A. bisporus has different allergens and antigens, which contribute to its potential as an aeroallergen in hypersensitivity

  15. An isotopic assessment of protein from diet and endogenous stores: Effects on egg production and incubation behaviour of geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little empirical information exists to assess to what degree geese use a capital versus income breeding strategy for investing nutrients into eggs. We used stable isotope methods to directly estimate the sources of protein deposited into egg yolks of Brent Branta bernicla and Emperor Geese Anser canagicus on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA. Approximately 59 and 45% of protein in egg yolks of Brent and Emperor Geese, respectively, was derived from exogenous sources (i.e. food plants on the local breeding area). Within clutches of Brent Goose eggs, first-laid eggs exhibited slightly higher contributions from endogenous reserves than last-laid eggs. This pattern was less clear for Emperor Geese, which may have been a consequence of possibly analyzing eggs that were laid by intraspecific nest parasites rather than by hosts. For both these species, individuals exhibited large variability in the percent contribution of exogenous versus endogenous stores to eggs, and future studies should identify ecological factors related to this variation. Those Emperor Geese in poor body condition incubated their nests less constantly, and based on δ13C values, they fed on terrestrial foods while off their nests. Although not a pure capital breeder, Emperor Geese used nutrients garnered on spring staging areas to fuel virtually all their own maintenance during incubation and to contribute half or more of the nutrients in eggs. These results highlight the ecological importance of these spring staging habitats to geese.

  16. 21 CFR 866.5520 - Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5520 Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5540 Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5530 Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  19. Mallard or chicken? Comparing the isolation of avian influenza A viruses in embryonated Mallard and chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef D. Järhult

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, the most efficient and robust method for isolating avian influenza A viruses (IAVs is using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs. It is known that low-pathogenic avian IAVs undergo rapid genetic changes when introduced to poultry holdings, but the factors driving mutagenesis are not well understood. Despite this, there is limited data on the effects of the standard method of virus isolation of avian-derived viruses, that is, whether isolation in ECEs causes adaptive changes in avian IAVs. Eggs from a homologous species could potentially offer an isolation vessel less prone to induce adaptive changes. Methods: We performed eight serial passages of two avian IAVs isolated from fecal samples of wild Mallards in both ECEs and embryonated Mallard eggs, and hemagglutination assay titers and hemagglutinin sequences were compared. Results: There was no obvious difference in titers between ECEs and embryonated Mallard eggs. Sequence analyses of the isolates showed no apparent difference in the rate of introduction of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin gene (three substitutions in total in embryonated Mallard eggs and two substitutions in ECEs. Conclusion: Embryonated Mallard eggs seem to be good isolation vessels for avian IAVs but carry some practical problems such as limited availability and short egg-laying season of Mallards. Our study finds isolation of Mallard-derived avian IAVs in ECEs non-inferior to isolation in embryonated Mallard eggs, but more research in the area may be warranted as this is a small-scale study.

  20. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Individuals in the Sudan Reveals Unique Immunoepidemiological Profiles in Uninfected, egg+ and Non-egg+ Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayseer Elamin Mohamed Elfaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sudan, Schistosoma mansoni infections are a major cause of morbidity in school-aged children and infection rates are associated with available clean water sources. During infection, immune responses pass through a Th1 followed by Th2 and Treg phases and patterns can relate to different stages of infection or immunity.This retrospective study evaluated immunoepidemiological aspects in 234 individuals (range 4-85 years old from Kassala and Khartoum states in 2011. Systemic immune profiles (cytokines and immunoglobulins and epidemiological parameters were surveyed in n = 110 persons presenting patent S. mansoni infections (egg+, n = 63 individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR in sera but egg negative (SmPCR+ and n = 61 people who were infection-free (Sm uninf. Immunoepidemiological findings were further investigated using two binary multivariable regression analysis.Nearly all egg+ individuals had no access to latrines and over 90% obtained water via the canal stemming from the Atbara River. With regards to age, infection and an egg+ status was linked to young and adolescent groups. In terms of immunology, S. mansoni infection per se was strongly associated with increased SEA-specific IgG4 but not IgE levels. IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patently-infected individuals and positively correlated with egg load. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-1β were significantly lower in SmPCR+ individuals when compared to Sm uninf and egg+ groups which was further confirmed during multivariate regression analysis.Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the Sudan with a high number of patent individuals. In addition, SmPCR diagnostics revealed another cohort of infected individuals with a unique immunological profile and provides an avenue for future studies on non-patent infection states. Future studies should investigate the downstream signalling pathways/mechanisms of IL-2 and IL-1β as potential diagnostic markers

  1. Acute phase proteins and immunoglobulin classes in newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: No single organic cause has been found for schizophrenia and its management has been difficult. More so, there are few data on the immune parameters of Nigerian schizophrenic patients on drug treatment and those that are not on treatment. Methodology: This study determines the levels of immunoglobulin

  2. Pattern of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) use in a pediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations are scarce biological products used for replacement or immunomodulatory effects. Guidelines have been issued by regulatory health authorities to ensure provision of the products for patients who are in severe need. Objectives: The study aimed at ...

  3. Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin in chronic autoimmune neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, AEJ; van der Hoeven, JH

    Objective - To investigate the effect of Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D) in patients with an autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy. Material and methods - Three patients with an autoimmune mediated neuropathy received 1000 IU anti-D weekly for 2 months. Results - Two patients worsened gradually

  4. Sensitive chain specific radioimmunoassay for human immunoglobulins using monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, K; Alderson, T St.J.; Ellis, J [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Cambridge (UK)

    1983-02-25

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay is described for human immunoglobulins. This solid-phase assay uses commercially available monoclonal antibodies and is specific for different Ig chain types. Levels of less than 20 ng/ml Ig are detectable. The assay is suitable for the analysis of human hybridoma supernatants.

  5. Immunoglobulin therapy in hematologic neoplasms and after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masumi; Berger, Melvin; Gale, Robert Peter; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulins are used to prevent or reduce infection risk in primary immune deficiencies and in settings which exploit its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects. Rigorous proof of immunoglobulin efficacy in persons with lympho-proliferative neoplasms, plasma cell myeloma, and persons receiving hematopoietic cell transplants is lacking despite many clinical trials. Further, there are few consensus guidelines or algorithms for use in these conditions. Rapid development of new therapies targeting B-cell signaling and survival pathways and increased use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy will likely result in more acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity and infections in persons with cancer. We review immunoglobulin formulations and discuss efficacy and potential adverse effects in the context of preventing infections and in graft-versus-host disease. We suggest an algorithm for evaluating acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity in persons with hematologic neoplasms and recommend appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Alpha chain determinants on the membrane of immunoglobulin synthesizing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, W.; Schuit, H.R.E.; Radl, J.; Vossen, J.M.J.J.

    1974-01-01

    In a study of surface immunoglobulins (Ig) on lymphocytes from patients with paraproteinemia (1), we observed that a variable number of plasma cells not only contained intracellular Ig, but also had Ig on their surface, as shown in the vital technique of immunofluorescence. Moreover, in the bone

  7. Bacteremia and immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from antiphospholipid- and thyroid- autoantibodies which were reported as underlying causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, specific IgG to patermal MHC and Rh was proposed. This raises the possibility of other classes of immunoglobulin in recurrent abortion. Twenty-four pregnant women with recurrent abortion ...

  8. serum immunoglobulin levels in white, asiatic and bantu blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all assays were calculated as a percentage of the mean of. TABLE I. RESULTS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ASSAYS OF tOO WHITE, tOO ASIATIC AND 100 BANTU DONORS, EXPRESSED AS A. PERCENTAGE OF A CONTROL SERUM. Parameter. Range. Mean. Variance. Standard deviation. CoefI. of variation.

  9. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  10. Solvent-Detergent Treatment of IgM-Enriched Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Pourmokhtar

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral safety of human plasma products plays a key role in their safe uses. Solvent- detergent (SD virus-inactivation method has gained widespread popularity in the manufacture of biological products. This treatment which inactivates lipid-enveloped viruses effectively consists of incubation of a plasma protein solution in the presence of a non-volatile organic solvent and a detergent. In this study, IgM-enriched immunoglobulin was incubated at 24 °C for 6 h under slow stirring in the presence of tri(n-butyl phosphate (0.3% w/w as solvent and tween 80 (1% w/w as detergent. After completion of the inactivation process and removal of the solvent-detergent, the ability of SD-treatment to remove Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR virus (a lipid-enveloped virus and Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (a non-enveloped virus were evaluated by "virus spiking studies" using a scaled down process. Reduction factor of 4 log was obtained for the SD-treatment of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin spiked with IBR virus. No virus inactivation was observed in the SD-treated IgM-enriched immunoglobulin, spiked with Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus. It was concluded that treatment of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin with TNBP-TWEEN 80 may be considered as an efficient lipid-enveloped virus inactivation step in the manufacture of this product.

  11. Mechanism of immunoglobulin G4 Fab-arm exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; Bende, Onno; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are symmetrical molecules that may be regarded as covalent dimers of 2 half-molecules, each consisting of a light chain and a heavy chain. Human IgG4 is an unusually dynamic antibody, with half-molecule exchange ("Fab-arm exchange") resulting in asymmetrical,

  12. Effect of continuous milking on immunoglobulin concentrations in bovine colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.J.; Koets, A.P.; Eisenberg, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous milking is defined as a dairy cattle management system without a planned dry period for cows in late gestation. Continuous milking has been described to reduce health problems common in periparturient cattle, but may affect colostrum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration and subsequently calf

  13. FEMALE PREFERENCE FOR NESTS WITH EGGS IS BASED ON THE PRESENCE OF THE EGGS THEMSELVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; GROOTHUIS, TGG; Kraak, Sarah B.M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1994-01-01

    In many fish species of which males care for eggs in a nest, including Aidablennius sphynx, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. In this paper we present two aquarium experiments with this Mediterranean blenny to determine whether the females actually use the presence of eggs

  14. Host selection by a phytophagous insect: the interplay between feeding, egg maturation, egg load, and oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding movement patterns of phytophagous insects among plants is a primary goal of insect ecology. Adult females may visit plants for the purpose of depositing eggs, feeding, or both. For some species, egg maturation may be dependent on adult feeding. As a result, rates of egg maturation m...

  15. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John A

    2014-06-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.

  16. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. ... Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups, namely H0, H1 and H2. ... Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group.

  17. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  18. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities § 57.35...

  19. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection of...

  20. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr.

  1. Molecular Analysis of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Gene in Immunoglobulin-E Deficient Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how class switch recombination (CSR is regulated to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE has become fundamental because of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. CSR requires the induction of the enzyme AICDA in B cells. Mutations in AICDA have been linked to Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2, which shows absence of switching to IgE as well as to IgG and IgA. Although isolated IgE deficiency is a rare entity, here we show some individuals with normal serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels that had undetectable total serum IgE levels. We have analyzed the AICDA gene in these individuals to determine if there are mutations in AICDA that could lead to selective IgE deficiency. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE and sequencing analysis of AICDA coding sequences demonstrated sequence heterogeneity due to 5923A/G and 7888C/T polymorphisms, but did not reveal any novel mutation that might explain the selective IgE deficit.

  2. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  3. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the... glucose content of the liquid eggs. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally... powdered. Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid eggs may be reduced by one of the optional...

  4. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EGG WEIGHT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    variety) obtained from 60 eight weeks old Japanese quails of three different plumage colour varieties: Pharaoh Quail (Black), A & M white (White) and Manchurian Gold (Brown) at 8-14 weeks of age were used in this study. Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to ...

  5. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  6. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  7. Ethical motivation of Dutch egg consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Vrieze, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses a representative sample of 356 Dutch egg consumers in order to measure the extent to which ethical principles concerning the welfare of hens in different rearing systems are translated into egg purchasing intentions, and the extent to which declared intentions are expressed in

  8. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  9. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  10. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  11. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  12. Haugh Unit: Gold Standard of Egg Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapidly determining shell egg quality in an objective manner is not an easy task. Candling is most often utilized as a quick method for assessing egg quality in a non-destructive manner, but it is a highly subjective method. As you have experienced this week, when candling, it is almost impossibl...

  13. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... disinfectant for hatching egg obtained from broiler breeder flock. Oregano essential ... contamination rate, hatchability of fertile egg, body weight at 21 and 42 days, body weight gain and total feed ... successful healthy hatchlings. Several ...... Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito.

  14. Plaice egg mortality: can we determine survivorschip?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Fox, C.J.; Nash, R.D.M.; O'Brien, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The daily mortality rate of cohorts of plaice eggs in the Irish Sea is estimated throughout the spawning season in 1995 and 2000, using general additive models of egg production. Daily mortality (z) was found to vary between 0.15 and 0.29. Mortality rates declined through the season in 1995 but not

  15. On eggs of some British Guyana Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, C.G.

    1889-01-01

    They make no nest but lay their eggs in a depression in the ground where it is dry, on the beds of cultivated land, on the high dams between plantations, on the bare rocks up the rivers, and on the savannahs in the They lay two or three eggs.

  16. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... production of oocytes to egg-laying on selected sites (Alle- mand 1976b; Yang et al. .... (vii) Is the egg-laying rhythm regulated by hormones? .... were shown to be induced by factors synthesized in the re- productive tract of the ...

  17. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  18. Minipool Caprylic Acid Fractionation of Plasma Using Disposable Equipment: A Practical Method to Enhance Immunoglobulin Supply in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ekiaby, Magdy; Vargas, Mariángela; Sayed, Makram; Gorgy, George; Goubran, Hadi; Radosevic, Mirjana; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need. Methodology/Principal Findings IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at 5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment. Conclusions/Significance 90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients. It is also relevant for preparing hyperimmune IgG from convalescent plasma during infectious outbreaks such as the current Ebola virus episode. PMID:25719558

  19. Minipool caprylic acid fractionation of plasma using disposable equipment: a practical method to enhance immunoglobulin supply in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Ekiaby

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G (IgG is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need.IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at 5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment.90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients. It is also relevant for preparing hyperimmune IgG from convalescent plasma during infectious outbreaks such as the current Ebola virus episode.

  20. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  1. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  2. Comparison of techniques of detecting immunoglobulin-binding protein reactivity to immunoglobulin produced by different avian and mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justiz-Vaillant, A A; Akpaka, P E; McFarlane-Anderson, N; Smikle, M F

    2013-01-01

    The rationale of this study was to use several immunological assays to investigate the reactivity of immunoglobulin binding protein (IBP) to immunoglobulins from various avian and mammalian species. The IBP studied were Staphylococcal protein A (SpA), Streptococcal protein G (SpG), Peptostreptococcal protein L (SpL) and recombinant protein LA (SpLA). The various immunological techniques used were double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique) that tested positive high protein reactivities, direct and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that tested moderate and low positive protein binding capacities, respectively. In addition to sandwich ELISAs, immunoblot analyses and Ig-purification by SpA-affinity chromatography, which were sensitive tests and helpful in the screening and confirmatory tests were also used. The Ouchterlony technique showed that compared to the other proteins, SpLA had the highest range of reactivity with animal sera and purified immunoglobulins while SpL was least reactive. With the direct ELISA, SpL reacted with the raccoon sera, rabbit IgG and with IgY from bantam hens and pigeons. While with the direct ELISA, SpA reacted with sera from skunk, coyote, raccoon, mule, donkey and human. The sandwich ELISA revealed high reactivity of both SpG and SpLA with mammalian sera titres ranging from 1:32 (raccoon serum) to 1:1024 (mule and donkey sera). These results suggest that IBP can be used for the detection of immunoglobulin using various immunological assays and this is important for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animal and bird populations studied and in the purification of immunoglobulins.

  3. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens.

  4. Bioresonance method influencing the egg quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakova, A.; Kovalev, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    At 2 poultry yards with capacity of 30 thousand laying hens an experiment was undertaken to study the bioresonance effect on 18-week-old poultry (experimental poultry yard, EPY) to obtain eggs of high biological value by activating the assimilation by poultry of a microelement complex from food. At the EPY hens received a vitamin-mineral complex Lifepac senior (produced in France) treated with electromagnetic radiation. At the control poultry yard (CPY) this method was not used. The first egg collection was conducted from hens at the age of 28 weeks, the second one – at the age of 3-4 weeks and the third one – at the age of 52 weeks. The keeping and feeding conditions at the two poultry yards were the same. The contents of water, protein, fat in the eggs of CPY and EPY were practically the same, but the level of microelements in the EPY eggs was higher than in CPY eggs. It was observed so as to maintain high level of microelements in eggs it is required to a bioresonance effect throughout the egg laying period. So, the level of manganese in eggs of EPY and CPY at week 52 was 0.024 and 0.003 mg%, iron – 3.74 and 1.48 mg%, zinc – 1.23 and 0.87 mf%, copper – 0.078 and 0.069 mg%, respectively. The transition of microelements from food into eggs also was % to the control: iron – 2.55, manganese – 10.0, zinc – 1.44, copper – 1.35, potassium – 1.33, calcium – 1.05, phosphorus – 1.15, sodium – 1.16. Thus, the bioresonance method for keeping laying hens makes it possible to obtain food eggs of the desired chemical composition

  5. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  6. ε-Polylysine-based thermo-responsive adsorbents for immunoglobulin adsorption-desorption under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masashi; Shibuya, Keisuke

    2017-08-22

    Thermo-responsive adsorbents for immunoglobulin G (IgG) employing ε-polylysine (EPL) as a polymer backbone were developed. The introduction of mercaptoethylpyridine (MEP) as an IgG-binding ligand and hydrophobization of side chains afforded thermo-responsive IgG adsorbents, whose thermo-responsive IgG desorption ratio was up to 88% (EPL/MEP derivative 3m). The changes in surface densities of active MEP groups, which are caused by thermal conformational changes of the adsorbents, play key roles for IgG desorption. Although a trade-off of IgG adsorption capacity and IgG desorption ratio was observed, the present study offers a novel molecular design for thermo-responsive adsorbents with high synthetic accessibility and potentially low toxicity.

  7. High levels of immunoglobulin E and a continuous increase in immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M by age in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Jannet; Eising, Stefanie; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing, either because of environmental factors accelerating onset of the disease or because of inducement of autoimmune diabetes in children who previously were at lower risk. High levels of immunoglobulin (Ig), specifically, IgM and IgA, and a low...... level of IgG were reported in adult patients; however no studies have analyzed the increasing incidence in relation to Ig levels. Our aim was to describe Ig in children newly diagnosed with diabetes and in their healthy siblings. Children with T1D expressed significantly lower IgG (p

  8. Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T D

    1994-02-01

    1. There is little unequivocal evidence to date in support of a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness in birds. Although 40 studies (of 34 species) have considered the effect of variation in egg size on chick growth and/or survival up to fledgling only 12 studies have controlled for other characters potentially correlated both with egg size and offspring fitness. Of these only two have reported a significant residual effect of egg size on chick growth (in the roseate tern and European blackbird) and three a residual effect on chick survival (all in seabirds: common tern, lesser black-backed gull and kittiwake). 2. More consistent evidence exists, though from fewer studies, for a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness early in the chick-rearing period; chick growth and chick survival being dependent on egg size in 8 of 10 studies and 4 of 5 studies respectively. It is suggested that the most important effect of variation in egg size might be in determining the probability of offspring survival in the first few days after hatching. 3. Egg size explains on average 66% of the variation in chick mass at hatching (n = 35 studies) but only 30% of the variation in chick body size (n = 18). When effects of hatching body size are controlled for chick mass remains significantly correlated with egg size, though the reverse is not true. This supports the hypothesis that large eggs give rise to heavier chicks at hatching, i.e., chicks with more nutrient (yolk) reserves, rather than structurally larger chicks. 4. Egg composition increased isometrically with increasing egg size in about half the studies so far reported (n equals approximately 20). However, in seabirds, and some passerines, larger eggs contain disproportionately more albumen, whilst in some waterfowl percentage yolk content increases with increasing egg size. Changes in albumen content largely reflect variation in the water content of eggs, but changes in yolk content

  9. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium and Egg Activation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartain, Caroline V.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In many animals, a rise in intracellular calcium levels is the trigger for egg activation, the process by which an arrested mature oocyte transitions to prepare for embryogenesis. In nearly all animals studied to date, this calcium rise, and thus egg activation, is triggered by the fertilizing sperm. However in the insects that have been examined, fertilization is not necessary to activate their oocytes. Rather, these insects’ eggs activate as they transit through the female’s reproductive tract, regardless of male contribution. Recent studies in Drosophila have shown that egg activation nevertheless requires calcium and that the downstream events and molecules of egg activation are also conserved, despite the difference in initial trigger. Genetic studies have uncovered essential roles for the calcium-dependent enzyme calcineurin and its regulator calcipressin, and have hinted at roles for calmodulin, in Drosophila egg activation. Physiological and in vitro studies have led to a model in which mechanical forces that impact the Drosophila oocyte as it moves through the reproductive tract triggers the influx of calcium from the external environment, thereby initiating egg activation. Future research will aim to test this model, as well as to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of cytoplasmic calcium flux and mode of signal propagation in this unique system. PMID:23218670

  11. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins in alcoholic steatosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo

    1983-01-01

    increased (p less than 0.005) concentrations of immunoglobulins G, A, and M when compared to patients with steatosis. These results indicate that the degree of liver damage has more effect than chronic alcoholism on the humoral immune system. Whether this influence is direct or indirect remains......Antinuclear antibodies were significantly more prevalent (p less than 0.01) in 143 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in 64 patients with alcoholic steatosis and in 94 controls. Smooth muscle antibodies were significantly more prevalent (p less than 0.05) in patients with alcoholic steatosis...... and cirrhosis than in controls. The prevalence of antimitochondrial antibodies and IgG liver membrane antibodies did not differ significantly between the three groups. Immunoglobulin G, A, and M concentrations were only occasionally increased in patients with steatosis. Patients with cirrhosis had significantly...

  12. A role for PCNA ubiquitination in immunoglobulin hypermutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Arakawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a DNA polymerase cofactor and regulator of replication-linked functions. Upon DNA damage, yeast and vertebrate PCNA is modified at the conserved lysine K164 by ubiquitin, which mediates error-prone replication across lesions via translesion polymerases. We investigated the role of PCNA ubiquitination in variants of the DT40 B cell line that are mutant in K164 of PCNA or in Rad18, which is involved in PCNA ubiquitination. Remarkably, the PCNA(K164R mutation not only renders cells sensitive to DNA-damaging agents, but also strongly reduces activation induced deaminase-dependent single-nucleotide substitutions in the immunoglobulin light-chain locus. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, that vertebrates exploit the PCNA-ubiquitin pathway for immunoglobulin hypermutation, most likely through the recruitment of error-prone DNA polymerases.

  13. A database of immunoglobulins with integrated tools: DIGIT.

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna; Tramontano, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The DIGIT (Database of ImmunoGlobulins with Integrated Tools) database (http://biocomputing.it/digit) is an integrated resource storing sequences of annotated immunoglobulin variable domains and enriched with tools for searching and analyzing them. The annotations in the database include information on the type of antigen, the respective germline sequences and on pairing information between light and heavy chains. Other annotations, such as the identification of the complementarity determining regions, assignment of their structural class and identification of mutations with respect to the germline, are computed on the fly and can also be obtained for user-submitted sequences. The system allows customized BLAST searches and automatic building of 3D models of the domains to be performed.

  14. A database of immunoglobulins with integrated tools: DIGIT.

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-11-10

    The DIGIT (Database of ImmunoGlobulins with Integrated Tools) database (http://biocomputing.it/digit) is an integrated resource storing sequences of annotated immunoglobulin variable domains and enriched with tools for searching and analyzing them. The annotations in the database include information on the type of antigen, the respective germline sequences and on pairing information between light and heavy chains. Other annotations, such as the identification of the complementarity determining regions, assignment of their structural class and identification of mutations with respect to the germline, are computed on the fly and can also be obtained for user-submitted sequences. The system allows customized BLAST searches and automatic building of 3D models of the domains to be performed.

  15. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  16. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  17. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Abudabos, AM; Aljumaah, RS; Algawaan, AS; Al-Sornokh, H; Al-Atiyat, RM

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW) was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g). Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0) were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7) and 14 (W14), and egg weight...

  18. Effect of egg washing and correlation between cuticle and egg penetration by various Salmonella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Roberts, Juliet R; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Kiermeier, Andreas; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2014-07-16

    In Australia, Europe and the United States, eggs and egg products are frequently associated with Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks. Many of the egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks have been due to the products such as mayonnaise, ice-cream and cold desserts which are eaten without cooking following the addition of raw egg. The ability of four Salmonella isolates (one each of S. Singapore, S. Adelaide, S. Worthington and S. Livingstone) to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods was investigated in the current study. The results of the agar penetration experiment indicated that all the isolates used in the present study have the capacity to penetrate the eggshell. Eggshell penetration by the S. Worthington isolate was higher but not significant (p=0.06) in washed eggs compared to unwashed eggs. However, for all other isolates (S. Singapore, S. Adelaide and S. Livingstone), there was no significant difference in penetration of washed and unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis indicated that cuticle score was a significant linear predictor of Salmonella eggshell penetration. Whole egg penetration results showed that all of the Salmonella isolates used in the present study were capable of surviving on the eggshell surface after 21days of incubation (at 20°C) following a high dose of inoculation (10(5)CFU/mL). The combined data of all isolates demonstrated that, the survival rate of Salmonella on eggshells (inoculated with 10(5)CFU/mL) was significantly higher (p=0.002) at 20°C as compared to 37°C. S. Singapore, S. Worthington, and S. Livingstone were not detected in egg internal contents whereas S. Adelaide was detected in one egg's internal contents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Allergy to egg proteins in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Góngora-Meléndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1, ovoalbumin (Gal d2, ovotransferrin (Gal d3, lysozyme (Gal d4 and albumin (Gal d5. Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical Revista México 235 Góngora-Meléndez MA y col. Alergia a las proteínas del huevo en edad pediátrica Revista México diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  20. Effects of vinegar–egg on growth inhibition, differentiation human leukemic U937 cells and its immunomodulatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Yu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar and eggs have rich nutrients. In this study, the mixed form of both derived products, vinegar–egg solution and its products (vinegar–egg concentrate and vinegar–egg condensate were chosen for an assessment of their biological activity. To further our understanding regarding the anticancer and immunomodulatory effects of vinegar–egg, we investigated its effects on the proliferation and differentiation of U937 cells. Vinegar–egg was treated using spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum concentration and used to stimulate human mononuclear cells. The conditioned media obtained from these cultures by filtration were used to treat U937 cells. Three conditioned media inhibited U937 cell growth by 22.1–67.25% more effectively than PHA-treated control (22.53%. CD11b and CD14 expression on the treated U937 cells were 29.1–45.4% and 31.6–47.2%, respectively. High levels of cytokines IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α were detected in the three conditioned media. Vinegar–egg stimulates human mononuclear cells to secrete cytokines, which inhibit the growth of U937 cells and induce their differentiation. Keywords: Cytokines, Differentiation, Immunomodulatory activity, Leukemic U937 cells, Vinegar–egg

  1. Fungicidal activity of peptides encoded by immunoglobulin genes

    OpenAIRE

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Sperind?, Martina; Giovati, Laura; D?Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; Travassos, Luiz R.; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from previous works disclosed the antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-tumour and/or immunomodulatory activity exerted, through different mechanisms of action, by peptides expressed in the complementarity-determining regions or even in the constant region of antibodies, independently from their specificity and isotype. Presently, we report the selection, from available databases, of peptide sequences encoded by immunoglobulin genes for the evaluation of their potential biological activitie...

  2. CD147 Immunoglobulin Superfamily Receptor Function and Role in Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Iacono, Kathryn T.; Brown, Amy L.; Greene, Mark I.; Saouaf, Sandra J.

    2007-01-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD147 plays an important role in fetal, neuronal, lymphocyte and extracellular matrix development. Here we review the current understanding of CD147 expression and protein interactions with regard to CD147 function and its role in pathologic conditions including heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and cancer. A model linking hypoxic conditions found within the tumor microenvironment to up-regulation of CD147 expression and tumor progression is intr...

  3. Serologic activity of G immunoglobulin of irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.A.; Nevinnaya, A.P.; Mozhajskij, A.M.; Snisar', N.A.

    1977-01-01

    Serologic immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins G (IgG) isolated from blood serum of normal rabbits and those given lethal and midlethal doses of radiation have been comparatively studied. A marked increase in the IgG level was detected in the recovery period of radiation sickness. The number of complement-binding antitissue antibodies in IgG grew in that period, and the anticomplementary activity and the catabolism rate of IgG increased in normal organism

  4. Diversity Analysis of the Immunoglobulin M Heavy Chain Gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-length cDNA encoding the immunoglobulin (IgM) heavy chain gene of Nile tilapia was successfully cloned using the 5' and 3' RACE techniques. The complete cDNA of the Nile tilapia IgM heavy chain gene is 1,921 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,740 bp, which corresponds to 580 amino acid ...

  5. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease: autoimmune pancreatitis and extrapancreatic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alvarenga Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related disease with pancreatic and extrapancreatic involvement, including the biliary and renal systems. Given the importance of imaging methods for the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease and its differentiation from pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we emphasize important abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings related to this recently recognized systemic autoimmune disease.

  6. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs

  7. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  8. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published

  9. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V.; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chr...

  10. ACTION EGG PRODUCTION C.F. Saunders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major changes have occurred in the structure and opera- tion of the egg ... small backyard flock supplying food to the family still exists. ... non-industry flock still influences seasonal de- mand. ... living and changing eating habits developing.

  11. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  12. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  13. Quantification of antibody (IgY) titers in hen eggs following immunization and their use in detecting cell surface molecules on nitrocellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guang-Ping; Ma, Li; Meng, Xiao-Jing; Meng, Min-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lin, Ying; Wu, Zheng-Qiang; He, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ju-Fang; Zhu, Yong

    2007-01-01

    HLA-A*0201 alpha chain and beta2m were expressed from a prokaryotic system, and after refolding and purification, the alpha chain and beta2m were used to immunize eight laying hens. The titer of egg yolk antibody against alpha chain increased from 10(2) to 10(5.3) The titer of egg yolk antibody against beta2m increased from 10(1) to 10(4.7). The extent of titer increase is similar between the two antigens. An average of 135 mg purified polyclonal antibody (IgY) can be easily obtained from one egg yolk. The use of egg collection rather than serum collection is compatible with modern animal protection regulations. An average of 28 eggs were obtained from a laying hen every month, with a total amount of 3780 mg immunoglobulin extracted from one immunized hen every month, which would be equivalent to 630 mL of serum or 1260 mL of blood per month. Chickens are an optimal host for the production of polyclonal antibodies with high titer and high yield. Purified IgY was labeled with horseradish peroxidase and reacted with PBMC on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that the antibody can bind to the native conformation of class I HLA molecule on PBMC.

  14. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  15. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Croston

    Full Text Available Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius, hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater. We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  16. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Mityay I.S.; Matsyura A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similar...

  17. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Mityay; A. V. Matsyura

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa,...

  18. [Preservation of live eggs of Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wei-ming; Xie, Shu-ying; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Wei-sheng; Hu, Ren-mei; Ge, Jun; Zeng, Xiao-jun

    2015-10-01

    To observe the preservation time and activity of miracidium hatching from schistosome eggs preserved in different solutions, so as to obtain the optimal preservation conditions and then provide quality control products for field application. The rectum stool of rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum was collected and the coarse fecal residue was removed with a series of sample sieves of 80, 100, 160 and 200 meshes respectively, and then the schistosome eggs were concentrated with the sample sieve of 260 meshes. The concentrated eggs were preserved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 1.2% sodium chloride solution, phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS, PH 7.2), 1.0% sucrose solution, and Mili-Q water, respectively, and then were conserved in a 4 °C refrigerator and 15 °C constant temperature incubator, respectively. The preserved eggs were hatched in different time (7-day interval) , the vitality and quantity of the miracidia were observed, and the hatching rates were calculated. Under the condition of 4 °C, the hatching rates of eggs dropped to 0 in 1.0% sucrose solution and 1.2% sodium chloride solution at the 49th and 126th day, respectively, and the hatching rates of eggs in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and PBS solution dropped to 10% at the 112th day, and the activity of miracidium was weakened since 140th. In the Mili-Q water, the hatching rate dropped less than 10% at the 196th day and the activity of miracidia was weakened since the 280th day. Under the condition of 15 °C, the hatching rate of eggs in different solutions gradually dropped to 0 from the 49th day to 105th day. The eggs preserved in Mili-Q water at the temperature of 4 °C can be used as the positive reference for hatching tests within 196 days.

  19. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  20. Parental perceptions in egg allergy: does egg challenge make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew Stewart; Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an oral egg challenge in egg sensitized children on parental perceptions relating to their child's allergy. A questionnaire was completed by parents for 167 children attending a tertiary paediatric clinic with egg sensitization. The questionnaires included 10 questions concerning parental perceptions of their child's egg allergy. Parental perceptions of those children who had not had an egg challenge (n = 83) were compared with those whose children had a positive (n = 27) and those with a negative (n = 57) egg challenge. A significant difference (p = parents in the CN group expected little or no future inconvenience for the child. The responses of parents whose child had undergone an egg challenge differed significantly (p = expectation of little or no future discomfort for the child and whether others treated the child differently. The performance of an egg challenge was associated with reduced adverse parental concerns. For 6/10 parameters, expectations concerning egg allergy in children who had been challenged were significantly better than those who had never been challenged irrespective of the challenge outcome. The greater certainty provided by the performance of a food challenge may be a positive outcome in both CP and CN children.

  1. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  2. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  3. Effect of commercial diets on egg quality characteristics | Ayanwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of four commercial feeds in Niger State Nigeria on egg quality characteristics was studied. The feed designated diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 were fed to Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens and their eggs were collected as from 38 weeks of age for 4 weeks. A total of 384 eggs were analysed for both external and internal egg ...

  4. Morphological characteristics and egg production of forced-moult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The forced-moult groups T2 and T3 stopped egg production by 6 days of moult induction and resumed egg production by day 25. T2 and T3 attained a peak egg production of 71% by the second month following resumption of lay. On the other hand, in the T1 egg production progressively decreased with age.

  5. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  6. Effect of genotype on egg quality characteristics of guinea fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genotypes were Pearl x Pearl (PL x PL), Black x Black (BL x BL) and Pearl x Black (PL x BL). ... The external and shell quality parameters measured were egg weight (EWGT), egg length (ELGT), egg width (EWDT), egg shape index (ESPI), shell weight (SWGT), and shell thickness (STKN) while the internal traits were ...

  7. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  8. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  9. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri; Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2015-01-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement

  10. Frequency patterns of T-cell exposed motifs in immunoglobulin heavy chain peptides presented by MHCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Bremel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are highly diverse protein sequences that are processed and presented to T-cells by B-cells and other antigen presenting cells. We examined a large dataset of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions (IGHV to assess the diversity of T-cell exposed motifs (TCEM. TCEM comprise those amino acids in a MHC-bound peptide which face outwards, surrounded by the MHC histotope, and which engage the T-cell receptor. Within IGHV there is a distinct pattern of predicted MHC class II binding and a very high frequency of re-use of the TCEMs. The re-use frequency indicates that only a limited number of different cognate T-cells are required to engage many different clonal B-cells. The amino acids in each outward-facing TCEM are intercalated with the amino acids of inward-facing MHC groove-exposed motifs (GEM. Different GEM may have differing, allele-specific, MHC binding affinities. The intercalation of TCEM and GEM in a peptide allows for a vast combinatorial repertoire of epitopes, each eliciting a different response. Outcome of T-cell receptor binding is determined by overall signal strength, which is a function of the number of responding T-cells and the duration of engagement. Hence, the frequency of T-cell exposed motif re-use appears to be an important determinant of whether a T-cell response is stimulatory or suppressive. The frequency distribution of TCEMs implies that somatic hypermutation is followed by clonal expansion that develop along repeated pathways. The observations of TCEM and GEM derived from immunoglobulins suggest a relatively simple, yet powerful, mechanism to correlate T-cell polyspecificity, through re-use of TCEMs, with a very high degree of specificity achieved by combination with a diversity of GEMs. The frequency profile of TCEMs also points to an economical mechanism for maintaining T-cell memory, recall, and self-discrimination based on an endogenously generated profile of motifs.

  11. Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Méndez-Tovar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que algunos autores han reportado un aumento en la cantidad de algunas inmunoglobulinas en los pacientes con actinomicetoma, en este trabajo nos propusimos determinar diferencias en la producción de IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 e IgM en 25 pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis y 25 personas sanas provenientes de una zona endémica de micetoma. La determinación de inmunoglobulinas se realizó por medio de la técnica de ELISA. Para sensibilizar las placas se emplearon 6 antígenos de N. brasiliensis: un antígeno crudo denominado NB y cinco derivados del mismo (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 y NB10 separados por punto isoeléctrico. Los niveles de las cuatro subclases de IgG fueron mayores en los sueros de los pacientes que en el suero de los controles, con una diferencia máxima en IgG3 e IgG4; para esta última subclase, los seis antígenos fueron altamente reactivos. La concentración de IgM fue igual en ambos grupos. Es probable que como ocurre en otras infecciones, en la fisiopatogenia del actinomicetoma influya no sólo el aumento o deficiencia de una clase de inmunoglobulina, sino la relación que existe entre las diferentes subclases.Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10 obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients’ sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other

  12. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However......, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might...... become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such "cue scrambling" does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker...

  13. The association between immunoglobulin concentrations and prediabetes prevalence in a large Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Song, Yanqi; Sun, Shaomei; Gao, Li; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Gu, Yeqing; Shi, Hongbin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Zhang, Qing; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-08-01

    Prediabetes has received public attention owing to the increasing prevalence worldwide. Mounting evidence has indicated that inflammation directly contributed to the etiology of glucose metabolism disorders. Although immunoglobulins play a crucial role in immune responses, little research has been done on the link between immunoglobulins and prediabetes in adults. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations between immunoglobulins levels and prevalence of prediabetes in a general adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8856 adults (mean±standard deviation age: 48.4±10.7years) in Tianjin, China. The serum immunoglobulins concentrations were measured by the immunonephelometric technique. Prediabetes was diagnosed using the following parameters in accordance with the American Diabetes Association: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The associations between concentrations of immunoglobulins and the prevalence of prediabetes were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Overall, the prevalence of prediabetes was 37.4% (3311/8856). After controlling for confounders, compared with the lowest quintile, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of prediabetes for the highest quintile of immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A) were as follows: 1.06 (0.91-1.23), 1.31 (1.13-1.52), 0.86 (0.74-1.01), and 1.19 (1.03-1.38) (P for trend were 0.35, prediabetes prevalence. There was also a trending association between immunoglobulin M concentrations and prediabetes prevalence. Further studies are necessary to clarify if there is a causal association of immunoglobulins in prediabetes or if they reflect early immunologic disturbances in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

  15. The preliminary studies on parasitization of Trichogramma chilonis on Helicoverpa armigera eggs and eggs from irradiated Helicoverpa armigera moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Endong; Lu Daguang; Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Zhang Shuyong; Liu Qiongru; Wang Huasong

    2002-01-01

    The parasitization rates of Trichogramma chilonis on 250 Gy irradiated and unirradiated fresh eggs of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were not significantly different. The parasitization rate on irradiated chill-stored eggs of H. armigera was lower than that on irradiated fresh eggs. The parasitization rates on eggs from 250 Gy irradiated H. armigera moths depended on their embryonated rates

  16. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  17. Are both early egg introduction and eczema treatment necessary for primary prevention of egg allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Mori, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Celine; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa

    2018-06-01

    The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study proved that early introduction of peanut significantly prevented the development of peanut allergy. However, in regard to similar attempts to prevent egg allergy through early egg introduction, the Prevention of Egg Allergy in High-risk Infants with Eczema (PETIT) study is the only randomized intervention trial to show a statistically significant effect. Meta-analysis of those studies indicated that neither the total amount nor pretreatment of egg showed any effect on egg allergy at the age of 12 months. However, raw egg powder resulted in a significantly higher prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction, whereas use of boiled egg was much safer. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis/eczema at introduction of egg correlated significantly with the subsequent prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction. In addition, the prevalence of egg allergy in the late introduction group correlated significantly with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis at introduction, even when the atopic dermatitis was proactively treated with a topical corticosteroid ointment. It is definitely true that the number of trials and number of participants in each trial are insufficient for drawing firm conclusions, especially regarding the optimal dose, raw versus boiled, when to start, and for whom to intervene. Therefore we propose various studies that should be performed to generate stronger data and conclusions. However, on the basis of the most recent results, we postulate that simultaneous intervention by both early boiled egg introduction and eczema treatment is probably indispensable for primary prevention of egg allergy. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Invasive Egg Predators and Food Availability Interactively Affect Maternal Investment in Egg Chemical Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Paul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species commonly predate the offspring of native species and eggs are the life stage most vulnerable to this predation. In many species with no maternal care, females can alter the phenotype of eggs to protect them, for instance through chemical defense. In ladybirds egg alkaloids deter predators, including invasive predatory species of ladybirds, but conversely may attract cannibals who benefit from the consumption of eggs with higher alkaloid levels. Invasive predators tend to be more abundant where resources are also abundant, but in high resource environments the maternal fitness benefits of sibling cannibalism are low. Consequently this presents a conflict for female ladybirds between the different factors that influence egg alkaloid level, as protecting her eggs from predators might come with the cost of inadvertently encouraging within-clutch cannibalism under circumstances where it is not beneficial. We investigated how the ladybird Adalia bipunctata addresses this trade-off experimentally, by measuring the quantity of alkaloids in eggs laid by ladybirds in environments that differed in levels of resource availability and perceived predation risk from an invasive predator Harmonia axyridis. Females did lay eggs with higher egg alkaloid levels under poor resource conditions, but only when predator cues were absent. The resulting negative correlation between egg number and egg alkaloid level under poor resource conditions indicates a trade-off between these two attributes of maternal investment, mediated by female response to offspring predation risk. This implies that selection pressures on mothers to adaptively adjust the risk of siblicide may outweigh the need to protect offspring from interspecific predation. Our results demonstrate that maternal effects are an important aspect of species' responses to invasive predators, and highlight the value of studying maternal effects in the context of the multifaceted environments in

  19. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, E; Duchamp, G; Batellier, F; Beaumal, V; Anton, M; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Magistrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the egg yolk plasma fraction to whole egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. Plasma contains mainly Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), which are widely presumed to be the cryoprotective agent in egg yolk. Plasma can be produced on an industrial scale, sterilised by gamma-irradiation and incorporated in a ready-to-use extender (our ultimate objective). Plasma samples were subjected to different doses of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) without dramatic chemical changes that may affect their cryoprotective properties. Stallion semen was frozen with whole egg yolk as a control and with sterilised egg yolk plasma. A fertility trial was conducted on a total of 70 mares' cycles. Fertility per cycle was 60% after insemination of semen frozen in our control extender containing egg yolk (EY), compared to 69% for the extender containing sterilised egg yolk plasma (EYP) (P > 0.05). Post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analysed. Motility parameters were not significantly different between extenders except for the variable VAP (for EY versus EYP, VAP: 63 μm.s(-1) versus 59 μm.s(-1), a, b: P 0.05). Membrane integrity was better preserved in EY than in EYP but the difference between extenders was small (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that sterilised egg yolk plasma has the potential to replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. This experiment led to the development of a ready-to-use extender called INRA-Freeze(®) (IMV-Technologies, France). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional in vitro studies of recombinant human immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A anti-D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Leif Kofoed; Green, Trine Hefsgaard; Norderhaug, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The use of anti-D purified from human serum to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to D is well established. Owing to supply and safety reasons, however, an unlimited and non-plasma-derived source of antibodies for Rhesus prophylaxis is needed....

  1. Improved purification of immunoglobulin G from plasma by mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Dong-Sheng; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Shi, Qing-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Efficient loading of immunoglobulin G in mixed-mode chromatography is often a serious bottleneck in the chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G. In this work, a mixed-mode ligand, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) aniline, was coupled to Sepharose Fast Flow to fabricate AN SepFF adsorbents with ligand densities of 15-64 mmol/L, and the chromatographic performances of these adsorbents were thoroughly investigated to identify a feasible approach to improve immunoglobulin G purification. The results indicate that a critical ligand density exists for immunoglobulin G on the AN SepFF adsorbents. Above the critical ligand density, the adsorbents showed superior selectivity to immunoglobulin G at high salt concentrations, and also exhibited much higher dynamic binding capacities. For immunoglobulin G purification, both the yield and binding capacity increased with adsorbent ligand density along with a decrease in purity. It is difficult to improve the binding capacity, purity, and yield of immunoglobulin G simultaneously in AN SepFF chromatography. By using tandem AN SepFF chromatography, a threefold increase in binding capacity as well as high purity and yield of immunoglobulin G were achieved. Therefore, the tandem chromatography demonstrates that AN SepFF adsorbent is a practical and feasible alternative to MEP HyperCel adsorbents for immunoglobulin G purification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Production of non-stimulatory immunoglobulins that inhibit TSH binding in Graves' disease after radioiodine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, K.; Bliddal, H.; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K.; Friis, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of single dose of 131 I upon thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins has been studied in twenty-two patients with Graves' disease. The thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were assessed by parallel measurements of thyrotrophin receptor binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII) and of thyroid adenylate cyclase stimulating immunoglobulins (TACSI) in serum by radioreceptor assay and stimulation of adenylate cyclase respectively. The present study thus confirms that radioiodine therapy is followed by an increase of TBII and TACSI in most patients with Graves' disease. The level of TBII can probably provide a marker for development of hypothyroidism following 131 I therapy and might be involved in its pathogenesis. (author)

  3. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neonates with haemolytic disease and immune thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Sovtić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intravenous immunoglobulin is a blood product made of human polyclonal immunoglobulin G. The mode of action of intravenous immunoglobulin is very complex. It is indicated in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia and haemolytic disease of the newborn. The aim of the study was to present our experience in the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in a group of term neonates. Methods. We analysed all relevant clinical and laboratory data of 23 neonates who recieved intravenous immunoglobulin during their hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mother and Child Health Care Institute over a five year period, from 2006. to 2010. Results. There were 11 patients with haemolytic disease of the newborn and 12 neonates with immune thrombocytopenia. All of them recieved 1-2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin in the course of their treatment. There was no adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin use. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin led to an increase in platelet number in thrombocytopenic patients, whereas in those with haemolytic disease serum bilirubin level decreased significantly, so that some patients whose bilirubin level was very close to the exchange transfusion criterion, avoided this procedure. Conclusion. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin was shown to be an effective treatment in reducing the need for exchange transfusion, duration of phototherapy and the length of hospital stay in neonates with haemolytic disease. When used in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia, it leads to an increase in the platelet number, thus decreasing the risk of serious complications of thrombocytopenia.

  4. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, J.; Dooley, N.J.; Koski, I.R.; Blaese, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [/sup 3/H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells

  5. Falsely Elevated Plasma Creatinine Due to an Immunoglobulin M Paraprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Mitchell R; Vijayan, Anitha; Trulock, Elbert P; Witt, Chad A; Kohler, Giselle D; Scott, Mitchell G

    2016-11-01

    The most common method for measuring plasma creatinine is based on its reaction with picric acid. However, enzymatic methods are becoming more popular due to improved specificity. We present a case of falsely elevated plasma creatinine values obtained by an enzymatic method that turned out to be due to a monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein. A 63-year-old woman evaluated for lung transplantation had falsely increased plasma creatinine levels (1.54-1.71mg/dL; corresponding to estimated glomerular filtration rates of 32-36 mL/min/1.73m 2 ) as measured by the Roche Creatinine plus enzymatic assay when compared with the picric acid-based procedure and several other enzymatic methods, which gave plasma creatinine values of 0.7 to 0.8mg/dL. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed an IgM κ light chain paraprotein. Removal of high-molecular-weight (>30kDa) proteins by ultrafiltration reduced the patient's plasma creatinine level by the Roche enzymatic method to 0.7mg/dL. Addition of the patient's immunoglobulin fraction to plasma from other patients with normal plasma creatinine levels resulted in values that were increased by 0.58 to 0.62mg/dL. Furthermore, removal of non-IgM immunoglobulins with protein G-coupled beads did not eliminate the interference from the patient's plasma. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that falsely elevated plasma creatinine values by the Roche enzymatic method can be due to an IgM paraprotein. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  7. Egg size, egg composition and reproductive success in the Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, TD; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between egg size and composition and their subsequent effects on hatching and fledging success in Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the island of Schiermonnikoog (53 degrees 30'N, 06 degrees 10'E) in the Dutch Wadden Sea between 1986 and 1990. Egg size

  8. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... in cages in three tier batteries. Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group. Egg mass of H2 hens was ..... heavy metal ion toxicity to experimental animals is dependant on the technique of application and the applied dose. However, neither increased mortality nor.

  9. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... official plant and are in violation of this part or any of said Federal Acts or any State or local law...

  10. Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrs Kovalcuks

    2015-01-01

    Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this stud...

  11. Differentiating immunoglobulin g4-related sclerosing cholangitis from hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Taku; Kamisawa, Terumi; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Kuwata, Go; Fujiwara, Takashi; Egashira, Hideto; Koizumi, Koichi; Fujiwara, Junko; Arakawa, Takeo; Momma, Kumiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Itoi, Takao

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have differentiated immunoglobulin G (IgG) 4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) from hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Thus, we sought to investigate useful features for differentiating IgG4-SC from hilar CC. We retrospectively compared clinical, serological, imaging, and histological features of six patients with IgG4-SC and 42 patients with hilar CC. In patients with hilar CC, obstructive jaundice was more frequent (philar CC patients (philar or hepatic duct was completely obstructed in 83% of hilar CC patients (philar bile duct stenosis, was more frequent in IgG4-SC patients (philar CC.

  12. Gm typing by immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene RFLP analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jazwinska, E C; Dunckley, H; Propert, D N; Gatenby, P A; Serjeantson, S W

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate a means of assigning Gm allotypes to Caucasians by RFLP analysis. A single immunoglobulin heavy-chain gamma-4 cDNA probe (HU gamma 4) was hybridized with genomic DNA digested separately with two restriction enzymes, TaqI and PvuII. Results showed excellent correlation (P less than .001) between serologically defined Gm allotypes G1m(1), G1m(2), G2m(23), and G1m;G3m (3;5,10) and RFLPs identified with the (HU gamma 4) probe. We conclude that it is now po...

  13. Immunoglobulin G for patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (INSTINCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin B.; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Hansen, Marco B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the INSTINCT trial was to assess the effect of intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) compared with placebo on self-reported physical function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI). Methods: We randomised 100 patients...... with NSTI 1:1 to masked infusion of 25 g of IVIG (Privigen, CSL Behring) or an equal volume of 0.9% saline once daily for the first 3 days of ICU admission. The primary outcome was the physical component summary (PCS) score of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) 6 months after randomisation...

  14. Use of [75Se]selenomethionine in immunoglobulin biosynthetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, G.A.; Warner, N.L.; Harris, A.W.; Bowles, A.

    1978-01-01

    The gamma-emitting amino acid analog, [ 75 Se] selenomethionine, has been used as a biosynthetic label for immunoglobulins secreted by plasmacytomas in tissue culture. The secreted products are structurally intact with respect to their antibody combining sites and their class and allotype antigenic specificities. A component of [ 75 Se] selenomethionine preparations was found to bind to fetal calf serum proteins, in a manner releasable by mercaptoethanol, but not by sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea. Methods for circumventing the problems caused by this binding are described. (Auth.)

  15. Malacoplakia associated with vesicoureteral reflux and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherington, R; Branan, W J; Wray, B B; Best, G K

    1984-11-01

    A case of malacoplakia involving the lower urinary tract of a young black boy, with associated bilateral vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency is reported. Reflux was caused by the malacoplakia. Reflux and hydronephrosis persisted despite elimination of bacterial infection and malacoplakia by drug therapy. These abnormalities were corrected by a conventional antireflux operation. Malacoplakia appears to be related to immunologic incompetence and diminished levels of intracellular cyclic 3',5' guanine monophosphate. Cholinergic agonists reverse or prevent the pathological changes of malacoplakia.

  16. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rajendra P.; Bhushan, Prashant; Singh, Virendra P.; Singh, Mahendra K.; Kumar, Prakash; Bhatia, Ravindra P.S.; Singh, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in the concentration of tear immunoglobulins in contact lens wearers. Methods: A total of 45 cases including 23 contact lens wearers (43 eyes) and 22 age and sex matched healthy controls having no ocular pathology were studied for immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) in their tears by single radial immunodiffusion method. Results: Most of the cases used soft (56.6%) and semi-soft gas permeable (30.4%) contact lenses. Tear IgM was detected in only 17.4% and tear IgG in 43.6% of contact lens wearers, while in controls IgG was detected in 9.1% but none of the controls had IgM. There was a significant rise in total tear IgA (13.17 ± 4.44 mg/dl) in contact lens wearer as compared to controls (8.93 ± 3.79 mg/dl). Rise of tear IgA was more in symptomatic patients (15.38 ± 5.28 mg/dl) and in those wearing hard (19.73 ± 5.43 mg/dl) and semi-soft contact lenses (13.31 ± 5.43 mg/dl). A significant increase in tear IgA was noticed in subjects wearing lenses for >3 years (15.69 ± 5.39 mg/dl). About 43.4% of lens wearers were symptomatic and 80% of their lenses showed deposits and/or haziness. All cases with IgM in tear were symptomatic. Conclusion: The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation. PMID:25667732

  17. INFLUENCE OF HIGH CORTISOL DOSES UPON THE SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Voja Pavlovic; Zoran Pavlovic

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Cortisol upon the serum immunoglobulin concentration areexamined. The experiment involved male guinea pigs of the body weight from 300 to400 g that were nonnally fed and lived under the common laboratory conditions. Theguinea pigs were divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimentalgroup's guinea pigs were given every day (in a 6 days' period) a subcutaneous dose of80 g of corti sol/kg/per day, while the control group ones were given only one ml ofthe physiol...

  18. Grave's disease associated with immunoglobulin A nephropathy: A rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I; Bhat, R A; Khan, I; Hameed, I

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis. The association of Ig A nephropathy with Grave's disease has not been reported so far. We report a case of 20-year-old female with Grave's disease who presented with edema, facial puffiness, and decreased urine output. She was found to be hypertensive with renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed features of Ig A nephropathy. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids (1 mg/kg/day). To our knowledge, this is the first case showing association of Grave's disease with Ig A nephropathy.

  19. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemann, Jasmina; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; Müller, Christa E; Sander, P Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds with our

  20. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Wiemann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protoporphyrin (PP and biliverdin (BV give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds

  1. Scrambled or bisected mouse eggs and the basis of patterning in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R L

    1999-04-01

    Several findings challenge the notion that specification of cell types and embryonic axes in mammals are rooted entirely in the temporal and spatial relations between cleaving blastomeres. They raise the question as to whether, as in most non-mammalian species, these processes depend on information already present in the egg. However, experiments designed to investigate this possibility directly by perturbing the organization of the zygote or, very recently, by deleting one or other of its polar regions [M. Zernicka-Goetz. Fertile offspring derived from mammalian eggs lacking either animal or vegetal poles. Development 1998;125:4803-4808 (Ref. 1)], have been interpreted to mean that such a role for the egg can be discounted. This conclusion seems premature in view of continuing uncertainty regarding the developmental potential of individual blastomeres in mammals.

  2. Homogeneous immunoassay for human IgG using oriented hen egg IgY immobilized on gold sol nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeritsyan, H.E.; Gasparyan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneous immunoassays using (red) gold nanoparticles represent an attractive detection scheme because of the option of photometric readout. We have applied oriented immobilization of hen egg immunoglobulin Y (IgY) on gold nanoparticles when developing a homogeneous immunoassay for human IgG. In oriented immobilization, as opposed to random immobilization, the antigen binding capabilities of the antibodies are retained. It is shown that such immunoassay has significantly better sensitivity in comparison with methods based on conventional immobilization of affinity-purified antibodies. It is also shown that hen egg IgY is better suited than rabbit antibodies, because much more antibody can be immobilized on gold nanoparticles without any destabilization, probably because of the more acidic nature of these antibodies. In addition, hen egg IgY can be supplied in higher quantity and can be prepared more easily than IgG from rabbits. Bleeding and slaughtering of animals is not needed. The assay presented here has a wide detection range (30-500 ng. mL -1 ) and a limit of detection as low as 30 ng. mL -1 of human IgG. (author)

  3. Frequent IgE sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg in children with short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, Angel; Solera, Eva; Alentado, Noemi; Oliver, Fernando; Pamies, Rafael; Caballero, Luis; Nieto, Antonio; Dalmau, Jaime

    2008-03-01

    Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) undergo frequent operations, so they are at risk for sensitizing to latex. There have been isolated reports of sensitization to food in these children. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg with skin prick tests (SPT) and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 14 children with SBS. Data were collected about the number of operations with latex devices, serum total IgE, and history of feeding with milk formula. Ten children were sensitized to latex (specific IgE median: 6.7 kU/l, range: 0.5-33). Compared with those non-sensitized, sensitized children had significantly (p range: 0.5-21.1 kU/l), and five to egg (specific IgE median: 0.68, range: 0.58-2.17 kU/l). Except for some isolated days with cow's milk formula, the children had been initially fed with a diet without intact cow's milk proteins. Sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg is very frequent in children with SBS. They should be treated in a latex-free environment since the very early stages of the disease, and should be routinely studied regarding food sensitization, as this might contribute as an added factor in the chronic diarrhea of these patients.

  4. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yilmaz

    Full Text Available Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  5. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityay I.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds.

  6. CELLULAR RESPONSES TO EGG-OIL (CHARISMON©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bereiter-Hahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg-oil (Charismon© is known for its beneficial action in wound healing and other skin irritancies and its antibacterial activity. The physiological basis for these actions has been investigated using cells in culture: HaCaT-cells (immortalized human keratinocytes, human endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC, peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes (PBML and a full thickness human skin model (FTSM. Emphasis was on the influence of egg-oil on cell migration and IL-8 production in HaCaT cells, respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen (ROS production and proliferation in HUVEC and HaCaT cells, cytokine and interleukin production in PBML and UV-light induced damage of FTSM. IL-8 production by HaCaT cells is stimulated by egg-oil whilst in phythemagglutinin-activated PBMLs production of the interleukins IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ and TFN-α is reduced. ROS-production after H2O2 stimulation first is enhanced but later on reduced. Respiration becomes activated due to partial uncoupling of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and proliferation of HaCaT and HUVEC is reduced. Recovery of human epidermis cells in FTSM after UV-irradiation is strongly supported by egg-oil. These results support the view that egg-oil acts through reduction of inflammatory processes and ROS production. Both these processes are equally important in cellular aging as in healing of chronic wounds.

  7. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  8. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs and...

  9. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human...

  10. Antioxidant activity in cooked and simulated digested eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remanan, M K; Wu, J

    2014-07-25

    The avian egg is an excellent source of nutrients consisting of components with beneficial properties but there is limited knowledge on the effect of cooking methods and gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of eggs. The present study was focused on the effect of cooking and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on antioxidant activity of eggs using ORAC, ABTS and DPPH assays. The results suggest that fresh egg yolk has higher antioxidant activity than fresh egg white and whole eggs. Cooking reduced whereas simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased the antioxidant activity of eggs. Boiled egg white hydrolysate showed the highest antioxidant activity; a total of 63 peptides were identified, indicative of the formation of novel antioxidant peptides upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This study suggests the potential role of eggs as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  11. Evaluation of adsorption selectivity of immunoglobulins M, A and G and purification of immunoglobulin M with mixed-mode resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying-Di; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Yao, Shan-Jing; Lin, Dong-Qiang

    2018-01-19

    This study investigated adsorption selectivity of immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin (IgG) on four mixed-mode resins with the functional ligands of 4-mercatoethyl-pyridine (MEP), 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI), 5-aminobenzimidazole (ABI) and tryptophan-5-aminobenzimidazole (W-ABI), respectively. IgM purification processes with mixed-mode resins were also proposed. All resins showed typical pH-dependent adsorption, and high adsorption capacity was found at pH 5.0-8.0 with low adsorption capacity under acidic conditions. Meanwhile, high selectivity of IgM/IgA and IgM/IgG was obtained with ABI-4FF and MMI-4FF resins at pH 4.0-5.0, which was used to develop a method for IgM, IgA and IgG separation by controlling loading and elution pH. Capture of monoclonal IgM from cell culture supernatant with ABI-4FF resins was studied and high purity (∼99%) and good recovery (80.8%) were obtained. Moreover, IgM direct separation from human serum with combined two-step chromatography (ABI-4FF and MMI-4FF) was investigated, and IgM purity of 65.2% and a purification factor of 28.3 were obtained after optimization. The antibody activity of IgM was maintained after purification. The results demonstrated that mixed-mode chromatography with specially-designed ligands is a promising way to improve adsorption selectivity and process efficiency of IgM purification from complex feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mother and offspring fitness in an insect with maternal care: phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and egg care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg

  13. Experimental Infection of Taenia saginata eggs in Bali Cattle: Distribution and Density of Cysticercus bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the development, distribution, and infection density ofTaenia saginata metacestodes in Bali cattle. Three Bali cattle were experimentally infected with T. saginataeggs which were collected from taeniasis patients. The experimental animal was inoculated with : i1000,00 T. saginata; ii 500,000 eggs; and iii 1,000,000 eggs, respectivelly 100,000 (cattle 1, 500,000(cattle 2, and 1,000,000 (cattle 3 T. saginata eggs, respectively. To observe the development of cysticerci,all cattle were slaughtered at 24 weeks post infection. To observe their distribution and density, slicingwas done to the cattle?s tissues. The study results showed that cysts were found distributed to all muscletissues and some visceral organs such as heart, diaphragm, lungs, and kidney of the cattle infected with100,000 and 500,000 T. saginata eggs. Density of the cyst was in the range of 11 to 95 cysts per 100 gramsof tissue. The highest density was noted in the heart (58/100 grams and in diaphragm (55/100 grams.This study has confirmed that T. saginata eggs derived from taeniasis patient in Bali, if infected to Balicattle can develop and spread to all muscle tissues and some visceral organs. From this study it wasconcluded that it is necessary to include the heart in the meat inspection at slaughter house for possibilityof T. saginata cyst infection.$?

  14. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  15. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Carter, R.L.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic-bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody, and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) were measured among 2061 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki from December 1987 to November 1989. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor increased in a statistically significant manner with increasing radiation dose. No radiation effect was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody. A statistically significant relationship was also found between radiation exposure and the IgA level in females and the IgM levels in both sexes-both levels increased as radiation dose increased. However, the effects of radiation exposure were not large and accounted for less than 10% of the total variation in each measurement. Levels of IgG and IgE were not affected by radiation exposure. (author)

  16. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Katherine M; Masha, Luke I; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C; Sloan, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60-11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  17. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors and their Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik N.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Natural killer (NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes comprising around 10% of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Due to their role in the innate response, NK cells provide a ‘first line of defense’ against infectious agents and cancer and are also thought to play a role in autoimmunity. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR are regulatory surface molecules, found on NK cells and on a subset of T lymphocytes. The genes for KIR are present on chromosome 19 in the leukocyte receptor complex and show a major difference for both the type and number of KIR genes present among different ethnic groups. They have been divided into two groups of 2D or 3D, depending on the number of external immunoglobulin domains. The presence of a long cytoplasmic tail with two immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM allows the transduction of inhibitory signals and characterizes the inhibitory KIRs (2DL and 3DL, whereas the presence of short cytoplasmic tails corresponds to the activating KIR receptors (2DS and 3DS.These polymorphic receptors interact with specific motifs on human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules, modulate NK cytolytic activity. Some KIRs are known to interact with HLA-C molecules of target cells, HLA-Bw4 molecules and HLA-A3/11. For some KIRs the corresponding ligands are still unknown.

  18. Cytomegalovirus neutralization by hyperimmune and standard intravenous immunoglobulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planitzer, Christina B; Saemann, Marcus D; Gajek, Hartwig; Farcet, Maria R; Kreil, Thomas R

    2011-08-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most important pathogens after transplantation, potentially leading to CMV disease, allograft dysfunction, acute, and chronic rejection and opportunistic infections. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations with high antibody titers against CMV are a valuable adjunctive prevention and treatment option for clinicians and apart from standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), CMV hyperimmune preparations are available. The CMV antibody titer of these preparations is typically determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also used for the selection of high titer plasma donors for the production of the CMV Hyperimmune product. However, CMV ELISA titers do not necessarily correlate with CMV antibody function which is determined by virus neutralization tests. CMV antibody titers were determined by both ELISA and virus neutralization assay and the IgG subclass distribution was compared between a CMV hyperimmune licensed in Europe and standard IVIG preparations. Although the expected high CMV IgG ELISA antibody titers were confirmed for three lots of a CMV hyperimmune preparation, the functionally more relevant CMV neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher for 31 lots of standard IVIG preparations. Moreover, considerably lower IgG3 levels were found for the CMV hyperimmune preparation compared with standard IVIG preparations. The higher functional CMV neutralization titers of standard IVIG preparations and the better availability of these preparations, suggest that these products could be a valuable alternative to the CMV hyperimmune preparation.

  19. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  20. [14C]Virginiamycin residues in eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpet, D.E.; Baradat, M.; Bories, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    Laying hens were fed ab libitum a diet supplemented at 40, 10, and 0 mg/kg with [ 14 C]virginiamycin, to determine whether or not virginamycin or its metabolites were transferred to the eggs. About 0.05% of the ingested 14 C dose was recovered in the eggs. Radiolabeled residues expressed in terms of virginiamycin equivalents were found to be 5.1 ng/g in the albumen and 31.8 ng/g in the yolk from hens fed a 10 mg/kg diet. No antibiotic activity could be detected in the eggs. Tentative identifications showed that in the albumen about 17% of the 14 C behaved chromatographically like virginiamycin and 18% was associated to the ovalbumin. In the yolk 31% of the 14 C was associated to proteins, 58% to fatty acids, and 4% to unsaponifiable matter

  1. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mityay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Keywords: oology, geometrical parameters of eggs, bird systematics

  2. Salmonella contamination of hatching and table eggs: a comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Duncan, C L; Mazzocco, A

    1998-01-01

    This study determined and compared Salmonella contamination rates of pools of surplus, early and culled hatching eggs from layer and broiler breeder flocks, and of pools of early and regular table eggs from layer flocks. Each pool contained 6 eggs. Five methods were used for the isolation of Salmonella. Nine of 126 pools of culled layer hatching eggs, 2 of 126 pools of surplus layer hatching eggs, and one of 126 pools of early layer hatching eggs were contaminated with Salmonella. All 126 poo...

  3. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE NATURAL EGG LAYING HABITS OF DOMESTIC GEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pandur

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the examination of the natural egg laying habits of domestic geese. The authors studied Grey Landes geese during the summer laying period. On the day of arrival of the birds a TyniTalk II artificial egg was placed in each nest. These eggs contain a microchip which detects and records data on the temperature of the surroundings. The results obtained demonstrate that after laying a certain number of eggs females laying under natural conditions sit on the nest not only when laying new eggs, but also to warm the eggs in it. The time devoted to warming increases with the laying period.

  4. Process of egg formation in the female body cavity and fertilization in male eggs of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, S; Nakamura, M; Nagahama, Y; Amano, H

    2000-01-01

    The process of egg formation in the body cavity of a phytoseiid mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was observed to examine fertilization of male eggs. After insemination, one of the ova at the periphery of the ovary began to expand, taking up yolk. Two pronuclei appeared in the expanded egg, located dorsally in the ovary, and yolk granules were formed gradually. After the egg became filled with yolk granules the two pronuclei fused. The egg moved via the narrow entrance at the ventral region into the oviduct, where the eggshell was formed. When the eggshell was complete, and while embryogenesis proceeded, the egg was deposited. In the meantime some ova began to expand sequentially and two joining pronuclei appeared in expanding eggs. The joining pronuclei in the first egg proved male diploidy. This is additional evidence of pseudo-arrhenotoky in this phytoseiid mite species, since the first eggs developed into males.

  5. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of antibody-forming cells), lymphocytic neoplasms (cancer of lymphoid tissue), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (increased production of large immunoglobulins), and connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid... portions of immunoglobulin molecules in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. In some disease states, an...

  6. Characterization of immunoglobulin A kappa autoantibodies to human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, R. N.; Oude Elferink, R. P.; Mulder, J.; Kruijswijk, H.

    1987-01-01

    We have purified with a cumulative recovery of 48% from the serum of a patient the immunoglobulin A kappa subunit of the lactate dehydrogenase-immunoglobulin A kappa (LD-IgA kappa) complex. It appears that the pI range of the complex is 5.4-5.8. The Ig part of the complex showed a monoclonal

  7. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G synthesizing plasma cells in periapical granuloma and cyst.

    OpenAIRE

    Grover N; Rao N; Kotian M

    2001-01-01

    Immunoglobulin synthesizing plasma cells for IgG were quantitated in 20 periapical granulomas and 20 periapical cysts, using unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase complex method. Result showed that immunoglobulin G producing plasma cells were predominant in periapical cyst as compared with periapical granuloma. A statistical significant relation was observed between these two lesions.

  8. Pulse radiolysis study of egg white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, O.I.; Josimovic, L.; Markovic, V.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolytic processes in egg white in intervals of 0.1μs to several seconds have been studied by the pulse radiolysis technique. The formation and decay of short-lived intermediates and their absorption spectra were observed under varied experimental conditions. The results show that intermediates are produced predominantly in reactions of radicals formed in water radiolysis with egg white proteins. The intermediates decay mainly in the first-order intermolecular processes, though the mechanism of transformations is very complex. (author)

  9. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Mihailović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  10. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  11. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  12. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2006-03-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

  13. Appearance of differentiated cells derived from polar body nuclei in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki eSakai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn Bombyx mori, polar body nuclei are observed until 9h after egg lying, however, the fate of polar body nuclei remains unclear. To examine the fate of polar body nuclei, we employed a mutation of serosal cell pigmentation, pink-eyed white egg (pe. The heterozygous pe/+pe females produced black serosal cells in white eggs, while pe/pe females did not produce black serosal cells in white eggs. These results suggest that the appearance of black serosal cells in white eggs depends on the genotype (pe/ +pe of the mother. Because the polar body nuclei had +pe genes in the white eggs laid by a pe/ +pe female, polar body nuclei participate in development and differentiate into functional cell (serosal cells. Analyses of serosal cells pigmentation indicated that approximately 30% of the eggs contained polar-body-nucleus-derived cells. These results demonstrate that polar-body-nucleus-derived cells appeared at a high frequency under natural conditions. Approximately 80% of polar-body-nucleus-derived cells appeared near the anterior pole and the dorsal side, which is opposite to where embryogenesis occurs. The number of cells derived from the polar body nuclei was very low. Approximately 26 % of these eggs contained only one black serosal cell. PCR-based analysis revealed that the polar-body-nucleus-derived cells disappeared in late embryonic stages (stage 25. Overall, polar-body-nuclei-derived cells were unlikely to contribute to embryos.

  14. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics study of metabolic profiling in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Weiguo; Che, Wenti; Guimai, Zuo; Chen, Jiejing; Li, Liping; Li, Wuxian; Dai, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic renal failure among primary glomerulonephritis patients. The ability to diagnose immunoglobulin A nephropathy remains poor. However, renal biopsy is an inconvenient, invasive, and painful examination, and no reliable biomarkers have been developed for use in routine patient evaluations. The aims of the present study were to identify immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients, to identify useful biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy and to establish a human immunoglobulin A nephropathy metabolic profile. Methods: Serum samples were collected from immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients who were not using immunosuppressants. A pilot study was undertaken to determine disease-specific metabolite biomarker profiles in three groups: healthy controls (N = 23), low-risk patients in whom immunoglobulin A nephropathy was confirmed as grades I-II by renal biopsy (N = 23), and high-risk patients with nephropathies of grades IV-V (N = 12). Serum samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by applying multivariate pattern recognition analysis for disease classification. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, both the low-risk and high-risk patients had higher levels of phenylalanine, myo-inositol, lactate, L6 lipids ( CH-CH 2 -CH = O), L5 lipids (-CH 2 -C = O), and L3 lipids (-CH 2 -CH 2 -C = O) as well as lower levels of β-glucose, α-glucose, valine, tyrosine, phosphocholine, lysine, isoleucine, glycerolphosphocholine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, alanine, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and 1-methylhistidine. Conclusions: These metabolites investigated in this study may serve as potential biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Point scoring of pattern recognition analysis was able to distinguish immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients from healthy controls. However, there were no obvious differences between the low-risk and high-risk groups in our research

  15. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics study of metabolic profiling in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Weiguo; Che, Wenti; Guimai, Zuo; Chen, Jiejing [181st Hospital Guangxi, Central Laboratory, Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases Research, Guangxi Province (China); Li, Liping [Guangxi Normal University, The Life Science College, Guangxi Province (China); Li, Wuxian [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education Ministry, Chongqiong Medical University, Chongqing (China); Dai, Yong [Clinical Medical Research Center, the Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China)

    2012-07-01

    Objectives: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic renal failure among primary glomerulonephritis patients. The ability to diagnose immunoglobulin A nephropathy remains poor. However, renal biopsy is an inconvenient, invasive, and painful examination, and no reliable biomarkers have been developed for use in routine patient evaluations. The aims of the present study were to identify immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients, to identify useful biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy and to establish a human immunoglobulin A nephropathy metabolic profile. Methods: Serum samples were collected from immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients who were not using immunosuppressants. A pilot study was undertaken to determine disease-specific metabolite biomarker profiles in three groups: healthy controls (N = 23), low-risk patients in whom immunoglobulin A nephropathy was confirmed as grades I-II by renal biopsy (N = 23), and high-risk patients with nephropathies of grades IV-V (N = 12). Serum samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by applying multivariate pattern recognition analysis for disease classification. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, both the low-risk and high-risk patients had higher levels of phenylalanine, myo-inositol, lactate, L6 lipids ( CH-CH{sub 2}-CH = O), L5 lipids (-CH{sub 2}-C = O), and L3 lipids (-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-C = O) as well as lower levels of {beta}-glucose, {alpha}-glucose, valine, tyrosine, phosphocholine, lysine, isoleucine, glycerolphosphocholine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, alanine, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and 1-methylhistidine. Conclusions: These metabolites investigated in this study may serve as potential biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Point scoring of pattern recognition analysis was able to distinguish immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients from healthy controls. However, there were no obvious differences between the low-risk and high

  16. Assessment of apparent effectiveness of chemical egg disinfectants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquaculture holds the potential to supplement catches as well as produce seed ... re-circulating incubation system at the National Aquaculture Center, Domasi, Malawi. ... Key words: Egg, disinfectants, incubation, recirculation, hatchability, egg ...

  17. Sea urchin egg fertilization and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.

  18. Proficiency study for quinolones in egg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of quinolones in egg. Furthermore the specificity of the applied methods is evaluated by including possibly interfering compounds in the proficiency study. This

  19. EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0655711075

    Eggs are now linked to fetal brain development and ... The predominant proteins and their approximate respective percentages of ... (11%), Globulins (8%), Lysozyme (3.5%), Ovomucin (1.5%), Avidin (0.06%), and others (10%). .... great success as human therapeutics, with over 25 approved for human therapeutic use and ...

  20. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M. Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A. H.; Smits, Mari A.; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Woelders, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  1. Egg processing plant sanitation, SSOPs, and GMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The basis of food safety programs in processing facilities is prerequisite programs such as sanitation and good manufacturing practices. Thoughtful, thorough, and complete sanitation programs are necessary to enhance the food safety of products and reduce the likelihood of foodborne illness. Egg p...

  2. Environmental challenges for the Egg Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Hald, Mie

    industries having a large consumption of natural resources (water and energy) and produces significantly amounts of residue (waste water, carbon dioxide and biodegradable waste). As such it is only natural that the food industry is governed by environmental regulation. In this book the Egg...

  3. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  4. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  5. eggNOG 4.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making ...

  6. Oxygen requirement of separated hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses require hatchery water with over 7.8 ppm dissolved oxygen at 80° F (95% air saturation) to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatching. This concentration is called the critical oxygen requirement by scientists but for the purpose of this article we will call...

  7. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  8. eggNOG v3.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, S.; Trachana, K.; Letunic, I.

    2012-01-01

    Orthologous relationships form the basis of most comparative genomic and metagenomic studies and are essential for proper phylogenetic and functional analyses. The third version of the eggNOG database (http://eggnog.embl.de) contains non-supervised orthologous groups constructed from 1133 organis...

  9. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lúcia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nélida L.

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25°C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  10. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Lucia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nelida L.

    1998-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25 degree sign C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications

  11. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  12. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Abudabos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g. Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0 were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7 and 14 (W14, and egg weight losses on days 7 (WL7 and 14 (WL14, and total loss (WL0-14 were calculated. Hatchling weight (CW was measured. The proportion of CW relative to egg weight loss (WL on days0, 7 and 14 days of incubation (CW:WL0; CW:WL7 and CW:WL14, respectively, and break out analyses, fertility (F,total hatchability (HC and hatchability of fertile eggs (HF were also calculated. IEW decreased (p<0.05 with hen age. Stored egg weight (SEW were decreased as hen age increased (p<0.05. WL7, WL14 and WL0-14 showed significant differences (p<0.001 and increased up to first six-week of egg collection time. Hen age affected CW:WL before incubation, and on days 7 and 14 of incubation. Fertility (F was affected (p<0.05 in unpredicted way of increasing and decreasing by hen age. Egg weight class affected SEW, W7and W14 (p<0.001. Class D eggs were the highest weight. Class C eggs had highest HC. In summary, hatching eggs of Hassawi hens were affected by hen age and egg weight in randomly increase and decrease .

  13. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  14. Co-60 irradation facility for hens eggs, radiation field parameters and energy absorption in the egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.; Mueller-Buder, A.

    1981-01-01

    For irradiation experiments with 33 530 hens eggs to test the effect of γ-rays on the hatchability of chicken a 60 Co irradiation facility was constructed, which is described in this article. Physical parameters of the radiation field as the dose rate caused by a 60 Co point source in a distance r, the flux of γ-quantae and energy towards an egg and the role of 60 Co betarays are quantitatively described. The intensity decrease, the dose build-up factor and energy absorption due to the interaction of γ-rays with atoms of the eggs content were calculated. Thus this contribution should give an impression of the physical processes involved in the γ-irradiation of eggs and on the magnitude of energy absorbed therein. (orig.) [de

  15. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    OpenAIRE

    Muje Gjonbalaj; Arben Musliu; Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina; Ilir Zenalaj

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908) is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predicto...

  16. Early-life gut microbiome and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi, M; Chun, Y; Grishin, A; Wood, R A; Burks, A W; Dawson, P; Jones, S M; Leung, D Y M; Sampson, H A; Sicherer, S H; Bunyavanich, S

    2018-07-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multicenter Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected, and clinical evaluation, egg-specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles. Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg-allergic subjects (Kruskal-Wallis P adj  = 0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg-allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  17. Factors affecting the vertical distribution of eggs [HELP 34

    OpenAIRE

    Sundby, Svein

    1990-01-01

    The spatia1 distribution of eggs and larvae is a function of the properties of the ambient water, i.e. the density, current and turbulent diffusion, and of the physical properties of the eggs, i.e. the buoyancy and dimension. The study of the vertical distribution is the first step to understanding the horizontal transport of eggs and larvae. Two models for the vertical distribution of eggs are applied to demonstrate how the physical and biological conditions influence th...

  18. Immunoassay of serum polypeptide hormones by using 125I-labelled anti(-immunoglobulin G) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P; Nicholas, H

    1975-03-01

    1. A technique for indirectly labelling antibodies to polypeptide hormones, by combining them with radioactively labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) is described. (a) 125I-labelled anti-(rabbit immunoglobulin G) and anti-(guinea-pig immunoglobulin G) antibodies with high specific radioactivity were prepared after purification of the antibodies on immunoadsorbents containing the respective antigens. (b) Rabbit immunoglobulin G antibodies to human growth hormone, porcine glucagon and guinea-pig immunoglobulin G antibodies to bovine insulin and bovine parathyroid hormone were combined with immunoadsorbents containing the respective polypeptide hormone antigen. (c) The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the polypeptide hormones were reacted with 125-I-labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies directed against the appropriate species of immunoglobulin G,and the anti-hormone antibodies were combined with the hormone-containing immunoadsorbent. (d) 125I-labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies and anti-hormone antibodies were simultaneously eluted from the hormone-containing immunoadsorbent by dilute HCl, pH 2.0. After elution the anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies and antihormone antibodies were allowed to recombine at pH 8.0 and 4 degrees C. 2. The resultant immunoglobulin G-anti-immunoglobulin G complex was used in immunoradiometric (labelled antibody) and two-site assays of the respective polypeptide hormone. 3. By using these immunoassays, concentrations down to 90pg of human growth hormone/ml, 100 pg of bovine insulin/ml, 80 pg of bovine parathyroid hormone/ml and 150 pg of glucagon/ml were readily detected. Assays of human plasma for growth hormone and insulin by these methods showed good agreement with results obtained by using a directly 125I-labelled anti-hormone antibody in an immunoradiometric assay of human growth hormone or by radioimmunoassay of human insulin. 4. The method described allows immunoradiometric or two-site assays to be performed starting with as

  19. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin preserves muscle strength in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Sindrup, Søren Hein

    2014-01-01

    evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-points were changes in muscle strength evaluated by isokinetic dynamometry in four affected muscle groups and a composite score of muscle performance and function tests, including Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, 40-m walking test (40-MWT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is superior to placebo treatment for maintenance of muscle strength during 12 weeks in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The present study evaluated whether SCIG preserves muscle strength for 1 year......) and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Secondary end-points were changes of each of the listed parameters at each time point as well as an overall disability sum score (ODSS). RESULTS: The dose of SCIG was significantly unaltered during the follow-up period. Overall the isokinetic dynamometry value increased by 7...

  20. Antibody structural modeling with prediction of immunoglobulin structure (PIGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Chailyan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies (or immunoglobulins) are crucial for defending organisms from pathogens, but they are also key players in many medical, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. The ability to predict their structure and the specific residues involved in antigen recognition has several useful...... applications in all of these areas. Over the years, we have developed or collaborated in developing a strategy that enables researchers to predict the 3D structure of antibodies with a very satisfactory accuracy. The strategy is completely automated and extremely fast, requiring only a few minutes (∼10 min...... on average) to build a structural model of an antibody. It is based on the concept of canonical structures of antibody loops and on our understanding of the way light and heavy chains pack together....

  1. Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Treatment of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ranieri, Deirdre; Fenny, Nana Sarkoah

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as antibody replacement therapy in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) for more than 50 years. Its role as a therapeutic agent has expanded over the past couple of decades as its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory mechanisms of action have been elucidated. It is now used "off-label" to treat other autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the role of IVIG in the treatment of PIDDs characterized by absent or deficient antibody production. Replacement doses are given on a monthly basis in these conditions as a prophylactic measure to prevent acute and serious bacterial infections. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(1):e8-e12.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Antibody structural modeling with prediction of immunoglobulin structure (PIGS)

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, Paolo

    2014-11-06

    © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Antibodies (or immunoglobulins) are crucial for defending organisms from pathogens, but they are also key players in many medical, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. The ability to predict their structure and the specific residues involved in antigen recognition has several useful applications in all of these areas. Over the years, we have developed or collaborated in developing a strategy that enables researchers to predict the 3D structure of antibodies with a very satisfactory accuracy. The strategy is completely automated and extremely fast, requiring only a few minutes (~10 min on average) to build a structural model of an antibody. It is based on the concept of canonical structures of antibody loops and on our understanding of the way light and heavy chains pack together.

  3. Current clinical research of immunoglobulin G4-related orbital disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-related disease(IgG4-related diseasehas received lots of attention in medical community as a recently recognized fibro-inflammatory condition. It is characterized by infiltration of IgG4-immunopositive plasmacytes and concentration of elevated serum IgG4. IgG4-related disease shows organ enlargement or nodular/hyperplastic lesions in various organs including the pancreas, hepatobiliary tract and orbit, which is called IgG4-related orbital disease. The diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease and IgG4-related orbital disease has recently been established, which is based on clinical, imaging and histopathologic features of the orbital lesions. Besides, attention should be drawn to the differentiation from other diseases. The treatment is empirical including corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, radiotherapy, and rituximab. This article reviews clinical progression of IgG4-related orbital disease.

  4. Serum immunoglobulin levels in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C B; Hall, W J; Ashley, F W; Hamilton, H B

    1972-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins (SI) were determined in 803 survivors and matched controls. Each subject's age, sex, health, exposure, and medical record were evaluated with respect to serum IgG, IgA, IgM levels. The IgG and IgA levels tended to be higher for this Hiroshima population than for Americans. Past exposure to ionizing radiation showed no significant correlation to SI levels. However, age and sex did influence the SI. IgM was significantly higher in females. With advancing age IgG and IgA increased in males, and IgM decreased in females. Elevated sedimentation rate and increased lymphocytes were accompanied by increased SI levels. Radiographic TB was detected in 45% of the population; IgG and IgA levels were somewhat elevated in these individuals. (DLC)

  5. Fatty acid and cholesterol profiles and hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices of table eggs in the retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Youssef A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Korish, Mohamed A; Shiboob, Mohamed M

    2015-10-27

    Eggs are an important source of food due to its favorable effects on human health derived from the protein, fats, minerals, vitamins and bioactive components. We studied the effects of source of eggs in the retail market on fatty acids, lipid profiles and antioxidant status in eggs. Eggs from four sources named A, B, C, and D in the retail market were collected to determine fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic indices; antioxidant status (e.g., of malondialdehyde); and total antioxidant capacity in the whole edible parts of eggs (albumen + yolk) and egg yolk. Samples were collected four times and pooled over times to represent 5 and 10 samples per source for determinations of fatty acids and determinations of lipid profiles and antioxidant status, respectively. Fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic indices; presence of malondialdehyde; and total antioxidant capacity in the whole edible parts of eggs and egg yolk showed significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) among different sources of eggs in retail market. Source D showed higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio but lower levels of MUFA and linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaeonic (EPA), decohexaenoic (DHA), and total ω9 fatty acids and lower unsaturated fatty acids (UFA)/SFA ratio. Similar trend was shown in fatty acids profiles of the whole edible parts of eggs. On the other hand, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and total antioxidant capacity of source D were significantly higher than those of other source, but levels of hypocholesterolemic index, and malondialdehyde levels were lower for source D. Eggs in the retail market in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, from May to August 2015 showed a

  6. Intravenous immunoglobulin in ABO and Rh hemolytic diseases of newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Fatemeh; Mamouri, Gholam A; Babaei, Homa

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate whether the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic jaundice due to Rh and ABO incompatibility is an effective treatment in reducing the need for exchange transfusion. This study included all direct Coombs' test positive Rh and ABO isoimmunized babies, who admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from October 2003 to October 2004. Significant hyperbilirubinemia was defined as rising by >or=0.5 mg/dl per hour. Babies were randomly assigned to received phototherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) 0.5 g/kg over 4 hours, every 12 hours for 3 doses (study group) or phototherapy alone (control group). Exchange transfusion was performed in any group if serum bilirubin exceeded >or=20mg/dl or rose by >or=1mg/dl/h. A total of 34 babies were eligible for this study (17 babies in each group). The number of exchange transfusion, duration of phototherapy and hospitalization days, were significant shorter in the study group versus control group. When we analyzed the outcome results in ABO and Rh hemolytic disease separately, the efficacy of IVIg was significantly better in Rh versus ABO isoimmunization. Late anemia was more common in the IVIg group 11.8% versus 0%, p=0.48. Adverse effects were not observed during IVIg administration. Administration of IVIg to newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to Rh hemolytic disease reduced the need for exchange transfusion but in ABO hemolytic disease there was no significant difference between IVIg and double surface blue light phototherapy.

  7. Secretory immunoglobulin purification from whey by chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer

    2017-08-15

    Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    receiving OSM produced more eggs and egg mass along with considerably greater feed intake than those on all the other .... initiation of the second egg production period, were housed in cages located in a three-deck battery-type cage block. .... Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption.

  9. An insect with selective control of egg coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Paul K; Guerra-Grenier, Eric; Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques

    2015-08-03

    The color and patterning of animal eggs has important consequences for offspring survival. There are examples of between-species and polymorphic differences in egg coloration in birds and amphibians [1-3], as well as cases of birds and insects whose nutritional status or age can cause within-individual variation in egg pigmentation [4-6]. However, no studies to date have demonstrated that individual animals can selectively control the color of their eggs. Here, we show that individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris can control the pigmentation of their eggs during oviposition, as a response to environmental conditions. The color of egg masses produced by individual females can range from pale yellow to dark black/brown. Females tend to lay darker eggs, which are more resistant to UV radiation, on the upper surface of leaves where UV exposure is highest in nature. Conversely, they lay lighter eggs on the undersides of leaves. However, egg color is not determined by the intensity of UV radiation falling on the surface where they are laid. Rather, female stink bugs appear to use a visual assessment of oviposition substrate reflectance to determine egg color. Unexpectedly, biochemical analyses revealed that the egg pigment is not melanin, the most ubiquitous light-absorbing pigment in animals. Our study offers the first example of an animal able to selectively control the color of its eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Egg incubator control system with short message service (sms) fault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The egg incubator system with temperature sensor can measure the state of the incubator and automatically change to the suitable condition for the egg. The health of the egg is very important for the development of embryo. The status condition in the incubator system will appear on the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen.

  11. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decharacterant, such as FD&C brown, blue, black, or green colors, meat and fish by-products, grain and milling by... part. (4) By coloring the shells of loss and inedible eggs with a sufficient amount of FD&C color to... the egg meat. Except that, lots of eggs containing significant percentages of blood spots or meat...

  12. The significance of nonviable eggs for Daphnia population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.; Vijverberg, J.

    1995-01-01

    Egg mortality was studied in populations of Daphnia galeata, Daphnia cucullata, and the hybrid between these species. In Tjeukemeer, a shallow eutrophic lake in the Netherlands, egg mortality in daphnids manifested itself as an apparent increase in the frequency of eggs in the early developmental

  13. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Brake (2004) confirmed that absence of turning resulted in presentation of the head in the small end of the egg. Egg turning facilitated the transfer of yolk nutrients to the embryo via the sub-embryonic fluid (Deeming, 1989a). With modern incubators, automatic turning devices allow the eggs to be turned on ...

  14. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  15. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.

  16. 75 FR 55255 - Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...-0116] Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... Marketing Service (AMS) will use in conducting a referendum to determine whether egg producers favor increasing the assessment they pay to the American Egg Board (AEB) from a rate of 10 cents per 30- dozen case...

  17. Competitiveness of the EU egg sector, base year 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import levies on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied, for both shell eggs and whole egg powder. As a result of the costs of transportation, import levies and the effects on product quality and safety, there will barely be imports of

  18. 7 CFR 1250.517 - Remittance to Egg Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remittance to Egg Board. 1250.517 Section 1250.517... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Assessments, Collections, and Remittances § 1250.517 Remittance to Egg Board. (a) The...

  19. The role of household composition in egg consumption in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the role of household composition in egg consumption in Obafemi Awolowo University Community. An Ordinary Least Square regression model was used to obtain at-home demand function parameter estimates for egg. Positive and significant relationship was found between quantity of eggs ...

  20. 29 CFR 780.211 - Contract production of hatching eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract production of hatching eggs. 780.211 Section 780... eggs. It is common practice for hatcherymen to enter into arrangements with farmer poultry raisers for the production of hatching eggs which the hatchery agrees to buy. Ordinarily, the farmer furnishes the...

  1. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities: The facilities for pasteurization of egg products shall be adequate and of approved construction so...

  2. Nondestructive pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs are on the top of the list of the 10 riskiest foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and 352 outbreaks from 1990 to 2006 were linked to eggs. The goals of this study were to design and assemble an apparatus to apply RF energy to shell eggs and to develop a process for pasteur...

  3. Selected egg parameters and hatching time of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg weight, diameter and mean number per gram were determined for fertilized eggs from broodfish of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis and F1, hybrid broodfish (C. gariepinus x H. longifilis). Mean egg weight was least in C. gariepinus (1.30 mg) followed by H. longifilis (1.80 mg) and highest in the F1 hybrid ...

  4. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    Eggs are one of nature's most nutritious and economical foods, but you must take special care when handling and preparing fresh eggs and egg products to avoid food poisoning.  Created: 8/19/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (NCEZID/DFWED).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  5. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  6. Relationship between specific IgE to egg components and natural history of egg allergy in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradman, Josefine; Mortz, Charlotte G; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of egg-allergic children develop tolerance over time. However, it may take numerous of consecutive egg challenges to get there as no good indices to predict tolerance exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serial measurements of specific IgE to egg white, ovomucoid......, ovalbumin, conalbumin, lysozyme, and egg yolk could improve the specificity of the diagnostic workup and aid in the decision when to rechallenge egg-allergic children. METHODS: The outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg and corresponding specific IgE levels were evaluated in children referred...... to The Allergy Center within an 8-year period. The egg-allergic children were rechallenged and had specific IgE levels measured once a year. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 26 months, 287 challenges and corresponding 287 serum analyses were performed in 130 children. Of the 130 children, 99 were egg...

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth eggs and acceptability of irradiated eggs by trichogramma cacoeciae females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2008-12-01

    The sensitivity of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, eggs in different stages of development to gamma irradiation was studied and the acceptability of irradiated eggs by Trichogramma cacoeciae females was examined. In addition, the developmental rate of immature stages (larvae and pupae), resulting from irradiated eggs, to the adult stage was examined and the acceptance of irradiated eggs to T. cacoeciae females was evaluated. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella eggs decreased with increasing age. Irradiation also negatively affected survival to the adult stage and the rate of development of immature stages (larvae and pupae) to adults. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected. Furthermore, irradiation positively affected the degree of acceptance of eggs to parasitization; irradiated eggs were more acceptable to T. cacoeciae than cold treated ones. (Author)

  8. Gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster egg development before and after reproductive diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Dean A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of egg development to the female life cycle in Drosophila, global patterns of gene expression have not been examined in detail, primarily due to the difficulty in isolating synchronised developmental stages in sufficient quantities for gene expression profiling. Entry into vitellogenesis is a key stage of oogenesis and by forcing females into reproductive diapause we are able to arrest oogenesis at the pre-vitellogenic stages. Releasing females from diapause allows collection of relatively synchronous developing egg populations and an investigation of some of the transcriptional dynamics apparent before and after reproductive diapause. Results Focusing on gender-biased transcription, we identified mechanisms of egg development suppressed during reproductive dormancy as well as other molecular changes unique to the diapausing female. A microarray based analysis generated a set of 3565 transcripts with at least 2-fold greater expression in females as compared to control males, 1392 such changes were biased during reproductive dormancy. In addition, we also detect 1922 up-regulated transcriptional changes after entry into vitellogenesis, which were classified into discrete blocks of co-expression. We discuss some of the regulatory aspects apparent after re-initiation of egg development, exploring the underlying functions, maternal contribution and evolutionary conservation of co-expression patterns involved in egg production. Conclusion Although much of the work we present is descriptive, fundamental aspects of egg development and gender-biased transcription can be derived from our time-series experiment. We believe that our dataset will facilitate further exploration of the developmental and evolutionary characteristics of oogenesis as well as the nature of reproductive arrest in Drosophila.

  9. Maternal transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides to eggs in a small shark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, Ross A.; Oberhansli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Fowler, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal transfer of radionuclides to progeny is one of the least known sources of contamination in marine biota and more information is needed to assess its radiological significance. A radiotracer study on spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, evaluated the hypothesis that four anthropogenic radionuclides (Cobalt-60, Zinc-65, Americium-241 and Cesium-134) could be maternally transferred to eggs and each of their major components during maternal ingestion of radiolabelled food. The linear regressions between cumulative radioactivity that had been maternally ingested and the level in subsequently laid eggs were used to derive maternal-to-egg transfer factors (mTFs). These maternal transfers varied over an order of magnitude and were ranked 134 Cs >  65 Zn >  60 Co >  241 Am. This ranking was the same as their relative assimilation efficiencies in radiolabelled food consumed by adults. Among these four radionuclides the potential radiological exposure of embryos is accentuated for 65 Zn and 134 Cs due to their predominant transfer to egg yolk where they are available for subsequent absorption by the embryo as it develops prior to hatching from the egg capsule. Thus, for cartilaginous fish like shark, the potential radioecological consequences of a pulsed release of these radionuclides into the marine environment may extend beyond the temporal duration of the release. - Highlights: • Dogfish maternally transfer anthropogenic radionuclides to eggs. • Transfers are ranked 134 Cs >  65 Zn >  60 Co >  241 Am. • Both 65 Zn and 60 Co are mainly deposited in yolk

  10. Natural course of sensitization to hen's egg in children not previously exposed to egg ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, D; Dupont, C

    2006-04-01

    Clinical adverse reactions to egg may occur in infants or children who have never eaten egg. They may be sensitized or even react at first egg ingestion. Few studies are available concerning the reality of egg white allergy in such sensitized children, the natural evolution of this condition and the appropriate decisions to make. To analyze the actuality and natural course of egg allergy in children sensitized without previous of hen's egg ingestion. We set up a clinical decision tree based on clinical history and specific egg white IgE to manage patients who had never ingested egg but were sensitized as demonstrated by a positive SPT and report a cohort of 30 such children The mean level of egg white specific IgE at first analysis, i.e. before 12 months, was high, 28.3 KU(A) /L, with a large range, from 0.6 to >100 KU(A) /L, below 6 KU(A) /L in only 8 patients. In 6 children ("no challenge" group), IgE values remained >8 KU(A) /L by the end of the survey and the oral challenge with egg was always denied. Their mean + SD IgE level was at 51.7 + 38 KU(A) /L at 1 year and 19.7 + 13 KU(A) /L at a mean age of 34 + 5 months. All had an associated anaphylactic reaction with milk and 5 were still allergic to milk by the end of the survey. In the remaining 24 infants, egg was given for the first time at a mean age of 30 + 9 months, by error in 4 cases, all exhibiting an immediate reaction, and in a hospital setting in 20, among whom 14 reacted. Among those 18, with a specific IgE level at 9.1 + 10 KU(A) /L at 28 + 9 months, 4 became tolerant between 3 and 4 years, with specific IgE levels below 1.3 KU(A) /L and a 5th one with specific IgE >100 KU(A) /L at 6 months tolerated scrambled eggs at age 7 year, with specific IgE at 2.6 KU(A) /L. In the 6 others, labeled "non allergic", egg white specific IgE levels were significantly lower, whatever the age, than in the "no challenge" group. The age at challenge was 35 + 8 months, with a mean specific IgE level at 1.0 + 0.9 KU

  11. [Correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-Nan; Zou, Xian-De; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the changes of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins and the correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma and aimed to explore the role of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of asthma. Thirty-four children with asthma and 21 age and gender-matched healthy children were enrolled in this study. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined using ELISA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected by immunoturbidimetry. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and IgE in patients with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. An increased IgG and a decreased IgA levels were found in asthmatic patients at the acute attack stage. There was a positive correlation between the IL-16 and IL-18 levels at both acute attack and convalescence stages of asthma (r=0.70, P attack stage of asthma (r=0.624, P asthma. The immunologic imbalance exists in children with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages. Anti-allergic therapy should be administered through the acute attack to the convalescence stages of asthma.

  12. Fragments of the constant region of immunoglobulin light chains are constituents of AL-amyloid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins of AL-amyloidosis. In the fibril formation process properties of the variable part of the immunoglobulin light chains are believed to be of major importance. In this work it is shown that fragments of the constant part of the immunoglobulin l...... light chain are a constituent of the AL-amyloid proteins of kappa type. A specific antiserum has identified these fragments in gel filtration fractions where the absorbance approached the base line after the main retarded peak. The fragments are small and have been overlooked previously......Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins of AL-amyloidosis. In the fibril formation process properties of the variable part of the immunoglobulin light chains are believed to be of major importance. In this work it is shown that fragments of the constant part of the immunoglobulin...... in the purification process. The significance of the constant part in AL-proteins is unclear, but adds new aspects to the discussion of pre- or post-fibrillogenic cleavage of the immunoglobulin light chains....

  13. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF...

  14. Multiplication in egg yolk and survival in egg albumen of genetically and phenotypically characterized Salmonella Enteritidis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the location of contamination, the ...

  15. Guanine is indispensable for immunoglobulin switch region RNA-DNA hybrid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Ryushin; Mizuta, Midori; Kitamura, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    It is suggested that the formation of the switch (S) region RNA-DNA hybrid and the subsequent generation of higher-order chromatin structures including R-loop initiate a class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin gene. The primary factor of this recombination is the S-region derived noncoding RNA. However, the biochemical character of this guanine-rich (G-rich) transcript is poorly understood. The present study was performed to analyze the structure of this G-rich RNA using atomic force microscope (AFM). The in vitro transcribed S-region RNA was spread on a mica plate, air-dried and observed by non-contact mode AFM in air. The G-rich transcripts tend to aggregate on the template DNA and to generate a higher-order RNA-DNA complex. However, the transcripts that incorporated guanine analogues as substitutes for guanine neither aggregated nor generated higher-order structures. Incorporation of guanine analogues in transcribes RNA partially disrupts hydrogen bonds related to guanine, such as Watson-Crick GC-base pair and Hoogsteen bond GG-base pair. Thus, aggregation of S-region RNA and generation of the higher-order RNA-DNA complex are attributed to hydrogen bonds of guanine. (author)

  16. Stable isotope labeling of glycoprotein expressed in silkworms using immunoglobulin G as a test molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Hirokazu [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan); Nakamura, Masatoshi [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Genetic Resources Conservation Research Unit, Genetic Resources Center (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun [Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Tsukuba Laboratories (Japan); Zhang, Ying; Yamaguchi, Takumi [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Institute for Molecular Science and Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience (Japan); Kondo, Sachiko [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan); Kobayashi, Jun [Yamaguchi University, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture (Japan); Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka University, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Research Institute of Green Science and Technology (Japan); Nakazawa, Shiori [Nagoya University, Sugashima Marine Biological Laboratory, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Hashii, Noritaka; Kawasaki, Nana [National Institute of Health Sciences, Division of Biological Chemistry and Biologicals (Japan); Kato, Koichi, E-mail: kkato@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City University, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Silkworms serve as promising bioreactors for the production of recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins and membrane proteins, for structural and functional protein analyses. However, lack of methodology for stable isotope labeling has been a major deterrent to using this expression system for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural biology. Here we developed a metabolic isotope labeling technique using commercially available silkworm larvae. The fifth instar larvae were infected with baculoviruses for co-expression of recombinant human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a test molecule, with calnexin as a chaperone. They were subsequently reared on an artificial diet containing {sup 15}N-labeled yeast crude protein extract. We harvested 0.1 mg of IgG from larva with a {sup 15}N-enrichment ratio of approximately 80 %. This allowed us to compare NMR spectral data of the Fc fragment cleaved from the silkworm-produced IgG with those of an authentic Fc glycoprotein derived from mammalian cells. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated that our method enables production of isotopically labeled glycoproteins for NMR studies.

  17. Automated cleaning and pre-processing of immunoglobulin gene sequences from high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri eMichaeli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing (HTS yields tens of thousands to millions of sequences that require a large amount of pre-processing work to clean various artifacts. Such cleaning cannot be performed manually. Existing programs are not suitable for immunoglobulin (Ig genes, which are variable and often highly mutated. This paper describes Ig-HTS-Cleaner (Ig High Throughput Sequencing Cleaner, a program containing a simple cleaning procedure that successfully deals with pre-processing of Ig sequences derived from HTS, and Ig-Indel-Identifier (Ig Insertion – Deletion Identifier, a program for identifying legitimate and artifact insertions and/or deletions (indels. Our programs were designed for analyzing Ig gene sequences obtained by 454 sequencing, but they are applicable to all types of sequences and sequencing platforms. Ig-HTS-Cleaner and Ig-Indel-Identifier have been implemented in Java and saved as executable JAR files, supported on Linux and MS Windows. No special requirements are needed in order to run the programs, except for correctly constructing the input files as explained in the text. The programs' performance has been tested and validated on real and simulated data sets.

  18. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant in...

  19. Inhibition of neutrophil migration by aggregated immunoglobulin attached to micropore membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A S; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    The effect of substrate-bound immunoglobulin on neutrophil migration was examined. Immunoglobulin aggregates bound to micropore membranes inhibited the neutrophil response to a chemotactic stimulus. This inhibition was reversed by the presence of aggregates in suspension suggesting competition between substrate-bound and free aggregates for neutrophil surface binding sites. The immobilization of neutrophils by substrate-bound aggregated immunoglobulin suggests a mechanism for the accumulation of neutrophils at sites of immune complex deposition and tissue-bound antibodies in vivo. PMID:7380477

  20. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Safety and Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bendix Hansen, Marie

    . coli F4+ induced PWD, we observed that piglets given IgG as a feed supplement cleared the E coli infection significantly faster than control weaner piglets not receiving an immunoglobulin feed supplement. Furthermore, deep sequencing of the ileal microbiota showed a significantly lowered colonization...... their adhesion to porcine epithelial cells in vitro. As the immunoglobulin fraction is intended for oral use as a feed supplement, we also tested the safety of feeding 4 grams of natural immunoglobulins to 4-5 week old weaner piglets for 14 days and observed no adverse effects. In an experimental model of E...

  1. The Market of Eggs, Consumption, and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Pllana; Iliriana Miftari; Njazi Bytyqi; Vetim Hyseni

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are a traditional food with a high consumption per head even in economically developed countries with high living standard. Due to “cholesterol phobia†efforts were made to decrease the cholesterol content in the egg, but without success. Thus began research to improve the nuntrional quality of eggs, reposition them in safety and healthy food products. Today in markets there are organic eggs, vegetarian, nutrient enhaced eggs (omega-3, vitamin enhanced), for what is in order to expect...

  2. Computed tomographic evaluation of dinosar egg shell integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.C.; Greenberg, W.; Ayers, S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether computed tomography (CT) could be used to identify hatching holes in partially embedded dinosaur eggs. One Faveololithus and two Dendroolithus eggs were examined using a fourth generation CT scanner. The eggs were partially embedded in a fossilized sediment matrix, with the exposed portion of the shell appearing intact. In CT images of all three eggs, the shells appeared hyperdense relative to the matrix. Hatching holes were visible as large gaps in the embedded portion of the shell, with inwardly displaced shell fragments. It was concluded that CT is an effective technique for nondestructively assessing dinosaur egg shell integrity

  3. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  4. Egg production in a coastal seabird, the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, declines during the last century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K Blight

    Full Text Available Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that gull egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y(-1 from 1902 (108 y, equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008-2010 7 d later than in previous studies (1959-1986. This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged gull investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ∼50-100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though gulls are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas.

  5. Egg Production in a Coastal Seabird, the Glaucous-Winged Gull (Larus glaucescens), Declines during the Last Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, Louise K.

    2011-01-01

    Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that gull egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y−1 from 1902 (108 y), equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008–2010) 7 d later than in previous studies (1959–1986). This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged gull investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ∼50–100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though gulls are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas. PMID

  6. Effects of Some Pesticides on Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides. PMID:24623893

  7. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  8. Ballistocardiogram of avian eggs determined by an electromagnetic induction coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Akiyama, R; Sakamoto, Y; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1997-07-01

    As an avian embryo grows within an eggshell, the whole egg is moved by embryonic activity and also by the embryonic heartbeat. A technical interest in detecting minute biological movements has prompted the development of techniques and systems to measure the cardiogenic ballistic movement of the egg or ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this context, there is interest in using an electromagnetic induction coil (solenoid) as another simple sensor to measure the BCG and examining its possibility for BCG measurement. A small permanent magnet is attached tightly to the surface of an incubated egg, and then the egg with the magnet is placed in a solenoid. Preliminary model analysis is made to design a setup of the egg, magnet and solenoid coupling system. Then, simultaneous measurement with a laser displacement measuring system, developed previously, is made for chicken eggs, indicating that the solenoid detects the minute cardiogenic ballistic movements and that the BCG determined is a measure of the velocity of egg movements.

  9. Blue petrels recognize the odor of their egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Bourret, Vincent; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on avian olfactory communication have focused on mate choice, and the importance of olfaction in subsequent nesting stages has been poorly explored. In particular, the role of olfactory cues in egg recognition has received little attention, despite eggs potentially being spread with parental odorous secretions known to elicit individual discrimination. Here, we used behavioral choice tests to determine whether female blue petrels ( Halobaena caerulea ) can discriminate the odor of their own egg from the odor of a conspecific egg. Females preferentially approached the odor of their own egg, suggesting that blue petrels can recognize their own egg using odor cues. This finding raises the question of the adaptive value of this mechanism, and may inspire further research on odor-based egg discrimination in species suffering brood parasitism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. eggNOG v4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian Milosz

    2013-01-01

    levels compared with 41 in eggNOGv3, (iii) identification and annotation of particularly closely related orthologous groups, facilitating analysis of related gene families, (iv) improvements of the clustering and functional annotation approach, (v) adoption of a revised tree building procedure based...... prioritizing the inclusion of high-quality genomes to minimize error propagation from incomplete proteome sets. Major technological advances include (i) a robust and scalable procedure for the identification and inclusion of high-quality genomes, (ii) provision of orthologous groups for 107 different taxonomic...... on the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the complete...

  11. The radurization of frozen whole eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiarowicz, A.; Fiszer, W.; Zabielski, J.; Starega, M.

    1980-01-01

    The liquid whole eggs packed into polyethylene bags had been frozen at - 12 0 C and then exposed to gamma rays (the doses of 0.25 and 0.50 Mrad). After the irradiation the samples were stored during 76 days at - 12 0 C and then for 5 days at 1 0 C. Microbial sterility was obtained after the exposure and during the storage under freezing conditions. The content of free fatty acids was lower in the irradiated samples in comparison to the control. The significant increase of TBA value was noted in the irradiated whole eggs since the 17th day of storage. There were not found any changes in baking and organoleptic properties except small sensoric differences detected in a triangular panel test. (author)

  12. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares

    2014-01-01

    PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between...... the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate...

  13. Apron (no more dirty egg: (representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Oliveira Ramos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title, in its ambiguity, comes from a song in tribute to mothers, “Mommy, Mommy. I remember slipper in hand, all of the apron dirty egg,” The purpose of this essay is to show contemporary narratives that seek to represent by the writting the sense of passion of the modern urban woman, her experiences of morality, what is left of what was called archetypally respectability and domestic responsibility.

  14. Heat resistance of Salmonella in various egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, J A; Straka, R P; Ijichi, K

    1969-04-01

    The heat-resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1, a reference strain in the stationary phase of growth, were determined at several temperatures in the major types of products produced by the egg industry. The time required to kill 90% of the population (D value) at a given temperature in specific egg products was as follows: at 60 C (140 F), D = 0.27 min for whole egg; D = 0.60 min for whole egg plus 10% sucrose; D = 1.0 min for fortified whole egg; D = 0.20 min for egg white (pH 7.3), stabilized with aluminum; D = 0.40 min for egg yolk; D = 4.0 min for egg yolk plus 10% sucrose; D = 5.1 min for egg yolk plus 10% NaCl; D = 1.0 min for scrambled egg mix; at 55 C (131 F), D = 0.55 min for egg white (pH 9.2); D = 1.2 min for egg white (pH 9.2) plus 10% sucrose. The average Z value (number of degrees, either centigrade or fahrenheit, for a thermal destruction time curve to traverse one logarithmic cycle) was 4.6 C (8.3 F) with a range from 4.2 to 5.3 C. Supplementation with 10% sucrose appeared to have a severalfold greater effect on the heat stabilization of egg white proteins than on S. typhimurium Tm-1. This information should be of value in the formulation of heat treatments to insure that all egg products be free of viable salmonellae.

  15. Generation of eggs from mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Saitou, Mitinori

    2013-08-01

    Oogenesis is an integrated process through which an egg acquires the potential for totipotency, a fundamental condition for creating new individuals. Reconstitution of oogenesis in a culture that generates eggs with proper function from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is therefore one of the key goals in basic biology as well as in reproductive medicine. Here we describe a stepwise protocol for the generation of eggs from mouse PSCs, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). ESCs and iPSCs are first induced into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) that are in turn aggregated with somatic cells of female embryonic gonads, the precursors for adult ovaries. Induction of PGCLCs followed by aggregation with the somatic cells takes up to 8 d. The aggregations are then transplanted under the ovarian bursa, in which PGCLCs grow into germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes in ∼1 month. The PGCLC-derived GV oocytes can be matured into eggs in 1 d by in vitro maturation (IVM), and they can be fertilized with spermatozoa by in vitro fertilization (IVF) to obtain healthy and fertile offspring. This method provides an initial step toward reconstitution of the entire process of oogenesis in vitro.

  16. Induced ovulation and egg deposition in the direct developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Alberto R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates ovulation and egg deposition behaviors in the anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui from Puerto Rico in response to stimulation with gonadotropin and gonadotropin releasing hormones. Five hormones were tested by injection over a range of doses, including mammalian LHRH, avian LHRH, fish LHRH, D-Ala6, des-Gly10 ethylamide LHRH and hCG. We report a low level of ovulation and egg deposition in response to all hormones, with the most complete and consistent results from the non-natural D-Ala6, des-Gly10 ethylamide LHRH derivative. To confirm the viability of eggs produced in this manner we performed in vitro fertilization experiments that resulted in the development of normal frogs. Reproductive behaviors in E. coqui are apparently not controlled by a mammalian form of LHRH as reported in other common laboratory anuran species. D-Ala6, des-Gly10 ethylamide LHRH induces ovulation and deposition of mature and fertilizable eggs in E. coqui.

  17. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  18. Influence of packaging atmosphere on the formation of cholesterol oxides in [gamma]-irradiated egg powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovics, V.K.; Gaal, O. (National Inst. of Food Hygiene and Nutrition, Budapest (Hungary)); Farkas, J.; Somogyi, L. (University of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-09-01

    In the present work the influence of aerobic and anoxic conditions have been comparatively investigated to study the chemical changes of cholesterol in [gamma]-irradiated egg powder. The irradiation treatment was carried out with powdered egg packed under air and also under vacuum in polyethylene (PE) bags and in laminated, oxygen impermeable three-layer (polyester-aluminium-polyethylene) foil to dosage levels 2 and 4 kGy at room temperature. The cholesterol oxidation is demonstrated by thin-layer chromatograms. In the egg powder wrapped in Pe bags the predominant cholesterol derivatives -7-hydroxycholesterol isomers ([alpha] and [beta]) - accumulated in significant amounts (increasing with dose) while vacuum-packaging in laminated foil considerably suppressed the quantity of these products and prevented the formation of cholesterol 5[alpha], 6[alpha]-epoxide as well as 7-ketocholesterol. Little or no change was observed in non-irradiated (control) vacuum-packed egg powder stored at approximately 22[sup o]C for up to 5 months. Peroxide values showed changes parallel to the formation of COPs. (author).

  19. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, Olatunde A; Rahamon, Sheu K; Joseph, Ijeboime O; Arinola, Olatunbosun G

    2012-10-26

    To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P); 24 (40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis (S-P); and 25 (53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P). An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000) and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008) and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL). Similarly, only one smoker (4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers (9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL). Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  20. Uptake and intra-inclusion accumulation of exogenous immunoglobulin by Chlamydia-infected cells

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    Croteau Nancy L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obligate intracellular pathogens belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family possess a number of mechanisms by which to manipulate the host cell and surrounding environment. Such capabilities include the inhibition of apoptosis, down-regulation of major histocompatability complex (MHC and CD1/d gene expression, and the acquisition of host-synthesized nutrients. It is also documented that a limited number of host-derived macromolecules such as β-catenin and sphingomyelin accumulate within the inclusion. Results This report provides evidence that immunoglobulin, inherently present in the extracellular environment in vivo and in vitro, enters infected cells and accumulates within the chlamydial inclusion. Using epi-fluorescent and confocal microscopy, this selective uptake of Ig is shown to occur among human leukocytes in vivo as well as cells cultured in vitro. These findings were confirmed by detection of IgG in the lysate of infected cells by western blot hybridization. Sequestered antibodies appear to be present during the entire course of the chlamydial developmental cycle and are distributed throughout this compartment. IgG pre-labeled with fluorescein, when added to the supernatant of infected cell cultures, was also imported and readily visualized. Accumulation of these molecules within the inclusion and the failure of bovine serum albumin or F(ab'2 fragments to accumulate in a similar manner suggests the process of entry is specific for intact IgG molecules and not a result of pinocytosis, diffusion, or any other mass endocytic event. Conclusion Sequestration of a host cell-derived protein within the chlamydial inclusion, although unexpected, is not an unprecedented occurrence. However, selective accumulation of an exogenous host protein, such as extracellular IgG, has not been previously reported in connection with chlamydial infections. The selectivity of this process may indicate that this uptake plays an important role